STM3240G4 LAB

STM3240G4 LAB
STMicroelectronics STM32: Cortex™-M4 Lab
ARM® Keil™ MDK Toolkit featuring Serial Wire Viewer and ETM Trace
For the STM3240G-EVAL board
Introduction:
Version 0.72
Robert Boys
[email protected]
For the ST STM3240G-EVAL Evaluation Board with STM32F407
The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to the STMicroelectronics Cortex™-M4 processor family using the ARM® Keil™
MDK toolkit featuring the IDE μVision®. We will use the Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) and ETM trace on the STM3240GEVAL evaluation board from STMicroelectroncs. At the end of this tutorial, you will be able to confidently work with
STM32 processors and MDK. Keil offers a similar board: MCBSTM32F400™. Examples are provided for both boards.
Keil MDK comes in an evaluation version that limits code and data size to 32 Kbytes. Nearly all Keil examples will compile
within this 32K limit. The addition of a license number will turn it into the full, unrestricted version. Contact Keil sales for a
temporary full version license if you need to evaluate MDK with programs greater than 32K. MDK includes a full version of
Keil RTX™ RTOS. No royalty payments are required. RTX source code is now included with all versions of Keil MDK™.
Why Use Keil MDK ?
MDK provides these features particularly suited for Cortex-M3 and
Cortex-M4 users:
1.
µVision IDE with Integrated Debugger, Flash programmer
and the ARM® Compiler toolchain. MDK is a turn-key
product with included examples.
2. Serial Wire Viewer and ETM trace capability is included.
A full feature Keil RTOS called RTX is included with
MDK with source code.
3. RTX Kernel Awareness window is updated in real-time.
Kernel Awareness exists for Keil RTX, CMX, Quadros
and Micrium. All RTOSs can compile with MDK.
Awareness can be provided by the supplier.
4. Choice of adapters: ULINK2™, ULINK-ME™, ULINKpro™ or Segger J-Link (version 6 or later). ST-Link is
supported but it has no SWV or ETM support at this time. SWV for ST-Link is planned for 4Q11.
5. Keil Technical Support is included for one year and is renewable. This helps you get your project completed faster.
This document details these features:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) with ULINK2, ULINK-ME and ULINKpro. ETM Trace using ULINKpro.
Real-time Read and Write to memory locations for Watch, Memory and RTX Tasks windows. These are nonintrusive to your program. No CPU cycles are stolen. No instrumentation code is added to your source files.
Six Hardware Breakpoints (can be set/unset on-the-fly) and four Watchpoints (also called Access Breaks).
RTX Viewer: a kernel awareness program for the Keil RTX RTOS that updates while the program is running.
Serial Wire Viewer (SWV):
Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) displays PC Samples, Exceptions (including interrupts), data reads and writes, ITM (printf),
CPU counters and a timestamp. This information comes from the ARM CoreSight™ debug module integrated into the
Cortex-M4. SWV is output on the Serial Wire Output (SWO) pin found on the JTAG/SWD adapter connector.
SWV does not steal any CPU cycles and is completely non-intrusive except for ITM Debug printf Viewer. SWV is provided
by the Keil ULINK2, ULINK-ME, ULINKpro and the Segger J-Link. Best results are with a ULINK family adapter. The
STMicroelectronics ST-Link adapter does not support SWV at this time.
Embedded Trace Macrocell (ETM):
ETM adds all the program counter values to the data provided by SWV. This allows advanced debugging features including
timing of areas of code (Execution Profiling), Code Coverage, Performance Analysis and program flow debugging and
analysis. ETM requires a special debugger adapter such as the ULINKpro or Segger J-Trace. This document uses a
ULINKpro for ETM. A ULINK2 or ULINK-ME is used for the Serial Wire Viewer exercises in this lab.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
STM32 Evaluation Board list, 5 Steps, MDK Install, Useful Definitions
3
Part A: Connecting and Configuring to the target board:
1. Connecting ULINK2, ULINK-ME or ULINKpro to the STM3240G board:
4
2. ULINK2 or ULINK-ME and µVision Configuration:
5
3. ULINKpro and µVision Configuration:
4. ST-Link from STMicroelectronics and µVision Configuration:
6
7
5. Segger J-Link and µVision Configuration:
8
Part B: Blinky Example Programs using a ULINK2 or ULINK-ME:
1. Blinky Example Program using the STM32 and ULINK2 or ULINK-ME:
9
2. Hardware Breakpoints:
9
3. Call Stack + Locals Window
10
4. Variables for Watch and Memory Windows:
How to convert Local Variables to view in the Watch or Memory windows:
10
10
5. Watch and Memory Windows and how to use them:
11
6. Configuring the Serial Wire Viewer (SWV):
a. For ULINK2 or ULINK-ME:
12
12
b. For ULINKpro:
13
7. Using the Logic Analyzer (LA) with ULINK2 or ULINK-ME:
14
a. Another use of the Logic Analyzer:
8. Watchpoints: Conditional Breakpoints
15
16
9. RTX_Blinky example program with Keil RTX RTOS:
17
10. RTX Kernel Awareness using Serial Wire Viewer (SWV):
18
11. Logic Analyzer Window: Viewing Variables in real-time in a graphical format:
12. Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) and how to use it: (with ULINK2)
a. Data Reads and Writes:
19
20
20
b. Exceptions and Interrupts:
21
c. PC Samples:
22
13. ITM (Instruction Trace Macrocell) a printf feature:
23
Part C: Using the ULINKpro with ETM Trace
1. Target Selector Box:
24
2. Blinky_Ulp Example
25
3. Code Coverage:
26
4. Performance Analysis:
27
5. Execution Profiling:
28
6. In-the-weeds Example:
29
7. Configuring the ULINKpro ETM Trace:
8. Serial Wire Viewer Summary:
30
31
9. Modifying the processor speed:
32
10. Keil Products and contact information:
33
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
STM32 Evaluation Boards:
Keil makes six STM32 evaluation boards plus several with STR7 and STR9 processors. Examples are provided.
Keil part number
Processor
Characteristics Debug Connectors
ST board equivalent
MCBSTM32™
STM32F103VB
monochrome LCD
JTAG/SWD
STM32F10X-128K-EVAL (color LCD)
MCBSTM32E™ replaced by EXL STM32F103ZE
color LCD
Cortex Debug and ETM
STM3210E-EVAL
MCBSTM32EXL™
STM32F103ZG
color LCD
Cortex Debug and ETM
STM3210E-EVAL
MCBSTM32C™
STM32F107VC
color touch LCD
Cortex Debug and ETM
STM3210C-EVAL
MCBSTM32F200™
Cortex-M4:
MCBSTM32F400™
Keil MDK provides example projects for these STMicroelectronics boards:
CQ-STARM
EK-STM32F
STM32-Discovery
STM32F10X-EVAL
STM32100E-EVAL
Cortex-M4:
STM3240G-EVAL
STM32F4-Discovery (MDK has examples for this board)
STM32L152-EVAL
Five Steps to Get Connected and Configured:
1.
Physically connect a ULINK to the STM3240G or other target board. Power both of these appropriately.
2.
Configure µVision to use a ULINK2, ULINK-ME or ULINKpro to communicate with the JTAG or SWD port.
3.
Configure the Flash programmer inside µVision to program the STM32 internal flash memory.
4.
If desired, configure the Serial Wire Viewer. Add the STM32F4xx_SWO.ini initialization file (see below).
5.
If desired, configure the ETM trace with the ULINKpro. Add the STM32F4xx_TP.ini initialization file (see below).
STM32 processors need a special .ini file that configures the CoreSight Serial Wire Viewer and ETM trace. If you do not
intend to use SWV or ETM you do not need this file. It is entered in the Options for Target window under the Debug tab. It
can be configured for either SWO or 4 bit Trace Port operation. Instructions are provided on Page 30.
Software Installation:
This document was written for Keil MDK 4.22a or later which contains µVision 4. The evaluation copy of MDK is available
free on the Keil website. Do not confuse µVision4 with MDK 4.0. The number “4” is a coincidence.
To obtain a copy of MDK go to www.keil.com/arm and select the Download icon:
You can use the evaluation version of MDK and a ULINK2, ULINK-ME, ULINKpro or J-Link for this lab. You must make
certain adjustments for non-ULINK adapters such as the ST-Link and not all features shown here will be available.
The addition of a license number converts the evaluation into a full, unrestricted copy of MDK.
The ULINKpro adds Cortex-M3 ETM trace support. It also adds faster programming time and better trace display. Most
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3/M4 parts are equipped with ETM. All have SWV.
JTAG and SWD Definitions: It is useful to have an understanding of these terms:
JTAG: JTAG provides access to the CoreSight debugging module located on the STM32 processor. It uses 4 to 5 pins.
SWD: Serial Wire Debug is a two pin alternative to JTAG and has about the same capabilities except no Boundary Scan.
SWD is referenced as SW in the µVision Cortex-M Target Driver Setup. See page 5, middle picture.
SWV: Serial Wire Viewer: A trace capability providing display of reads, writes, exceptions, PC Samples and printf.
SWO: Serial Wire Output: SWV frames usually come out this one pin output. It shares the JTAG signal TDIO.
Trace Port: A 4 bit port that ULINKpro uses to output ETM frames and optionally SWV (rather than the SWO pin).
ETM: Embedded Trace Macrocell: Provides all the program counter values. Only the ULINKpro works with ETM.
Example Programs: See www.keil.com/st for additional information.
Example projects for STMicroelectronics boards are found in C:\Keil\ARM\boards\ST and in C:\Keil\ARM\boards\Keil for
Keil boards. Most example projects are pre-configured to use a ULINK2 or a ULINK-ME. Serial Wire Viewer is not
usually configured: you can do this yourself easily. Projects that contain a Ulp in their name are configured to use a
ULINKpro and SWV and ETM are pre-configured. It is easy to select different debug adapters in µVision.
Most example projects will compile within the 32 K code and data limit of the evaluation version of MDK. An exception is
LCD_Blinky. A compiled executable called Blinky.axf file is provided to allow you to run, evaluate and debug these
programs. If you attempt to compile these projects, the Blinky.axf file will be erased. It is a good idea to back this file up.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
Part A)
1) Connecting ULINK2, ULINK-ME or ULINKpro:
The STM3240G is equipped with the new ARM standard 20 pin HiDensity connector for JTAG/SWD, SWO and ETM access as shown
pointed to by the pen. It is labeled CN13: Trace
The legacy 20 pin JTAG connector is also provided. This provides
JTAG, SWD and SWO access. No ETM is available on this
connector.
A 10 pin connector in the same form factor as the 20 pin Hi-Density
exists but is not provided on the STM3240G. This 10 pin provides
JTAG, SWD and SWO access in a much smaller footprint. This
connector is supported by ULINK2 and ULINK-ME with a special
supplied cable. It is shown in the ULINK-ME photo below indicated
by the red arrow.
The 20 pin connector CN13 provides JTAG, SWD, SWO and adds 4 bit ETM support and connects to the ULINKpro.
Connecting a ULINK2 or ULINK-ME:
Legacy 20 Pin JTAG Connector:
A ULINK2 plugged to the STM3240G board is pictured on the first
page of this document.
The ULINK-ME is pictured here and the arrow points to the 10 pin
Hi-Density connector.
20 Pin Connector: Keil does have a 10 pin to 20 pin adapter cable
available to connect to this connector and is supplied with ULINKME. The first 10 pins on the 20 pin replicate the 10 pin.
The second 10 pins on the 20 pin contain the five ETM signals.
Connecting a ULINKpro:
The ULINKpro connects to a STM32 board with its standard 20 pin Hi—Density connector or the standard JTAG connector
with a supplied adapter.
In order to use ETM trace you must connect the ULINKpro to the 20 pin Hi-density connector as shown below:
If you use the legacy 20 pin connector you can use JTAG, SWD and SWV but not ETM.
Pictured is a ULINKpro with the STM3220F-EVAL from STMicroelectronics (below) and the Keil MCBSTM32C (right).
4
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
2) ULINK2 or ULINK-ME and µVision Configuration:
It is easy to select a USB debugging adapter in µVision. You must configure the connection to both the target and to Flash
programming in two separate windows as described below. They are each selected using the Debug and Utilities tabs.
This document will use a ULINK2 or ULINK-ME as described. You can substitute a ULINKpro with suitable adjustments.
Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) is completely supported by these two adapters. They are essentially the same devices electrically
and any reference to ULINK2 in this document includes the ME. STM32 processors require an .ini file to configure the
SWV or ETM features. The ULINKpro, which is a Cortex-Mx ETM trace adapter, has all the features of a ULINK2 with the
advantages of faster programming time, adds ETM trace support and an enhanced Trace Data window.
Step 1) Select the debug connection to the target:
1.
Assume the ULINK2 is connected to a powered up STM32 target board, µVision is running in Edit mode (as it is
when first started – the alternative to Debug mode) and you have selected a valid project. The ULINK2 is shown
connected to the STM3240G-EVAL board on page 1.
2.
or ALT-F7 and select the Debug tab.
Select Options for Target
In the drop-down menu box select ULINK as shown here:
3.
Select Settings and the next window below opens up. This is the
control panel for the ULINK 2 and ULINK-ME (they are the same).
4.
In Port: select SWJ and SW. Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) will not work with JTAG selected. If you are not going to
use SWV with the SWO port or will use it with the 4 bit trace port selected, you can use JTAG.
5.
In the SW Device area: ARM CoreSight SW-DP MUST be displayed. This confirms you are connected to the
target processor. If there is an error displayed or it is blank this must be fixed before you can continue. Check the
target power supply. Cycle the power to the ULINK and the board.
TIP: To refresh this screen select Port: and change it or click OK once to leave and then click on Settings again.
TIP: You can do regular debugging using JTAG. SWD and JTAG operate at approximately the same speed. Serial Wire
Viewer (SWV) will not operate in JTAG mode.
Step 2) Configure the Keil Flash Programmer:
6.
Click on OK once and select the Utilities tab.
7.
Select the ULINK similar to Step 2 above.
8.
Click Settings to select the programming
algorithm if it is not visible or is the wrong one.
9.
Select STM32F4xx Flash as shown below or the
one for your processor:
10. Click on OK once.
TIP: To program the Flash every time you enter Debug
mode, check Update target before Debugging.
11. Click on OK to return to the µVision main screen.
Select File/Save All.
12. You have successfully connected to the STM32
target processor and configured the µVision Flash
programmer.
TIP: The Trace tab is where you configure the Serial
Wire Viewer (SWV) and ETM trace if you have a
ULINKpro. You will learn to do this later.
TIP: If you select ULINK or ULINKpro, and have the
opposite ULINK physically connected to your PC; the
error message will say “No ULINK device found”. This
message actually means that µVision found the wrong Keil
adapter connected. Merely select the one connected.
5
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
3) ULINKpro and µVision Configuration:
Step 1) Select the debug connection to the target:
1.
Assume the ULINKpro is connected to a powered up STM32 target board, µVision is running in Edit mode (as it is
when first started – the alternative to Debug mode) and you have selected a valid project. The ULINKpro is shown
connected to the STM3240G-EVAL board on page 4.
2.
or ALT-F7 and select the Debug tab. In the drop-down menu box select the ULINK
Select Options for Target
Pro Cortex Debugger as shown here:
3.
Select Settings and Target Driver window below opens up:
4.
In Port: select SWJ and SW. SWV will not work with JTAG selected.
5.
In the SW Device area: ARM CoreSight SW-DP MUST be displayed.
This confirms you are connected to the target processor. If there is an error displayed or is blank this must be fixed
before you can continue. Check the target power supply. Cycle the power to the ULINK and the board.
TIP: To refresh this screen select Port: and change
it or click OK once to leave and then click on
Settings again.
TIP: You can do regular debugging using JTAG.
SWD and JTAG operate at approximately the same
speed. Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) will not operate
in JTAG mode unless the ULINKpro is using the
Trace Port to output the trace frames.
This option is selected in the Trace tab.
Step 2) Configure the Keil Flash Programmer:
1.
Click on OK once and select the Utilities
tab.
2.
Select ULINKpro similar to Step 2 above.
3.
Click Settings to select the programming
algorithm if one is not visible or is the wrong one.
4.
Select STM32F4xx Flash as shown below or the one for your processor:
5.
Click on OK once. Select File/Save All.
TIP: To program the Flash every time you enter Debug mode, check Update target before Debugging.
1.
Click on OK to return to the µVision main screen.
2.
You have successfully connected to the STM32 target processor and selected the µVision Flash programmer.
TIP: If you select ULINK or ULINKpro, and have
the opposite ULINK physically connected; the error
message will say “No ULINK device found”. This
message actually means that µVision found the
wrong Keil adapter connected.
TIP: A ULINKpro will act very similar to a
ULINK2. The trace window (Trace Data) will be
quite different from the ULINK2 Trace Records as it
offers additional features.
Trace Data is linked to the Disassembly and Source
windows. Double-click on a trace frame and it will
be located and highlighted in the two windows.
TIP: µVision windows can be floated anywhere.
You can restore them by setting Window/Reset
Views to default.
6
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
4) ST-Link from STMicroelectronics and µVision Configuration:
The economical ST-LINK can be used with µVision to provide stable JTAG or SWD debugging. It does not provide Serial
Wire Viewer, on-the-fly Watch and Memory updates and write capability, on-the-fly breakpoint setting or Watchpoints.
Step 1) Select the debug connection to the target:
1.
Assume the ST-LINK is connected to a powered up STM32 target board, µVision is running in Edit mode (as it is
when first started – the alternative to Debug mode) and you have selected a valid project.
Important TIP: The STM3240G contains a built-in ST-LINK V2 via the USB port. You can use this device
instead of an external ST-Link.
2.
or ALT-F7 and select the Debug tab. In the drop-down menu box, select the STSelect Options for Target
LINK Debugger as shown here:
3.
Select Settings and Target Driver window below opens up:
4.
In Protocol select either JTAG or SWD. You would only have to
select SWD if your target board only has the two SWD signals and
not the full set of JTAG signals. ST-LINK does not yet support SWV.
Step 2) Configure the Keil Flash Programmer:
5.
Click on OK once and select the Utilities tab.
6.
Select the ST-Link Debugger similar to Step 2 above.
7.
You do not select any Flash algorithm. ST-LINK does this automatically.
3.
Click on OK twice to return to the µVision main screen.
4.
You have successfully connected to the STM32 target processor and selected the STLink as your debugger.
5.
Select File/Save All.
TIP: You do not need to click on the Load icon to program the Flash. Simply enter Debug mode and the Flash will be
automatically programmed.
TIP: You do not need the Initialization ini file since the ST-Link does not yet support either SWV or ETM trace.
ST-Link
Segger J-Link
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
5) Segger J-Link and µVision Configuration:
The J-Link (black box) version 6 or higher provides Serial Wire Viewer capabilities. It provides all debug functions that the
Keil ULINK2 provides. This includes breakpoints, watchpoints, memory read/write and the RTX Viewer. J-Link displays
exceptions and PC Samples but does not provide ITM, data R/W trace frames in MDK 4.22. Segger has the new J-Link Ultra
which is faster. Segger also provides a J-Trace for the Cortex-M3 ETM trace but this has not been tested with MDK for this
document. µVision will do an automatic firmware update on the J-Link if necessary. µVision contains all needed drivers.
The J-Link is challenged by a high output on the SWO pin especially where the Logic Analyzer is concerned. Make sure you
select only that data that you really need. Disable all others and that can include ITM 31 and 0. Lower the rate the variable is
changed or sample it if it is changing too fast. Try disabling the timestamps but some functions need them to operate and the
trace may then stop operating. Sometimes you must stop the program to see trace frames. We are working on these issues.
The J-Link is configured using very similar windows as with the ULINK2. This include SWV configuration. The J-Link
uses an Instruction Trace window similar to the ULINKpro. If you double click on a PC Sample frame, that instruction will
be highlighted in the Disassembly and Source windows. The J-Link does not display any ETM frames. Use the J-Trace.
If you have trouble installing the J-Link USB drivers, go to C:\Keil\ARM\Segger\USBDriver and execute InstallDrivers.exe.
If the green LED on the J-Link blinks quickly, this means the USB drivers are not installed correctly. This LED should
normally be on steady when in Edit mode and off with periodic blinks when in Debug mode.
1.
Assume the J-Link is connected to a powered up STM32 target board, µVision is running in Edit mode (as it is when
first started – the alternative to Debug mode) and you have selected a valid project.
Step 1: Select the debug connection to the target:
or ALT-F7 and select the Debug tab. In the drop-down menu box select the J-LINK
2.
Select Options for Target
or J-Trace as shown here:
3.
Select Settings and Target Driver window below opens up:
4.
In Port: select SW. SWV will not work with JTAG selected.
5.
In the SW Device area: ARM CoreSight SW-DP MUST be
displayed. This confirms you are connected to the target processor. If there is an error displayed or is blank this
must be fixed before you can continue. Check the target power supply. Cycle power to the J-Link and the board.
Step 2: Configure the Keil Flash Programmer:
6.
Click on OK once and select the Utilities tab.
7.
Select the ST-Link Debugger similar to Step 2
above.
8.
Click Settings to select the programming algorithm
if one is not visible or is the wrong one.
9.
Select STM32F4xx Flash as shown in the
directions for the ULINK2 or the algorithm for
your processor.
6.
Click OK twice to return to the main screen.
7.
You have now selected the J-Link as your adapter,
successfully connected to the STM32 target
processor and configured the Flash programmer.
Configure the SWV Trace
This is done the same way as the ULINK2 or ULINK-ME. J-Link has an extra setting in the trace configuration window to
store trace information on your hard drive called Use Cache File. Hover your mouse over this to get an explanation.
It is important with all Serial Wire Viewer configurations to choose as few signals as possible. The single wire SWO pin is
easily overloaded.
TIP: It is easy to miss programming the Flash with your latest .axf executable. Select either the
Verify Code Download in the Target/Debug/Settings as shown here or select Update Target before
Debugging:
or make sure you program the Flash manually by clicking on the Load icon.
8
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
Part B)
1) Blinky Example Programs using a ULINK2 or ULINK-ME:
We will connect a Keil MDK development system using the STM3240G-EVAL and a ULINK2 or ULINK-ME. It is
possible to use the ULINKpro for this example but you must configure it as in 3) ULINKpro and µVision Configuration: on
page 6. This project is pre-configured to use ULINK2.
1.
Connect the ULINK2 as pictured on the first page to the JTAG connector CN14.
2.
Start µVision by clicking on its desktop icon.
3.
Select Project/Open Project. Open the file C:\Keil\ARM\Boards\ST\STM3240G-EVAL\Blinky\Blinky.uvproj. If
this file is not included with your version of MDK, please visit www.keil.com/st.
4.
Make sure “STM32F207 Flash” is selected.
This is where you can create and select different target configurations
such as to execute a program in RAM or Flash. If you want to run in RAM, select STM32F407 RAM.
You then omit the Load step in number 7.
5.
This project is configured by default to use either the ULINK2 or ULINK-ME.
6.
Compile the source files by clicking on the Rebuild icon.
. You can also use the Build icon beside it.
7.
Program the STM32 flash by clicking on the Load icon:
Progress will be indicated in the Output Window.
8.
Select OK if the Evaluation Mode box appears.
Enter Debug mode by clicking on the Debug icon.
Note: You only need to use the Load icon to download to FLASH and not for RAM operation or the simulator.
9.
Click on the RUN icon.
Note: you stop the program with the STOP icon.
The LEDs on the STM32 board will now blink at a rate determined by the setting of RV1.
Rotate the potentiometer RV1. The LCD screen will display the value of Ad_value as shown below.
Now you know how to compile a program, load it into the STM32 processor Flash, run it and stop it.
2) Hardware Breakpoints:
1.
With Blinky running, double-click in the left margin on a darker gray block somewhere appropriate between Lines
162 through179 in the source file Blinky.c as shown below:
2.
A red block is created and soon the program will stop at this point.
3.
The yellow arrow is where the program counter is pointing to in both the disassembly and source windows.
4.
The cyan arrow is a mouse selected pointer and is associated with the yellow band in the disassembly window.
Click on a line in one window and this place will be indicated in the other window.
5.
Note you can set and unset hardware breakpoints while the program is running. ARM CoreSight technology does
this.
6.
The STM32 has 6 hardware breakpoints.
A breakpoint does not execute the
instruction it is set to.
TIP: If you get multiple cyan arrows or can’t
understand the relationship between the C source
and assembly, try lowering the compiler
optimization to Level 0 and rebuilding your
project.
The level is set in
Options for Target
under the
C/C++ tab.
9
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
3) Call Stack + Locals Window:
Local Variables:
Starting with MDK 4.22 the Call Stack and Local windows are incorporated into one integrated window. Whenever the
program is stopped, the Call Stack + Locals window will display call stack contents as well as any local variables belonging
to the active function. If possible, the values of the local variables will be displayed and if not the message <out of scope>
will be displayed.
1.
Shown is the Locals window for the main function with the hardware breakpoint active from the previous page.
2.
The contents of the local variables AD_value and AD_Print are displayed.
3.
With the breakpoint set as in the previous page, as you click on RUN, these locals will update as appropriate.
TIP: This is standard “Stop and Go” debugging.
ARM CoreSight debugging technology is much
better than this. You can display global or static
variables updated in real-time while the program is
running. No additions or changes to your code are
required. This is not possible with local variables.
Call Stack:
The list of called functions is displayed when the program is stopped. This is very useful for debugging when you need to
know which functions have been called and are stored on
the stack.
1.
Remove the hardware breakpoint by doubleclicking on it.
2.
Click on RUN
3.
A window such as this one shows two functions
and their local variables.
4.
Each time you click on RUN and then STOP,
this window will be updated or changed
depending where the program happens to stop.
and then STOP
4) Variables for Watch and Memory Windows:
It would be more useful if we could see the values of variables while the program is still running. Even more valuable would
be the ability to change these values while the program is running. Even more valuable than that would be the ability to do
this without any code stubs in your sources. CoreSight and µVision can do this and more as we shall soon see.
µVision can display global and static variables, structures and peripheral ports as well as physical memory addresses. It
cannot display local variables which are constantly moving in and out of scope as their functions are called.
The locals must first be converted into static or global variables. This is easy to do by moving the variable out of all
functions (including main) to create a global variable or by adding the static keyword in front of the variable declaration. An
static int variable_name;
example is:
1.
This will ensure that variable always exists and is visible to µVision.
2.
If you make this change, you must rebuild your project and Flash the processor again.
TIP: You can edit files in edit or debug mode, but can compile them only in edit mode.
The next page describes how to enter variables in the Watch and Memory windows.
TIP: You will have to re-enter any variables you converted into a window after modifying it because it isn’t the same
variable anymore – it is a static variable or global now instead of a local. Drag ‘n Drop is the fastest way as you will see on
the next page.
TIP: Converting locals to static or global variables usually means the variable is now stored in volatile memory (RAM)
rather than a CPU register. There will be a small time penalty incurred even if on-chip RAM is used..
10
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
5) Watch and Memory Windows and how to use them:
The Watch and memory windows will display updated variable values in real-time. It does this through the ARM CoreSight
debugging technology. It is also possible to “put” or insert values into these memory locations in real-time. It is possible to
“drag and drop” variables or enter physical addresses into windows or enter them manually while the program is running.
Watch window:
1.
Stop the processor if running and exit debug mode.
2. Find the local variable AD_value in Blinky.c. This will be near line 140 at the start of the main function. Separate
it from AD_print and change it to static as such:
unsigned short static AD_value = 0;
unsigned short AD_print = 0;
3.
Rebuild the project. Program the Flash (Load) and re-enter debug mode. Click on RUN.
4.
Open the Watch 1 window by clicking on the Watch 1 tab as shown or select View/Watch Windows/Watch 1.
5.
In Blinky.c, block AD_value, click and hold and drag it into Watch 1.
Release it and it will be displayed updating as shown here:
6.
Rotate the pot RV1 to see AD_value update in real-time.
7.
You can also enter a variable manually by double-clicking and
using copy and paste or typing the variable manually.
TIP: To Drag ‘n Drop into a tab that is not active, pick up the variable and hold it over the tab you want to open; when it
opens, move your mouse into the window and release the variable.
6.
Double click on the value for AD_value in the Watch window. Enter the value 0 and press Enter. 0 will be inserted
into memory in real-time. It will quickly change as the variable is updated often by the program so you probably
will not see this happen. You can also do this in the Memory window with a right-click and select Modify Memory.
Memory window:
1.
Drag ‘n Drop AD_value into the Memory 1 window or enter it manually. Rotate the pot and watch the window.
2.
Note the value of AD_value is displaying its address in Memory 1 as if it is a pointer. This is useful to see what
address a pointer is pointing to but this not what we want to see at this time.
3.
Add an ampersand “&” in front of the variable name and press Enter. Now the physical address is shown
(0x2000_00034).
4.
Right click in the memory window and select Unsigned/Int.
5.
The data contents of AD_value is displayed as shown here:
TIP: You are able to configure the Watch and Memory windows and
change their values while the program is still running in real-time without stealing any CPU cycles.
1.
AD_value is now updated in real-time. This is ARM CoreSight technology working.
2.
Stop the CPU and exit debug mode for the next step.
and
TIP: View/Periodic Window Update must be selected. Otherwise variables update only when the program is stopped.
This is just a small example of the capabilities of Serial Wire Viewer. We will demonstrate more features..
How It Works:
µVision uses ARM CoreSight technology to read or write memory locations without stealing any CPU cycles. This is nearly
always non-intrusive and does not impact the program execution timings. Remember the Cortex-M3and M4 are a Harvard
architecture. This means it has separate instruction and data buses. While the CPU is fetching instructions at full speed,
there is plenty of time for the CoreSight debug module to read or write to memory without stealing any CPU cycles.
This can be slightly intrusive in the unlikely event the CPU and µVision reads or writes to the same memory location at
exactly the same time. Then the CPU will be stalled for one clock cycle. In practice, this cycle stealing never happens.
Remember you are not able to view local variables while the program is running. They are visible only when the program is
stopped in their respective functions. You must change them to a different type of variable to see them update.
11
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
6) Configuring the Serial Wire Viewer (SWV):
Serial Wire Viewer provides program information in real-time.
A) SWV for ULINK2 or ULINK-ME: (ULINKpro instructions are on the next page)
Configure SWV:
1.
µVision must be stopped and in edit mode (not debug mode).
2.
Select Options for Target
3.
In the box Initialization File: enter ..\Blinky_ULp\STM32F4xx_SWO.ini You can use the Browse button:
4.
Click on Settings: beside the name of your adapter (ULINK Cortex Debugger) on the right side of the window.
or ALT-F7 and select the Debug tab.
5.
Select the SWJ box and select SW in the Port: pulldown menu.
6.
In the area SW Device must be displayed: ARM CoreSight SW-DP. SWV will not work with JTAG.
7.
Click on the Trace tab. The window below is displayed.
8.
In Core Clock: enter 168 and select the Trace Enable box.
TIP: See Section 8) on page 32 for instructions on changing
the CPU clock speed.
9.
Select Periodic and leave everything else at default.
Periodic activates PC Samples.
10. Click on OK twice to return to the main µVision
menu. SWV is now configured.
Note: The ini file is set to SWV/SWO operation by default.
You must edit it to use the Trace Port and ETM or select the
file STM32F4xx_TP.ini. You can use the Configuration
Wizard when you select Edit in the Debug tab.
To Display Trace Records:
1.
Enter Debug mode.
2.
Click on the RUN icon.
3.
Open Trace Records window by clicking on the small arrow beside the Trace icon:
4.
The Race Records window will open and display PC Samples as shown below:
5.
When you have completed this page, click on STOP.
.
TIP: If you do not see PC Samples and Exceptions as shown and instead either nothing or frames with strange data, the trace
is not configured correctly. The most probable
cause is the Core Clock: frequency is wrong.
All frames have a timestamp displayed in CPU
cycles and accumulated time.
Double-click this window to clear it.
If you right click inside this window you can see
how to filter various types of frames out.
Unselect PC Samples and you will see only
exception frames displayed.
Did you know Exception 15 and 34 were being
activated ? Now you do. This is a very useful
tools for displaying how many times an
exception is firing and when.
TIP: SWV is easily overloaded as indicated by an “x” in the OVF or Dly column. Select only that information needed to
reduce overloading. There are more useful features of Serial Wire Viewer as we shall soon discover.
12
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
B) SWV for ULINKpro:
Configure SWV: This uses the SWO output pin rather than the 4 bit Trace Port that is normally used with the ULINKpro.
1.
µVision must be stopped and in edit mode (not debug mode) and with a ULINKpro connected to CN13 or CN14.
2.
Select Project/Manage/Components, Environment, Books…
3.
In Project Targets box select the Insert icon
4.
Select ULINKpro on the Select Target drop down box.
5.
Select Options for Target
6.
In the Use: box select ULINK Pro Cortex debugger. In the Utilities tab, select ULINK Pro Cortex debugger.
7.
Select Settings: select Add and then select STM32F4xx Flash and Add. Click on OK once. Select the Debug tab.
8.
In the box Initialization File: enter ..\Blinky_ULp\STM32F4xx_SWO.ini You can use the Browse button:
9.
Click on Settings: beside the name of your adapter (ULINK Pro Cortex Debugger) on the right side.
and enter ULINKpro and press Enter and then OK.
Changes will not affect other targets.
or ALT-F7 and select the Debug tab.
10. Make sure SWJ and SW are selected. This exercise will not work with JTAG selected.
11. Click on the Trace tab. The window below is displayed.
12. Core Clock: ULINKpro uses this for calculating timing values. Enter 168 MHz. Select the Trace Enable box.
13. In the Trace Port select Serial Wire Output – Manchester. Selecting UART/NRZ will cause an error.
14. Unselect Autodetect. Enter 2 into SWO Clock
Prescaler: as shown here.
15. Select Periodic and leave everything else at default.
Selecting Periodic activates PC Samples.
16. Click on OK twice to return to the main µVision
menu. SWV is now configured for the ULINKpro.
17. Rebuild this project and program the Flash with the
Load icon. Select File/Save All.
Display Trace Records:
1.
Enter Debug mode.
2.
Click on the RUN icon.
3.
Open the Trace selection window by clicking on the small arrow beside the Trace icon:
4.
Select Trace Data and the Trace Data window shown below will open.
.
5.
Stop the processor and frames are displayed as shown below:
6.
Select various types of frames with the Display: box to filter out various types of frames. The default is ALL.
TIP: The Trace Data window is different than the Trace Records window provided with the ULINK2. Trace Records display
only SWV frames and Trace Data can display both SWV and ETM instruction frames. Note the disassembled instructions
are displayed and if available, the source code
is also displayed. If you want to see all the
program counter values, use the ETM trace
available with most STM32 processors. A
Ulinkpro using ETM trace will also provide
Code Coverage, Performance Analysis and
Execution Profiling in real time.
Clear and Save Trace Records:
You can clear the Trace Data window by
clicking on the Clear icon.
You can also save the contents by clicking on
the Save icon.
13
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
7) Using the Logic Analyzer (LA) with the ULINK2 or ULINK-ME:
This example will use the ULINK2 with the Blinky example. Please connect a ULINK2 or ULKINK-ME to your STM32
board and configure it for SWV trace. If you want to use a ULINKpro you will have to make appropriate modifications.
µVision has a graphical Logic Analyzer (LA) window. Up to four variables can be displayed in real-time using the Serial
Wire Viewer. The Serial Wire Output pin is easily overloaded with many data reads and/or writes and data can be lost.
This exercise assumes AD_value is still a static variable as modified in Step 2 on page 11.
1.
The project Blinky should still be open and is probably still in Debug mode. Click on STOP. Exit Debug mode.
2.
Make sure STM32F407 Flash is selected.
3.
Create a global variable AD_dbg near line 40 in Blinky.c:
4.
Near line 174 add this line, also in Blinky.c, just after AD_print = AD_value;
5.
Rebuild the source files, program into Flash using the Load icon and enter debug mode.
6.
Select Debug/Debug Settings and select the Trace tab.
7.
Unselect Periodic and EXCTRC. This is to prevent overload on the SWO pin. Click OK twice.
8.
Run the program.
9.
Open View/Analysis Windows and select Logic Analyzer or select the LA window on the toolbar.
unsigned int AD_dbg:
AD_dbg = AD_value;
. Note: You can configure the LA while the program is running or stopped.
10. Locate the variable AD_dbg you declared in Step 3 above in Blinky.c.
11. Block AD_dbg and drag it into the LA window and release it. Or click on Setup in the LA and enter it manually.
12. Click on Setup and set Max: in Display Range to 0xFFF. Click on Close. The LA is completely configured now.
13. Drag and drop AD_dbg into the Watch 1 window. Its value will now track the pot setting.
14. Adjust the Zoom OUT or the All icon in the LA window to provide a suitable scale of about 0.5 second.
15. Rotate the pot to obtain an interesting
waveform as shown here:
TIP: The Logic Analyzer can display static and global
variables, structures and arrays. It can’t see locals: make
them static or global. To see peripheral registers, enter
them into the Logic Analyzer and read or write to them.
1.
Select Debug/Debug Settings and select the
Trace tab.
2.
Select On Data R/W Sample. Click OK twice.
3.
Run the program.
4.
Open the Trace Records window and clear
it by double clicking in it.
5.
The window similar below opens up:
6.
The first line below says:
The instruction at 0x0800_110C caused a
write of data 0x0AC9 to address
0x2000_0030 at the listed time in CPU
Cycles or accumulated Time in seconds.
.
TIP: The PC column is activated when you selected
On Data R/W Sample in Step 2. You can leave this
unselected to save bandwidth on the SWO pin.
TIP: The ULINKpro will give a more sophisticated
Trace Data window.
Watchpoints are described on the next page.
The next page also demonstrates another use of the Logic Analyzer.
14
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
Another Use for the Logic Analyzer:
In Blinky.c, there is a global variable called clock_1s that is imported from IRQ.c. It is activated once a second for use as a
timer. A question might arise: what is the duty cycle of this variable ? You could examine the code to determine this or
instrumentate your code to send it out to a GPIO port to see with a scope…or put the variable in the Logic Analyzer.
1.
Locate the global variable clock_1s in Blinky.c around Line 39.
2.
Enter this into the Logic Analyzer: either manually or by dragging and dropping. You can do this while the
program is running.
3.
Open Setup and either set the Display Range: Max to 0x3 or select Display Type: to Bit. Click on Close.
4.
Adjust the Zoom with IN, Out or All for a suitable display as shown below: You can easily see the duty cycle.
5.
Stop the program. Select the Cursor checkbox.
6.
Click on one of the clock_1s spikes and note a fixed red line is created.
7.
A blue line follows the mouse and times are displayed as shown below.
8.
Select Signal Info.
9.
Hover the cursor for a few seconds
and timing information is displayed
as shown below in the yellow box.
TIP: The data writes to the variables listed
in the LA will be visible in the Trace
Records window.
Optional Exercise:
1.
Create an unsigned int global variable in Blinky.c. An example is unsigned int counter;
2.
In main() add counter++; as shown here near Line 182:
clock_1s = 0;
counter++;
3.
Exit Debug mode, rebuild, program the Flash (Load) and enter debug mode. Click on RUN.
4.
Remove all variables from the Logic Analyzer window. You can use the Kill All icon.
5.
Add counter to the Logic Analyzer window and set Max: to 0xFF. Click on RUN if necessary.
6.
Add counter to the watch Window.
7.
Counter will increment and will display as a ramp in the LA. Modify the value in the Watch window and see this
change in real-time in the Logic Analyzer. You do not need to stop the processor to modify the value of counter.
8.
Remove all variables from the Logic Analyzer window for the next exercise.
15
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
8) Watchpoints: Conditional Breakpoints
The STM32 Cortex-M4 processors have four Watchpoints. Watchpoints can be thought of as conditional breakpoints. The
Logic Analyzer uses watchpoints in its operations. This means in µVision you must have two variables free in the Logic
Analyzer to use Watchpoints.
1.
Using the example from the previous page, stop the program. Stay in Debug mode.
2.
Click on Debug and select Breakpoints or press Ctrl-B.
3.
The SWV Trace does not need to be configured to use Watchpoints. However, we will use it in this exercise.
4.
In the Expression box enter: “AD_dbg == 0x120” without the quotes. Select both the Read and Write Access.
5.
Click on Define and it will be accepted as shown here:
6.
Click on Close.
7.
Double-click in the Trace Records window to clear it.
8.
Enter AD_dbg into the Logic Analyzer window.
9.
Set its Max Display to 0xFFF. Click on Close.
10. Click on RUN.
11. Turn the pot to get AD_dbg to equal 0x120.
12. When AD_dbg equals 0x120, the program will stop. This is
how a Watchpoint works.
13. You will see AD_dbg displayed as 0x120 in the Logic
Analyzer as well as in the Watch window.
TIP: There will probably be a different value displayed in the LCD. This is because difference because of a delay when the
LCD is updated. The trigger point represents the correct value and this will be displayed in the Watch window as well.
14. Note the data write of 0x120 in the Trace Records window shown below in the Data column. The address the data
written to and the PC of the write instruction is displayed as well as the timestamps. This is with a ULINK2 or
ULINK-ME. The ULINKpro will display a different window.
15. There are other types of expressions
you can enter and they are detailed in
the Help button in the Breakpoints
window.
16. To repeat this exercise, click on RUN.
If the program stops immediately,
enter a different value in AD_dbg in
Watch 1 window and try again.
17. When finished, click on STOP and
delete this Watchpoint by selecting
Debug and select Breakpoints and
select Kill All.
18.
Leave Debug mode.
TIP: You cannot set Watchpoints on-the-fly while the program is running like you can with hardware breakpoints.
TIP: To edit a Watchpoint, double-click on it in the Breakpoints window and its information will be dropped down into the
configuration area. Clicking on Define will create another Watchpoint. You should delete the old one by highlighting it and
click on Kill Selected or try the next TIP:
TIP: The checkbox beside the expression in Current Breakpoints as shown above allows you to temporarily unselect or
disable a Watchpoint without deleting it.
16
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
9) RTX_Blinky Example Program with Keil RTX RTOS: A Stepper Motor example
Keil provides RTX, a full feature RTOS. RTX is included for no charge as part of the Keil MDK full tool suite. It can have
up to 255 tasks and no royalty payments are required. Source code is provided with all versions of MDK. This example
explores the RTOS project. Keil will work with any RTOS. A RTOS is just a set of C functions that gets compiled with
your project. A real-time awareness viewer for RTX is provided inside µVision.
1.
Start µVision by clicking on its icon on your desktop if it is not already running.
2.
Select Project/Open Project and open C:\Keil\ARM\Boards\ST\STM3240G-EVAL\RTX_Blinky\Blinky.uvproj.
3.
RTX_Blinky uses the ULINK2 as default: if you are using a ULINKpro, please configure it as described on page 3
and configure the Serial Wire Viewer as on page 13. You only have to do this once for each project – it will be
saved in the project file by selecting File/Save All.
4.
Compile the source files by clicking on the Rebuild icon.
5.
To program the Flash manually, click on the Load icon.
6.
Enter the Debug mode by clicking on the debug icon
7.
The LEDs and LCD will blink indicating the four waveforms of a stepper motor driver.
8.
Click on STOP
. They will compile with no errors or warnings.
. A progress bar will be at the bottom left.
and click on the RUN icon.
.
The Configuration Wizard for RTX:
1.
Click on the RTX_Conf_CM.c source file tab as shown below on the left below. You can open it with File/Open.
2.
Click on Configuration Wizard at the bottom and your view will change to the Configuration Wizard.
3.
Open up the individual directories to show the various configuration items available.
4.
See how easy it is to modify these settings here as opposed to finding and changing entries in the source code.
5.
This is a great feature as it is much easier changing items here than in the source code.
6.
You can create Configuration Wizards in any source file with the scripting language as used in the Text Editor.
7.
This scripting language is shown below in the Text Editor as comments starting such as a </h> or <i>.
8.
The new µVision4 System Viewer windows are created in a similar fashion. Select View/System Viewer or click
on the icon.
The window similar to the on the far right opens.
TIP: If you don’t see any System Viewer entries, either the System Viewer is not available for your processor or you are
using an older example project and it needs to be “refreshed” by the following instructions:
Exit Debug mode. Click on the Target Options icon and select the Device tab. Note which processor is
currently selected. Select a different one, reselect the original processor and click on OK. System Viewer is
now activated. Close this window and select File/Save All.
Text Editor: Source Code
Configuration Wizard
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
System Viewer
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
10) RTX Kernel Awareness using Serial Wire Viewer (SWV):
Users often want to know the number of the current operating task and the status of the other tasks. This information is
usually stored in a structure or memory area by the RTOS. Keil provides a Task Aware window for RTX. Other RTOS
companies also provide awareness plug-ins for µVision.
1.
Run RTX_Blinky again by clicking on the Run icon.
2.
Open Debug/OS Support and select RTX Tasks and System
and the window on the right opens up. You might have to
grab the window and move it into the center of the screen.
These values are updated in real-time using the same read
write technology as used in the Watch and Memory windows.
Important TIP: View/Periodic Window Update must be selected !
3.
Open Debug/OS Support and select Event Viewer. There is
probably no data displayed because SWV is not configured.
RTX Viewer: Configuring Serial Wire Viewer (SWV):
We must activate Serial Wire Viewer to get the Event Viewer working.
1.
Stop the CPU and exit debug mode.
2.
Click on the Target Options icon
3.
Select the Debug tab. In the box Initialization File: enter
.\Blinky_ULp\STM32F4xx_SWO.ini or use the Browse ...
4.
Click the Settings box next to ULINK Cortex Debugger.
5.
In the Debug window as shown here, make sure SWJ is
checked and Port: is set to SW and not JTAG.
6.
Click on the Trace tab to open the Trace window.
7.
Set Core Clock: to 168 MHz and select Trace Enable.
8.
Unselect the Periodic and EXCTRC boxes as shown here:
9.
ITM Stimulus Port 31 must be checked. This is the method
the RTX Viewer gets the kernel awareness information out to
be displayed in the Event Viewer. It is slightly intrusive.
next to the target box.
10. Click on OK twice to return to µVision.
The Serial Wire Viewer is now configured in µVision.
11. Enter Debug mode and click on RUN to start the program.
12. Select “Tasks and System” tab: note the display is updated.
13. Click on the Event Viewer tab.
14. This window displays task events in a graphical format as
shown in the RTX Kernel window below. You probably have
to change the Range to about 1 seconds by clicking on the
ALL and then the + and – icons.
TIP: If Event Viewer doesn’t work, open up the Trace Records and
confirm there are good ITM 31 frames present. Is Core Clock correct ?
Cortex-M3 Alert: µVision will update all RTX information in realtime on a target board due to its read/write capabilities as already
described. The Event Viewer uses ITM and is slightly intrusive.
The data is updated while the program is running. No instrumentation
code needs to be inserted into your source. You will find this feature
very useful ! Remember, RTX with source code is included with all
versions of MDK.
TIP: You can use a ULINK2, ULINK-ME, ULINKpro or Segger J-Link for these RTX Kernel Awareness windows.
18
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
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11) Logic Analyzer Window: View variables real-time in a graphical format:
µVision has a graphical Logic Analyzer window. Up to four variables can be displayed in real-time using the Serial Wire
Viewer in the STM32. RTX_Blinky uses four tasks to create the waveforms. We will graph these four waveforms.
1.
Close the RTX Viewer windows. Stop the program and exit debug mode.
2.
Add 4 global variables unsigned int phasea through unsigned int phased to Blinky.c as shown here:
3.
Add 2 lines to each of the four tasks Task1 through Task4 in Blinky.c as
shown below: phasea=1; and phasea=0; :the first two lines are shown
added at lines 084 and 087 (just after LED_On and LED_Off function
calls). For each of the four tasks, add the corresponding variable
assignment statements phasea, phaseb, phasec and phased.
4.
We do this because in this simple program there are not enough suitable
variables to connect to the Logic Analyzer.
TIP: The Logic Analyzer can display static and global variables, structures and arrays. It can’t see locals: just make them
static. To see peripheral registers merely read or write to them and enter them into the Logic Analyzer.
Program the Flash
.
5.
Rebuild the project.
6.
Enter debug mode
7.
You can run the program at this point.
8.
Open View/Analysis Windows and select Logic Analyzer or
.
select the LA window on the toolbar.
Enter the Variables into the Logic Analyzer:
9.
Click on the Blinky.c tab. Block phasea, click, hold and drag
up to the Logic Analyzer tab (don’t let go yet!)
10. When it opens, bring the mouse down anywhere into the Logic Analyzer window and release.
11. Repeat for phaseb, phasec and phased. These variables will be listed on the left side of the LA window as
shown. Now we have to adjust the scaling.
12. Click on the Setup icon and click on each of the four variables and set Max. in the Display Range: to 0x3.
13. Click on Close to go back to the LA window.
14. Using the All, OUT and In buttons set the range to 1second or so. Move the scrolling bar to the far right if needed.
15. Select Signal Info and Show Cycles. Click to mark a place move the cursor to get timings. Place the cursor on one
of the waveforms and get timing and other information as shown in the inserted box labeled phasec:
TIP: You can also enter these variables into the Watch and Memory windows to display and change them in real-time.
TIP: You can view signals that exist mathematically in a variable and not available for measuring in the outside world.
19
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
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12) Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) and how to use it: (with ULINK2)
a) Data Reads and Writes: (Note: Data Reads but not Writes are disabled in the current version of µVision).
You have configured Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) two pages back in Page 12 under Configuring the Serial Wire Viewer:
Now we will examine some of the features available to you. SWV works with µVision and a ULINK2, ULINK-ME,
ULINKpro or a Segger J-Link V6 or higher. SWV is included with MDK and no other equipment must be purchased.
Everything shown here is done without stealing any CPU cycles and is completely non-intrusive. A user program runs at full
speed and needs no code stubs or instrumentation software added to your programs.
1.
Use RTX_Blinky from the last exercise. Enter Debug mode and run the program if not already running.
2.
Select View/Trace/Records or click on the Trace icon
3.
The Trace Records window will open up as shown here:
4.
The ITM frames are the data from the RTX Kernel
Viewer which uses Port 31 as shown under Num.
To turn this off select Debug/Debug Settings and
click on the Trace tab. Unselect ITM Stim. Port 31.
Or you can right click in the trace records window
and unselect ITM frames to filter them out.
TIP: Port 0 is used for Debug printf Viewer.
5.
Unselect EXCTRC and Periodic.
6.
Select On Data R/W Sample.
7.
Click on OK to return.
8.
Click on the RUN icon.
9.
Double-click anywhere in the Trace records
window to clear it.
and select Records.
10. Only Data Writes will appear now.
TIP: You could have also right clicked on the
Trace Records window to filter the ITM frames out
but this will not reduce any SWO pin overloads.
What is happening here ?
1.
When variables are entered in the Logic Analyzer
(remember phasea through phased ?), the writes will appear in Trace Records.
2.
The Address column shows where the four variables are located.
3.
The Data column displays the data values written to phasea through phased.
4.
PC is the address of the instruction causing
the writes. You activated it by selecting On
Data R/W Sample in the Trace configuration
window.
5.
The Cycles and Time(s) columns are when
these events happened.
TIP: You can have up to four variables in the Logic
Analyzer and subsequently displayed in the Trace
Records window.
TIP: If you select View/Symbol Window you can see
where the addresses of the variables are.
Note: You must have Browser Information selected
in the Options for Target/Output tab to use the
Symbol Browser.
TIP: ULINKpro and the Segger J-Link adapters display the trace frames in a different style trace window.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
b) Exceptions and Interrupts:
The STM32 family using Cortex-M3 or M4 processors has many interrupts and it can be difficult to determine when they are
being activated and when. Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) makes the display of exceptions and interrupts easy.
1.
Open Debug/Debug Settings and select the Trace tab.
2.
Unselect On Data R/W Sample, PC Sample and ITM Ports 31 and 0. (this is to minimize overloading the SWO port)
3.
Select EXCTRC as shown here:
4.
Click OK twice.
5.
The Trace Records should still be open. Double
click on it to clear it.
6.
Click RUN to start the program.
7.
You will see a window similar to the one below
with Exceptions frames displayed.
What Is Happening ?
1.
You can see two exceptions (11 & 15) happening.

Entry: when the exception enters.

Exit: When it exits or returns.

Return: When all the exceptions have returned. This is useful to detect tail-chaining.
2.
Num 11 is SVCall from the RTX calls.
3.
Num 15 is the Systick timer.
4.
In my example you can see one data
write from the Logic Analyzer.
5.
Note everything is timestamped.
6.
The “X” in Ovf is an overflow and some
data was lost. The “X” in Dly means
the timestamps are delayed because too
much information is being fed out the
SWO pin.
TIP: The SWO pin is one pin on the Cortex-M3
family processors that all SWV information is
fed out. The exception is the ULINKpro which
can also send SWV out the 4 bit Trace Port. There are limitations on how much information we can feed out this one pin.
These exceptions are happening at a very fast rate. Overloads are gracefully handled.
1.
Select View/Trace/Exceptions or click on the Trace icon and select Exceptions.
2.
The next window opens up and more information about the exceptions is displayed as shown.
3.
Note the number of times these have happened under Count. This is very useful information in case interrupts come
at rates different from what you
expect.
4.
ExtIRQ are the peripheral
interrupts.
5.
You can clear this trace window
by double-clicking on it.
6.
All this information is displayed
in real-time and without stealing
CPU cycles !
TIP: Num is the exception number:
RESET is 1. External interrupts
(ExtIRQ), which are normally attached to peripherals, start at Num 16.
External IRQ 25. Num 16 = 16 – 16 = ExtIRQ 0.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
For example, Num 41 is also known as 41-16 =
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
c) PC Samples:
Serial Wire Viewer can display a sampling of the program counter. If you need to see all the PC values, use the ETM trace
with a Keil ULINKpro. ETM trace also provides Code Coverage, Execution Profiling and Performance Analysis.
SWV can display at best every 64th instruction but usually every 16,384 is more common. It is best to keep this number as
high as possible to avoid overloading the Serial Wire Output (SWO) pin. This is easily set in the Trace configuration.
1.
Open Debug/Debug Settings and select the Trace tab.
2.
Unselect EXCTRC, On Data R/W Sample and select Periodic in the PC Sampling area.
3.
Click on OK twice to return to the main screen.
4.
Close the Exception Trace window
and leave Trace Records open.
Double-click to clear it.
5.
Click on RUN and this window
opens:
6.
Most of the PC Samples are
0x0800_042E which is a branch to
itself in a loop forever routine.
7.
Stop the program and the
Disassembly window will show
this Branch:
8.
Not all the PCs will be captured.
Still, PC Samples can give you
some idea of where your program is; especially if it
is caught in a tight loop like in this case.
9.
Note: you can get different PC values
depending on the optimization level set
in µVision.
10. Set a breakpoint in one of the tasks in
Blinky.c.
11. Run the program and when the
breakpoint is hit, the program and trace
collection is stopped.
12. Scroll to the bottom of the Trace Records window and you might see the correct PC value displayed. Usually, it will
be a different PC depending on when the sampling took place.
13. Remove the breakpoint for the next step.
TIP: In order to see all the program
Counter values, use ETM trace with the
ULINKpro. Most STM32 processors
have ETM.
ETM is much superior for program flow
debugging than PC Samples.
µVision with a ULINKpro uses ETM to
provide Code Coverage, Execution
Profiling and Performance Analysis.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
13) ITM (Instruction Trace Macrocell) a printf Feature:
Recall that we showed you can display information about the RTOS in real-time using the RTX Viewer. This is done
through ITM Stimulus Port 31. ITM Port 0 is available for a printf type of instrumentation that requires minimal user code.
After the write to the ITM port, zero CPU cycles are required to get the data out of the processor and into µVision for display
in the Debug (printf) Viewer window.
1.
Open the project Blinky.uvproj (not RTX Blinky).
2.
Add this #define to Blinky.c. A good place is near line 34, just after the declaration of char text[40];.
3.
In the function LED_Out in Blinky.c, enter these lines starting at
near line 128:
#define ITM_Port8(n)
(*((volatile unsigned char *)(0xE0000000+4*n)))
while (ITM_Port8(0) == 0);
ITM_Port8(0) = i + 0x30; /*
displays i value: */
while (ITM_Port8(0) == 0);
ITM_Port8(0) = 0x0D;
while (ITM_Port8(0) == 0);
ITM_Port8(0) = 0x0A;
4.
Rebuild the source files, program the Flash memory and enter
debug mode. Select File/Save All.
5.
Open Debug/Debug Settings and select the Trace tab.
6.
Unselect On Data R/W Sample, Periodic and ITM Port 31. (this is to help not overload the SWO port)
7.
Select EXCTRC and ITM Port 0. ITM Stimulus Port “0” enables the Debug (prinftf) Viewer.
8.
Click OK twice.
9.
Click on View/Serial Windows and select Debug (printf) Viewer and click on RUN.
10. In the Debug (printf) Viewer you will see the ASCII value of i appear.
Trace Records
1.
Open the Trace Records if not already open. Double click on it to clear it.
2.
You will see a window such as the one below with ITM and Exception frames. You may have to scroll to see them.
What Is This ?
1.
ITM 0 frames (Num column) are our ASCII characters from num with carriage return (0D) and line feed (0A) as
displayed the Data column.
2.
All these are timestamped in both CPU cycles and time in seconds.
3.
Note the “X” in the Dly column. This means the timestamps might/are not be correct due to SWO pin overload.
ITM Conclusion
The writes to ITM Stimulus Port 0 are intrusive and
are usually one cycle. It takes no CPU cycles to get
the data out the STM32 processor via the Serial
Wire Output pin.
This is much faster than using a UART and none of
your peripherals are used.
TIP: It is important to select as few options in the
Trace configuration as possible to avoid
overloading the SWO pin. Enter only those features
that you really need.
Super TIP: ITM_SendChar is a useful function you can use to send characters. It is found in the header core.CM3.h.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
Part C)
Using the ULINKpro with ETM Trace:
The examples previously shown with the ULINK2 will also work with the ULINKpro. There are two major differences:
1) The window containing the trace frames is now called Trace Data. More complete filtering is available.
2) The SWV (Serial Wire Viewer) data is sent out the SWO pin to the ULINK2 using UART encoding. The
ULINKpro can send SWV data either out the SWO pin using Manchester encoding or out the 4 bit Trace Port. This
is done so the ULINKpro can still support those Cortex-M3 processors that have SWV but not ETM. The trace port
is found on the 20 pin Hi-density connector. It is configured in the Trace configuration window as shown below.
ETM data is always sent out the Trace Port and if ETM is being used, SWV frames must also sent out this port.
ULINKpro offers:
1) Faster Flash programming than the ULINK2.
2) All Serial Wire Viewer features as the ULINK2 does.
3) Adds ETM trace which provides records of all Program Counter values. ULINK2
provides only PC Samples and is not nearly as useful.
4) Code Coverage: were all the assembly isntructions executed ? Untested code can be dangerous.
5) Performance Analysis: where did the processor spent its time ?
6) Execution Profiling: How long instructions, ranges of instructions, functions or C source code took in both time
and CPU cycles as well as number of times these were executed.
1) Target Selector Box:
Beside the Target Options icon
is the Target Selector drop down menu as shown here. The
entries shown select between different settings in the Target Options menus and source files
associations. You can select an entry and then look in the Target Options menus to see what is
selected. This is a handy method to rapidly select different configurations.
To create your own Target Options, select Project/Manage and select Components,…. You can name them anything.
1.
SWO Trace: SWV frames are sent out the SWO pin just as with the ULKINK2. ETM trace is not enabled.
Manchester format is used (ULINKpro does not use UART mode). ULINKpro does not use the Core Clock: setting
in the Trace tab to determine what frequency to sample the SWO pin. It does use this value to determine various
trace timings. The file STM32F4xx_SWO.ini is selected in the Initialization File: box.
2.
TracePort Trace: SWV frames are sent out the 4 bit Trace Port. ETM is not enabled. The file
STM32F4xx_TP.ini is selected in the Initialization File: box.
3.
TracePort Instruction Trace: Both SWV and ETM are enabled and sent out the 4 bit Trace Port. The file
STM32F4xx_TP.ini is selected in the Initialization File: box.
Note: The STM3240G-EVAL board does not reliably output frames out the Trace Port with CPU speeds above
approximately 60 MHz. The Keil MCBSTM32F400 does not have this limitation. The suspect is improper trace
layout on the PCB and probably with the TrcClk signal and not the STM32 processor.
Please see 8) Modifying processor speed for SWO and ETM with STM3240G-EVAL: on page 32.
4.
RAM: Loads the program into RAM instead of Flash when entering Debug mode. You do not select the Load icon.
The memory settings are in the Target tab in the Target Options menu. The file Dbg_RAM.ini is selected in the
Initialization File: box.
When you switch from RAM to Flash and vice versa, you must rebuild and re-flash the project. This is because the
addresses where the executable is located is very different.
24
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
2) Blinky_ULp Example:
The project in C:\Keil\ARM\Boards\ST\STM3240G-EVAL\Blinky_Ulp is preconfigured for the ULINKpro.
1.
Connect the ULINKpro to the STM3240G board using the 20 pin CN13 Trace connector.
2.
Start µVision by clicking on its desktop icon.
3.
Select Project/Open Project. Open C:\Keil\ARM\Boards\ST\STM3240G-EVAL\ Blinky_Ulp\Blinky.uvproj.
4.
Select TracePort Instruction Trace in the Target Options box as shown here:
5.
Compile the source files by clicking on the Rebuild icon.
. You can also use the Build icon beside it.
6.
Program the STM32 flash by clicking on the Load icon:
Progress will be indicated in the Output Window.
7.
Enter Debug mode by clicking on the Debug icon.
8.
DO NOT CLICK ON RUN YET !!!
9.
Open the Data Trace window by clicking on the small arrow beside the Trace Windows icon.
Select OK if the Evaluation Mode box appears.
10. Examine the Instruction Trace window as shown below: This is a complete record of all the program flow since
RESET until µVision halted the program at the start of main() since Run To main is selected in µVision.
11. In this case, 123 200 s shows the last instruction to be executed. (BX r0). In the Register window the PC will
display the value of the next instruction to be executed (0x0800_0192 in my case). Click on Single Step once.
12. The instruction PUSH will display: | 0x080011DA | PUSH (r3,lr) | int main(void) { /* Main Program */ |
13. Scroll to the top of the Instruction Trace window to frame # 1. This is nearly the first instruction executed after
RESET.
Note: The STM3240G-EVAL does not reliably output frames out the Trace Port with CPU speeds above approximately 60
MHz. The Keil MCBSTM32F400 does not have this limitation. The suspect is improper trace layout on the PCB and
probably with the TrcClk signal and not the STM32 processor.
Changing CPU Speed:
Please see 8) Modifying processor speed for SWO and ETM with STM3240G-EVAL: on page 32.
The Blinky project in Blinky_Ulp is configured to run at 60 MHz.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
3) Code Coverage:
14. Click on the RUN icon.
After a second or so stop the program with the STOP icon.
15. Examine the Disassembly and Blinky.c windows. Scroll and notice different color blocks in the left margin:
16. This is Code Coverage provided by ETM trace. This indicates if an instruction has been executed or not.
Colour blocks indicate which assembly instructions have been
executed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Green: this assembly instruction was executed.
Gray: this assembly instruction was not
executed.
Orange: a Branch is always not taken.
Cyan: a Branch is always taken.
Light Gray: there is no assembly instruction at
this point.
RED: Breakpoint is set here.
Next instruction to be executed.
In the window on the right you can easily see examples of each type of
Code Coverage block and if they were executed or not and if branches were taken (or not).
Why was the branch BCC always taken resulting in 0x0800_1048 never being executed ? Or why the branch BGE at
0x800_105C was never taken ? You should devise tests to execute these instructions so you can test them.
Code Coverage tells what assembly instructions were executed. It is important to ensure all assembly code produced by the
compiler is executed and tested. You do not want a bug or an unplanned circumstance to cause a sequence of untested
instructions to be executed. The result could be catastrophic as unexecuted instructions cannot be tested. Some agencies
such as the US FDA require Code Coverage for certification.
Good programming practice requires that these unexecuted instructions be identified and tested.
Code Coverage is captured by the ETM. Code Coverage is also available in the Keil Simulator.
A Code Coverage window is available as shown below. This window is available in View/Analysis/Code Coverage. Note
your display may look different due to different compiler options.
26
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
4) Performance Analysis (PA):
Performance Analysis tells you how much time was spent in each function. The data can be provided by either the SWV PC
Samples or the ETM. If provided by the SWV, the results will be statistical and more accuracy is improved with longer runs.
Small loops could be entirely missed. ETM provides complete Performance Analysis. Keil provides only ETM PA.
Keil provides Performance Analysis with the µVision simulator or with ETM and the ULINKpro. SWV PA is not offered.
The number of total calls made as well as the total time spent in each function is displayed. A graphical display is generated
for a quick reference. If you are optimizing for speed, work first on those functions taking the longest time to execute.
1.
Use the same setup as used with Code Coverage.
2.
Select View/Analysis Windows/Performance Analysis. A window similar to the one below will open up.
3.
This clears the PA window and resets the STM32 and reruns it to
Exit Debug mode and immediately re-enter it.
main() as before. Or select the Reset icon in the PA window to clear it. Run the program for a short time.
4.
Expand some of the module names as shown below.
5.
Note the execution information that has been collected in this initial short run. Both times and number of calls is
displayed.
6.
We can tell that most of the time at this point in the program has been spent in the GLCD routines.
7.
Click on the RUN icon.
8.
Note the display changes in real-time while the program Blinky is running. There is no need to stop the processor to
collect the information. No code stubs are needed in your source files.
9.
Select Functions from the pull down box as shown here and notice the difference.
10. Exit and re-enter Debug mode again and click on RUN. Note the different data set displayed.
11. When you are done, exit Debug mode.
TIP: You can also click on the RESET icon
but the processor will stay at the initial PC and will not run to main(). You
can type g, main in the Command window to accomplish this.
When you click on the RESET icon, the Initialization File .ini will no longer be in effect and this can cause SWV and/or
ETM to stop working. Exiting and re-entering Debug mode executes the .ini script again.
27
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
5) Execution Profiling:
Execution Profiling is used to display how much time a C source line took to execute and how many times it was called.
This information is provided by the ETM trace. It is possible to group source lines (called collapse) to get combined times
and number of calls. This is called Outlining. The µVision simulator also provides Execution Profiling.
1.
Enter Debug mode.
2.
Select Debug/Execution Profiling/Show Time.
3.
In the left margin of the disassembly and C source
windows will display various time values.
4.
Click on RUN.
5.
The times will start to fill up as shown below right:
6.
Click inside the yellow margin of Blinky.c to refresh it.
7.
This is done in real-time and without stealing CPU cycles.
8.
Hover the cursor over a time and ands more information appears as
in the yellow box here:
9.
Recall you can also select Show Calls and this information rather
than the execution times will be displayed in the margin.
Outlining:
1) Block a section of source as similar to this:
2) Right click on the blue block and select Outlining and then Collapse
Section as shown below:
3) Note the section you blocked is now collapsed and the times are added together where the red arrow points.
4) Click on the + to expand it.
5) Stop the program and exit Debug mode.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
6) In-the-Weeds Example:
Some of the hardest problems to solve are those when a crash has occurred and you have no clue what caused this. You only
know that it happened and the stack is corrupted or provides no useful clues. Modern programs tend to be asynchronous with
interrupts and RTOS task switching plus unexpected and spurious events. Having a recording of the program flow is useful
especially when a problem occurs and the consequences are not immediately visible. Another problem is detecting race
conditions and determining how to fix them. ETM trace handles these problems and others easily and is not hard to use.
If a Hard Fault occurs, the CPU will end up at the address specified in the Hard Fault vector located at 0x00 000C. This
address points to the Hard Fault handler. This is usually a branch to itself and this Branch instruction will run forever. The
trace buffer will save millions of the same branch instructions. This is not useful. We need to stop the CPU at this point.
This exception vector is found in the file startup_stm32f4xx.s. If we set a breakpoint by double-clicking on the Hard Fault
handler and run the program: at the next Hard Fault event the CPU will jump to the Hard Fault handler (in this case located at
0x0800 01B0 as shown to the right) and stop.
The CPU and also the trace collection will stop. The trace
buffer will be visible and extremely useful to investigate and
determine the cause of the crash.
1.
Open the Blinky_Ulp example, rebuild, program the
Flash and enter Debug mode. Open the Data Trace
window.
2.
Locate the Hard fault vector near line 207 in the disassembly window or in startup_stm32f4xx.s.
3.
Set a breakpoint at this point. A red block will appear as shown above.
4.
Run the Blinky example for a few seconds and click on STOP.
5.
Click on the Step_Out icon
6.
In the Disassembly window, scroll down until you find a
POP instruction. I found one at 0x0800 1256 as shown
below in the third window:
7.
Right click on the POP instruction (or at the MOV at
0x0800 124E as shown below) and select Set Program
Counter. This will be the next instruction executed.
8.
Click on RUN and immediately the program will stop on the Hard Fault exception branch instruction.
9.
Examine the Data Trace window and you find this POP plus everything else that was previously executed. In the
bottom screen are the 4 MOV instructions plus the offending POP.
to go back to the main() program as shown in the Call Stack + Locals window:
10. Note the Branch at the Hard Fault does not show in the trace window because a hardware breakpoint does execute
the instruction it is set to therefore it is not recorded in the trace buffer.
The frames above the POP are a record of all previous instructions executed and tells you the complete program flow.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
7) Configuring the ULINKpro ETM Trace:
The ULINKpro was configured for SWV operation using the SWO pin and Manchester encoding on page 11. The project
Blinky_Ulp is pre-configured for ETM trace. We will activate ETM trace here manually to illustrate how it is done.
1) Select the STM3240G-EVAL Blinky project.
2) Configure ULINKpro for the STM32 processor as described on page 6: ULINKpro and µVision Configuration:
Do not forget to configure the Flash programmer as well.
3) µVision must be stopped and in edit mode (not debug mode).
4) Select Options for Target
or ALT-F7 and select the Debug tab.
5) In the box Initialization File: insert STM32F4xx_TP.ini. Click on the Edit box.
open.
The specified ini file will
6) Click OK. At the bottom of the ini file, click on the Configuration Wizard tab.
7) Expand the menu and select Synchronous: Trace
Data Size 4 as shown here:
TIP: Asynchronous is used to select the SWO port and is
needed for the ULINK2 or ULINK-ME.
8) Click on File/Save All to enable this file. It will
be executed when you enter Debug mode.
or ALT-F7 and
9) Select Options for Target
select the Debug tab (again).
10) Click on Settings: beside the name of your
adapter (ULINK Pro Cortex Debugger) on the
right side of the window.
11) Click on the Trace tab. The window below is
displayed.
12) Core Clock: Enter 168 MHz. ULINKpro uses this
value only to calculate various timing values.
13) In Trace Port select Sync Trace Port with 4 bit data. It is possible to use other bit sizes but best to use the largest.
14) Select Trace Enable and ETM Trace Enable. Unselect Periodic and leave everything else at default as shown below.
15) Click on OK twice to return to the main µVision menu. Both ETM and SWV are now configured.
16) Select File/Save All.
The ETM is now configured.
Note: The STM3240G-EVAL board has
challenges sending data to the Trace Port
connector. At 168 MHz, trace collection is
unreliable. Slow the CPU down to 60 MHz.
See the instructions on page 32.
TIP: We said that you must use SWD (also
called SW) in order to use the Serial Wire
Viewer. With the ULINKpro and with the
Trace Port selected, you can also select the
JTAG port as well as the SWD port since no
conflict between SWO and TDIO signals will
no longer occur.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
8) Serial Wire Viewer Summary:
Serial Wire Viewer can see:

Global variables.

Static variables.

Structures.

Peripheral registers – just read or write to them.

Can’t see local variables. (just make them global or static).

Can’t see DMA transfers – DMA bypasses CPU and SWV by definition.
Serial Wire Viewer displays in various ways:

PC Samples.

Data reads and writes.

Exception and interrupt events.

CPU counters.

Timestamps for these.
Trace is good for:

Trace adds significant power to debugging efforts. Tells where the program has been.

A recorded history of the program execution in the order it happened.

Trace can often find nasty problems very quickly.

Weeks or months can be replaced by minutes.

Especially where the bug occurs a long time before consequences are seen.

Or where the state of the system disappears with a change in scope(s).

Plus - don’t have to stop the program. Crucial to some.
These are the types of problems that can be found with a quality trace:

Pointer problems.

Illegal instructions and data aborts (such as misaligned writes).

Code overwrites – writes to Flash, unexpected writes to peripheral registers (SFRs), corrupted stack.
How did I get here ?

Out of bounds data. Uninitialized variables and arrays.

Stack overflows. What causes the stack to grow bigger than it should ?

Runaway programs: your program has gone off into the weeds and you need to know what instruction caused this.
Is very tough to find these problems without a trace especially oif the stack is corrupted.

ETM trace with the ULINKpro is best for solving program flow problems.

Communication protocol and timing issues. System timing problems.
For complete information on CoreSight for the Cortex-M3: Search for DDI0314F_coresight_component_trm.pdf on
www.arm.com.
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STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
9) Modifying the processor speed for SWO and ETM with STM3240G-EVAL:
The STM3240G-EVAL has an issue with high speed SWV and ETM trace when using the ULINKpro. The Keil
MCBSTM32F400 does not have this limitation. The ULINK2 and ULINK-ME are not affected as they cause the SWV to be
output the SWO pin at relatively slow data rats.
This might be a board layout issue: it is important that the ETM signal traces, especially the ETM clock, be as short in length
as possible. Recall the ULINKpro can access SWV information out either the one pin SWO port using the Manchester
protocol or the 4 bit Trace Port.
Using the SWO pin using the Manchester protocol:
or ALT-F7 and select the Debug tab.
1) Select Options for Target
2) In the drop-down menu box select the ULINK Pro Cortex Debugger.
3) Select the file STM32F4xx_SWO.ini.
4) Select Settings and the Target Driver window below opens up:
5) In the Trace setup window shown
here: Select Serial Wire Output –
Manchester.
6) Uncheck Autodetect.
7) Set SWO Clock Prescaler to 2.
8) The signal from the SWO pin will be
reduced to 84 MHz. Click OK twice.
9) SWO will now function properly.
Using 4 bit Trace Port:
The CPU clock must be slowed to 60 MHz.
In the file system_stm32f4xx.c there are three
variables to change to modify the clock speed.
PLL_M, PLL_N and PLL_P. Shown are the
values for 60, 120 and 168 MHz. PLL_Q is shown for reference.
60
120
168 MHz
PLL_M
25
25
25
PLL_N
240
240
336
PLL_P
4
2
2
PLL_Q
5
5
7
1) Modify the values in system_stm32f4xx.c for 60 MHz, rebuild to source files and program the Flash.
2) The file STM32F4xx_TP.ini must be entered in the ini box in the Debug tab.
3) Re-enter debug mode and the ETM trace will now work.
ETM with this board works reliably at 60 MHz. With the Keil MCBSTM32F4 it works reliably to 168 MHz. On your own
custom board, place the ETM connector as close to the CPU as practical. Practice appropriate high speed PCB design. The
ETM TraceCLK is the most important and most easily corrupted signal.
32
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
10) Keil Products:
Keil Microcontroller Development Kit (MDK-ARM™)

MDK-Professional (Includes Flash File, TCP/IP, CAN and USB driver libraries) Promotion with ULINKpro until
December 31, 2011 - $9,995 Please contact Keil Sales for more details.

MDK-Standard (no compile or debug limit) - $4,895

MDK-Basic (256K Compiler Limit, No debug Limit) - $2,695

MDK-Lite (Evaluation version) $0
All versions include Keil RTX RTOS with source code !
Call Keil Sales for more details on current pricing. All products are available.
Call Keil Sales for special university pricing.
For the ARM University program: go to www.arm.com and search for university.
All products include Technical Support for 1 year. This can be renewed.
USB-JTAG adapter (for Flash programming too)

ULINK2 - $395 (ULINK2 and ME - SWV only – no ETM)

ULINK-ME – sold only with a board by Keil or OEM.

ULINKpro - $1,395 – Cortex-Mx SWV & ETM trace
Note: USA prices. Contact [email protected] for pricing in other
countries.
Prices are for reference only and are subject to change without notice.
For the entire Keil catalog see www.keil.com or contact Keil or your local
distributor.
For more information:
Keil Sales In USA: [email protected] or 800-348-8051. Outside the US: [email protected]
Keil Technical Support in USA: [email protected] or 800-348-8051. Outside the US: [email protected]
For comments or corrections please email [email protected]
For the latest version of this document, contact the author, Keil Technical support or www.keil.com/st
33
STMicroelectronics Cortex-M3 Lab with STM3240G-EVAL board
Copyright © 2011 ARM Ltd. All rights reserved
www.keil.com
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