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ZyXEL Communications ZyWALL 70 System information
ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
ZyWALL 1050
Internet Security Appliance
Support Notes
Revision 2.01
August. 2006
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All contents copyright (c) 2006 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
INDEX
1. Deploying VPN .......................................................................................................................... 7
1.1 Extended Intranets............................................................................................................ 9
1.1.1 Site to Site VPN solutions..................................................................................... 9
1.2 Extranet Deployment ..................................................................................................... 14
1.2.1 Site to site VPN solutions (ZyWALL1050 to ZyWALL70)................................ 15
1.2.2 Interoperability – VPN with other vendors ...................................................... 21
1.2.2.1 ZyWALL with FortiGate VPN Tunneling............................................. 21
1.2.2.2 ZyWALL with NetScreen VPN Tunneling ........................................... 27
1.2.2.3 ZyWALL with SonicWall VPN Tunneling............................................ 36
1.3 Remote Access VPN ...................................................................................................... 45
1.3.1 Remote Access VPN ........................................................................................ 45
1.4 Large-scale VPN Deployment ....................................................................................... 54
1.4.1 Fully Meshed Topology ................................................................................... 54
1.4.2 Star Topology ................................................................................................... 55
1.4.3 Star-Mesh Mixed Topology.............................................................................. 64
1.5 Access via Central Site................................................................................................... 81
1.5.1 VPN Tunnel to Central Site (ZyWALL 70 to ZyWALL 1050)........................ 81
1.6 Multiple Entry Point (MEP)........................................................................................... 93
1.6.1 Deploying MEP................................................................................................ 93
1.7 Device High Availability ............................................................................................. 132
1.7.1 Device HA...................................................................................................... 133
1.7.2 VPN HA ......................................................................................................... 151
1.8 VoIP over VPN ............................................................................................................ 159
2. Security Policy Enforcement.................................................................................................. 170
2.1 Managing IM/P2P Applications ................................................................................... 170
2.1.1 Why bother with managing IM/P2P applications?......................................... 170
2.1.2 What does ZyWALL 1050 provide for managing IM/P2P applications? ...... 171
2.1.3 Configuration Example .................................................................................. 172
2.2 Managing WLAN......................................................................................................... 182
2.2.1 Why the wireless networks need to be managed?.......................................... 182
2.2.2 What can we do against the wireless insecurity? ........................................... 182
2.3 Employee Internet Management (EIM) ....................................................................... 194
2.3.1 Benefits of deploying Employee Internet Management................................. 194
2.3.2 EIM on ZyWALL 1050 .................................................................................. 194
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
3. Seamless Incorporation .......................................................................................................... 204
3.1 Transparent Firewall..................................................................................................... 204
3.1.1 Bridge mode & Router (NAT) mode co-exist ................................................ 204
3.1.2 NAT & Virtual Server .................................................................................... 209
3.2 Zone-based IDP Protection .......................................................................................... 213
3.2.1 Applying Zone-Based IDP to ZyWALL 1050................................................... 213
3.3 Networking Partitioning Using VLAN ........................................................................ 223
3.3.1 Creating VLAN virtual interfaces ..................................................................... 223
3.3.2 Adding VLAN virtual interfaces to the Zone.................................................... 226
3.3.3 Applying firewall policy to the Zone of VLANs .............................................. 229
3.4 Connecting Multiple ISP Links.................................................................................... 233
3.4.1 Multiple PPPoE links ........................................................................................ 233
3.4.2 Multiple fixed WAN links ................................................................................. 243
3.5 Guaranteed Quality of Service ..................................................................................... 261
3.5.1 Priority & Bandwidth management .................................................................. 261
FAQ ............................................................................................................................................ 269
A. Device Management FAQ ............................................................................................. 269
A01. How can I connect to ZyWALL 1050 to perform administrator’s tasks? ......... 269
A02. Why can’t I login into ZyWALL 1050? ............................................................ 269
A03. What’s difference between “Admin Service Control” and “User Service
Control” configuration in GUI menu Configuration > System > WWW? ................ 270
A04. Why ZyWALL 1050 redirects me to the login page when I am performing the
management tasks in GUI? ........................................................................................ 270
A05. Why do I lose my configuration setting after ZyWALL 1050 restarts? ............ 271
A06. How can I do if the system is keeping at booting up stage for a long time?..... 271
B. Registration FAQ........................................................................................................... 273
B01. Why do I need to do the Device Registration?.................................................. 273
B02. Why do I need to activate services? .................................................................. 273
B03. Why can’t I active trial service? ........................................................................ 273
B04. Does the device registration information reset after I reset ZyWALL 1050 to
system default?........................................................................................................... 273
C. File Manager FAQ ......................................................................................................... 274
C01. How can ZyWALL 1050 manage multiple configuration files? ....................... 274
C02. What are the configuration files like startup-config.conf, system-default.conf
and lastgood.conf?...................................................................................................... 274
C03. Why can’t I update firmware? ........................................................................... 274
C04. What is the Shell Scripts for in GUI menu File manager > Shell Scripts?........ 275
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
C05. How to write a shell script? ............................................................................... 275
C06. Why can’t I run shell script successfully? ......................................................... 275
D. Object FAQ.................................................................................................................... 276
D01. Why does ZyWALL 1050 use objects? ............................................................. 276
D02. What’s the difference between Trunk and the Zone Object? ............................ 276
D03. What is the difference between the default LDAP and the group LDAP? What
is the difference between the default RADIUS and the group RADIUS? ................. 276
E. Interface FAQ ................................................................................................................ 277
E01. How to setup the WAN interface with PPPoE or PPTP?................................... 277
E02. How to add a virtual interface (IP alias)? .......................................................... 277
E03. Why can’t I get IP address via DHCP relay?..................................................... 277
E04. Why can’t I get DNS options from ZyWALL’s DHCP server? ......................... 277
E05. Why does the PPP interface dials successfully even its base interface goes
down? ......................................................................................................................... 278
E06. What is the port grouping used for in ZyWALL 1050? ..................................... 278
F. Routing and NAT FAQ................................................................................................... 279
F01. How to add a policy route? ................................................................................ 279
F02. How to configure a NAT? .................................................................................. 279
F03. After I installed a HTTP proxy server and set a http redirect rule, I still can’t
access web. Why? ...................................................................................................... 279
F03. How to limit some application (for example, FTP) bandwidth usage? ............. 280
F04. What’s the routing order of policy route, dynamic route, static route and direct
connect subnet table? ................................................................................................. 280
F05. Why can’t ZyWALL 1050 ping to the Internet host, but PC from LAN side can
browse internet WWW? ............................................................................................. 280
F06. Why can’t I ping to the, Internet, after I shutdown the primary WAN interface?281
F07. Why don't the virtual server or port trigger work? ............................................ 281
F08. Why don't the port trigger work? ....................................................................... 281
F09. How do I use the traffic redirect feature in ZyWALL 1050? ............................. 281
F10. Why can’t ZyWALL learn the route from RIP and/or OSPF? ........................... 282
G. VPN and Certificate....................................................................................................... 283
G01. Why can't the VPN connections dial to a remote gateway?.............................. 283
G02. VPN connections are dialed successfully, but the traffic still cannot go through
the IPsec tunnel. ......................................................................................................... 283
G03. VPN connections are dialed successfully, and the policy route is set. But the
traffic is lost or there is no response from remote site. .............................................. 284
G05. Why don’t the Inbound/Outbound traffic NAT in VPN work? ......................... 285
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
H. Firewall FAQ................................................................................................................. 286
H01. Why doesn’t my LAN to WAN or WAN to LAN rule work? ........................... 286
H02. Why does the intra-zone blocking malfunction after I disable the firewall? .... 286
H03. Can I have access control rules to the device in firewall? ................................ 286
I. Application Patrol FAQ................................................................................................... 287
I01. What is Application Patrol? ................................................................................ 287
I02. What applications can the Application Patrol function inspect? ........................ 287
I03. Why does the application patrol fail to drop/reject invalid access for some
applications?............................................................................................................... 287
I04. What is the difference for Portless and Port-based settings in the Application
Patrol configuration page? ......................................................................................... 287
J. lDP FAQ ......................................................................................................................... 290
J01. Why doesn’t the IDP work? Why has the signature updating failed? ................ 290
J02. When I use a web browser to configure the IDP, sometimes it will popup
"wait data timeout"..................................................................................................... 290
J03. When I want to configure the packet inspection (signatures), the GUI becomes
very slow. ................................................................................................................... 290
J04. After I select "Auto Update" for IDP, when will it update the signatures? ........ 290
J05. If I want to use IDP service, will it is enough if I just complete the registration
and turn on IDP? ........................................................................................................ 291
K. Content Filtering FAQ................................................................................................... 292
K01. Why can’t I enable external web filtering service? Why does the external web
filtering service seem not to be working? .................................................................. 292
K02. Why can’t I use MSN after I enabled content filter and allowed trusted
websites only? ............................................................................................................ 292
L. Device HA FAQ............................................................................................................. 293
L01. What does the “Preempt” mean? ....................................................................... 293
L02. What is the password in Synchronization? ........................................................ 293
M. User Management FAQ ................................................................................................ 294
M01. What is the difference between user and guest account?.................................. 294
M02. What is the “re-authentication time” and “lease time”? ................................... 294
M03. Why can’t I sign in to the device? .................................................................... 294
M04. Why is the TELNET/SSH/FTP session to the device disconnected? Why is the
GUI redirected to login page after I click a button/link? ........................................... 294
M05. What is AAA?................................................................................................... 295
M05. What are ldap-users and radius-users used for? ............................................... 295
M06. What privileges will be given for ldap-users and radius-users? ....................... 295
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
N. Centralized Log FAQ .................................................................................................... 297
N01. Why can’t I enable e-mail server in system log settings? ................................. 297
N02. After I have all the required field filled. Why can’t I receive the log mail? ..... 297
O. Traffic Statistics FAQ .................................................................................................... 298
O01. When I use "Flush Data" in Report, not all the statistic data are cleared.......... 298
O02. Why isn't the statistic data of "Report" exact? .................................................. 298
O03. Does Report collect the traffic from/to ZyWALL itself? .................................. 298
O04. Why cannot I see the connections from/to ZyWALL itself?............................. 298
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
1. Deploying VPN
VPN (Virtual Private Network) allows you to establish a virtual direct connection to remote
locations or for the telecommuters to access the internal network in the office. VPN is a
replacement for the traditional site-to-site lease lines like T1 or ISDN. Through the VPN
applications, it reduces setup cost, works for various types of Internet connection devices
(ISDN modem, ADSL modem and FTTX…) and is easy to troubleshoot.
VPN gives you site-to-site connection flexibility. However, with multiple VPN connections
between sites, it can become more difficult to maintain. Typically, an administrator has to
configure many site-to-site VPN connections to allow a truly global VPN network.
VPN connection management is made easily using the VPN concentrator. The VPN
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
traffic across multiple remote sites without complex setting, thus reduces the configuration
overhead and the possibility of improper configuration. The VPN concentrator is also a
centralized management tool for administrators because all the traffic sent between remote
sites has to go through the central office first and administrators can set up different access
control rules. These are based on the source address, remote address, user and schedule to
enhance VPN security. To help to reduce network intrusion attacks, administrators can
configure the built-in IDP engine to inspect VPN traffic. For easy troubleshooting and
monitoring, the VPN concentrator logs and stores system information and network status for
further easy troubleshooting and analysis.
The VPN concentrator enhances the VPN routing ability and helps network administrators
in setting up a global VPN network with less effort but stronger security and management
possibilities.
For SMB customer, ZyXEL provides a total VPN solution from a personal client to a 500+
people firewall where all of these devices have the VPN connection ability.
ƒ
The benefit from deployment of ZyXEL VPN solutions
‧
‧
‧
‧
Security and Reliability
Improved communications
Increased flexibility
Lower cost
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
1.1 Extended Intranets
The ZyXEL VPN solutions primarily can be used to extend the intranet and deliver
increased connectivity between operation sites. The branch office subnet will be considered a
part of main office internet. Therefore, user behind branch office also can use the internal
network resources as if he was in the main office. Because of the VPN connection, user will
feel like he is using a local LAN even though he is accessing the network resources via
Internet. Use of a VPN for smaller branch offices, franchise sites and remote workers provides
nearly the same level of connectivity and reliability as a private network. The remote
connection cost also can decrease by leveraging the Internet connections to replace expensive
leased lines.
1.1.1 Site to Site VPN solutions
Site to Site VPN is the basic VPN solution between local and remote gateway. This type of
VPN connection is used to extend and join local networks of both sites into a single intranet.
There are two kinds of connection interface, static IP and dynamic DNS.
Configure ZyWALL 1050 with Static IP address:
ZyWALL 1050 uses the static IP address for VPN connection. The topology is shown at the
following figure.
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
User needs to configure the static IP address and then apply to the VPN Gateway
configuration page. The configuration steps are stated below:
1) Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI, setup the ge2 interface for internet connection and manually
assign a static IP. The configuration path in ZyWALL 1050 menu is Configuration >
Network > Interface > Edit > ge2
2) Switch to Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN Gateway select interface ge2
as My Address and then in Security Gateway Address field set the remote gateway IP to
167.35.4.3. The Local ID Type and content are IP and 210.110.7.1, Peer ID Type and
content are IP and 167.35.4.3.
3) Repeat the step1 & 2 to configure the Remote ZyWALL 1050. The Local ID Type &
content and Peer ID Type & content are reverse to the Local ZyWALL 1050.
1
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
3
2
4) User can refer to the user guide to complete the rest of the settings for VPN tunnel.
5) The ZyWALL1050 VPN is a route-based VPN. This means the VPN tunnel can be an
interface to route the VPN traffic. Thus, we need to configure a policy route for VPN
traffic from the local subnet to the remote subnet after configuring the VPN gateway and
connection (phase1 and phase2). The purpose of this policy route is to tell the
ZyWALL1050 to send the traffic to VPN tunnel when the traffic flows from the local
subnet to a destination that is in the remote subnet. Switch to ZyWALL 1050 >
Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route and add a new policy route. The source
and the destination addresses are the local and remote subnets. The Next-Hop type is VPN
tunnel. Then choose the corresponding VPN connection rule from the VPN tunnel drop
down menu. Now, the VPN tunnel and routing is configured and user can start to test it.
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
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The CLI commands for application:
Local Gateway:
[0] isakmp policy rename RemoteSite LocalSite
[1] isakmp policy LocalSite
[2] mode main
[3] transform-set des-md5
[4] lifetime 86400
[5] no natt
[6] dpd
[7] local-ip interface ge2
[8] peer-ip 167.35.4.3 0.0.0.0
[9] authentication pre-share
[10] keystring 123456789
[11] local-id type ip 210.110.7.1
[12] peer-id type ip 167.35.4.3
[13] peer-id type ip 167.35.4.3
[14] xauth type server default deactivate
[15] group1
[16] exit
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
Remote Gateway:
[0] isakmp policy RemoteSite
[1] mode main
[2] transform-set des-md5
[3] lifetime 86400
[4] no natt
[5] dpd
[6] local-ip interface ge2
[7] peer-ip 210.110.7.1 0.0.0.0
[8] authentication pre-share
[9] keystring 123456789
[10] local-id type ip 167.35.4.3
[11] peer-id type ip 210.110.7.1
[12] peer-id type ip 210.110.7.1
[13] xauth type server default deactivate
[14] group1
[15] exit
Policy Route for VPN traffic:
[0] policy 1
[1] no deactivate
[2] no description
[3] no user
[4] interface ge1
[5] source LAN_SUBNET
[6] destination Remote_Subnet
[7] no schedule
[8] service any
[9] no snat
[10] next-hop tunnel RemoteTunnel
[11] no bandwidth
[12] exit
Tips for application:
1. Make sure the presharekey is the same in both local and remote gateways.
2. Make sure the IKE & IPSec proposal is the same in both local and remote gateways.
3. Select the correct interface for VPN connection.
4. The Local and Peer ID type and content must the opposite and contain the same.
5. Make sure the VPN policy route has been configured in ZyWALL1050.
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
1.2 Extranet Deployment
The VPN provides the access to extranets which can provide the security path over internet
to improve the client service, vendor support and company communication. Different flexible
business models have been developed based on the global VPN extranet architecture. For
example, customers can order equipment over the VPN and also suppliers can check the orders
electronically. Another result of its application is that the employees across different branches
can collaborate on project documents and share the different site’s internal resource to
complete the project.
IPSec VPN Tunnel
Main Office
The VPN provides
Branch Office
access to both
extranets and
ZyWALL 70
wide-area intranets in
Remote Office
Servers
ZyWALL 35
ZyWALL 1050
Customer Site
Partner Site
It’s easy to establish VPN
FortiGate
connectivity with your
partner’s/customer’s site
Desktop users
regardless of what their VPN
t
i
Check Point VPN-1
The ZyWALL 1050 can be placed as a VPN gateway in the central site. It can communicate
with other ZyXEL’s VPN-capable products as well as VPN products from other major vendors
in the network device industry, e.g. Cisco PIX/IOS VPN products, Check Point VPN Pro,
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
Juniper NetScreen series and others…
1.2.1 Site to site VPN solutions (ZyWALL1050 to ZyWALL70)
The exciting ZyWALL35 or 70 in central office gateway can be replaced by ZyWALL 1050,
and the ZyWALL35 or 70 moved to a remote office. The ZyWALL 1050 can provide higher
VPN throughput and deal with multiple VPN tunnels at the same time. To show how to build
tunnel between ZyWALL5/35/70 and ZyWALL 1050 we used ZyWALL 70 as an example.
Static IP address
210.110.7.1
Static IP address
167.35.4.3
Internet
CenterOffice Gateway
LAN: 192.168.1.X
Branch Gateway
LAN: 192.168.2.X
1) Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI and setup the ge2 interface for the internet connection and
manually assign a static IP. The configuration path is ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration >
Network > Interface > Edit > ge2
1
2) Switch to Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN Gateway, select My Address
as interface ge2 and then in Security Gateway Address field set the remote gateway IP to
167.35.4.3. The Local ID Type and content are IP and 210.110.7.1, Peer ID Type and
content are IP and 167.35.4.3.
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
3) Login to ZyWALL70 and go to Security > VPN > Gateway Policy, add a new gateway
policy to connect with central office’s ZyWALL 1050. My Address and Remote Gateway
Address are ZyWALL70 and ZyWALL 1050 WAN IP addresses. The Pre-Shared Key
configured on both sides must exactly the same Local ID Type & content and Peer ID
Type & content are reverse to the Local ZyWALL 1050.
4) The IKE Proposal is very important setting when configuring the VPN tunnel. The
proposal includes Negotiation Mode, Encryption and Authentication Algorithm and….
Make sure the IKE proposal parameters are must the same on both ends.
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2
3
5) Switch to Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN Connection, add a new VPN
connection (IPSec phase2). Setup the Phase2 proposal and local and remote policies. The
chosen phase2 proposal chosen must be the same as on the remote site’s ZyWALL70.
6) In ZyWALL70, VPN is a rule based VPN. This means that whether the traffic is going to
the tunnel or not will depend on the local and remote policies. In this example,
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
ZyWALL70 local and remote policies are 192.168.2.0 and 192.168.1.0 and the traffic
from 192.168.2.X subnet to 192.168.1.X subnet will go through the VPN tunnel to the
remote site as predefined. The ZyWALL1050 local and remote policies must be reverse to
the ZyWALL70’s settings, otherwise the tunnel will not be built up.
7) Check whether the IPSec proposal on both sites is the same and the configuration is done
on both sites.
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8) The ZyWALL1050 VPN is a route-based VPN, this means the VPN tunnel can be an
interface to route the VPN traffic. Thus, we need to configure a policy route for VPN
traffic from the local subnet to the remote subnet after configuring the VPN gateway and
the connection (phase1 and phase2). The purpose for this policy route is to tell the
ZyWALL1050 to send the traffic to the VPN tunnel when the traffic goes from the local
subnet to the destination that is in a remote subnet. Switch to Configuration > Policy >
Route > Policy Route and add a new policy route, the source and destination address are
the local and remote subnet and the Next-Hop type is a VPN tunnel. Then choose the
corresponding VPN connection rule from the VPN tunnel drop down menu. Now, the VPN
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
tunnel and routing is built and user can start to test it.
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9) After configuring both sides of the VPN, click the Dial up VPN tunnel icon to test the
VPN connectivity.
10) “VPN tunnel establishment successful,” message appears.
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
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The CLI command for application:
ZyWALL 1050 VPN Gateway:
[0] isakmp policy LocalSite
[1] mode main
[2] transform-set des-md5
[3] lifetime 86400
[4] no natt
[5] dpd
[6] local-ip interface ge2
[7] peer-ip 167.35.4.3 0.0.0.0
[8] authentication pre-share
[9] keystring 123456789
[10] local-id type ip 210.110.7.1
[11] peer-id type ip 167.35.4.3
[12] peer-id type ip 167.35.4.3
[13] xauth type server default deactivate
[14] group1
[15] exit
ZyWALL 1050 VPN Connection:
[0] crypto map RemoteTunnel
[1] ipsec-isakmp LocalSite
[2] encapsulation tunnel
[3] transform-set esp-des-sha
[4] set security-association lifetime seconds 86400
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
[5] set pfs none
[6] policy-enforcement
[7] local-policy LAN_SUBNET
[8] remote-policy Remote_Subnet
[9] no nail-up
[10] no replay-detection
[11] no netbios-broadcast
[12] no out-snat activate
[13] no in-snat activate
[14] no in-dnat activate
[15] exit
Policy Route for VPN traffic:
[0] policy 1
[1] no deactivate
[2] no description
[3] no user
[4] interface ge1
[5] source LAN_SUBNET
[6] destination Remote_Subnet
[7] no schedule
[8] service any
[9] no snat
[10] next-hop tunnel RemoteTunnel
[11] no bandwidth
[12] exit
Tips for application:
1. Make sure the presharekey is the same in both the local and the remote gateways.
2. Make sure the IKE & IPSec proposal is the same in both the local and the remote
gateways.
3. Select the correct interface for the VPN connection.
4. The Local and Peer ID type and content must be the opposite and not of the same content.
5. Make sure the VPN policy route had been setup in ZyWALL 1050.
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
1.2.2
Interoperability – VPN with other vendors
1.2.2.1 ZyWALL with FortiGate VPN Tunneling
This page guides how to setup a VPN connection between the ZyWALL 1050 and
FortiGate 200A.
As on the figure shown below, the tunnel between Central and Remote offices ensures the
packet flow between them are secure, because the packets go through the IPSec tunnel are
encrypted. To setup this VPN tunnel, the required settings for ZyWALL and FortiGate are
explained in the following sections.
Static IP address
210.110.7.1
Static IP address
167.35.4.3
Internet
Central Office Gateway
ZyWALL
LAN: 192.168.1.X
Branch Gateway
FortiGate 200A
LAN: 192.168.2.X
The central office gateway ZyWALL 1050’s interface and VPN setting retain the same setting
as in the previous example. If you jumped this section first, please refer to ‘ZyWALL 1050 to
ZYWALL70 VPN tunnel setting’ on page 8.
This list below is to briefly show the VPN phase1 and phase2 configuration parameters:
ZyWALL
FortiGate
WAN: 210.110.7.1
LAN: 192.168.1.0/24
WAN: 167.35.4.3
LAN: 192.168.2.0/24
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
1) Configure the ZyWALL1050 ‘s VPN gateway and VPN connection as on the list. Also,
remember to configure the policy route for the VPN traffic routing. Refer to the previous
scenario or user guide to find help on setting the ZyWALL1050 VPN.
2) Login to the FortiGate GUI and switch to System > Network > Interface and set the wan1
interface to 167.35.4.3 and internal interface to 192.168.2.1/255.255.255.0.
2
Note: About the detail interface settings, refer to FortiGate user guide.
3) Switch to System > VPN > IPSEC and select the Auto Key (IKE) tab and click the Create
Phase 1 button. This will open a new page for VPN phase1 setup.
3
4) Fill-in the VPN phase1 setting according to the table listed. We don’t have to setup the ID
type and content because the FortiGate accepts any peer ID. Make sure both the pre-shares
key and proposal are the same as in the ZyWALL1050.
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4
5) Get back to the VPN configuration page again and click the Create Phase 2 button to add
a new Phase2 policy.
5
6) Select the “ZyWALL”(configured in the step 4) policy from the Phase 1 drop down menu
and click the Advanced… button to edit the phase 2 proposal and source and destination
address. Please make sure the phase 2 proposal is the same as in ZyWALL 1050 phase 2.
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6
7) The VPN tunnel configuration is finished and the VPN IPSec page will show the VPN
phase 1 and phase 2 rules in the Auto Key (IKE) tab.
7
8) We need to setup the firewall rules for IPSec VPN traffic transmitting from ZyWALL to
FortiGate and from FortiGate to ZyWALL. Switch to Firewall > VPN >Address menu and
add two new address objects which stand for ZyWALL LAN subnet and FortiGate LAN
subnet. Using the “Create New” button to create a new address object.
8
9) Switch to Firewall > Policy and click “Insert Policy Before” icon to add new policy for the
VPN traffic from FortiGate to ZyWALL.
9
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10) We will setup the FortiGate to ZyWALL policy in the new page. The source interface is
internal and Address name is Fortinet (192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0 address object). The
destination interface is wan1 and Address name is Zynet (192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
address object). Schedule and service type are “always” and “ANY” to ensure that all
kinds of traffic can pass through the VPN tunnel at any time. There are three kinds of
“Action” available for user to configure, because the traffic is send from “internal” to
WAN and will be encrypted by IPSec VPN tunnel. Thus, we select “IPSEC” as action and
chose allow inbound and outbound traffic in the ZyWALL tunnel.
10
11) Switch to Firewall > Policy and click “Create New” button to add new policy for the VPN
traffic from ZyWALL to FortiGate.
11
12) We setup the ZyWALL to FortiGate policy in the new page. The source interface is wan1
and Address name is Zynet (192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 address object). The destination
interface is internal and the Address name is Fortinet (192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0 address
object). Schedule and service type are always and ANY to ensure that all kinds of traffic
can pass through the VPN tunnel at any time. Select “ACCEPT” as an action this time
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
because the traffic sent from wan to internal must be decrypted first and only then can be
transmitted. Don’t select the IPSec as the Action in this VPN traffic flow direction.
12
13) The overall firewall policy is shown on the following figure. The VPN tunnel between
ZyWALL and FortiGate has been successfully setup.
13
Tips for application:
1. Make sure the Pre-Shared Key is the same in both local and remote gateways.
2. Make sure both IKE and IPSec proposal are the same in both local and remote gateways.
3. Make sure the VPN policy route has been configured in ZyWALL1050.
4. Make sure the Firewall rule has been configured in FortiGate.
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1.2.2.2
ZyWALL with NetScreen VPN Tunneling
This section guides how to setup a VPN connection between the ZyWALL 1050 and
NetScreen 5GT.
As on the figure below, the tunnel between Central and Remote offices ensures the packet
flows between them are secure. This is because the packets flowing through the IPSec tunnel
are encrypted. The required settings to setup this VPN tunnel using ZyWALL and NetScreen
are stated in the following section.
Static IP address
210.110.7.1
Static IP address
167.35.4.3
Internet
Central Office Gateway
ZyWALL
LAN: 192.168.1.X
Branch Gateway
NetScreen 5GT
LAN: 192.168.2.X
The central office gateway ZyWALL 1050’s interface and VPN setting retain the same settings
as in the previous example. If you jumped to this section first, please refer to ‘ZyWALL1050
to ZYWALL70 VPN tunnel setting’ on the page 8.
This list below is to briefly show the VPN phase1 and phase2 configuration parameters:
ZyWALL
NetScreen
WAN: 210.110.7.1
LAN: 192.168.1.0/24
WAN: 167.35.4.3
LAN: 192.168.2.0/24
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
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Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
1) Configure the ZyWALL1050 ‘s VPN gateway and VPN connection as on the list. Also,
remember to configure the policy route for the VPN traffic routing. Refer to the pervious
scenario or user guide to find help on setting the ZyWALL 1050 VPN.
2) Using a web browser, login NetScreen by entering the LAN IP address of the NetScreen in
the URL field. The default username and password is netscreen/netscreen.
3) Switch to menu Network > Interfaces and configure the WAN/LAN IP addresses to
WAN: 167.35.4.3 / LAN: 192.168.2.0/24. The trust interface is for LAN, the untrust
interface is for WAN.
3
Note: Regarding the detail interface settings, please refer to NetScreen user guide to get the
detail info.
4) NetScreen won’t setup a route for the traffic to the external network. We have to manually
add a route for it. After configuring a static IP address in untrust interface, switch to
Network -> Routing -> Routing Entries to edit a default Gateway IP address. In this
example, the Gateway IP address is 167.35.4.1.
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4
5) To edit the IPSec rule, first set the gateway policy and then edit the IKE policy. Switch to
VPNs > AutoKey Advanced > Gateway, and then press the New button.
5
6) Choose a name for the policy, for example “ToZyWALL”. Remote Gateway IP Addr is
the ZyWALL's WAN IP address. In this example, we select Static IP Address option
and enter IP 210.110.7.1 in the text box. Enter the key string 123456789 in Preshared
Key text box, and then press Advanced button to edit the advanced settings.
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6
7) On Security Level settings, we can set up phase 1 proposal. In this example, we select
User Defined, and choose pre-g1-des-md5 rule. The pre-g1-des-md5 means Pre-Share
Key, group1, DES for Encryption Algorithm and MD5 for Authentication Algorithm.
Select Main (ID Protection) option for Mode (Initiator). Then, press Return button, and
press OK button on next page to save your settings.
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7
8) After applying the previous settings, the new IKE rule is shown on the page.
8
9) To edit the IPSec rule, switch to VPNs > AutoKey IKE, and then press the New button to
edit your IPSec rules.
9
10) Give a name for the VPN, for example “ToZyWALL IPSec”. In Remote Gateway, choose
the Predefined option and select the ToZyWALL rule. Then, press Advanced button to
edit the advanced settings.
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10
11) In Security Level settings, choose the option User Defined and choose nopfs-esp-des-sha
rule on Phase 2 Proposal. The nopfs-esp-des-sha means no PFS, ESP Protocol,
Encryption Algorithm to DES and Authentication Algorithm to SHA1. Check the VPN
Monitor check box so that you can monitor your VPN tunnels. Then, press Return button
and OK button on next page to save the settings.
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11
12) After applying the settings, the VPN IKE page will show the new IPSec rule.
12
13) Switch to Policies to set up policy rules for VPN traffic. In the field From choose Trust
and in the field To choose Untrust (it means from LAN to WAN). Then press the New
button to edit the policy rules.
13
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14) Assign a name to this policy, for example “VPN”. In Source Address, set the Local LAN
IP addresses. In this example, we select New Address option. Type 192.168.2.0 /
255.255.255.0 in the text box. Set the remote IP addresses as Destination Address. In this
example, we select New Address option, and type 192.168.1.0 / 255.255.255.0 in the text
box. In drop down menu Action select the option Tunnel and then select the
ToZyWALLIPSec VPN rule. Check Modify matching bidirectional VPN policy check
box, so that you can create/modify the VPN policy for the opposite direction. Then, press
OK button to save your settings.
14
15) After applying the settings, the new policy rules will be displayed in the Policies page.
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15
16) Move the added policy rules to the top, so that the VPN policies will be checked first.
16
17) Ping the remote host and switch to VPNs > Monitor Status to check the VPN link status. If
the Link status is Up, it means the VPN tunnel between ZyWALL and NetScreen has been
successfully built.
17
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1.2.2.3
ZyWALL with SonicWall VPN Tunneling
This section guides how to setup a VPN connection between the ZyWALL 1050 and
SonicWall TZ170.
As on the figure below, the tunnel between Central and Remote offices ensures the packet
flows between them are secure. This is because the packets flowing through the IPSec tunnel
are encrypted. The required settings to setup this VPN tunnel using ZyWALL and SonicWall
are stated in the following sections.
Static IP address
210.110.7.1
Static IP address
167.35.4.3
Internet
Central Office Gateway
ZyWALL
LAN: 192.168.1.X
Branch Gateway
SonicWall TZ170
LAN: 192.168.2.X
The central office gateway ZyWALL 1050’s interface and VPN setting retain the same settings
as in the previous example. If you jumped to this section first, please refer to ‘ZyWALL1050
to ZYWALL70 VPN tunnel setting’ on the page 8.
This list below is to briefly show the VPN phase1 and phase2 configuration parameters:
ZyWALL
SonicWall
WAN: 210.110.7.1
LAN: 192.168.1.0/24
WAN: 167.35.4.3
LAN: 192.168.2.0/24
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
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Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
1) Configure the ZyWALL1050 ‘s VPN gateway and VPN connection as on the list. Also,
remember to configure the policy route for the VPN traffic routing. Refer to the previous
scenario or user guide to find help on setting the ZyWALL1050 VPN.
2) Using a web browser, login SonicWall by entering the LAN IP address of SonicWall in the
URL field. The default username and password is admin/password.
3) Switch to menu Network > Interfaces and configure the WAN/LAN IP address to WAN:
167.35.4.3 LAN: 192.168.2.1/24.
3
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4) Switch to VPN > Settings, check Enable VPN check box and press Add button. This will
bring the VPN settings.
Note: The VPN Policy Wizard is an alternative way to set up the VPN rules.
4
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5) Click the tab General, to bring the Security Policy settings and assign a name to this
policy. In this example, we use ToZyWALL. IPSec Primary Gateway Name or
Address is the ZyWALL's WAN IP Address (IP address of the remote gateway). In this
example, we use 210.110.7.1 in IPSec Primary Gateway Name or Address text box.
Then, enter the key string 123456789 in the text box Shared Secret.
5
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6) Switch to Network tab to configure the local and remote networks for VPN tunnel. We
choose the predefined “LAN Subnets” object from the local network drop down list. There
is no predefined address object for remote subnet. Therefore, we have to create a new
address object in the remote network drop down list. Then a new address object window
will pop-up.
6
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7) The name for this object can be for example “Remote_Subnet”. The Network IP Address
and the Subnet Mask are the remote site LAN subnet. In this example, enter 192.168.1.0
in Network text box and then type 255.255.255.0 in Subnet Mask text box. Then press
OK. Now after the address object successfully configured, the new address object
“Remote_Subnet” can be selected from the destination network drop down list.
7
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8) Switch to Proposals tab. In IKE (Phase1) proposal settings, select Main mode, set DH
Group to Group1, Encryption to DES and Authentication to MD5. In IPSec (Phase2)
proposal settings, select ESP Protocol, Encryption to DES and Authentication to SHA1.
Then press the OK button.
8
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9) Switch to Advanced tab. In the setting VPN policy bound to select Interface WAN.
Then press the OK button.
9
10) The VPN status page will show a new VPN rule. Make sure the rule has been enabled.
10
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11) Ping the remote host to dial up the tunnel. We can check the connected VPN status in the
VPN status page. The VPN tunnel should appear in the Currently Active VPN Tunnels
page. It should show that the tunnel had been successfully built-up.
11
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
1.3 Remote Access VPN
Remote Access VPN provides a cost-effective alternative to standard dial-in remote access
to a company network. The users can connect to the network via the Internet, eliminating the
expensive long-distance or the toll-free dial-in costs.
The most common scenario for application might look like this: An employee is on the road
(i.e. teleworker). He can gain full network access simply by connecting to the Internet. During
the data transmission between remote and host, this connection should also provide
confidentiality (Data transferring in VPN tunnel with encryption).
Another genius application is a “Mobile office”: Teleworker or home & SOHO employee
can work at airport, cyber café, hot spots, hotel or home. The office building scope can be
eliminated and a global office can start to fully utilize the global resources.
1.3.1
Remote Access VPN
In this scenario, we assume the ZyWALL1050 admin configured the VPN settings in a way to
allow teleworker access internal network resource through remote access VPN. Since it is
unknown what IP address will the remote teleworker’s PC/notebook connect from, 0.0.0.0 is
used as for ZyWALL1050’s remote gateway setting it represents “any IPs”. On the other end,
the teleworker use ZyWALL VPN client on their notebooks to establish IPSec VPN with the
main office.
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
So we are going to complete the following tasks.
z In ZyWALL1050 create object ‘address’ for both local and remote networks
z In ZyWALL1050 configure a VPN gateway and the VPN connection setting
z In ZyWALL VPN client configure the corresponding VPN setting in ZyWALL VPN
client
ZyWALL 1050
ZyWALL VPN Client
My address: ge2(10.59.1.45)
Secure gateway address: 0.0.0.0
Local: 192.168.2.0/24
Remote: 0.0.0.0/24
My address: Any
Secure gateway address: 10.59.1.45
Local: Any
Remote: 192.168.2.0/24
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
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Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Below is a step by step configuration:
1) Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Objects > Address to create an
address object (local subnet) for remote access.
2) Create another address object for the remote host. The IP Address of the host should be
0.0.0.0, which means that remote user dials in dynamically.
3) Go to Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN Gateway to create gateway for
remote a VPN client. Because this kind of VPN is initialed from remote user, the Secure
Gateway should be set as dynamic, 0.0.0.0. Also, the VPN peers should keep consistence with
each other for other parameters, such as Pre-Shared Key, ID Type, Encryption and
Authentication proposal and so on.
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4) To create a VPN rule, go to Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN Connection.
Set Policy as defined in step 1 and step 2. Remote policy should be a dynamic host address.
We put VPN Gateway as dynamic as was defined in step 3.
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5) Go to remote host to configure ZyXEL VPN Client. We create a Net Connection set remote
access subnet to 192.168.2.x.
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In My Identity, select local ID type as Any.
Note: Do not forget to enter Pre-Shared Key by clicking the button Pre-Shared Key.
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The last step is to go to Security Policy to configure parameters for Phase1 and Phase 2. After
saving the configuration, the VPN connection should be initialed from the host site.
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The CLI commands for application:
Address Object for local subnet:
[0] address-object subnet2 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0
Address Object for remote host:
[0] address-object VPNclient 0.0.0.0
Remote Gateway:
[0] isakmp policy remoteaccess
[1] mode main
[2] transform-set des-md5
[3] lifetime 86400
[4] no natt
[5] dpd
[6] local-ip interface ge2
[7] peer-ip 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
[8] authentication pre-share
[9] keystring 123456789
[10] local-id type ip 0.0.0.0
[11] peer-id type any
[12] xauth type server default deactivate
[13] group1
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VPN Connection:
[0] crypto map remoteaccess
[1] ipsec-isakmp remoteaccess
[2] encapsulation tunnel
[3] transform-set esp-des-md5
[4] set security-association lifetime seconds 86400
[5] set pfs none
[6] no policy-enforcement
[7] local-policy subnet2
[8] remote-policy VPNclient
[9] no nail-up
[10] no replay-detection
[11] no netbios-broadcast
[12] no out-snat activate
[13] no in-snat activate
[14] no in-dnat activate
Tips for application:
1. Make sure both pre-shared key settings are the same in local and remote gateway.
2. Make sure both IKE proposal settings are the same in local and remote gateway.
3. Select the correct interface for the VPN connection.
4. The Local and Peer ID type and content must the opposite and not of the same content.
5. The Local Policy of ZyWALL 1050 should be ‘dynamic single host with the value 0.0.0.0’.
The VPN tunnel should be initialed from the remote host site.
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ZyWALL 1050 Support Notes
1.4 Large-scale VPN Deployment
With the business growing, network administrator will face the more and more complicated
VPN topology and applications. ZyWALL 1050 supports various types of VPN topology that
can meet the needs of the organizations of any size.
ZyWALL1050 VPN Topology supports fully meshed topology that can be deployed when
the total number of remote site is small. Star topology is recommended when the total number
of remote sites is high, Even more flexible design, Star and Mesh mixed topology (cascading
topology) can be applied for a global distributed environment.
1.4.1
Fully Meshed Topology
London
All models in ZyWALL series
can support Fully-meshed
VPN topology, including:
ZyWALL 2 Plus/5/35/70/1050
In a fully-meshed VPN topology, an
user can access to resources within
remote VPN sites provided that a
VPN tunnel was already established
Madrid
Oslo
Paris
Hannover
In this topology, each site
plays the same role – handles
incoming encrypted traffic or
encrypts outgoing traffic
designated to a remote site
1) In order to achieve the VPN connectivity of all sites in the fully meshed VPN topology, all
the sites must be directly connected with VPN tunnels to all the remote sites. The network
administrator has to pay huge establishment and maintenance effort with the new remote
site joining. This VPN topology is suitable for only a few sites connected with VPN.
2) For example, to complete the above topology, administrator needs to repeat the same steps
at least five times and totally needs to establish 10 VPN tunnels. The tunnels list follows:
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Tunnel 1: London ÅVPN ÆMadrid
Tunnel 2: London ÅVPN ÆParis
Tunnel 3: London ÅVPN ÆHannover
Tunnel 4: London ÅVPN ÆOslo
Tunnel 5: Madrid ÅVPN Æ Paris
Tunnel 6: Madrid ÅVPN Æ Hannover
Tunnel 7: Madrid ÅVPN Æ Oslo
Tunnel 8: Paris ÅVPN Æ Hannover
Tunnel 9: Paris ÅVPN Æ Oslo
Tunnel 10: Hannover ÅVPN Æ Oslo
3) For help on building up the 10 tunnels, please refer to the section ZyWALL1050 to
ZyWALL1050 VPN tunnel configuration steps . We will introduce the configuration steps
for a VPN concentrator that will greatly help to reduce the total number of tunnels.
1.4.2
Star Topology
London
In a Star VPN topology, any user in a
spoke site (in here it’s Madrid) can
access to resources within another
spoke site (London) via the central
site – Amsterdam
An user in a spoke site (in
here it’s Oslo) can access
resources within central
site – Amsterdam
Madrid
Central site
In a Star VPN topology, ZyWALL
1050 acts as a central site (enabling
Hub & Spoke VPN) and spoke sites
can be any model of ZyWALL series
Paris
Amsterdam
Oslo
Hannover
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The ZyWALL1050 supports Star topology via the VPN concentrator feature. The VPN
concentrator can help to reduce the VPN tunnel numbers and allows centralized VPN tunnel
management.
The topology used for our VPN concentrator guide.
This topology is designed to simulate a global VPN network deployment. The company has a
global headquarters in Taiwan and other offices around the world.
This company decided to build up a VPN concentrator to let all the offices’ internal network to
be shared and interconnected based on a security link.
We will separate each group as a member of each office and build up the VPN tunnel with
headquarter and then to route the VPN traffic across the HQ to the destination office’s internal
network.
The VPN configuration parameter
Remote Office
HQ
WAN: 10.59.1.11
~
WAN: 10.59.1.17
LAN: 192.168.101.0/24
WAN: 10.59.1.10
LAN: 192.168.100.0/24
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~
LAN: 192.168.119.0/24
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Setup VPN tunnel between each remote office and HQ
We used the Netherland site (NL) as an example to show how to setup tunnel between NL and
HQ. Please refer the above VPN parameter table to setup the VPN gateway and connection as
I don’t list the detail configuration steps here,.
Configure the NL site address object for each remote office subnet
Setup NL site address group that includes all the remote office subnets; the address object
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group is used as a policy route destination criterion.
The screenshot below is the NL site VPN Gateway status page.
NL site VPN Connection status page
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NL site policy route for VPN traffic, this policy route is used to indicate that the ZyWALL
1050 sends the packets to the VPN tunnel.
HQ VPN concentrator configuration steps:
Here are step by step instructions on how to setup the VPN concentrator in HQ to route all
the remote sites’ VPN traffic.
The amount of tunnels needed to be configured in HQ ZyWALL1050 is the amount of the
remote sites.
This means that if we want HQ to route 5 remote sites VPN traffic, we need to configure 5
VPN tunnels from remote office to HQ.
For the HQ VPN tunnel setting, please refer to the table below.
Remote Office
HQ
WAN: 10.59.1.11
~
WAN: 10.59.1.17
LAN: 192.168.101.0/24
~
LAN: 192.168.119.0/24
WAN: 10.59.1.10
LAN: 192.168.100.0/24
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
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Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Setup the remote offices’ subnets address objects for the further VPN configuring.
Setup the HQ VPN Gateway for all the remote sites
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Setup the HQ VPN connection for all the remote sites
The next step is the most important one. We need to build up a VPN concentrator and join all
the remote sites’ VPN traffic to it.
Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > Concentrator and then
click the add icon to add a new concentrator.
On the concentrator edit page, click the add icon to add VPN connection to this concentrator.
The VPN traffic can be routed by HQ once the VPN connection has been added to the
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concentrator. If this tunnel is already included in the concentrator, user doesn’t need to add any
policy route to the VPN tunnel.
Now after the VPN concentrator setup, all the remote VPN tunnels have been linked to the HQ
concentrator and remote sites can reach other remote sites via HQ.
The VPN concentrator is designed to route the remote sites’ VPN traffic. However, user still
needs to setup the policy route for local subnet VPN traffic. For example, if we setup the VPN
concentrator only for HQ and remote sites A & B, then the A subnet can connect to B subnet
but HQ subnet can’t connect to neither A nor B subnet.
Thus, this depends on how customers want to deploy their Global VPN network.
We can add the following policy route to allow the HQ subnet to connect with all the
concentrator’s remote subnets.
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1.4.3
Star-Mesh Mixed Topology
In a Star-Mesh mixed VPN topology,
any user in a spoke site (in here it’s
Frankfurt) can access the resources
on another spoke site (London) via the
EU central site – Amsterdam
Frankfurt
Backbone tunnel
Taipei
Asia Central site
Singapore
An user in a spoke site
(in here it’s Taipei) can
access the resources
on regional central
site – Singapore
EU Central site
Backup tunnel
Amsterdam
Tokyo
London
If an user in London site needs to access resources
outside the EU sites, i.e. Tokyo site, the traffic will be
routed to the Asia central site (Singapore) then again
routed to the final destination – Tokyo spoke site
In a Star-mesh mixed VPN topology, ZyWALL 1050 acts as a regional central site
(enabling Hub & Spoke VPN) and spoke sites can be any model of ZyWALL series. The
Star – Mesh Mixed Topology is well suited for an enterprise having a regional operation
center acting as a regional hub and spoke VPN network in the area. The connection between
each regional operation center will be backbone VPN tunnel. To ensure the communication
continuity, we can use VPN HA (secondary security gateway) to configure a backup VPN
tunnel in case the primary VPN connection failure.
We use the below presented network topology to explain how to configure Star-Mesh
Mixed Topology between all the ZyWALL series devices. The ZyWALL 1050s act as a
Regional Center devices whereas ZyWALL 2 Plus, 5, 35 and 70 are the regional remote sites’
devices which are building VPN tunnel back to the Regional Center and provide connection
with the other area remote nodes via the VPN tunnel between the two Regional Centers.
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Asia Region VPN Concentrator
Europe Region VPN Concentrator
WAN:220.123.97.7
ZyWALL70 LAN:192.168.22.1/24
WAN:179.25.106.124
ZyWALL5 LAN:192.168.12.1/24
Regional Center
ZyWALL 1050
WAN1:179.25.3.24
WAN2:179.25.133.4
LAN:192.168.10.1/24
Primary VPN
Regional Center
ZyWALL 1050
Secondary VPN
ZyWALL35 WAN:179.25.13.2
LAN:192.168.11.1/24
WAN1:220.123.113.8
WAN2:220.123.119.9
LAN:192.168.20.1/24
ZyWALL 2 Plus
WAN:220.123.65.117
LAN:192.168.21.1/24
Configuration Steps for Asia Region VPN Concentrator
ZyWALL5 and ZyWALL35 interface and VPN setting
Please configure the ZyWALL5 WAN and LAN interface as the topology diagram shown
above. We can check the status page to confirm the correctness. Please refer to ZyWALL5
user guide for detail interface setting steps.
The VPN configuration parameters in Asia Region
Regional Remote Sites
Regional Center
ZyWALL5 WAN: 179.25.106.124
Local Policy: 192.168.12.0/24
WAN: 179.25.3.24
Local Policy: 192.168.0.0/16
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Remote Policy: 192.168.0.0/16
ZyWALL35 WAN: 179.25.13.2
Local Policy: 192.168.11.0/24
Remote Policy: 192.168.0.0/16
Remote Policy: 192.168.12.0/16
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Local Policy: 192.168.0.0/16
Remote Policy: 192.168.11.0/16
The next step is to configure the VPN tunnel setting. Following the ZyWALL5 VPN design
logic, we have to define the local and remote policies to force the traffic going through the
VPN tunnel to the remote site. For example, the traffic from ZyWALL5 will be sent to all the
remote sites’ devices like ZyWALL35 (LAN subnet: 192.168.11.x), local center’s ZyWALL
1050 (LAN subnet: 192.168.21.x), remote center’s ZyWALL 1050 (LAN subnet:
192.168.20.x), ZyWALL 2 Plus (LAN subnet: 192.168.21.x) and ZyWALL70 (LAN subnet:
192.168.22.x) by building one VPN tunnel with local center ZyWALL 1050. Thus a separate
VPN tunnel to each remote site is not needed. We will use a class B subnet
(192.168.0.0/255.255.0.0) as remote policy in order to include all ranges of the remote policies
requirements.
The Local Policy is the local subnet 192.168.12.0/24 and Remote Policy is 192.168.0.0/16
for the tunnel between ZyWALL5 and local center ZyWALL 1050. Please switch to menu
Security > VPN > Global Setting and activate the “VPN rules skip applying to the overlap
range of local and remote IP addresses” option because the local and remote policies are in the
overlap range in this application. If this feature is not activated, you will fail to access device
because of triggering VPN tunnels.
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Based on the VPN configuration parameter table to finish the VPN tunnel configuration and
the VPN status page will brief list the VPN tunnel information like following screen shot after
the VPN setting. The VPN can’t be dialed up for testing because the remote ZyWALL 1050
didn’t setup the corresponding VPN tunnel until now. The test and debug can start only after
both sites’ VPN setup is done. Please refer to the ZyWALL5 user guide for detail VPN setting
steps.
There are similar configuration steps for the ZyWALL35 interface and the VPN setup. The
ZyWALL35 WAN and LAN interface are set as follow.
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Please make sure to activate the “VPN rules skip applying to the overlap range of local and
remote IP addresses” option before starting to setup the VPN tunnel.
The VPN tunnel status page after configured the local center ZyWALL 1050 tunnel.
As soon as we finish the configuration of ZyWALL5 and ZyWALL35, we can move to
ZyWALL 1050’s configuration.
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Asia Regional Center ZyWALL 1050 interface and VPN concentrator setting
The VPN configuration parameter for Asia and Europe regional Center ZyWALL 1050
Asia Regional Center ZyAWLL1050
Europe Regional Center ZyAWLL1050
WAN1:179.25.3.24
WAN2:179.25.133.4
LAN:192.168.10.1/24
WAN1:220.123.113.8
WAN2:220.123.119.9
LAN:192.168.20.1/24
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Please refer to the application topology to setup the ZyWALL 1050 interface first. We can
move to next steps only after setting up the interface. We use ge1 as LAN interface and IP
address is 192.168.10.1/255.255.255.0. The ge2 and ge3 are WAN1 and WAN2 interfaces and
IP address are 179.25.3.24/255.255.0.0 and 179.25.133.4/255.255.0.0.
We have to pre-configure some address objects for the later VPN configuration
requirements. The needed address objects list is as follows:
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The address object AsiaRegion (192.168.10.0 – 192.168.15.0) and EuropeRegion
(192.168.20.0 – 192.168.25.0) are used for the two regional center VPN concentrators
employed. When Asia region site like ZyWALL5 (192.168.12.0) tries to access the other
region’s remote site like ZyWALL70 (192.168.22.0) it will match these two addresses’ object
ranges and ZyWALL 1050 can do next processing.
This ZyWALL 1050 is the local center of Asia region. We need to setup the VPN tunnel
between local sites ZyWALL5 and ZyWALL35 and Europe region center ZyWALL 1050.
Follow the VPN parameter tables to setup the three VPN gateways (IKE / IPSec Phase1).
For detail steps please refer to the ZyWALL 1050 user guide. We have to configure a
secondary security gateway for the VPN gateway between both of the regional centers’
ZyWALL 1050s. The VPN connection can fail over to secondary gateway in case the
parameter gateway fails.
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After configuration, there will be three VPN gateways listed in the VPN Gateway status
page.
The next step is to create the VPN connection (IPSec / IPSec Phase2). Make sure the
parameters are configured correctly, otherwise the VPN will fail to dial. Below is the VPN
connection global page.
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Now, we have already successfully added three VPN connection rules and we can start to
edit our regional VPN concentrator. Switch to Concentrator sub menu and click the Add icon
to add a new concentrator.
Give a name to this concentrator and then click add icon to make the existing VPN
connection become a member of this concentrator.
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The remote regional center ZyWALL 1050 VPN connection is also treated as a member of
this concentrator and the packets will be sent to the remote center first and then following the
remote concentrator setting will be routed to the destination sites where the traffic destination
is the site allocated under remote VPN concentrator.
We had finished all settings of the Asia Region VPN concentrator. Now you can test the
local VPN concentrator link. Later on, we can test the connection of both concentrators. This
will be after we setup the Europe Region VPN concentrator.
Configuration Steps for Europe Region VPN Concentrator
ZyWALL 2 Plus and ZyWALL70 interface and VPN setting
ZyWALL 2 Plus WAN and LAN interface setting
The VPN configuration parameters in Europe Region
Regional Remote Sites
Regional Center
ZyWALL 2 Plus WAN: 220.123.65.117
Local Policy: 192.168.21.0/24
Remote Policy: 192.168.0.0/16
ZyWALL70 WAN: 220.123.97.7
Local Policy: 192.168.22.0/24
Remote Policy: 192.168.0.0/16
WAN: 220.123.113.8
Local Policy: 192.168.0.0/16
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Remote Policy: 192.168.21.0/16
Local Policy: 192.168.0.0/16
Remote Policy: 192.168.22.0/16
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
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Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Remember to activate “VPN rules skip applying to the overlap range of local and remote IP
addresses” option before configuring the VPN tunnel.
Follow the VPN parameter table to configure the VPN tunnel.
ZyWALL70 WAN and LAN interface setting.
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Remember to activate “VPN rules skip applying to the overlap range of local and remote IP
addresses” option before configuring the VPN tunnel.
Follow the VPN parameter table to configure the VPN tunnel.
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After we finish the configuration of ZyWALL 2 Plus and ZyWALL70, we can move to
ZyWALL 1050’s configuration.
Europe Regional Center ZyWALL 1050 interface and VPN concentrator setting
The VPN configuration parameter for Asia and Europe regional Center ZyWALL 1050
Asia Regional Center ZyAWLL1050
Europe Regional Center ZyAWLL1050
WAN1:179.25.3.24
WAN2:179.25.133.4
LAN:192.168.10.1/24
WAN1:220.123.113.8
WAN2:220.123.119.9
LAN:192.168.20.1/24
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Please refer to the application topology to setup the ZyWALL 1050 interface first. Then we
can move to setting the VPN.
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We have to pre-configure some address objects for the later VPN configuration
requirements. The needed address objects list is as follows.
This ZyWALL 1050 is the local center of Europe region. We need to setup the VPN tunnel
between local sites ZyWALL 2 Plus and ZyWALL70 and Asia region center ZyWALL 1050.
Follow the VPN parameter tables to setup the three VPN gateways (IKE / IPSec Phase1). We
have to configure a secondary security gateway for the VPN gateway between both regional
centers’ ZyWALL 1050s.
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After configuration, there will be three VPN gateways listed in the VPN Gateway status
page.
The next step is to create the VPN connection (IPSec / IPSec Phase2). Make sure the
parameters are correctly configured; otherwise the VPN will fail to dial. Below is the VPN
connection global page.
Now, we already successfully added the three VPN connection rules and we can start to edit
our regional VPN concentrator. Switch to the Concentrator sub menu and click the Add icon to
add a new concentrator.
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Assign a name to this concentrator and then click the add icon to make the existing VPN
become the member of this concentrator.
The remote regional center ZyWALL 1050 VPN connection is also treated as a member of
this concentrator and the packets will be sent to the remote center first and then following the
remote concentrator setting will be routed to the destination sites where the traffic destination
is the site allocated under remote VPN concentrator.
We have finished all the Star-Mesh Mixed VPN topology setting. Now you can test the local
VPN concentrator link. Also, you can try the connection between both concentrators’ site.
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1.5 Access via Central Site
1.5.1
VPN Tunnel to Central Site (ZyWALL 70 to ZyWALL 1050)
The idea of this scenario is to redirect all the outgoing traffic originated from the branch
office to the main office via the VPN tunnel so that the network administrator can manage and
control the traffic or apply additional secure access control or inspection.
What is the benefit for deploying ZyWALL1050 in this kind of application?
ƒ
Insecurity of Internet connectivity
‧ Virus, Bots, spyware, exploits and other forms of attacks are all coming in from
the Internet
‧ As a result, Internet connectivity needs to be securely managed & watched
‧ “Avoid multiple Internet connections in a corporate network” is a common
security practice
ƒ
What there is a multi-site, distributed corporate network?
‧ Through network planning, centralized Internet connectivity can be achieved
‧ ZyWALL 1050 helps you to easily achieve this goal
For the enterprise security and performance consideration, we can also separate the VPN
and internet connection loading and send it through different security gateways. Thus, all
VPNs connected to the VPN gateway can apply the VPN concentrator role; the internet
connection gateway will focus on the internet connection and perform all layer7 security
inspection. By doing this, we can achieve good level of security while the total network
throughput and performance remains high.
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Main Office
Private network
EIP
Workflow
Intranet access may carry
confidential information and the
traffic should be transmitted via a
secure VPN tunnel
Branch Office
Private network
ZyWALL 70
Employee
Mail
ZyWALL 1050
If the traffic is designated to the
Internet, ZyWALL 1050 can route
the traffic to its destination on the
Internet
All outgoing traffic
originated from Branch
Office is routed to the Main
Office – centralized access
ZyWALL 1050
LDAP Server
IPSec VPN Tunnel
Internet access
Intranet access
The network topology below is used to illustrate this application. We used ZyWALL70 as
branch office gateway which is connected to the main office’s ZyWALL1050 A. All the
outgoing traffic from the branch office including the internet traffic and the remote subnet
traffic will be send to the VPN tunnel and handled by ZyWALL1050 A. ZyWALL1050 uses
WAN1 to establish VPN connection with ZyWALL70 in remote office and WAN2 as an uplink
to the ZyWALL1050 B which is the internet connection gateway of main office. Thus,
ZyWALL1050 A will route the traffic from the VPN tunnel and send it to the appropriate place
of the packet destination.
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Main Office
Internal Traffic
Internet Traffic
ZyWALL1050 A
WAN1: 172.23.23.2
WAN2: 10.59.2.33
LAN: 192.168.2.1/24
Branch Office
VPN Tunnel
WAN: 172.23.23.1
LAN: 192.168.1.1/24
ZyWALL1050 B
WAN: 59.124.163.152
LAN: 10.59.1.1/24
DMZ: 10.59.2.1/24
Interne
VPN configuration table
Main office – ZyWALL 1050 A
Branch office – ZyWALL 70
My Address: ge2, 10.59.1.55
Security Gateway Address: 10.59.1.69
Local: Range, 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255
Remote: Subnet, 192.168.1.0/24
My Address: 10.59.1.69
Security Gateway Address: 10.59.1.55
Local network: Subnet, 192.168.1.0/24
Remote network: Range,
0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode : Main
Pre-share key: 123456789
Encryption :DES
Authentication :MD5
Key Group :DH1
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Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
Phase2
Encapsulation: Tunnel
Active Protocol: ESP
Encryption: DES
Authentication: SHA1
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): None
To achieve this, we have to complete the following tasks:
z On ZyWALL1050, create the object ‘Address’ for remote network ranging from 0.0.0.0
to 255.255.255.255
z On ZyWALL1050, configure VPN gateway and connection settings
z On ZyWALL70, configure the corresponding VPN settings
See the following step-by-step configuration.
ZyWALL1050 A configuration
1) Login ZyWALL1050 A GUI and go to Configuration > Network > Interface > Ethernet
and configure the IP setting as shown in the topology.
2) Go to Configuration > Object >Address to create an address object for all the incoming
traffic.
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Configure the other address object VPN_LAN_SUBNET for the VPN remote network
usage.
Modify the LAN_SUBNET address to 192.168.2.0 as used in our topology.
3) Switch to Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN Connection > VPN Gateway
to set the VPN Gateway. Here we select ‘ge2’ as My Address. We put 172.23.23.2 as the
Security Gateway Address and 123456789 as the Pre-Shared Key. For other parameters,
we leave them as default. There are no special settings for these parameters and the main
concern is to let the VPN peers match each other.
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4) Go to Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN >VPN Connection to set the VPN
Connection. Here we choose the gateway which has been configured in the step2 as the
VPN gateway. Because such VPN tunnel is used for central site, we should specify the
Local policy as a range of 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255. This range has been pre-defined in the
step1 and we just need to select it in the drop down list. Here, we assume the peer subnet is
192.168.1.x and select the default address object ‘VPN_LAN_SUBNET’ to meet our
requirements.
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Try to click the connect icon to confirm the VPN configuration correctness.
5) The next step is to configure the policy route. We need three policy routes to fulfill our
application. First policy route rule is to route the traffic destination of which is the host
located in a VPN remote subnet and the next-hop will be VPN tunnel. Second policy
route rule is for LAN host to internet, thus the next-hop will be ge3 that is connected to
the internet gateway ZyWALL 1050 B. The third rule is for the traffic coming from the
VPN tunnel and the destination is the internet. Then next-hop will be ge3.
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The CLI commands for application:
Address Object:
[0] address-object wholerange 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255
[0] address-object VPN_LAN_SUBNET 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0
[0] address-object LAN_SUBNET 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0
VPN Gateway:
[0] isakmp policy zw70
[1] mode main
[2] transform-set des-md5
[3] lifetime 86400
[4] no natt
[5] dpd
[6] local-ip interface ge2
[7] peer-ip 172.23.23.1 0.0.0.0
[8] authentication pre-share
[9] keystring 123456789
[10] local-id type ip 0.0.0.0
[11] peer-id type any
[12] xauth type server default deactivate
[13] group1
[14] exit
VPN Connection:
[0] crypto map zw70tunnel
[1] ipsec-isakmp zw70
[2] encapsulation tunnel
[3] transform-set esp-des-sha
[4] set security-association lifetime seconds 86400
[5] set pfs none
[6] no policy-enforcement
[7] local-policy wholerange
[8] remote-policy VPN_LAN_SUBNET
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[9] no nail-up
[10] no replay-detection
[11] no netbios-broadcast
[12] no out-snat activate
[13] no in-snat activate
[14] no in-dnat activate
[15] exit
ZyWALL70 configuration
1) Go to the GUI of ZyWALL70 > VPN Global Setting page to configure the VPN rules. The
remote subnet range will be 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. This range also includes
ZyWALL70’s local network 192.168.1.0. Thus, we have to activate the option of VPN
rules skip applying to the overlap range of local and remote IP addresses. The ZyWALL70
management IP 192.168.1.1 and other internal subnet resources will become unreachable
if the user forgot to activate this option.
2) Go to Security >VPN to set the IKE rules. We put 172.23.23.1 as My Address,
172.23.23.2 as the Remote Gateway address and 123456789 as the Pre-Shared Key. For
other parameters, we set them to match those set in the ZyWALL1050 A.
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Go to the Associated Network Policies of this rule to configure the IPSec rule. Please note
that the Remote Network should be within 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255 range.
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ZyWALL1050 B configuration
1) Login the ZyWALL1050 A GUI and go to Configuration > Network > Interface >
Ethernet and configure the IP settings as shown in the topology.
2) We have to add one more policy route for the traffic from DMZ (ge4) to internet
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(WAN_TRUNK).
After we finish the setting in ZyWALL 70 and ZyWALL 1050 A and B, the setup is complete.
The CLI commands for application:
Policy Route:
[0] policy 1
[1] no deactivate
[2] no description
[3] no user
[4] interface ge4
[5] source DMZ_SUBNET
[6] destination any
[7] no schedule
[8] service any
[9] next-hop trunk WAN_TRUNK
[10] snat outgoing-interface
[11] no bandwidth
[12] exit
Tips for application:
1. Make sure the Pre-Shared Key is the same in both local and remote gateways.
2. Make sure the IKE proposal is the same in both local and remote gateways.
3. Select the correct Interface for VPN connection on ZyWALL1050.
4. The Local and the Peer ID type and content must the opposite and not of the same content.
5. The Local Policy of ZyWALL 1050 should be within the range of 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255.
Then it can take the role of a central controller of all the outgoing traffic from a branch.
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1.6 Multiple Entry Point (MEP)
To ensure high reliability and high availability of Headquarters’ network access for branch
office or teleworker, ZyWALL 1050 supports multiple entry points application to bring the
following benefits:
1. Ensuring the network path is always available – if the use of the primary network
path fails, user can access the same resources via a backup path
2. Easy to maintain – does not require complex configuration
3. Affordable – does not require investments in excessive/expensive equipment
There are some perquisites for using ZyWALL1050:
1. Remote VPN gateway must support redundant VPN gateway (VPN HA)
2. Routing mechanism must be well-designed to prevent asymmetric routing from
happening in the Intranet
1.6.1
Deploying MEP
Assume a teleworker is out of office and needs to access the internal server in the main office.
In case the primary WAN access is unavailable, he configures a secondary secure gateway to
access the server through another branch office which has a lease line to connect to the main
office.
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Here, we simulate the topology as on the following picture. It shows a simple use of ZyWALL
2 Plus which supports VPN HA and Dial Backup functions. When the primary WAN access to
the VPN tunnel is down, ZyWALL1050 will trigger the dialup backup and establish a VPN
tunnel with second secure gateway of another ZyWALL1050 located at the branch office.
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For this scenario, we need the following devices:
z One ZyWALL 2 Plus
z Two ZyWALL 1050
z One ES-4024A
z One modem connecting to ZyWALL 2 Plus’s AUX port (ex. ZyXEL omni.lite com+)
z One FTP server
z One PC behind ZyWALL 2 Plus
Now, we are going to complete the following main tasks:
1. Configure Dynamic VPN setting with SNAT on ZyWALL 1050_A
2. Configure Dynamic VPN setting with SNAT on ZyWALL 1050_B
3. Configure the VPN setting corresponding with VPN HA on ZyWALL 2 Plus and enable
ping check to detect the whether the WAN connection is down so that the switch can dial
backup connection immediately.
4. Configure VLAN setting on ES-4024A. And once the PC is able to access the FTP server
through the second VPN tunnel, an static route on ES-4024A is required to direct the
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traffic to go back through the original path(FTP server Æ ES-4024A Æ ZyWALL 1050-B
Æ ZyWALL 2 Plus Æ PC).
5. Test either when primary or secondary VPN tunnel is on, the PC behind ZyWALL 2 Plus
should be able to reach the FTP server by ping.
The IP addresses and configuration of the VPN setting on the three devices are as shown
below.
Main office
ZyWALL 2 Plus
ZyWALL 1050-A
My Address
ge2, 59.124.163.154
Security
Gateway
Address
Branch office
ZyWALL 1050-B
0.0.0.0
ge2, 59.124.163.155
Primary: 59.124.163.154
0.0.0.0
Secondary: 59.124.163.155
0.0.0.0
Fail back check: Enable
Fail back check Interval: 180sec
Local ID Type
IP, 0.0.0.0
IP, 0.0.0.0
IP, 0.0.0.0
Peer ID Type
Any
IP, 0.0.0.0
Any
Local
Subnet, 192.168.1.0
Subnet, 192.168.3.0
Subnet, 192.168.2.0
Remote
Subnet, 192.168.3.0
Subnet, 192.168.1.0
Subnet, 192.168.3.0
Change
N/A
Change
SNAT
192.168.3.0 Æ
192.168.3.0 Æ
192.168.1.0
192.168.1.0
to
to
192.168.30.0 Æ
192.168.31.0 Æ
192.168.1.0
192.168.1.0
Phase1
Negotiation
Main
Main
Main
Pre-share key
123456789
123456789
123456789
Encryption
DES
DES
DES
Authentication
MD5
MD5
MD5
Key Group
DH1
DH1
DH1
Mode
Phase2
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Encapsulation
Tunnel
Tunnel
Tunnel
Active
ESP
ESP
ESP
Encryption
DES
DES
DES
Authentication
SHA1
SHA1
SHA1
PFS
NONE
NONE
NONE
Protocol
See the following step-by-step configuration:
1. Configuration on ZyWALL 1050-A
(1) LAN/WAN Network Setting
Login ZyWALL 1050-A’s GUI, go to menu Configuration > Network > Interface. Modify
ge2’s IP address to 59.124.163.154 with subnet 255.255.255.224 and gateway 59.124.163.129.
Secondly, modify interface “ge1” to be as LAN network. Here we keep to use the default IP
address “192.168.1.0” with subnet 255.255.255.0. Moreover, configure the DHCP setting as a
DHCP server with the IP poor starting address, pool size accordingly and the proper DNS
server IP address which will apply to LAN PCs automatically. (By default, the “first DNS
server” is configured as “from ISP”. Since we configure the static IP address for ge2(WAN), it
won’t automatically get any DNS setting from ISP. So we have to change it to “Custom
Defined” and enter a proper DNS server’s IP address.)
(2). Dynamic VPN Setting with SNAT
Step1. Create Address Objects for further configuration
1. Go to menu Configuration > Network > Object > Address
2. Create one address for the local VPN network by clicking '+' icon
Name: Local_192_168_1
Subnet, 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
3. Create another one for the remote VPN network
Name: Remote_192_168_3
Subnet, 192.168.3.0/255.255.255.0
4. Create another one for the network behind ZyWALL1050-A performing SNAT
Name: Local_192_168_30
Subnet, 192.168.30.0/255.255.255.0
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5. Create another one for the network for traffic which wants to go to the branch office’s
subnet, that is ZyWALL1050-B’s LAN site.
Name: Local_192_168_31
Subnet, 192.168.31.0/255.255.255.0
6. Create another one for dynamic remote network.
Name: Remote_ANY
Subnet, 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0
7. Create another one for the IP domain interface on ES-4024A’s VLAN2.
Name: HOST_192_168_1_254
Host, 192.168.1.254/255.255.255.255
8. Create another one to indicate ZyWALL 2 Plus’s WAN IP address for the Firewall rule
usage which will allow the pingcheck traffic of ZyWALL 2 Plus can ping ZyWALL 1050-A’s
ge2(WAN) interface.
Name: ZW2plus_59_124_163_152
Host, 59.124.163.152/255.255.255.255
9. Create one more still to indicate ZyWALL 1050-A’s ge2(WAN) IP address for Firewall rule
usage which will allow ZyWALL 1050-A’s ge2 to be ping from ZyWALL 2 plus and also can
response to the ping.
Name: ge2_IP
Host, 59.124.163.154/255.255.255.255
CLI command for reference:
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[0] address-object
[1] address-object
[2] address-object
[3] address-object
[4] address-object
[5] address-object
255.255.255.255
[6] address-object
255.255.255.255
[7] address-object
Local_192_168_1 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0
Remote_192_168_3 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0
Local_192_168_30 192.168.30.0 255.255.255.0
Local_192_168_31 192.168.31.0 255.255.255.0
Remote_ANY 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
HOST_192_168_1_254 192.168.1.254
ZW2plus_59_124_163_152 59.124.163.152
ge2_IP 59.124.163.154 255.255.255.255
Step2. Create an IKE rule
1. Go to menu Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN, switch to 'VPN Gateway'
2. Create a new IKE by clicking '+' icon
3. Fill out the fields as following.
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CLI commands for reference:
[0] isakmp policy IKE1
[1] mode main
[2] transform-set des-md5
[3] lifetime 86400
[4] no natt
[5] dpd
[6] local-ip interface ge2
[7] peer-ip 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
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[8] authentication pre-share
[9] keystring 123456789
[10] local-id type ip 0.0.0.0
[11] peer-id type any
[12] xauth type server default deactivate
[13] group1
Step3. Configure the IPSec rule
1. Go to menu Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN, switch to 'VPN Connection'
2. Create a new IPSec by clicking '+' icon
3. Configure the VPN setting as shown below.
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Note: In ZyWALL 1050-A, we use “Source NAT” to change the VPN traffic from 192.168.3.0
network which will go to 192.168.1.0 network to 192.168.30.0 network. And we will also
configure ZyWALL 1050-B to change the VPN traffic from 192.168.3.0 network which will
go to 192.168.2.0 network to 192.168.31.0 network later.
CLI commands for reference
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[0] crypto map IPsec1
[1] ipsec-isakmp IKE1
[2] encapsulation tunnel
[3] transform-set esp-des-sha
[4] set security-association lifetime seconds 86400
[5] set pfs none
[6] no policy-enforcement
[7] local-policy Local_192_168_1
[8] remote-policy Remote_ANY
[9] no nail-up
[10] no replay-detection
[11] no netbios-broadcast
[12] no out-snat activate
[13] in-snat activate
[14] in-snat source Remote_192_168_3 destination Local_192_168_1
snat Local_192_168_30
[15] no in-dnat activate
(3) Add a policy route
1. Go to GUI menu Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route tab
2. By default, there is one policy route already to indicate all packets which is sent from
LAN to any network will be passed through WAN_TRUNK. This is also to direct IKE
packet to WAN and trigger the VPN tunnel then.
3.
4.
Click the ‘+’ icon to add another new policy route which will be used to route traffic from
ZyWALL 1050-B to return via original path.
Define that all the traffic from 192.168.1.0 network that wants to go to 192.168.31.0
routed by the gateway, the host of 192.168.1.254. The configuration is as shown below.
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Note: The purpose of this policy route is to direct the traffic from 192.168.3.0 which is sent
through the secondary VPN path to be redirected to 192.168.31.0 network and returned
through the original path.
For example, think about when primary VPN tunnel is down, the traffic would go from PC Æ
ZyWALL 2 Plus Æ ZyWALL 1050-B (change source IP to 192.168.31.0) Æ ES-4024A Æ to
FTP server (now the packet is with source 192.168.31.0 to destination 192.168.1.33).
The FTP server’s gateway is ZyWALL 1050-A’s ge2 applied via DHCP or manually
configured. So when traffic would return, it will be flowed from FTP server ÆZyWALL
1050-A’s ge2 (which will redirect the traffic to another host ) Æ192.168.1.254 (which is
ES-4024A’s VLAN3 route-domain IP address) Æ ZyWALL1050-B Æ ZyWALL 2 Plus Æ to
the PC behind ZyWALL 2 Plus.
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After the configuration is down, you will see two policy routes as shown below.
CLI commands for reference:
[0] policy 1
[1] no deactivate
[2] no description
[3] no user
[4] interface ge1
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[5] source Local_192_168_1
[6] destination Local_192_168_31
[7] no schedule
[8] service any
[9] next-hop gateway HOST_192_168_1_254
[10] no snat
[11] no bandwidth
[12] exit
(4) Enable Firewall and create one Firewall policy rule for ZyWALL 2 Plus to be able to
ping ZyWALL 1050-A’s ge2(WAN)
1.
2.
3.
Go to GUI menu Security > Firewall
Enable Firewall: On
Choose To-ZyWALL rules and click “+” at the right site to add a new rule.
4.
Fill out the information as following and click “apply” button then.
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5.
The new firewall rule is available as shown below.
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2. Configuration on ZyWALL 1050-B
(1). LAN/WAN Network Setting
Login ZyWALL 1050-A’s GUI, go to menu Configuration > Network > Interface. Modify
ge2’s(WAN) IP address to 59.124.163.155 with subnet 255.255.255.224 and gateway
59.124.163.129. Secondly, modify ge1’s(LAN) IP address to 192.168.2.1 with subnet
255.255.255.0 and configure it as a DHCP server with the IP poor starting address and pool
size accordingly. Besides, also input the proper DNS server which will apply to LAN PCs
automatically. (By default, the first DNS server is configured as “from ISP”. Since we
configure the static IP address for ge2(WAN), it won’t automatically get any DNS setting from
ISP. So we have to change it to “Custom Defined” and give it a proper DNS server’s IP
address.)
(2). Dynamic VPN Setting with SNAT
Step1. Create Address Objects for further configuration.
1. Go to menu Configuration > Network > Object > Address
2. Create a new address object for local network by clicking '+' icon
Name: Local_192_168_2
Subnet, 192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
3. Create another one for remote network
Name: Remote_192_168_3
Subnet, 192.168.3.0/255.255.255.0
4. Create another one for the network behind ZyWALL1050-B performing SNAT
Name: Local_192_168_31
Subnet, 192.168.31.0/255.255.255.0
5. Create another one for dynamic remote network.
Name: Remote_ANY
Subnet, 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0
6. Create still one more for the IP domain interface on ES-4024A’s VLAN3.
Name: HOST_192_168_2_254
Host, 192.168.2.254/255.255.255.255
CLI commands for reference:
[0] address-object Local_192_168_2 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0
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[1] address-object
[2] address-object
[3] address-object
[4] address-object
255.255.255.255
Remote_192_168_3 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0
Local_192_168_31 192.168.31.0 255.255.255.0
Remote_ANY 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
HOST_192_168_2_254 192.168.2.254
Step2. Create an IKE rule
1. Go to menu Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN, switch to 'VPN Gateway'
2. Create a new IKE by clicking '+' icon
3. Fill out the fields as following.
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CLI commands for reference:
[0] isakmp policy IKE1
[1] mode main
[2] transform-set des-md5
[3] lifetime 86400
[4] no natt
[5] dpd
[6] local-ip interface ge2
[7] peer-ip 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
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[8] authentication pre-share
[9] keystring 123456789
[10] local-id type ip 0.0.0.0
[11] peer-id type any
[12] xauth type server default deactivate
[13] group1
Step3. Configure the IPSec rule
1. Go to menu Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN, switch to 'VPN Connection'
2. Create a new IPSec by click '+' icon
3. Fill out the fields as following
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.
Note that we use Source NAT to change the VPN traffic from 192.168.3.0 which will goes to
192.168.1.0 network and to 192.168.31.0 network.
CLI commands for reference
[0] crypto map IPsec1
[1] ipsec-isakmp IKE1
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[2] encapsulation tunnel
[3] transform-set esp-des-sha
[4] set security-association lifetime seconds 86400
[5] set pfs none
[6] no policy-enforcement
[7] local-policy Local_192_168_1
[8] remote-policy Remote_ANY
[9] no nail-up
[10] no replay-detection
[11] no netbios-broadcast
[12] no out-snat activate
[13] in-snat activate
[14] in-snat source Remote_192_168_3 destination Local_192_168_1
snat Local_192_168_31
[15] no in-dnat activate
(3) Add a policy route
1. Go to GUI menu Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route tab
2. By default, there is one policy route already to indicate all packets which is sent from
LAN to any network will be passed through WAN_TRUNK. This is also to direct IKE
packet to WAN and trigger the VPN tunnel then.
3. Click the ‘+’ icon to add another policy route which indicates where all the traffic which
wants to go to the ZyWALL 1050-A’s LAN network will be routed to.
4. Define that all the traffic that wants to go to 192.168.1.0 network will be routed by the
gateway, the host of 192.168.2.254. The configuration is as shown below.
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After the configuration is down, you will see two policy routes as shown below.
CLI commands for reference:
[0] policy 1
[1] no deactivate
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[2] no description
[3] no user
[4] no interface
[5] no tunnel
[6] source any
[7] destination Local_192_168_1
[8] no schedule
[9] service any
[10] next-hop gateway HOST_192_168_2_254
[11] no snat
[12] no bandwidth
[13] exit
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3. Configuration on ZyWALL 2 Plus
(1). LAN Network Setting
1. Login ZyWALL 2 Plus GUI and go to menu Network > LAN, change the IP address to
192.168.3.1/24 and DHCP IP pool starting address from 192.168.3.33. Then release the
original IP address on your PC and get the new IP address in 192.168.3.0/24 subnet assigned
by DHCP.
(2). WAN Network Setting
1. Switch to GUI menu Network > WAN, change the IP address to 59.124.163.152 with
subnet 255.255.255.224 and gateway 59.124.163.129 in this example. Other setting leaves as
default value.
Reminder: Please remember to configure the public DNS server at GUI menu Advanced >
DNS > System tab, to insert the correct DNS server accordingly at Name Server Record.
(3). Dial Backup Setting
1. Switch to GUI menu Network > WAN > Dial Backup tab
- Enable Dial Backup: enable
- Fill out the login name, password, phone number and dial backup port speed according to
your modem dial up settings.
- Click the Apply button
2. Telnet or login ZyWALL 2 Plus console and switch to menu 24.8 to enable the pingcheck
to detect the WAN connection availability.
- Execute the CLI command: sys rn pingcheck 1
3. Add the CLI to autoexec.net to make it always enabled even after device reboot.
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ras> sys edit autoexec.net
EDIT cmd: q(uit) x(save & exit) i(nsert after) d(elete) r(eplace) n(ext)
ip nat loopback on
bridge mode 1
: sys rn pingcheck 1
Å enter ‘i’ to insert the command, enter ‘x’ to save and exit then.
ras >
(4) VPN Setting
1. Switch to GUI menu Security > VPN, click the ‘+’ icon as following to add a VPN-IKE
rule.
2. Configure VPN-IKE setting on ZyWALL 2 Plus as following.
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3. At the same page of menu Security > VPN, click the icon to add a VPN-IPSec rule.
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4. Configure the IPSec rule as following.
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4. Configuration on ES-4024A
(1). Create Two VLANs
First of all, we need to create two VLANs (vlan2 & vlan3) for 192.168.1.0 and 192.168.2.0
subnet.
1. Login to ES-4024A’s GUI menu Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN link.
2. Add vlan2 (including port 9-16, Fixed, Untag when Egress process) and vlan3 (including
port 17-24, Fixed, Untag when Egress process). Then click the Add button.
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3. Switch to menu Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting link. Configure
PVID equal to 2 for port 9 ~16 and PVID equal to 3 for port 17~24 as shown below. Then
click the Apply button.
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(2). Create Two Routing Domains
Switch to menu Basic Setting > IP Setup, create two IP routing domain using menu Basic
setting > IP Setup as shown below. Then click the Add button.
(3). Create One Static Route
Add the static route for the packets returning from the 192.168.1.0 network to the
192.168.31.0 network if the traffic is from 192.168.3.0 through the secondary VPN gateway,
ZyWALL 1050-B.
1. Enter the ES4024A’s GUI, go to menu Routing Protocol > Static Routing.
2. Define that the traffic that wants to go to the 192.168.31.0/24 network will be routed by
the gateway, 192.168.2.1. The configuration is as shown below.
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CLI commands for reference:
vlan 2
name 2
normal ""
fixed 9-16
forbidden 1-8,17-28
untagged 1-28
ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
exit
vlan 3
name 3
normal ""
fixed 17-24
forbidden 1-16,25-28
untagged 1-28
ip address 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0
exit
interface port-channel 9
pvid 2
exit
interface port-channel 10
pvid 2
exit
interface port-channel 11
pvid 2
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exit
interface
pvid 2
exit
interface
pvid 2
exit
interface
pvid 2
exit
interface
pvid 2
exit
interface
pvid 2
exit
interface
pvid 3
exit
interface
pvid 3
exit
interface
pvid 3
exit
interface
pvid 3
port-channel 12
port-channel 13
port-channel 14
port-channel 15
port-channel 16
port-channel 17
port-channel 18
port-channel 19
port-channel 20
exit
interface port-channel 21
pvid 3
exit
interface port-channel 22
pvid 3
exit
interface port-channel 23
pvid 3
exit
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interface port-channel 24
pvid 3
exit
interface route-domain 192.168.1.254/24
exit
interface route-domain 192.168.2.254/24
exit
interface route-domain 192.168.111.1/24
exit
ip route 192.168.31.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1 metric 0 name
LAN_31
exit
5. Test
(1). Trigger the Primary VPN tunnel up
Keeping Ping from the PC(ex. IP with 192.168.3.33) behind ZyWALL2 Plus to the FTP
server(ex. IP with 192.168.1.33), it will be reachable after the primary VPN tunnel is on. See
the screen capture of ZyWALL 2 Plus’s log as shown below.
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(2). Simulate the WAN connection of ZyWALL2 Plus is down
Unplug both ZyWALL2 Plus’s WAN connection and ZyWALL 1050-A’s WAN connection at
the same time, the PC behind ZyWALL 2 Plus should be able to reach the FTP server by ping
after both dial backup and secondary VPN tunnel are on.
See the screen capture of the progress as shown below at this step. The ZyWALL 2 Plus’s IKE
detect the tunnel is down and send HASH-DEL packet out. (However, since the Internet
access is down, so ZyWALL 1050-A won’t receive those HASH-DEL packets.) The dial
backup starts right away then.
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The screen capture below shows you the dial backup gets dynamic IP 218.32.98.40. And the
IPSec HA take action after several IKE packets sent without any packet returned.
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Then ZyWALL 2 Plus tries to establish VPN tunnel with ZyWALL 1050-B (59.124.163.155).
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Finally, the VPN tunnel has been successfully established with ZyWALL 1050-B. And the PC
behind ZyWALL 2 Plus can ping the FTP server then. See the screen capture shown below.
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1.7 Device High Availability
Main Office
Resilience of WAN connectivity – VPN HA
supports redundant gateway so that the
network path of VPN can always be available
Remote Site 1
ZyWALL 2 Plus
ZyWALL 1050 (Master)
ZyWALL 1050
Mitigate the impact of Single Point of Failure –
device HA greatly reduces the device downtime
and guarantees the non-stop operation
ZyWALL 35
Remote Site 2
In the Global or multi-site Enterprise network deployment, reliability is another major
concern while planning a VPN deployment.
ZyWALL 1050 provides advanced features to support the following scenarios to
achieve high availability of the VPN infrastructure.
The benefits for the customer are
‧ Dealing with the impact of unreliable WAN connectivity
‧ Mitigates the impact of Single Point of Failure
Below is the Application topology. The L3 switch is configured to three VLANs to simulate
the internet environment and the traffic can be routed between each VLAN.
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Step by step configuration
1.7.1
Device HA
1.
Setup Master ZyWALL 1050 and the configuration will auto sync with Backup
ZyWALL 1050 via the device HA setting.
1.1. Interface setup
The default LAN subnet is combined with ge1 and default IP is 192.168.1.1. Please connect to
ge1 and ZyWALL 1050 will dispatch an IP for your PC. Then we can start to setup the basic
interface and routing setting.
Step1. Login to device and check the device status
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Step2. We can check all the interface information on the Status display page.
Step3. Setup WAN1, WAN2, LAN and DMZ interface IP parameters as in the demo
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topology.
ge1
ge2
ge3
ge4
ge5
LAN
WAN1
WAN2
DMZ
Reserved
The default interface configuration is as follows. We will configure ge2, ge3, ge4 and ge1 in
turn. User needs to click the “Edit” icon to modify the setting.
ge2 Fix IP: 220.123.123.2/255.255.255.0 Gateway: 220.123.123.1
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ge3 Fix IP: 220.123.133.2/255.255.255.0 Gateway: 220.123.133.1
ge4 Fix IP: 192.168.20.254/255.255.255.0 DHCP server
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ge1 Fix IP: 192.168.10.254/255.255.255.0 DHCP server
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User’s pc network connection will disconnect and get the new IP address from ZyWALL 1050
after applying ge1’s new setting.
1.2. Configure the interface to correspond Zone
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Step1. Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Network > Zone and click the “Edit”
icon to modify the setting.
Step2. The default setting of ZyWALL 1050 is having three Zones. User can add more
Zones or modify the Zone’s name if they wish. The main purpose of Zone is to add the
security checking between different interfaces. The default interface for LAN zone is binding
with ge1, WAN zone is binding with ge2 and ge3, DMZ zone is binding ge4 and ge5. Thus,
we only need to modify the DMZ zone to bind the ge4 only. This is an optional setting that
won’t affect the whole application.
Click the “Remove” icon to delete ge5 under the DMZ zone.
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Step3. Check the interface overview table on the Status page to confirm the settings.
1.3. Setup the routing
The routing source and destination address options will auto-grant from address object. The
policy or static route can’t be correctly setup while the corresponding address object is not
configured.
Step1. Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Objects > Address > Address and we
will find there is one default LAN_SUBNET address object.
Change the address from 192.168.1.0 to 192.168.10.0 to configure the new LAN IP. The
routing won’t work if user changes the default LAN IP address and forgets to modify the
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LAN_SUBNET.
Step.2 ZyWALL 1050 will automatically route the traffic between all connected
interfaces. There is one default policy route form LAN for the traffic outgoing to the network
behind WAN.
Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route or Static Route to
check the routing settings.
User can click the “Edit” icon to check the detail settings
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Step4. The PC in ZyWALL 1050 LAN subnet can communicate with the ZyWALL 2
after applying all the routing settings.
1.4. Setup Device HA (Activate-Passive)
We will configure the Device HA setting on master ZyWALL 1050 first. Then we can connect
the Backup ZyWALL 1050 cables to L3 and L2 switch and then synchronize the configuration
from Master. The Device HA will be ready after this and Backup ZyWALL 1050 will take
over when Master ZyWALL 1050 fails.
Step1.Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Network > Device HA > VRRP
GROUP and click the “add” icon to add a new VRRP GROUP
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Setup the ge1 (LAN) VRRP group
Setup the ge2 (WAN1) VRRP group
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Setup the ge3 (WAN2) VRRP group
Setup the ge4 (DMZ) VRRP group
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Step2. Connect the PC to Backup ZyWALL 1050 ge1 and the PC should be dispatched an
IP address from the device. User can login to the Backup ZyWALL 1050 and configure the
Backup Device HA setting. We have to set the ge1 interface IP setting as Master ZyWALL
1050 ge1. Then we can setup the Backup ZyWALL 1050 management IP address in the same
LAN subnet.
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Step3. PC will get a new IP address after updating the ge1 interface setting. Login to the
Backup ZyWALL 1050 and switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Network > Device
HA > VRRP GROUP. Then click the ”add” icon to add a VRRP group. Between Master and
Backup Role, the difference in settings is the Management IP configuration. The Backup
ZyWALL 1050 will copy all settings from the Master one so we need a management IP to
access and configure the Backup ZyWALL 1050.
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Step4. Unplug the PC cable from Backup ZyWALL 1050 ge1 and plug it back to L2
switch LAN segment. Connect all the cables from L2 and L3 switches to the Backup
ZyWALL 1050 as on the network topology diagram shown on the index page. Login to
Backup ZyWALL 1050 via management IP. Now we can synchronize the configuration from
the Master to the Backup.
Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Network > Device HA > Synchronize and enter
the Master ZyWALL 1050 admin account password..Input the LAN IP address of the Master
ZyWALL 1050 in the “Synchronize from” option and set the auto synchronize interval. Then
click the “Apply” button to save the configuration.
Step5. Switch to “Synchronize” page again and click the “Sync. NOW” button to
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synchronize the configuration from the Master to the Backup.
Note: Don’t check the “Auto Synchronize” since there is a bug related.
Sync process in action
Sync successful notification window
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Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Maintenance > Logs > View Log to check the log record.
Step6. Check the system status page. You will see that the Master ZyWALL 1050’s
configuration has been synchronized to Backup ZyWALL 1050 and we can continue to setup
the rest three VRRP group.
Setup the ge2 (WAN1) VRRP group
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Setup the ge3 (WAN2) VRRP group
Setup the ge4 (DMZ) VRRP group
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After these steps, the Device HA configuration is done.
1.7.2
VPN HA
The VPN HA can ensure the availability of VPN demanded. A redundant remote gateway
option is added to achieve the goal of availability. It means the device will try connecting to
the redundant gateway if the connection to the primary remote gateway is unreachable.
Step1. Setup the VPN at Master ZyWALL 1050
Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN Gateway and click
the “Add” icon to add a VPN gateway.
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Step2. Setup the VPN Gateway. The ZyWALL 2 VPN parameter configuration has to
match the setting shown here. As My Address, we use Domain Name 0.0.0.0 defining a
dynamic source as this VPN gateway will be accepting the traffic from ge2 (WAN1) and ge3
(WAN2).
Setup the DNS ”ZyWALL 1050” and “ZyWALL 2”as Local and Peer ID type.
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Step3. We have to add the local and remote address policy in the address object first.
Then we can configure these address objects in VPN connection settings. We will use the LAN
subnet and the DMZ subnet as a VPN local policy and we also need to add the address object
for a remote subnet.
Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Objects > Address > Address and we will find the
LAN subnet already setup and we need to click the “Add” icon to add one more address
object.
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Set the range to 192.168.10.0 ~ 192.168.20.255 including LAN and DMZ subnets as
‘RANGE’ address objects.
Set the 192.168.1.0 subnet as the remote address object.
Get back to the overview of the address object page. You can see that three address object R
and VPN REMOTE has already been set up.
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Step4. Setup the VPN connection.
Setup the VPN connection for RANGE (LAN and DMZ) subnet access.
Step5. Policy route for VPN traffic routing.
We have to setup the policy route for the VPN traffic routing to LAN and DMZ.
Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route and add the policy
route for the VPN traffic to LAN and DMZ.
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Step6. Connect the PC to ZyWALL 2 Plus and set the VPN settings.
In this step, we have to configure two VPN policies for remote ZyWALL 1050 LAN subnet
and DMZ subnet. Login ZyWALL 2 Plus and switch to the VPN configuration page.
Fill in the WAN IP in My Address field and put remote 1050 WAN1 and WAN2 IP as Primary
and Redundant remote Gateway. Activate the “Fail back to Primary Remote Gateway when
possible” option and set the checking interval.
Setup the DNS domain name “ZyWALL 2”and “ZyWALL 1050” as Local and Peer ID type.
Click Apply to save the configuration.
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Click the Add icon to edit the VPN Network Policy. Setup the VPN policy for local LAN
subnet (192.168.1.0/24) and Remote address type set to “Range Address” and IP is from
192.168.10.0 to 192.168.20.255. Click Apply to save the configuration.
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We will see the new VPN tunnel listed on the VPN status page after configuring the VPN
tunnel.
Ping the remote subnet to trigger the VPN tunnel.
User can unplug the WAN1 connection cable and test the VPN HA functionality now!
Supposedly the VPN connection will switch to WAN2 connection in several seconds.
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1.8 VoIP over VPN
Main Office
IPSec VPN
VoIP call
ZyWALL can
seamlessly work with
VoIP traffic –
VoIP ATA ZyWALL
Server farm
Branch Office
ZyWALL 70
VoIP ATA
VoIP calls can be
protected by VPN
deployment to provide
The VoIP line deployment between different offices is more and more popular. This
application can help enterprise to reduce the operation cost especially saving on long distance
communication fee. The security issues also rise due to the VoIP public network transmission
character. The common VoIP Security issues like call hijacking, identity theft and denial of
service. Thus ZyWALL 1050 can protect the VoIP line security by employing advanced VPN
technology.
ƒ
What’s the benefit of using ZyWALL to protect converged network?
‧ Prevent from call hijacking (VoIP over VPN)
‧ Prevent from identity theft (VoIP over VPN)
‧ Mitigate impact of denial of service
We use a simple topology to illustrate and show how ZyWALL 1050 can protect the VoIP line
step by step in the following notes.
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Fix VoIP Line Application
Branch Office
Main Office
P2002
P2002
IP: 192.168.22.35
SIP Number: 880
IP: 192.168.10.37
SIP Number: 850
ZyWALL 1050
WAN: 179.25.3.24
LAN: 192.168.10.0/24
VPN Tunnel
VPN Tunnel
Internet
ZyWALL70
WAN: 220.123.97.7
LAN: 192.168.22.0/24
We used two VoIP ATA (ZyXEL P2002 series) connected to office gateway. Each of the VoIP
ATA has a SIP number for remote ATA dialing. This kind of application is called Fix VoIP Line
application. User only needs to install and configure VoIP ATA device and doesn’t need to
register with an external SIP server. We will use VPN tunnel for VoIP traffic transmission to
ensure the VoIP security.
VoIP ATA P2002 Configuration:
The default management IP for P2002 is 192.168.5.1. Login to the P2002 GUI and switch to
the Ethernet menu. Set the Ethernet IP setting to “Get IP address Automatically”.
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Switch to the Maintenance menu and check what IP address was granted from ZyWALL 1050.
Connect to the other P2002 GUI and repeat the same steps to find out the IP address.
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1. Setup the SIP Number in the Branch Office.
2. Setup the SIP Number in the Main Office.
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3. Setup the Branch Office SIP number and the IP address in the Main Office’s P2002’s
PHONEBOOK menu. Fill in the SIP number and the IP address for the branch office VoIP
ATA and then click the Add button to add this record in the Speed Dial Phone Book.
4. Setup the Main Office SIP number and the IP address in the Branch Office’s P2002’s
PHONEBOOK menu. The remote office SIP info will show up in Speed Dial Phone Book
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after adding this record.
We have finished the configuration of VoIP ATA on both sites and we can move to the next
section, to setup the security gateway on both sites.
Main Office ZyWALL 1050 Configuration:
1. Login to the ZyWALL 1050 Web GUI and setup the ZyWALL 1050 WAN and LAN
interface as shown on the previous topology diagram.
2. Setup the remote subnet address object for the subnet behind the remote office
ZyWALL70.
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3. Setup the VPN tunnel to force the VoIP traffic going through the VPN tunnel to Branch
Office. Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN
Gateway and add a new VPN gateway rule.
4. Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Network > IPSec VPN > VPN Connection
and add a new VPN connection. The local and remote policy are the Address objects
LAN_SUBNET and zw70VPN_LAN.
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5. Switch to ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route to add a policy
route for routing the local subnet traffic to the remote branch office subnet via the tunnel zw70VPN.
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6. We have finished the VPN connection and routing configuration. Now we can start to
setup the security checking rule over this VPN tunnel. Switch to ZyWALL 1050 >
Configuration > Network > Zone and add a new Zone for VPN.
7. First, we can configure the firewall rule to prevent the unauthorized access from other
zones and we also can add more granular access control rules. Criteria can be different
users, sources or services.
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8. We also can use IDP to detect and intercept the intrusion in the VPN tunnel. Switch to
ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration > Policy > IDP and follow the steps shown on the diagram
below to add the IDP protection to the VPN zone.
9. We have finished the VPN tunnel configuration and security policy enforcement over the
VPN tunnel. The VoIP traffic transmitted via the VPN tunnel is well protected now.
CLI commands for IDP activation and Profile binding:
[0] idp activate
[1] idp zone LAN activate
[2] no idp zone WAN activate
[3] idp zone DMZ activate
[4] idp bind VPN profile LAN_IDP
[5] idp zone VPN activate
[6] show idp bindings
[7] show idp profiles
[8] show service-register status idp
[9] show idp activation
Branch Office ZyWALL70 Configuration:
1. Login to the ZyWALL70 Web GUI and setup the ZyWALL70 WAN and LAN interface as
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shown in the previous topology diagram.
2. Configure the VPN tunnel for connecting with ZyWALL 1050.
We can start to enjoy the VoIP Phone Line convenience and cost saving without security
issues after the VPN connection and security policy enforcement have been deployed in the
network environment.
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2. Security Policy Enforcement
What is a security policy?
Security policy, in the context of information security, defines an individual or an object’s
access privilege to information assets which are very important for the company. If the
security policy is not considered and deployed well, the impact on the company will be
massive. We can say that it is a mandatory process to protect the information assets.
For example, ZyCompany doesn’t want their guests or vendors to be able to access their
internal network but allows them to access Internet in case they have to get some information
from outside, i.e. access their company’s email. Therefore, ZyCompany defines a security
policy - outsider can use ‘guest/guest1234’to access Internet through wireless access, but it is
forbidden for them to access company’s Internal resource, like talk to LAN PC, access the
DMZ servers, or access the branch office’s data through VPN’s environment.
What your business can benefit from deployment of security policy?
Deploy security policy well can not only protect company information assets, but also
increase overall productivity, mitigate the impact of malicious application or misuse, and
support regulatory compliance.
2.1 Managing IM/P2P Applications
2.1.1
Why bother with managing IM/P2P applications?
Because some virus/exploits which may cause security breaches are transmitted via
IM/P2P applications, managing IM/P2P application well can mitigate security breaches.
Besides, restricting access to IM/P2P applications can help employees focusing on his/her job
to increase productivity and reduce misuse of network resources, e.g. bandwidth.
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2.1.2
What does ZyWALL 1050 provide for managing IM/P2P applications?
ZyWALL provides best solution to solve the rigidity of the “all-or-nothing” approach and can
meet customer’s expectation.
1. Application patrol: it can “recognize” IM/P2P applications and IT administrators can
leverage it to restrict access to IM/P2P applications
2. Access granularity: combined with access granularity, IT admin can enforce flexible policy
against IM/P2P applications.
ZyWALL 1050’s access granularity for controlling hazardous IM/P2P applications:
z
z
z
By User/Group
By Time of access
By Bandwidth
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2.1.3
Configuration Example
Here we show you an example. ZyCompany has rule to define some employees who cannot
use P2P/IM at all while some employees are also not allowed to use P2P, but they can use IM
after work during 18:00 ~ 22:00 and the max bandwidth could be used is 100k. For managers,
company’s policy allows them to use IM and P2P applications all the time but max bandwidth
for them is still controlled not to get over 200k. Besides, traffic will be inspected by IDP and
be monitored by bandwidth usage to prevent security threats from Internet through the
applications.
We are going to complete following setting.
1. Create user/group object
2. Create schedule object
3. Configure layer 7 application control -- App Patrol
4. Configure Policy Route
5. Configure IDP
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Step by step configuration of ZW1050 is as follows:
Step1. Create user/group object
1. We are going to create several users for different groups.
user
group
P2P access
IM access
Time for access
Bandwidth
Victor
Manager
ok
ok
IM+P2P(all the time)
IM+P2P <=200k
Peter
Engineer1
X
X
N/A
N/A
John
Engineer2
X
ok
IM-(18:00 ~ 22:00)
IM <=100K
2. Go to menu Configuration > User/Group > User tab, add user ‘Victor’ as following figure.
Click ‘+’ to add new user
.
Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] username Victor password 1234 user-type user
[1] username Victor description Local User
[2] username Victor logon-lease-time 1440
[3] username Victor logon-re-auth-time 1440
3. Switch to the Group tab, create group ‘Manager’ and add member ‘Victor’ to it on the
following figure.
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4. Then press ‘OK’ button to complete the group creation.
Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] groupname Manager
[1] description Manager group
[2] user Victor
[3] exit
5. Create two more group ‘Engineer1’ and Engineer2’ to and add ‘Peter’ and ‘John’ in
similarly.
Step2. Create schedule object
1. Go to menu Object > Schedule, click the “+” from the Recurring schedule to create a new
schedule as following figures.
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z Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] schedule-object IM_for_Engineer2 18:00 22:00 mon tue wed thu
fri
Step3. Configuration in L7 application control -- App Patrol
1. Go to menu Configuration > Policy > APP. Patrol
2. Enable the application patrol.
3. Choose the application to define further setting. In Instant Messenger and Peer-to-Peer
category, there are several applications allowed to be configured. We take ‘MSN’ for
example. Click the modify icon to get to the further configuration.
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4. Enable the service
5. Choose the classification ‘Port-less’ to enable layer 7 packet inspection.
6. Choose access ‘Drop’, then the action in the exception policy will change to ‘Forward’
automatically.
7. Click ‘+’ to add two exception rules for 2 groups, Engineer2 and Manager, as on the figure
shown below.
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Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] app msn drop exception forward
[1] no app msn log
[2] app msn activate
[3] app msn mode portless
[4] no app msn bwm
[5] app msn bandwidth 1
[6] app msn exception 1
[7] schedule IM_for_Engineer2
[8] user Engineer2
[9] source LAN_SUBNET
[10] no destination
[11] no log
[12] exit
[13] app msn exception 2
[14] no schedule
[15] user Manager
[16] source LAN_SUBNET
[17] no destination
[18] no log
[19] exit
Step4. Configuration of the Policy Route
1. Got to menu Configuration > Policy > Route
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2. Create a new policy route rule by clicking the ‘+’ icon. Fill out the settings as on the figure
shown below.
3. Note that:
We choose user the group ‘Engineer2’.
Source is a LAN subnet
Schedule is what we just created and named ‘IM_for_Engineer2’
From Next-Hop, choose ‘Trunk’ and choose ‘WAN_Trunk’ from the Trunk field.
Enter the maximum bandwidth 100Kbps.
4. Press the OK button to complete the setting.
Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] policy 1
[1] no deactivate
[2] description IM_access_by_Engineer2
[3] user Engineer2
[4] no interface
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[5] no tunnel
[6] source LAN_SUBNET
[7] destination any
[8] schedule IM_for_Engineer2
[9] service any
[10] next-hop trunk WAN_TRUNK
[11] no snat
[12] bandwidth 100 priority 1
[13] exit
6. Then create another policy route rule for the group ‘Manager’. You will get the result as
below after both rules are done.
Step5. Configuration of the IDP
1. First of all, make sure that you’ve registered and enabled IDP function from the GUI menu
Registration.
2. Then create an IDP profile by going to the menu Policy > IDP > Profile tab > Packet
inspection tab.
3. Name it as ‘IM_P2P’ and enable IM and P2P from application list.
4. Click Ok button then.
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5. Back to IDP > General, choose the IDP profile we just created for WAN zone as on the
figure below.
6. Enable it and click Apply button then.
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2.2 Managing WLAN
2.2.1
Why the wireless networks need to be managed?
Wireless networks reduce the cost of wired cabling and brings convenience to people to access
anytime and anywhere like in the office or in a community. However, they might be harmful
under certain conditions.
1. People misuse – People who you don’t know might probe your AP and break in your
network without your permission. It is usually called “Wardriving”. When you are using
wireless link to transfer confidential data, these important data might be eavesdropped by
somebody.
2. People mis-configuration – In company, it’s MIS’s headache to control the “Rogue APs”.
Employees might connect an AP with non-security-mechanism or weak WEP/WAP
passphrase to company’s network without informing MIS people. It will create a security
hole allowing outsiders to bypass the company’s security checking and to access the
company’s confidential information or even use some tools to damage the company’s
network service.
2.2.2
What can we do against the wireless insecurity?
We recommend that Wireless AP must be isolated from your Intranet. Also, there must be a
mechanism to centrally manage access privileges and access credentials regardless of whether
the clients are wired or wireless.
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We are going to complete the following setting.
1. Create a VLAN interface dedicated for wireless access
2. Define WLAN zones
3. Enable Force Authentication Page Redirect
4. Configure LDAP server information.
5. Configure WWW Authentication Method
6. Define user/group to have different kind of access granted
Step1. Create a VLAN interface dedicated for wireless access
In this example, all the employees or visitors can access Internet through wireless network.
For visitors, we want them to limit their access to Internet only while the employees can
access all including LAN/DMZ zones. Through packet with VLAN tag added, this will be
controlled by ZyWALL acting as a security guide which door(route) to open for packets
according to LDAP server’s authentication.
1. Go to menu Network > Interface > VLAN.
2. Create a VLAN interface binds with interface ge5 for wireless network. Here, we define:
Interface name is vlan10 (same as the vlan tag id for its not being confusing).
Choose ‘ge5’ for physical port interface that we want to bind with.
Virtual VLAN Tag is 10.
Give it a clear description.
Use the fixed IP address with 192.168.10.1/24.
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Leave other fields as default and press ‘ok’ button
Step2. Define WLAN zones
Go to menu Network > Zone. Define a zone for wireless and bind it to interface “vlan10”.
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Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] zone Wireless_Zone
[1] no block
[2] interface vlan10
[3] exit
Step3. Enable Force Authentication Page Redirect
1. Go to menu Object > Address, and create a subnet for wireless network. Name it ‘Wireless’
for further configuration use.
2. Go to menu User/Group > Setting > Force User Authentication Policy, click ‘+’ to force
all the packets from wireless network to be redirected to the authentication page.
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Step4. Configure the LDAP server information.
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1. Go to menu Object > AAA server > LDAP tab > Default, configure the IP address, port
and other necessary information. Then click the Apply button.
Note: Please consult your LDAP server admin to configure this part since LDAP has special
setting than RADIUS server.
Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] ldap-server host 192.168.105.155
[1] no ldap-server ssl
[2] ldap-server port 389
[3] ldap-server password 1234
[4] ldap-server basedn ou=ald,dc=zyxel,dc=com,dc=tw
[5] ldap-server binddn cn=admin,dc=zyxel,dc=com,dc=tw
[6] ldap-server search-time-limit 3
[7] ldap-server cn-identifier cn
2. Co-work with LDAP server admin to create user/groups with lease time / re-authentication
time attributes configured.
3. Go to menu User/Group > User, configure user “ldap-users” for “non-employees” by
clicking the modify icon.
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4. For security reasons, those user’s attributes which cannot be found in LDAP server will get
shorter lease and re-authentication time. Here we use 30 minutes for example.
Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] username ldap-users user-type ext-user
[1] username ldap-users description External LDAP Users
[2] username ldap-users logon-lease-time 30
[3] username ldap-users logon-re-auth-time 30
Corresponding CLI commends for your reference
[0] username ldap-employee user-type ext-user
[1] username ldap-employee description External User
[2] username ldap-employee logon-lease-time 1440
[3] username ldap-employee logon-re-auth-time 1440
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Step5. Configure WWW Authentication Method
1. Go to menu Object > AAA server, modify the ‘default’ profile.
2. Configure the profile as following to be authenticated by LDAP server then local database
in ZyWALL.
Note: The “group ldap” shown in the figure below will use the settings in LDAP > Default,
rather than LDAP >Group.
3. Go to menu System > WWW, make sure the authentication method is the profile we just
modified. (That is, if I just have created another profile which is not named as ‘default’, then
here we have to choose it.)
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Step6. Define firewall ACL rule for different kinds of access granted
1. Go to menu Network > Firewall
2. Enable firewall and choose from the zone “Wireless_Zone” that we just created and to
each zone. Here we configure to zone “WAN” first.
3. Click ‘+’ to add rules.
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4. Configure a rule to allow employee access from the source “wireless network” to “any” in
WAN.
Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] firewall 8
[1] no schedule
[2] user ldap-employee
[3] sourceip Wireless
[4] no destinationip
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[5] no service
[6] action allow
[7] from Wireless_Zone
[8] to WAN
[9] no log
[10] activate
[11] description allow-employee-access
[12] exit
5. Configure another rule to allow a non-employee access from the source “wireless network”
to “any” in WAN.
6. After this, you will see the results as on the figure below. Click Apply button.
Corresponding CLI commands for your reference
[0] firewall activate
[1] no firewall asymmetrical-route activate
[2] firewall 8
[3] activate
[4] exit
[5] firewall 9
[6] activate
[7] exit
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7. Continue to configure WLAN-to-LAN, WLAN-to-DMZ, WLAN-to-WLAN. Those are
accessible for employees only. See the following figures.
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2.3 Employee Internet Management (EIM)
2.3.1
Benefits of deploying Employee Internet Management
Employer always cares about how to increase company’s overall productivity. Some activities
like employees’ surfing the Internet, downloading files occupying a lot of bandwidth, talking
to friends that are not related to the actual job during working hours would decrease the
productivity. Through good management of employee behavior, this can be achieved:
ƒ Increased productivity
ƒ Reduced misuse of corporate resources in terms of bandwidth
ƒ Regulatory compliance–get rid of porn/violent web contents that may bring legal
issues
2.3.2
EIM on ZyWALL 1050
ZyWALL 1050 supports EIM through the following features.
ƒ Flexible access policy: provides the Enforce Access policy with granularity
ƒ Always up to date: query dynamically updated URL database
ƒ Customizable: Keyword blocking/Black list/White list
ƒ In-depth Inspection: can control access of Java/ActiveX/Cookie/embedded proxy links
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So we are going to complete the following settings.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Verify that the Internet access of ZyWALL 1050 is ok
Complete user/product/service registrations to activate the Content Filter service
Create Address objects for different user groups
Enable and configure the Content Filter feature on ZyWALL 1050
(1) Create two different filtering profiles for Sales and for Engineer departments
z Enable external dynamic server
z Configure Black and White lists
z Control access of Java/ActiveX/Cookie/embedded proxy links
z Define filtering profiles for different user group
z Configure the warning message or warning page redirected when user access
the forbidden website
Configure ZyWALL 1050 step by step as described below.
Step1. Make sure the Internet access has been configured well from PC behind ZyWALL
1050.
By default, ge2 and ge3 of ZyWALL 1050’s WAN ports will get the IP address from the ISP or
the DHCP server in front of ZyWALL 1050. Connect an Ethernet cable to ZyWALL 1050’s
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ge2 or ge3 and on the GUI Home page check whether ZyWALL 1050 gets the IP address.
Make sure ZyWALL 1050 can access the Internet using CLI commands via console or telnet.
See the example shown below.
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Step2. Login the ZyWALL 1050’s GUI, Go to menu Registration. Complete the user, product,
and Content Filter service registration on myZyXEL.com.
Here the Content Filter service enabling by activating the trial period is shown. If you are new
to myZyXEL.com registration, choose ‘Create a new user’. Choose ‘Existing user’ to enter the
username and the password. Check the ‘Content Filtering’ service activation. Click the Apply
button to complete the registration process.
Step3. Switch to menu Configuration > Policy > Content Filter > Filtering Profile tab,
click the ‘+’ icon to add a new filtering profile.
Under the Categories tab, enter the profile name and enable the external web filtering service.
Define all matched and unrated web pages that should be blocked and logged. Here, we
choose to apply the block action to Pornography category. Click the OK button.
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Click the modify icon to configure the trusted website list.
Switch to Customization tab, enable the web site customization. Add the website,
www.zyxel.com for example, to the trusted websites. Click OK button.
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Then follow the similar configuration to create another filtering profile for Sales department.
For example, we add an extra access restriction to the websites with ActiveX and Cookies
features as configured on the figure below. Click OK button.
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After it’s done, you will see two profiles as shown below.
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CLI commands for reference:
[0] content-filter profile Engineer-profile
[1] content-filter profile Engineer-profile url url-server
[2] content-filter profile Engineer-profile url match block
[3] content-filter profile Engineer-profile url match log
[4] content-filter profile Engineer-profile url unrate block
[5] content-filter profile Engineer-profile url unrate log
[6] content-filter service-timeout 10
[7] content-filter profile Engineer-profile url category 1
[8] content-filter profile Engineer-profile custom
[9] content-filter profile Engineer-profile custom trust
www.zyxel.com
[10] content-filter profile Sales-profile custom
[11] content-filter profile Sales-profile custom activex
[12] content-filter profile Sales-profile custom cookie
[13] content-filter profile Sales-profile custom trust
www.zyxel.com
Step4. Switch to menu Configuration > Object > Address, create two Address Objects to
define the IP address range for the Engineer and the Sales department.
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CLI commands for reference:
[0] address-object Engineer-IP-range 192.168.1.100-192.168.1.200
[0] address-object Sales-IP-range 192.168.1.50-192.168.1.60
Step5. Switch to Content Filter > General tab, enable the Content Filter. Add two filtering
profiles as shown below.
CLI commands for reference:
[0] content-filter block message The web access is restricted.
Please contact with administrator.
[1] content-filter policy insert 1 none any Engineer-IP-range
Engineer-profile
[2] content-filter policy insert 1 none any Sales-IP-range
Sales-profile
[3] content-filter activate
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Then when Engineers try to surf Interface behind ZyWALL 1050, the HTTP requests will be
inspected by the Engineer filter profile whereas Sales’ Internet access will be inspected by the
Sales filter profile.
For example, if an engineer with PC’s IP address 192.168.1.101 is trying to access
http://www.playboy.com, it will return the warning message on the browser.
On the other hand, a Sales department employee with PC IP address 192.168.1.57 accesses the
same website, he is allowed the browsing without any warning message returned.
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3. Seamless Incorporation
With its robust networking functionalities, ZyWALL 1050 is easy to integrate into
existing network infrastructure. You can easily implement the following applications. They are
“Transparent firewall”, “Transparent IDP” and “Network Partitioning using VLAN”.
3.1 Transparent Firewall
With transparent firewall, you do not need to change the IP addressing scheme of your
existing network topology. What you need to do is to insert ZyWALL 1050 into your existing
network environment. Bridge the ports you think that need to be included in this bridge
interface. Apply the security policies that you want. And that will be it. Moreover, ZyWALL
1050 supports working as bridge mode and router mode at the same time; which means that
they can co-exist.
3.1.1
Bridge mode & Router (NAT) mode co-exist
Here is an example:
DMZ and WAN zone can be bridged so that servers in the DMZ zone can keep using the same
public IP address (as those in WAN zone) for effortless IP management. IP addressing in LAN
zone is private IP segments. Thus, we need NAT, which is the router mode here. In our
example, ge1 acts as LAN, ge2 and ge3 stands for WAN, ge4 and ge5 stands for DMZ.
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To make this scenario works the follow the configuration steps as stated below:
1) Login the ZyWALL 1050 GUI and setup the ge2 interface for internet connection and
manually assign a static IP. The configuration path is ZyWALL 1050 > Configuration >
Network > Interface > Edit > ge2
Please use this same method to assign IP for the LAN and DMZ interface.
2) Switch to Configuration > Network > Interface > Bridge, add a new Bridge Interface.
First we enable this interface and give it a name, place the available ports into the member
ports and make them become the member of this bridge interface. Moreover, don’t forget to
set the WAN IP information here since it is a “Bridge mode & Router (NAT) mode co-exist”
example and the NAT mode will need it. Here the bridge mode looks most likely a routing
bridge mode instead of the pure bridge mode. Thus, it needs an IP address. You may use the
same IP address that it used in the WAN interface, however you will get a warning message
like below.
If you got more than one IP, you can pick the other one here.
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CLI to create this bridge interface:
[0]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
interface br1
no join ge2
no join ge4
no join ge5
join ge2
join ge4
join ge5
ip address 220.110.7.1 255.255.255.0
ip gateway 220.110.7.13 metric 0
exit
3) Switch to Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route, to modify the default rule there.
The default rule is for the Router Mode (NAT Mode). Since we have two different modes
co-existing here, we need to make some adjustments to this rule.
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Here we need to modify the “Next-Hop” from “WAN_TRUNK” to “Interface” of the Bridge
interface (br1) that we just created.
Then click “OK” at the bottom to save the changes.
The CLI to create this rule:
[0] policy 1
[1] no deactivate
[2] no description
[3] user admin
[4] interface ge1
[5] source LAN_SUBNET
[6] destination any
[7] no schedule
[8] service any
[9] next-hop interface br1
[10] snat outgoing-interface
[11] no bandwidth
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[12] exit
Tips for application:
Disable the Firewall to test the connectivity.
Every time you make a change, don’t forget to click the “apply” button
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3.1.2
NAT & Virtual Server
Here is an example:
There is a web server located in the DMZ zone. The virtual Server setting in ZyWALL1050 is
required here for people outside of WAN to access the Web pages located on the Web Server
in the DMZ zone.
To make this scenario work; follow the configuration steps stated below:
1) Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI and setup the ge2 interface for internet connection and manually
assign a static IP. Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Network > Interface
> Edit > ge2
2) Switch to Configuration > Policy > Virtual Server and add a new Virtual Server. Fill in
the mapping information. In our example here, since ge2 is our WAN port, we are going to
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map any IP from the WAN port to our internal Web Server, which is 192.168.1.55. And in this
case, our web server is running on TCP 80, therefore, we pick TCP 80 for our mapping.
CLI to create a Virtual Server Mapping
[0] ip virtual-server WebServer interface ge2 original-ip any
map-to 192.168.1.55 map-type port protocol tcp original-port 80
mapped-port 80
3)Switch to Configuration > Objects > Address, and add a new address object for your Web
server.
CLI to create an address object
[0] address-object WebServer 192.168.1.55
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4) Switch to Configuration > Policy > Firewall > Firewall Rule, and add a new firewall rule
for your virtual server. Since it is a web server, we choose “HTTP” as the Service and “Allow”
for the access action.
CLI to create a firewall rule
[0] firewall 6
[1] no schedule
[2] no user
[3] no sourceip
[4] destinationip WebServer
[5] service HTTP
[6] action allow
[7] from WAN
[8] to LAN
[9] log
[10] activate
[11] description WebServerFW
[12] exit
Tips for application:
Do not forget to place your rule before the default “Deny all” Rule in the WAN-to-LAN
direction.
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3.2 Zone-based IDP Protection
ZyWALL 1050 comes with a state of art Intrusion Detection Protection System (IDP)
which can provide comprehensive and easy to use protection against current and emerging
threats at both the application and network layer. Using industry recognized state of art
detection and prevention techniques; With ZyWALL 1050 IDP system, IT manager can apply
unique protection profile to each network segment or Zone. And it is best for MSP
environment since it can effectively identify and stop network and application-level attacks
before they inflict any damage, minimizing the time and costs associated with the intrusions.
The ZyWALL 1050 Zone-based IDP can be implemented in a server-hosting
environment. Usually, in a server hosting environment, security requirements of each customer
may be different. As multiple IDP protection profiles can be applied to different Zones for
each customer, ZyWALL 1050 Zone-based IDP protection provides the most flexible
protection for each customer. Malicious attacks can be stopped at the gateway – customers’
servers are securely protected and a notification alert can be sent to the involved parties or
individuals.
3.2.1 Applying Zone-Based IDP to ZyWALL 1050
Here is an example:
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To fulfill the above scenario, you will need three networks on GE1, GE4 and GE5. Then you
can apply different IDP profiles to them.
Here are the steps:
1) Login the ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Network > Interface >
Ethernet. Since we are going to have three intra-networks in our scenario, we will make GE4
and GE5 another two networks for DMZ and LAN2. First of all, click the “edit” icon which
belonging to the GE4 settings.
1) Now we can assign an IP domain to GE4 and another one for GE5. Other settings are all
optional. In this example, we keep the default values which will disable the DHCP Server
in these two interfaces.
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Tips: You do not need a Gateway here since this interface is directly connected to ZyWALL
1050.
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2) Your final summary of the Ethernet Interfaces should look like the figure below.
3) Now, you will need to setup your DMZ Zone and LAN2 Zone. Go to Configuration >
Network > Zone. Click on the “+” icon to add a new Zone.
4) Although the DMZ Zone is already there, by default it includes both GE4 and GE5 as its
interfaces. Since we need GE5 for our LAN2 Zone, we will need to remove the interface
GE5 from the DMZ Zone. Click the “edit” icon of DMZ Zone and then click on the
“remove” icon of the GE5 interface.
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5) Now go back to the Zone page and click the “+” icon to create the LAN2 Zone (for GE5)
6) Put the name “LAN2” and click the “+” icon again to bind the interface to this Zone. Now
we only have one interface in this Zone. It is not necessary to care about any Intra-zone
traffic.
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7) Since GE5 is the only interface left, GE5 will be automatically selected. Finally click
“OK” to apply the new setting.
8) Before you apply the IDP profiles, you need to make sure that the IDP Service on your
ZyWALL 1050 is licensed.
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9) If your IDP is not licensed, go to the Registration page. You can either login using your
existing myZyXEL.com account or apply for a new one. Each ZyWALL 1050 comes with
a 30 days free trial on IDP Service. Just register your ZyWALL 1050 and your ZyWALL
1050 will receive the license automatically. Here a page which is already registered is
shown.
10) Now, go to Configuration > Policy > IDP. Enable the IDP check box to activate the IDP
service on your ZyWALL 1050.
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11) Here, all the Zones are shown. As you can see, two of them have IDP enabled by default.
According to the scenario, LAN Zone needs a LAN Profile, DMZ Zone needs a DMZ
Profile and LAN2 Zone does not need any IDP protection at all. And here is everything
you need.
CLI commands to create an IP Domain 192.168.2.0/24 on GE4:
[0] interface ge4
[1] ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
[2] ping-check default-gateway
[3] ping-check default-gateway period 30
[4] ping-check default-gateway timeout 5
[5] ping-check default-gateway fail-tolerance 5
[6] no ping-check activate
[7] exit
[8] router rip
[9] exit
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[10] router ospf
[11] exit
CLI commands to create an IP Domain 192.168.3.0/24 on GE5:
[0] interface ge5
[1] ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
[2] ping-check default-gateway
[3] ping-check default-gateway period 30
[4] ping-check default-gateway timeout 5
[5] ping-check default-gateway fail-tolerance 5
[6] no ping-check activate
[7] exit
[8] router rip
[9] exit
[10] router ospf
[11] exit
CLI commands for removing GE5 from the DMZ Zone:
[0] zone DMZ
[1] block
[2] no interface ge4
[3] no interface ge5
[4] interface ge4
[5] exit
CLI commands for creating the LAN2 Zone:
[0] zone LAN2
[1] no block
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[2] interface ge5
[3] exit
CLI commands for activating the IDP service:
[0] idp activate
[1] idp zone LAN activate
[2] no idp zone WAN activate
[3] idp zone DMZ activate
[4] no idp zone LAN2 activate
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3.3 Networking Partitioning Using VLAN
Although ZyWALL 1050 has only five physical ports, you can still partition your
networking with more than five interfaces. ZyWALL 1050 is VLAN aware and it supports
virtual interface as well. With ZyWALL 1050, you can run a maximum number of thirty two
VLANs. As a result, it makes networking partitioning very easy. However, a VLAN-capable
L2 switch is required to create the VLAN tags in front of ZyWALL 1050.
When you conduct a network planning, it is always a good idea to aggregate all the
similar security level of devices into the same security zone. And different security level of
devices should be placed in different security zone. Finally you can apply different access
policy enforcements to different security zones to make your network more secure. By
combing VLAN and customizable zones, IT managers can construct necessary security
infrastructure without hassle and reduce the management burden.
3.3.1 Creating VLAN virtual interfaces
Here is an example
Internet
VLAN Switch
SECRET
Important servers, including Domain
Controller, Directory server, database servers
are placed in this zone. Strict access policy
may apply to prevent misuse from happening
VLAN10
LAN
Corporate
Intranet
VLAN20
FINANCE
Highly confidential financial servers are placed in this
zone. Access privilege only be granted to authorized
users
VLAN30
*VLAN-capable L2 switch is required to create VLAN tags
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Let’s assume we run WAN on port 2 and LAN on port 1. Now we need to create three
VLAN virtual interfaces on port 1. These are VLAN10, VLAN 20 and VLAN30. In this
scenario, the VLAN aware Switch will need to apply VLAN10, VLAN20 and VLAN30
802.1q tags to the corresponding packets and send all the packets to the ZyWALL 1050 port 1
through a single physical RJ45 cable.
To make this scenario work; please follow the configuration steps as stated below:
1) Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Network > Interface > VLAN.
Then click on “+” to add a new VLAN interface.
2) Fill in the information like Interface name, port, VLAN tag and Description. Also, you can
choose either getting an IP automatically for this interface or assigning a static one to it.
ZyWALL 1050 also supports DHCP Server or Relay per VLAN interface. You can change it in
the DHCP Setting section.
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3) By following the above steps you can create another two VLAN interfaces. (VLAN20 and
VLAN30).
The CLI commands to create the above VLAN10:
[0] interface vlan10
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[1] no shutdown
[2] port ge1
[3] vlan-id 10
[4] description Secret
[5] upstream 1048576
[6] downstream 1048576
[7] mtu 1500
[8] ip address 192.168.169.1 255.255.255.0
[9] ping-check default-gateway
[10] ping-check default-gateway period 30
[11] ping-check default-gateway timeout 5
[12] ping-check default-gateway fail-tolerance 5
[13] no ping-check activate
[14] exit
3.3.2 Adding VLAN virtual interfaces to the Zone
Now, since the security policy cannot be applied between interfaces but between zones, it
is necessary to add the VLAN virtual interfaces into different zones. Here we are going to
create three new zones for the three VLANs.
To create these zones, please follow the configuration steps as below:
1) Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Network > Zone. Then click the
“+” to create a new zone.
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2) Give this zone whatever name you can understand later. Check the option “Block Intra-zone
Traffic” if you do not want the traffic between different interfaces included in this zone to be
allowed. And again click on the “+” icon to make interfaces join this zone.
3) Right after you click on the “+” icon, you will see an interface added to your zone
automatically. However, it may not be the one that you have been looking for. Thus, you will
need to click on the box of the interface and choose the one that you are looking for.
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4) Finally, click “OK” to apply your settings.
4) Repeat the above steps to create the other two Zones for VLAN20 and VLAN30.
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The CLI commands to join VLAN10 to the Zone:
[0] zone Secret
[1] no block
[2] interface vlan10
[3] exit
3.3.3 Applying firewall policy to the Zone of VLANs
Security policy can be enforced between Zones in ZyWALL 1050. Since we have just
created three new Zones on port GE1, we can apply some security policies between these
Zones. For example, if you do not allow users in the Finance Zone to have an access to users
or devices in the Secret Zone, you can apply a firewall rule to do so. Moreover, if you want to
allow users in Secret Zone to access users or devices located in the LAN_VLAN20 Zone, you
can apply another firewall rule to do so.
To create those two rules, please follow the configuration steps as stated below:
1) Login the ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Policy > Firewall. Check
“Enable Firewall” to activate your Firewall. Then pick your Zone pairs and click the “+” icon
to create a new firewall rule especially for your selected pair. For example, first we want to
block the access from Finance Zone to Secret Zone, we pick Finance Zone on the left and
Secret Zone on the right.
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12) It is optional to give this rule a description. If you want to allow anything or block
anything, just simply choose “allow” or “deny” as the option of “Access”. Option “Reject”
means dropping the packets that match with this rule silently.
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3) Finally, click “Apply” to activate all your changes on this screen.
4) Repeat the above steps to make another firewall rule to “allow” everything from “Secret”
Zone to “LAN_VLAN20” Zone.
The CLI commands for the above actions:
[0] firewall Finance Secret insert 1
[1] no schedule
[2] no user
[3] no sourceip
[4] no destinationip
[5] no service
[6] action deny
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[7] from Finance
[8] to Secret
[9] no log
[10] activate
[11] exit
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3.4 Connecting Multiple ISP Links
The standard option for increasing the bandwidth of your WAN link is to upgrade the
capacity of the existing link. However, usually this option will come at a high price in both
time and money. And sometimes it may not be available at all. Thus, ZyWALL 1050 comes
with another solution which gives more flexibility on upgrading your WAN Link. Basically,
ZyWALL 1050 can build up to 12 PPPoE WAN links via one single port or having multiple
fixed links over four physical ports. Moreover, ZyWALL 1050 supports an easy management
feature for all your WAN Links. It will create a “WAN Trunk” interface for you to manage all
of your WAN links. You can manage it like a single WAN link. Users are allowed to choose a
load balancing algorithm they wish in order to optimize the utilization of the WAN Links as
well as the fault tolerance to increase reliability.
3.4.1 Multiple PPPoE links
Multiple PPPoE Links are supported on ZyWALL 1050, with a L2 Switch it will only
take one of your physical ports. Here is an example.
Asdasdasd
To create three PPPoE links and manage them with the Wan Trunk interface, please follow the
configuration steps as stated below:
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1) Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Network > ISP Account. Then click
the “+” to create a new account for a PPPoE connection.
2) Now, on the screen, you can give a name to this profile. Select the protocol as PPPoE.
Please set the Idle timeout to 0 if you do not want this link to be a subject to timeout. All other
parameters including the username and the password should be based on your ISP’s
requirements. Finally, click “OK” to add this account.
3) Since we will have three PPPoE links in our scenario, you will need two additional PPPoE
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accounts here as well. Repeat the above steps to create all the other accounts. Your final
PPPoE account summary screen should look like this.
4) Now, all the PPPoE accounts are created. Our next task will be creating the PPPoE
Interfaces. Go to Configuration > Network > Interface > PPPoE/PPTP. Then click the “+”
to create a new account.
5) Your first action is to check the box “Enable” to enable this PPPoE interface, then give the
interface a name. It has to be in the format of ppp(0~11). Choose if you want this PPPoE
connection to be a forever link up connection or a Dial-on-Demand connection. Based on
our scenario, all the PPPoE connections are coming from GE2. Thus, we pick GE2 as our
base interface. Pick the account profile that you want to apply for this PPPoE interface. All
other remaining settings are either optional or depending on the requirements of your ISP.
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6) Repeat the above steps to create the other two PPPoE Interfaces. Then you should get a
screen looking like this. Also, in a case you want to connect your PPPoE interface
as demonstrated below.
manually, click on
7) Now all the PPPoE interfaces are created. And all of them are desired to be added to the
WAN Zone as well. Go to Configuration > Network > Zone to click on the modify icon
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of the WAN Zone.
8) Click the “+” icon to have a new interface to join this Zone.
9) Now check the box below to pick PPP1 as the Interface to join the WAN Zone. Repeat the
above steps to add PPP2 and PPP3 into the WAN Zone as well.
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10) Second, we will need to add all three of our PPPoE Interfaces into the WAN Trunk
interface. Please go to Configuration > Network > Interface > Trunk
11) Click on the “+” icon to add a new interface into this WAN_Trunk interface.
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to pick the right PPPoE interface. Also, for the “Mode” of the Interface, if
12) Click on the
it is a “nail-up” connection, we can choose Active here; if it is a “dial-on-demand”
connection, we can pick “Passive” here. The “Downstream Bandwidth” and the “Upstream
Bandwidth” here are the values used for reference of the Load Balancing Algorithm.
13) Repeat the above steps until all three PPPoE interfaces are added into this WAN_Trunk
interface. Remove the fixed links on GE2 and/GE3 if you want.
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CLI commands to create a PPPoE account
[0] account pppoe ISP1
[1] user test1@isp1.com
[2] password abcdefg
[3] authentication chap-pap
[4] compression no
[5] idle 0
[6] exit
CLI commands to create a PPPoE interface
[0] interface ppp1
[1] no shutdown
[2] description ISP1
[3] mtu 1492
[4] upstream 1048576
[5] downstream 1048576
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[6] account ISP1
[7] connectivity nail-up
[8] bind ge2
[9] metric 0
[10] ping-check default-gateway
[11] ping-check default-gateway period 30
[12] ping-check default-gateway timeout 5
[13] ping-check default-gateway fail-tolerance 5
[14] no ping-check activate
[15] exit
CLI commands to add all the PPPoE interfaces into the WAN Zone:
[0] zone WAN
[1] block
[2] no interface ge2
[3] no interface ge3
[4] interface ppp3
[5] interface ppp2
[6] interface ppp1
[7] interface ge2
[8] interface ge3
[9] exit
CLI commands to add those three PPPoE interfaces into the WAN_Trunk interface
[0] interface-group WAN_TRUNK
[1] mode trunk
[2] algorithm llf
[3] no interface ge2
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[4] no interface ge3
[5] no interface aux
[6] interface 1 ppp3
[7] interface 2 ppp2
[8] interface 3 ppp1
[9] interface 4 ge2
[10] interface 5 ge3
[11] interface 6 aux passive
[12] exit
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3.4.2 Multiple fixed WAN links
Besides multiple PPPoE links, fixed links are also supported on ZyWALL 1050. With
ZyWALL 1050, you can have at most 4 fixed links for a WAN. Here is an example with 2
fixed links on GE2, GE3 and GE4.
Both of the E1 Routers of ISP1 and ISP 2 will have the DHCP Server enabled in this scenario.
By default, GE2 and GE3 are set as the DHCP Clients and joined to the WAN_Trunk interface.
Therefore, the task is to create another Fixed link with a static IP on GE4 and join it to the
WAN_Trunk as well.
1) Login ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Network > Interface > Ethernet.
The default setting of GE2 and GE3 is already good for our scenario. Thus, we only need to
modify the settings of GE4 in this case.
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2) Since we are going to run static IP on GE4, we will file the IP information into GE4
manually. The bandwidth parameters here do not necessarily need to be modified.
3) Now since GE4 is in the DMZ Zone by default, we will need to release it for us to use. Go
to Configuration > Network > Zone and click on the modify icon of DMZ.
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4) Delete GE4 from the DMZ Zone by clicking the remove icon.
5) Next, we will need GE4 to join the WAN Zone in order for us to be able to apply a single
WAN policy on ZyWALL 1050. Go to Configuration > Network > Zone and click on the
modify icon of WAN Zone.
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6) Click the “+” icon again to make the new interface to join this Zone.
7) Since GE4 is the only free interface here, it will be selected automatically.
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8) After the Zone, we need to add GE4 into the WAN_Trunk Interface as well. Go to
Configuration > Network > Interface > Trunk and click on
of the WAN_Trunk.
to modify the settings
9) Click on the “+” icon to add a new interface into this WAN_Trunk interface.
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10) Click the box below to switch the interface from GE1 to GE4. Click OK and to complete
the setup of this scenario.
CLI commands to configure the IP information on GE4:
[0] interface ge4
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[1] ip address 211.192.23.41 255.255.255.0
[2] ip gateway 211.192.23.254 metric 0
[3] ping-check default-gateway
[4] ping-check default-gateway period 30
[5] ping-check default-gateway timeout 5
[6] ping-check default-gateway fail-tolerance 5
[7] no ping-check activate
[8] exit
[9] router rip
[10] exit
[11] router ospf
[12] exit
CLI commands to remove GE4 from the DMZ Zone:
[0] zone DMZ
[1] block
[2] no interface ge4
[3] no interface ge5
[4] interface ge5
[5] exit
CLI commands to join GE4 to the WAN Zone:
[0] zone WAN
[1] block
[2] no interface ge2
[3] no interface ge3
[4] interface ge4
[5] interface ge2
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[6] interface ge3
[7] exit
CLI commands to join GE4 to the WAN_Trunk:
[0] interface-group WAN_TRUNK
[1] mode trunk
[2] algorithm llf
[3] no interface ge2
[4] no interface ge3
[5] no interface aux
[6] interface 1 ge4
[7] interface 2 ge2
[8] interface 3 ge3
[9] interface 4 aux passive
[10] exit
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3.4.3 Mixed types of WAN links
Mixed types of WAN links are also supported by ZyWALL 1050. You can have multiple
PPPoE links together with a fixed link through one single physical port. Besides, you can have
multiple PPPoE links and multiple fixed links put together, however, it will occupy more
physical ports on the ZyWALL 1050. Here is an example.
Asdfasdf
First of all, we are going to configure three PPPoE links on ZyWALL 1050. Also, we will
assign GE2 to connect with the enabled DHCP Client as a Fix link, since DHCP Server is
enabled on the E1 Router.
1) Login the ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to Configuration > Network > ISP Account. Then
click on “+” to create a new account for a PPPoE connection.
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2 On this screen, you can set a name for this profile. Select the protocol as PPPoE. Please set
the Idle timeout to 0 if you do not want this link to be a subject to timeout. All other
parameters including the username and password should be based on your ISP’s requirements.
Finally click “OK” to add this account.
3) Since we have three PPPoE links in our scenario, you will need two additional PPPoE
accounts here as well. Repeat the above steps to create all the other accounts. Your final
PPPoE account summary screen should look like this.
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4) Now, all the PPPoE accounts are created. Our next task will be creating the PPPoE
Interfaces. Go to Configuration > Network > Interface > PPPoE/PPTP. Then click the “+”
to create a new account.
5) Check the box “Enable” to enable this PPPoE interface, then give the interface a name. The
name has to be in the format of ppp(0~11). Choose if you want this PPPoE connection to be a
forever link up connection or a Dial-on-Demand connection. According to our scenario, all the
PPPoE connections are coming from GE2. Thus, we pick GE2 as our base interface. Pick the
account profile that you want to apply for this PPPoE interface; all other remaining settings
are either optional or depending on the requirements of your ISP.
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6) Repeat the above steps to create the other two PPPoE Interfaces. Then you should get a
screen that looks like this. If you want to connect your PPPoE interface manually, click on the
icon below.
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7) Now all the PPPoE interfaces are created. But all of need to be added to the WAN Zone too.
Go to Configuration > Network > Zone to click the modify icon of the WAN Zone.
8) Click the “+” icon to make a new interface join this Zone.
9) Now check the box below to pick PPP1 as the Interface to join the WAN Zone. Repeat the
above steps to add PPP2 and PPP3 into the WAN Zone as well.
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10) Second, we will need to add all three of our PPPoE Interfaces into the WAN Trunk
interface. Please go to Configuration > Network > Interface > Trunk
11) Click on the “+” icon to add a new interface into this WAN_Trunk interface.
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icon to pick the right PPPoE interface. Also, for the “Mode” of the
12) Click on the
Interface, if it is a “nail-up” connection, choose Active here and if it is a “dial-on-demand”
connection, select “Passive” here. The “Downstream Bandwidth” and the “Upstream
Bandwidth” are the values used for reference of the Load Balancing Algorithm.
13) Repeat the above steps until all the three PPPoE interfaces are added into this WAN_Trunk
interface.
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14) By default, GE2 and GE3 were already in the WAN_Trunk. And GE2 is set to get the IP
automatically from the DHCP Server, thus, the only thing you may need to modify is the
bandwidth value. However, this step is not mandatory.
CLI commands to create a PPPoE account
[0] account pppoe ISP1
[1] user test1@isp1.com
[2] password abcdefg
[3] authentication chap-pap
[4] compression no
[5] idle 0
[6] exit
CLI commands to create a PPPoE interface
[0] interface ppp1
[1] no shutdown
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[2] description ISP1
[3] mtu 1492
[4] upstream 1048576
[5] downstream 1048576
[6] account ISP1
[7] connectivity nail-up
[8] bind ge2
[9] metric 0
[10] ping-check default-gateway
[11] ping-check default-gateway period 30
[12] ping-check default-gateway timeout 5
[13] ping-check default-gateway fail-tolerance 5
[14] no ping-check activate
[15] exit
CLI commands to add all the PPPoE interfaces into the WAN Zone:
[0] zone WAN
[1] block
[2] no interface ge2
[3] no interface ge3
[4] interface ppp3
[5] interface ppp2
[6] interface ppp1
[7] interface ge2
[8] interface ge3
[9] exit
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CLI commands to bind all the WAN Links (PPPoE + Fixed) into the WAN_Trunk
interface
[0] interface-group WAN_TRUNK
[1] mode trunk
[2] algorithm llf
[3] no interface ge2
[4] no interface ge3
[5] no interface aux
[6] interface 1 ppp3
[7] interface 2 ppp2
[8] interface 3 ppp1
[9] interface 4 ge2
[10] interface 5 ge3
[11] interface 6 aux passive
[12] exit
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3.5 Guaranteed Quality of Service
Nowadays if you need a good quality of service, just simply throwing more bandwidth
at your network is not the ultimate solution to this problem, because you can't foresee what
new bandwidth-hungry applications will be in use in several months. An ill-behaved
application can easily bring your network down and potentially shut down your business
operation. To gain more effective control of your network, you need to incorporate Quality of
Service (QoS). In a QoS-enabled network, you can prioritize network traffic flow, allocate
network bandwidth and resources to different applications and users, enforce security to the
applications and the users entering your network, and set network behavior according to the
business needs. Using QoS approach, an application would request a certain level of service
prior to using the network. If bandwidth is expensive in your region, QoS style approach may
make more sense than just simply adding more bandwidth. It is assumed that there is
insufficient capacity for all users to complete what they want at the same time.
3.5.1 Priority & Bandwidth management
ZyWALL 1050 supports both prioritizing and bandwidth management for outgoing
traffic. IT administrator can define bandwidth management policies to ensure quality of
running services in their network environment. ZyWALL 1050 supports bandwidth
management policy based on the type of service, origin of the traffic, user/group to ensure
optimized bandwidth utilization. Bandwidth management and prioritization can be done with
policy route in ZyWALL 1050.
Here is an example:
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Internet
SMTP
400Kbps
WWW
800Kbps
WAN Trunk
FTP
100Kbps
SMTP
Outgoing
traffic
Intranet (GE1)
To fulfill this scenario; please follow the configuration steps as below:
1) By default, ZyWALL 1050 created a WAN Trunk interface for you. Thus, you don’t need to
worry about WAN Trunk in this scenario. Now, we will need to create those Bandwidth
Management policies for our application. Logon to the ZyWALL 1050 GUI and go to
Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route. Then click the “+” to add a new policy
route at the top of your list.
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2) The description of the policy is optional. In this scenario, we will need to make a policy on
all the SMTP traffic going out from LAN (GE1) to WAN. Since all the traffic should go out
through the WAN Trunk, we need to set our “Incoming” interface to GE1, “Source” subnet to
LAN_subnet, and “Next-Hop” to “Trunk” through the “WAN_Trunk” Interface. And finally
we get to the QoS part of our policy. In this scenario we are going to set 400Kbps for SMTP
traffic. We can assign this policy a relatively high priority (like 100) just in case the bandwidth
is not enough at all but SMTP service can still get more bandwidth than the other type of
network services.
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3) Repeat the above steps to create two more policy routes for “WWW” and “FTP” services.
In the policy route you can set their Maximum Bandwidth to 800Kbps and 100Kbps along
with a priority value. Below is what you should get so far:
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Tips: Policy Route rules are based on first match, first go. Thus, all your new rules should be
placed before the default policy route, which is the last one here.
4) The default policy route makes bandwidth management disabled. In any case if you want to
make sure that the bandwidth is guaranteed instead of just metering, you should check whether
every rule you have here has the bandwidth control enabled. This must include the default
route. Also, the sum of bandwidth in all your rules should not exceed the physical bandwidth
of your WAN interfaces(s). Otherwise the Bandwidth Management might not be able to
guarantee your bandwidth during a congestion. Let’s assume that the max bandwidth of our
WAN is 1.5Mbps. Now we already spent 400kbps for SMTP, 800kbps for HTTP, and 100kbps
for SMTP. What left over is 200kbps available to us; thus, we can apply it for the remaining
traffic, which is our default route.
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5) Modify the values of bandwidth and priority here in the default policy route. Click “OK” to
apply.
6) Now the final list should look like the one below:
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CLI commands for the first SMTP policy route:
[0] policy 1 (the number of your SMTP policy)
[1] no deactivate
[2] description SMTP
[3] no user
[4] interface ge1
[5] source LAN_SUBNET
[6] destination any
[7] no schedule
[8] service SMTP
[9] next-hop trunk WAN_TRUNK
[10] snat outgoing-interface
[11] bandwidth 400 priority 100
[12] exit
CLI commands for applying bandwidth and priority to the default policy route:
[0] policy 4 (the number of your default policy)
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[1] no deactivate
[2] description NAT
[3] no user
[4] interface ge1
[5] source LAN_SUBNET
[6] destination any
[7] no schedule
[8] service any
[9] next-hop trunk WAN_TRUNK
[10] snat outgoing-interface
[11] bandwidth 200 priority 1024
[12] exit
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FAQ
A. Device Management FAQ
A01. How can I connect to ZyWALL 1050 to perform administrator’s tasks?
You can connect your PC to ZyWALL 1050 port 1 interface with Ethernet cable, which is most
left Ethernet port. You will get the IP address automatically from DHCP by default. Connect to
http://192.168.1.1 using web browser to login ZyWALL 1050 for management. The default
administration username is “admin”, and password is “1234”.
A02. Why can’t I login into ZyWALL 1050?
There may have several reasons why you can’t login to ZyWALL 1050:
1. The ZyWALL 1050 supports the following types of browsers. Check if you are not
using other type of browser.
y IE 6.0 or above
y Firefox 1.5.0 or above
y Netscape 7.2 or above
2. To login ZyWALL 1050’s GUI, it’s mandatory to enable JavaScript and accept cookies
in your web browser. Check if you don’t have them disabled in the web browser. If you
do, enable them.
3. To login ZyWALL 1050’s GUI, a popup window function in web browser is used.
Check if you have the popup windows block enabled in the web browser. If so, please
disable the block in the web browser.
4. You may be entering wrong username or password.
5. You might have typed a wrong password for over 5 times. ZyWALL 1050 blocks login
from such an IP address for 30 minutes by default.
6. You can be connecting to ZyWALL 1050 from a WAN interface which is blocked by
default. If you don’t want this block rule, go to GUI menu Configuration > System >
WWW to set to accept the access from ‘WAN’ or from ‘All’.
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Then switch to menu Configuration > Policy > Firewall > To-ZyWALL rules to add
the HTTP access from WAN side.
Note: By default, Firewall blocks all the access except the traffic like VRRP, IPSec
ESP, IPSec AH, IPSec NATT, IPSec IKE.
A03. What’s difference between “Admin Service Control” and “User Service
Control” configuration in GUI menu Configuration > System > WWW?
The “Admin Service Control” configuration is for controlling user login with admin user-type
to perform management task including Admin and Limited-Admin. And “User Service
Control” configuration table is for controlling user login with access user-type to perform user
access task including User and Guest.
A04. Why ZyWALL 1050 redirects me to the login page when I am performing the
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management tasks in GUI?
There may be several reasons for ZyWALL 1050 to redirect you to login page when you are
doing configuration.
1. Admin user’s re-auth time (force re-login time) has reached. The default time value is
24hours.
2. Admin user’s lease time has been reached. The default time value is 24hours.
3. You are trying to login ZyWALL 1050 using other remote management client (telnet or
ssh…etc) after you logged in ZyWALL 1050 using a web browser.
4. PC’s IP address has changed after your previous login. The re-login is required then.
A05. Why do I lose my configuration setting after ZyWALL 1050 restarts?
There may have two reasons:
1. If you configure ZyWALL 1050 from CLI. You must type CLI “write” to save the
configuration before rebooting. If you configure ZyWALL 1050 from GUI, any
configuration will be automatically saved.
2. ZyWALL 1050 might fail to apply the configuration using the startup-config.conf when
booting up. It might because the startup-config.conf is corrupted. If so, ZyWALL 1050 will
try to use the last boot up configuration file (lastgood.conf), which can boot up
successfully. Your settings will revert to the last boot up configuration.
A06. How can I do if the system is keeping at booting up stage for a long time?
There are two reasons if your ZyWALL 1050 boots up for a long time as below.
1. It might because you have many configuration on ZyWALL 1050. For example, you
configured over 500 VPN settings. Please connect to console and you can see which process
the system is processing at.
Note: If the system is processing ok, admin can connect to ZyWALL 1050’s ge1 port which is
with IP address 192.168.1.1 by default.
2. The ZyWALL 1050 may get firmware crashed. Generally, it may happen if power off
ZyWALL 1050 when it’s during firmware upgrading. For this case, admin could connect to
console and see the message as shown below (ensure your terminal baud rate is configured
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correctly).
If you do see the message, please start the firmware recovery procedure as following steps.
(1). Connect a PC with ZyWALL 1050’s ge1 port via an Ethernet cable.
(2). ftp 192.168.1.1 from your FTP client or MS-DOS mode
(3). Set the transfer mode to binary (use “bin” in the Windows command prompt).
(4). Reload the firmware. (ex. use command “put 1.00(XL.1)C0.bin” to upload firmware file)
(5). Wait the FTP uploading completed and it will restart the ZyWALL 1050 automatically.
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B. Registration FAQ
B01. Why do I need to do the Device Registration?
You must first register ZyWALL 1050 device with myZyXEL.com server, before you activate
and use IDP and Content filter external rating service.
B02. Why do I need to activate services?
It’s mandatory to activate these security services before you enable and use these services. For
IDP and the content filter, you need to activate services first before you can update the latest
signatures from myZyXEL.com update server.
B03. Why can’t I active trial service?
You must make sure that your device can connect to internet first. Then register ZyWALL
1050 device with myZyXEL.com server through GUI menu Registration page.
B04. Does the device registration information reset after I reset ZyWALL 1050 to
system default?
No. The device and service registration information are NOT stored in flash which is
temporary memory. So it will not be erased after ZyWALL 1050 is reset to system defaults.
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C. File Manager FAQ
C01. How can ZyWALL 1050 manage multiple configuration files?
From ZyWALL 1050 GUI menu File Manager > Configuration File, it allows admin to save
multiple configuration files. Besides, Admin could “manipulate” files, such as to upload,
delete, copy, rename, download the files, and apply a certain file to hot-switching the
configuration without hardware reboot.
C02. What are the configuration files like startup-config.conf,
system-default.conf and lastgood.conf?
1. startup-config.conf: The startup-config.conf is ZyWALL 1050 system configuration file.
When ZyWALL 1050 is booting, it will use this configuration file for ZyWALL 1050 as
system configuration.
2. system-default.conf: The system-default.conf is ZyWALL 1050 system default
configuration file. When you press the reset button, ZyWALL 1050 will copy
system-default.conf over startup-conf.conf.
3. lastgood.conf: The lastgood.conf is created after ZyWALL 1050 successfully applies
startup-config.conf. And ZyWALL 1050 will try to apply lastconfig.conf, if ZyWALL 1050
fail to apply startup-config.conf. You can check the GUI menu Maintenance > Log to check
the configuration applied status after booting.
Please note the configuration file downloaded through web GUI is text-based which is
readable and is very useful for administrator to have a quick overview for the detailed
configuration.
C03. Why can’t I update firmware?
It’s mandatory to have at least 70MB free memory before upgrade firmware. If you still can’t
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get enough memory to upgrade firmware, you can perform upgrade after system reboot which
frees up the memory.
C04. What is the Shell Scripts for in GUI menu File manager > Shell Scripts?
Shell scripts are files of commands that you can store on the ZyWALL and run when you need
them. When you run a shell script, the ZyWALL only applies the commands that it contains.
Other settings do not change.
C05. How to write a shell script?
You can edit shell scripts in a text editor and upload them to the ZyWALL 1050 through GUI
menu File manager > Shell Script tab. Some notes as followings.
y
Must follow ZyWALL 1050 CLI syntax
y
y
Must add “configure terminal” at the beginning of the script file.
Must save as a “.zysh ” file extension.
An example is shown below.
# enter configuration mode
configure terminal
# change administrator password
username admin password 4321 user-type admin
# add a user ‘anne’ and set both the lease and re-auth time to 1440 sec.
username anne user-type ext-user
username anne description External User
username anne logon-lease-time 1440
username anne logon-re-auth-time 1440
exit
write
C06. Why can’t I run shell script successfully?
Please ensure that you follow the correct CLI command syntax to write this script. And make
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sure that you add the “configure terminal” in the top line of this script file.
D. Object FAQ
D01. Why does ZyWALL 1050 use objects?
ZyWALL 1050 objects include address, service, schedule, authentication method, certificate,
zone, interface group and ISP account objects. The ZyWALL 1050 uses objects as a basic
configuration block. It can simplify the configuration change once your have some change in
the network topology.
For example, User can first create a zone object WAN_ZONE with the ge2 interface and later
add the ge3 interface into WAN_ZONE. All security features that use the WAN_ZONE will
change their configuration immediately according to zone object WAN_ZONE change.
D02. What’s the difference between Trunk and the Zone Object?
The trunk concept is used as an interface group for a policy routing. You can add interfaces
and define load balance mechanisms in one trunk.
The zone concept is used to group multiple of interfaces, which have the same security policy.
For example, you can define two zones, LAN and WAN, and add a firewall rule to control the
traffic between LAN and WAN.
D03. What is the difference between the default LDAP and the group LDAP?
What is the difference between the default RADIUS and the group RADIUS?
Default LDAP/RADIUS server is a built-in AAA object. If you only have one LDAP/RADIUS
server installed, all you need to do is to setup the default LDAP/RADIUS and then select
group ldap/radius into authentication method. If you have several redundant LDAP/RADIUS
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servers, you may need to create your own LDAP/RADIUS server groups. But don’t forget
selecting the LDAP/RADIUS server groups in the authentication method chosen for
authenticating.
E. Interface FAQ
E01. How to setup the WAN interface with PPPoE or PPTP?
First, you need to create an ISP account, which has protocol type of PPPoE or PPTP. Then you
need to create PPP interface on GUI menu Interface > PPPOE/PPTP. You can name this PPP
interface, for example ‘ppp0’ (you can have ppp0~ppp11 ppp interface, ppp12 is reserved to
modem dialup interface). After that, you need to create a policy route, which has next-hop
interface set to ppp0.
E02. How to add a virtual interface (IP alias)?
To add a virtual interface, go to GUI menu Interface > Ethernet, click the “+” icon on each
interface row. For example, I want to add a virtual interface of ge1. click the “+” icon from the
interface ge1 row, and fill out the necessary fields. It will create the virtual interface, ge1:1.
E03. Why can’t I get IP address via DHCP relay?
It requires special support from a DHCP server. Some DHCP servers would check special
fields in a DHCP discover/request and it is possible for the servers to not to respond them. So
make sure your DHCP server supports DHCP relay.
E04. Why can’t I get DNS options from ZyWALL’s DHCP server?
There could be several reasons. If you configure a static IP on a WAN interface, you should
have custom defined DNS servers in the LAN interface or there would be no way to get DNS
servers from ISP. If the interface that provides the DNS server goes down, the DNS server
would be regarded as dead one and won’t pass it to the LAN PCs. So make sure all the
interfaces that provide DNS server don’t go down because of link down, ping-check or
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becoming disabled.
E05. Why does the PPP interface dials successfully even its base interface goes
down?
The base interface is just a reference which ZyWALL uses to connect to PPP server. If you
have another active interface/routes, ZyWALL will try to maintain connectivity.
E06. What is the port grouping used for in ZyWALL 1050?
We can group two or more ports (up to five) together to form up a port grouping. For example,
we group port1 and port2 together and the representative port is port1. The interface binding
on port1 now also can be reached by host connected from port2 but the interface which bind in
port2 previously will non-functional until port2 separate from this group.
Basically, port grouping provides an embedded layer-2 switching capability and each physical
port can only join one port group. Packets transmit inside the port group are forwarded by
hardware switch controller based on the destination MAC address without security checks
(such as firewall, IDP…).
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F. Routing and NAT FAQ
F01. How to add a policy route?
From the GUI menu Policy >Route, click the “+” icon in the table and define matching
Criteria for this route. Then select a next-hop type. If you want to use Link HA and Load
Balance, “Trunk” should be selected as a next-hop type. If you want to route traffic into an
IPsec tunnel, you need to select “VPN tunnel”. Please note that the policy routes will be
matched in order. If the first route matches the criteria, ZyWALL 1050 will use the route
setting to direct the traffic to the next hop.
F02. How to configure a NAT?
Unlike ZyNOS ZyWALL, the NAT setting in ZyWALL 1050 is in Policy Route and port
forwarding setting is Virtual Server as the configuration page is shown below.
y
y
Configure NAT setting in Configuration > Policy > Route
Configure port forwarding setting in Configuration > Virtual Server
In the policy route setting, there is the source network address translation (SNAT) setting is at
Address Translation area. Choose ‘none’ means to turn off the NAT feature for the policy route
rule accordingly. To choose “outgoing-interface” or other address objects you defined, it
means turn on the NAT feature and it will refer to the next-hop setting to execute routing.
For the specific traffic needs to be re-directed to a certain internal server, the virtual server
needs to be configured. This feature allows ports/host mapping from a WAN interface IP to an
internal DMZ/LAN IP. For example, if you want to forward HTTP traffic with 8080 port to the
ZyWALL5 in ZyWALL 1050’s DMZ zone, you need to configure virtual server to forward
<Original IP(ex. ge2’s IP):8080> to <Internal server IP:8080>.
F03. After I installed a HTTP proxy server and set a http redirect rule, I still can’t
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access web. Why?
Your proxy server must support a transparent proxy. If your proxy does have this feature, turn
it on. For example, for Squid, you have to have the option httpd_accel_uses_host_header
enabled.
F03. How to limit some application (for example, FTP) bandwidth usage?
You need to add a policy route and configure service matching FTP object. Then edit the
maximum bandwidth to FTP up-bound limitation. Please note that ZyWALL 1050 only
support traffic shaping on WAN upstream direction.
F04. What’s the routing order of policy route, dynamic route, static route and
direct connect subnet table?
All these routing information create the ZyWALL 1050 routing database. When routing,
ZyWALL 1050 will search with the following order:
1. Local and direct connect subnet table.
2. Policy route rule.
3. Main table, which includes routes learned from RIP/OSPF, static routes and default
routes.
F05. Why can’t ZyWALL 1050 ping to the Internet host, but PC from LAN side can
browse internet WWW?
This is mainly caused by your interface configuration. If you setup two WAN interfaces,
which have gateway IP address configured, the default route will have two entries added in
ZyWALL 1050. If one of the WAN interfaces can’t connect to the internet (for example, ppp
interface don’t dialup successfully), and this interface has smaller metric than the other WAN
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interface, ZyWALL 1050 will select this as default route and traffic can’t go out from the
ZyWALL 1050.
F06. Why can’t I ping to the, Internet, after I shutdown the primary WAN
interface?
ZyWALL 1050 routes packets by checking session information first. Once packet matched a
session that is already created, it would not lookup the routing table. So the interface status
change doesn’t affect the routing result until a new session is created. If you continually ping
internet host and shutdown the ZyWALL 1050 primary WAN interface, the ping packet still
matches the original session, which is bound to primary WAN interface already. The session
timeout for ICMP is 15 second.
F07. Why don't the virtual server or port trigger work?
If virtual server or port trigger (or any traffic from WAN zone to LAN zone) doesn’t work,
check whether the firewall rule from WAN to LAN is disabled.
F08. Why don't the port trigger work?
The port trigger will work only when there is a connection matching that policy route rule.
Please note that firewall may block those triggered services. So, if you have problems with
triggering the service, check firewall settings and its logs too.
F09. How do I use the traffic redirect feature in ZyWALL 1050?
If you have a router located in LAN, you could regard the router as a gateway and fill its
address in a gateway field of the LAN interface which connects to the LAN router. Then,
configure the interface as a passive member of the trunk which you use in the policy routing.
In case all main links in the trunk go down, passive link (i.e. the LAN router) would be
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activated to maintain the connectivity.
Note: While you configure the gateway address in the interface, please also choose a suitable
metric for the gateway or it would interfere with main links.
F10. Why can’t ZyWALL learn the route from RIP and/or OSPF?
ZyWALL blocks RIP/OSPF routing advertisement from WAN/DMZ by default. If you find
that it fails to learn the routes, check your firewall to-ZyWALL rules.
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G. VPN and Certificate
G01. Why can't the VPN connections dial to a remote gateway?
Please check the responder’s logs whether the fail occurs in phase 1 or phase 2. If the phase 1
has failed, try to check the VPN gateway configuration, such as proposals or Local/Remote ID.
If the phase 2 has failed, try to check the VPN connection configuration, such as whether the
policy matches the one of the remote gateway.
G02. VPN connections are dialed successfully, but the traffic still cannot go
through the IPsec tunnel.
Check if there is a policy route that directs the traffic into the VPN connection. After the
policy route is set, if the traffic still goes through another route path, check the order of policy
routes.
G03. Why ZyWALL 1050 VPN tunnel had been configured correctly and the VPN
connection status is connected but the traffic still can not reach the remote VPN
subnet?
ZyWALL 1050 VPN traffic is the route base VPN, this means we need to configure a policy
route rule to guide the ZyWALL 1050 how to route the VPN traffic to the VPN remote subnet.
We can check if our VPN parameter setting is working by clicking connect icon after VPN
tunnel has configured in both gateway. The VPN connection status showed below is
connected.
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We need a policy route to notify the ZyWALL 1050 send the packet to VPN tunnel when the
packet’s destination address is VPN remote subnet. Please switch to ZyWALL 1050 GUI >
Configuration > Policy > Route > Policy Route and check if there is a rule that direct the
traffic to VPN tunnel. The VPN tunnel candidates must be preconfigured in VPN connection
menu.
The traffic from local subnet can send to VPN remote subnet and get reply successfully after
configured VPN tunnel and policy route.
G03. VPN connections are dialed successfully, and the policy route is set. But
the traffic is lost or there is no response from remote site.
There are two possibilities. One is that the traffic is blocked by firewall, Anti-Virus,
Anti-Spam, IDP…etc. Please check the configuration of these services or search the related
dropped logs. Another option is that the remote gateway doesn't know how to route the replied
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traffic. Please check the route rules of the remote gateway.
G05. Why don’t the Inbound/Outbound traffic NAT in VPN work?
Check the modified traffic for whether the outbound traffic SNAT still matches the VPN
connection policy. If the traffic doesn't match the policy and the policy enforcement is active,
it will be dropped by the VPN. For Inbound traffic SNAT/DNAT, check if there is a directly
connected subnet or a route rule to the destination.
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H. Firewall FAQ
H01. Why doesn’t my LAN to WAN or WAN to LAN rule work?
There may be some reasons why firewall doesn’t correctly constrain the access.
1. The WAN zone doesn’t include all WAN interfaces. For example, if you create a PPPoE
interface, you need to add this ppp interface into the WAN zone.
2. The firewall rules order is not correct. Since firewall search firewall rules in order, it
will apply the first firewall rule that matches criteria.
H02. Why does the intra-zone blocking malfunction after I disable the firewall?
Intra-zone blocking is also a firewall feature. If you want to have intra-zone blocking working,
please keep the firewall enabled.
H03. Can I have access control rules to the device in firewall?
If your ZYWALL 1050 image is older than b6, the answer is No. Firewall only affects the
forwarded traffic. You need to set the access control rules in system for each service such as
DNS, ICMP, WWW, SSH, TELNET, FTP and SNMP. After b6 image, user can configure
to-ZyWALL rules to manage traffic that is destined to ZyWALL.
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I. Application Patrol FAQ
I01. What is Application Patrol?
Application Patrol is to inspect and determine the application type accurately by looking at the
application payload, OSI layer 7, regardless of the port numbers.
.
I02. What applications can the Application Patrol function inspect?
The Application Patrol on ZyWALL 1050 supports four categories of application protocols at
the time of writing.
1. General protocols -- HTTP, FTP, SMTP, POP3 and IRC.
2. IM category -- MSN, Yahoo Messenger, AOL-ICQ, QQ
3. P2P category -- BT, eDonkey, Fasttrack, Gnutella, Napster, H.323, SIP, Soulseek
4. Streaming Protocols -- RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol)
Note: The applications support is not configurable (add or remove).
I03. Why does the application patrol fail to drop/reject invalid access for some
applications?
There are two possible reasons for this problem. One is that this application version is not
supported by the Application Patrol (please refer to Application Patrol Support List). The other
is that the Application Patrol needs several session packets for the application identification.
After the session is identified successfully (or it can’t be identified), specified action is taken.
If the session is terminated before being identified, application patrol won’t take any action.
But it seldom happens.
I04. What is the difference for Portless and Port-based settings in the
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Application Patrol configuration page?
The portless setting functions as OSL layer 7 inspection while Port-based functions only up to
layer 4 inspection. By default, portless base will be selected when an application patrol rule is
enabled. To use Port-based option, it could help:
(1) Provide a clear port lists which is pre-defined in ZyWALL 1050. For example, it could
help user to know the eDonkey service is defined the take action on port 4661 ~ 4665 as
shown below.
(2) It could be used when user want to apply bandwidth control for a certain allowed or
rejected application (which is in Application Patrol support list). See the picture above. There
is a field of “Enable Bandwidth Shaping”.
(3) Since the port-base performs up to OSI layer 4 inspection, so the system performance
would be better than the port-less inspection (layer 7). Therefore, if user concern more about
system performance or user’s network environment is simple, the port-base setting could be
the choice.
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J. lDP FAQ
J01. Why doesn’t the IDP work? Why has the signature updating failed?
Please check if your IDP services are activated and are not expired.
J02. When I use a web browser to configure the IDP, sometimes it will popup
"wait data timeout".
For current release, when you configure IDP and enable all the IDP rules at the same time, you
may see the GUI showing “wait data timeout”. This is because GUI can’t get the IDP module
setting result for a period of time, even if the configuration of ZyWALL 1050 is correct.
J03. When I want to configure the packet inspection (signatures), the GUI
becomes very slow.
We suggest you had better use "Base Profile" to turn on/off signatures.
J04. After I select "Auto Update" for IDP, when will it update the signatures?
After applying "Auto Update", ZyWALL 1050 will update signatures Hourly, Daily, or Weekly.
But updating will occur at random minute within the hour specified by user.
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J05. If I want to use IDP service, will it is enough if I just complete the
registration and turn on IDP?
Please ensure to activate the “protected zone” you would like to protect and configure the
action for attack of the “protected zone” in the related IDP profile is others than “none”.
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K. Content Filtering FAQ
K01. Why can’t I enable external web filtering service? Why does the external
web filtering service seem not to be working?
Enabling this feature requires the registration with myZyXEL.com and service license. If your
service is expired, the feature would be disabled automatically.
K02. Why can’t I use MSN after I enabled content filter and allowed trusted
websites only?
MSN messenger tends to access various websites for internal use and if it can’t access these
websites, the login fails. If allowing trusted websites only is enabled and the websites that
MSN messenger wants to access are not in the trusted website, access would be blocked. If
you really want this option enabled, you have to add these websites in the trusted websites list.
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L. Device HA FAQ
L01. What does the “Preempt” mean?
The “Preempt” means that the Backup with high priority can preempt the Backup with low
priority when the Backup device is online. And Master can always preempt any Backup.
L02. What is the password in Synchronization?
If the Backup wants to synchronize the configuration from Master, both Master and Backup
device must be set the same password.
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M. User Management FAQ
M01. What is the difference between user and guest account?
Both “user” and “guest” are accounts for network access. But the difference is that “user”
account can login ZyWALL 1050 via telnet/SSH to view limited personal information.
M02. What is the “re-authentication time” and “lease time”?
For security reasons, administrators and accessing users are required to authenticate
themselves after a period of time. The maximum session time is called re-authentication time.
Lease time is another timeout mechanism to force access users to renew it manually (or
automatically, it is configurable). For administrators, lease time is much like an idle time when
configuring GUI.
M03. Why can’t I sign in to the device?
There are several reasons that the device can deny the login for
1. Password is wrong
2. Service access policy violation
3. Too many simultaneous login session for an account
4. The IP address is locked out
5. System capacity reached
M04. Why is the TELNET/SSH/FTP session to the device disconnected? Why is
the GUI redirected to login page after I click a button/link?
There are several reasons that device could log you out.
1. Re-authentication, lease or idle timeout
2. IP address is changed after authentication
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3. Another account was used to login from the same computer
M05. What is AAA?
AAA stands for Authentication/Authorization/Accounting. AAA is a model for access control
and also a basis for user-aware device. A user-aware device like ZyWALL 1050 could use
authentication method to authenticate a user (to prove who the user is) and give the user
proper authority (defining what the user is allowed and not allowed to do) by authorization
method. Accounting measures the resources a user consume during access which is used for
authorization control, resources utilization and capacity planning activities.
AAA services are often provided by a dedicated AAA server or a local database in a
user-aware device. The most common server interfaces are LDAP and RADIUS.
In ZyWALL1050, AAA object allows administrators to define the local database, AAA
server(including LDAP server and RADIUS server) and related parameters. AAA groups are
ones that could group several AAA servers for those enterprises that have more than one AAA
server. Furthermore, if the three kinds of services, LDAP, RADIUS and Local exist at the
same time, administrators could decide the order of different AAA services by AAA method.
M05. What are ldap-users and radius-users used for?
ldap-users/radius-users refer to the users that are authenticated successfully via
LDAP/RADIUS server. If you want to perform access control rules or build access policies for
the users authenticated via external servers such as LDAP or RADIUS, you can use the
ldap-users and radius-users in your access control rules or policies.
M06. What privileges will be given for ldap-users and radius-users?
When a user has been authenticated by external database (ladp or radius server), it will retrieve
the user’s attributes (like lease timeout and re-auth timeout value) from the external server. If
the external server doesn’t define the user’s attributes, it will try to check local database on
ZyWALL 1050 (at GUI menu Configuration > User/Group > User tab or Group tab) instead.
If it still cannot find, it will use the attribute of “ldap-users” and “radius-users” at GUI menu
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Configuration > User/Group > User tab as below. The default lease time and
re-authentication time of ldap-users and radius-users are 1440 minutes.
See the flow as shown below.
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N. Centralized Log FAQ
N01. Why can’t I enable e-mail server in system log settings?
Enabling e-mail server requires necessary fields filled properly. You have to set the mail server,
the sender address, event recipient and alert recipient.
N02. After I have all the required field filled. Why can’t I receive the log mail?
E-mail server may reject the event/alert mail delivering due to many reasons. Please enable
system debug log and find out why the e-mail server refused to receive the mail.
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O. Traffic Statistics FAQ
O01. When I use "Flush Data" in Report, not all the statistic data are cleared.
"Flush Data" means that it clears the statistic data for the specified interface, not all interfaces.
If users want to clear all data, stop collection and start it again.
O02. Why isn't the statistic data of "Report" exact?
Report module utilizes limited memory to collect data. It means that the longer is the
collecting duration or the more connections, the less exact the result the Report module has.
This Report function is mainly used for troubleshooting, when a network problem happens.
O03. Does Report collect the traffic from/to ZyWALL itself?
In Report module, only the forwarding traffic will be recorded. The forwarding traffic means
the traffic going through ZyWALL. Therefore, only the broadcast traffic in the bridge interface
will be recorded.
O04. Why cannot I see the connections from/to ZyWALL itself?
In Session module, only the forwarding traffic will be listed The forwarding traffic means the
traffic going through ZyWALL. Therefore, the broadcast traffic in the bridge interface will
be listed.
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