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Apple Mac mini (Mac OS X Server System information
Mac OS X Server
Getting Started
Version 10.6 Snow Leopard
KKApple Inc.
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Mac OS X Server software may reproduce this publication
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034-4940-A/2009-08-01
Contents
7
8
18
24
26
27
Chapter 1:  Introducing Mac OS X Server
29
30
31
39
42
46
49
51
Chapter 2:  Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
What’s New in Snow Leopard Server
Snow Leopard Server in Small Business
Snow Leopard Server in a Workgroup
Basic Applications and Utilities
Advanced Tools and Applications
What You Need to Install Snow Leopard Server
Preparing Your Network and Internet Connection
Deciding How to Manage Users and Groups
Deciding Which Basic Services to Provide
Providing More Services
Preparing Disks for Mac OS X Server
Preparing an Administrator Computer
53 Chapter 3:  Installing Mac OS X Server
55 Installing Locally
57 Installing Remotely
3
63
63
65
69
Chapter 4:  Setting Up Mac OS X Server
Setting Up a Server Locally
Setting Up a Server Remotely
After Setting Up a Server
73 Chapter 5:  Managing Your Server
4
74
75
77
78
79
Using Server Preferences
Using the Server Status Widget
Connecting Server Preferences to a Remote Server
Backing Up and Restoring the Server
Keeping Snow Leopard Server Up to Date
81
82
84
88
89
91
93
95
96
97
98
99
Chapter 6:  Managing Users
About User Accounts
About Administrator Accounts
Setting Up Users and Groups Management
Adding a User Account
Importing Users
Importing Groups of Users Automatically
Deleting a User Account
Changing a User’s Account Settings
Changing a User’s Contact Information
Controlling a User’s Access to Services
Changing a User’s Group Membership
Contents
100 Customizing the Welcome Email
101 Customizing the Server Invitation Email
102 Customizing the Group Invitation Email
105 Chapter 7:  Managing Users’ Computers
105 Setting Up Users’ Macs Automatically
113 Setting Up Users’ Computers Manually
119 Chapter 8:  Managing Groups
120 Creating a New Group
122 Adding or Removing Members of a Group
123 Adding or Removing External Members of a Group
125 Chapter 9:  Customizing Services
125 Managing Address Book Service
127 Managing File Sharing Service
130 Managing iCal Service
132 Managing iChat Service
134 Managing Mail Service
138 Managing Web Services
145 Managing VPN Service
152 Customizing Services Using Advanced Applications
153 Chapter 10:  Managing Server Information
154 Managing Server Information
Contents
5
158 Using an SSL Certificate
162 Managing Users’ Backup Storage
163 Changing Security Settings
167 Checking Server Logs
169 Monitoring Server Graphs
171 Chapter 11:  Learning More
171 Using Onscreen Help
172 Getting Documentation Updates
173 Getting Additional Information
175 Appendix:  Services and Ports
179 Index
6
Contents
Introducing Mac OS X Server
1
Mac OS X Server has everything you need to provide
standards-based workgroup and Internet services,
making it ideal for education, small businesses, and large
enterprises.
Mac OS X Server version 10.6 Snow Leopard combines intuitively simple Macintosh
ease of use with a mature, stable UNIX foundation. It provides an extensive array of
services that support Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX client computers over a network.
With Snow Leopard Server, small organizations and workgroups without an IT
department can take full advantage of the benefits of a server. Even a nontechnical
user can set up and manage Snow Leopard Server for a group. Other users in the group
can automatically configure their Macs to get services from Snow Leopard Server.
Snow Leopard Server has advanced configuration options and management tools for
IT professionals as well.
7
What’s New in Snow Leopard Server
Mac OS X Server v10.6 Snow Leopard offers major enhancements in several key areas:
ÂÂ
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ÂÂ
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64-bit computing
OpenCL
Podcast Producer 2
Wiki Server
iCal Server 2
Address Book Server
Mail Server
Mobile Access Server
64-Bit Operating System
To accommodate the enormous amounts of memory being added to today’s servers,
Snow Leopard Server has a 64-bit operating system to support up to a theoretical
16 TB of RAM. With more RAM, server applications can use more physical memory and
consequently run faster. In addition, the 64-bit operating system dramatically improves
the total number of simultaneous system processes, threads, and network connections
that the server can use.
Snow Leopard Server supports the latest 64-bit technology on today’s Xserve and
Mac Pro systems while maintaining 32-bit support for other systems. On all systems,
Mac OS X Server can run 64-bit and 32-bit applications concurrently, address large
amounts of RAM, and access 64-bit file systems and math and image libraries.
8
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
OpenCL
OpenCL (Open Computing Language), allows developers to efficiently tap the vast
gigaflops of computing power in the graphics processing unit (GPU). With GPUs
approaching processing speeds of a trillion operations a second, they’re capable of
considerably more than just drawing pictures. Unlike other server operating systems,
Mac OS X Server is specifically designed to use the GPU for graphics rendering, podcast
effects and transitions, and drawing the user interface for Mac OS X Server itself.
OpenCL lets developers apply GPU power in high-performance computing applications
like genomics, video encoding, signal processing, and simulations of physical and
financial models.
Podcast Producer 2
Podcast Producer 2 simplifies the process of recording content, encoding, and
publishing high-quality podcasts for playback in iTunes and on iPod, iPhone, and
Apple TV. Users control recording of lectures, training, presentations, or any other
audio and video projects. Podcast Producer then automatically encodes and publishes
the recording based on your workflow. With Snow Leopard and Snow Leopard
Server, Podcast Producer 2 gains an easy-to-use graphical workflow editor, dual video
recording, Podcast Library, a web-based application to control recording, and optional
failover configuration for high availability.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
9
10
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
The graphical workflow editor, Podcast Composer, leads you through the steps of
defining video-based Podcast Producer workflows. You graphically choose the intro,
title, and exit videos; specify different transitions and effects between videos; and
view real-time titles and effects. You can add watermarks and overlays to your Podcast
content. Your workflow also specifies encoding formats and targets distribution via
wiki, iTunes U, or Podcast Library for your finished podcast.
Podcast Producer 2 lets users record dual video sources using the Podcast Capture
application on a Mac or the new Podcast Capture web application on a Mac, iPhone,
or Windows computer. Apple provides several picture-in-picture templates, or you can
create your own.
Podcast Library lets your server store podcasts and deliver them to viewers through
RSS and Atom feeds. For example, your podcasts can feed directly from your server
through iTunes U. Atom feeds simplify distributing multiple podcast versions, such as
iPod, Apple TV, and audio only, because each Atom feed can contain multiple versions
and the viewer’s playback device automatically picks the best version.
Podcast Producer 2 and the services it relies on, including Xgrid, can be configured for
high availability by setting up failover servers and using an Xsan file system.
Wiki Server 2
Mac OS X Server includes web services that make it easy for users to create and
distribute information through shared wiki websites. Users can easily view, search,
and edit wiki content in their web browsers. They can add, delete, edit, and format wiki
content naturally—without knowing markup codes or special syntax. With a few clicks,
they can attach files and images, publish to podcasts, assign keywords, and link to
other wiki pages or other websites.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
11
Snow Leopard Server provides each wiki user with a convenient wiki portal, called
My Page, for viewing and creating wikis and blogs, using web calendars, tracking wiki
updates, and accessing webmail.
Mac OS X Server’s single sign-on authentication means a user only needs to enter a
name and password once to access all private wikis. Users don’t need administrator
passwords to create public and private wikis, and the creator of a private wiki controls
access to it.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Users can search across multiple wikis. They can also see Quick Look previews of wiki
attachments in the browser window, even if they don’t have applications that open the
attachments.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
13
Snow Leopard Server also has new wiki and blog templates optimized for iPhone.
Besides being better able to view wiki and blog pages, iPhone users can now track wiki
page changes and add comments and tags.
When users create events in personal and group web calendars, Snow Leopard Server
lets them invite other users and assists by looking up invitees and showing their
availability. Snow Leopard Server also allows multiple calendars per user and per group.
14
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
iCal Server 2
iCal Server makes it easy to share calendars, schedule meetings, and coordinate events
within a workgroup, a small business, or a large organization. Colleagues can check
each other’s availability, propose and accept meetings, book conference rooms, reserve
projectors, and more. iCal Server sends meeting invitations with agendas or to-do lists,
and tabulates replies.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
15
Snow Leopard Server adds push notifications, the ability to email event invitations
to non–iCal Server users, integration with Calendar on iPhone, and a web application
that lets users access their calendars from any computer with a web browser. iCal
Server also integrates with the iCal application in Mac OS X and third-party calendar
applications that support the standard CalDAV protocol.
Address Book Server
Snow Leopard Server introduces Address Book Server, which allows users to find
contact information in an address book across multiple computers without the schema
limitations and security issues associated with LDAP.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Users can view and add contact information in a server-based address book by using
the Address Book application on any Mac with Snow Leopard. Address Book Server can
also allow Snow Leopard users to find public contact information in directory servers
that your server is connected to. Users of other computers can access address books on
your server using third-party applications that are compatible with the CardDAV open
standard.
Mail Server
Snow Leopard Server boosts its Mail Server performance, reliability, and scalability with
a new, open standards–based engine designed to handle thousands of simultaneous
connections. In addition, Mail Server is enhanced to include push email, server-side
email rules, and vacation messages.
Mobile Access Server
Snow Leopard Server has a Mobile Access Server that can give mobile users secure
access to your private services without inconvenient VPN connections. You specify
whether users can access private mail, web, iCal, and address book services. Users
connect to the reverse proxy Mobile Access Server on the Internet, and it makes secure
connections on their behalf to services that Mac OS X Server provides on your private
network.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
17
Snow Leopard Server in Small Business
A single server with Mac OS X Server can provide all the services needed by computer
users in a small business. The server and users’ computers are all connected to a private
local network that shares a DSL or cable Internet connection. The Internet connection
can be shared through an AirPort Extreme Base Station (802.11n) or a Time Capsule,
through a router from the Internet service provider (ISP) or computer retailer, or
through the server. The next few pages illustrate and describe these configurations.
Single Server with AirPort Extreme
The following illustration shows Mac OS X Server and users’ computers and iPhones
sharing an Internet connection through an AirPort Extreme Base Station (802.11n).
The base station connects to the Internet through a DSL modem or cable modem and
connects to the local network to share the Internet connection with the server and
users’ computers. The server and some of the users’ computers have wired connections
to the local network, and other users’ computers connect to the local network
wirelessly through the base station. The server and users’ computers get their network
addresses from the base station’s DHCP server. They get DNS name service from the ISP.
The base station also protects the server and all users’ computers against malicious
attacks from the Internet by blocking communications that originate outside the local
network. However, the base station is configured to allow incoming communications
for some services. For example, the base station allows the server’s mail service to
receive email from outside the local network.
All the wired and wireless computers on the local network get services from Mac OS X
Server.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
The server provides user and group accounts, shared folders, server-based address
books, shared calendars, instant messaging, and wikis with user portals, web calendars,
and blogs. The ISP doesn’t provide enough email addresses for everyone in the
organization, so the server provides email addresses and mail service.
DSL
or cable
modem
ISP
The Internet
AirPort
Extreme
Local network
Mac OS X
Server
Mac OS X computers
iPhone
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
19
Users with Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Leopard use Time Machine to back up their
Macs to an external hard drive (not shown) attached to the server.
Some users have their portable computers and home computers set up to connect to
the server’s VPN via the Internet. This gives them secure remote access, while traveling
or working at home, to all the services that the server provides on the local network.
iPhone users check wikis and blogs while they’re roaming.
Single Server with a Network Router
The next illustration shows Mac OS X Server and users’ computers and iPhones sharing
an Internet connection through a wireless router from the ISP.
The wireless router in this configuration takes the place of the AirPort Extreme Base
Station in the previous configuration. The wireless router has a built-in DSL or cable
modem that connects to the Internet. The router has wired and wireless connections
to the local network to provide Internet access to the server and users’ computers and
iPhones. The router includes a DHCP server that provides network addresses to the
server and to the users’ computers and iPhones.
In this configuration, the server’s firewall blocks malicious attacks originating outside
the local network. The firewall is configured to allow some services to receive incoming
communications. For example, iChat service can receive instant messaging invitations
from Google Talk users via the Internet.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server provides services to all the wired and wireless computers on the local
network. The server provides user and group accounts, shared folders, server-based
address books, shared calendars, instant messaging, mail, and wikis with user portals,
web calendars, and blogs. Users with Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Leopard use storage
space on the server for Time Machine backups.
ISP
The Internet
Wi-Fi
router
Local network
Mac OS X
Server
Mac OS X computers
iPhone
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
21
While away from the local network, users with mobile devices can check email,
web calendars, wikis, and blogs via Wi-Fi hotspots in libraries, cafes, and airports.
Single Server as an Internet gateway
The next illustration shows Mac OS X Server configured as an Internet gateway to
provide Internet access to computers and mobile devices on the local network.
The server’s primary Ethernet port connects through a DSL or cable modem to the
Internet, and its other Ethernet port connects to the local network. The server’s DHCP
service provides network addresses to users’ computers and mobile devices. Thus the
server in this configuration does the job of the AirPort Extreme Base Station or generic
router in the previous two configurations.
The server’s firewall is configured to block malicious attacks from the Internet, but does
allow incoming email and iChat invitations that originate outside the local network.
Besides mail and iChat, the server also provides user and group accounts, shared
folders, server-based address books, shared calendars, and wikis with user portals,
web calendars, and blogs.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Users with Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Leopard use storage space on the server for
Time Machine backups.
DSL
or cable
modem
ISP
The Internet
Mac OS X
Server
Local network
AirPort
Extreme
Mac OS X computers
iPhone
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
23
Snow Leopard Server in a Workgroup
The next illustration shows a configuration of Mac OS X Server that serves a
department in a large organization. This organization has an IT department that
provides DHCP service for assigning network addresses, DNS name service, mail service,
Internet access, and a VPN.
Everyone in the department already has a user account provided by the organization’s
Open Directory server, so these user accounts have been imported to the department’s
server. This means everyone simply uses the user name and password they already
know to authenticate for services provided by the department’s server. Those services
were set up to use the Kerberos authentication of the Open Directory server, allowing
users to log in once per session for all departmental services.
The department’s server provides address book, calendar, and instant messaging
services that work with the users’ Mac OS X Address Book, iCal, and iChat applications.
The department’s server also provides shared folders and private wikis for groups and
projects within the department. Some projects include participants from outside the
department. Outside participants use their existing user accounts to authenticate for
wiki or shared folder access.
The organization’s servers provide storage for backup, but most users have Mac OS X
Snow Leopard and prefer to use Time Machine with the external hard drive (not
shown) attached to the department’s server.
The department has some Windows users, who use Internet Explorer, Safari, and FireFox
to access wikis, web calendars, and blogs. Shared folders appear as mapped drives in
their Network Places. They have also set up their PCs to use the department server’s
Jabber instant messaging.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Organization
The Internet
ISP
File sharing,
address book,
iCal, mail,
Open Directory,
and web
Firewall, VPN,
push, and
mobile access
Local network
Department
AirPort
Extreme
Mac OS X
Server
Windows computers
Mac OS X
administrator computer
Mac OS X computers
iPhones
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
25
Basic Applications and Utilities
After setting up Snow Leopard Server, you can manage users and groups, change
essential service settings, and perform other basic server administration tasks using the
applications and utilities described below. For information about using them, see the
other chapters in this book.
Important: If you have versions of these applications and utilities from Mac OS X Server
v10.5 Leopard or earlier, do not use them with Snow Leopard Server.
Applications and utilities for server administrators
iCal Server Utility (in /Applications/Server/)
Create, edit, and delete the locations and resources that users can reserve when they schedule
meetings in shared calendars hosted by iCal Server.
Server Assistant
Set up Mac OS X Server for the first time. Install Mac OS X Server on a remote computer.
Server Preferences (in /Applications/Server/)
Manage users and groups, customize services and system information, and monitor server activity.
Server Status widget for Dashboard
Monitor server activity from any Mac with Snow Leopard.
System Preferences (in /Applications/)
Connect your server to a directory server in your organization. Configure Time Machine backup of
the server. Configure sharing for a directly connected USB or FireWire printer.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Advanced Tools and Applications
Besides Server Preferences and the other basic administration applications, Snow
Leopard Server includes the advanced administration applications and tools described
in the following table. For more information about these tools and applications, open
Server Admin and then use the Help menu, or see the Mac OS X Server Resources
website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
Important: If you have administration applications and tools from Mac OS X Server
v10.5 Leopard or earlier, do not use them with Snow Leopard Server.
Advanced applications and tools for server administrators
Directory Utility
Configure advanced connections to directory servers. Open Directory Utility by clicking Edit
(or Join) in the Login Options section of the Accounts pane of System Preferences.
Podcast Capture (in /Applications/Utilities/)
Record high-quality audio and video from a local or remote camera, capture screen activity,
or upload QuickTime files into Podcast Producer for encoding and distribution.
Podcast Composer (in /Applications/Server/)
Follow a structured, graphical process to create workflows that control how Podcast Producer
generates and distributes podcasts.
QuickTime Broadcaster (in /Applications/)
Capture live audio and video that works seamlessly with QuickTime Streaming Server for highquality network broadcasting.
RAID Admin (in /Applications/Server/)
Set up and monitor Xserve RAID hardware.
Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
27
Advanced applications and tools for server administrators
Server Admin (in /Applications/Server/)
Change advanced service settings, configure advanced services, and manage file share points.
Monitor server activity and view detailed service logs.
Server Assistant
Set up multiple servers automatically, using saved auto setup profiles. Open Server Assistant by
using the Server menu in Server Admin.
Server Monitor (in /Applications/Server/)
Remotely monitor and manage one or more Xserve systems.
System Image Utility (in /Applications/Server/)
Create NetBoot and NetInstall images for Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server computers.
System Preferences (in /Applications/)
Connect the server to a directory server in your organization.
Workgroup Manager (in /Applications/Server/)
Manage users, groups, computers, and computer groups in advanced server deployments.
Manage preferences for Mac OS X users.
Xgrid Admin (in /Applications/Server/)
Remotely manage clusters, monitor controller and agent activity, and check job status on the grid.
Command-line tools
Use UNIX tools to install and set up server software, administer services, manage users, and more.
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Chapter 1 Introducing Mac OS X Server
Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
2
Check the server hardware, set up your network, decide
how to manage users and groups, decide which services
to provide, and prepare server disks.
Before you install and set up Mac OS X Server, you need to:
ÂÂ Make sure the computer you want to use as a server meets system requirements
(page 30)
ÂÂ Make sure your Internet connection and local network are ready for your server
(page 31)
ÂÂ Understand the ways you can manage users and groups, and decide which way is
right for your circumstances (page 39)
ÂÂ Learn about the services Mac OS X Server can provide, and decide which basic
services you want to set up initially (page 42)
ÂÂ Prepare disks for installing Mac OS X Server (page 49)
ÂÂ If your server won’t have a display, or won’t be accessible, you can set up an
administrator computer (page 51)
29
What You Need to Install Snow Leopard Server
To install Snow Leopard Server, you need a Macintosh desktop computer or server with:
ÂÂ An Intel processor
ÂÂ At least 2 gigabytes (GB) of random access memory (RAM)
ÂÂ At least 10 gigabytes (GB) of disk space available
Your server needs significantly more disk space—such as a high capacity external
hard drive—if you want to allow Snow Leopard and Leopard users to back up their
Macs on the server. A server needs even more disk space if you want to back up the
server using Time Machine.
ÂÂ An active connection to a secure network
If you’re an experienced system administrator, you can install and initially set up
Snow Leopard Server without a network connection if, during setup, you select the
option to configure manually and you don’t create an Open Directory master or
connect to an existing directory server during initial setup. The server will need a
network connection when you set up its directory services.
Some Podcast encoding operations require a compatible graphics card.
Some features have additional system requirements or require additional purchases.
For details, see the Mac OS X Server website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/.
Unless you have a site license, you need a unique serial number for each server.
You must use a Mac OS X Server v10.6 Snow Leopard serial number, which begins
with XSVR-106.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
A built-in DVD drive is convenient for installing Mac OS X Server, but you can also
attach an external FireWire DVD drive or a Mac that has a DVD drive and is operating in
target disk mode.
A display is optional. You can use an administrator computer to install and administer
Mac OS X Server on a computer that has no display. For information, see “Preparing an
Administrator Computer” on page 51.
Your server doesn’t need to be located where someone has constant access to it. When
you need to perform administrative tasks, you can use any Mac that you’ve set up as an
administrator computer.
Preparing Your Network and Internet Connection
Before installing and setting up Snow Leopard Server for the first time, you need to
get DNS and DHCP services ready for your server. If you’re setting up an independent
server for a small organization, you’ll also want to protect it against malicious attacks
from the Internet.
Setting Up DNS for Your Server
To allow users to access your server by using its name, the domain name system (DNS)
servers for your local network need to be configured to resolve your server’s DNS name
to its IP address. Some services provided by your server also require that DNS servers
be configured to resolve your server’s IP address to its primary DNS name.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
31
Conditions that affect DNS setup
If users will only access your server from your local network
Your server can provide DNS service for your local network (IP subnet). This local DNS service is
configured automatically during initial server setup if no existing DNS service can be found for
your server. The local DNS service has an entry for the DNS name and IP address you specify for
your server during initial setup.
In order for your clients to use the local DNS service that your server provides, you may need to
configure this local DNS service and your DHCP server (usually your network router) after you
finish initial server setup. If this applies to you, you’ll find more information in the Mac OS X Server
Next Steps document that’s generated and placed on the server’s desktop after initial setup.
If your server’s local DNS service is all you need, you can skip to the next topic, “Setting Up DHCP
for Your Server” on page 35.
If you don’t have a domain name like example.com
You need a registered Internet domain like example.com if you want to allow Internet users to
access services by name. You can purchase one through your ISP or from a public registrar of
domain names. Ask the registrar to configure the domain to point to your server’s IP address.
For information about domain name registrars, search the web.
If your server doesn’t have a registered DNS name like myserver.example.com
Work with your ISP, the IT department in your organization, or the public registrar where you
obtained your domain to assign your server a meaningful DNS name. The server’s DNS name is
the basis for the addresses of all services that users get from the server, including email, iChat, iCal,
address book, wiki, file sharing, blog, webmail, and VPN.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
Conditions that affect DNS setup
If you’re setting up a server for a small organization
Ask your ISP or the public registrar for your domain to add a DNS entry for your server’s DNS
name that resolves to your server’s public IP address. Also ask for a reverse lookup entry that
resolves the public IP address to the DNS name. Your ISP provides a public IP address as part of
your Internet service.
For Internet users to be able to use your domain name to get services from your server, your
domain name must always point to your server. You can ensure this by obtaining a static (fixed)
IP public address for your server. If your ISP hasn’t provided a static IP address, you can usually
upgrade to one for a fee. If you don’t have a static IP address, then your server’s IP address may
change, and Internet users may no longer be able to reach your server by name.
If you’re setting up a server for a department or workgroup in a larger organization
Ask your IT department or DNS server administrator for a static (fixed) IP address for your server.
Ask them to add a DNS entry for your server’s DNS name that resolves to your server’s public IP
address, and also ask for a reverse lookup entry that resolves the public IP address to the DNS
name. If your organization doesn’t have its own DNS servers, add these entries through your ISP or
with the public registrar for your domain.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
33
Conditions that affect DNS setup
If your server will provide mail or web services
If your server will provide mail service or web services, you can provide easier access to
them by requesting DNS entries for names like mail.example.com and www.example.com.
If your server will provide mail service, request an MX (mail exchanger) entry for your server.
An MX entry (or record) allows users to have an email address like mchen@example.com.
Without an MX entry, email addresses must include your server’s full DNS name (for example,
mchen@myserver.example.com).
If mobile users will access some services from the Internet
Your server’s DNS name needs to be the same on your local network and on the Internet if you
want to allow mobile users to access some services without using VPN. You need to obtain a
registered Internet DNS name for your server as described above.
ÂÂ If you don’t have a DNS server for your network, Mac OS X Server will provide a minimal DNS
service for your local network. This DNS service is set up automatically for the DNS name you
enter and the private IP address you specify during server setup.
ÂÂ If your organization has a DNS server for your local network, ask your IT department or DNS server
administrator to add an entry that resolves your server’s DNS name to your server’s IP address
on the local network, and also ask for a reverse lookup entry that resolves the IP address to the
DNS name.
Private IP addresses begin with 192.168., 10., or 172.16. through 172.31.254. For example, 192.168.1.12,
10.0.1.12, and 172.16.1.12 are private IP addresses.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
Setting Up DHCP for Your Server
Most users’ computers are configured by default to get network addresses from a DHCP
server on the local network. The DHCP server for your network needs to be configured
to provide network addresses, including an IP address for each computer, the IP
address of the router or gateway for your network, and IP addresses of one or two
DNS servers for your network. If your DHCP server needs any configuration changes,
you’ll find information about them in the Mac OS X Server Next Steps document that’s
generated and placed on the server’s desktop after initial setup.
Protecting a Small Network
If you have an AirPort Extreme Base Station (802.11n), a Time Capsule, a cable router,
a DSL router, another network router, or a gateway that shares an Internet connection
among computers on your local network, that device isolates your local network
from the Internet. These Internet-sharing devices protect your local network against
malicious attacks from the Internet by blocking communications that originate outside
the local network. Computers on the Internet can’t access your server unless you
configure your AirPort Extreme Base Station, Time Capsule, router, or gateway to allow
access to specific services.
Note: You can allow users with accounts on your server to get secure remote access to
all its services via the Internet. After finishing initial server setup, use Server Preferences
to turn on VPN service. For more information, see “Managing VPN Service” on page 145.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
35
Protecting Your Network with AirPort Extreme
If you have an AirPort Extreme Base Station (802.11n) or a Time Capsule, Mac OS X
Server can automatically manage it to protect your local network while allowing access
to selected services from the Internet. After initial setup, you can use Server Preferences
to specify individual services that you want to be accessible from outside your local
network. Mac OS X Server will configure your AirPort Extreme Base Station or Time
Capsule to allow incoming requests for those services to pass to your server.
Your AirPort Extreme Base Station or Time Capsule must have its Connection Sharing
option set to “Share a public IP address” (that is, an Internet connection) in order for
Mac OS X Server to manage it. In addition, the advanced option IPv6 Mode must be set
to Tunnel.
You should also make sure the AirPort Extreme Base Station or Time Capsule has a
secure password instead of the default password, which is public. You’ll need to know
the base station or Time Capsule password—not the wireless network password—to
turn on automatic AirPort management.
Protecting Your Network with a Router
If you have a cable router, DSL router, or other network router configured as a NAT
device, you can manually configure it to protect your local network while allowing
access to selected services from the Internet. You configure your router to forward
requests for individual services to your server. This process is called port forwarding or
port mapping, because each service communicates through an abstract, numbered
communication port. These ports are not physical like the Ethernet port on your
computer.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
You can manually configure port mapping on most Internet routers by using their
configuration software. Usually the configuration software consists of several
webpages. Using a web browser on any computer connected to your local network,
you go to the webpage with settings for port mapping or port forwarding. In some
cases, you can select standard services such as web or VPN and specify that each be
mapped to your server’s IP address. In other cases, you must enter port numbers for
services and enter your server’s IP address for each one.
For a list of services and the corresponding ports for which you might want to set up
port mapping or forwarding, see “Services and Ports” on page 175.
Protecting Your Network by Making Your Server a Gateway
If you don’t have an AirPort Base Station or other router, but your server has two
Ethernet ports, you can make the server a gateway to share an Internet connection
with other computers on your local network. The server’s Ethernet ports must be
configured as follows before you begin initial Mac OS X Server setup:
ÂÂ One Ethernet port must have a public IP address on the Internet (not a private IP
address like 10.0.0.1 or 192.168.1.1). This port is connected to your DSL modem, cable
modem, or other Internet source. Usually, you use the server’s first built-in Ethernet
port for this.
ÂÂ Another Ethernet port must be connected to a functional network switch or hub in
your local private network. This Ethernet port must be unconfigured, have a manual
IP address, or have a self-assigned IP address beginning with 169.254.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
37
If this port has an IP address assigned by a DHCP server, you won’t be able to make
the server a gateway during initial Mac OS X Server setup. This is because, as a
gateway, the server would provide DHCP service that might conflict with an existing
DHCP server on the same network.
Other computers connected to this local network will share the server’s Internet
connection.
For Internet users to be able to use your domain name to get services from your server,
your domain name must always point to your server. You can ensure this by obtaining
a static (fixed) IP address for your server. If your ISP hasn’t provided a static IP address,
you can usually upgrade to one for a fee. If you don’t have a static IP address, then your
server’s IP address may change, and Internet users may no longer be able to reach your
server by name.
Setting up your server as a gateway does the following:
ÂÂ Assigns the Ethernet port connected to the local network the private IP address
192.168.1.1.
ÂÂ Turns on DHCP service and configures it to provide IP addresses 192.168.1.100
through 192.168.1.199 to computers on the local network. DHCP service assigns these
addresses to computers whose Ethernet ports are configured with the “Using DHCP”
option.
You can also give users addresses 192.168.1.2 through 192.168.1.99, to use to configure
their Ethernet ports with the “Using DCHP with manual address” option. Addresses
192.168.1.200 through 192.168.1.220 are reserved for your server’s VPN service.
ÂÂ Sets up NAT service to share the server’s Internet connection with computers on the
local network.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
ÂÂ Sets up the server’s firewall to block incoming connections that originate from
computers on the Internet. The firewall allows outgoing connections from computers
on the local network. It also allows incoming connections that are responding to the
local computers’ outgoing connections. After setup, you can use the Security pane
of Server Preferences to allow incoming requests through the firewall for specific
services.
ÂÂ Sets up DNS service for the local network, and configures it to cache DNS name
lookups to improve performance for local network computers.
Deciding How to Manage Users and Groups
During the initial setup of Mac OS X Server, you’ll choose how the server manages the
user and group accounts it uses to authenticate users and determine which services
they’re allowed to access. You can choose to:
ÂÂ Manage users and groups independently for a small organization
ÂÂ Import users and groups for a workgroup in a medium or large organization
ÂÂ Configure manually for a server that provides selected services to a medium or large
organization
Managing Your Own Users and Groups
If you’re setting up a server for a small organization without an existing directory
server, you can choose to set up an independent server with its own users and groups.
The server provides its own directory service, as an Open Directory master, for its user
and group accounts.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
39
After setup, you’ll manage users and groups, configure basic service settings, and
monitor server status with the easy-to-use Server Preferences application. You can also
use the Server Admin and Workgroup Manager applications if you need to change
advanced settings or set up advanced services.
Importing Users and Groups for a Workgroup
If you’re setting up a server for a department or workgroup in an organization with an
existing directory server, you can choose to import users from that directory server.
This allows people to use your server with their existing user names and passwords.
You’ll need to know the following information:
ÂÂ The directory server’s DNS name or IP address
ÂÂ Whether you need to authenticate to the directory server, and if so, the type of
directory server and the name and password of a user account on the directory
server
ÂÂ For an Open Directory server, you can use a standard user account; you don’t need a
directory administrator account.
ÂÂ For an Active Directory server, you can use an Active Directory administrator
account or a standard user account that has the “Add workstations to domain”
privilege.
Your server uses the account name, password, and other attributes that already exist in
imported user accounts. Your server can augment the existing attributes with attributes
needed for its services. For example, imported users can be members of a group you
create on your server.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
Your server will also provide its own directory service as an Open Directory master, and
thus can have its own user and group accounts. After setup, you can create groups for
teams or projects within the workgroup, and you can create a user account for anyone
who doesn’t have one from the organization’s directory server.
After setup, you’ll manage users and groups, configure basic service settings, and
monitor server status with the easy-to-use Server Preferences application. You can
also use the Server Admin Workgroup Manager applications if you need to change
advanced settings or set up advanced services.
Configuring Manually
If you’re an experienced system administrator setting up one or more servers for a
medium or large organization, and you need complete control of service configuration,
you can choose to configure manually. This choice accommodates a wide variety of
business needs.
During initial setup, you’ll be able to bind your server to a directory server or make your
server a directory server by creating an Open Directory master. You can also choose to
configure directory services after initial setup.
After initial setup, you can configure services and manage users by using either
advanced applications such as Server Admin and Workgroup Manager or commandline tools. You can also use the Server Preferences application if you only need to
configure basic service settings and manage basic user and group settings.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
41
Deciding Which Basic Services to Provide
During the initial setup of Mac OS X Server, you can select which basic services your
server will initially provide to users: address book, iCal, file sharing, iChat, mail, and web.
For information to help you decide which of these services to provide, see the next six
topics.
You’ll configure basic services after initial setup, along with other services, if during
initial server setup you choose to configure manually, don’t connect to a directory
server, and don’t create an Open Directory master.
For information about the services you can configure after initial setup, see “Providing
More Services” on page 46.
Address Book Service Overview
The address book service for Mac OS X Server, Address Book Server, allows users to find
contact information in a server-based address book across multiple computers without
the schema limitations and security issues associated with LDAP. Users can view and
add contact information in a server-based address book by using the Address Book
application on any Mac with Snow Leopard. Address Book Server can also allow Snow
Leopard users to find public contact information in directory servers that your server is
connected to. Users of other computers can access address books on your server using
third-party applications that are compatible with the CardDAV open standard.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
File Sharing Service Overview
Mac OS X Server file sharing service lets your group members access shared folders
and store personal files on the server. They can use Macintosh, Windows, or UNIX
computers to access their files and shared folders without special software, using native
file protocols including AFP and SMB. Windows users see Mac OS X Server file servers in
their Network Places, just like Windows file servers.
iCal Service Overview
The calendar service for Mac OS X Server, iCal Server, makes it easy for users to share
calendars, schedule meetings, and coordinate events within a workgroup, a small
business, or a large organization. Colleagues can quickly and easily check each other’s
availability, set up and propose meetings, book conference rooms, reserve projectors,
and more. iCal Server sends the invitations, which can include information such as an
agenda or to-do list, and tabulates replies.
iCal Server works with the iCal application in Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard, Calendar
on iPhone, web calendars in Snow Leopard Server wikis, and third-party calendar
applications that support the standard CalDAV protocol.
iChat Service Overview
iChat service provides instant messaging (IM) for Macintosh, Windows, and Linux users.
Team members can brainstorm solutions, make plans, exchange URLs, or transfer
files, without worrying about outsiders intercepting confidential information. Instant
messaging service provides text messaging between users or among multiple users.
It also facilitates direct connections between users for audio, video, and multiway audio
and video sessions.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
43
iChat service works with the iChat application in Mac OS X, Google Talk, and other
instant messaging software that uses the XMPP protocol, called Jabber.
Mail Service Overview
Mail service lets users send and receive email on your local network and the Internet,
using any email application. Mail service includes filters that protect users from junk
mail and viruses. Mail service works with the Mail application in Mac OS X, Mail on
iPhone, and other popular mail applications that use the standard IMAP, POP, and SMTP
email protocols.
Web Services Overview
Web services can provide wiki, blogs, web calendars, web access to email, and custom
websites.
If web services are on, everyone with a user account on the server gets a convenient
wiki portal, called My Page, for viewing and creating wikis and blogs, using web
calendars, tracking wiki updates, and accessing webmail.
All users can easily create wikis and control who can view, search, and edit their wiki
content. By using included templates or creating their own, users can add, delete, edit,
and format content naturally—without knowing markup codes or special syntax.
With a few clicks, or by dragging and dropping, they can attach files and images,
publish podcasts, assign keywords, and link to other wiki pages or other websites.
They can also review the wiki’s complete history of changes and revert any page to
a previous version.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
Web calendars let people keep track of appointments, meetings, and other events
using any web browser. Users can send and receive invitations to events. When inviting
people to an event, users can see each person’s availability on a timeline. Each user’s
My Page portal includes a personal web calendar, and each wiki can also have a
calendar that everyone who has access to the wiki can use. Users can create multiple
calendars on their personal web calendars and on wiki group calendars that they have
access to. Users with Snow Leopard can also use the iCal application to view, change,
and create events that appear in web calendars.
Blogs give nontechnical users a way to keep their colleagues up-to-date with projects,
files they’re working on, and pictures or podcasts. Users publish their own blogs with
drag-and-drop ease, using a selection of built-in professional templates.
With webmail, users can receive and send mail from a web browser anywhere on the
Internet. They can access all their email as if they were using Mac OS X Mail or another
mail application on their computers.
Web services also let you publish custom websites that you have created (or someone
has created for you) using website development software. You can restrict access to
each website to a particular group, or restrict parts of the website to particular groups.
You can also specify each website’s IP address, an access port, and the folder where
website files are stored on the server. A custom website is also called a virtual host.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
45
Providing More Services
Whether you set up basic services during initial server setup or not, you can configure
them and many others after setup. You can change basic service and system settings
and add users and groups with Server Preferences. You can change advanced settings
and configure advanced services with Server Admin. You can use Workgroup Manager
to change advanced user and group settings, control user preferences, and manage
computer records.
The next two tables show what you can configure with Server Preferences, Workgroup
Manager, and Server Admin. The tables also show what you can have automatically
configured during initial server setup.
For information about using Server Preferences, first see Chapter 5, “Managing Your
Server,” through Chapter 10, “Managing Server Information.” For additional information,
open Server Preferences and then use the Help menu.
For information about using Server Admin or Workgroup Manager, open the
application and then use the Help menu.
46
Service
Initial server setup
Server Preferences
Workgroup Manager
Basic user and group
management
No
Yes
Yes
Advanced user and
group management
No
No
Yes
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
Service
Initial server setup
Server Preferences
Workgroup Manager
Computer account
and computer group
management
No
No
Yes
Managed preferences
No
No
Yes
Service
Initial server setup
Server Preferences
Server Admin
Address book
Optional
Yes
Yes
DHCP, DNS, NAT
Automatic
No
Yes
File sharing (AFP and
SMB protocols)
Optional
Yes
Yes
File sharing (FTP and
NFS protocols)
No
No
Yes
Firewall (application
firewall)
Automatic
Use System
Preferences
Use System
Preferences
Firewall (IP firewall)
Automatic
Yes
Yes
Gateway (NAT, DNS,
DHCP)
Optional
No
Yes
iCal (calendar sharing,
event scheduling)
Optional
Yes
Yes
iChat (instant
messaging)
Optional
Yes
Yes
Mail with spam and
virus filtering
Optional
Yes
Yes
Mobile access
No
No
Yes
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
47
48
Service
Initial server setup
Server Preferences
Server Admin
MySQL
No
No
Yes
NetBoot and NetInstall
(system imaging)
No
No
Yes
Network time
Automatic
No
Yes
Network management
(SNMP)
No
No
Yes
NFS
No
No
Yes
Open Directory master
(user accounts and
other data)
Optional
Optional
Yes
Podcast Producer
No
No
Yes
Print
No
No
Yes
Push notification
Automatic
Automatic
Yes
QuickTime Streaming
No
No
Yes
RADIUS
No
No
Yes
Remote login (SSH)
Optional
Use System
Preferences
Yes
Software update
No
No
Yes
Time Machine backup
of users’ Macs
Optional
Yes
Yes
Time Machine backup
of server
No
Use System
Preferences
Use System
Preferences
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
Service
Initial server setup
Server Preferences
Server Admin
VPN (secure remote
access)
No
Yes
Yes
Web (wikis, blogs,
webmail)
Optional
Yes
Yes
Xgrid (computational
clustering)
No
No
Yes
Preparing Disks for Mac OS X Server
If you’re going to install Mac OS X Server on an existing computer and want a clean
installation, you need to erase the disk you’ll install on. You can use the Disk Utility
application before installing locally or use Server Assistant while installing remotely.
If the server has multiple disks that you want to erase and format, or if you want to
partition the server’s disk into multiple volumes or set up a RAID set, you can use Disk
Utility before installing.
Note: The Installer won’t erase the disk for you before it installs Snow Leopard Server.
If you don’t want to upgrade Mac OS X Server on an existing server, be sure to use Disk
Utility to erase the disk before installing.
Erasing with Disk Utility
You can erase disks and partition hard drives with Disk Utility while installing Mac OS X
Server locally. You open Disk Utility by choosing it from the Utilities menu of the
Installer. You can erase the startup disk using these formats:
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
49
Mac OS Extended (Journaled): This is recommended and is the most common format
for a Mac OS X Server startup volume.
Mac OS Extended (Case-sensitive, Journaled): This is worth considering if you are
planning to have your server host a custom website with static web content instead of
or in addition to wikis. A case-sensitive disk can host static web content with a more
direct mapping between files and URLs.
You can erase other disks using the formats above or a non-journaled variant: Mac OS
Extended or Mac OS Extended (Case-sensitive).
If the server has a disk formatted using the UNIX File System (UFS) format by an earlier
version of Mac OS X or Mac OS X Server, do not use the UFS disk for a Mac OS X Server
startup disk.
Erasing with Server Assistant
If you’re using Server Assistant to install Mac OS X Server remotely, and the target disk
already has Mac OS X Server or Mac OS X installed, Server Assistant can erase the disk
using the Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format only.
Partitioning a Hard Disk
Partitioning the hard disk creates a volume for server system software and one or
more additional volumes for data and other software. The volume you install the server
system software on should be at least 20 GB. This volume should be larger if you plan
to store shared folders, wikis, and other service data on it. Use Disk Utility to partition a
hard disk.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
Creating a RAID Set
If you’re installing Snow Leopard Server on a computer with multiple internal hard disk
drives, you can create a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) set to optimize
storage capacity, improve performance, and increase reliability in case of a disk failure.
For example, a mirrored RAID set increases reliability by writing your data to two or
more disks at once. If one disk fails, your server automatically continues using other
disks in the RAID set.
You can set up RAID mirroring or another type of RAID set when you begin installing
Mac OS X Server, by choosing Disk Utility from the Installer’s Utilities menu. You can
also set up RAID mirroring after installing on a disk that isn’t partitioned, by opening
Disk Utility (in /Applications/Utilities). To prevent data loss, you should set up RAID
mirroring as soon as possible. For information about setting up a RAID set, open Disk
Utility and then use the Help menu.
Preparing an Administrator Computer
You can use an administrator computer to install and set up Mac OS X Server on
another computer over the network. The remote server doesn’t need a display.
Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
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As illustrated below, you start up the server using the Mac OS X Server Install Disc
and then use Server Assistant on the administrator computer to perform a remote
installation and setup.
Server
Assistant
Administrator
computer
Target server
with DVD drive
You can also use an administrator computer to manage the server remotely after setup.
You make a computer with Mac OS X v10.6 into an administrator computer by installing
server administration software on it. If you have another server with Mac OS X Server
v10.6 already set up, you can use it as an administrator computer as well.
To set up an administrator computer:
1 Make sure the Mac OS X computer has Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard installed.
2 Insert the Mac OS X Server Administration Tools disc.
3 Open the Installers folder.
4 Double-click ServerAdministrationSoftware.mpkg to open the Installer, and then follow
the onscreen instructions.
For information about using an administrator computer, see “Installing Remotely” on
page 57, “Setting Up a Server Remotely” on page 65, and “Connecting Server
Preferences to a Remote Server” on page 77.
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Chapter 2 Getting Ready for Mac OS X Server
Installing Mac OS X Server
3
Use the Installer to install Snow Leopard locally, or use
Server Admin to install remotely.
Before installing Mac OS X Server, be sure to prepare the computer you’re going
to use as a server and get your network and Internet connection ready. Also, use
the Installation & Setup Worksheet to collect information you’ll need. (It’s in the
Documentation folder on the Mac OS X Server Install Disc.) For more information about
these preparations, see the previous chapter.
You can install Mac OS X Server v10.6 Snow Leopard using one of these methods:
ÂÂ Install locally if the target server has a display and keyboard that you can use
conveniently
ÂÂ Install remotely if the target server is inconveniently located or doesn’t have a display
For information about other installation methods, such as upgrading an existing
server or migrating an existing server to a new computer with Snow Leopard Server,
open Server Admin (in /Applications/Server/) and then use the Help menu, or see the
Mac OS X Server Resources website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
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Installing Mac OS X Server Securely
When you start up a computer from the Mac OS X Server Install Disc, SSH remote login
service and VNC screen sharing service start automatically in order to make remote
installation possible.
Important: Make sure the network is secure before you install or reinstall Mac OS X
Server, because SSH and VNC give others access to the computer over the network.
For example, set up your local network so that only users you trust can access it.
Avoid having Ethernet jacks in public places. If you have an AirPort Base Station or
other wireless access point, configure it to use WPA2 authentication (also called RSN)
with a strong password. Consider making the wireless network name private. Also,
try to keep the server’s hardware serial number confidential, because it’s used as the
password for remote installation and setup.
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Chapter 3 Installing Mac OS X Server
Installing Locally
You can install Mac OS X Server directly onto a computer by starting up the computer
from the Mac OS X Server Install Disc. The Installer application guides you through the
interactive installation process. The computer must have a display attached so you can
interact with the Installer. When you install locally, you can use Disk Utility and other
applications in the Installer’s Utilities menu, and you can customize the installation by
selecting items to be installed.
Installer
application
Target server
You can perform:
ÂÂ A new installation of Mac OS X Server on a disk that doesn’t already have Mac OS X
Server or Mac OS X installed
ÂÂ A clean installation, which installs Mac OS X Server after erasing and formatting a
target disk
ÂÂ An upgrade of a server with an Intel processor and Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard or
Mac OS X Server v10.4.11 Tiger (for information about other upgrading and migrating
options, open Server Admin and then use the Help menu, or see the Mac OS X
Server Resources website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/)
Chapter 3 Installing Mac OS X Server
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To install Mac OS X Server locally:
1 If you’re planning to erase or partition the target disk, make sure you have a backup of
the disk.
2 Start up the computer, log in if necessary, and insert the Mac OS X Server Install Disc into
the DVD drive.
3 Open the Install Mac OS X Server application and click the Restart button.
The application is in the Mac OS X Server Install Disc window.
If you see an Install button instead of a Restart button in the lower-right corner of the
application window, click Install and proceed through the Installer panes by following
the onscreen instructions (skip steps 4 through 8 below). When installation is complete,
restart the server. Server Assistant opens so you can set up the server. For information,
see “Setting Up a Server Locally” on page 63.
4 After the computer restarts, choose the language you want to use on the server,
and then click the arrow button.
5 Read the information about Mac OS X Server, use the Utilities menu if necessary,
and then click Continue.
ÂÂ If you need to erase the target disk before installing, choose Utilities > Disk Utility.
You can also use Disk Utility to partition the server’s hard disk or create a RAID set.
For more information, see “Erasing with Disk Utility” on page 49.
Note: The Installer won’t erase the disk for you before it installs Snow Leopard Server.
If you don’t want to upgrade Mac OS X Server on an existing server, be sure to use
Disk Utility to erase the disk before installing.
ÂÂ If you want to restore from a Time Machine backup of Mac OS X Server, choose Utilities >
Restore System From Backup.
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Chapter 3 Installing Mac OS X Server
6 Read and agree to the software license agreement.
7 Select the disk or volume (partition) you want to install on, and make sure it’s in the
expected state before clicking Install to begin installing.
If you want to select the language translations, printer drivers, and other optional items
that will be installed, click Customize.
You can quit installation before it begins by using the Mac OS X Installer menu.
8 After installation is complete, the computer restarts and Server Assistant opens so you
can set up the server.
For information, see “Setting Up a Server Locally” on page 63.
Installing Remotely
Using Server Admin and Server Assistant on an administrator computer, you can install
Mac OS X Server on another computer over the network. The computer you’re installing
on doesn’t need a display, but it does need a DVD drive for the Mac OS X Server Install
Disc. If the computer doesn’t have a built-in DVD drive, you can attach an external
FireWire DVD drive or a Mac that has a DVD drive and is operating in target disk mode.
You can perform:
ÂÂ A new installation of Mac OS X Server on a disk that doesn’t already have Mac OS X
Server or Mac OS X installed
ÂÂ A clean installation, which installs Mac OS X Server after erasing and formatting a
target disk
Chapter 3 Installing Mac OS X Server
57
ÂÂ An upgrade of a server with an Intel processor and Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard or
Mac OS X Server v10.4.11 Tiger (for information about other upgrading and migrating
options, open Server Admin and then use the Help menu, or see the Mac OS X
Server Resources website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/
To install Mac OS X Server remotely:
1 If you’re planning to erase the target disk or partition, make sure you have a backup of
it, and optionally use Disk Utility to prepare the target disk.
If you only need to erase the target disk using the most common format, Mac OS
Extended (Journaled), you don’t need to use Disk Utility. With Disk Utility, you can erase
the target disk using other formats, partition the server’s hard disk, or create a RAID set.
For information about using Disk Utility for these tasks, see “Erasing with Disk Utility” on
page 49.
2 Start up the target server with the Mac OS X Server Install Disc.
If the target server has a built-in DVD drive, insert the disc and then restart the
computer while holding down the C key on the keyboard. Release the C key when you
see the Apple logo.
If the target server has an external FireWire DVD drive, restart the computer while
holding down the Option key, select the icon representing the Mac OS X Server Install
Disc, and then click the Arrow button.
3 On an administrator computer, open Server Admin and select “Ready for Install” in the
list on the left.
Server Admin is located in /Applications/Server/.
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Chapter 3 Installing Mac OS X Server
If Server Admin asks for a password to connect to a server that’s already set up on
your network, you can click Cancel. You don’t need an administrator account to install
Mac OS X Server remotely.
4 Select the target server on the right, and then click Install.
If the server you want isn’t listed, you can click the Refresh (curved arrow) button to
have Server Admin look again for servers that are ready for installation on your local
network.
If the server you want is on a different local network, choose Server > Install Remote
Server.
5 When Server Assistant opens, confirm the target server’s address, enter the first 8
characters of the server’s built-in hardware serial number as a password, and click
Continue.
If the Address field is blank or incorrect, enter the server’s DNS name or its IP address in
IPv4 format (for example, 192.0.2.200).
For servers that Server Assistant finds on the local network (IP subnet), an IP address
may be assigned automatically by a DHCP server on the network. If no DHCP server
exists, the target server uses a 169.254.xxx.xxx address unique among servers on the
local network. Later, when you set up the server, you can change the IP address.
To find the serial number, look for a label on the server. Match the capitalization of the
serial number when you type it.
For an Xserve with Intel processor that has had its main logic board replaced and
has no hardware serial number, enter “System S” (don’t enter the quotation marks)
as the password. For another computer that has no built-in hardware serial number,
use 12345678 as the password.
Chapter 3 Installing Mac OS X Server
59
6 Select the language you want Mac OS X Server to use and click Continue.
The language you select doesn’t affect the language on users’ computers.
7 Select a destination disk or volume (partition) and click Install.
8 If the volume you selected already has Mac OS X Server or Mac OS X installed, select an
available option and then click OK.
The options may include:
Erase: Completely erases the destination volume before installing a new copy of
Mac OS X Server.
Upgrade: This option is available only if the destination volume has Mac OS X Server
v10.5 Leopard or Mac OS X Server v10.4.11 Tiger. You can upgrade this volume to
Snow Leopard Server without erasing the destination volume. For information about
upgrading and migrating, open Server Admin and then use the Help menu, or see the
Mac OS X Server Resources website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
9 After installation is complete, the target server restarts and you can click More Options
to set up the server remotely or to install Mac OS X Server on another computer.
10If you clicked More Options, choose what you want to do with Server Assistant now.
Install Mac OS X Server remotely: Repeat this procedure, skipping steps 3 and 4.
Set up Mac OS X Server remotely: For instructions, see “Setting Up a Server
Remotely” on page 65.
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Chapter 3 Installing Mac OS X Server
Prepare and save information for automatic setup: Lets you go through the setup
process, selecting setup options and entering setup data, and then instead of using
the setup information to configure a server right now, save the setup information as an
auto setup profile on a removable drive or disc. Later you can use the saved auto setup
profile to automate the setup of one or more servers. For more information, see the
Installation & Setup Worksheet. (It’s in the Documentation folder on the Mac OS X Server
Install Disc.)
Instead of using Server Assistant on an administrator computer, you can remotely
control installation by using screen sharing on a Mac with Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard
or Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard, or by using Apple Remote Desktop (which you
can purchase separately) on another Mac. For information, open Server Admin
and then use the Help menu, and visit the Apple Remote Desktop website at
www.apple.com/remotedesktop/.
Chapter 3 Installing Mac OS X Server
61
Setting Up Mac OS X Server
4
Server Assistant leads you through setting up your server
for the first time.
Server Assistant opens automatically when you:
ÂÂ Finish installing Mac OS X Server v10.6 Snow Leopard
ÂÂ Start up a new server with Snow Leopard Server preinstalled
You can use Server Assistant:
ÂÂ Locally on the server
ÂÂ Remotely on an administrator computer to set up the server over an Ethernet
network
For information about automatically setting up a server using a saved auto setup
profile or setting up multiple remote servers, see the Installation & Setup Worksheet.
(It’s in the Documentation folder on the Mac OS X Server Install Disc.)
Setting Up a Server Locally
You can set up a new server or a computer with Mac OS X Server newly installed,
by using the server’s keyboard, mouse, and display.
63
To set up a server locally:
1 Prepare for setup by filling out a printed copy of the Installation & Setup Worksheet.
The Installation & Setup Worksheet is located in the Documentation folder on the
Mac OS X Server Install Disc. For more information, see Chapter 2, “Getting Ready for
Mac OS X Server,” on page 29.
2 If you have DHCP or DNS service provided by your ISP, Internet router, or other servers
on your network, make sure they are set up for your new server and are running.
For information about how DHCP, DNS, and other network services should be set up,
see “Preparing Your Network and Internet Connection” on page 31.
3 Make sure your server has an active connection to a secure network.
This network connection is needed to set up the server’s directory services. If you’re
an experienced system administrator, you can set up the server without a network
connection if, during setup, you select the option to configure manually and don’t
create an Open Directory master or connect to an existing directory server during
initial setup.
If your server will connect to a wireless network, you’ll configure the connection
during setup.
4 If you want to set up your server as an Internet gateway so other computers on your
network can share the server’s Internet connection, verify the following:
ÂÂ One Ethernet port, or interface, connects to your DSL modem, cable modem, or
other Internet source. The Internet interface must have a public IP address (not a
private IP address like 10.0.1.1 or 192.168.1.1). The public IP address must be static
(fixed) so users can access the server by its DNS name—for example, to use the
server’s VPN service.
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Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
ÂÂ Another Ethernet port connects to your local network.
During setup, Server Assistant automatically identifies which port connects to the
Internet.
For more information, see “Protecting Your Network by Making Your Server a
Gateway” on page 37.
5 If the server is off, turn it on.
When the server starts up, Server Assistant opens automatically.
6 Proceed through the Server Assistant panes, following the onscreen instructions and
entering the information you’ve recorded on the Installation & Setup Worksheet.
For information about settings in a Server Assistant pane, click the Help button in
the pane.
7 After server setup is complete, you can take some additional steps to enhance the
security, accessibility, and usefulness of your new server. For information, see “After
Setting Up a Server” on page 69.
Setting Up a Server Remotely
If you have a new server or a computer with Mac OS X Server newly installed,
you can set it up over the network by using Server Admin and Server Assistant on
an administrator computer. The server you’re setting up doesn’t need a display.
For information about administrator computers, see “Preparing an Administrator
Computer” on page 51. For information about setting up multiple servers remotely,
open Server Admin and then use the Help menu.
Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
65
To set up a remote server:
1 Prepare for setup by filling out a printed copy of the Installation & Setup Worksheet.
The Installation & Setup Worksheet is located in the Documentation folder on the
Mac OS X Server Install Disc.
2 If you have DHCP or DNS service provided by your ISP, Internet router, or other servers
on your network, make sure they are set up for your new server and are running.
For information about how DHCP, DNS, and other network services should be set up,
see “Preparing Your Network and Internet Connection” on page 31.
3 Make sure your server has an active connection to a secure Ethernet network.
4 If you want to set up your server as an Internet gateway, so other computers on your
network can share the server’s Internet connection, verify the following:
ÂÂ One Ethernet port, or interface, connects to your DSL modem, cable modem, or
other Internet source. The Internet interface must have a public IP address (not a
private IP address like 10.0.1.1 or 192.168.1.1). The public IP address must be static
(fixed) so users’ computers can access the server via the Internet, for example to use
the server’s VPN service.
ÂÂ Another Ethernet port connects to your local network.
During setup, Server Assistant automatically identifies which port connects to the
Internet.
For more information, see “Protecting Your Network by Making Your Server a
Gateway” on page 37.
5 If the server is off, turn it on.
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Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
When the server starts up, Server Assistant opens automatically and waits for remote
setup to begin.
6 On an administrator computer, open Server Admin and select “Ready for Setup” in the
list on the left.
Server Admin is located in /Applications/Server/.
If Server Admin asks for a password to connect to a server that’s already set up on
your network, you can click Cancel. You don’t need an administrator account to set up
Mac OS X Server remotely.
7 Select the target server on the right, and then click Set Up.
Server Admin identifies unconfigured servers by name, IP address, and MAC address.
The name may be generated from the computer model and the MAC address.
If the server you want isn’t listed, you can click the Refresh (curved arrow) button
to have Server Admin look again for servers that are ready for setup on your local
network.
If the server you want is on a different local network, choose Server > Set Up Remote
Server.
8 When Server Assistant opens, do one of the following, depending on the status of the
server you want to set up:
ÂÂ If the server is listed as “Authentication required,” select it, click Authenticate, and enter
its password.
ÂÂ If server you want isn’t listed, click Add, enter the server’s DNS name or its IP address in
IPv4 format (for example, 192.0.2.200), and enter its password.
Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
67
The password for a new installation of Mac OS X Server is the first 8 characters of the
server’s built-in hardware serial number. To find the serial number, look for a label on
the server. Match the capitalization of the serial number when you type it. For an Intelbased Xserve that has had its main logic board replaced and has no hardware serial
number, enter “System S” (don’t enter the quotation marks) as the password. For a
computer that has no built-in hardware serial number, use 12345678 as the password.
The password for an upgraded server is the password of the server’s root user.
9 Click Continue and proceed through the Server Assistant panes, following the onscreen
instructions and entering the information you’ve recorded on the Installation & Setup
Worksheet.
For information about settings in a Server Assistant pane, click the Help button in
the pane.
10After server setup is complete, Server Assistant presents three options:
Set Up Another Server: Go back to step 1 and set up another server for the first time.
(Because Server Assistant is already open, you can skip steps 6 and 7.)
Configure: Open Server Preferences on the computer you used to set up the
remote server. Then you can open a new connection to the remote server and set
up users and groups, customize services and system information, or monitor server
activity. For information about these tasks, see “Connecting Server Preferences
to a Remote Server” on page 77 and Chapter 5, “Managing Your Server,” through
Chapter 10, “Managing Server Information.”
Share Screen: Begin a screen sharing session with the server you just set up. When
asked to authenticate, use the name and password of the administrator account you
created on that server.
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Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
After server setup is complete, you can take some additional steps to enhance the
security, accessibility, and overall usefulness of your new server. For information,
see “After Setting Up a Server”, next.
After Setting Up a Server
After setting up a server, you can:
ÂÂ Enhance the security, accessibility, and usefulness of your new server by following
the advice in the Mac OS X Server Next Steps document that’s generated and placed
on the server’s desktop after initial setup.
ÂÂ Take a few steps to keep the server secure. For information, see the next two topics,
“Keeping Your Server Secure” and “Protecting the System Administrator (root)
Account”.
ÂÂ If your organization has an Open Directory server, Active Directory server, or other
directory server that you didn’t connect (bind) your new server to during initial
setup, you can connect it now. For instructions, see “Connecting Your Server to a
Directory Server” on page 71.
ÂÂ Use Software Update to install any available Mac OS X Server updates.
For information, see “Keeping Snow Leopard Server Up to Date” on page 79.
ÂÂ Configure an AirPort Base Station or an Internet router to protect your network
while allowing users to access selected services over the Internet. For information,
see “Protecting Your Network with AirPort Extreme” on page 36 and “Protecting Your
Network with a Router” on page 36.
Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
69
ÂÂ If you set up a single server for a small organization or a server for a workgroup
in a medium or large organization, use Server Preferences to set up users and
groups, customize services and system information, and monitor server activity.
For information about these tasks, see Chapter 5, “Managing Your Server,” through
Chapter 10, “Managing Server Information,” or open Server Preferences and then use
the Help menu.
You can also use the Server Status widget with Dashboard to monitor your server.
For information, see “Using the Server Status Widget” on page 75.
ÂÂ Change advanced settings, configure advanced services, change advanced
user and group settings, and manage users’ computers with Server Admin,
Workgroup Manager, other Mac OS X applications, or UNIX command-line tools.
For information about these applications and tools, open the application and
then use the Help menu, or see the Mac OS X Server Resources website at
www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
Keeping Your Server Secure
For security, you should create a standard user account after completing server setup.
When you log in on the server, routinely use this standard account instead of an
administrator account. Then use your administrator account with each application
that requires administrator privileges. For example, use your administrator name and
password with Server Preferences when you need to manage users, groups, or services.
To create a standard user account, use the Accounts pane of System Preferences on the
server. For information, open System Preferences and then use the Help menu.
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Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
Protecting the System Administrator (root) Account
The administrator password you enter during setup is also used for the server’s System
Administrator user account, whose short name is root. The System Administrator (root)
account can be used to move or delete any file in the system, including system files not
available to a server administrator account or any other user account. You don’t need
root user privileges to administer your server.
Important: Protecting the root user password is very important, so it should not be the
same as another account’s password. After setting up the server, you should change
the password of the root user account.
To change the root user’s password, open the Accounts pane of System Preferences,
select Login Options, click the Edit button, click Open Directory Utility, and then choose
Edit > Change Root Password. If you don’t see an Edit button in Login Options, but do
see a Join button, click the Join button, click Open Directory Utility, and then choose
Edit > Change Root Password.
You can also change the root user’s password by opening Terminal (in /Applications/
Utilities/) and then entering sudo passwd root.
Connecting Your Server to a Directory Server
If your server can have its own users and groups, you can also set up your server to
import user accounts from an Open Directory server or Active Directory server in your
organization. To be able to import user accounts, your server must be connected to
the directory server. Imported user accounts have access to the same services as user
accounts you create on your server.
Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
71
If you don’t import some user accounts from the connected directory server, you can
make them external members of groups. You can also give them access to your server’s
private wikis. For more information, see “Importing Users” on page 91, “Adding or
Removing External Members of a Group” on page 123, and “Setting Up Web Services” on
page 140.
To connect to a directory server:
1 Open the Accounts pane of System Preferences on your server.
2 Click Login Options and then click Edit.
If you don’t see an Edit button but do see a Join button, you need to configure your
server to have its own users and groups before you can configure it to import users
from an existing directory server. For instructions, see “Setting Up Users and Groups
Management” on page 88.
3 Click the Add (+) button, and then choose the directory server from the pop-up menu
or enter the directory server’s DNS name or IP address.
4 If the dialog expands to show Client Computer ID, User Name, and Password fields,
enter the name and password of a user account on the directory server.
ÂÂ For an Open Directory server, you can enter the name and password of a standard
user account; you don’t need to use a directory administrator account. If the dialog
says you can leave the name and password fields blank, you can connect without
authentication, although this is less secure.
ÂÂ For an Active Directory server, you can enter the name and password of an Active
Directory administrator account or a standard user account that has the “Add
workstations to domain” privilege.
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Chapter 4 Setting Up Mac OS X Server
Managing Your Server
5
Use the Server Status widget, Server Preferences, Time
Machine, and Software Update to check status, change
settings, back up and restore, and update server software.
Check status with Server Preferences or the Server Status widget. Find and change
server settings with Server Preferences. Use Server Preferences and the Server Status
widget on the server itself or over the network from any Mac with Snow Leopard. Set
Time Machine preferences to back up the server, and restore using the Time Machine
application or the Installer. Keep the server software current with Software Update.
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Using Server Preferences
With Server Preferences, you can check the status of services and change essential
settings. You can use Server Preferences to manage various aspects of Snow Leopard
Server, such as who can use its services, how its services are configured, or what its
status is.
Find the setting you
need without knowing
its exact location
To manage a server with Server Preferences:
1 Open Server Preferences.
Server Preferences is located in /Applications/Server/.
2 If Server Preferences asks you for Server, User Name, and Password, enter the server’s
DNS name or IP address, the name of an administrator user account on the server,
and the password for the administrator account.
The account you created when you set up the server is an administrator account.
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Chapter 5 Managing Your Server
Using the Server Status Widget
You can use the Server Status widget to monitor the status of Mac OS X Server either
on the server itself or from another computer with Mac OS X Server or Mac OS X.
To use the Server Status widget:
1 Open Dashboard and look for the Server Status widget.
You can open Dashboard by clicking its icon in the Dock, or by pressing its keyboard
shortcut, which is usually the F4 key or the F12 key.
If you don’t see the Server Status widget in Dashboard, click Dashboard’s Open (+)
button and then click or drag the Server Status widget from the widget bar.
2 If you see the Server, User Name, and Password fields, enter the server’s DNS name or IP
address followed by an administrator name and password, and then click Done.
3 When the Server Status widget is connected to a server, it displays a graph and other
status information about the server and its services.
ÂÂ Monitor processor utilization, network load, or disk usage by clicking an icon below
the graph.
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75
ÂÂ Change the processor or network graph’s time period to one hour, day, or week by
clicking the graph.
ÂÂ If your server has more than one disk, view the status of each disk in turn by clicking
the disk usage graph.
ÂÂ Check the status indicator and activity statistics for the listed services. A green
indicator means the service is running.
ÂÂ Connect to a different server by moving the mouse to the upper left corner of the
widget and clicking the small Info (i) button.
You can open another Server Status widget to see more than one aspect of a server’s
status at once, or to monitor another server on the network.
The Server Status widget works with Mac OS X Server v10.6 Snow Leopard and
Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard.
For information about widgets and Dashboard, switch to the Finder and then use the
Help menu.
You can also see graphs of server activity using Server Preferences. For information,
see “Monitoring Server Graphs” on page 169.
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Chapter 5 Managing Your Server
Connecting Server Preferences to a Remote Server
You can connect Server Preferences to a server over the network and manage users,
groups, services, and system information remotely.
Mac OS X
administrator
computer
Mac OS X
Server
To manage a server remotely:
1 Open Server Preferences on an administrator computer and choose Connection >
New Connection.
For information about administrator computers, see “Preparing an Administrator
Computer” on page 51.
2 Enter the remote server’s DNS name or IP address and the name and password of an
administrator account on the remote server.
When Server Preferences is connected to a remote server, the server’s name or IP
address is displayed in the title bar of the Server Preferences window.
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77
To reconnect to a server you have connected to recently, choose Connection >
Open Recent Connection, and then choose the server you want.
You can connect Server Preferences to any server with Mac OS X Server v10.6 or later.
Backing Up and Restoring the Server
You can back up server files automatically using Time Machine. It’s a comprehensive
backup solution for the system. It automatically makes a complete backup of all files on
the system to a locally attached external hard drive, an available internal hard drive, or
a remote network file system. It also keeps track as files are created, updated, or deleted
over time. Time Machine backs up the changes and creates a history of the file system
that you can navigate by date. You can use its intuitive time-based visual browser to
search back through time to find and restore any files that were backed up.
You can set up a list of folders and disks that you want to exclude from backup.
Time Machine automatically excludes temporary and cache files located in /tmp/,
/Library/Logs/, /Library/Caches/, and /Users/username/Library/Caches/.
Time Machine automatically backs up data and settings for basic services: file sharing,
address book, iCal, iChat, mail, web and wiki, VPN, and Open Directory. Time Machine
also automatically backs up some settings for other services, but you may not be able
to completely restore settings changed with Server Admin or with command-line tools.
You set backup options in the Time Machine pane of System Preferences on the server,
and use the Time Machine application to restore files. You can also restore the system
to a previous state using the Installer. For information about backing up and restoring
with Time Machine or recovering the server system with the Installer, open System
Preferences and then use the Help menu.
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Chapter 5 Managing Your Server
For information about backing up users’ computers on the server, see “Managing Users’
Backup Storage” on page 162.
Keeping Snow Leopard Server Up to Date
When your server is connected to the Internet, Software Update can automatically get
the latest free Snow Leopard Server version, security updates, and other enhancements
from Apple. You can have your server check for updates daily, weekly, or monthly. You
can also check now.
Chapter 5 Managing Your Server
79
To check for updates or adjust automatic updating:
1 Open System Preferences on the server.
2 Click the Software Update Icon and follow the onscreen instructions.
If your organization has another server with Mac OS X Server, your server may get
software updates from it rather than from Apple. An expert administrator can set up
Mac OS X Server to provide software update service by using Server Admin.
You can also download software updates directly from the Apple Downloads website: www.apple.com/support/downloads/
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Chapter 5 Managing Your Server
6
Managing Users
Create or import user accounts, change their settings,
or delete them in the Users pane of Server Preferences.
In the Users pane, you set up accounts for people who use the services that this
server provides, and you control which services they can access. You can update their
contact information and change their group memberships. You can also manage email
welcome messages that go to new users.
Find users
Select a user settings pane
Add or delete users
Manage emails sent to users
81
About User Accounts
User accounts on your server allow users to gain access to services provided by the
server. A user account contains the information needed to prove the user’s identity for
all services that require authentication. A user account also provides a centralized place
to store a user’s contact information and other data.
Each user account has an email address, an iChat instant messaging address, a personal
calendar, and a My Page wiki portal. User accounts can also have access to wikis, blogs,
web calendars, a server-based address book, the server’s shared files, and Time Machine
backup storage, and they can use VPN to access the server remotely. Users can be
members of groups, authorizing them to access group shared folders and group wikis.
Of course, if any of these services isn’t turned on, then users don’t have access to it.
You can add user accounts in the Users pane of Server Preferences by:
ÂÂ Creating new accounts
ÂÂ Importing existing accounts, if your organization has a directory server that your
server is connected to
You can import user accounts individually. You can also automatically import all user
accounts that are members of a group.
User Accounts in Your Server’s Directory
New user accounts you create are stored in your server’s directory. You can use Server
Preferences to create and edit them.
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Chapter 6 Managing Users
Imported User Accounts
Imported user accounts remain in your organization’s directory server. You can
supplement imported accounts with contact information, group membership
information, and so forth. The supplemental information is stored in your server’s
directory. When someone uses an imported user account, your server automatically
combines the account information stored in the directory server with supplemental
account information stored in your server’s directory.
If your server has imported user accounts, you can use Server Preferences to edit an
account’s supplemental information in your server’s directory, but not the account
information in your organization’s directory. An administrator of that directory can edit
its account information using tools for the directory server.
Local User Accounts
Users with administrator privileges on their Macs can create local user accounts using
the Accounts pane of System Preferences. These local user accounts are stored on the
user’s computer. Local user accounts have home folders on the computer and can
be used for logging in to the computer. Users can’t use their computers’ local user
accounts to access the server over the network.
Like users’ Macs, your server has local accounts in addition to server accounts and
possibly imported accounts. Your server’s local accounts can be used to log in to it, and
a local account with administrator privileges can be used to administer the server. For
information about administrator privileges, see “About Administrator Accounts,” next.
Types of User Accounts Compared
The following table summarizes key differences among server accounts, imported
accounts, and local accounts.
Chapter 6 Managing Users
83
Account type
Stored in
Created by
Used for
Server account
Your server’s directory
You (a server
administrator), using
Server Preferences
Group membership,
contact information,
authenticating for
services
Imported account
Your organization’s
directory server, with
supplements in your
server’s directory
The directory server’s
administrator
Group membership,
contact information,
authenticating for
services
Local account
Each Mac OS X
computer
A user with an
administrator account
on the computer,
using System
Preferences
Logging in to the
computer and
accessing the home
folder
About Administrator Accounts
You need an administrator account on your server to create other user accounts,
create groups, change server settings, and perform other tasks using Server
Preferences. With an administrator account, you can also make changes to locked
preferences in System Preferences, install software on the server, and perform other
tasks that standard users can’t.
Your server may have two administrator accounts after you finish setting it up for the
first time: a primary administrator account and a directory administrator account.
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Chapter 6 Managing Users
Primary Administrator Account
The server always has a primary administrator account, whose name and password you
entered while setting up the server. The primary administrator account is stored on
the server along with any user accounts you might create using the Accounts pane of
System Preferences. You can use this administrator account on the server itself, and you
can use it to manage your server over the network from another Mac.
Directory Administrator Account
If your server hosts users and groups in its own directory, the server also has a directory
administrator account. This account has the password you entered for the primary
administrator during setup, but its name is Directory Administrator and its short
name is diradmin. You can enter a different name and short name if you choose the
“Configure manually” option during setup.
The directory administrator account is in your server’s directory, along with the
standard user accounts you create in the Users pane of Server Preferences. However,
the directory administrator account isn’t shown in the User pane of Server Preferences.
If a malfunction makes the primary administrator account unusable, you can use the
directory administrator account on the server itself, and you can use it to manage the
server over the network from an administrator computer.
Primary and Directory Administrator Accounts Compared
The following table summarizes similarities and differences between the primary
administrator account and the directory administrator account.
Chapter 6 Managing Users
85
Feature
Primary administrator
Directory administrator
Name and short name
Specified during setup
Directory Administrator and
diradmin (or specified during
setup)
Password
Specified during setup
Same as primary administrator
Stored in the server’s directory
No
Yes
Can be used from an
administrator computer
Yes
Yes
Administrators on an Upgraded Server
If your server was upgraded or migrated from a standard or workgroup configuration
of Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard, you have different administrator accounts.
Your primary administrator account is in your server’s directory. This is a directory
administrator account, and it has the name and short name specified during Leopard
Server setup. You also have an administrator account stored on your server, and it has
the name Local Administrator and short name localadmin. For more information about
these accounts, see Getting Started for Mac OS X Server v10.5. It’s available on the Apple
Manuals website at support.apple.com/manuals/.
Additional Administrator Accounts
When you create a new user account, you specify whether the user is an administrator
or a standard user. You can also make an imported user account a server administrator.
If you don’t want a user to be able to use Server Preferences or install software on the
server, don’t make the user an administrator.
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Administrator Account Security
To keep your server secure:
ÂÂ Don’t share an administrator name and password with anyone.
ÂÂ Log out when you leave your server, or set up a locked screen saver using the Screen
Saver pane and Security pane of System Preferences. If you leave your server while
you’re logged in and the screen is unlocked, someone could sit down at your server
while you’re away and make changes using your administrator privileges.
ÂÂ Never set an administrator to be automatically logged in when the server starts up.
If you do, someone can simply restart the server to gain access as an administrator.
ÂÂ For added security, routinely log in on the server using a standard user account.
Use your administrator name and password when you open Server Preferences or
another application that requires administrator privileges.
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Setting Up Users and Groups Management
If your server wasn’t initially set up to manage its own users and groups, you see a “Set
Up” button when you view the Users pane or the Groups pane in Server Preferences.
You don’t see this window if your server is already configured to manage users and
groups.
You can configure your server to have its own directory by clicking this Set Up button.
This creates an Open Directory domain on your server and makes your server an Open
Directory master. For more information about Open Directory, open Server Admin and
then use the Help menu to search for “Open Directory Overview,” or see the Mac OS X
Server Resources website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
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Adding a User Account
You can add an individual user account for each person who uses the services provided
by your server. Your server gives each user account its own email address, iChat
address, personal calendar, and My Page wiki portal. User accounts can also have access
to wikis, blogs, web calendars, a server-based address book, the server’s shared files,
and Time Machine backup storage, and they can use VPN to access the server remotely.
Availability of each service is subject to the service being turned on, and you can
individually control each user account’s access to services.
To add a new user account:
1 Click the Add (+) button in the Users pane of Server Preferences.
2 If you see a pop-up menu, choose one of the commands:
Import User From Directory: You can import users’ existing accounts from your
organization’s directory server. For instructions, see “Importing Users” on page 91.
Create New User: You typically add new users from your organization’s directory server
if possible, but you can also create new user accounts in your server’s directory. To do
this, continue with step 3.
If you don’t see a pop-up menu when you click the Add (+) button, your server isn’t
connected to a directory server. Continue with step 3 to create a user account in your
server’s directory.
3 Enter the user’s name.
The name can be up to 255 characters (which can be as few as 85 Japanese characters).
It can include spaces.
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4 If you don’t want to use the generated short name, enter a different short name.
After the account is created, you can’t change this short name.
The short name typically is eight or fewer characters, but can be up to 255 Roman
characters. Use only the characters a through z, A through Z, 0 through 9, . (period),
_ (underscore), or - (hyphen).
Note: If a user already has a short name on a Mac, try to use the same short name
for the user’s account on the server. Having the same short name facilitates the user’s
access to services.
5 Enter the user’s password in the Password and Verify fields.
You can use Password Assistant to help you choose a password. Click the Key button at
the right of the Password field to see how secure the password is. The user can change
this password in the Accounts pane of System Preferences on the user’s computer.
6 Select “Allow user to administer this computer” if this user account needs to create
other user accounts, create groups, install software on the server, or change server
settings.
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Importing Users
If your server is connected to your organization’s directory server, you can import users’
existing accounts
Your server gives each imported user account its own iChat address, personal calendar,
and My Page wiki portal. Imported user accounts can also have access to wikis, blogs,
web calendars, a server-based address book, the server’s shared files, and Time Machine
backup storage. If your server’s mail service and VPN service are turned on, imported
user accounts get email addresses and can use VPN to access the server remotely.
Availability of each service is subject to the service being turned on, and you can
individually control each imported user account’s access to services.
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To import a user account:
1 If you’re going to have the server send an invitation email to imported users, make sure
the custom introduction and the sender’s name and email address suit your needs.
For information, see “Customizing the Server Invitation Email” on page 101.
2 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Add (+) button and choose “Import
User From Directory” from the pop-up menu.
If you don’t see a pop-up menu when you click Add (+), your server isn’t connected
to a directory server in your organization. See “Connecting Your Server to a Directory
Server” on page 71.
If your organization doesn’t have a directory server (apart from your server), you can
create new user accounts. For instructions, see “Adding a User Account” on page 89.
3 Type part or all of the user’s name in the search field, and when you see the name
listed, select it, optionally select “Send imported users an email invitation,” and then
click Import.
4 When you’re finished importing user accounts, click Done.
User accounts you import using this procedure are shown as “Imported” in the
Users pane.
Instead of importing user accounts individually using this procedure, you can import
user accounts automatically from groups. For instructions, see the next section.
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Importing Groups of Users Automatically
If your server is connected to your organization’s directory server, you can import
groups of existing user accounts. If you import a group, your server automatically
imports user accounts for all group members. Your server periodically checks with
your organization’s directory server for changes in each imported group’s membership,
and automatically adds and removes imported user accounts as users are added to or
removed from an imported group.
Your server gives each imported user account its own iChat address, personal calendar,
and My Page wiki portal. Imported user accounts can also have access to wikis, blogs,
web calendars, a server-based address book, the server’s shared files, and Time Machine
backup storage. If your server’s mail service and VPN service are turned on, imported
user accounts get email addresses and can use VPN to access the server remotely.
Availability of each service is subject to the service being turned on, and you can
individually control each imported user account’s access to services.
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To import user accounts automatically from groups:
1 If you’re going to have the server send an invitation email to imported users, make sure
the custom introduction and the sender’s name and email address suit your needs.
For information, see “Customizing the Server Invitation Email” on page 101.
2 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Action (gear) button and choose
Import Users From Groups from the pop-up menu.
If the Action pop-up menu doesn’t include this option, your server isn’t connected to a
directory server. See “Connecting Your Server to a Directory Server” on page 71.
If your organization doesn’t have a directory server (apart from your server), you can
create new user accounts. For instructions, see “Adding a User Account” on page 89.
3 Edit the list on the right so it contains the groups whose members you want to import
automatically:
ÂÂ To add a group, type part or all of its name in the search field, and when you see the
group in the list on the left, select it and click Add.
ÂÂ To remove a group, select it in the list on the right and click Remove.
4 Optionally select “Send new imported users an email invitation.”
5 When you’re satisfied with the list of groups to import, click Save.
User accounts that are imported automatically from groups are listed as “Automatic” in
the Users pane.
You can also import user accounts individually. For instructions, see the previous topic,
“Importing Users,” on page 91.
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Deleting a User Account
You can use Server Preferences to delete user accounts that are no longer needed for
your server.
To delete a user account:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, select the user account you want to delete in
the list on the left.
2 Click the Delete (–) button.
Deleting a user account cancels its group memberships and stops its access to group
services and private wikis. Deleting a user account also deletes the user’s mail stored
on the server. A deleted user account can no longer access calendars and address book
information on the server.
Deleting a user account doesn’t remove the user’s backup data. If the Time Machine
preferences on the deleted user’s computer were set to use the server for backup
storage, the user’s backup data remains in /Shared Items/Backups/ on the backup disk
specified in the Time Machine pane of Server Preferences.
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Changing a User’s Account Settings
You can change a user’s name, password, picture, or administrator privilege by clicking
Account in the Users pane of Server Preferences.
Full name can be used to
authenticate for services
Can’t be changed after the
account is created
Click to set a new
password
Click to change the
picture
Allows user to manage
users, groups, and services
If settings besides the short name are dimmed in the Account pane, you can’t change
them because they are stored in the directory server that your server is connected to.
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Changing a User’s Contact Information
You can change a user’s first and last names, address, email and chat addresses,
website address, and blog address by clicking Contact Info in the Users pane of Server
Preferences.
Add or delete an email
address, chat address,
or phone number
Personal website address
and blog address
If some settings in the Contact Info pane are dimmed, you can’t change them because
they’re stored in the directory server that your server is connected to.
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Controlling a User’s Access to Services
You can control a user’s access to individual services by clicking Services in the Users
pane of Server Preferences.
Select services you want
to let the user access, and
deselect services you don’t
want the user to access
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Changing a User’s Group Membership
You can add a user to a group or remove a user from a group by clicking Groups in the
Users pane.
Select the checkbox of
each group you want
the user to belong to
Click to begin editing
membership, and then
click to finish editing
Group members can access the group’s file sharing folder, and they can be added to
each other’s iChat buddy lists automatically. Group members can also be given access
to private wikis by the wiki owners. Group members’ access to each of these services is
subject to it being turned on and the group being allowed to access it.
You can’t remove a user from the permanent group named Workgroup, which always
includes all users as members.
For information about adding, removing, or configuring groups, see
Chapter 8, “Managing Groups.”
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Customizing the Welcome Email
You can use Server Preferences to add your name, email address, and a personal
introduction to the standard email message that your server sends to tell new users
about its services. The standard message specifies the server’s DNS name and explains
the services that the server provides.
The server sends the email automatically when you add a new user account. However,
your server doesn’t send the email if its mail service is stopped when you add new user
accounts.
To customize the email sent to newly added user accounts:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Action (gear) button and choose Email
Message Settings from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter the sender’s name and email address in the Administrator Full Name field and the
Administrator Email field.
3 Optionally enter a personal message in the Welcome field.
You can use the message to introduce yourself, so recipients know the email is genuine.
For example: Hi, I’m the administrator for our server. If you need help getting services from
it, please don’t hesitate to send me an email or call me at 310-555-4357. —Bill
Users receive the welcome email when they start using their email accounts. They see
your introduction in a boxed section set apart from the standard message text that the
server generates.
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Customizing the Server Invitation Email
You can use Server Preferences to add your name, email address, and a personal
introduction to the standard email message that your server can send to tell users
how to get its services. The standard message specifies the server’s DNS name and
explains the services that the server provides. Recipients who have Mac OS X v10.6
Snow Leopard can click a button in the email to automatically set up their Macs to get
services from your server.
You can select an option to send the email when you import users or a group of users.
The server sends the invitation to email addresses that already exist in the imported
user accounts. The server doesn’t send the invitation to an imported user account that
doesn’t contain an email address.
You can also send the invitation email manually. For information, open Server
Preferences and then use the Help menu.
To customize the email sent to newly imported user accounts:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Action (gear) button and choose Email
Message Settings from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter the sender’s name and email address in the Administrator Full Name field and the
Administrator Email field.
3 Optionally enter a personal message in the Invitation field.
If you don’t see an Invitation field, your server isn’t connected to a directory server.
See “Connecting Your Server to a Directory Server” on page 71.
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You can use the message to introduce yourself, so recipients know the email is genuine.
For example: Hi, I’m the administrator for our server. If you need help getting services from
it, please don’t hesitate to send me an email or call me at 310-555-4357. —Bill
Recipients see your introduction in a boxed section set apart from the standard
message text that the server generates.
Customizing the Group Invitation Email
You can use Server Preferences to add your name, email address, and a personal
introduction to the standard email message that your server can send to tell new
external members of a group how to use the group’s services. The standard message
specifies the group name and the server’s DNS name, and it explains the services that
the server provides.
You can select an option to send the email when you add users or groups from your
organization’s directory server as external members of a group on your server. The
server sends the invitation to email addresses that already exist in each new external
member’s user account. The server doesn’t sent the invitation to a new external
member whose user account doesn’t contain an email address.
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To customize the email sent to new external members of a group:
1 In the Users pane of Server Preferences, click the Action (gear) button and choose Email
Message Settings from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter the sender’s name and email address in the Administrator Full Name field and the
Administrator Email field.
3 Optionally enter a personal message in the Group Invitation field.
If you don’t see the Group Invitation field, your server isn’t connected to a directory
server. See “Connecting Your Server to a Directory Server” on page 71.
You can use the message to introduce yourself, so recipients know the email is genuine.
For example: Hi, I’m the administrator for the server myserver.example.com, which provides
services for the group. If you need help getting group services from the server, please don’t
hesitate to send me an email or call me at 310-555-4357. —Bill
Recipients see your name and message in a boxed section set apart from the standard
message text that the server generates.
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Managing Users’ Computers
7
Learn how to help users set up their computers to use
the services your server provides.
Users need to set up their computers to get services from your server. Users with
Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard can have their computers set up automatically. Users
with an earlier Mac OS X version or with Windows need to set up their computers
manually.
Setting Up Users’ Macs Automatically
Users who have Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard can automatically set up their Macs
to get services from your server. The procedure is different for three types of users,
as explained in the following table.
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Automatic setup for
Begins when
For information, see
Users who have a new Mac or
Snow Leopard newly installed
and have an account on your
server
Users complete the “Connect
to Mac OS X Server” pane
during Mac OS X setup
“Setting Up New Macs” on
page 108
Current users of Snow Leopard
who have accounts on your
server
Users connect their computers
to your server’s network
“Setting Up Macs That Join
Your Network” on page 110
Current users of Snow Leopard
whose accounts you import
using Server Preferences
Users click the button in the
invitation email they receive
“Setting Up Newly Imported
Users’ Macs” on page 111
User Account Changes
After a user finishes one of the automatic setup procedures, the user’s local account
(on the user’s Mac) is tied to the user’s server account, and the local account is labeled
“Managed” in the Accounts pane of the user’s System Preferences.
ÂÂ If the user’s server account is imported from an existing account on a directory
server, the local account password is changed to match the server account password,
and the passwords are kept in sync.
ÂÂ If the server account was created on your server (not imported), the local account
password isn’t changed or kept in sync.
If a user’s accounts were created with different user names, the user can change the
long name of the local account by using the Accounts pane of System Preferences.
For information about local, server, and imported user accounts, see “About User
Accounts” on page 82.
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User Access to Services
After finishing automatic setup, the user is ready to access services as shown in the
following table. Of course, the user can only access services that are turned on. You can
control each user’s access to services individually, as described in “Controlling a User’s
Access to Services” on page 98.
Mac OS X application
Is ready to access
Address Book
Server-based contact information
Finder
Shared folders at afp://myserver.example.com and
smb://myserver.example.com
iCal
User’s server-based calendar
iChat
User’s Jabber account and buddy list
Mail
User’s email account and other users’ email addresses
Safari
Server website: http://myserver.example.com
Click links to see My Page, wikis, blogs, calendars, and webmail.
Network preferences
VPN connection
Time Machine preferences
Backup storage on the server
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Setting Up New Macs
During initial setup of a new Mac or a Mac with Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard newly
installed, the “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane lets the user choose your server if the
user has an account on it.
User chooses
your server
User specifies
an account on
your server
The “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane appears only if the Mac detects a server with
Snow Leopard Server on the network. The user must have an account in the Users pane
of Server Preferences, and the server must have at least one service turned on in Server
Preferences.
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If the user completes this pane:
ÂÂ A local user account is created on the user’s Mac, based on the user’s account on the
server. Both accounts have the same long name, short name, and password.
ÂÂ A home folder is set up on the user’s computer.
ÂÂ The user’s computer is automatically connected to your server and configured to get
services from it. For information, see “User Access to Services” on page 107.
The user may be unable to complete the “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane for several
reasons. For example:
ÂÂ The user may not know your server’s name or may not have a user account on the
server. In these cases, the user can skip the “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane by
deselecting “Use the following Mac OS X Server.”
ÂÂ The user’s Mac may not be connected to the network during initial setup. In this
case, the “Create Your Account” pane appears instead of the “Connect to Mac OS X
Server” pane, and the user creates a new account not based on a server account.
If the user doesn’t complete the “Connect to Mac OS X Server” pane for any reason,
the user can finish initial setup and then configure the Mac later to get services from
your server. For information about how the user does this, see the next section.
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Setting Up Macs That Join Your Network
If a Mac with Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard isn’t connected to a server yet, and the
Mac ascertains that the user currently logged in matches a user account created on
your server, the Mac displays an invitation, offering to set up connections to your server.
The user can accept the invitation, decline it, or postpone action until the next login.
If the Mac discovers more than one server that the user can connect to, the invitation
offers the user a choice of servers.
The invitation appears only if the Mac has Snow Leopard and detects a server with
Snow Leopard Server on the network. The user’s local account on the Mac must have
the same name or short name as a user account on the server, and the server must
have at least one service turned on. If the user is logged in on the Mac when you add
an account for the user on the server, the user needs to log out and log in again (or
restart the Mac) to see the invitation. If the user’s account on the server is imported
from a directory server, the user gets an email invitation and doesn’t see this invitation
window. If a Snow Leopard user doesn’t see the invitation, the user can manually start
the setup process by using the Accounts pane of System Preferences. For instructions,
see “Setting Up a Mac by Using Accounts Preferences” on page 112.
If the user accepts the invitation, the Accounts pane of System Preferences opens.
It asks for the name and password of the user account on your server.
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Then Accounts preferences sets up the user’s Mac and displays information about what
it did. For more information, see “User Account Changes” on page 106 and “User Access
to Services” on page 107.
Setting Up Newly Imported Users’ Macs
If some users already have Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard set up, and you import their
user accounts from a directory server, your server can send an email inviting them to
join the server. Snow Leopard users can click a button in the invitation email to have
their applications automatically set up to get services from your server.
Note: To receive an invitation email, an imported user must have an email address in
the user’s account on the directory server.
When a Snow Leopard user clicks the button in the invitation email, the Accounts pane
of System Preferences opens. It asks for the name and password of the user account on
your server.
For information about how the Mac is set up, see “User Account Changes” on page 106
and “User Access to Services” on page 107.
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If a Snow Leopard user doesn’t have the invitation email, you can send one manually
by using the Action button in the Users pane. For instructions, open Server Preferences
and then use the Help menu.
For information about adding your name, email address, and a personal introduction
to the standard message text that the server generates for the invitation email, see
“Customizing the Server Invitation Email” on page 101.
Setting Up a Mac by Using Accounts Preferences
If a Mac with Snow Leopard isn’t connected to a server yet, and the invitation to get
services from your server doesn’t appear automatically, the Mac user can manually
connect to your server. The user will need to connect manually if the user’s local
account on the Mac doesn’t have a name or short name that matches a user account
on the server, or if the server is on a different local network (IP subnet) than the
Mac. The user may also need to connect manually if the user previously declined an
invitation to use your server or the user removed the Mac’s connection to your server
and needs to add it back.
To connect a Mac to your server:
1 On the Mac, open the Accounts pane of System Preferences and click Login Options.
2 Click the Join button, or click the Edit button and then click the Add (+) button.
You see the Join button if the Mac isn’t connected to a directory server yet.
You see the Edit button if the Mac is already connected to a directory server.
3 Choose your server from the pop-up menu, or enter your server’s DNS name or IP
address.
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4 If a dialog appears offering to set up services, choose whether to have the user’s
applications set up to get services from your server.
ÂÂ If you want applications set up to get services from your server, click Set Up Services.
Then enter the name and password of the user’s account on the server.
For information about how the Mac is set up, see “User Account Changes” on
page 106 and “User Access to Services” on page 107.
ÂÂ If you only want the Mac connected to your Open Directory domain, click Only Join.
The user’s applications aren’t set up, and the user’s local account isn’t tied to the
user’s server account.
The dialog offering these choices doesn’t appear if your server doesn’t have any
services turned on in Server Preferences, or if the server specified in step 3 isn’t running
Mac OS X Server v10.6 or later.
Setting Up Users’ Computers Manually
Users who have Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard or earlier, or who are running Windows,
can get services from your server by configuring their applications manually. They
can use the following settings, replacing the italicized placeholders with your server’s
DNS name and the user’s short name. Users who have Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard
normally see an invitation to set up their applications automatically, but they can also
configure their applications manually. For information about the invitation, see “Setting
Up Macs That Join Your Network” on page 110.
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Settings for applications
Finder or other SMB or AFP file sharing client
afp://myserver.example.com
smb://myserver.example.com
Address Book (with Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard) or other CardDAV contacts application
Server address: myserver.example.com
User name: the name of the user account on the server
Password: the password of the user account on the server
iCal (with Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard)
Account type: automatic (CalDAV)
Email address: usershortname@myserver.example.com
iCal (with Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard) or other CalDAV calendar application
Personal calendar subscription (read only): http://myserver.example.com:8008/calendars/users/
usershortname/calendar/
iChat or other XMPP instant messaging application
Account type: Jabber
Server address: myserver.example.com
Jabber ID: usershortname@myserver.example.com
Authentication: Kerberos v5 preferred (other standard methods supported)
Port: 5223
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Settings for applications
Mail or other email application
Account type: IMAP or POP
Incoming mail server: myserver.example.com
Outgoing mail server: myserver.example.com
Email address: usershortname@myserver.example.com
Authentication: Kerberos v5 preferred (other standard methods supported)
Safari or other web browser
Server website: http://myserver.example.com
Click links to see My Page, wikis, blogs, calendars, and webmail.
Network preferences or other VPN connection, such as Internet Connect in Mac OS X v10.4 Tiger.
See “Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection,” next, or “Setting Up a User’s VPN Connection
Manually” on page 117
Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection
You can use Server Preferences to generate a file that a Mac user can open to create
a VPN configuration automatically. Then the user can make a VPN connection to the
server and its network via the Internet. The configuration file works with Mac OS X
v10.3 or later. For information about generating the configuration file, see “Creating a
VPN Configuration File” on page 148.
When you give Mac users the generated VPN configuration file, you can also give them
the following instructions for using it.
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Using a VPN Configuration File
If you got a VPN configuration file from the person who manages your server, and you
have Mac OS X v10.3 or later, you can use the file to set up your computer for making
VPN connections to the server. The configuration file contains all the information
necessary to make a VPN connection to the server, except the name and password of
your user account on the server.
To import a VPN configuration from a file:
1 Open the file, and select VPN (L2TP) if asked where to put the imported
configuration.
2 Enter your user account name in the Account Name field.
3 If the server administrator tells you to enter your user account password, enter it in
the Password field.
If you have Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard or Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard, click
Authentication Settings to see the Password field.
For security, the administrator may tell you not to enter your password now.
4 Quit the application, and save or apply your changes when prompted.
If you want to make a VPN connection from a network with a firewall, configure
it to allow traffic on UDP ports 500, 1701, and 4500; on TCP port 1723; and on IP
protocol 50.
If you didn’t enter your password before saving the VPN configuration, you’ll be asked
to enter it each time you make a VPN connection to the server.
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Setting Up a User’s VPN Connection Manually
Users may be unable to import VPN settings from a configuration file because they
don’t have the file, or because they have Windows computers, which can’t use the file.
These users can manually set up their computers for a VPN connection to your server.
They need to create a new VPN configuration and enter the following VPN connection
settings:
VPN server or host: your server’s DNS name or public IP address
VPN type: L2TP over IPSec
Shared secret (key) for IPSec: shown in the VPN pane of Server Preferences when you
click Edit and select “Show shared secret”
Account name: the short name of the user’s account on your server
User password: the password of the user’s account on your server
Users who want to make a VPN connection from a computer or network with a firewall
need to configure the firewall to allow traffic on UDP ports 500, 1701, and 4500; on TCP
port 1723; and on IP protocol 50.
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8
Managing Groups
Use the Groups pane to add or delete groups, see and
change group membership, or configure group services.
In the Groups pane, you create groups, turn group services on or off, add or remove
group members, and delete unneeded groups.
Find groups
After creating a group,
you can’t change its
short name
Add or delete a group
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Creating a New Group
You can create a new group whenever some server users need their own shared group
folder, or when you need to control access to shared folders and files.
To create a new group:
1 Click the Add (+) button in the Groups pane of Server Preferences.
2 Enter a name for the group, and optionally change the short name.
The group name can be up to 255 characters (which can be as few as 85 Japanese
characters). It can include spaces.
After you create the account, you can’t change the short name. If you don’t want to use
the generated short name, enter a different short name.
The short name typically is eight or fewer characters, but can be up to 255 Roman
characters. Use only the characters a through z, A through Z, 0 through 9, . (period),
_ (underscore), or - (hyphen).
3 Select the services you want the group to have, and deselect the services you don’t
want the group to have.
File Sharing Folder: Provides a file sharing folder for the group. Members can get files
from the group’s shared folder and put files in it. It’s named after the group’s short
name and is located on the server’s startup disk in the /Groups/ folder. Clicking the link
arrow next to File Sharing Folder opens the group’s shared folder in the Finder.
iChat Autobuddy List: Automatically adds the Jabber IDs (screen names) of all group
members to each member’s Jabber buddy list. If the group has external members,
they aren’t included in the iChat autobuddy list.
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Create group wiki: Opens your web browser and starts the process of creating a wiki
using this group’s name. While creating the wiki, you select a visual theme and set
access permissions. The wiki initially includes a web calendar, blog, and mailing list.
You can customize the wiki after creating it. For more information, click the Help link
on any wiki page.
If a wiki has been created using this group’s name, the “Create group wiki” button
is replaced by a link to the wiki the next time you view the Groups pane in Server
Preferences.
4 Add users to the group by clicking Members. Add users and groups from your
organization’s directory server by clicking External Members. For instructions,
see “Adding or Removing Members of a Group” on page 122 and “Adding or Removing
External Members of a Group” on page 123.
If you don’t see an External Members tab (shown on page 123), your server isn’t
connected to a directory server. See “Connecting Your Server to a Directory Server” on
page 71.
To access shared folders or private wikis that the group has permission to use, group
members must authenticate using their user account name and password. Availability
of group services is subject to file sharing service, iChat service, and web services being
turned on.
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Adding or Removing Members of a Group
In the Groups pane, you can add or remove group members who are users you’ve
created or imported in the Users pane. (To have imported users, your server must be
connected to a directory server.)
Select the checkbox of
each user you want to
be a group member
Click to begin editing
membership, and then
click to finish editing
For information about adding, deleting, or configuring user accounts,
see Chapter 6, “Managing Users.”
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Adding or Removing External Members of a Group
If your server is connected to a directory server, your group members can include users
and groups from the directory server. External members don’t have user accounts on
your server, but they can access the group’s shared folder and wikis that the group has
permission to view.
If you don’t see an External Members tab, your server isn’t connected to a directory
server in your organization. If your organization has a directory server, you can connect
to it. For instructions, see “Connecting Your Server to a Directory Server” on page 71.
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To add or remove external group members:
1 Before adding external group members, be sure the group invitation email is worded
to suit your needs.
For information, see “Customizing the Group Invitation Email” on page 102.
2 In the Groups pane of Server Preferences, select the group you want to change in the
list on the left, and click External Members.
3 To remove an external group member, select the member in the list on the right,
and then click the Delete (–) button below the list of members.
4 To add a group member, click the Add (+) button below the list of members.
5 Select a prospective member from the list, optionally select “Send added users an email
invitation,” and then click Add to Group.
ÂÂ To search for a user or group, type the first part of the name in the search box.
ÂÂ To show or hide users and groups below a heading, click the triangle in the heading.
6 When you finish adding members, click Done.
For information about adding, deleting, or configuring user accounts,
see Chapter 6, “Managing Users.”
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Customizing Services
9
Use Server Preferences to change settings for file sharing,
address book, iCal, iChat, mail, web, and VPN services.
The Services section of Server Preferences includes the File Sharing, Address Book, iCal,
iChat, Mail, Web, and VPN panes.
Managing Address Book Service
Use the Address Book pane to turn address book service on or off, or to limit each
user’s disk space for contact information stored on the server.
Limits how much disk space
each user’s address book
can use on the server
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About Address Book Service
The address book service for Mac OS X Server, Address Book Server, allows users to
keep contact information on the server.
Users can view and add contact information in a server-based address book by using
the Address Book application on any Mac with Snow Leopard on the network. A Mac
with Snow Leopard can have its Address Book application automatically set up to use a
server-based address book. See “Setting Up Users’ Macs Automatically” on page 105.
Address Book Server also works with other contact management applications that
support the CardDAV open standard, such as the open source, cross-platform Mulberry
(www.mulberrymail.com). See “Setting Up Users’ Computers Manually” on page 113.
If you want to allow access to Address Book Server on the Internet and you have
a cable router, DSL router, or other network router, your router must have port
forwarding (port mapping) configured for Address Book Server. For more information,
see “Protecting a Small Network” on page 35.
If you want to allow access to Address Book Server outside your local network and your
local network has a separate firewall device, ask the firewall administrator to open the
firewall for the ports that Address Book Server uses. For a list of ports, see “Services and
Ports” on page 175.
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Managing File Sharing Service
Use the File Sharing pane to turn file sharing service on or off, and to control access
to the Groups, Public, and Users shared folders. You can also add or remove your own
shared folders, also known as share points.
Allow or deny access to the
shared folder
Add or delete shared folders
Give read and write access to all registered users
or only some users and groups, and allow or
deny read-only access to guests
About File Sharing Service
Mac OS X Server file sharing service lets users access shared folders and store files on
the server. They can use Macintosh, Windows, or UNIX computers to access their files
and shared folders without special software, using native file protocols such as AFP and
SMB. Windows users see Mac OS X Server file servers in their Network Places, just like
Windows file servers.
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If you want to allow access to file sharing on the Internet and you have a cable router,
DSL router, or other network router, your router must have port forwarding (port
mapping) configured for file sharing. For more information, see “Protecting a Small
Network” on page 35.
If you want to allow access to file sharing outside your local network and your local
network has a separate firewall device, ask the firewall administrator to open the
firewall for the ports that file sharing uses. For a list of ports, see “Services and Ports” on
page 175.
Controlling Access to a Shared Folder
You can enable or disable access to each shared folder listed in the File Sharing pane of
Server Preferences. You can specify which users and groups have read and write access
to each shared folder and its contents: all users with accounts on your server or only
users and groups you select. You can also choose whether to allow guest access for
each shared folder.
To change settings for a shared folder:
1 In the File Sharing pane of Server Preferences, locate the shared folder in the list.
2 To enable access to a shared folder, select its checkbox.
3 To give all users with accounts on your server read and write access to the shared
folder and its contents, click Edit Permissions and select “All registered users.”
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4 To restrict read and write access to the shared folder and its contents, click Edit
Permissions, select “Only these registered users and groups,” and select the checkbox
next to each user and group you want to give read and write access to.
If you give a group read and write access, all users who are members have read and
write access even if their individual checkboxes are deselected.
5 To allow guest users to read the contents of a shared folder, click Edit Permissions and
select “Allow guests read-only access.” Deselect this option to disallow guest access.
Users who have permission to access a shared folder can use the AFP and SMB file
sharing protocols to access the folder.
Registered users and members of groups authenticate for read and write access by
using the name and password of their user account on the server. An external member
of a group has no account on the server, but can authenticate using the name and
password of the member’s external user account.
Guests don’t authenticate for read-only access to a shared folder. Unlike registered
users, guests don’t need user accounts on your server.
You can also change access permissions for a shared folder or any item in it by using
the Info window in the Finder. For information about setting permissions for folders
and files, switch to the Finder and then use the Help menu.
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Managing iCal Service
Use the iCal pane to turn iCal calendar service on or off, limit the size of file
attachments, or limit each user’s total calendar data.
Sets the maximum size of an
event, to-do item, or other
calendar object, including all
its attached files
Limits how much
disk space each user’s
calendar can use on the
server
Use iCal Server Utility (in /Applications/Server/) to create, edit, or delete the locations
and resources that users can reserve when they schedule meetings in shared calendars
hosted by iCal Server. Locations are rooms or other landmarks that aren’t associated
with specific people. Resources are shared equipment such as printers, scanners, or
projectors. For more information, open iCal Server Utility and then use the Help menu.
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About iCal Service
The calendar service for Mac OS X Server, iCal Server, makes it easy for users to share
calendars, schedule meetings, and coordinate events within a workgroup, a small
business, or a large organization. Colleagues can quickly and easily check each other’s
availability, set up and propose meetings, book conference rooms, reserve projectors,
and more. iCal Server sends the invitations, which can include information such as an
agenda or to-do list, and tabulates replies.
A computer with Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard can have its iCal application
automatically set up to use iCal Server. See “Setting Up Users’ Macs Automatically” on
page 105. For information about scheduling events, inviting other users, receiving and
replying to invitations, and so forth, Mac OS X users can open iCal and then use the
Help menu.
iCal Server also works with Calendar on iPhone, web calendars in Snow Leopard Server
wikis, and other popular calendar applications that support the standard CalDAV
protocol. See “Setting Up Users’ Computers Manually” on page 113.
If you want to allow access to iCal Server on the Internet and you have a cable router,
DSL router, or other network router, your router must have port forwarding (port
mapping) configured for iCal Server. For more information, see “Protecting a Small
Network” on page 35.
If you want to allow access to iCal Server outside your local network and your local
network has a separate firewall device, ask the firewall administrator to open the
firewall for the ports that iCal Server uses. For a list of ports, see “Services and Ports” on
page 175.
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Managing iChat Service
Use the iChat pane to turn iChat instant messaging service on or off, enable chatting
with other instant messaging systems, or set up logging and archiving of all chats.
Save a transcript of all chats,
and archive it once a week
in a compressed file
Let users chat with users
on other XMPP instant
messaging systems such
as Google Talk
About iChat Service
iChat service provides instant messaging (IM) for Macintosh, Windows, and Linux users.
Team members can brainstorm solutions, make plans, exchange URLs, or transfer files,
without worrying about outsiders intercepting confidential information. iChat service
provides text messaging between users or among multiple users. It also facilitates
direct connections between users for audio, video, and multiway audio and video
sessions.
Users’ iChat account information is stored on the server. Users may access their
accounts from any Mac and see the same buddy lists, groups, and so forth.
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A computer with Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard can have its iChat application
automatically set up to use your server’s iChat service. See “Setting Up Users’ Macs
Automatically” on page 105.
iChat service also works with the iChat application in earlier Mac OS X versions, Google
Talk, and other instant messaging software that uses the XMPP protocol, called Jabber,
which is available for Windows and Linux computers.
If you want to allow access to iChat service on the Internet and you have a cable router,
DSL router, or other network router, your router must have port forwarding (port
mapping) configured for iChat service. For more information, see “Protecting a Small
Network” on page 35.
If you want to allow access to iChat service outside your local network and your
local network has a separate firewall device, ask the firewall administrator to open
the firewall for the ports that iChat service uses. For a list of ports, see “Services and
Ports” on page 175.
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Managing Mail Service
Use the Mail pane to turn mail service on or off, specify a relay server for outgoing mail,
or adjust junk mail and virus filtering.
About Mail Service
Mail service lets users send and receive email on your local network and the Internet,
using any email application. Mail service includes filters that protect users from junk
mail and viruses.
Everyone with a user account on your server gets an email address. A computer with
Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard can have its Mail application automatically set up to use
your server’s mail service. See “Setting Up Users’ Macs Automatically” on page 105.
Mail service also works with Mail on iPhone and other popular mail applications that
use the standard IMAP, POP, and SMTP email protocols.
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If you want to allow access to mail service on the Internet and you have a cable router,
DSL router, or other network router, your router must have port forwarding (port
mapping) configured for mail service. For more information, see “Protecting a Small
Network” on page 35.
If you want to allow access to mail service outside your local network and your local
network has a separate firewall device, ask the firewall administrator to open the
firewall for the ports that mail service uses. For a list of ports, see “Services and Ports” on
page 175.
Specifying a Mail Relay Server
Your mail service can relay outgoing mail through another server, and that relay server
will forward the mail to its destination.
ÂÂ If you use a commercial Internet service provider (ISP), it may stipulate that all
outgoing email be relayed through a designated server.
ÂÂ If your organization provides your Internet service, your server may need to use a
relay server to deliver outgoing mail through a firewall. In this case, your organization
will designate a particular server for relaying mail through the firewall.
ÂÂ You need to use a relay server if the DNS service for your ISP or organization can’t
resolve the public IP address of your server (or your AirPort Base Station or other
router) to your server’s DNS name; this is called a reverse lookup.
Important: Use a relay server only if your ISP or organization requires one. Relaying
mail through another server without permission may make your server appear to be a
mail service abuser.
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To relay outgoing mail through another server:
1 In the Mail pane of Server Preferences, select “Relay outgoing mail through ISP.”
If this option is already selected, click the Edit button next to it.
A dialog appears for entering the relay server connection details.
2 Enter the relay server’s DNS name or IP address supplied by your ISP or organization.
3 If your ISP or organization also requires your server to authenticate before sending
mail, select “Enable SMTP relay authentication” and enter the user name and password
from your ISP or organization.
Rejecting Mail from Blacklisted Senders
Your server’s mail service can reject mail from other mail servers that are blacklisted as
open relays by a DNS blacklist (DNSBL) server. Your mail service uses the DNSBL server
zen.spamhaus.org, which is operated by The Spamhaus Project (www.spamhaus.org).
You can specify a different DNSBL server. DNSBL servers are also known as Real-time
Blacklist (RBL) servers or black-hole servers.
Blocking unsolicited mail from blacklisted senders might not be completely accurate.
Sometimes it prevents receiving valid mail from mail servers that are configured
incorrectly.
To specify the DNSBL server you want mail service to use:
mm In the Mail pane of Server Preferences, select “Reject email from blacklisted senders,”
click the Edit button next to this option, and then enter the DNSBL server’s address.
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Scanning for Incoming Junk Mail and Viruses
You can have mail service scan incoming messages for junk mail and viruses.
To have mail service scan for junk mail and viruses:
1 In the Mail pane of Server Preferences, select “Enable junk mail and virus filtering.”
2 Adjust the slider to set how tolerant the filter is of indications that an incoming
message is junk mail.
Aggressive: The junk mail filter tolerates few signs of being junk mail.
Moderate: The junk mail filter tolerates some signs of being junk mail.
Cautious: The junk mail filter marks an incoming message as junk mail only if it
contains many signs of being junk mail.
Mac OS X Server uses SpamAssassin (spamassassin.apache.org) to analyze the text of a
message and score the probability of it being junk mail. Each message is analyzed and
word frequency statistics are saved. Mail messages that contain a higher number of
words found in junk mail receive a higher score for probably being junk mail. Messages
suspected of being junk mail are marked ***JUNK MAIL*** and delivered. The recipient
can decide if a message is really junk mail and deal with it accordingly.
Mac OS X Server uses ClamAV (www.clamav.net) to scan mail messages for viruses.
Messages suspected of containing viruses aren’t delivered but are stored on the server
in the /var/virusmails/ folder, and a notice is sent to the email address designated for
alert messages in the Information pane of Server Preferences. The server automatically
updates virus definitions daily via the Internet, and periodically deletes the mail in the
/var/virusmails/ folder.
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Managing Web Services
Use the Web pane of Server Preferences to turn the Web Server on or off, change the
location of your server’s web homepage, publish custom websites, or turn standard
web services—wikis, web calendars, blogs, and webmail—on or off.
Add or delete custom
websites
Choose a wiki to be the
server’s website, or use the
default website
Make all wikis available,
include web calendars in
wikis, let users create blogs,
and let users access email in
a web browser
About Web Services
Web services can provide wikis, web calendars, blogs, web access to email, and custom
websites.
If web services are on, everyone with a user account on the server gets a convenient
wiki portal, called My Page, for viewing and creating wikis and blogs, using web
calendars, tracking wiki updates, and accessing webmail.
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All users can easily create wikis and control who can view, search, and edit their wiki
content. By using included templates or creating their own, users can add, delete, edit,
and format content naturally—without knowing markup codes or special syntax.
With a few clicks, or by dragging and dropping, they can attach files and images,
publish podcasts, assign keywords, and link to other wiki pages or other websites.
They can also review the wiki’s complete history of changes and revert any page to
a previous version.
Web calendars let people keep track of appointments, meetings, and other events
using any web browser. Users can send and receive invitations to events. When inviting
people to an event, users can see each person’s availability on a timeline. Each user’s
My Page portal includes a personal web calendar, and each wiki can also have a
calendar that everyone who has access to the wiki can use. Users can create multiple
calendars on their personal web calendars and on wiki group calendars that they have
access to. Users with Snow Leopard can also use the iCal application to create, view,
and change events that appear in web calendars.
Blogs give nontechnical users a way to keep their colleagues up-to-date with projects,
files they’re working on, and pictures or podcasts. Users publish their own blogs with
drag-and-drop ease, using a selection of built-in professional templates.
With webmail, users can receive and send mail from a web browser anywhere on the
Internet. They can access all their email as if they were using Mac OS X Mail or another
mail application on their computers.
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Web services also let you publish custom websites that you have created (or someone
has created for you) using website development software. You can restrict access to
each website to a particular group, or restrict parts of the website to particular groups.
You can also specify each website’s IP address, an access port, and the folder where
website files are stored on the server. A custom website is also called a virtual host.
If you want to allow access to web services on the Internet and you have a cable router,
DSL router, or other network router, your router must have port forwarding (port
mapping) configured for web services. If you add custom websites that use access port
numbers other than 80, configure port forwarding for those ports as well. For more
information, see “Protecting a Small Network” on page 35.
If you want to allow access to web services outside your local network and your local
network has a separate firewall device, ask the firewall administrator to open the
firewall for the ports that web services use. If you add custom websites that use access
port numbers other than 80, open the firewall for those ports as well. For a list of ports,
see “Services and Ports” on page 175.
Setting Up Web Services
In Server Preferences, you can use the Web pane to change your server’s web
homepage and to turn standard web services on or off individually.
To configure web services:
1 In the Web pane of Server Preferences, click Web Services.
2 Use the pop-up menu to choose the homepage for your server’s website.
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ÂÂ Choose Server Home Page to use the default Mac OS X Server website or a custom
HTML website you’ve created (or someone has created for you) using website
development software.
ÂÂ Choose a wiki to make it your server’s main website.
If the pop-up menu is dimmed, the Wikis service is off.
If the pop-up menu doesn’t contain wikis, you or someone with a user account on
the server needs to create a wiki.
If you see a “Create the Wiki” button instead of a pop-up menu, the site used for wikis
has been deleted using Server Admin. Click the button to make wikis available.
If you see a Reveal Custom Site button instead of homepage and web services settings,
a custom website has been created using the same DNS name and access port
number as standard web services—wikis, web calendars, blogs, and webmail. Usually
web services use the server’s DNS name (shown in the Information pane of Server
Preferences), and they use port 80. To make standard web services available, click the
button and delete the custom website.
3 Select the services you want to use and deselect the services you don’t want to use.
Wikis: Lets all server users use a web browser to view their My Page wiki portal,
create wikis, and use wikis that they have permission to access. Wiki owners set access
restrictions in the Settings section of their wikis.
Calendar: Adds a calendar to each user’s My Page portal, and allows wiki creators to
include a web calendar in each wiki.
Blogs: Lets all server users create blogs using a web browser.
Webmail: Lets all server users access their mail using a web browser.
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If a service is turned on, clicking the link arrow next to it opens the website for it.
4 If web services are off, click the On/Off switch to turn them on.
If web services are off, wikis, web calendars, blogs, and webmail are unavailable.
Users can visit your server’s homepage at http://myserver.example.com (replacing the
italicized placeholder with your server’s DNS name). There they can click links to see
My Page, wikis, blogs, calendars, and webmail. If your server’s homepage is a private
wiki, visitors must log in using the name and password of a user who has permission
to see the wiki.
Publishing Custom Websites
Besides setting up wikis, you can have your server publish custom websites consisting
of static HTML files. You create a custom website using web development software of
your choice, or have someone do it for you, and copy the website files to your server.
Each custom website is also called a virtual host.
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To publish a custom website:
1 In the Web pane of Server Preferences, click Custom Sites.
2 To add a new website, click the Add (+) button, and then enter the website’s fully
qualified DNS name and optionally choose the folder where the website files are stored
on the server.
Server Preferences creates a website for the DNS name you enter if it isn’t already in
use and your DNS service can resolve it to your server’s IP address.
ÂÂ If you enter a DNS name that’s already being used for standard web services—wikis,
web calendar, blogs, or webmail—you can change the DNS name or specify a
nonstandard access port number. The standard access port for websites is 80.
Before specifying a different port, make sure it doesn’t conflict with another service
provided by your server. For a list of ports Mac OS X Server may use, open Server
Admin (in /Applications/Server/) and use the Help menu to search for “TCP and UDP
port reference.”
ÂÂ If the status indicator to the right of the DNS name is red, Server Preferences can’t
resolve the DNS name to your server’s IP address. To fix this, you can change the DNS
name or click Create anyway and manually set the IP address.
If you don’t choose a folder for the website files, Server Preferences creates one for you
in the default location, /Library/WebServer/Sites/domainname (where domainname is
the DNS name you entered.)
3 Copy the files you want available on the website to the website folder, removing
placeholder files you don’t need.
Make sure your website’s homepage is named index.html or index.php.
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The location of the website folder is shown below the website name in the Custom
Sites pane of the Web pane.
4 Make sure the checkbox next to the website is selected and that web services are on.
If a website’s checkbox is deselected, the website is unavailable.
If web services are off, all custom websites are unavailable.
After adding files and folders to the website folder, you can restrict access to all or part
of a website. For instructions, see “Restricting Access to a Custom Website” on page 144.
Restricting Access to a Custom Website
You can restrict access to each custom website or to folders within the site folder.
You can restrict access to one group that can view the entire website, or restrict access
to individual folders in the website folder. Website folders with restricted access are
called realms.
To control website access:
1 In the Web pane of Server Preferences, click Custom Sites.
2 Select a website in the list, note its folder location, and click the Edit (pencil) button.
3 To designate one group that can access the entire website, choose the group from the
Who Can View This Site pop-up menu.
4 To designate groups that can access folders within the website, choose Customize from
the Who Can View This Site pop-up menu.
You can only control access to folders that exist. You can use the Finder to add folders
to the website folder, whose location you noted in step 2.
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Managing VPN Service
Use the VPN pane to turn VPN remote access service on or off, inspect or change the
VPN secret, set the IP address range for VPN users, or save a VPN configuration file for
Mac OS X users.
About VPN Service
VPN (virtual private network) service lets users connect to your network from home
or other remote locations over the Internet. Users make a secure VPN connection to
access services such as file sharing, address book, mail, iChat, iCal, and web.
To ensure confidentiality, authentication, and communications integrity, VPN service
uses the L2TP protocol with a shared secret.
A secure shared secret is generated automatically when you set up your server.
The shared secret isn’t used to authenticate client computer users for a VPN
connection. Instead, it allows the server to trust client computers that have the
shared secret, and it allows client computers to trust the server that has the secret.
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Both server and client computers must have the shared secret. A computer with
Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard can automatically get the shared secret and be set
up to make connections to the server’s VPN service. See “Setting Up Users’ Macs
Automatically” on page 105.
Other Mac and Windows computers can be configured in different ways to connect to
the VPN service. See “Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection” on page 115 and “Setting
Up a User’s VPN Connection Manually” on page 117.
VPN service and your server’s firewall can both allow access to services from outside
your local network. The difference is that VPN service requires authentication for access,
but allowing access through the firewall doesn’t require authentication. If VPN service
is on, you may not need some services exposed to the Internet through your firewall.
For example, you might set the firewall to expose only your web services to the
Internet so that the public can view your wikis and custom websites (subject to
authentication and access restrictions you impose). Your server’s users can access other
services—file sharing, Address Book, iCal, iChat, and mail—through a VPN connection.
If you want to allow access to VPN service on the Internet and you have a cable router,
DSL router, or other network router:
ÂÂ Your router must have port forwarding (port mapping) configured for VPN service.
For more information, see “Protecting a Small Network” on page 35.
ÂÂ Your router and VPN users’ routers must be configured so that they don’t assign
conflicting IP addresses. For more information, see “Providing VPN Service Through
an Internet Router” on page 150.
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If you want to allow access to VPN service outside your local network and your
local network has a separate firewall device, ask the firewall administrator to open
the firewall for the ports and protocols that VPN service uses. For a list of ports,
see “Services and Ports” on page 175.
Changing the VPN Shared Secret
You can use Server Preferences to change the shared secret that the server and a client
computer use for authentication when making a VPN connection. Periodically changing
the shared secret improves VPN security, but is inconvenient because users must also
change the shared secret on computers they use for VPN connections.
To change the VPN shared secret:
1 In the VPN pane of Server Preferences, click Edit.
2 Select “Show shared secret” so you can read the secret, and then enter a new secret
and click OK.
The shared secret should be at least 8 characters (preferably 12 or more) including
letters, digits, and symbols, but without spaces. Initially, the shared secret is 32 random
characters.
You can use Password Assistant to help you compose a new shared secret. Temporarily
switch to the Users pane, click Account, click Reset Password, click the Key button to
the right of the New Password field, and then click Cancel and return to the VPN pane.
Password Assistant remains open, and you can use it to generate a new shared secret
that you copy from the Suggestion field and paste into the Shared Secret field.
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After you change the secret here, all VPN users must make the same change in their
VPN configurations. For information about making this change, see “Setting Up a User’s
VPN Connection Manually” on page 117.
Creating a VPN Configuration File
You can use Server Preferences to generate a file that Mac users can open to create a
VPN configuration automatically. After creating the VPN configuration, a user can make
a VPN connection to the server and its network via the Internet. The configuration file
works with Mac OS X v10.3 or later.
To generate a VPN configuration file:
1 In the VPN pane of Server Preferences, click Save As, select a location for the VPN
configuration file, and click Save.
2 Distribute the saved configuration file to users who need to set up a VPN configuration
on their Macs.
To set up a Mac, a user simply opens the VPN configuration file you generated. Opening
this file opens either the Network pane of System Preferences or Internet Connect
(depending on the Mac OS X version), and then imports a VPN configuration with all
information necessary to make a VPN connection except the name and password of a
user account on the server. If Internet Connect asks the user where to put the imported
configuration, the user should select VPN (L2TP). The user should not select VPN (PPTP)
or any other option.
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When Network preferences or Internet Connect finishes importing the VPN
configuration, the user must enter an account name and may enter a password,
and whatever the user enters is saved as part of the VPN configuration upon quitting
the application. If the user saves both the name and password as part of the VPN
configuration, anyone using that computer will then be able to log in automatically for
a VPN connection to your server.
For security, you can instruct users to enter their account name but leave the password
blank, and then quit the application (System Preferences or Internet Connect). If users
don’t save a password as part of the VPN configuration on their computers, they will be
asked to log in each time they make a VPN connection to your server.
For information you can give users instructing them how to use the VPN configuration
file, see “Setting Up a Mac User’s VPN Connection” on page 115.
Changing the IP Address Range for VPN
You can use Server Preferences to change the range of addresses you want the server
to reserve for assigning to remote computers when they make a VPN connection to
the server. For example, you might make the range larger to make more IP addresses
available for VPN connections.
Important: These are addresses on the server’s network, and they must not be used by
other computers or devices on the network. This range of addresses must not include
any static IP addresses in use on the network and must not overlap the range of IP
addresses that the DHCP server assigns.
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To change the IP address range for VPN service:
1 In the VPN pane of Server Preferences, change the first IP address in the range, the last
IP address in the range, or both.
The range of addresses needs to be large enough for the maximum number of remote
computers that will have concurrent VPN connections. VPN service assigns an IP
address to a remote computer for the duration of a VPN connection, and reclaims the
address when the remote computer disconnects.
2 If you have an AirPort Base Station or other Internet router (gateway) that provides
DHCP service, you may need to adjust its IP address range so that the DHCP and VPN
address ranges don’t overlap.
To configure an AirPort Base Station, use AirPort Utility (in /Applications/Utilities/). For
information about changing the settings of an Internet router, see its documentation.
The IP address that VPN service assigns to a remote computer for its VPN connection
doesn’t replace the IP address that the remote computer is already using to connect to
the Internet. The remote computer keeps this IP address and any other IP addresses it’s
using, and adds the IP address assigned to it for VPN.
Providing VPN Service Through an Internet Router
If your server provides VPN service through an AirPort Extreme Base Station, a Time
Capsule, or a network router configured to share an Internet connection, and users’
computers need to make VPN connections through their own base stations or home
routers, your server must be on a different IP subnet than the VPN users’ home
computers. To avoid this conflict, make sure your server’s IP address doesn’t begin with
the same three numbers—such as 10.0.1 or 192.168.1—as IP addresses on VPN users’
home networks.
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By asking users to change their network addresses:
mm You can ask VPN users to change the IP addresses on their home networks or other
local networks to not begin with the same three numbers as the IP addresses on your
local network.
For example, if your local IP addresses begin with 192.168.1, ask VPN users to use IP
addresses beginning with 192.168.2 on their home networks. Private networks can use
addresses beginning with 192.168.0 through 192.168.254, 10.0.0 through 10.254.254,
172.16.0 through 172.31.254. In all cases, use subnet mask 255.255.255.0.
By changing your local network addresses:
Instead of asking VPN users to change their home network addresses, you can change
the IP address of all the devices on your server’s local network. This includes your
AirPort Base Station or other router, server, and other computers.
mm Change your local IP addresses so your IP subnet is different from the most common
defaults on base stations and other routers: 10.0.1, 192.168.0, and 192.168.1.
You can simply pick a different number between 2 and 254 for the third number of
your local IP addresses. For example, if your local network IP addresses begin with
192.168.1, change them to begin with 192.168.58 or 192.168.177. If your local IP addresses
begin with 10.0.1, change them to begin with 10.0.29 or 10.0.103. You can also use
172.16.0 through 172.31.255. In all cases, use subnet mask 255.255.255.0.
Be sure to change the IP addresses that your AirPort Base Station, other Internet
router, or DHCP server assigns to computers on your network. You make these changes
on an AirPort Base Station using AirPort Utility (located in /Applications/Utilities/).
For instructions, open AirPort Utility and then use the Help menu. For information
about configuring another kind of Internet router or gateway, see its documentation.
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For information about changing your server’s IP address, see “Changing Your Server’s IP
Address” on page 157.
Customizing Services Using Advanced Applications
It’s easy to customize basic service settings with Server Preferences, but you can also
use Server Admin and the other advanced applications and tools listed in “Advanced
Tools and Applications” on page 27. You can use the advanced applications and tools
to customize many additional service settings. You can also turn on services that aren’t
shown in Server Preferences, such as Podcast Producer and QuickTime Streaming
Server. For information about advanced services, options, and applications, open Server
Admin and then use the Help menu, or see the Mac OS X Server Resources website at
www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
Important: Before using Server Admin or other advanced application to change service
settings that you normally manage with Server Preferences, carefully note the current
settings in the advanced application in case you need to revert to them. For example,
you can save a screen shot of each pane and dialog before changing settings in it.
(For information about taking screen shots, switch to the Finder and then use the
Help menu.)
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Managing Server Information
10
Use Server Preferences to get general information,
manage SSL certificates, check service logs, see graphs
of server activity, set up storage for users’ Time Machine
backups, and change security settings.
The System section of Server Preferences includes the Information, Logs, Graphs,
Time Machine, and Security panes.
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Managing Server Information
Use the Information pane of Server Preferences to get information about your server,
including the hardware and software installed, network names and address, and serial
number. You can also change the server’s computer name and serial number, manage
email alerts, and manage SSL certificates.
You can see and change other network information in the Network pane of System
Preferences on the server. For information about changing Network preferences, open
System Preferences and then use the Help menu.
You can get additional information about the server by using Apple System Profiler
(located in /Applications/Utilities/). For information about using System Profiler, open it
and then use the Help menu.
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Changing the Serial Number or Site License Details
You can use Server Preferences to change the Mac OS X Server software serial number
or site license information.
To change the software serial number or site license information:
1 In the Information pane of Server Preferences, click the Edit button next to the Server
License information.
2 Enter a different serial number or edit the site license details as needed, and then
click Save.
Changing Alert Settings
You can use Server Preferences to change the email address to which the server sends
warning messages about low disk space, software updates, expiring SSL certificates,
and email suspected of having a virus. You can also turn each type of alert on or off.
To change the notification email address:
1 In the Information pane of Server Preferences, click the Edit button on the Alerts line.
2 Enter the desired email address in the Alerts Email field.
If you don’t want any alerts sent, leave the Alerts Email field blank.
3 Select the types of alerts you want the server to send, and then click Save.
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Low disk space: Sends an email when a disk or partition has less than 5 percent free
space available.
Software updates available: Sends an email when new software updates become
available for the server.
Certificate expiration warnings: Sends an email when an SSL certificate is about to
expire.
Virus detected in incoming email: Sends an email when the email virus filter detects
a virus.
Changing Your Server’s Name
You can use Server Preferences to change the server’s computer name. This name
identifies the server to users who are browsing for network file servers or other
network resources identified by computer name rather than by DNS name.
To change your server’s computer name:
mm In the Information pane of Server Preferences, edit the Computer Name field.
Specify a name that’s 63 Roman characters or fewer, including spaces. Avoid using =, :,
or @. (If a user’s computer connects to the server using the SMB file sharing protocol,
Mac OS X Server automatically converts the computer name to a form that’s valid
with SMB.)
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To change the server’s local hostname, use the Sharing pane of System Preferences
on the server. Other computers on the server’s local network (IP subnet) can use
the server’s local hostname to contact the server. If you change your server’s local
hostname, users of other computers might need to change their bookmarks or other
settings to use the server’s new local hostname. For information about using System
Preferences, open it and use the Help menu.
Changing Your Server’s IP Address
The server’s IP address is one of the network connection settings in the Network pane
of System Preferences on the server. For information about changing the IP address in
Network preferences, open System Preferences on the server and use the Help menu.
If your server’s network connection is configured using DHCP, the server should have
a static IP address (the same IP address all the time) assigned by your DHCP server.
To change your server’s IP address in this case, the DHCP server must be reconfigured.
If you have an AirPort Base Station or other router that provides DHCP service, you
change your server’s IP address by reconfiguring the DHCP reservations or static
mapping feature.
Important: After changing the server’s IP address, the DNS server for your network
must be updated so that your server’s DNS name points to the new IP address.
Also, a reverse lookup of the new IP address must point to your server’s DNS name.
If your server provides its own DNS service, you can use Server Admin to update it.
If your DNS service is provided by your ISP or another server on your network, ask your
ISP or the DNS server administrator to update your server’s DNS records.
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Changing your server’s IP address may disrupt the connections of users’ computers
that have Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard. If this happens, users need to remove the
server from their list of directory servers and then add it back. For more information,
see “Setting Up a Mac by Using Accounts Preferences” on page 112.
Using an SSL Certificate
The server can use an SSL certificate to identify itself electronically and communicate
securely with users’ computers and other servers on the local network and the Internet.
The SSL certificate provides additional security for address book, iCal, iChat, mail, and
web services. These services can use the certificate to securely encrypt and decrypt
data they send to and receive from applications on users’ computers.
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To use an SSL certificate:
1 In the Information pane of Server Preferences, click the Edit button to the right of SSL
Certificate.
2 Select “Use SSL certificate” and then choose an available certificate from the top part of
the pop-up menu.
If the pop-up menu doesn’t contain any certificates, you can create a self-signed
certificate. For instructions, search Server Preferences Help for “self-signed certificate.”
If you want to use a previously generated SSL certificate, you can import it.
For instructions, search Server Preferences Help for “importing a certificate.”
You can use the self-signed certificate created for your server when you set it up, or
a self-signed certificate you created, but users’ applications won’t automatically trust
either of these and will display messages asking if the user trusts your certificate.
Using a signed certificate relieves users from the uncertainty and tedium of manually
accepting your certificate in these messages. In addition, a man-in-the-middle spoofing
attack is possible with a self-signed certificate, but not with a signed certificate, and
that means users can trust the services they are accessing. See “Obtaining a Signed
Certificate” on page 159 and “Replacing a Self-Signed Certificate” on page 161.
Obtaining a Signed Certificate
You can use a self-signed certificate to obtain a signed certificate from a known
certificate authority. A self-signed certificate usually isn’t trusted automatically, but
a signed certificate usually is. Services that can use SSL certificates need a trusted
certificate to securely communicate with users’ applications and other servers.
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To obtain a valid signed certificate, you use a self-signed certificate to generate a
certificate signing request (CSR) file, which you send to a certificate authority. If your
request satisfies the authority, it makes a signed certificate and sends it to you.
To obtain a signed certificate:
1 In the Information pane of Server Preferences, click the Edit button to the right of SSL
Certificate.
2 Choose the self-signed certificate you want to use from the pop-up menu.
“Use SSL certificate” must be selected to make the pop-up menu available.
3 Choose Certificate Signing > Generate Certificate Signing Request from the pop-up
menu, click Save, and choose a location to save the certificate signing request (CSR) file.
4 Send the CSR to a certificate authority.
Typically, you need to open the CSR file using TextEdit, copy the entire contents, and
paste into a form on the certificate authority’s website. Contact the certificate authority
you want to use to determine how to send your CSR. For information about certificate
authorities, search the web.
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When you receive your SSL certificate from the certificate authority, you can use it
to replace your self-signed certificate. For instructions, see “Replacing a Self-Signed
Certificate,” next.
Replacing a Self-Signed Certificate
After you receive a signed certificate from a certificate authority, you can use it to
replace your self-signed certificate.
To replace a self-signed certificate:
1 In the Finder, locate the signed certificate file you received from a certificate authority,
and put the file somewhere you’ll be able to see it, such as on the desktop, while using
Server Preferences.
2 In the Information pane of Server Preferences, click the Edit button to the right of SSL
Certificate.
3 Choose the self-signed certificate you want to replace from the pop-up menu.
“Use SSL certificate” must be selected to make the pop-up menu available.
4 Choose Certificate Signing > “Replace With Signed or Renewed Certificate” from the
pop-up menu.
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5 Drag the file containing the signed certificate to the middle of the dialog in Server
Preferences, and then click Replace Certificate.
Managing Users’ Backup Storage
Snow Leopard Server offers the security and convenience of Time Machine backup to
users with Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard or Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard who need backup
storage. Snow Leopard users who haven’t selected a backup disk in the Time Machine
pane of System Preferences will be automatically asked if they want to use the server
as a storage location. Other users will need to open the Time Machine pane of System
Preferences and change the disk used for storing backups.
Choose a disk for users’
Time Machine backups
Go to the Users pane to
control each user’s access
Reveal the Backups shared
folder in the Finder
Use the Time Machine pane of Server Preferences to make server disk space available
for backing up users’ computers or to change the disk used for storing user backups.
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If you change the backup disk, users’ Time Machine preferences that were set to use
the server for backup storage will automatically begin using the Backups folder in its
new location. However, Mac OS X Server doesn’t copy users’ backup data from the old
Backups folder to the new Backups folder. After selecting a different backup disk, you
should advise users that their first backup will take longer because it’s a full backup.
For information about server backup, see “Backing Up and Restoring the Server” on
page 78.
Changing Security Settings
Use the Security pane of Server Preferences to protect your server from users on other
networks or the Internet.
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You can set up a firewall to protect your local network (IP subnet), or you can manage
an AirPort Extreme Base Station (802.11n) or a Time Capsule to protect your local
network. Either way, you can individually specify which services will accept incoming
connections from computers outside your server’s local network (IP subnet). If you use
firewall security (not AirPort management), you can allow incoming connections to all
services from outside your server’s local network.
If the Security pane says you’re using the application firewall, you can manage it in
System Preferences, or you can turn it off there and manage the server’s firewall in
Server Preferences. For more information, see “About Firewall Security,” next.
If your server gets its Internet connection through a network router other than an
AirPort Extreme Base Station or Time Capsule, you can use the router’s configuration
software to protect your server and your local network. If you do that, you can turn off
firewall security in the Security pane. For information about configuring your router,
see “Protecting Your Network with a Router” on page 36.
To control which services are exposed to the Internet:
1 If you have an AirPort Extreme Base Station or a Time Capsule, and you see a “Switch to
AirPort management” button in the Security pane, click the button to use the AirPort
Extreme Base Station or Time Capsule for security control.
If you’re asked to authenticate, enter the base station or Time Capsule password (not
the wireless network password).
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If you’ve changed the NAT options on your AirPort Extreme Base Station or Time
Capsule to use your server as the “default host,” you need to use the server’s firewall
to control security, not the AirPort management. In this case, do not click “Switch to
AirPort management” in the Security pane. By default, an AirPort Extreme Base Station
or Time Capsule has the default host option turned off.
If you see a “Switch to Firewall security” button in the Security pane, don’t click the
button if you’re using the default NAT options on your AirPort Extreme Base Station or
Time Capsule. Click this button only if you’ve changed the “default host” option in the
NAT pane of the AirPort Utility application.
2 In the Security pane of Server Preferences, click the On/Off switch to turn on security
control.
3 To allow a service to accept incoming connections from all networks, including the
Internet, click the Add (+) button and choose the service from the pop-up menu.
If the service you want to add isn’t listed in the pop-up menu, choose Other, and then
enter the service name and port. For a list of service names and ports, open Server
Admin and then use the Help menu to search for “TCP and UDP port reference.”
4 To stop a listed service from accepting incoming connections from all networks
including the Internet, select the service and click the Delete (–) button.
While security control is on, services that aren’t listed in the Security pane can get
incoming connections only from the server’s local network.
If you you’re using AirPort management and make changes in the Security pane, Server
Preferences asks if you want to apply your changes by restarting your base station
or Time Capsule. Restarting will interrupt Internet access and DHCP service for all
computers on your local network for up to a minute.
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If you turn on firewall security and your server gets its Internet connection through
a network router, you should configure your router to send all incoming requests for
services to your server. For instructions, open Server Preferences Help and search for
“making your server the router default host.”
To allow all incoming requests for services with firewall security:
mm In the Security pane, click the On/Off switch to turn off firewall security.
While firewall security is off, your server’s firewall allows incoming connections to all
services. However, if your server gets its Internet connection through a cable router,
DSL router, or other router, you also need to configure it to send incoming service
requests to your server. For information about configuring your router, see “Protecting
Your Network with a Router” on page 36.
If you’re using AirPort management (not firewall security), turning it off blocks
incoming connections to all services.
About Firewall Security
The firewall that you can control in the Security pane of Server Preferences is the
Mac OS X Server firewall. Called an IP firewall, it accepts or denies incoming and
outgoing traffic based on attributes of the traffic, such as its destination port or
originating IP address. For information about the IP firewall, open Server Admin and
then use the Help menu to search for “firewall service overview.”
Your server also has the Mac OS X firewall, which works differently. It’s known as an
application firewall because it accepts or denies an incoming connection based on
the particular application, service, or other software module that’s trying to accept
the connection. This firewall doesn’t control outgoing network traffic. You manage the
application firewall with System Preferences, not Server Preferences.
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If you upgraded your server from Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard, the application
firewall may be active. You need to turn it off in the Security pane of System
Preferences before you can manage the IP firewall with the Security pane of Server
Preferences.
Your server’s firewall and VPN service can both allow access to services from outside
your local network. The difference is that VPN service requires authentication for
access, but access allowed through the firewall doesn’t require authentication. If VPN
service is on, you may not need to expose some services to the Internet through your
firewall. For example, you might set the firewall to expose only your web services to the
Internet so that the public can view your website. Your server’s users can access other
services—file sharing, address book, iCal, iChat, and mail—through a VPN connection.
Checking Server Logs
Use the Logs pane of Server Preferences to view the logs kept by the Mac OS X Server
software components as they provide services. These logs include the messages you
see in alert dialogs, plus messages you won’t see anywhere else about routine actions,
warnings, and errors. If you’ve received an error message in a dialog, a log may show
additional detail about the issue.
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Log messages are rather technical and not very meaningful to the average user,
but they can help support technicians solve problems.
Here are ways you can use the Logs pane:
mm Choose a log from the View pop-up menu.
The log’s filename and its location on the server are shown above the contents of
the log.
mm Show only log entries that contain a word or phrase, by typing it in the Filter field at
the top of the window.
mm Show all entries for the selected log, by deleting the contents of the Filter field or
clicking the X button in the field.
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You can also view Mac OS X Server logs and other logs using the Console application
(located in /Applications/Utilities/) on the server. For example, you can use Console to
view the console.log file, which contains important messages from applications that
are open on the server. For information about using Console, open it and then use the
Help menu.
Monitoring Server Graphs
Use the Graphs pane of Server Preferences to get a picture of server activity over
time. You can find out when the server is likely to be busy, whether it’s operating near
capacity, and when it’s likely to be least used.
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Here are ways you can use the Graphs pane:
mm Choose a type of activity and a time period from the pop-up menus.
Processor Usage: Monitor the workload of the server’s processor or processors
(also called the central processing unit, or CPU).
Network Traffic: Track how much incoming and outgoing data the server transfers
over the network.
Disk Space: See how much space is used and how much is available on each mounted
disk or volume (partition).
File Sharing Traffic: Track how much incoming and outgoing data the file sharing
services transfer over the network.
Web Traffic: Track how much incoming and outgoing data the web services transfer
over the network.
You can also monitor server activity using the Server Status widget on the server or
on another computer on the network. For information, see “Using the Server Status
Widget” on page 75.
If the server has a display, you can use Activity Monitor (located in /Applications/
Utilities/) on the server. Activity Monitor shows the processes and applications that are
currently open on the computer. You can also use Activity Monitor to monitor shortterm processor workload, disk activity, and network activity. For information about
using Activity Monitor, open it and then use the Help menu.
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Learning More
11
More information about using Mac OS X Server is
available from onscreen help and the web.
Using Onscreen Help
You can get task instructions in the onscreen help system while you’re managing
Mac OS X Server. You can view help on a server or an administrator computer. (An
administrator computer is a Mac OS X computer with Mac OS X Server administration
software installed on it. For information, see “Preparing an Administrator Computer” on
page 51.)
To get help with a server administration application:
mm Open Server Preferences, Server Admin, Workgroup Manager, or another application
located in /Applications/Server/ and then:
ÂÂ To get information about options in a pane or dialog with a help button, click the
help button.
ÂÂ To browse and search help topics, choose the application’s help from the Help menu.
For example, choose Help > Server Preferences Help while you’re using Server
Preferences.
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ÂÂ To search for a task you want to perform, use the search field at the top of the Help
menu.
Server Preferences Help contains all the instructions from this book for managing
a server that has its own users and groups or is configured to import users. Server
Preferences Help contains additional topics that focus more narrowly than the book on
specialized tasks.
For more information about server administration applications, open Server Admin
and then use the Help menu to search for “tools and applications,” or see the Mac OS X
Server Resources website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
To see the most current server help topics:
mm Make sure the server or administrator computer is connected to the Internet while
you’re getting help.
Help Viewer automatically retrieves and caches the most current server help topics
from the Internet. When not connected to the Internet, Help Viewer displays cached
help topics.
Getting Documentation Updates
Periodically, Apple posts revised help pages and new editions of manuals. Some revised
help pages may update this manual.
ÂÂ To view new onscreen help topics for a server application, make sure your server or
administrator computer is connected to the Internet and click “Latest help topics” or
“Staying current” in the main help page for the application.
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ÂÂ To download the latest edition of Getting Started in PDF format, go to the Mac OS X
Server Resources website:
www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/
ÂÂ To view an RSS feed listing the latest updates to Getting Started and Mac OS X Server
onscreen help, use an RSS reader application such as Safari or Mail and go to:
feed://helposx.apple.com/rss/snowleopard/serverdocupdates.xml
Getting Additional Information
For more information, consult these resources
Read Me documents (on the Mac OS X Server Install Disc and the Administration Tools disc)
Get important updates and special information.
Mac OS X Server website (www.apple.com/server/macosx/)
Enter the gateway to extensive product and technology information.
Mac OS X Server Support website (www.apple.com/support/macosxserver/)
Access hundreds of articles from Apple’s support organization.
Apple Training and Certification website (www.apple.com/training/)
Hone your server administration skills with instructor-led or self-paced training, and differentiate
yourself with certification.
Apple Discussions website (discussions.apple.com)
Share questions, knowledge, and advice with other administrators.
Apple Mailing Lists website (www.lists.apple.com)
Subscribe to mailing lists so you can communicate with other administrators using email.
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Appendix
Services and Ports
If your server connects to the Internet through a cable router, DSL router, or other
network router, you can configure port forwarding (port mapping) to allow access to
some services from the Internet while protecting other services and other computers
on your network.
Use the following table to determine the port numbers for the services that you want
to expose on the Internet. Configure your router to forward only those ports to your
server’s IP address.
Some Internet routers may ask you to specify TCP or UDP for each port, while other
routers don’t. For specific information about how to configure port forwarding on your
router, see its documentation.
If your local network has a separate firewall device and you want to allow access to
some services outside your local network, ask the firewall administrator to open the
firewall for the communications ports and protocols that your services use. Use the
following table to determine the port numbers you need to have opened on the
firewall.
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Service
Port
TCP or UDP
Address Book Server
8800
TCP
Address Book Server SSL
8843
TCP
iCal Server
8008
TCP
iCal Server SSL
8443
TCP
iChat Server
5222
TCP
iChat Server SSL
5223
TCP
iChat server-to-server
5269
TCP
iChat Server file transfer
7777
TCP
iChat local
5678
UDP
iChat audio/video RTP and
RTCP
16384–16403
UDP
File sharing SMB
139
TCP
File sharing AFP
548
TCP
Mail service SMTP standard
25
TCP
Mail service POP3
110
TCP
Mail service IMAP
143
TCP
Mail service SMTP submission
587
TCP
Mail clients IMAP SSL
993
TCP
Mail clients POP3 SSL
995
TCP
Remote login SSH (secure
shell)
22
TCP
Screen sharing VNC
5900
TCP
Appendix Services and Ports
Service
Port
TCP or UDP
Web service HTTP
80
TCP
Web service HTTPS
443
TCP
Web service custom website
YourPortNumber
TCP
VPN L2TP ISAKMP/IKE
500
UDP
VPN L2TP
1701
UDP
VPN L2TP IKE NAT Traversal
4500
UDP
VPN L2TP ESP (firewall only)
IP protocol 50
n/a
VPN PPTP
1723
TCP
Appendix Services and Ports
177
64-bit computing 8
A
access
folder 128
group 121
LDAP 16
Mobile Access service 17
root permissions 71
user 98, 107
website 144
accounts
administrator 70, 71, 84
importing 83, 91, 93, 101
mobile 20
server 84
See also group accounts, user
accounts
Active Directory 40, 71
Activity Monitor 170
Address Book Server
management of 125
overview 16, 42, 126
port mapping 176
setup 114
Index
Index
addresses. See email addresses,
IP addresses, NAT
administrator
accounts for 70, 71, 84
configuration 71, 84
administrator computer 51
advanced configuration 7, 27,
78, 152
AFP (Apple Filing Protocol)
service 129, 176
AirPort base station 150
AirPort Extreme Base
Station 18, 36, 164
AirPort management 164
alert settings 155
antivirus tools. See virus
screening
Apple Filing Protocol service.
See AFP
Apple Remote Desktop 61
applications 26, 27
See also specific applications
arrays, disk. See RAID
authentication 82, 121, 145,
146, 147
See also passwords
auto setup profile 61, 63
automated configuration 46,
61, 63
B
backup 20, 78, 95, 162
Backups folder 127
blog service 44, 139, 141
browsers, web 115
C
CalDAV (Calendar-Based
Distributed Authoring
and Versioning)
protocol 131
calendars 45, 139, 141
See also iCal service
CardDAV (vCard Distributed
Authoring and
Versioning) 126
Certificate Signing Request.
See CSR
certificates 159, 161
chat service. See iChat service
ClamAV 137
179
client computers
management of 105
setup 105, 108, 110, 111,
112, 113
shared secret 145, 147
See also users
computer name 156
configuration
administrator 71, 84
advanced 7, 27, 78, 152
automated 46, 61, 63
DHCP 35
DNS 31
Internet sharing 35, 37,
64, 66
network information 110, 111,
112, 113
overview 31, 35, 36, 39, 42,
46, 49
server software 63, 65, 69,
167
services 42, 46
users 82, 88, 105, 108, 110,
111, 112, 113
contact info, user 97
CSR (Certificate Signing
Request) 160, 161
D
decryption 159
180
Index
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol)
service 19, 35, 38, 149
directory administrator
account 85
directory server, connecting
to 72
disk arrays. See RAID
disk mirroring. See mirroring,
disk
Disk Utility 49, 50
disks
erasing 49, 50
formatting 49
partitioning 50
target installation 55, 58
DNS (Domain Name System)
service 31, 33, 38,
156, 157
documentation 172, 173
Domain Name System.
See DNS
drives. See disks
Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol. See DHCP
E
email. See mail service
email addresses 19, 155
encryption 159
Ethernet, ports for 37, 64, 66
Extensible Messaging and
Presence Protocol.
See XMPP
F
file sharing
access control 128
management of 127
overview 43
port mapping 176
server addresses 129
firewalls
overview 166
service access 116, 117, 146,
164, 175
See also AirPort
management; routers,
network
folders
accessing 128
shared 120, 127, 128
G
gateways, networking.
See Internet sharing
graphs, server 169
group accounts
creating 120
member settings 122, 123
settings 120
See also groups
groups
access control 121
iChat settings 120
importing 40, 93
management of 39, 40,
41, 119
membership 99, 122, 123
server invitation 102
settings 120
setup 88
shared folder 120
wikis 121
Groups folder 127
H
hard disk. See disks
hardware requirements 30
help, using 171, 172
home folders 83, 109
homepage 142
hostname, local 157
hosts. See servers
I
iCal Server
management of 130, 131
overview 15, 43
port mapping 176
setup 114
iCal Server Utility 130
iChat service
buddy settings 120
management of 132
overview 43
port mapping 176
setup 114
XMPP services 133
IMAP (Internet Message Access
Protocol) 134, 176
importing
groups 40, 93
user accounts 40, 83, 91,
101, 106
installation
local 55, 63
overview 53
physical location 31
preparation for 30, 51
remote 57, 65
security 54
server software 53, 55, 57
system requirements 30
target disk 55, 58
Installer packages 55, 78
instant messaging. See iChat
service
Internet service provider.
See ISP (Internet service
provider)
Internet sharing
overview 22
ports 37, 64, 66
setup 35, 37, 64, 66
intranet websites, shared.
See wikis
invitation
group member 102
imported user 101, 111
join server 110
IP addresses
changing server 157
DHCP 19, 35, 38, 149
Internet sharing 64, 66
static 33, 38, 64, 66
VPN service 149, 150, 151
iPhone 14, 43, 44
ISP (Internet service
provider) 32, 33, 135,
157
J
junk mail screening 134, 137
L
L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling
Protocol) 145
LDAP (Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol)
service 16
local hostname 157
local installation 55, 63
logs 167
M
Mac OS X
Index
181
backup storage 162
client management 113
installation
considerations 55, 57
IP address changes 158
Mac OS X Server
client setup 105, 110, 111,
112, 113
installation 53, 55, 57
introduction 7, 8
overview 8
small business support 18
updating 79
See also servers
mail service
email addresses 19, 155
junk mail screening 134, 137
management of 134
overview 17, 44
port mapping 176
relay server 135
setup 115
user notifications 101
virus screening 134, 137
webmail 139, 141
welcome messages 100,
101, 102
messages. See mail service
mirroring, disk 51
Mobile Access service 17
mobile accounts 20
182
Index
N
name server. See DNS
naming conventions
computer name 156
users 89
NAT (Network Address
Translation) 165
network interfaces 64, 66
network services
DHCP 19, 35, 38, 149
DNS 31, 33, 38, 156, 157
NAT 165
See also IP addresses, VPN
networks
connections for setup 110,
111, 112, 113
security 54, 164, 166
setup 31, 35, 36, 175
notification system 110, 111
O
Open Directory 40, 71, 88
OpenCL (Open Computing
Language) 9
P
partitions, disk 50
passwords
root account 71
shared secret 145, 147
user account 90, 106
permissions
folder 128
root 71
Podcast Capture 11
Podcast Producer 9
POP (Post Office Protocol) 134,
176
port forwarding 36, 175
ports
Internet sharing 37, 64, 66
mapping of 36, 175
VPN 116, 117
preferences. See Server
Preferences
primary administrator
account 85
protocols
AFP 129
CalDAV 131
CardDAV 126
DHCP 19, 35, 38, 149
email 134
L2TP 145
LDAP 16
SMB 129
XMPP 133
Public folder 127
R
RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) 51
relay server, mail 135
remote servers
installation 57, 65
monitoring 75
Server Preferences 77
See also VPN
requirements, system 30
root user 71
routers, network 36, 150, 175
S
Safari 115
secure SHell host. See SSH
Secure Sockets Layer. See SSL
security
administrator account 70,
71, 87
AirPort management 164
authentication 82, 121, 145,
146, 147
firewall 164, 166
installation 54
root permissions 71
shared secret 145, 147
SSL 159, 161
See also access, passwords
self-signed certificates 159, 161
serial number
hardware 59
software 30, 155
Server Admin 152
Server Assistant 50, 51, 57, 63
Server Message Block. See SMB
Server Preferences
access control 98
administrator accounts 84
backup storage 162
graphs 169
importing users 91, 93
invitations 100, 101, 102
logs 167
overview 73, 74
remote servers 77
security settings 163
server information 154
SSL cerificates 159
user management 81, 82, 88,
89, 95, 96, 97
Server Status widget 75
servers
addresses 129
alert settings 155
backup of 20, 78
graphs 169
information on 154
IP address changes 157
logs 167
naming 156
physical location 31
restoring 78
serial number for 30, 59, 155
setup 63, 65, 69
software 53, 55, 57
status monitoring 75
updating 79
See also installation, remote
servers
services
advanced tools 152
setup 42, 46
user access control 98, 107
See also individual services
setup assistant. See Server
Assistant
setup procedures.
See configuration,
installation
share points. See file sharing
shared files. See file sharing
shared secret 145, 147
short name 90
SMB (Server Message Block)
service 129, 176
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol) 134, 176
Snow Leopard Server. See Mac
OS X Server
Software Update service 79
spam. See junk mail screening
SpamAssassin 137
SSH (secure SHell host) 54, 176
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) 159,
161
static IP addresses 33, 38,
64, 66
System Preferences 70, 72, 78,
106, 154, 157, 166
Index
183
system requirements 30
T
Time Capsule. See AirPort
Extreme Base Station
Time Machine 20, 78, 95, 162
U
UCE (unsolicited commercial
email). See junk mail
screening
updating 79
user accounts
adding 89
backups 95, 162
deleting 95
importing 40, 83, 91, 101, 106
local 83
names 89
overview 82
passwords 90, 106
settings 96
setup 106
standard 70
See also administrator, group
accounts, users
users
access control 98, 107
authentication 82, 121, 145,
146, 147
backing up data for 95, 162
blog service 44
184
Index
contact info 97
home folders 83, 109
management of 39, 40, 41,
81, 83
messages to 100, 101, 102,
110, 111
root 71
setup 82, 88, 105, 108, 110,
111, 112, 113
wikis 11, 44, 138, 139, 140
See also user accounts;
groups
Users folder 127
V
virtual host 140, 142, 144
virtual network computing.
See VNC
Virtual Private Network.
See VPN
virus screening 134, 137
VNC (virtual network
computing) 54, 176
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
IP addresses 149, 150
management of 145
port mapping 177
settings 148
shared secret 145, 147
user connection 115, 117
W
web browsers. See browsers
web service
blog service 44, 139, 141
calendar 45, 139, 141
management of 138
overview 44, 138
port mapping 177
webmail 141
wikis 11, 44, 138, 139, 140
See also websites
weblog service. See blog
service
webmail 139, 141
websites
accessing 144
addresses 142
custom 140, 144
overview 45
user content 142
wikis 11, 44, 121, 138, 139, 140
Windows users, planning
for 113
wireless service 20
See also AirPort Extreme
base station
X
XMPP (Extensible Messaging
and Presence
Protocol) 133
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