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Motorola Quadra 660AV Technical information
Developer Note
Macintosh DAV Interface for
NuBus Expansion Cards
Macintosh Quadra 660AV
Macintosh Quadra 840AV
Power Macintosh 7100/66AV
Power Macintosh 8100/80AV
March 1994
Developer Press
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Contents
Figures and Tables
Preface
v
About This Developer Note
vii
Contents of This Note
viii
Supplementary Documents
viii
Apple Publications
viii
Other Publications
x
Conventions and Abbreviations
x
Typographical Conventions
x
Standard Abbreviations
xi
Chapter 1
The DAV Interface
1
Macintosh Quadra Implementation
Power Macintosh Implementation
Chapter 2
Audio Interface
9
External Audio Signals
Sound Processing
11
Sound Frames
12
Chapter 3
Video Interface
2
5
10
15
Macintosh Quadra Video Circuits
16
Power Macintosh Video Circuits
18
Video Processing Chips
19
Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller
Sebastian
19
Mickey Encoder
20
Video Data Path Chip
20
Digital Multistandard Decoder
20
SAA7194 Decoder
20
Endeavor Clock
21
User Interface to Video I/O
21
Video Monitor Support
21
19
iii
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Video Data Characteristics
Transfer Modes
23
Mode Switching
24
Data Organization
26
Control Timing
27
Glossary
Index
iv
31
29
23
Figures and Tables
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
The DAV Interface
1
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Figure 1-3
Figure 1-4
Macintosh Quadra 660AV expansion card mounting
3
Card with DAV connector for the Macintosh Quadra
3
DAV connector on the Power Macintosh AV card
5
DAV connector location
6
Table 1-1
Table 1-2
Macintosh Quadra DAV connector pin assignments
Power Macintosh DAV connector pin assignments
Audio Interface
9
Figure 2-1
Figure 2-2
Figure 2-3
AWAC sound frame
12
Sound frame and word synchronization
Sound subframe synchronization
13
Table 2-1
Table 2-2
Table 2-3
Power Macintosh sound signals
10
Macintosh Quadra DAV interface sound signals
Power Macintosh DAV interface sound signals
Video Interface
4
7
13
11
11
15
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 3-3
Figure 3-4
Figure 3-5
Figure 3-6
Macintosh Quadra video and graphics output system
16
Video input subsystem
17
Power Macintosh video I/O block diagram
18
Timing for switching between data transfer modes 0 and 1
Video line timing
26
Control signal timing
27
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
Table 3-4
Table 3-5
Table 3-6
Monitor color depths
22
Data transfer mode characteristics
23
Decoder programming for data transfer mode 1b
Mode control bit values
25
Maximum samples per video line
27
Control timing limits
28
24
25
v
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P R E F A C E
About This Developer Note
This developer note describes the electrical interface for the digital audio
and video signals that certain Macintosh computers provide for NuBus
expansion cards. This feature, called the Macintosh digital audio/video
(DAV) interface, lets expansion cards access the computer’s raw sound
and video data streams independent of the NuBus interface.
This note is intended to provide technical information and guidance to thirdparty engineers who wish to design Macintosh expansion cards with advanced
audio/video features.
The discussion assumes that you are an experienced hardware or software
designer and are already familiar with the general technology of Macintosh
computers. If you are unfamiliar with Macintosh technology or would like
more technical information, you may want to obtain copies of the related technical documents listed in “Supplementary Documents,” later in this preface.
This note covers the DAV interface for expansion cards compatible with the
following four Macintosh computers:
■
Macintosh Quadra 660AV (originally designated Macintosh Centris 660AV),
a computer in a low-profile housing that accepts one short (7-inch) NuBus
card. It has an MC68040 processor running at 25 MHz and a separate
digital signal processor (DSP) chip.
■
Macintosh Quadra 840AV, a computer similar to the Macintrosh Quadra
660AV but housed in a mini-tower configuration. It accepts up to three short
or long (12.6-inch) NuBus cards. It has an MC68040 processor running at
40 MHz and a separate DSP chip.
■
Power Macintosh 7100/66AV, a midsize desktop computer that contains a
PowerPC 601 microprocessor running at 66 MHz. It accepts up to three
short or long NuBus cards.
■
Power Macintosh 8100/80AV, a computer similar to the Power Macintosh
7100/66AV but housed in a minitower configuration. It accepts up to three
short or long NuBus cards and contains a PowerPC 601 microprocessor
running at 80 MHz.
For technical details about the Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV computers,
see Macintosh Developer Note Number 5. For technical details about the Power
Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV computers, see Macintosh Developer Note
Number 8. These notes are listed in “Supplementary Documents,” later in
this preface.
vii
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P R E F A C E
Contents of This Note
0
This developer note is divided into three chapters:
■
Chapter 1, “The DAV Interface,” describes the general mechanical and
electrical characteristics of the DAV interface. It describes how these
characteristics differ between the Macintosh Quadra models and the
Power Macintosh models.
■
Chapter 2, “Audio Interface,” provides details of the digital sound input
and output (I/O) signals that are present at the DAV interface in all
four models.
■
Chapter 3, “Video Interface,” discusses the video I/O signals at the DAV
interface in all four models.
At the end of this developer note are a glossary and an index.
Supplementary Documents
0
The following documents provide information that complements or extends
the information in this developer note.
Apple Publications
Inside Macintosh is a collection of books, organized by topic, that describe the
system software of Macintosh computers. Together, these books provide the
essential reference for programmers, software designers, and engineers.
Current volumes include the following titles:
Inside Macintosh: Overview
Inside Macintosh: Macintosh Toolbox Essentials
Inside Macintosh: More Macintosh Toolbox
Inside Macintosh: Files
Inside Macintosh: Processes
Inside Macintosh: Memory
Inside Macintosh: Operating System Utilities
Inside Macintosh: Imaging With QuickDraw
Inside Macintosh: Text
Inside Macintosh: Interapplication Communication
Inside Macintosh: Devices
Inside Macintosh: QuickTime
Inside Macintosh: QuickTime Components
Inside Macintosh: Networking
viii
0
P R E F A C E
Technical Introduction to the Macintosh Family, second edition, surveys the
complete Macintosh family of computers from the developer’s point of view.
Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines provides authoritative information on
the theory behind the Macintosh “look and feel” and Apple’s standard ways
of using individual interface components.
Making It Macintosh is an interactive guide to human-computer interface
design for Macintosh software. This CD-ROM disc contains more than 100
animated examples that demonstrate the correct use of Macintosh human
interface elements.
Designing Cards and Drivers for the Macintosh Family, third edition, explains the
hardware and software requirements for drivers and NuBus ’90 expansion
cards compatible with Macintosh computers, including the Power Macintosh
computers covered by this developer note.
Technical Note 144 (Macintosh Color Monitor Connections) and Technical Note
326 (M.HW.SenseLines) provide technical details of the interfaces to various
Apple and third-party monitors.
The NuBus Block Transfers technical note provides information about block
data transfers to and from NuBus expansion cards.
Macintosh Developer Note Number 5 contains both hardware and system
software details for the Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV computers.
Macintosh Developer Note Number 8 contains hardware details for the Power
Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV computers.
The Apple publications just listed are available from APDA. APDA is Apple’s
worldwide source for over three hundred development tools, technical
resources, training products, and information for anyone interested in
developing applications on Apple platforms. Customers receive the quarterly
APDA Tools Catalog featuring all current versions of Apple development tools
and the most popular third-party development tools. Ordering is easy; there
are no membership fees, and application forms are not required for most
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site licensing.
To order products or to request a complimentary copy of the APDA Tools
Catalog, contact
APDA
Apple Computer, Inc.
P.O. Box 319
Buffalo, NY 14207-0319
ix
P R E F A C E
You can contact APDA electronically in these ways:
Telephone
800-282-2732 (United States)
800-637-0029 (Canada)
716-871-6555 (International)
Fax
716-871-6511
AppleLink
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APDA
CompuServe
76666,2405
Internet
APDA@applelink.apple.com
Other Publications
0
The following documents are available from the organizations listed:
Comité Consultatif International Radio (CCIR):
Recommended Standard 601-2
Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE):
Standard 1196
IT&T:
ASCO 2300 Audio-Stereo Codec Specification
Philips:
Desktop Video Data Handbook (1993)
SAA7186 Digital Video Scaler data sheet
SAA7191B Digital Multistandard Decoder data sheet
SAA7194 Decoder/ Scaler data sheet
Conventions and Abbreviations
0
This developer note uses the following typographical conventions and
abbreviations.
Typographical Conventions
New terms appear in boldface where they are first defined.
Hexadecimal numbers are preceded by a dollar sign ($). For example, the
hexadecimal equivalent of decimal 16 is written as $10.
Note
A note like this contains information that is interesting but not essential
for an understanding of the text. ◆
x
0
P R E F A C E
IMPORTANT
A note like this contains important information that you should read
before proceeding. ▲
Standard Abbreviations
0
Abbreviations for standard units of measure used in this developer note
include
A
amperes
MHz
megahertz
cm
centimeters
mm
millimeters
dB
decibels
ms
milliseconds
GB
gigabytes
mV
millivolts
Hz
Hertz
ns
nanoseconds
KB
kilobytes
pF
picofarads
Kbit
kilobits
sec.
seconds
kHz
kilohertz
V
volts
kΩ
kilohms
µF
microfarads
mA
milliamperes
µs
microseconds
MB
megabytes
Ω
ohms
Mbit
megabits
Other abbreviations used in this developer note include
ADC
analog-to-digital converter
AGND
analog ground
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
ASIC
application-specific integrated circuit
A/V
audio/visual
AWAC
audio waveform amplifier and converter
CCIR
Comité Consultatif International Radio
CD-ROM
compact disc read-only memory
CIVIC
Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller
CLUT
color lookup table
CMOS
complementary metal-oxide silicon
CPU
central processing unit
DAC
digital-to-analog converter
DAV
digital audio/video
DMA
direct memory access
DMSD
digital multistandard decoder
DSP
digital signal processor
xi
P R E F A C E
xii
FIFO
first-in, first-out
GND
ground
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
I/O
input/output
MUNI
Macintosh Universal NuBus Interface
n. a.
not applicable
NC
no connection
NTSC
National Television Standards Committee
PAL
Phased Alternate Lines
PDS
processor-direct slot
PLL
phase-locked loop
RAM
random-access memory
RGB
red-green-blue
RISC
reduced instruction set computing
rms
root mean square
SIMM
static inline memory module
SNR
signal-to-noise ratio
VCR
videocassette recorder
VDC
video data path chip
VRAM
video random-access memory
C H A P T E R
Figure 1-0
Listing 1-0
Table 1-0
1
The DAV Interface
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1
C H A P T E R
1
The DAV Interface
The Macintosh DAV interface is supported by a single internal connector that is separate
from the computer’s NuBus connectors. Expansion cards can be designed to plug into
both NuBus and the DAV connector. The user can install one such card at a time in the
computer. The DAV interface is used only by hardware; it has no software controls.
The DAV connector taps into the Macintosh system’s raw video and sound data streams,
providing access to the system’s 4:2:2 unscaled digital video input signal and the digital
audio signal input for the system’s sound encoder/decoder (codec). An expansion card
can capture or generate these signals without having to pass them through NuBus.
The DAV interface gives expansion cards greater speed and facility in processing video
and sound data, because cards can access data and perform NuBus transactions independently. For example, the DAV interface supports high-performance hardware audio or
video compression and decompression capabilities on expansion cards. A card can access
raw data through the DAV interface and can transfer compressed data over NuBus to
and from system memory or disk storage. Because the card accesses raw and compressed
data through two separate interfaces, it can achieve high processing rates.
The mechanical and electrical configuration of the DAV interface differs between the
Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV and the Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV
computers. The two implementations are described in the rest of this chapter. Details
of the audio and video data streams accessible through the DAV interface in all four
computers are given in Chapter 2, “Audio Interface,” and Chapter 3, “Video Interface.”
Macintosh Quadra Implementation
1
In the Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV computers, the DAV connector is mounted
in line with one NuBus connector. The expansion card must be designed with two
connectors on its long side, one for NuBus and one for the DAV interface.
In the Macintosh Quadra 660AV, the DAV connector is mounted on a NuBus adapter card
that lets the computer accept one short NuBus expansion card. In the Macintosh Quadra
840AV, the DAV connector is mounted on the main circuit board in line with NuBus slot
address $C (the slot nearest the center of the computer).
The adapter card is required in the low-profile configuration of the Macintosh
Quadra 660AV so that the NuBus expansion card can lie parallel to the main circuit
board. This arrangement is shown in Figure 1-1.
IMPORTANT
In the Macintosh Quadra 660AV, the NuBus adapter card is an optional
accessory. The user must purchase one and install it for the computer to
support either NuBus or the DAV interface. In the Macintosh Quadra
840AV, three NuBus slots and the DAV interface for one slot are standard.
Note also that the Macintosh Quadra 660AV supports only short (7-inch)
NuBus cards; the Macintosh Quadra 840AV supports both short and
long cards. ▲
2
Macintosh Quadra Implementation
C H A P T E R
1
The DAV Interface
Figure 1-1
Macintosh Quadra 660AV expansion card mounting
Adapter card
7-inch NuBus card
(end view)
MUNI chip
Main circuit board
The MUNI (Macintosh Universal NuBus Interface) chip shown in Figure 1-1 mediates
between NuBus and the MC68040 processor bus.
Figure 1-2 shows a standard short or long NuBus card that has a connector added to
plug into the DAV connector in the Macintosh Quadra 660AV or 840AV. This figure shows
the mechanical relation between the DAV connector and the NuBus connector, with
dimensions given in inches. Both Macintosh Quadra models can accept a short NuBus
expansion card that accesses the DAV connector; the Macintosh Quadra 840AV can also
accept a long card.
Figure 1-2
Card with DAV connector for the Macintosh Quadra
12.689
7.000
3.800
Short version only
Long card
Long version only
Short card
DAV connector
+.005
.000
Macintosh Quadra Implementation
–.200
2.921
1.958
.325
.667
NuBus connector
.000
–.422
3
C H A P T E R
1
The DAV Interface
The DAV connector in both the Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV is a 40-pin model
KEL 8801-40-170L or equivalent. Table 1-1 gives its pin assignments
Table 1-1
Macintosh Quadra DAV connector pin assignments
Pin
Signal
Pin
Signal
Pin
Signal
1
Y bit 7
15
Y bit 0
29
UV bit 1
2
LLClk
16
Ground
30
NC (reserved)
3
Y bit 6
17
UV bit 7
31
UV bit 0
4
Ground
18
FEI~
32
Ground
5
Y bit 5
19
UV bit 6
33
singerSync
6
VS
20
Ground
34
Ground
7
Y bit 4
21
UV bit 5
35
singerSerOut
8
Ground
22
iicSDA
36
singerBitClk
9
Y bit 3
23
UV bit 4
37
singerSerIn
10
HRef
24
Ground
38
Ground
11
Y bit 2
25
UV bit 3
39
Ground
12
Ground
26
iicSCL
40
singerMClk
13
Y bit 1
27
UV bit 2
14
vdcCRef
28
Ground
The NuBus interface in the Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV is based on the NuBus ’90
specification (IEEE Standard 1196) with the following added features:
■
Each of the three Macintosh Quadra 840AV slots has a 4-bit geographic address. The
addresses are $C, $D, and $E, corresponding to slots 4, 5, and 6 in other Macintosh
computers. The Macintosh Quadra 660AV slot is address $C.
■
All data transfers on NuBus are synchronized by a 10 MHz clock. An additional
20 MHz clock supports burst transfers in cards that conform to the NuBus ’90
specification. This permits faster data transfers than are possible with earlier
NuBus designs.
■
NuBus supports a 32-bit addressing space (4 GB), accessible through justified 8-bit,
16-bit, and 32-bit data transfers.
■
The MUNI chip generates a bus error if any transaction takes longer than 25.6 µs.
For full technical details about NuBus, including NuBus ’90, see Designing Cards and
Drivers for the Macintosh Family, third edition. For further information about the NuBus
implementation in the Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV, see Macintosh Developer Note
Number 5. These Apple publications are listed in “Supplementary Documents,” in the
preface.
4
Macintosh Quadra Implementation
C H A P T E R
1
The DAV Interface
Power Macintosh Implementation
1
In the Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV computers, the circuitry that supports
video I/O operations has been moved off the main circuit board onto a processor-direct
slot (PDS) card called the AV card. The AV card is permanently installed in Power
Macintosh computers at the factory. The circuitry that supports audio I/O remains on the
main circuit board. The software address of the AV card in NuBus pseudo-slot space is $E.
The Power Macintosh DAV connector provides access to the AV card’s video signals and
the system’s digital audio signals, as in the Macintosh Quadra implementation described
in the previous section. In the Power Macintosh implementation, however, video signals
are generated by the circuitry on the AV card while audio signals are passed from the
main circuit board to the AV card through the PDS connector.
As a result, the DAV connector is located on the AV card in Power Macintosh computers.
NuBus cards that use the DAV interface must connect to it by means of a card-to-card
ribbon cable. A typical arrangement, in which the NuBus card is located in slot $C, next
to the AV card, is shown schematically in Figure 1-3.
Figure 1-3
DAV connector on the Power Macintosh AV card
NuBus card
DAV connector
AV card
Power Macintosh Implementation
5
C H A P T E R
1
The DAV Interface
Figure 1-4 shows the location of the DAV connector on the Power Macintosh AV card.
Dimensions in Figure 1-4 are in millimeters with inch dimensions in brackets.
DAV connector location
27.97 [1.101]
-57.15 [-2.25]
Figure 1-4
top edge
96.5 [3.80]
85.73 [3.375]
DAV connector
back panel
AV card
To use the Power Macintosh DAV interface, a NuBus card must have a flat ribbon cable
terminating in a plug that fits the DAV connector on the AV card. Card designers should
analyze the physical relations between the AV card location and possible NuBus card
locations in the Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV to determine the appropriate
length and configuration of the card-to-card ribbon cable. When the NuBus card is
adjacent to the AV card, a typical cable length is 2.5 inches.
It is possible to design combination NuBus cards that can access the DAV connectors on
both the Macintosh Quadra or Power Macintosh models. In such combination cards the
ribbon cable should be removable, so the user can detach it when installing the card in a
Macintosh Quadra computer.
6
Power Macintosh Implementation
C H A P T E R
1
The DAV Interface
The DAV connector on the Power Macintosh AV card is a 60-pin type, AMP model
104549-8 or equivalent. Its pin assignments are shown in Table 1-2.
Table 1-2
Pin
Power Macintosh DAV connector pin assignments
Signal
Pin
Signal
Pin
Signal
Pin
Signal
1
Ground
16
Ground
31
UV bit 1
46
Ground
2
Ground
17
Y bit 0
32
Ground
47
CREFB*
3
Y bit 7
18
Ground
33
UV bit 0
48
Ground
4
Ground
19
UV bit 7
34
Ground
49
DIR†
5
Y bit 6
20
Ground
35
AwacSync
50
Ground
6
Ground
21
UV bit 6
36
Ground
51
I2C Data
7
Y bit 5
22
Ground
37
AwacSerOut
52
Ground
8
Ground
23
UV bit 5
38
Ground
53
I2C Clock
9
Y bit 4
24
Ground
39
AwacSerIn
54
Ground
10
Ground
25
UV bit 4
40
Ground
55
Ground
11
Y bit 3
26
Ground
41
AwacBitClk
56
Ground
12
Ground
27
UV bit 3
42
Ground
57
Line-lock clock
13
Y bit 2
28
Ground
43
Vertical sync
58
Ground
14
Ground
29
UV bit 2
44
Ground
59
Ground
15
Y bit 1
30
Ground
45
HRef
60
Ground
*
†
Clock reference qualifier.
Expansion bus input, pulled down by 1 kΩ.
The NuBus interface in the Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV is based on the
NuBus ’90 specification (IEEE Standard 1196). For full technical details about NuBus,
including NuBus ’90, see Designing Cards and Drivers for the Macintosh Family, third
edition. For further information about the NuBus implementation in the Power
Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV, see Macintosh Developer Note Number 8. These
Apple publications are listed in “Supplementary Documents,” in the preface.
Power Macintosh Implementation
7
C H A P T E R
Figure 2-0
Listing 2-0
Table 2-0
2
Audio Interface
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C H A P T E R
2
Audio Interface
Macintosh computers whose model designations end in AV support high-quality 16-bit
stereo sound processing. This capability lets expansion cards capture and generate
digital sound data suitable for professional broadcasting uses and commercial CD-ROM
recording. It also lets software support advanced audio features such as speech recognition and natural speech synthesis. The DAV interface in the AV computers lets NuBus
expansion cards access the computer’s raw digital audio data stream.
This chapter helps you understand the audio portion of the DAV interface by providing
details of the audio signal-processing features in Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV
and Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV computers. The first section describes
the user’s audio interface to external equipment. The next section, “Sound Processing,”
provides technical information about the Apple chips that support audio signal digitizing
and amplification. The last section, “Sound Frames,” discusses the timing of data frames
in the flow of digital audio signals.
External Audio Signals
2
Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV computers and all Power Macintosh computers
contain external stereo mini phone jacks for sound I/O, connected through amplifiers to
a sound codec chip. In Macintosh Quadra computers the codec is named Singer; in
Power Macintosh computers it is called the audio waveform amplifier and converter
(AWAC) chip. The sound system achieves simultaneous 16-bit broadcast-quality stereo
sound input and output, using four 8 KB buffers, and supports Apple’s speech synthesis
and recognition software.
Table 2-1 describes the external sound I/O signals.
Table 2-1
Power Macintosh sound signals
Panel label
Description
Audio In
8 kΩ impedance, 2 V rms maximum, 22.5 dB gain available
Audio Line Out
37 Ω impedance, 0.9 V rms maximum, attenuated –22.5 dB
(crosstalk degrades from –80 dB to –32 dB when the audio
output is connected to 32 Ω headphones)
Sound I/O bandwidth is 20 Hz to 20 kHz, plus or minus 2 dB. Harmonic distortion and
noise total less than 0.05 percent over the bandwidth with a 1 V rms sine wave input.
The input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 82 dB, and the output SNR is 85 dB with no
audible discrete tones.
All Macintosh computers are supplied with a built-in speaker. Software can control the
volume of sound to the built-in speaker and to the sound output connector independently.
Apple also offers a compatible high-quality microphone for the AV computers that is
specifically designed for speech recognition applications.
10
External Audio Signals
C H A P T E R
2
Audio Interface
Sound Processing
2
Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV computers process sound with a 16-bit digital sound
codec, called Singer, and additional waveform amplifier chips. Power Macintosh
computers combine these functions into a single AWAC chip. Both Singer and AWAC
conform to the IT&T ASCO 2300 Audio-Stereo Codec Specification (listed in “Supplementary
Documents,” in the preface) and furnish high-quality 16-bit stereo sound I/O.
The Singer or AWAC sound codec uses time-division multiplexing to transfer multiple
audio channels between the DAV connector and the Macintosh system for direct
memory access (DMA) transfers to and from RAM memory. The sound signals that
appear at the Macintosh Quadra DAV connector are listed in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2
Macintosh Quadra DAV interface sound signals
DAV pin
Signal
Description
40
singerMClk
24.576 MHz master clock
36
singerBitClk
Bit clock that clocks serial data on singerSerOut and
singerSerIn; 256 times the sample rate; also used to
clock singerSync
33
singerSync
Signal that marks the beginning of a frame and a word
35
singerSerOut
Sound output from system to DAV connector
37
singerSerIn
Sound input from DAV connector to system
The sound signals at the Power Macintosh DAV connector are listed in Table 2-3.
Table 2-3
Power Macintosh DAV interface sound signals
DAV pin
Signal
Description
41
AwacClk
Bit clock that clocks serial data on AwacDataOut and
AwacDataIn; 256 times the sample rate; also used to
clock AwacSync
35
AwacSync
Signal that marks the beginning of a frame and a word
37
AwacDataOut
Sound output from system to DAV connector
39
AwacDataIn
Sound input from DAV connector to system
In both DAV interfaces, the sound signals have a minimum setup time of 10 ns and a
minimum hold time of 8 ns; they can tolerate a maximum load of 20 pF.
Sound Processing
11
C H A P T E R
2
Audio Interface
Sound Frames
2
The sound codecs in the Macintosh Quadra and Power Macintosh models covered by
this note operate in the same way. They transfer data in 256-bit frames, each of which
contains four subframes of 64 bits each. Each subframe carries two 32-bit audio samples,
one for the left stereo channel and one for the right stereo channel. Each sample contains
20 data bits and 12 auxiliary bits. Subframe 1 is reserved for the Macintosh system sound
I/O; the other subframes are available for applications and expansion cards to use. The
audio frame structure is shown in Figure 2-1.
Note
For clarity, the discussion in this section uses the Power Macintosh
signal designations. The Macintosh Quadra signals are identical, but are
labeled singer instead of Awac. ◆
Figure 2-1
AWAC sound frame
256 bits
Subframe 1
Frame
sync
Left channel (20) bits
Subframe 2
Subframe 3
Subframe 4
Word syncs
(aux. 12 bits)
Right channel (20 bits)
(aux. 12 bits)
The signals AwacSync, AwacDataOut, and AwacDataIn are clocked by the AwacClk
signal. The falling edge of the clock is used to clock the signals, and the rising edge is
used to sample them. The AwacClk frequency may be 6.144, 8.192, or 12.288 MHz.
12
Sound Frames
C H A P T E R
2
Audio Interface
As shown in Figure 2-2, a frame sync is marked by a pulse two AwacClk cycles wide; a
word sync is marked by a pulse one AwacSync cycle wide.
Figure 2-2
Sound frame and word synchronization
256
1
2
3
AwacClk
AwacSync
Word
sync
Frame
sync
The AwacSync synchronization signals for each subframe are shown in Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3
Sound subframe synchronization
Frame = 256 AwacClk cycles
Subframe 1
64 bits
Subframe 2
64 bits
Subframe 3
64 bits
Subframe 4
64 bits
AwacSync
Frame
Sound Frames
Word syncs
13
C H A P T E R
Figure 3-0
Listing 3-0
Table 3-0
3
Video Interface
Thi d
t
t d ith F
M k
3
404
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
Macintosh computers whose model designations end in AV support video I/O, including
compatibility with NTSC, PAL, and SECAM formats. This capability lets expansion cards
capture and generate a wide range of video data. It also lets software support advanced
video processing features and multimedia capabilities. The DAV interface in Macintosh
AV computers provides access to the video data stream for NuBus expansion cards.
This chapter helps you understand the video portion of the DAV interface by providing
details of the video signal-processing features and circuitry in Macintosh Quadra 660AV
and 840AV and Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV computers.
Macintosh Quadra Video Circuits
3
The Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV contain a sophisticated video and graphics I/O
system that handles video input and output signals and supports a wide variety of
Apple and third-party monitors. Figure 3-1 shows the output part of this video system.
In Figure 3-1, VRAM that is present only in the Macintosh Quadra 840AV is enclosed in
dotted lines.
As shown in Figure 3-1, the video and graphics I/O system is built around two banks of
video RAM (VRAM). Each bank holds 512 KB and is expandable in the Macintosh
Quadra 840AV to 2 MB. Thus, total VRAM capacity in the Macintosh Quadra 840AV may
Figure 3-1
Macintosh Quadra video and graphics output system
VRAM
video or graphics
frame buffer
From
VDC
32
2 x 16-bit
RGB
1:5:5:5
VRAM
bank D
512 KB
(2 SIMMs)
32
VD31–VD0
VRAM
bank B
512 KB
(onboard)
Endeavor
Dotclock
R
G
B
R
A8–A0
CIVIC
Sebastian
G
Mickey
To composite
NTSC/PAL
B
A8–A0
VRAM
bank C
512 KB
(2 SIMMs)
VRAM
bank A
512 KB
(onboard)
68040 data bus VRAM
(D31–D0)
graphics
frame buffer
16
Macintosh Quadra Video Circuits
Y
C
32
GD31–GD0
To RGB
monitor
To S-video
NTSC/PAL
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
be either 1 MB or 2 MB; in the Macintosh Quadra 660AV it is limited to 1 MB. The VRAM
is controlled by the Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller (CIVIC) chip. By
programming the CIVIC, an application can configure it either as a single frame buffer
that uses all the VRAM capacity or as two frame buffers, one for video and one for
graphics. If the VRAM is configured as a single video frame buffer, it can all be used for
graphics and the video input can be disabled. The CIVIC controls data access to VRAM
from the following sources:
■
the main processor
■
various I/O sources, using I/O direct memory access
■
accessory cards via the MUNI chip
If the VRAM is configured as two frame buffers, it can store video as well as graphics. In
Figure 3-1, the VRAM banks shown at the top of the figure can store video and graphics
frames, and the lower banks can store only graphics. In this configuration, the CIVIC
can provide access to all VRAM from the sources just listed, and it can also store video
data from the video data path chip (VDC) in the VRAM. The VDC is a Philips Digital
Video Scaler chip. The video input subsystem that provides data to it is described in the
next section.
Video images and graphics images stored in VRAM may have different color depths. The
two images exit VRAM through its serial access memory port and pass to the Sebastian
color palette chip. Sebastian provides independent color lookup tables for video and
graphics images and mixes them into a single digital RGB data stream. The Sebastian then
converts the result into analog RGB video, using internal DAC circuits. Analog RGB
data passes to the Mickey encoder chip. Mickey either sends RGB directly to the monitor
connector or encodes it into NTSC or PAL video signals in composite or S-video format
and sends it to other connectors located on the back panel.
Figure 3-2 shows details of the processing of video input from an external source such as
a videocam or videocassette deck. In Figure 3-2, parts that are present only in the
Macintosh Quadra 840AV are enclosed in dotted lines.
Figure 3-2
Video input subsystem
SAA7197
clock
S-video in
C
Y
Composite
video in
NTSC,
PAL, or
SECAM
TDA8709
ADC
A/V expansion
connector
8
8
SAA7191
DMSD
TDA8708
ADC
Digital
Comp
NTSC
composite
Analog digital
Fs = 12.27 MHz NTSC
Fs = 14.75 MHZ PAL
YUV
16
YUV
4:2:2
VDC
Resize
YUV RGB
FIFO
VRAM
frame buffer
32
2 x 16-bit
RGB
1:5:5:5
VRAM
bank D
512 KB
(2 SIMMs)
VRAM
bank B
512 KB
(onboard)
32
To
Sebastian
VD31–VD0
68040 data bus
(D31–D0)
Macintosh Quadra Video Circuits
17
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
The input signal, which may be analog composite or S-video in NTSC, PAL, or SECAM
format, enters through an external socket or RCA connector. The TDA8708 and TDA8709
video ADC chips digitize the composite video waveform, and the digital multistandard
decoder (DMSD) chip decodes the result into YUV format. This common digital video
format, also known as YCbCr, is described in CCIR Recommended Standard 601-2. This
standard is listed in “Supplementary Documents,” in the preface.
Digital video in YUV format then passes to the DAV interface, where it may be picked
up by a NuBus expansion card, and to the VDC. An expansion card that uses the DAV
connector may disable the DMSD and feed its own YUV video to the VDC—for example,
a card containing a video decompression engine.
The VDC scales down the video image and converts its format to either 8-bit grayscale,
15-bit RGB, or 16-bit YUV. It stores the result in the VRAM buffer under the control of
the CIVIC chip.
Power Macintosh Video Circuits
3
The circuitry that supports video I/O in Power Macintosh computers is similar to the
circuitry in the Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV, except that it is contained on the AV
card instead of the main circuit board. This circuitry is shown in Figure 3-3.
Figure 3-3
Power Macintosh video I/O block diagram
14.318 MHz
osc
S-video
TDA8708B
A–D
PLL/
clock
Line-locked clock
SAA7197
clock
SAA7194
17.734 MHz
osc
Video
32
VRAM
Serial port
Graphics
VRAM
Serial port
Sebastian
Mickey
CLUT/DAC
and stream
mixer
composite
encoder
S-video
32
DAV
connector
Mickey control
PLL chip select
64
32
Data
TS, TT,
Addr,TBST
TSIZ, TC
VRAM
control
Data
Sync
CIVIC
601–040
TS, TT, Addr, Siz, RW
Bus adapter
TA
TA, AAC
18
Load, blank
Power Macintosh Video Circuits
video timing
and
frame buffer
controller
Monitor
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
The Power Macintosh video and graphics I/O system differs from the Macintosh
Quadra system, described in the previous section, in the following principal ways:
■
The VRAM capacity is 2 MB; there is no 1 MB option
■
All monitor and video I/O connections are on the AV card, accessible at the back of
the computer.
■
Instead of separate ADC chips for S-video and composite video, composite video is
connected to the luminance input of a single TDA8708B ADC chip.
■
The functions of the DMSD and VDC chips are combined in a single Philips
SAA7194 chip.
■
An adapter chip translates between the internal data stream and the DAV interface.
Video Processing Chips
3
This section describes the ASIC chips that Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV and
Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV computers use for video processing.
Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller
3
The Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller (CIVIC), used in both Macintosh
Quadra and Power Macintosh computers, is a complementary metal-oxide silicon
(CMOS) chip in a 144-pin package. The CIVIC
■
manages either 1 MB or 2 MB of VRAM
■
controls data transfers between VRAM and the video data path chip and between
VRAM and the Sebastian video color palette chip (described next)
■
provides 32-bit or 64-bit data paths between VRAM and the main processor or a slot
card; supports data bursts from the main processor in all transfer modes
■
controls convolution of graphics data for line-interlaced displays
■
provides NTSC and PAL timing signals
■
generates vertical blanking and video-in interrupt signals
Sebastian
3
The Sebastian, used in both Macintosh Quadra and Power Macintosh computers, is a
video color palette and video digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in a 100-pin CMOS chip.
The Sebastian
■
accepts up to 64 bits of digital input, either as one 64-bit port or as one or two
32-bit ports
■
lets one 32-bit port handle digital video while the other processes graphics (including
QuickTime), using the same color lookup table
Video Processing Chips
19
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
■
supports mixing video with still graphics, even with different color depths
■
supports both TrueColor and pseudocolor with alpha color lookup
■
supports a transparency effect when blending video with still graphics under the
control of alpha bits at 1 to 8 bits color depth
■
uses a convolution filter to minimize flicker in line-interlaced displays
■
supports displays with dot clocks up to 100 MHz
Mickey Encoder
3
The Mickey, used in both Macintosh Quadra and Power Macintosh computers, is a
composite video encoder in a 28-pin advanced bipolar CMOS chip. The Mickey
■
accepts analog RGB video signals from the Sebastian video color palette chip
■
encodes to NTSC or PAL format
■
produces S-video, composite, or RGB video outputs
Video Data Path Chip
3
The video data path chip (VDC), used in Macintosh Quadra computers, is a Philips
SAA7186 Digital Video Scaler chip in a 100-pin package. The VDC
■
performs input video window scaling with horizontal and vertical filtering
■
accepts YUV 4:2:2 color-encoded input from the digital multistandard decoder or the
DAV interface
■
produces 16-bit 1:5:5:5 RGB, 8-bit grayscale, or YUV 4:2:2 output
Digital Multistandard Decoder
3
The Digital Multistandard Decoder (DMSD), used in Macintosh Quadra computers, is a
Philips chip that decodes the color information in NTSC, PAL, and SECAM video formats
using a clock synchronized to their line frequency. For details of DMSD operation, see
the Philips 7191B Digital Multistandard Decoder data sheet, listed in “Supplementary
Documents,” in the preface.
SAA7194 Decoder
The SAA7194, used in Power Macintosh computers, is a Philips CMOS chip that
combines the functions of the VDC and DMSD chips used in Macintosh Quadra
computers and hence replaces them.
20
Video Processing Chips
3
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
Endeavor Clock
3
The Endeavor is a programmable video clock chip used in the Macintosh Quadra 840AV;
the equivalent in the Macintosh Quadra 660AV is called Clifton Plus or Puma.
User Interface to Video I/O
3
Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV and Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV
computers provide independent monitor and video I/O connectors. The user can connect
a monitor, an input device such as a videocam, and an output device such as a VCR
simultaneously. The monitor connector is a DB-15 type, compatible with most Apple
monitors. The video input and output connectors accept adapter cables, supplied with
the computers, that terminate in RCA connectors compatible with standard television
sets, videocams, videodisc players, and VCRs. In the case of Power Macintosh models,
the input cable connects the signal pin of an RCA socket to the luminance pin of the
video input connector; the output cable connects the composite video signal pin of the
AV card’s video output connector to the signal pin of an RCA plug.
Power Macintosh 7100/66AV and 8100/80AV computers feature an additional channel
of built-in monitor support independent of the monitor and video I/O support just
described. This channel supports video monitors up to 16 inches in size, using 1 MB of
system RAM for frame buffering, and terminates in an AudioVision HDI-45 monitor
socket located on the computer’s back panel. Users of these computers can therefore
connect two monitors, in addition to video I/O equipment such as a VCR, using only
built-in circuitry.
For technical details about the user interface to monitor and video I/O features in the
Macintosh Quadra and Power Macintosh models, see Macintosh Developer Note Number 5
and Macintosh Developer Note Number 8. These documents are listed in “Supplementary
Documents,” in the preface.
Video Monitor Support
3
The AV video circuits in the Macintosh Quadra 660AV and 840AV and Power Macintosh
7100/66AV and 8100/80AV can support mixed video and graphics in full 24-bit color on
small and medium-sized monitors and in 16-bit or 8-bit color on larger monitors. The
color depths (the number of bits in which the color or grayscale value of each pixel can
be encoded) available with Apple monitors driven by the AV circuitry with 1 MB and
2 MB of VRAM are listed in Table 3-1.
User Interface to Video I/O
21
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
Table 3-1
Monitor color depths
Screen size
Using 1 MB of VRAM
Using 2 MB of VRAM
Monitor type
Horizontal
by vertical
Graphics
only
Graphics/
video
Graphics
only
Graphics/
video
12-inch RGB*
512 by 384
32
8 / 16
32
32 / 16
560 by 384
32
8 / 16
32
16 / 16
640 by 400
32
8 / 16
32
16 / 16
640 by 480
16
8 / 16
32
16 / 16
12-inch black-and-white
640 by 480
8
8/8
8
8/8
Full-page black-and-white
640 by 870
8
4/8
8
8/8
*
16-inch RGB
832 by 624
16
8 / 16
32
16 / 16
19-inch RGB
1024 by 768
8
4/8
16
8 / 8†
Two-page black-and-white
1152 by 870
8
4/8
8
8/8
Two-page RGB
1152 by 870
8
4/8
16
8/8
VGA*
640 by 480
16
8 / 16
32
16 / 16
Super VGA 56 Hz*
800 by 600
16
8 / 16
32
16 / 16
Super VGA 72 Hz*
800 by 600
16
8 / 16
32
16 / 16
21-inch RGB
1152 by 870
8
4/8
16
8 / 8†
Super VGA 60 Hz
1024 by 768
8
4/8
16
8 / 8†
Super VGA 70 Hz
1024 by 768
8
4/8
16
8 / 8†
NTSC
640 by 480
16
8 / 16*
32
16 / 16
512 by 384
32
8 / 16*
32
16 / 16
640 by 480
8
n.a.
512 by 384
8
n.a.
13-inch RGB
Convolved NTSC
PAL
Convolved PAL
*
8
n.a.
8
n.a.
768 by 576
16
8 / 16
32
16 / 16
640 by 480
16
8 / 16*
32
16 / 16
768 by 576
8
n.a.
8
n.a.
640 by 480
8
n.a.
8
n.a.
*
With a color depth of 16 bits in these configurations, the maximum video window size is
limited. If the video window width is 512 pixels or less, the height may be as large as 512 pixels;
if the video window width is more than 512 pixels, the height is limited to 340 pixels.
† Video mode supported to 8-bit grayscale only.
22
Video Monitor Support
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
Video Data Characteristics
3
This section describes the characteristics of video data in Macintosh Quadra and Power
Macintosh computers, including the modes in which video data is transferred across the
DAV interface and the ways it is organized as a result.
Transfer Modes
3
Video data transfer across the DAV interface can take place in any of four modes
depending on whether the Macintosh system or the expansion card controls the
clock, synchronization, and data signals. These modes are the following:
■
Mode 0: the computer controls all signals. Data flows between the system and VRAM
regardless of whether or not an expansion card is present. The card can capture data
but does not drive data. This is the default mode.
■
Mode 1: the expansion card uses clock and synchronization signals from the system to
drive data into the system.
■
Mode 2: like mode 1, except that the expansion card supplies clock and
synchronization signals.
■
Mode 3: the expansion card uses clock signals from the system to generate
synchronization signals and drive data into the system.
The signal sources and line levels that characterize these modes are summarized in
Table 3-2, where System indicates that the source is the Macintosh system and Card
indicates that the source is a NuBus expansion card. For information about the signals
in the DAV interface, see Chapter 1, “The DAV Interface.”
Table 3-2
Data transfer mode characteristics
Signals
Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Clocks: LLCB and CREFB
System
System
Card
System
Card*
Horizontal and vertical synchronization
System
System
Card*
Data: Y[7–0] and UV[7–0]
System
Card
Card
Card
Control line level: DIR
Low†
High
High
High
*
†
Interlaced synchronization is not required.
Line pulled low by 1 kΩ resistor on the logic board.
Video Data Characteristics
23
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
Mode 1, in which the expansion card uses clock and synchronization signals from the
system, may operate in either of two ways:
■
Mode 1a: the system synchronizes its timing signals to a current video signal.
■
Mode 1b: the system generates stable timing signals without an external reference.
For example, a videoconferencing expansion card would use mode 1a to process a video
signal from a remote source, whereas a video decompression card might use mode 1b to
generate a video signal from stored data using timing information provided by the
system.
Mode Switching
3
The data transfer process can be switched between mode 0 (the default mode) and mode 1
on a field-by-field or pixel-by-pixel basis, by switching the direction of data flow with the
DIR line. Figure 3-4 shows the required timing relations.
Figure 3-4
Timing for switching between data transfer modes 0 and 1
LLClk
vdcCRef
HRef
DMSD
Y 7–0
Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y6
DMSD
UV 7–0
U0
V0
U2
V2
U6
FEI
Tisu
Tih
Y 7–0 from expansion HW
Y4
Y5
UV 7–0 from expansion HW
U4
V4
The timing parameters Tisu and Tih shown in Figure 3-4 are described in Table 3-6 on
page 28.
When an accessory card invokes mode 1, the system automatically operates in mode 1a.
To switch to mode 1b, an accessory card must reprogram the video decoder chip as
shown in Table 3-3.
24
Video Data Characteristics
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
Table 3-3
Decoder programming for data transfer mode 1b
Register
Bits
Value and description
$0D
D7
VTRC = 0; TV mode
$0E
D7
HPLL = 1; PLL circuit open and horizontal frequency fixed
$0F
D7
AUFD = 0; field selection by FSEL bit
$0F
D6
FSEL = 0 for 50 Hz timing; FSEL = 1 for 60 Hz timing
$10
D1, D0
VNOI1,0 = 10; free-running mode
If an external video signal is present during mode 1b, the decoder ignores it. If it is
necessary for an expansion card to switch back to mode 1a while a video signal is
present, the card must wait for at least two video fields after switching so that the
decoder can synchronize its timing to the signal.
Switching between mode 0 and either mode 2 or mode 3 is done by programming bits in
the decoder chip. These modes are normally not switched during a data stream. The bit
values are different between the SAA7191 DMSD in the Macintosh Quadra models
and the SAA7194 decoder in the Power Macintosh models. The bit values are shown in
Table 3-4, where x indicates a bit value that is ignored.
Table 3-4
Mode control bit values
Control bits
Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
OEDC,OEDY
x
0,0
0,0
0,0
OEHS,OEVS
1,1
1,1
0,0
0,0
GPSW2,GPSW1
0,0 or 0,1 or
1,0
0,0 or 0,1 or
1,0
1,1
0,0 or 0,1 or
1,0
OEYC
1
x
x
x
OEHV
1
1
0
0
OECL
1
1
0
1
Macintosh Quadra
Power Macintosh
Besides setting these bit values, the expansion card must set the direction of data flow by
controlling the DIR line, as shown in Table 3-2, earlier in this chapter.
Video Data Characteristics
25
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
Data Organization
3
Digital video data is organized internally into lines and fields. A video line occurs while
HRef is high, and a blanking interval occurs while HRef is low, as shown in Figure 3-5.
Figure 3-5
Video line timing
Start of a video line
LLClk
vdcCRef
HRef
Y 7–0
Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
UV 7–0
U0
V0
U2
V2
U4
V4
Y and UV data valid on the rising edge of LLClk
when HRef and CRef are high
End of a video line
LLClk
vdcCRef
HRef
Y 7–0
Yn-5
Yn-4
Yn-3
Yn-2
Yn-1
Yn
UV 7–0
Un-5
Vn-4
Un-3
Vn-2
Un-1
Vn-1
A video field is defined by the falling edge of the VS signal. For further information
about field timing, see the Philips 7191B Digital Multistandard Decoder data sheet and
71914 Decoder/Scaler data sheet. These documents are listed in “Supplementary
Documents,” in the preface.
The system clock, shown as LLClk in Figure 3-5, runs at twice the video sample rate.
When the Macintosh system controls the video stream (transfer mode 0), this rate is 640
samples per line for 60 Hz video and 768 samples per line for 50 Hz video. When an
expansion card controls the video stream (transfer mode 1, 2, or 3), the number of
samples per line should be an even number greater than 2. Table 3-5 gives the maximum
number of samples per line, depending on the factors shown in the column headings. In
Table 3-5, x indicates a factor that is ignored.
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Video Data Characteristics
C H A P T E R
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Video Interface
Table 3-5
Maximum samples per video line
VRAM size
(MB)
Pixel depth
(bits)
Vertical
scaling
Maximum samples
per line
1
16
x
512
1
8
Yes
768
2
16
x
768
x
8
No
1024
Regardless of whether video data comes from the Macintosh system or from an expansion card, each pixel must be defined by both Href and vdcCref being high at the rising
edge of LLClk. The exact timing relations are described in the next section.
Control Timing
3
When an expansion card generates control signals for the video part of the DAV
interface, they must conform to the timing relations shown in Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6
Control signal timing
TLLc
LLClk
Vih = 2.0 V min
Data and
control
inputs to scaler
Vil = 0.8 V max
Tisu
Tih
Data and
control
outputs
Vih = 2.4 V min
Vil = 0.6 V max
Tosu
Toh
Video Data Characteristics
27
C H A P T E R
3
Video Interface
The parameter values shown in Figure 3-6 must conform to the timing limits shown in
Table 3-6.
Table 3-6
Control timing limits
Symbol
Parameter
Minimum (ns)
Maximum (ns)
TLLc
CREFB cycle time
31
45
Tisu
Input setup
11
n. a.
Tih
Input hold
3
n. a.
Tosu
Output setup
10
n. a.
Toh
Output hold
4
n. a.
Besides observing the limits shown in Table 3-6, an expansion card may not load the
video control and data lines by more than 20 pF.
28
Video Data Characteristics
Glossary
analog-to-digital converter (ADC) Circuitry
that measures analog electrical levels and
delivers the results as digital data.
signal form for communication between
videocassette recorders, television sets, and other
common video equipment. See also S-video.
APDA Apple’s worldwide direct distribution
channel for Apple and third-party development
tools and documentation products.
convolution The process of smoothing
alternate lines of a video signal to be shown in
succeeding frames for a line-interlaced display.
AudioVision An Apple monitor design with an
interface that combines video, sound, and the
Apple Desktop Bus in a single cable.
Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller
(CIVIC) A video control chip that manages
VRAM, generates video timing signals, and
performs convolution where needed.
audio waveform amplifier and converter
(AWAC) A chip in Power Macintosh computers
that combines a waveform amplifier with a
digital encoder and decoder (codec) for analog
sound data, including speech.
AV card A PDS card for Power Macintosh
computers that adds 2 MB of VRAM and gives
the computer extended video I/O features. The
model numbers of Power Macintosh computers
that contain the AV card end in AV.
AWAC See audio waveform amplifier and
converter.
block transfer Data transfers of more than one
longword at a time.
CCIR
Comité Consultatif International Radio.
CD-ROM A digital recording medium in
which data is recorded optically on plastic discs.
CIVIC See Cyclone Integrated Video
Interfaces Controller.
Clifton Plus A version of the Endeavor chip in
the Macintosh Quadra 660AV. A different version
in some units is codenamed Puma.
DAC
See digital-to-analog converter.
digital audio/video (DAV) interface An
interface that lets a NuBus card access digital
sound and video data directly.
digital multistandard decoder (DMSD) A chip
in Macintosh Quadra computers that converts
digitized video signals into YUV format.
digital-to-analog converter (DAC) Circuitry
that produces analog electrical levels in response
to digital data.
direct memory access (DMA) A process of
transferring data rapidly into or out of RAM
without passing it through a processor or buffer.
DMSD See digital multistandard decoder.
dynamic random-access memory (DRAM)
Random-access memory in which each storage
address must be periodically interrogated
(“refreshed”) to maintain its value.
Endeavor A video system clock chip used in
the Macintosh Quadra 840AV.
codec A digital encoder and decoder.
frame A 256-bit format in which sound data
is recorded.
color depth The number of bits required to
encode the color of each pixel in a display.
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers.
composite video A video signal that includes
both picture information (with chroma and
luminance combined) and the timing and other
signals needed to display it. It is the standard
input/output (I/O) Parts of a computer system
that transfer data to or from peripheral devices.
29
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G L O S S A RY
MC68040 The Motorola microprocessor chip
used in Macintosh Quadra computers.
Mickey A video encoder that produces
composite and S-video outputs in NTSC and
PAL formats.
mini-DIN An international standard form of
cable connector for peripheral devices.
NTSC An acronym for National Television
Standards Committee, the television signal
format common in North America, Japan,
parts of South America, and other regions.
NuBus A bus architecture in Apple computers
that supports plug-in expansion cards.
PAL An acronym for Phased Alternate Lines,
the television signal format common in Western
Europe (except France), Australia, parts of South
America, most of Africa, and Southern Asia.
PDS See processor-direct slot.
pixel Contraction of picture element; the smallest
dot that can be drawn on a display.
PowerPC Tradename for a family of RISC
processors. The PowerPC 601 is used in Power
Macintosh computers.
processor-direct slot (PDS) A connector that
lets a plug-in card access the CPU bus directly. A
PDS connector can accept a NuBus adapter card,
an Apple video card, or a third-party card.
Puma A version of the Endeavor chip in the
Macintosh Quadra 660AV. See Clifton Plus.
RGB Abbreviation for red-green-blue. A data
format for color displays in which the red, green,
and blue values of each pixel are separately
encoded.
30
SAA7194 A video decoder and scaler chip in
Power Macintosh computers that combines the
functions of the VDC and DMSD chips in
Macintosh Quadra computers.
Sebastian A video color manager and
digital-to-analog converter on one chip.
SECAM A French acronym for the television
signal format used in France, Eastern Europe, the
former Soviet Union, and many former French
colonies.
Singer The sound codec in Macintosh Quadra
computers. See audio waveform amplifier and
converter (AWAC).
S-video A video format in which chroma and
luminance are transmitted separately. It provides
higher image quality than composite video.
TrueColor Apple’s color encoding system using
24 bits per pixel for color information.
video data path chip (VDC) A chip in
Macintosh Quadra computers that performs
video window scaling.
video frame buffer Memory that stores one
or more frames of video information to be
displayed on a screen.
video RAM (VRAM) Random-access
memory used to store both static graphics
and video frames.
YUV A data format for each pixel of a color
display in which color is encoded by values
calculated from its native red, green, and blue
components. It is also called YCbCr.
Index
A
F
abbreviations xi
APDA ix to x
AudioVision display 21
audio waveform amplifier and
converter (AWAC) chip 10 to
11
AV card 5, 6, 19
frame buffers 17
R
H
HDI-45 monitor connection 21
headphones 10
human interface guidelines ix
I
Inside Macintosh viii
interrupts 19
C
Clifton Plus clock chip 21
color depth 17, 21, 22
combination expansion cards 6
convolution 19
Cyclone Integrated Video
Interfaces Controller
(CIVIC) 17, 19
D
data compression 2
DAV connector 4
digital audio/video (DAV)
interface 2
digital multistandard decoder
(DMSD) 18, 20
digital-to-analog converter 19
M
Macintosh Quadra computers ix, 2
to 4, 16 to 18
Macintosh Universal NuBus
Interface (MUNI) chip 3
MC68040 processor bus 3
Mickey video encoder 20
microphone 10
mixing video with graphics 20
monitors ix, 21
multiplexing of audio channels 11
N
NTSC video format 16, 18
NuBus 4, 7
NuBus adapter card 2
SAA7186 chip 20
SAA7191 chip 25
SAA7194 chip 20, 25
Sebastian video chip 17, 19
SECAM video format 16, 18
Singer sound codec 10 to 11
sound 10 to 13
buffers for 10
encoding frames for 12
speaker, built-in 10
speech recognition and
synthesis 10
stereo sound 10
S-video format 17
synchronization of video 23
system RAM 21
T
TDA8708B chip 19
32-bit addressing 4
transparency effect 20
TrueColor 20
V
E
Endeavor clock chip 21
random-access memory 21
RCA connectors 21
RGB video format 17
S
B
burst transfers 4, 19
pseudocolor 20
P
PAL video format 16, 18
Power Macintosh computers ix, 5
to 7, 18 to 19
vertical blanking 19
video 16 to 28
data organization of 26 to 27
input 17 to 18
output 16
31
I N D E X
random-access memory for 16,
19
timing 27 to 28
transfer modes 23 to 25
video data path chip (VDC) 17, 20
video frame buffer 17
Y
YUV format 18, 20
32
T H E
A P P L E
P U B L I S H I N G
S Y S T E M
This Apple manual was written, edited,
and composed on a desktop publishing
system using Apple Macintosh
computers and FrameMaker software.
Proof and final pages were created on an
Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 printer. Line
art was created using Adobe Illustrator.
PostScript , the page-description
language for the LaserWriter, was
developed by Adobe Systems
Incorporated.
Text type is Palatino and display type is
Helvetica. Bullets are ITC Zapf
Dingbats.
WRITER
George Towner
DEVELOPMENTAL EDITOR
Beverly Zegarski
ILLUSTRATOR
Shawn Morningstar
Special thanks to Steve MacKenzie and
Larry Thompson
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