UNAIDS 2014 Gap Report

UNAIDS 2014 Gap Report
THE GAP
REPORT
UNAIDS
1
“Our mission is to build a better world. To leave no one behind.
To stand for the poorest and the most vulnerable in the name of
global peace and social justice.”
Ban Ki-moon
United Nations Secretary-General
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
4
BEGINNING OF THE END OF THE AIDS EPIDEMIC
6
REGIONAL SNAPSHOTS
Sub-Saharan Africa
Caribbean
Asia and the Pacific
Middle East and North Africa
Latin America
Western and central Europe and North America
Eastern Europe and central Asia
24
26
48
58
76
84
96
104
PEOPLE LEFT BEHIND
118
12 POPULATIONS
119
01 People living with HIV
02 Adolescent girls and young women
03 Prisoners
04 Migrants
05 People who inject drugs
06 Sex workers
07 Gay men and other men who have sex with men
08 Transgender people
09 Children and pregnant women living with HIV
10 Displaced persons
11 People with disabilities
12 People aged 50 years and older
SPECIAL FEATURES AND ANALYSIS
120
132
146
156
170
186
200
214
228
246
260
270
280
The Importance of location
Effect of scaling up antiretroviral therapy
on reducing new HIV infections
UNAIDS HIV Treatment Situation Room
The cost of inaction
282
285
ENDING THE AIDS EPIDEMIC IS POSSIBLE
294
REFERENCES
307
ANNEXES
287
290
A1
FOREWORD
Ending the AIDS epidemic.
Ending the AIDS epidemic—four words that hold such hope and promise.
Four words that represent more than 30 years of devastation, struggle and
loss.
The AIDS epidemic brought the world to its knees before bringing people
to their feet.
Activism and research led to one of the most effective global movements
of this generation. Global commitment and clear goals paved the way for
countries at the start of the AIDS response. Then resources, innovation and
communities accelerated its progress.
So much so that today we can say these words with confidence: ending the
AIDS epidemic is possible.
There will be no ending AIDS without putting people first, without ensuring
that people living with and affected by the epidemic are part of a new
movement. Without a people-centred approach, we will not go far in the
post-2015 era.
Even though we have seen new HIV infections drop by 38% since 2001,
there were 2.1 million people newly infected in 2013. There are also 22
million people who are not accessing life-saving treatment.
How do we close the gap between the people moving forward and the
people being left behind?
This was the question we set out to answer in the UNAIDS Gap report.
Similar to the Global report, the goal of the Gap report is to provide the
best possible data, but, in addition, to give information and analysis on the
people being left behind.
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Gap report
Of the 35 million people living with HIV in the world, 19 million do not know
their HIV-positive status. Adolescent girls and young women account for
one in four new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Prisoners are much
more vulnerable to HIV, tuberculosis and hepatitis B and C than the general
public.
Too often people at higher risk of HIV infection face multiple issues—such
as being a young woman displaced from home and living with HIV. Ensuring
that no one is left behind means closing the gap between people who can
get services and people who can’t, the people who are protected and the
people who are punished.
If part of the success we have seen comes from “what gets counted gets
done”, then it is time for everyone to be counted and reached. Increasingly
we are seeing multiple epidemics in countries. Never has it been more
important to focus on location and population—to be at the right place for
the right people.
We have a fragile five-year window to build on the rapid results that been
made. The next five years will determine the next 15.
Working together, ending the AIDS epidemic is possible, and it will take
leaving no one behind.
Michel Sidibé
Executive Director
UNAIDS
Foreword
5
BEGINNING OF THE END
OF THE AIDS EPIDEMIC
6
Gap Report
HOPE
GAPS
Regional snapshot
7
BEGINNING OF THE
END OF THE AIDS
EPIDEMIC
HOPE
The AIDS epidemic can be ended in every region, every country, in every
location, in every population and every community. There are multiple
reasons why there is hope and conviction about this goal.
New HIV infections are declining
The number of people who are newly infected with HIV is continuing to
decline in most parts of the world. There were 2.1 million [1.9 million–2.4
million] new HIV infections in 2013—a decline of 38% from 2001, when
there were 3.4 million [3.3 million–3.6 million] new infections. In the past
three years alone, new HIV infections fell by 13%. Among the 82 countries
for which the data for determining trends are of sufficient quality, new HIV
infections have declined by more than 75% in 10 countries and by more
than 50% in 27 countries.
One step closer to eliminating new HIV infections among
children
Progress in stopping new HIV infections among children has been
dramatic. In 2013, 240 000 [210 000–280 000] children were newly
infected with HIV. This is 58% lower than in 2002, the year with the highest
number, when 580 000 [540 000–640 000] children became newly infected
with HIV. Providing access to antiretroviral medicines for pregnant women
living with HIV has averted more than 900 000 new HIV infections among
children since 2009.
Getting one step closer towards eliminating new HIV infections among
children, for the first time the total number of children newly infected
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Gap report
dropped below 200 000 in the 21 priority countries under the Global Plan
towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children and keeping
their mothers alive (1).1 Malawi has had the largest decline in the rate of
children acquiring HIV infection—by 67%. New HIV infections among
children declined by 50% or more in eight other countries: Botswana,
Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and
Zimbabwe.
More people living with HIV know their status and are
receiving HIV treatment
Almost half of all people living with HIV (48%) now know their status. In
countries with the highest burden of HIV infection, knowledge of HIV
status among people living with HIV is higher than before. Some 86% of
people living with HIV who know their status in sub-Saharan Africa are
receiving antiretroviral therapy, and nearly 76% of them have achieved viral
suppression.
AIDS-related deaths are declining
Fewer people are dying of AIDS-related illnesses. In 2013 there were 1.5
million [1.4 million–1.7 million] AIDS-related deaths. AIDS-related deaths
have fallen by 35% since 2005, when the highest number of deaths was
recorded. In the past three years alone, AIDS-related deaths have fallen by
19%, which represents the largest decline in the past 10 years.
In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of AIDS-related deaths fell by 39%
between 2005 and 2013. The region still accounted for 74% of all the
people dying from AIDS-related causes in 2013. In the Caribbean, it
declined by 54% and in Latin America by 31%. More modest declines of
27% occurred during the same period in Asia and the Pacific. In Oceania,
AIDS-related deaths declined by 19% and in western and central Europe
and North America, where mortality was already very low, by a further 2%.
In contrast, the Middle East and North Africa experienced a significant
increase in mortality from AIDS (66%), and eastern Europe and central
Asia a more moderate increase of 5%.
The number of AIDS-related deaths decreased significantly between 2009
and 2013 in several countries, including South Africa (51%), the Dominican
Republic (37%), Ukraine (32%), Kenya (32%), Ethiopia (37%) and Cambodia
(45%).
1
The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive was launched in 2011. Although the plan is
global, it focuses on 22 priority countries. 21 are in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Beginning of the end of the AIDS epidemic
9
The importance of location and population
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Gap report
Young women
Sex work
People who inject drugs
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
Transgender
Migrants
Prisoners
Displaced
Pregnant women
50+
Disabled
African-American women
Intimate partners
People living with HIV (children
and adults) are included as
members of all of the featured
populations. They are implicitly
included in this map as they must
have universal access to services.
Beginning of the end of the AIDS epidemic 11
The number of people who are newly infected with HIV is continuing to decline in
most parts of the world—a decline of 38% from 2001.
Progress has been dramatic in stopping new HIV infections among children. In
2013, 240 000 [210 000–280 000] children were newly infected with HIV, 58%
lower than 2002.
AIDS-related deaths have fallen by 35% since 2005, when the highest number of
deaths was recorded. In the past three years alone, AIDS-related deaths have fallen
by 19%, which represents the largest annual decline in the past 10 years.
Nearly half of the adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa know their status.
There were 12.9 million people receiving antiretroviral therapy globally at the
end of 2013. The percentage of people living with HIV who are not receiving
antiretroviral therapy has been reduced from 90% [90–91%] in 2006 to 63% [61–
65%] in 2013.
HOPE
Some 87% of people living with HIV who know their status in sub-Saharan Africa
are receiving antiretroviral therapy, and nearly 76% of them have achieved viral
suppression.
The number of men who opted for medical male circumcision in the priority
countries has tripled in the past two years.
From 2004 to 2012, TB-related deaths among people living with HIV declined by
36% worldwide.
Providing access to antiretroviral medicines for pregnant women living with HIV has
averted more than 900 000 new HIV infections among children since 2009.
From 2004 to 2012, TB-related deaths among people living with HIV declined by
36% worldwide.
Since 1995, antiretroviral therapy has averted 7.6 million deaths globally, including
4.8 million deaths in sub-Saharan Africa.
Life-saving antiretroviral therapy has helped gain approximately 40.2 million lifeyears since the start of the epidemic.
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Gap report
Fifteen countries account for nearly 75% of all people living with HIV. In every region
of the world, three to four countries host the majority of people living with HIV.
Fifteen countries accounted for more than 75% of the 2.1 million new HIV infections
that occurred in 2013.
In sub-Saharan Africa, only eight male condoms were available per year for each
sexually active individual. Among young people, condom access was even less.
Twenty-two million, or three of five people living with HIV, are still not accessing
antiretroviral therapy.
Three of four children living with HIV or 76% are not receiving HIV treatment.
In 2012, people living with HIV accounted for 1.1 million (13%) of the estimated 8.7
million people who developed TB globally.
Of the estimated 35 million people living with HIV, some 2 million–4 million also have
hepatitis B infection and 4 million–5 million people hepatitis C infection.
GAPS
Globally, 15% of all women living with HIV aged 15 years and older are young
women 15–24 years old. Of these, 80% live in sub-Saharan Africa. In this region,
women acquire HIV infection at least 5–7 years earlier than men.
The HIV prevalence among sex workers is 12 times greater than among the general
population.
There are estimated 12.7 million people who inject drugs, and 13% of them are
living with HIV.On average only 90 needles are available per year per person who
injects drugs, while the need is about 200 per year.
Every year, almost 120 000 people aged 50 years and older acquire HIV. People
aged 50 years and older need specialized care for HIV and other chronic conditions.
Same-sex sexual acts are criminalized in 78 countries and are punishable by death in
seven countries.
Sex work is illegal and criminalized in 116 countries. People who inject drugs are
almost universally criminalized for their drug use or through the lifestyle adopted to
maintain their drug use.
Forty-two countries have laws specifically criminalizing HIV non-disclosure, exposure
and transmission.
Beginning of the end of the AIDS epidemic 13
Record numbers on antiretroviral therapy
Almost 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy globally at the
end of 2013. The percentage of people living with HIV who are not receiving
antiretroviral therapy (2) has been reduced from 90% [90–91%] in 2006 to 63%
[61–65%] in 2013.
Of these 12.9 million people, 5.6 million were added since 2010. The rapid
increase in antiretroviral access has primarily occurred in a few countries. Onethird of the increase in the number receiving antiretroviral therapy was in South
Africa, followed by India at 7%, Uganda 6%, and in Nigeria, Mozambique, the
United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe 5%. Three of four people receiving
HIV treatment are living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the need is most acute.
Number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy1 newly added during 2010–2013
22% Remaining countries
33% South Africa
4% Malawi
4% Kenya
4% Zambia
5% United Republic of Tanzania (the)
7% India
5% Mozambique
5% Nigeria
6% Uganda
5% Zimbabwe
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Reductions in deaths related to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV
Since 2004, TB-related deaths among people living with HIV have declined
by 36% worldwide at the end of 2012. WHO estimates that scaling up
collaborative HIV and TB activities prevented about 1.3 million people
from dying during 2005 to 2012. More people with TB are now receiving
antiretroviral therapy.
Ten countries represent more than 80% of the global number of notified HIVpositive people with TB receiving antiretroviral therapy.
1
The number is reported as a percentage of all people living with HIV to allow for comparison between countries, over time, because the eligibility criteria
for antiretroviral therapy have changed over time and within countries.
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Gap report
Increase in number of people with tuberculosis receiving antiretroviral therapy in 10
countries that represent more than 80% of the global number of HIV-positive people with
tuberculosis
Number of people with tuberculosis receiving
antiretroviral therapy
140 000
120 000
100 000
South Africa
India
80 000
Kenya
Mozambique
60 000
Zimbabwe
Zambia
40 000
United Republic
of Tanzania (the)
Uganda
20 000
Nigeria
Malawi
0
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Source: WHO 2013.
HIV prevention works
Modelling from South Africa shows that the increases in condom use, which
occurred at the same time as the distribution of male condoms significantly
increased, played a primary role in declines in national HIV incidence that
occurred during 2000–2008. This emphasises the continued need to invest
in condoms and other prevention programmes. The number of men who
opted for medical male circumcision in the priority countries has tripled
in the past two years. HIV prevention programmes for people who inject
drugs, gay men and other men who have sex with men, sex workers and
transgender people have shown results when such services are made
available and community-led. Further, increased access to antiretroviral
therapy, in combination with other HIV prevention services, is driving down
new HIV infections.
Beginning of the end of the AIDS epidemic 15
Resources available for the AIDS response have started to
increase again
At the end of 2013, US$ 19.1 billion was being invested annually in the
AIDS response in low- and middle-income countries. This is an increase of
about US$ 250 million after the resources available remained flat between
2011 and 2013. The concept of shared responsibility and global solidarity
continues to gain strength.
Domestic and international investment has continued to increase. Domestic
investment made by low- and middle-income countries in 2013 totalled
US$ 9.65 billion. Preliminary estimates from UNAIDS suggest that out-ofpocket expenditure decreased between 2012 and 2013. The main increases
in the international assistance came from the United States of America as
well as from contributions made through the Global Fund to fight AIDS,
Tuberculosis and Malaria.
Most middle-income countries continue to fund their AIDS responses from
domestic resources while many countries such as India, China and South
Africa are increasingly using domestic resources. According to the Global
AIDS Response Progress Reporting (WHO/UNICEF/UNAIDS), Cabo Verde,
Comoros, Kenya, Sao Tome and Principe and Swaziland reported increased
domestic investment between 2012 and 2013.
Five countries—Chile, Latvia, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and
Uruguay— which recently transitioned into being high-income countries,
finance their programmes through domestic funds and are also counted in
this estimation of the 2013 global resources available for the AIDS response.
Impact
Since 1995, antiretroviral therapy has averted 7.6 million deaths globally,
including 4.8 million deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Another measure of the
antiretroviral therapy success story is the life-years gained by preventing
new HIV infections among children and by providing HIV treatment.
Together, these life-saving medicines have gained approximately 40.2
million life-years since the epidemic started.
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Gap report
GAPS
If the above facts and reasons described earlier gives hope, on the flip side,
there are equally sobering facts and challenges that, if addressed urgently,
can decisively turn the tide of the epidemic.
Global HIV burden
Globally, 15 countries account for nearly 75% of all people living with HIV.
Ensuring that people living with HIV in these countries have access to HIV
treatment services is especially critical.
People living with HIV by country, 2013
18% South Africa
27% Remaining countries
9% Nigeria
4% United States (the)
2% Brazil
6% India
2% Russian Federation (the)
5% Kenya
2% Ethiopia
2% China
3% Malawi
3% Zambia
4% Zimbabwe
4% Mozambique
4% Uganda
4% United Republic of Tanzania (the)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
At the end of 2013, there were 35 million [33.2 million–37.2 million]
people living with HIV. This number is rising as more people are living
longer because of antiretroviral therapy, alongside the number of new
HIV infections—which, although declining, is still very high. An estimated
0.8% [0.7–0.8%] of adults aged 15–49 years worldwide are living with
HIV, although the burden of the epidemic continues to vary considerably
between regions and countries.
There are 3.2 million [2.9 million–3.5 million] children younger than 15 years
living with HIV and 4 million [3.6 million–4.6 million] young people 15–24
years old living with HIV, 29% of whom are adolescents aged 15–19 years.
Beginning of the end of the AIDS epidemic 17
There are 16 million [15.2 million–16.9 million] women aged 15 years and
older living with HIV; 80% live in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary contributor
to the scale of the epidemic in this region is heterosexual transmission and the
increased vulnerability to and risk of HIV infection among adolescent girls and
young women.
In other regions, more men are living with HIV than women, reflecting in part
the fact that epidemics in these countries are primarily among populations such
as sex workers and their clients (some of them migrants), gay men and other
men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs and transgender people.
Of the 35 million people living with HIV, 24.7 million [23.5 million–26.1 million]
are living in sub-Saharan Africa, the region hardest hit by the epidemic. Nearly
one in every 20 adults is living with the virus in this region. Almost 4.8 million [4.1
million–5.5 million] people are living with HIV in Asia and the Pacific, although
the regional prevalence of HIV infection is about one-seventeenth that in subSaharan Africa. In the Caribbean, 1.1% [0.9–1.2%] of adults were living with HIV
at the end of 2013.
Many new HIV infections and rising numbers in some regions
Fifteen countries accounted for more than 75% of the 2.1 million new HIV
infections that occurred in 2013. The people who are at increased risk of and
vulnerable to HIV infection need the fullest access to HIV prevention and
treatment services. In sub-Saharan Africa, only eight male condoms were available
per year for each sexually active individual. Among young people, condom access
was even lower. Condom availability varies from country to country and can vary
widely within a country, not necessarily aligned with HIV burden.
Proportion of new HIV infections by country, 2013
16% South Africa
24% Remaining countries
10% Nigeria
2% Brazil
2% Cameroon
2% United States (the)
7% Uganda
3% Zambia
3% China
6% India
3% Zimbabwe
3% United Republic of Tanzania (the)
5% Mozambique
5% Kenya
4% Indonesia
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
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Gap report
4% Russian Federation (the)
The number of new infections in eastern Europe and central Asia began
increasing in the late 2000s after remaining relatively stable for several years
since an initial peak in 2000. The region now has 0.6% of adults living with HIV.
The trends in rising new infections are cause for concern in the Middle
East and North Africa. Since 2001, new HIV infections in this region have
increased by 31%, from 19 000 [14 000–25 000] to 25 000
[14 000–41 000]. In western Europe and North America, new HIV infections
have increased by 6%.
Three of five people living with HIV are still not accessing
antiretroviral therapy
Twenty-two million, or three of five people living with HIV are still not
accessing antiretroviral therapy. The proportions of people who do not
have access to treatment are 58% [56–60%] in South Africa, 64% [55–72%]
in India and 80% [79–82%] in Nigeria. South Africa has announced a bold
target of providing 4.5 million people with access to antiretroviral therapy.
HIV treatment coverage is only 36% in India and 20% in Nigeria. Of all
AIDS-related deaths in the sub-Saharan Africa region, 19% occur in Nigeria,
and 51% of AIDS-related deaths in Asia happen in India.
The number of children receiving antiretroviral therapy is appallingly low—a
mere 24% [22–26%]. Three of four children living with HIV or 76% [74–78%]
are not receiving HIV treatment.
AIDS deaths, globally, 2013
14% Nigeria
26% Remaining countries
13% South Africa
2% Indonesia
2% Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
2% Russian Federation (the)
8% India
2% China
3% Ethiopia
5% Mozambique
3% Cameroon
3% Malawi
4% Kenya
5% United Republic of Tanzania (the)
4% Zimbabwe
4% Uganda
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Beginning of the end of the AIDS epidemic 19
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among
people living with HIV
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among people living with
HIV. In 2012, people living with HIV accounted for 1.1 million (13%) of the
estimated 8.7 million people who developed tuberculosis globally.
Emerging links between HIV and hepatitis B and C
People living with HIV who are coinfected with either hepatitis B or C virus
need to be given priority attention. Of the 35 million people living with HIV,
some 2 million–4 million have hepatitis B infection and 4 million–5 million
have hepatitis C infection. Coinfection accelerates the progression of liver
disease among these people. Given the significant investment made in HIV
treatment programmes, many countries have developed a strong health
care infrastructure to provide chronic care for people living with HIV. This
framework should also be extended to include people with viral hepatitis,
initially by systematically screening people living with HIV already in care
and initiating hepatitis treatment among those found to be coinfected.
Young women and adolescent girls are disproportionately
vulnerable and at high risk
There are almost 380 000 [340 000–440 000] new HIV infections among
adolescent girls and young women (10–24 years old) around the world every
year. Globally, 15% of all women living with HIV aged 15 years or older are
young women 15–24 years old. Of these, 80% live in sub-Saharan Africa. In
this region, women acquire HIV infection at least 5–7 years earlier than men.
Young women 15–24 years old in sub-Saharan Africa are twice as likely as
young men to be living with HIV. If young women and adolescent girls had
the means to protect themselves, the picture of the epidemic in the region
would look different. This is beginning to happen. The rate of new HIV
infections among young women in 26 countries is declining. These gains are
fragile and must be sustained.
Key populations have a higher risk of HIV infection in every
region of the world
Globally, gay men and other men who have sex with men are 19 times more
likely to be living with HIV than the general population. The incidence of HIV
among gay men and other men who have sex with men is rising in several
parts of the world. One international review concluded that only one in 10
gay men and other men who have sex with men receive a basic package of
HIV prevention interventions.
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Gap report
The HIV prevalence among sex workers is 12 times greater than among
the general population, even in countries with high prevalence among the
general population.
There are 12.7 million [8.9 million–22.4 million] people who inject drugs, 13%
of whom are living with HIV. People who inject drugs account for an estimated
30% of new HIV infections outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Scientific evidence is
clear on the impact of harm-reduction programmes in preventing HIV infections.
Nevertheless, only 90 needles are available per year per person, while the need is
about 200 per year.
In the Russian Federation, where the official policy is against providing
opioid substitution therapy services for people who inject drugs, the HIV
prevalence among people who inject drugs is estimated to be between
18% and 31%. In contrast, in countries in western and central Europe,
where coverage of services such as needle and syringe programmes and
opioid substitution therapy is high, the numbers of people becoming newly
infected with HIV are low. Notable exceptions are emerging epidemics
among people who inject drugs, such as in Greece.
Many other populations are forgotten and left behind
Among prisoners, in some settings the HIV burden may be up to 50 times
higher than in the general population. It has been estimated that between
56% and 90% of people who inject drugs will be incarcerated at some
stage. Arresting and incarcerating men and women living with HIV who are
receiving treatment may damage treatment retention and adherence, which
jeopardizes their health. Providing good HIV and TB services is critical to
ensuring the health of prisoners and their families.
In many parts of the world, migrants do not have the same access to
health services as other residents. Populations displaced from their homes
need continued access to HIV prevention and treatment services. These
populations are often forgotten. This is also the case for people aged 50
years and older. There are 4.2 million people aged 50 years and older
living with HIV today. Every year, 120 000 people aged 50 years and older
acquire HIV. People aged 50 and older need specialized care for HIV and
other chronic conditions.
Making human rights work for the AIDS response
In many parts of the world, legal provisions related to sexual behaviour,
gender, residence, occupation, property rights and related issues limit
people’s access to HIV services. The criminalization of sex work, drug use
and same-sex relationships among consenting adults in a large number of
countries hinders reaching people at higher risk of HIV infection with the
services that have been shown to prevent and treat HIV.
Beginning of the end of the AIDS epidemic 21
Same-sex practices are criminalized in 78 countries and punishable by death
in seven countries (2). The recent adoption of anti-homosexuality legislation
in Uganda and Nigeria, the overturning of the Delhi High Court judgement
decriminalizing adult consensual sex in India and the Russian Federation
legislation prohibiting public expression or distribution of information
relating to same-sex sexual orientation are notable setbacks. Sex work is
illegal and criminalized in 116 countries (3). For people who inject drugs,
in most countries the legal environment works against access to effective
harm reduction services. Sixty-one countries have adopted legislation
that specifically allows for criminalization, while prosecutions for HIV nondisclosure, exposure and transmission have been recorded in at least 49
countries.
It is concerning that critical funding for HIV-related legal and human rights
remains insufficient, leading to much of this important work falling through
the cracks.
A UNAIDS survey in 2014 showed that 59% of the civil society organizations
implementing human rights programmes are reporting decreases in funding
and another 24% had no change in funding levels. Nearly 70% of the
organizations are not accessing domestic funding for their activities.
Change in funding for civil society organizations for human rights-related work
24% HIV and human rights funding stayed at same level
17% HIV and human rights funding increased
59% HIV and human rights funding decreased
Source: UNAIDS, Sustaining the human rights response to HIV: an analysis of funding trends. Geneva (forthcoming).
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Gap report
23
REGIONAL SNAPSHOTS
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
CARIBBEAN
ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA
LATIN AMERICA
WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
EASTERN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA
REGIONAL SNAPSHOT
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
HIV burden
There are an estimated 24.7 million [23.5–26.1 million] people living with
HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, nearly 71% of the global total. Ten countries—
Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, the
United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe—account for 81% of
all people living with HIV in the region and half of those are in only two
countries—Nigeria and South Africa. There are also more women living
with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa than HIV-positive men: women account for
58% of the total number of people living with HIV. There are 2.9 million [2.6
million–3.2 million] children (aged 0–14), 2.9 million [2.6 million–3.4 million]
young people (aged 15–24) and more than 2.5 million [2.4 million–2.7
million] people aged 50 years and older living with HIV in sub-Saharan
Africa. Of the estimated 1.8 million people living with HIV who were
affected by conflict, displacement or disaster in 2006, 1.5 million were
living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). This number has since increased as the total
number of people displaced has increased globally.
People living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, 2013
11% Rest of the region
1% Botswana
1% Lesotho
2% Côte d’Ivoire
2% Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
2% Cameroon
25% South Africa
3% Ethiopia
4% Malawi
4% Zambia
13% Nigeria
6% Zimbabwe
6% United Republic of Tanzania (the)
6% Uganda
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
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Gap report
6% Kenya
6% Mozambique
AIDS-related deaths
The number of AIDS-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa fell by 39%
between 2005 and 2013. A significant decline (48%) was seen in South Africa.
Other countries that recorded major declines in AIDS-related deaths include
Rwanda (76%), Eritrea (67%), Botswana (58%), Burkina Faso (58%), Ethiopia
(63%), Kenya (60%), Zimbabwe (57%), Malawi (51%) and the United Republic
of Tanzania (44%).
This success is directly due to the rapid increase in the number of people on
antiretroviral therapy. The region has witnessed an expansion in the coverage
of HIV treatment to record numbers of people for the past three years. Last
year alone, 1.7 million additional people living with HIV received antiretroviral
therapy. South Africa has the highest number of people on HIV treatment—
nearly 2.6 million—and has committed to nearly doubling that number in the
next few years.
HIV treatment is now available to almost four in ten people 37% [35–39%]
living with HIV in the region. However, this masks significant differences
between countries. For example, 19% of AIDS-related deaths in the region
occurred in Nigeria where only two in every ten people living with HIV have
access to treatment. It is no coincidence that between 2005 and 2013 there
was no decline in the number of AIDS-related deaths in Nigeria, although
there has been a slight decline since the peak in 2008. On the other hand,
South Africa—with double the number of people living with HIV—increased
treatment coverage from one person in ten in 2010, to four people in ten by
2013, while also reducing AIDS-related deaths by 48%.
Within sub-Saharan Africa, 67% [65–68%] of men and 57% [55–60%] of
women living with HIV are not receiving antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS-related deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2013
11% Rest of the region
19% Nigeria
1% Chad
1% Lesotho
2% Zambia
2% Côte d’Ivoire
3% Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
4% Cameroon
17% South Africa
4% Ethiopia
4% Malawi
5% Kenya
6% Uganda
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
6% Zimbabwe
7% Mozambique
7% United Republic of Tanzania (the)
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 27
Number of AIDS-related deaths
Trends in AIDS-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, 2005 and 2013
400 000
300 000
200 000
100 000
0
Nigeria
0%
South
Africa
-48%
Mozambique United
Zimbabwe
+13%
Republic
-57%
of Tanzania
(the)
-44%
Uganda
-19%
Kenya
-60%
% change
2005
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Country scorecard: Adult access to antiretroviral therapy, 2013
≥40%
Botswana
Burundi
Burkina Faso
Cabo Verde
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Kenya
Malawi
Namibia
Rwanda
South Africa
Swaziland
Uganda
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
28
Gap report
<25%
25–39%
Angola
Benin
Cameroon
Congo (the)
Côte d’Ivoire
Gambia
Ghana
Lesotho
Mali
Mozambique
Niger (the)
Senegal
Togo
Central African Republic (the)
Chad
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Liberia
Madagascar
Mauritius
Nigeria
Sao Tome and Principe
Sierra Leone
South Sudan
Malawi
-51%
Ethiopia
-63%
Cameroon
-10%
Even as access to antiretroviral therapy expands in sub-Saharan Africa,
significant gaps remain. Chief among these is that only 45% [39–62%] of
people living with HIV know their HIV status, underscoring the need to
increase HIV knowledge and expand testing. The good news is that an
estimated 86% of people who know their HIV status are on antiretroviral
therapy and studies suggest that, among those who stay on treatment, an
estimated 76% [53–89%] have achieved viral suppression.
Abbreviated HIV treatment cascade for adults in sub-Saharan Africa aged 15 years or more,
2013
Number of people
25 000 000
20 000 000
15 000 000
10 000 000
100%
45%
(39%–62%)
5 000 000
39%
0
People living with HIV
People covered
People living with HIV
who know their status
(15–49)
People living with HIV
receiving ART
29%
(21–34%)
People living with HIV
with suppressed viral
load
People no longer covered
Sources:
1. UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
2. Demographic and Health Surveys, 2007–2012 (www.measuredhs.com) and the South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour
Survey 2012: Shishana, O, Rehle, T, Simbayi, LC, Zuma, K, Jooste; S, Zungu, N, Labadarios, D, Onoya, D et al (2014) South African National HIV
Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey, 2012. Cape Town, HSRC Press. 45% is the mid-point between the percentage of people living with HIV
who are likely to know their status (tested positive in the survey and report receiving the results of an HIV test in the previous twelve months) and the
percentage who tested positive in the survey who self-reported ever being tested for HIV (high bound, 62%). The low bound is denoted with 39%
which is the percentage of people living with HIV receiving ART. Notes: The results of the HIV test during the survey are not known until the end of
the survey process and thus are not disclosed to the respondents. Bounds do not include data from South Africa.
3. Barth, RE, van der Loeff, MR, et al. (2010). Virological follow-up of adult patients in antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: a
systematic review. Lancet Infec Disease 10(3):155–166 and the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Ministry
of Health, Kenya. September 2013. Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: Preliminary Report. Nairobi, Kenya., giving 50% weight to the work by Barth
and 50% weight to KAIS 2012. Proportional bounds from Barth et al. were applied to combined value.
TB–HIV—continued need for the integration of services
More than 75% of all estimated HIV incident tuberculosis cases live in just 10
countries, nine of them in sub-Saharan Africa. These include Ethiopia, Kenya,
Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda,
Zambia and Zimbabwe. Significant progress has been reported in the region,
where 74% of all notified tuberculosis cases were tested for HIV in 2012 (2).
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 29
Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk that a person living with HIV will
develop tuberculosis by 66% and HIV treatment lowers the risk of death
among people living with HIV who have tuberculosis by 50%. Antiretroviral
therapy coverage among people co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV
increased in several countries.
Estimated number of tuberculosis-related deaths among people living with HIV, globally
and for Africa, 2004–2012
Number of deaths
600 000
Global mortality high estimate
Global mortality estimate
Global mortality low estimate
Africa mortality high estimate
300 000
Africa mortality estimate
Africa mortality low estimate
Global target, 2015
0
Target for Africa, 2015
2004
2012
2015
Source: Global tuberculosis report 2013. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2013 (detailed country estimates are in the WHO report).
New HIV infections
There were 1.5 million [1.3 million–1.6 million] new HIV infections in subSaharan Africa in 2013. However, new infections are on the decline. There was
a 33% drop in new HIV infections among all ages in the region between 2005
and 2013 and a 19% reduction since 2010. The number of new HIV infections
is falling in every country in the region except Angola and Uganda1 where
increases were recorded. South Africa, the country with the largest number
of people living with HIV, recorded the largest decline in new infections in
absolute numbers, with 98 000 fewer new HIV infections than in 2010. Since
2010, the number of new HIV infections in Ghana decreased by 43% and by
41% in Malawi.
Among young people aged 15–24 years, the number of new infections has
declined by 42% since 2001 in sub-Saharan Africa and by 17% since 2010.
Despite gains in preventing new HIV infections, sub-Saharan Africa remains
the region most severely affected, with nearly 1 in every 25 adults (4.4%) living
with HIV. Three countries—Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda—represented
almost 48% of the new HIV infections in the region.
1
While there is an increase in the number of new infections in Uganda over the 2005-2013 period, the number of new infections is estimated to be declining
since 2011.
30
Gap report
New HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa, 2013
9% Rest of the region
1% Côte d’Ivoire
1% Ethiopia
2% Lesotho
2% Angola
23% South Africa
2% Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
2% Malawi
3% Cameroon
4% Zambia
5% Zimbabwe
15% Nigeria
5% United Republic of Tanzania (the)
7% Kenya
10% Uganda
8% Mozambique
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Number of new HIV infections
Trends in new HIV infections for top 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 2005 and 2013
600 000
500 000
400 000
300 000
200 000
100 000
0
2005
South
Africa
-39%
2013
Nigeria
-35%
Uganda
+21%
Mozambique
-27%
Kenya
-16%
United
Zimbabwe
Republic of
-34%
Tanzania (the)
-46%
Zambia
-41%
Cameroon
-29%
Malawi
-65%
% change
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Young women and adolescent girls are being left behind
While the majority of new HIV infections occur among adults above the age of
25, a large proportion occur among young women and adolescent girls. The
issues faced by young women and adolescent girls—gender-based violence
including sexual abuse, lack of access to education and health services,
as well as social protection and how they cope with these inequities and
injustices—determine how able they are to protect themselves from HIV or
to access antiretroviral therapy while they are young and move into adulthood.
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 31
The risks and choices they make are shaped by their early experiences and
radical transformations are required to break these barriers. UNAIDS, therefore,
recommends a major movement to protect adolescent girls and young women.
The data are stark and worrisome. More than four out of ten new infections
among women aged 15 years and over are among young women (15–24). HIV
prevalence among adolescent girls aged 15–19 years is unacceptably high. This
clearly shows a failure to protect them and meet their sexual and reproductive
health needs as they prepare for adulthood. In eastern and southern Africa,
for example, adolescent girls in Mozambique had an HIV prevalence of 7%,
which doubled to 15% by the time they were 25 years of age. In Lesotho, an
HIV prevalence of 4% was recorded among adolescent girls, which increased to
24% among young women aged 20–24 years. This pattern is repeated in almost
every country in eastern and southern Africa. In West and central Africa, similar
patterns are also observed, but at a slightly lower scale, indicating similar risk and
vulnerability conditions for adolescent girls and women across the subregion.
Adolescent boys and young men are also impacted. In Nigeria, HIV prevalence
among adolescent boys aged 15–19 years was already 2.9% according to a
Nigerian national HIV and reproductive health survey from 2012 (17). However,
in most countries, HIV prevalence among young men is much lower, suggesting
a significant age differential in the sexual debut between women and men.
A review of more than 45 studies from throughout sub-Saharan Africa revealed
that relationships between young women and older male partners were
common. Relationships with large differences in age are associated with unsafe
sexual behaviour, and low condom use (3).
New HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa, by age and sex, 2013
Number of new HIV infections
400 000
350 000
300 000
250 000
200 000
150 000
100 000
50 000
0
Males
<15
Females
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
32
Gap report
15–24
25–49
50+
Prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among young people aged 15–19 in eastern and southern Africa
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Botswana
15–19 female
Ethiopia
Kenya
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Rwanda
15–19 male
Source: most recent population-based survey.
United
Republic
of Tanzania
(the)
Uganda
Zimbabwe
Prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among young people aged 20–24 in eastern and southern Africa
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Botswana
20–24 female
Ethiopia
Kenya
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Rwanda
20–24 male
Source: most recent population-based survey.
United
Republic
of Tanzania
(the)
Uganda
Zimbabwe
Prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among young people aged 15–19 in west and central Africa
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
Benin
15–19 female
Burkina
Faso
Burundi Cameroon Congo
(the)
Côte
d’Ivoire
Gabon
Guinea
Niger
(the)
Nigeria Sao Tome Senegal
and
Principe
Sierra
Leone
15–19 male
Source: most recent population-based survey.
Prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among young people aged 20–24 in west and central Africa
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
20–24 female
Benin
Burkina
Faso
Burundi Cameroon Congo
(the)
20–24 male
Côte
d’Ivoire
Gabon
Guinea
Niger
(the)
Nigeria Sao Tome Senegal
and
Principe
Sierra
Leone
Source: most recent population-based survey.
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 33
Challenges and solutions in protecting adolescent girls and
young women
The latest available data from South Africa (4) show a national HIV
prevalence of 5.6% among adolescent girls aged 15–19 years, rising to
17.4% for young women aged 20–24 years. However, HIV prevalence
among adolescent boys was one fifth that rate. One in every three
(33.7%) sexually active adolescent girls is involved in an age-disparate
sexual relationship with a sexual partner more than five years older. This
compares to only 4.1% of adolescent boys who report the same behaviour.
Adolescents and young people also do not think they are at risk and seven
out of ten did not have the correct knowledge about HIV transmission.
Nearly 82% believe they will not get infected with HIV. On the positive side,
about half of all adolescents and young people are estimated to have taken
an HIV test.
HIV prevalence in South Africa by sex and age, 2012
45
40
HIV prevalence (%)
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0–14
15–19
20–24
25–29
30–34
35–39
40–44
45–49
50–54
55–59
Age group (years)
Males
Females
Source: South African national HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour survey, 2012. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council; 2014.
34
Gap report
60+
Age-disparate sexual relationships in South Africa among males and females aged 15–19,
2005, 2008 and 2012
Partner 5+ years older (%)
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
33.6
29.7
Female
27.6
Total
18.5
Male
2.0
0.7
2005
2008
4.1
0.3
2002
2012
Source: South African national HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour survey, 2012. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council; 2014.
These issues have been observed for several years in different studies. One
study in South Africa conducted by a UNAIDS collaborator, the Centre for
the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), found that HIV
prevalence increased rapidly among older school–going adolescents in a
rural district. In one school, HIV prevalence rose from 1.9% [0.7–4.6%] among
adolescent girls aged 12–14 to 12.2% [4.6–27.0%] among adolescent girls just
5 years older. However, the increase in HIV prevalence among adolescent boys
was much lower, increasing by 3.7% [0.6–13.8%] in the same time period (19).
HIV prevalence among boys and girls in two schools in rural KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, 2012
School A
HIV Prevalence (%)
25
School B
20
15
10
5
0
12 to 14
Males
15-16
17-18
19-25
12 to 14
15-16
17-18
19-25
Females
Source: Kharsany, A.B., Mlotshwa, M., et al. (2012). HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for school-based HIV-testing programmes
and sexual reproductive health services. BMC Public Health 12: 231.
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 35
In some settings, up to 45% of adolescent girls report that their first sexual
experience was forced (5). Numerous studies demonstrate that partner
violence increases the risk for HIV and unwanted pregnancies (6–7). A study
in South Africa found that young women who experienced intimate partner
violence were 50% more likely to have acquired HIV than women who had
not experienced violence (18). Data from Demographic and Health Surveys
suggest that adolescent girls and young women who are married are most
likely to experience physical or sexual violence from a partner.
To reduce such vulnerability among young people, cash transfers and other
social protection programmes have been initiated in the region. In South
Africa, a national longitudinal study of an existing publically funded cash
transfer programme found that, among more than 3000 families receiving
regular child support or foster child grants, adolescent girls showed a 53%
reduction in the incidence of transactional sex and a 71% reduction in agedisparate sex (8). Another independent study showed that, in South Africa,
adolescents in families receiving a child support grant were 16% less likely
to have had sex. Girls who received a grant earlier in their childhood had
fewer pregnancies than those who received a grant later in childhood (9).
Recent reviews from other parts of sub-Saharan Africa indicate that cash
transfers are a powerful tool for mitigating the risk for HIV. In combination
with other HIV and social protection activities, cash transfers make an
even greater contribution to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support
outcomes. In nine of ten studies measuring sexual behaviour in Kenya,
Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia
and Zimbabwe, as well as in Mexico and the United States of America, cash
payments had an HIV prevention effect (10).
The Mchinji social cash transfer programme in Malawi, which began in
2006, provides predictable financial assistance (about US$ 14 per month)
to all families throughout the country who are in the lowest income quintile
and are labour-constrained. A study of the Mchinji programme (11)1 found
improvements in food security (fewer missed meals) and improved child
welfare (children gained weight, grew taller, were more likely to be in school
and less likely to work outside the home). Cash transfer recipients increased
their use of health care and contributed economically to their communities
through labour, food sharing and spending in local markets. HIV outcomes
included improved access and adherence to HIV treatment resulting from
reduced transportation barriers to health services.
An evaluation of Kenya’s national programme of unconditional cash transfers
for orphans and vulnerable children (12)2 found a 31% reduction in the odds
of sexual debut. A randomized control trial in the Zomba district of Malawi,
with more than 1200 never-married, in-school and out-of-school women
1
The study compared households in the programme with control households in districts where the programme was not yet launched.
2
This national scheme provides approximately US$ 20 per month to the primary caregiver in households with one or more orphaned or vulnerable children.
36
Gap report
aged 13–22 years, explored the effects of making cash transfers to school
girls and their parents conditional on school attendance, independent of
HIV or reproductive health education. For girls who left school, no reduction
in HIV or Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) prevalence was shown. For girls
who stayed in school, those receiving any cash transfer showed a 64% odds
reduction in HIV prevalence and a 76% odds reduction in HSV-2 prevalence
(13). This study adds important evidence to another analysis from Malawi on
the importance of education as a structural intervention to reduce HIV infection
(13). As with the Mchinji and South Africa programmes, this large-scale, national
programme was designed for poverty alleviation, but had a clear impact on key
HIV-relevant behaviours.
In a study in the United Republic of Tanzania, either US$ 10 or US$ 20 cash
was given to young adults aged 18–30 years, conditional on them being free
from sexually transmitted infections in four-monthly testing. At 12 months
(but not at 4 or 8 months), there was a 20% risk reduction in curable sexually
transmitted infections for the high-value (US$ 20) conditional transfer, but no
reduction for the low-value (US$ 10) transfer. There was some evidence that
young women were more affected than young men. However, there was no
reduction in HIV or HSV-2 risk (14).
In Lesotho, 18–32 year olds (n = 3426) were randomized to a control group or
to four-monthly sexually transmitted infections tests linked to lottery tickets for
a high-value US$ 100 or low-value US$ 50 quarterly lottery. After two years,
they found that a 25% odds reduction in HIV prevalence was attributed to the
lottery. For women, a 33% odds reduction was shown and, for the high-value
lottery, a 31% odds reduction was found (15). Overall, the evidence is strong
that different modalities for providing cash transfers, particularly to young
women, can reduce HIV risk and infection rates.
It is important to remember, however, that cash transfers alone will not stop all
new HIV infections among adolescent girls and young women. In addition, this
population must be provided with essential HIV prevention services that include
sexuality education, access to sexual and reproductive health services, HIV
testing and counselling and access to HIV treatment.
Preventing new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths
among children: progress and gaps in Global Plan priority
countries
The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among
children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) was
launched in July 2011 at the United Nations General Assembly High-Level
Meeting on AIDS. This section presents progress made by the 21 countries3
identified as priority countries in sub-Saharan Africa as of December 2013.
1
These countries are Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho,
Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 37
Fewer children are acquiring HIV
Since 2009, there has been a 43% decline in new HIV infections among
children in the 21 Global Plan priority countries. The number of new HIV
infections among children in these countries was fewer than 200 000 in
2013, compared to an estimated 350 000 new infections in 2009. Declines
were recorded in all Global Plan priority countries between 2009 and 2013,
but at varying rates. Malawi had the largest decline, at 67%, while new HIV
infections among children fell by 50% or more in seven other countries:
Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and
Zimbabwe. However, the number of new HIV infections among children in
Nigeria has declined by only 19% since 2009. Nigeria recorded one quarter
of all new HIV infections among children in the Global Plan priority countries
in 2013—nearly 51 000 [44 000–60 000] cases.
Number of new HIV infections among children in 2013 and rate of reduction in new
infections since 2009 in the 21 Global Plan priority countries
Number of new HIV
infections
70
50 000
60
40 000
50
40
30 000
30
20 000
20
10 000
10
New HIV child infections
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
38
Gap report
Rate of reduction in new infections
South Africa
United Republic
of Tanzania (the)
Nigeria
Uganda
Kenya
Mozambique
Zambia
Cameroon
Zimbabwe
Ethiopia
Côte d’Ivoire
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
Malawi
Angola
Chad
Lesotho
Ghana
Burundi
Namibia
Swaziland
0
Botswana
0
Rate of reduction in new
infections (%)
80
60 000
Percentage decline in new HIV infections among children in the 21 Global Plan priority
countries, 2009–2013
26–50% decline
>50% decline
Botswana
Ethiopia
Ghana
Malawi
Mozambique
Namibia
South Africa
Zimbabwe
Burundi
Cameroon
Côte d’Ivoire
Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
Kenya
Swaziland
Uganda
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
Zambia
<25% decline
Angola
Chad
Lesotho
Nigeria
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Pregnant women living with HIV are getting services, but
important gaps remain
The proportion of pregnant women living with HIV who did not receive
antiretroviral medicines has halved over the past five years, from 67%
[65–69%] to 32% [26–36%]. Less than 10% of pregnant women living with
HIV are not receiving antiretroviral medicines in 2013 in four countries:
Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. However, there is concern
about the stagnating number of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving
antiretroviral therapy. Only about 37 000 additional pregnant women
living with HIV were reached last year, compared to nearly 97 000 more in
previous years.
In many countries, there has been a decrease since 2012 in the reported
number of pregnant women receiving antiretroviral medicines. These
include Botswana, Chad, Ghana, Lesotho, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia
and Zimbabwe. The reasons for this differ, but include improvements made
to monitoring systems in some countries which allow for more accurate
estimates.
Among pregnant women living with HIV, an estimated 32% [26-36%]
were not receiving lifelong antiretroviral therapy or prophylaxis during
the breastfeeding period to reduce HIV transmission. This is a remarkable
improvement from more than 80% [79–82%] who were not covered during
the breastfeeding period in 2009.
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 39
Antiretroviral therapy provided to pregnant women living with HIV in the 21 Global Plan
priority countries, 2013
Number of pregnant women living with HIV
receiving antiretroviral therapy
1 000 000
900 000
800 000
700 000
600 000
500 000
400 000
300 000
200 000
100 000
0
2009
Breastfeeding
2010
2011
2012
2013
Pregnancy and delivery
Source: UNAIDS / UNICEF / WHO estimates, 2013.
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
40
Gap report
Chad
Nigeria
Angola
Lesotho
Ethiopia
Burundi
Cameroon
Ghana
Kenya
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
Côte d’Ivoire
Uganda
Zambia
Democratic Republic
of Congo (the)
Source: UNAIDS / UNICEF / WHO estimates, 2013.
Zimbabwe
Malawi
Mozambique
South Africa
Namibia
Botswana
0
Swaziland
Pregnant women living with HIV not
receiving antiretroviral medicines (%)
Percentage of pregnant women living with HIV in the 21 Global Plan priority countries not
receiving antiretroviral medicines to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 2013
Pregnant women living with HIV
(%)
Percentage of pregnant women living with HIV who received antiretroviral therapy during
pregnancy and delivery, 2009–2013
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: UNAIDS / UNICEF / WHO estimates, 2013.
Mother-to-child HIV transmission rates
The rate of HIV transmission from an HIV-positive mother to her child if
she is not receiving any antiretroviral medicines ranges from between
30% and 45% depending on the duration of breastfeeding. By 2009, the
overall transmission rate was 25.8% in the 21 Global Plan countries. Since
the rollout of the Global Plan, the rate has further declined to 15.7%. The
individual national transmission rates reflect the situation for all pregnant
women living with HIV in a country and are not limited to those who receive
services. That is, they also include transmission that occurs during the
breastfeeding period.
The number of women requiring services to prevent mother-to-child
transmission remains high at 1.3 million among the 21 priority countries.
Given the slow decline in new HIV infections among women of reproductive
age, this number is likely to remain high for the foreseeable future.
Unmet family planning needs of women living with HIV
All women, including women living with HIV, should be given the
opportunity to plan their pregnancies. By helping avert unintended
pregnancies among women living with HIV, health-care providers can then
focus on women with wanted pregnancies, and such women may be more
motivated to adhere to treatment, to seek health-care services, among
others, thereby improving service delivery efficiency.
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 41
Ensuring that women living with HIV have the ability to make informed and
safe fertility decisions is critical. According to most recent population-based
surveys, more than half of the 21 priority countries are failing to meet the
needs for family planning among at least 25% of all married women. This is
the case in Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, the United Republic of
Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
Unmet needs for family planning among currently married women regardless of their HIV
status in 21 Global Plan priority countries
Unmet need for family planning (%)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
Source: most recent population-based survey.
Keeping mothers alive—reducing AIDS-related deaths
among women of reproductive age
There has been a steady decline in the number of AIDS-related deaths
among women of reproductive age and a 41% reduction in the number of
maternal deaths among women living with HIV(16).
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Gap report
Ghana 2008
Uganda 2011
Burundi 2010
Mozambique 2011
Côte d’Ivoire 2012
Democratic Republic of
the Congo (the) 2007
Zambia 2007
Ethiopia 2011
Malawi 2010
Kenya 2008
United Republic of
Tanzania (the) 2010
Swaziland 2006
Cameroon 2011
Lesotho 2009
Chad 2004
Namibia 2013
South Africa 1998
Nigeria 2013
Zimbabwe 2011
0
AIDS-related deaths among women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in the 21 Global Plan
priority countries, 2005–2013
800 000
Number of AIDS-related deaths
700 000
600 000
500 000
400 000
300 000
200 000
100 000
0
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Maternal deaths among women living with HIV, 2005 and 2013
12 000
2005
7 100
2013
Source: WHO Maternal Mortality Report 2014.
Note: Countries with AIDS-related deaths exceeding 10% of indirect maternal mortalities were Botswana, Gabon, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa,
Swaziland and Zambia.
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 43
Engaging men in the AIDS response
A successful AIDS response in sub-Saharan Africa cannot afford to ignore or
exclude men. Fewer men than women utilize HIV prevention and treatment
services. Men are less likely to know their HIV status than women in most
countries in the region and there are fewer men than women receiving HIV
treatment.
Voluntary medical male circumcision is an example of an intervention proven
to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV among men by 66%. The number of
men circumcised has tripled in the last two years. Yet, seven out of ten adult
males have not yet had the chance to be circumcised in the 14 priority
countries from where reports are available.
Voluntary medical male circumcision in 14 priority countries, 2016 needs versus 2013
achievements
Number of Voluntary Medical
Male Circumcision needed to
reach 80% prevalence by 2016
20.0 million
Achieved
5.8 million
Increasing the participation of men and their uptake of HIV services
is essential to protecting them and, in turn, their loved ones. The
consequences of lower male uptake of HIV prevention, testing and
treatment are more severe for women, who are reluctant to get tested or to
access treatment services and often face violence, stigma and discrimination
when they do reveal their HIV status to their male partners.
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Gap report
Hidden and forgotten: sex workers, gay men and other
men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs and
transgender people
The sub-Saharan African epidemic also affects key populations—sex
workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men and people who
inject drugs—and their share of the burden is significant.
Seventeen of the top 18 countries where HIV prevalence among sex workers
exceeds 20% are situated in sub-Saharan Africa. Median HIV prevalence
among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa is 20% compared with the
global median of 3.9%. Three African countries report an HIV prevalence
of less than 6% among sex workers-Democratic Republic of Congo (the),
Madagascar, the Comoros.
Female sex workers have a slightly higher prevalence than their male
counterparts in five of the six sub-Saharan countries that reported such
figure. But, with a median HIV prevalence of 13%, male sex workers also
urgently need HIV-related services.
Self-reported condom use at last commercial sex is high in the region,
standing at 86%. Condom distribution to sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa,
as measured by self-reported receipt of a free condom, is also high at 78% for
women overall. In four countries reporting, values ranged from 15% and 81%
of male sex workers, received condoms. This highlights the disparity among
countries in the region where programmes in populous states such as the
Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria are lagging.
HIV testing is the critical entry point into care and treatment for people
who are HIV-positive, but it remains inadequate. In 35 sub-Saharan African
countries, in median only 60% of sex workers reported a recent HIV test (in
the prior 12 months) for which they learned their results.
In most sub-Saharan Africa countries that report having targeted programmes
for sex workers including empowerment programmes, the additional
monitoring of evidence is also lacking. Yet, there are signs of progress and
innovation. In Kenya, for example, the bar hostess empowerment programme
developed a set of activities to train local sex workers as paralegals, which
included learning about local and national laws and educating other sex
workers about their rights. The result was a strong and empowered sex
worker network that is resilient and can benefit from community-led services.
Most programmes across sub-Saharan Africa have a limited scale, scope and
coverage. A review of 54 projects found that most included small, local-level
efforts that provided condoms and occasionally included HIV testing. HIV care
and treatment as well as tests for CD4 cell counts were infrequently offered.
The situation is even graver for male and transgender sex workers and for the
male clients of sex workers (3).
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 45
HIV prevalence among male and female sex workers in Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon and Nigeria,
2009–2013
HIV prevalence (%)
60
50
50
40
30
20
19
13
10
33
25
23
0
Gabon
Male sex workers
Nigeria
Côte d’Ivoire
Female sex workers
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting, 2014.
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men
is also very high in the region. While precise measures for this population
are not easily available, the high levels of HIV prevalence among gay
men and other men who have sex with men must not be ignored and
HIV services must be made available. In addition, significant political and
community leadership is required to end stigma, violence and decriminalize
homosexuality and, thus, enable and encourage men who have sex with gay
men and other men to access HIV services.
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men in eastern and
southern Africa, 2009–2013
HIV prevalence (%)
25
20
15
10
5
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting, 2014.
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Gap report
United Republic
of Tanzania (the)
Mauritius
Kenya
Swaziland
Madagascar
Uganda
Seychelles
Botswana
South Africa
Angola
0
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men in western and
central Africa, 2009–2013
54
50
40
17
18
19
19
20
20
20
Ghana
Senegal
Côte d’Ivoire
Togo
Liberia
Mali
12
17
Democratic Republic
of Congo (the)
Sierra Leone
12
15
Nigeria
8
Benin
4
6
Burundi
20
Niger (the)
30
10
57
37
Burkina Faso
HIV prevalence (%)
60
26
29
Guinea
Mauritania
Cameroon
Central African
Republic (the)
Congo (the)
Cabo Verde
0
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting, 2014.
HIV services are also required for people who inject drugs in several
countries in the region. Kenya, Nigeria and the United Republic of Tanzania
have recently begun programmes to reach this population.
Ending AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa—increasing and
sustaining investments
As the region with the highest burden of the AIDS epidemic, the majority
of the investments for the AIDS response are required here. Preliminary
estimates for 2012 indicate that around $6.6 billion was invested in the
AIDS response in sub-Saharan Africa, 47% of which came from domestic
sources with the remainder coming from international sources. An analysis
of countries’ AIDS investments, excluding South Africa, clearly indicates that
many remain dependent on external resources. At the same time, as African
economies grow, domestic investments are increasing, demonstrating a
widespread commitment to the shared responsibility agenda. However, the
significant need for AIDS investments requires that, in the coming years,
both domestic and international funding must be not only sustained, but
also steadily increased to meet the 2030 targets.
Regional snapshots: sub-Saharan Africa 47
REGIONAL SNAPSHOT
CARIBBEAN
HIV burden
There are an estimated 250 000 [230 000–280 000] adults and children
living with HIV in the Caribbean. Five countries account for 96% of all
people living with HIV in the region: Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti,
Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. Haiti alone accounts for 55% of all
people living with HIV in the Caribbean. While the Caribbean region is home
to only 0.7% of the global total of people living with HIV, infection rates
remain high. The overall HIV prevalence in the region is 1.1% [0.9–1.2%], with
the highest prevalence of 3.2% [3.1–3.5%] found in the Bahamas (1).
People living with HIV in the Caribbean, 2013
3% Bahamas (the)
5% Trinidad and Tobago
1% Barbados
6% Cuba
12% Jamaica
55% Haiti
18% Dominican Republic (the)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Gay men and other men who have sex with men experience high levels of
HIV prevalence across the Caribbean. One in three gay men and other men
who have sex with men in Jamaica is HIV-positive (2).
Prevalence in Haiti among young women aged 15–19 years is 0.5%, more
than double the figure for young men of the same age. Women aged 20–24
are three times more likely to be HIV-positive than men of the same age (7).
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Gap report
AIDS-related deaths
In 2013, there were an estimated 11 000 [8 300–14 000] AIDS-related
deaths in the Caribbean. In keeping with HIV prevalence in the region,
AIDS-related deaths were highly concentrated with 98% occurring in five
countries—the Bahamas, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and
Trinidad and Tobago. Haiti alone accounted for 59% of all AIDS-related
deaths in the region (1).
AIDS-related deaths in the Caribbean, 2013
2% Cuba
0.4% Barbados
5% Bahamas (the)
6% Trinidad and Tobago
12% Jamaica
16% Dominican Republic (the)
59% Haiti
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Between 2005 and 2013, AIDS-related deaths halved. However, these gains
were limited to only a few countries. The Dominican Republic, Haiti and
Jamaica all recorded significant declines in the number of deaths due to
AIDS. In the Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba and Trinidad and Tobago, however,
there was no decrease in the number of people dying from AIDS-related
causes (1).
Regional snapshots: Caribbean 49
Trends in AIDS-related deaths in the Caribbean, 2005 and 2013
Number of
AIDS-related deaths
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
2005
Haiti
Dominican
Republic (the)
Jamaica
Trinidad and
Tobago
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Uptake of antiretroviral therapy among all people living with HIV in the
region increased from 5% [4–6%] to 41% [36–46%] between 2005 and 2013
(7 countries reporting). Barbados and Cuba have the highest treatment
coverage, 64% [48–83%] and 62% [52–71%] respectively. Haiti and the
Dominican Republic, with the greatest burden of disease in the region,
increased coverage 12- and 11-fold, respectively, to39% [36–43%] and
47% [36–65%] (1).
HIV and tuberculosis comorbidity
A high increase in the uptake of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive
tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic and Haiti accounts for most
of the positive progress seen in the Caribbean region. The percentage
of identified HIV-positive tuberculosis patients who started or continued
antiretroviral therapy increased from 47% in 2012 to 65% in 2013. However,
coverage is still far from the target of 100% coverage among those
coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis.
New HIV infections
There were an estimated 12 000 [9 400–14 000] new HIV infections in the
Caribbean in 2013. This represents 0.55% of the global total for new infections.
HIV estimates are not currently available for the small island countries.
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Gap report
Bahamas
(the)
Cuba
Barbados
New HIV infections in the Caribbean, 2013
3% Bahamas (the)
1% Barbados
6% Trinidad and Tobago
13% Cuba
12% Jamaica
57% Haiti
8% Dominican Republic (the)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Significant variation in the trends in new infections exists among the
countries in this region. Haiti has seen a 44% reduction in the number of
new HIV infections: from 12 000 [11 000–14 000] in 2005 to 6 700 [5 400–
8 300] in 2013. Similar trends are apparent in the Dominican Republic,
where new infections declined by 61%, and in Jamaica, where they declined
by 42%. Trinidad and Tobago also experienced a notable decline of 32%.
However, Cuba experienced an increase in new HIV infections.
Trends in new HIV infections for the seven most affected countries in the Caribbean, 2005
and 2013
Number of new HIV
infections
15 000
2005
10 000
5 000
0
Haiti
Cuba
Jamaica
Dominican Trinidad and
Republic (the) Tobago
Bahamas
(the)
Barbados
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Regional snapshots: Caribbean 51
Across the region, 42% [37–47%] of people living with HIV 15 years and older were
receiving antiretroviral therapy in 2013, an increase from 31% [28–36%] in 2011.
Smaller increases were also seen in the numbers of children younger than 15 years
old receiving antiretroviral therapy. Between 2011 and 2013, the proportion of
HIV-positive children under 15 receiving antiretroviral therapy increased from 18%
[16–22%] to 24% [20–28%] (1).
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
Up to 33% of gay men and other men who have sex with men are HIV-positive
in Jamaica. HIV prevalence is also high among gay men and other men who
have sex with men in the Bahamas, Belize, Dominica, Guyana, Haiti and Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines (2).
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men across the
Caribbean, 2009–2013
35
HIV prevalence (%)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Antigua and
Barbuda
Cuba
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
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Gap report
Dominican
Republic (the)
Bahamas
(the)
Haiti
Dominica
Saint Vincent
and the
Grenadines
Jamaica
Consistently high levels of prevalence among gay men and other men
who have sex with men highlight the need to scale up HIV prevention and
treatment programmes.
Median programme coverage and HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have
sex with men in the Caribbean, 2009–2013
HIV prevalence (%)
70
60
50
Condom use (n=3)
40
HIV testing (n=3)
30
HIV prevalence (n=3)
20
10
0
2009
2011
2012
2013
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Despite progress in reducing new infections and increasing access to
services, HIV remains a significant cause of mortality in the Caribbean.
Countries continue to grapple with political, cultural, social and
programmatic barriers to eliminating new HIV infections, AIDS-related
deaths and discrimination. Key issues such as stigma and discrimination,
access to services and the protection of human rights persist. Gay men and
other men who have sex with men and sex workers are among the most
vulnerable key populations in the region.
The human rights and HIV situation in the Caribbean is complex and varies
across countries requiring country-based analyses in order to develop
relevant strategies. In most countries, vulnerable populations still do not
have adequate access to health services and social protection due to laws,
policies and practices that are based upon moral judgments rather than on
basic human rights. Across the region, people from higher socioeconomic
strata enjoy greater access to health and social welfare support.
Regional snapshots: Caribbean 53
Young people in the Caribbean
From a total population of 40 million people living in the Caribbean,
approximately 40% are younger than 24 years of age. In the Caribbean,
WHO Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS), 56% of girls and
79% of boys on average had sex before the age of 14. In the most recent
GSHS on average 38% of adolescents 13–15 years of age did not use a
condom at last sexual intercourse (3,4).
The number of young women living with HIV is 1.2 times higher than the
number of young men living with HIV (1). On average in the Caribbean, one
out of every three young people aged 15–24 are inadequately informed
or unaware of the ways to prevent HIV (2). Youth in Antigua and Barbuda
were able to demonstrate knowledge and awareness of HIV (86%); however,
median awareness among youth in the region was 43% among girls and
42% among boys (2).
Adolescents in Caribbean countries have consistently higher total
fertility rates, by 33%, than the global average (5). In many Caribbean
countries, multiple adolescent pregnancies occur among girls from the
lower socioeconomic brackets, indicating a lack of access to sexual and
reproductive health services (6).
HIV prevalence among young people in Haiti, 2012
2.5
HIV prevalence (%)
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
Women 15–19
Women 20–24
Men 15–19
Source: Demographic and Health Survey 2012.
Sex work in the Caribbean
HIV prevalence among sex workers also remains high in parts of the
Caribbean. Recent data indicate that HIV prevalence among female sex
workers in Haiti is 8.4 (2).
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Gap report
Men 20–24
HIV prevalence among sex workers in the Caribbean, 2009–2013
HIV prevalence (%)
20
15
10
5
0
Antigua and
Barbuda
Belize
Cuba
Dominican
Republic (the)
Haiti
Jamaica
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission
The percentage of HIV-positive mothers on antiretroviral treatment
increased from 72% [63–84%] in 2011 to >95% [85–>95%} in 2013. This
increase reflects the acceleration of programmatic efforts to reach the
targets articulated in the 2012 progress report on eliminating vertical
transmission and congenital syphilis in the Americas (5). Many more women
and infants in the region are now receiving the HIV-related services they
need. Regional numbers show increases in the coverage of HIV testing
among pregnant women and in the provision of effective antiretroviral
therapeutic regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission. In turn,
the region has witnessed reductions in the rate of vertical transmission and
the number of new child HIV infections (5).
Sustaining the HIV response in the Caribbean
The specific barriers hindering returns on investments include the capacity
of individual countries to finance their own responses; reducing the costs
of HIV prevention, treatment and care programmes; and eliminating
punitive laws, stigma and discrimination. Many countries in the Caribbean
are extremely vulnerable to drops in external funding sources available
for HIV programmes and the decline will affect the sustainability of many
programmes.
Regional snapshots: Caribbean 55
Many of the countries in the Caribbean region are characterized by high
debt-to-gross domestic product ratios and tight fiscal budgets. Convincing
ministries of finance to increase domestic spending for HIV is not an easy
task. The approach in the Caribbean thus far has been two-fold: first, to
increase efficiencies, particularly in commodity procurement costs; and,
second, to increase the government contributions in the region committed
to financing HIV prevention, treatment and care programmes.
Along with the commitment to assume a greater responsibility for the cost
of treatment, Caribbean countries have taken a critical look at the ways in
which they may reduce the cost of providing antiretroviral therapy, including
revisions to tender and purchasing processes, diversifying suppliers, pooled
procurement and improvements to drug quantification and forecasting.
An example of this success can be found in the reduction of the unit cost
for antiretroviral drugs in the eastern Caribbean attributed to pooled
procurement and shifting from brand name to generic drugs. This reduction
in costs makes negotiations with governments to cover antiretroviral therapy
more palatable (8).
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57
REGIONAL SNAPSHOT
ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
HIV burden
After sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the largest number of people
living with HIV is Asia and the Pacific. At the end of 2013, there were an
estimated 4.8 million [4.1 million–5.5 million] people living with HIV across
the region.
Six countries—China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam—
account for more than 90% of the people living with HIV in the region. Four
other countries—Cambodia, Malaysia, Nepal and Pakistan—account for
another 6% of the total number of people living with HIV in Asia and the
Pacific. In addition, high rates of HIV prevalence have been observed in
some regions of Papua New Guinea. India has the third largest number of
people living with HIV in the world—2.1 million [1.7 million–2.7 million] at
the end of 2013—and accounts for about 4 out of 10 people living with HIV
in the region.
People living with HIV in Asia and the Pacific, 2013
1% Pakistan
2% Cambodia
1% Nepal
3% Rest of the region
2% Malaysia
4% Myanmar
5% Viet Nam
9% Thailand
43% India
13% Indonesia
17% China
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
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Gap report
In most countries in Asia and the Pacific, sex workers and their clients,
gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender people and
people who inject drugs represent the populations most affected by the
epidemic. A large proportion of them are under the age of 25. In addition,
the sexual partners of the clients of female sex workers, gay men and other
men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs—often referred to
as intimate partners—are also affected by the epidemic. The epidemic is
predominantly heterosexual in nature; but, in several countries, people who
inject drugs and gay men and other men who have sex with men have a
significant share of the burden.
In countries where these key populations have been prioritized, HIV
prevalence in the general population and among key populations has
remained low with significant gains in reducing the burden of HIV nationally.
For example, India prioritized reaching sex workers and their clients, gay
men and other men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs and
transgender people from the very inception of its national AIDS response
in 1992 and has scaled up access over the last 20 years. As a result, new
HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths have decreased significantly over
time. Yet, new local epidemics continue to emerge, pointing to the need for
vigilance and rapidly responding to the shifting patterns of the epidemic.
Trends in HIV prevalence among the general population and key populations in India, 2003–2012
1
10
0.8
8
0.6
6
0.4
4
0.2
2
0
0
03-05
04-06
05-07
06-08
07-10
Antenatal clinic clients HIV Prevalence (%)
Key population HIV Prevalence (%)
12
Antenatal clinic clients
People who inject drugs
Female sex workers
Gay men and other men who
have sex with men
09-12
(*) 3-year moving averages based on consistent sites; antenatal clinic clients–385 sites, female sex workers–89 sites, gay men and other men
who have sex with men–22 sites, people who inject drugs–38 sites
Source: HIV sentinel surveillance 2012–13: a technical brief. New Delhi: National AIDS Control Organization; 2012.
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 59
Percentage of female sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men and
people who inject drugs who are under 25 years of age where data is available
Nepal
58
56
Kathmandu 2009–2011, female sex workers <20 years
58
62
Philippines (the)
65
2009
55
India
25
2006, people who inject drugs and gay men and other men who
have sex with men <20–25 years old, calculated median value
42
40
27
Indonesia
35
2011
23
Myanmar
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
(Yangon and Mandalay)
23
54
25
41
Maldives
48
2008
39
36
Pakistan
78
2011
26
50
Viet Nam
50
2009
29
Lao People’s Democratic Republic (the)
2011, gay men and other men who have sex with men <20
years old, 2009
Female sex workers
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org).
AIDS-related deaths
In Asia and the Pacific, the number of AIDS-related deaths fell by 27% between
2005 and 2013. Even though India’s share of all AIDS-related deaths in the
region was more than 51%, the country recorded a 38% decline in AIDS-related
deaths between 2005 and 2013. During this period, there was a major scale up
of access to HIV treatment. At the end of 2013, more than 700 000 people were
on antiretroviral therapy, the second largest number of people on treatment in
any single country.
Cambodia recorded the largest decline in AIDS-related deaths, reducing
deaths by 72%, followed by declines of 56% in Thailand and 29% in Myanmar.
However, in some countries—including Indonesia, which has the third largest
number of people living with HIV in the region—where access to antiretroviral
therapy remains low, AIDS-related deaths increased by more than 3.5 fold. For
example, in Indonesia only 8% [5-13%] of people living with HIV have access to
treatment, and only 6% [3-11%} in Pakistan. In Malaysia and Nepal, AIDS-related
deaths increased by 20% and 8%, respectively.
In the region, 1 out of 3 people living with HIV have access to antiretroviral
therapy. Only five countries have more than 50% of all people living with HIV
currently on antiretroviral therapy.
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86
50
100 per cent
People who inject drugs
AIDS-related deaths in Asia and the Pacific, 2013
1% Pakistan
1% Nepal
0.9% Cambodia
1% Rest of the region
2% Malaysia
4% Myanmar
5% Viet Nam
8% Thailand
51% India
12% Indonesia
14% China
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Trends in AIDS-related deaths in Asia and the Pacific, 2005 and 2013
250 000
Number of AIDS-related deaths
200 000
150 000
100 000
50 000
0
India
2005
Indonesia Thailand Viet Nam Myanmar Malaysia
Nepal
Pakistan Cambodia
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 61
Selected countries in Asia and the Pacific where AIDS-related mortality declined and
increased between 2005 and 2013 (%)
Decline
Increase
Cambodia (-72%)
Thailand (-56%)
India (-38%)
Myanmar (-29%)
Indonesia (427%)
Pakistan (352%)
Malaysia (20%)
Nepal (8%)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Children (under 15 years) and adults (15–49) in selected countries in Asia and the Pacific
with access to treatment, 2013
>40%
20-40%
Cambodia
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
Papua New Guinea
Thailand
India
Malaysia
Myanmar
Nepal
Viet Nam
<20%
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
Indonesia
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Children (under 15 years old) with access to antiretroviral therapy in Asia and the Pacific,
2013
>40%
Cambodia
Malaysia
Myanmar
Thailand
Viet Nam
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
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Gap report
20-40%
Bangladesh
India
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
Nepal
Papua New Guinea
<20%
Afghanistan
Indonesia
Pakistan
HIV and tuberculosis coinfection—continued need for the
integration of services
Prompt diagnosis is essential for effective HIV and tuberculosis treatment as the
number of people in Asia and the Pacific living with HIV who are screened for
tuberculosis is increasing each year. However, HIV testing and counselling is not
as yet a routine component of tuberculosis care in the region. In 2013, only 33%
and 28% of notified tuberculosis patients were tested for HIV in East Asia and in
Oceania, respectively. The proportion of those who tested HIV-positive was 1.4%
in East Asia and 11% in Oceania. Antiretroviral therapy reduces by 65% the risk
that a person living with HIV will develop tuberculosis, and HIV treatment lowers
the risk of death among people living with HIV who have tuberculosis by 50%. Of
the notified tuberculosis patients who tested positive for HIV in East Asia, 67%
started or continued antiretroviral therapy, while only 38% of diagnosed patients in
Oceania initiated or remained on antiretroviral therapy.
New HIV infections
New HIV infections in South and South-East Asia declined by 8% and by 16% in
the Pacific between 2005 and 2013. However, the breakdown by country shows a
mixed picture. New infections in Myanmar declined by 58%, by 46% in Thailand,
by 43% in Viet Nam and by 31% in Papua New Guinea. In India, the numbers of
new HIV infections declined by 19%, yet it still accounted for 38% of all new HIV
infections in the region.
The situation in Indonesia is cause for concern, where new HIV infections
increased by 48% and the country’s share of new HIV infections in the region
reached 23% in 2013, second only to India. The number of new HIV infections
also increased in Pakistan.
New HIV infections in Asia and the Pacific, 2013
0.6% Papua New Guinea
0.6% Philippines (the)
2% Myanmar
2% Malaysia
2% Thailand
4% Viet Nam
4% Pakistan
3% Rest of the region
38% India
20% China
23% Indonesia
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 63
Number of new HIV infections
Trends in new HIV infections among selected countries in Asia and the Pacific, 2005 and
2013
200 000
150 000
100 000
50 000
0
India
2005
Indonesia
Viet Nam
Thailand
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Sex work
High HIV prevalence among female sex workers is one of the major factors
in the spread of HIV in the region. Of the 21 countries in the region from
where reports are available, it is estimated that there are nearly 4.6 million
women who sell sex. Without exception, HIV disproportionately affects sex
workers in every country. For example, in India, national HIV prevalence
among sex workers is estimated to be 2.8%; however, in Mumbai, HIV
prevalence among sex workers was 22% and 19% in Vishakhapatnam. In the
city of Jayawijaya in Indonesia, female sex workers had an HIV prevalence
of 25%, while national HIV prevalence among them was nearly 9%. In Viet
Nam, HIV prevalence among sex workers varied from a high of 22.5% in
Hanoi to 6.5% in Lang Son. While in countries with mature epidemics, HIV
prevalence among sex workers is stable, rising HIV prevalence in countries
such as Indonesia is a cause for concern.
Fortunately, a large number of countries have dedicated programmes to
reach female sex workers. It is estimated that nearly half of all sex workers in
the region have access to some form of HIV prevention services, including
HIV testing and condoms. As a result, where services are available, HIV
prevalence has declined significantly or stabilized. For example, HIV
64
Gap report
Myanmar
Papua New
Guinea
prevalence among female sex workers in Cambodia declined from a high
of 26.8% in 2002 to 3.8% in 2012. In India, HIV prevalence among female
sex workers dropped from 10.3% to 2.7%. However, given the transient
nature of sex work, national averages mask in-country differences. In India,
for example, while national HIV prevalence among female sex workers
declined, it increased in the states of Assam, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. A
similar pattern was observed in Indonesia and Myanmar.
Sex workers, due to the nature of their profession, have a large number of
sexual partners. The number ranged for 48 clients per week in Bangladesh
to 4 clients per week in the Maldives. Self-reported condom use among
female sex workers is high. The regional median for condom use was about
80%. In general, observations suggest that, where coverage of prevention
services is high, high levels of condom use have followed. However, the
lack of programmes targeting the clients of sex workers is a huge gap even
where sex work programmes are implemented.
Sex workers also face a high level of stigma and discrimination. Across the
region, aspects of sex work are criminalized in many countries.
Condom use at last sex and HIV prevention coverage among female sex workers
96
89
83
76
83
80
64
60
64 63
62
84
83
60
56
55
80
67
60
54
46
40
41
37
20
20
8
7
Bangladesh
Percentage (%)
80
93
92
90
Pakistan
100
Condom use
Indonesia
Papua New
Guinea
Malaysia
Thailand
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
Viet Nam
Nepal
Fiji
Philippines (the)
Mongolia
Myanmar
China
0
HIV prevention coverage
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org).
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 65
HIV prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among male and female sex workers in Asia and the Pacific, 2009–2013
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
18
18
14
12
9
0.6
0.3
1
2
Bangladesh Philippines
(the)
Male sex workers
2 3
Pakistan
9
3
3
2
1
Fiji
Nepal
Thailand
Papua New
Guinea
Indonesia
Female sex workers
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Percentage (%)
Median programme coverage among sex workers in Asia and the Pacific, 2009–2013
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Condom use (n=9)
Prevention programmes (n=4)
HIV testing (n=10)
2009
2011
2012
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
Another distinct feature of the epidemic in Asia and the Pacific is the
transmission of HIV between gay men and other men who have sex with men. It
is estimated that 0.1–4.3% (regional median 1.4%) of the adult male population
in the region are gay men or other men who have sex with men. The regional
median is estimated at 1.4% of the adult male population above the age of
15. A significant proportion of gay men and other men who have sex with men
also have heterosexual relationships and are married to women. For example,
based on a review of data from 2003 to 2007 among gay men and other men
who have sex with men in South Asia, 20–98% had sex with women and 21–42%
were married.
66
Gap report
2013
National HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with
men was between 4–9% in China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Thailand and
Viet Nam, and 10% or higher in Australia, Malaysia, Mongolia and Myanmar.
Like elsewhere, national HIV prevalence hides much larger epidemics in local
areas. For example, in Bangkok, HIV prevalence among gay men and other men
who have sex with men was 24.4% compared to the national HIV prevalence
of 7% for this population across all of Thailand. Similarly, in India’s Chhattisgarh
state, HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men
was 15%, three times the national figure.
In many parts of the region, HIV among gay men and other men who have sex
with men is emerging and rapidly accelerating. This, combined with a low risk
perception among young gay men and other men who have sex with men and
high levels of multipartner sex fuelled by other performance enhancing drugs,
creates the conditions for low condom use even when people are aware of the
risks. Observations suggest that HIV prevalence is rising in many countries and
cities. These include cities in China, Indonesia, the Philippines and Viet Nam. On
the other hand, in cities where HIV prevention programmes have been available,
HIV prevalence is declining or has stabilized.
The regional median coverage of HIV services for gay men and other men who
have sex with men stands at 48%. HIV testing among gay men and other men
who have sex with men is low. In the majority of countries where such data is
available, HIV testing among gay men and other men who have sex with men is
less than 50%. Less than half of all gay men and other men who have sex with
men have comprehensive knowledge about HIV.
Estimated size of the population of gay men and other men who have sex with men as a
proportion of the adult male (15–49) population
5%
Viet Nam
Timor-Leste
Thailand
Sri Lanka
Philippines (the)
Nepal
Myanmar
Mongolia
Maldives
Malaysia
Lao People’s
Democratic
Republic (the)
Indonesia
India
China
Cambodia
0%
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org); based on latest available data from published population size estimates
from national and published reports. The data on adult male population (15–49 years old) is retrieved from United Nations Population Division
(http://esa.un.org).
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 67
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men across Asia and the
Pacific, 2009–2013
14
HIV prevalence (%)
12
10
8
6
4
2
Malaysia
Australia
Mongolia
Myanmar
Indonesia
Thailand
China
Papua New Guinea
India
Japan
Nepal
Viet Nam
Philippines (the)
Singapore
Republic of Korea (the)
Cambodia
Timor-Leste
Sri Lanka
Bangladesh
Fiji
Afghanistan
0
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Selected countries and cities with increasing HIV prevalence among gay men and other men
who have sex with men, 2000–2012
Viet Nam (Hanoi)
25
China (Chengdu, Sichuan)
15
Indonesia
China
10
Philippines (Cebu)
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
Viet Nam
2003
0
2002
Philippines (Metro Manila-calibrated)
2001
5
2000
HIV prevalence (%)
Indonesia (Jakarta)
20
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org), based on national HIV sentinel surveillance surveys and integrated biobehavioural
surveys reported in global AIDS response progress reports from 2012.
68
Gap report
Selected cities with stabilized or declining HIV prevalence among gay men and other men
who have sex with men, 2002–2012
HIV prevalence (%)
40
Myanmar (Mandaly)
30
Myanmar (Yangon)
20
India (Manipur)
Nepal (Kathmandu Valley)
10
Bangladesh (Dhaka)
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
0
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org), based on national HIV sentinel surveillance surveys and integrated biobehavioural
surveys reported in global AIDS response progress reports from 2012.
People who inject drugs
There are an estimated 3.8 million people who inject drugs in Asia and the
Pacific. Among these, 2.5 million are estimated to live in China. Other countries
with more than 30 000 people who inject drugs in the region include Australia,
India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam.
In each of these countries, HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs is
several times higher than HIV prevalence in the general population.
Contrary to popular perceptions, drug users come from all genders. In fact, HIV
prevalence among women who inject drugs is equal to or higher than among
men who inject drugs in most countries where such information is available.
For example, in Thailand, HIV prevalence was 29.7% among women who inject
drugs compared to 24.5% among men. In India, HIV prevalence among women
who inject drugs was nearly twice that or more than the figures for their male
counterparts. In several places, sex work and drug use are interconnected—
many people who inject drugs either buy or sell sex and vice versa. In Bangkok,
sex workers often take drugs as part of their relationships with clients.
Similar to the situations among sex workers and gay men and other men who
have sex with men, national HIV prevalence figures hide local variations. For
example, in Indonesia, HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in
the cities of Jakarta and Surabaya stood at 56.4% and 48.8%, respectively,
compared to the national average of 36.4% among people who inject drugs. In
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 69
Pakistan, the cities of Faislabad, Karachi and Lahore each had much higher
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs than the national average.
In four provinces and cities of Viet Nam, HIV prevalence was at least twice
the national average among people who inject drugs.
HIV can rapidly spread among people who inject drugs. For example, in
the city of Cebu, HIV prevalence among this key population rose from
negligible levels in 2009 to more than 52.4% in 2013. However, when harm
reduction services are available, HIV prevalence can drop significantly over
time. In Kathmandu, for example, HIV prevalence among people who inject
drugs declined from 68% in 2002 to 6.3% by 2011. Despite evidence to
support it, access to harm reduction services for people who use drugs,
including needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy,
Correlation between safe injecting practices and HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in
selected countries
6.3
0
Safe injecting practice
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
0
60
45
20
43
40
15
28
10
20
5
3.8
HIV prevalence (%)
20
20
30
0
0
2011
40
35
25
2010
6
80
2009
40
30.8
2008
54
100
2006–07
60
HIV prevalence (%)
78
80
60
80
2005
68
97
93
88
Pakistan, Lahore (2005–2011)
Safe injection in the past week (%)
100
2002
Safe injection in the past week (%)
Nepal, Kathmandu (2002–2011)
HIV prevalence
100%
97
80%
60%
40%
28
31
38 36
20%
14
5
0%
Pakistan (Lahore,
2011)
Indonesia
(2011)
Consistent used of sterile injecting equipment*
58
47
45
Bangladesh (Dhaka,
2011)**
India
(Maharastra,
2009–10)**
16
Myanmar
(Yangon,
2012)***
6
Nepal
(Kathmandu,
2011)
HIV prevalence
* Duration of consistent use of sterile injecting equipment varies from last week to last 6 months;
** Behavioral data for 2006–07, never used used-needles and syringes;
*** Behavioral data for 2008
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org), based on national HIV sentinel surveillance surveys and integrated biobehavioural
surveys reported in global AIDS response progress reports from 2012.
70
Gap report
are still not adequately available. The regional median for the availability
of needles and syringes was about 116 per person who injects drugs per
year compared to the requirement of more than 200 per year. Only one
country—Bangladesh—reaches this level. China, India, the Lao People’s
Democratic Republic and Viet Nam are close in the provision of more than
150 needles and syringes being made available per person who injects
drugs per year. In addition, China has also vastly expanded the availability
of opioid substitution therapy, whereby more than 200 000 people had
access to methadone at the end of 2012.
Access to HIV prevention and treatment services in the region can be vastly
improved if drug use is decriminalized. Currently, 11 countries still practice
the compulsory detention of drug users and 15 countries impose the death
penalty on drug users. Preventing new HIV infections among people who
inject drugs requires a public health approach and an end to punitive laws.
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in geographical locations which are higher
than the national prevalence, 2009–2012
60
56.4
53.8
52.5
HIV Prevalence (%)
50
38.8
40
29.0
30
21.1
20
18.5
15.7
10
5.3
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
India
Indonesia
Myanmar
Pakistan
Philippines (the)
Quang Ninh (2012)
Hanoi (2012)
Ho Chi Minh City (2012)
Can Tho (2012)
Thai Nguyen (2012)
Bangkok (2012)
Cebu (2011)
Lahore (2011)
Karachi (2011)
Faisalabad (2011)
Yangon (2012)
Lashio (2012)
Myitkyina (2012)
Surabaya (2011)
Jakarta (2011)
Delhi (2010–11)
Punjab (2010–11)
Dhaka (2011)
Herat (2012)
0
Thailand
Viet Nam
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org), based on integrated biobehavioural surveys reported in global AIDS response
progress reports from 2012, national HIV sentinel surveillance surveys and on data from AIDSinfo Online Database (www.aidsinfoonline.org, accessed on
10 July 2014).
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 71
300
High coverage: >200
syringes per PWID per
year
237
163
98
116
94
36
35
22
12
Malaysia
Pakistan
Myanmar
Afghanistan
India
Viet Nam
China
Lao People’s
Democratic
Republic (the)
0
Medium coverage:
>100–<200 syringes per
PWID per year
Low coverage: <100
syringes per PWID per
year
Regional median
100
116
Thailand
119
Indonesia
180
Cambodia
182
Nepal
193
200
Bangladesh
Number syringes
distributed per person
who injects drugs per year
Number of syringes distributed per person who inject drugs per year, 2012
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org). Based on data from AIDSinfo Online Database.
Intimate partners
In Asia, the majority of HIV infections among women occur among the
long-term sexual partners of the clients of sex workers, gay men and other
who have sex with men and people who use inject drugs. In Thailand, an
estimated one third of new HIV infections occur in women infected by
their husbands or intimate sexual partners. In 2010, three out of every five
women found to be living with HIV in Malaysia were married.
100
100
80
60
79
89
88
73
88
77
80
60
40
40
20
20
0
0
Ganjam
Male migrant
Northern
Bihar
Non-migrant male
Thane
Thane
Northern
Bihar
Women with migrant husband
Ganjam
Proportion of people living with
HIV by husband’s migration
status (%)
Proportion of people living
with HIV by migration
status (%)
Proportion of migrants and wives of migrants among people living with HIV attending
Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres, India 2011
Women with non-migrant husband
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org). Based on Saggurti N, Mahapatra B, Swain SN, Battala M, Chawla U, Narang
A. Migration and HIV in India: study of select districts. New Delhi: United Nations Development Programme, National AIDS Control Organization, and
Population Council; 2011.
72
Gap report
Many of these women are the wives or the regular partners of migrants.
Programme data from India indicates that more than 75% of women
testing HIV-positive had a migrant husband. In the Doti district of Nepal,
where a large number of men migrate to India for work, HIV prevalence
among their wives who remain behind was 2.6%.
Migration within and between countries is widespread across the region as
men and women seek economic opportunities. However, many countries
restrict access to health services for migrants or they are simply not able
to afford services because of their legal status or income earnings. This, in
turn, increases risk behaviour and ultimately affects their sexual partners
and the children they have in future.
Transgender people
Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific are often left behind in HIVrelated programmes in the region. While many countries have dedicated
programmes to reach this population, stigma and discrimination, a lack
of recognition of their gender status and violence and abuse create the
conditions for HIV take hold. A large proportion of transgender people
also sell sex. Consistent condom use with clients and casual partners
among transgender sex workers is about 50% or less in most places.
Awareness about HIV and HIV testing is at similar levels.
India has taken special steps to reach this population. Coverage of
prevention services for transgender people is reported to be as high
as 83%. Nine out of ten transgender people have access to HIV testing
services. Condom use among transgender people in the city of Chennai,
where one of the first HIV services for transgender people started in the
early 1990s, was reported to be 90%. In 2014, the Supreme Court of
India issued a landmark judgement directing the Government of India to
recognize transgender people as a third gender and to formulate special
health and welfare programmes to support their needs. Similarly, a court
case in Nepal previously paved the way to officially recognize a third
gender in citizenship documents and, in Pakistan, the Supreme Court
directed the National Database and Registration Authority to add a third
gender column to national identity cards for transgender people, giving
them the right to register to vote. Similar initiatives are needed across the
region and, indeed, across the world.
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 73
HIV prevalence among transgender people in select cities in Asia and the Pacific, 2009–2012
35
HIV prevalence (%)
30
23.7
25
20
14.9
15
9.3
10
5
3.2
1
1.8
2.9
3.6
10.4
3.1
0
Dhaka
Hili
Suva, Nadi,Kampong Phnom Vientiane Klang Bangkok, Larkana
Port
Lautoka, Chan
Penh
and
Valley Chiang Mai,
Moresby
Labasa
Savannakhet
Phuket
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the) (2012)
Bangladesh (2011)
Fiji* (2012)
Cambodia (2010)
Thailand (2010)
Pakistan (2011)
Papua New Guinea** (2010)
Malaysia (2009)
* Transgender sex workers
** Transgender sex workers, sample size=38
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org), based on integrated biobehavioural surveys reported in global AIDS response
progress reports from 2012.
Percentage (%)
Proportion of transgender people who sell sex in selected countries, 2009–2011
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
81
36
Indonesia
(2011)
In lat year
90
84
In the last 6 month
Malaysia
(2009)
Cambodia
(2009)
India
(2009–10)
Undefined period
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org).
Based on:
1. Integrated biological and behavioural survey. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of Indonesia; 2011Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia; 2011.
2. Integrated biological and behavioural survey, 2009. Putrajaya: Malaysia AIDS Council and Ministry of Health; 2010.
3. Liu KL, Chhorvann C. BROS KHMER: Behavioural risks on-site serosurvey among at-risk urban men in Cambodia. Phnom Penh: FHI 360; 2012.
4. National summary report – India: integrated behavioural and biological assessment, round 2 (2009–2010). New Dehli: Indian Council of Medical
Research and FHI 360; 201.
74
Gap report
Investments for the AIDS response
In Asia and the Pacific, about US$ 2.2 billion was invested in the AIDS
response in 2012. Nearly half of this was invested in HIV treatment
programmes and another quarter on HIV prevention activities. However, of
the US$ 186 million invested in HIV prevention activities by 15 reporting
countries, only 36% of this amount was directed towards gay men and
other men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, transgender
people and sex workers.
Proportion of prevention spending by category in Asia and the Pacific, 2009–2011
100
90
Percent spending (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Sex workers and clients
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
People who inject drugs
Youth
Prevention of mother-to-child
transmission
Others
Myanmar (2011)
Bangladesh (2011)
Nepal (2009)
Sri Lanka (2010)
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the) (2011)
Malaysia (2011)
Pakistan (2010)
Cambodia (2009)
Fiji (2011)
Philippines (the) (2011)
Thailand (2011)
Indonesia (2010)
Afghanistan (2011)
Papua New Guinea (2010)
Viet Nam (2010)
Timor Leste (2009)
0
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org), based on data from AIDSinfo Online Database (www.aidsinfoonline.org).
Regional snapshots: Asia and the Pacific 75
REGIONAL SNAPSHOT
MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA
HIV burden
The Middle East and North Africa is the region with the lowest number
of people living with HIV. However, the HIV burden is increasing with rising
numbers of AIDS-related deaths and new infections in several countries. In
2013, there were an estimated 230 000 [160 000–330 000] adults and children
living with HIV in the region. Five countries—Algeria, Islamic Republic of Iran,
Morocco, Somalia and the Sudan—account for 88% of these.
The Islamic Republic of Iran accounts for 30% of all HIV-positive people
in the region, with an estimated 70 000 [47 000–110 000] people living
with HIV. In the Sudan, 49 000 [34 000–70 000] people are living with HIV,
representing 21% of the regional burden.
The HIV burden is mainly concentrated among people who inject drugs,
migrants, sex workers and gay men and other men who have sex with men.
People living with HIV in the Middle East and North Africa, 2013
1% Tunisia
3% Yemen
3% Djibouti
3% Egypt
1% Oman
30% Iran (Islamic Republic of)
11% Algeria
13% Morocco
14% Somalia
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
76
Gap report
21% Sudan (the)
AIDS-related deaths
In 2013, there were an estimated 15 000 [10 000–21 000] AIDS-related
deaths in the Middle East and North Africa, an increase of 66% in the
number of annual deaths since 2005.
AIDS-related deaths in the Middle East and North Africa, 2013
1% Tunisia
3% Egypt
3% Yemen
0.6% Oman
5% Djibouti
30% Iran (Islamic Republic of)
9% Algeria
10% Morocco
17% Somalia
21% Sudan (the)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
These increases in deaths occurred in nine of the ten countries in the region.
On the other hand, in Djibouti—a country that has expanded HIV treatment
access—AIDS-related deaths fell by one third over the same period.
Between 2005–2013 in both the Islamic Republic of Iran—the country with
the largest number of people living with HIV—and Morocco, AIDS-related
deaths increased. The Sudan and Tunisia also experienced worryingly high
increases in AIDS-related deaths.
Regional snapshots: Middle East and North Africa 77
Trends in AIDS-related deaths in the Middle East and North Africa, 2005 and 2013
Number of AIDSrelated deaths
5 000
4 000
3 000
2 000
1 000
0
2005
Iran (Islamic Sudan (the)
Republic of)
Somalia
Morocco
Algeria
Djibouti
Yemen
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
The sharp increases in AIDS-related deaths can be attributed in part to the
very low levels of access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy across the region.
Only two countries—Djibouti and Morocco—provided treatment to 20–40%
of adults and children living with HIV. In seven of the ten countries in the
region, fewer than 20% of people living with HIV had access to treatment.
Country scorecard: Adult and child access to antiretroviral therapy, 2013
<20%
20–39%
Djibouti
Morocco
Algeria
Egypt
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Somalia
Sudan (the)
Tunisia
Yemen
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
New HIV infections
In 2013, there were an estimated 25 000 [14 000–41 000] new HIV infections
in the Middle East and North Africa, comprising 1.2% of the global total.
More than half of these occurred in two countries: Islamic Republic of Iran
(32%) and the Sudan (21%).
78
Gap report
Egypt
Tunisia
New HIV infections in the Middle East and North Africa, 2013
2% Tunisia
3% Yemen
4% Egypt
1% Oman
0.5% Djibouti
32% Iran (Islamic Republic of)
11% Algeria
12% Morocco
13% Somalia
21% Sudan (the)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Only two of the ten countries in the region managed to reduce their rates of
new infections in 2013 from 2005 levels. The Islamic Republic of Iran, with
the highest burden in the region, witnessed a modest reduction of 4%. The
next four countries with the highest burden experienced an increasing rate
of new HIV infections, including Algeria and the Sudan—the country with
second largest HIV epidemic in the region.
Trends in new HIV infections in the Middle East and North Africa, 2005 and 2013
Number of new HIV
infections
10 000
8 000
6 000
4 000
2 000
0
Iran (Islamic
Republic of)
2005
Sudan
Somalia
Morocco
Algeria
Egypt
Yemen
Tunisia
Djibouti
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Regional snapshots: Middle East and North Africa 79
Only two countries in the Middle East and North Africa have reduced the
number of new HIV infections among newborns and children in the period
2005–2013. In Djibouti, new infections among children fell by 70% and by
22% in Somalia.
In the past four years, Oman has established a strong programme to eliminate
HIV transmission from mothers to their children, with near-universal coverage
of services available to pregnant women. Algeria, the Islamic Republic of Iran,
Morocco and Tunisia are moving in the same direction.
People who inject drugs
High HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs is one of the factors
associated with the spread of HIV in the Middle East and North Africa.
Prevalence is much higher among this key population than in the general
population. Reports have put HIV prevalence among people who inject
drugs as high as 87% in Tripoli, Libya (1). A national survey estimated that HIV
prevalence is higher than 15% among men who inject drugs in the Islamic
Republic of Iran (2). An HIV prevalence of almost 14% among people who
inject drugs was found in the Islamic Republic of Iran (3). While prevalence
among this key population is lower in other countries in the region, it is still
high—e.g., 11% in Morocco.
HIV can spread rapidly among people who inject drugs. At present, there
are not many harm reduction programmes that are to scale in this region,
suggesting that more new HIV infections will occur if such services are not
available among people who inject drugs.
Similarly, the sexual partners of people who inject drugs can also be at particular
risk for HIV since the virus can consequently be transmitted to them if they do
not have access to prevention services, including HIV testing and condoms.
A study conducted in three cities in the Islamic Republic of Iran found an HIV
prevalence of 9.4% among men who inject drugs and 2.8% among their noninjecting female sexual partners (2). Currently, there is almost no HIV-related
service provision for the sexual partners of people who inject drugs in the region.
Migrants
Migrants living in the Middle East and North Africa are also at risk to HIV.
The countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)–Bahrain, Kuwait,
Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates–are an important
destination for migrant workers from Asia and the Pacific. Given that
restrictions on entry, stay and residence based on HIV status exist in all GCC
countries, the largest numbers of migrants worldwide who are affected by
mandatory HIV testing, restrictions and deportation are those seeking entry,
stay and residence in the countries of the Middle East and North African
region (4).
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Gap report
A relatively high HIV prevalence has been found among migrants in the
region, many of whom are transiting to European countries from outside
the region. In Morocco, prevalence was above 3% among both the
Francophone and Anglophone migrant communities, who continue to
have less access to services compared with the local population. Language
barriers pose an additional obstacle to accessing HIV to services for
Anglophone migrants (5), highlighting the need in all countries for culturally
sensitive HIV information in the language migrants feel most at ease with
when making decisions about their health and personal behaviour.
Sex workers
There is very little visibility around sex work in the Middle East and North
Africa. As a consequence, there is a lack of data on the burden of HIV
among sex workers in the region and the epidemic among them is poorly
understood. Nevertheless, HIV in every country disproportionally affects sex
workers.
A study in Morocco (6) indicates that HIV prevalence among sex workers
(2%) is significantly higher than in the general adult female population
(0.1%) in 2013. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, an HIV prevalence among sex
workers of 4.5% was reported (10), while in Algeria, it stood at 4.6% (7).
HIV prevalence among female sex workers compared to the general adult female
population in Morocco, 2013
HIV prevalence (%)
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
HIV prevalence among female sex workers
HIV prevalence among the adult female
general population
Source: Kouyoumjian SP, et al. The epidemiology of HIV infection in Morocco: systematic review and data synthesis. Int J STD AIDS. 2013 Jul;24(7):507-16.
doi: 10.1177/0956462413477971.
UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Regional snapshots: Middle East and North Africa 81
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
Another distinct feature of the epidemic in the Middle East and North
African region is the transmission of HIV between gay men and other men
who have sex with men. HIV prevalence among gay men and other men
who have sex with men is 13% in Algeria, 10% in Tunisia, 6% in Yemen and
5% in Morocco (3).
There are several countries in the Middle East and North Africa where adult
consensual same-sex sexual conduct is illegal and punishable by death. This
is the case in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Somalia (southern
parts), the Sudan and Yemen (8). An additional large number of the region’s
countries either criminalize adult consensual same-sex sexual conduct or have
criminally prosecuted lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people under
other laws on the basis of their sexual orientation and gender identity. These
countries include Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Morocco, Oman, Qatar, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and the United Arab
Emirates (8).
Where the legal and social environments punish, stigmatize and discriminate
against people such as sex workers or gay men and other men who have sex
with men, these key populations are less likely to have sufficient awareness of
HIV risks, to access HIV prevention services including regular voluntary testing
or to access prevention commodities such as condoms and water-based
lubricants. They are also less likely to organize and participate meaningfully
in the design of programmes to provide HIV services, peer outreach or other
community-level initiatives, thus limiting the public health outcomes for the
country.
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men from selected
countries in the Middle East and North Africa, 2009–2013
HIV prevalence (%)
14
13
12
10
10
8
6
5
4
2
0
2
2
Lebanon
Egypt
0.2
Jordan
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
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Gap report
Morocco
Yemen
Tunisia
Algeria
Investments for the AIDS response
In the Middle East and North Africa, funding for evidence-informed HIV
prevention services and treatment for communities of people who inject
drugs, gay men and other men who have sex with men, sex workers and
migrants is limited. If HIV among these groups is left unaddressed by
evidence-informed strategies, HIV infections will continue to increase in
the region. Currently, education on risks associated with HIV, other sexual
and reproductive health issues and the distribution of commodities such as
condoms are limited.
Women are at particular risk for HIV and of being socially ostracized (9). HIV
carries significant social stigma in the region and, combined with punitive laws
against sex work, injecting drug use and adult consensual same-sex sexual
relations, many people at risk for or living with HIV are not being reached in
prevention, testing and treatment.
The Council of Arab Ministers of Health have endorsed the Arab Strategic
Framework for the Response to HIV and AIDS (2014–2020), following the
adoption by the Arab Parliament of the Arab Convention on HIV Prevention
and the Protection of the Rights of People Living with HIV in March 2012.
The Arab AIDS Strategy includes ten goals aligned to the targets of the
2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS. It promotes
engagement and emerging leadership from countries, and mentions
addressing issues including HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay and
residence, key populations at higher risk for HIV as well as HIV in conflict and
post-conflict settings.
With the scale up of investments in treatment access and prevention services,
the tide of increasing infections and AIDS-related deaths in the Middle East
and North Africa can be turned.
Regional snapshots: Middle East and North Africa 83
REGIONAL SNAPSHOT
LATIN AMERICA
HIV burden
There were an estimated 1.6 million [1.4 million–2.1 million] people living
with HIV in Latin America at the end of 2013. The bulk of the cases, nearly
75%, are spread among four countries: Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and the
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Approximately 60% of people living with
HIV in the region were men, including heterosexual men and gay men and
other men who have sex with men. The regional HIV prevalence among
the general adult population was estimated to be 0.4%. Central American
countries, with 7% of Latin America’s population, accounted for 9% of
people living with HIV in 2013.
In this region, approximately 10 new HIV infections occur every hour. The
epidemic is mostly concentrated in urban settings, along commercial
routes and in trading ports. The key populations most vulnerable to HIV in
the Latin American region include transgender women, gay men and other
men who have sex with men, male and female sex workers and people
who inject drugs. At least one third of new infections occur among young
people aged 15–24 years.
People living with HIV in Latin America, 2013
2% Honduras
7% Rest of the region
2% Ecuador
2% Chile
3% Guatemala
4% Peru
5% Argentina
47% Brazil
7% Venezuela
(Bolivarian Republic of)
9% Colombia
11% Mexico
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
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Gap report
The total number of children who newly acquired HIV declined by
approximately 28% between 2009 and 2013. Coverage of antiretroviral
therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission varies across countries,
with 70% or greater coverage in Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama
and Peru, and less than 30% coverage in Guatemala and the Bolivarian
Republic of Venezuela. At present, approximately 35 000 [27 000–54 000]
children below the age of 15 are living with HIV in the region.
AIDS-related deaths
AIDS-related deaths have declined significantly in many countries, owing
to increased access to antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS-related deaths in Latin America, 2013
2% Bolivia
(Plurinational State of)
3% Honduras
7% Rest of the region
3% Argentina
3% Ecuador
33% Brazil
5% Guatemala
6% Peru
9% Venezuela
(Bolivarian Republic of)
15% Colombia
12% Mexico
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Latin America continues to be a region with a high antiretroviral coverage.
Approximately 45% of the 1.6 million people living with HIV have access to
antiretroviral therapy, although variation between and within countries exists.
For example, in Argentina, Brazil, Belize, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico,
Panama, Peru, Uruguay people living with HIV have access to treatment. In the
Plurinational State of Bolivia, however, treatment coverage extends to less than
20% of the country’s HIV-positive population.
Regional snapshots: Latin America 85
Number of AIDS-related deaths
AIDS-related deaths in Latin America, 2005 and 2013
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
Brazil
2005
Mexico
Venezuela
(Bolivarian
Republic of)
Peru
Guatemala
Ecuador
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Ministry of Health, Brazil, 2014.
Antiretroviral therapy coverage in Latin America, 2013
>40%
Argentina
Brazil
Belize
Chile
Costa Rica
El Salvador
Guyana
Mexico
Panama
Peru
Uruguay
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
20–40%
Colombia
Ecuador
Guatemala
Honduras
Nicaragua
Paraguay
<20%
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
Brazil and Panama have recently modified their guidelines to offer treatment
to all people living with HIV regardless of their CD4 count. El Salvador,
Guatemala, Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela have adopted
initiation of antiretroviral therapy in asymptomatic adults with a CD4
count <500 cells/mm3. The Plurinational State of Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico,
Nicaragua and Peru are about to adopt the same criteria (1).
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Gap report
Argentina
Honduras
Bolivia
(Plurinational
State of)
Recurring stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs represent a major obstacle. While
efforts to address this particular challenge have decreased the number of
episodes, 10 countries in the Latin America region reported in 2012 at least one
stock-out in the preceding 12 months (1).
The cascade of the continuum of care and treatment has been adopted by
many countries, including Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua, to address
the different challenges of scaling up good quality treatment programmes,
combining epidemic modelling with programme data.
Of the people estimated to be living with HIV in the Latin American region,
70% have been diagnosed as HIV-positive, and 45% have begun antiretroviral
therapy; an estimated 66% have become virally suppressed (28% of all people
living with HIV in Latin America).
In at least half of the countries, 38% of people living with HIV had, when
tested for the first time, advanced disease (a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3) (1).
The late initiation of antiretroviral therapy results in poor health outcomes.
The region has a median of 80% retention on treatment at 12 months after
the initiation of treatment. Many patients begin their regimen with a very low
CD4 count, and therefore mortality in the six months following the initiation of
treatment is significant and is reflected in the figures for retention. Although
there are differences between countries, no differences are observed between
men and women after 12 months of antiretroviral therapy. Costa Rica, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru and the Bolivarian
Republic of Venezuela have retention rates higher than 85% (1).
Belize
Colombia
Suriname
Utuguay
El Salvador
Nicaragua
Honduras
Brazil
Guatemala
Paraguay
Mexico
Regional median: 80%
Chile
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Venezuela
(Bolivarian Republic of)
Percent patients retained (%)
Retention on treatment at 12 months in Latin America, 2013
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Regional snapshots: Latin America 87
New HIV infections
In Latin America, there has been a slow, almost stagnant, decline in new
HIV infections, as demonstrated by the 3% decrease in the number of new
infections between 2005 and 2013. However, patterns have varied from
country to country. Between 2005 and 2013, new infections declined in
Mexico by 39%. However, in Brazil, the country with the largest number of
people living with HIV in the region, new infections increased by 11%.
Groups particularly vulnerable to new infections, and representing a
significant proportion of those infected, include transgender people, gay
men and other men who have sex with men, male and female sex workers
and their clients and people who inject drugs. Approximately one third of
new infections occur in young people aged 15–24 years. Key populations
face a high level of stigma, discrimination and violence, which create
obstacles to accessing HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services.
New HIV infections in Latin America, 2013
2% Paraguay
7% Rest of the region
2% Chile
3% Ecuador
4% Peru
46% Brazil
4% Guatemala
6% Argentina
7% Venezuela
(Bolivarian Republic of)
9% Colombia
10% Mexico
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
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Gap report
The region has seen a decrease of 28% in new infections among children
and adolescents aged 0–14 between 2009 and 2013. The Regional
Elimination Strategy, endorsed by all countries in Latin America, has had a
direct impact on accelerating progress in reducing new infections among
children by improving surveillance systems and access to HIV prevention
services among women. Costa Rica and Nicaragua are close to achieving
the elimination target. Progress varies among countries, however. In
countries such as the Plurinational State of Bolivia and Guatemala,
progress has been very slow due to difficulties in reaching vulnerable and
underserved groups, such as indigenous populations, sex workers and
young women (2).
All countries in the region reported screening people with tuberculosis for
HIV, with varying levels of testing coverage. The average of HIV positive tests
remains stable, at 17% since 2006; 57% of notified tuberculosis cases had
known their HIV status and 77% of people living with HIV and tuberculosis
received antiretroviral therapy (3).
Trends in new HIV infections in Latin America, 2005 and 2013
Number of new HIV infections
50 000
40 000
30 000
20 000
10 000
0
2005
Brazil
Mexico
Colombia
Argentina
Guatemala
Chile
2013
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Ministry of Health, Brazil, 2014.
Regional snapshots: Latin America 89
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
The highest prevalence among key populations is found among gay men
and other men who have sex with men. HIV prevalence among this group
ranges from 7% in Nicaragua to 20% in Chile and Panama (9).
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men in Latin America,
2009–2013
20
20
20
19
19
17
15
15
14
12
10
11
11
11
11
10
10
9
5
It is estimated that nearly 51% of gay men and other men who have sex with
men in the region have access to HIV services, a level that has remained
unchanged for several years. While condom use at last sexual contact was
nearly 70%, access to HIV counselling, testing and treatment remains very low
in some countries, dipping to a mere 6% in Peru and 9% in Panama.
HIV prevalence (%)
Median programme coverage among gay men and other men who have sex with men in
Latin America, 2009–2013
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2009
Condom use (n=7)
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Gap report
2011
HIV testing (n=10)
2012
2013
Nicaragua
Guatemala
Uruguay
El Salvador
Brazil
Argentina
Costa Rica
Ecuador
Peru
Belize
Honduras
Mexico
Paraguay
Guyana
Panama
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
90
7
0
Chile
HIV prevalence (%)
25
In September 2012, the Unit for the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Transgender,
Bisexual and Intersex (LGBTI) Persons of the Inter-American Commission
on Human Rights began a registry of violence against LGTBI people. In the
time since the registry was launched, 91 reports of killings, torture, arbitrary
arrests and other forms of violence and exclusion against LGTBI people
have been recorded (6). Homophobia and transphobia, which in many cases
result in homophobic crimes, need to be addressed by laws and policies
that protect the rights of all people.
Greater efforts are needed to create an enabling environment for human
rights and gender equality for young people, especially adolescents. In
particular, supportive laws and policies to address structural barriers, such as
parental consent for accessing HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive
health services, are needed.
Transgender women
Transgender women are among those most affected by HIV in Latin
America. HIV prevalence among this population is at least 49 times
higher than among the general population. In Ecuador and Panama, HIV
prevalence among transgender women engaged in sex work is close to
32%, while in Argentina, the Plurinational State of Bolivia, El Salvador,
Honduras, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, HIV prevalence among transgender
women who engage in sex work ranges from 20% to 30%.
32
27
20
20
20
21
25
16
20
15
Honduras
Transgender women who engage in sex work
Paraguay
Peru
Colombia
Uruguay
Bolivia
(Plurinational
State of)
0.2
0.2
0.7
Panama
0.5
Ecuador
0.3
0.6
0
0.4
5
0.4
10
0.5
HIV prevalence (%)
30
26
35
32
HIV prevalence among transgender women who engage in sex work and the general adult
population in Latin America, 2013
Mexico
General population (15-49)
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Regional snapshots: Latin America 91
High levels of stigma and discrimination are faced by transgender women,
putting them at greater risk of physical violence. Gay men and transgender
women are frequent victims of crimes of hatred and homicide. These crimes
are often reported as so-called crimes of passion rather than expressions of
extreme intolerance.
Although there are no published studies examining the situation in Latin
America, unpublished research suggests that transgender people have fewer
educational and social opportunities. For this reason, they often resort to sex
work for economic survival. Many live in extreme poverty (4).
In Latin America, 44–70% of transgender women have felt the need to leave or
were thrown out of their homes. In Mexico, the results from evidence collected
through the 2010 People Living with HIV Stigma Index indicated that 11.4% of
transgender women living with HIV stated that they were frequently excluded
from family activities, compared to 1.7% of men living with HIV and 2.9% of
women living with HIV (5).
Sexual minorities, such as gay women and transgender women and men, are
frequently targets of sexual violence, which increases their vulnerability to HIV
and other health issues. Since 2008, close to 1200 transgender people are
estimated to have been murdered in Latin America. In Honduras, of the seven
members of the local nongovernmental organization Colectivo Unidad Color
Rosa, six have been murdered (6).
Most countries in Latin America lack antidiscriminatory laws and legislation
on gender identity and sexual orientation. The transgender community has
reported that transphobia has facilitated attacks with impunity in Chile, El
Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. Moreover, the arbitrary detention of
transgender women, including torture and cruel, inhumane or degrading
treatment, is not being prosecuted. Likewise, widespread transphobia has been
documented among national police forces in Guatemala and Honduras (6,7).
Further sensitization programmes targeting national uniformed personnel aimed
at reducing stigma and discrimination towards key populations and people
living with HIV are needed in order to reduce hate crimes across the region.
Sex workers
HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Latin America is estimated to be
6.1%. Among male sex workers, HIV prevalence is much higher. Transgender
women who engage in sex work are at an increased risk of HIV infection. While
data on this population are sparse, a systematic review and meta-analysis in
2008 reported an overall crude HIV prevalence of 27% among transgender
women who engaged in sex work. This compares to the 15% HIV prevalence
among transgender women who did not report engaging in sex work (8).
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Gap report
The latest figures from the region show that HIV prevalence among sex
workers, after declining for many years, once again increased in 2012. Countries
as Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru showed very high HIV
prevalence coupled with low programme coverage. This underscores the need
to increase access to services for sex workers and their clients.
HIV prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among sex workers by sex in Latin America, 2009-2013
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
69%
8%
1%
Uruguay
Male sex workers
6%
1%
Guatemala
Honduras
24%
23%
20%
19%
18%
2%
Panama
2%
Peru
1%
Mexico
4%
Suriname
Female sex workers
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014. UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Coverage of HIV testing among sex workers stands around 70% for the region
(9). Similarly, reported condom use at last sexual contact is stable in median
between 78% and 96% (9).
Social protection
HIV can push people and households into poverty, in part by reducing
household labour capacity but also by increasing medical expenses. In some
cases, HIV-related stigma and discrimination marginalize people living with HIV
and households affected by the virus and exclude them from essential services.
A number of countries in Latin America have introduced social protection measures
to mitigate some of the negative impact suffered by those affected by HIV.
The Government of Ecuador recently approved a new public policy aimed at
protecting children living with HIV. Caregivers for children under the age of 14
living with HIV will receive a monthly cash transfer. The Government estimates
that, in the first year, the caregivers of 500 children will fulfil the requirements
necessary to receive the cash transfer (10).
Regional snapshots: Latin America 93
In Uruguay, the “Social Card” is the first social protection programme targeting
transgender people (11). Cardholders will receive a transfer of US$ 30 per
month to purchase foodstuffs and cleaning products in shops participating in the
programme. The social card currently reaches a group of over 1000 individuals,
a majority of the estimated transgender population in the country (11).
Investments for the AIDS response
Latin America has made significant progress in both investing in and tracking
resources allocated to HIV programming. The region has provided important
leadership globally in terms of assuming financial responsibility for halting the
AIDS epidemic and, in 2013, 94% of the total spending on HIV in the region
came from domestic sources (12).
Ten countries in the region cover 90% or more of their HIV spending using
domestic resources. However, the Pluriantional State of Bolivia, Guatemala,
Honduras and Nicaragua rely on international funding to cover 40% or
more of their HIV responses. Finding alternative sources of funding will be a
fundamental task in the coming years.
However, there are inequalities and in even in some countries with high
levels of domestic funding, programmes for key populations are mostly
dependent on international funding. Data from 2012 indicates that two thirds
of the resources for programmes supporting key populations came from
international sources. Resources should be allocated to ensure efficiency
and cost-effectiveness in programme implementation, and should focus in
initiatives that address the needs of key populations most affected by HIV,
including vulnerable populations that are of concern in specific countries,
such as indigenous people and prisoners.
Long-term sustainability of access to treatment is a major concern in the
region and is dependent on increasing efficiency on procurement processes
that include price reduction. It is estimated that up to a 75% reduction in
spending on first-line and second-line antiretroviral medicines could be
achieved if countries moved from their present procurement and price
structures to the recommended regimes and purchasing mechanisms
depending on the country and scheme presently used (13).
Recent studies show significant variations in the prices of antiretroviral
medicines among the countries of Latin America, which indicates
opportunities for cutting costs in the procurement of these essential
medicines. Therefore, purchasing quality antiretroviral medicines at the lowest
possible price is difficult, but nevertheless indispensable for maintaining and
expanding HIV treatment. Data from the study conducted in 2012–2013 by
the Horizontal Technical Cooperation Group on Antiretroviral Drug Prices
show cost variations of the main antiretroviral regimens, where the highest
price can be up to 77 times higher than the lowest (1).
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Gap report
Most of the countries in the region cannot buy antiretroviral medicines from
generic manufacturers due to patent laws and therefore have problems
accessing better prices. Lessons from the region show the importance
of public health oriented management of intellectual property rights in
ensuring the sustainability of access to antiretroviral therapy programmes by
making use of the flexibilities provided within the World Trade Organization
Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS
Agreement). Brazil and Ecuador have issued compulsory licences for
antiretroviral medicines, allowing governments to obtain better prices for
antiretroviral medicines for their state-funded pharmaceutical programmes
(14,15). Civil society organizations in Argentina and Brazil have been
advocating for a more balanced patentability criteria through pre-grant
opposition processes, in close collaboration with national patent offices,
which will ultimately allow more competition and lower prices.
Regional snapshots: Latin America 95
REGIONAL SNAPSHOT
WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
HIV burden
At the end of 2013, just over 2.3 million [2.0 million–3.0 million] people
were estimated to be living with HIV in western and central Europe and
North America. The United States of America stands as the country with the
highest HIV burden in the region, accounting for 56% of people living with
HIV in this part of the world. Four countries in western Europe account for
almost a quarter of the regional total number of people living with HIV, with
8% in France, 6% in Spain, 5% in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland and 5% in Italy.
People living with HIV in western and central Europe and North America, 2013
1% Netherlands (the)
7% Rest of the region
2% Poland
4% Portugal
4% Germany
4% Canada
5% Italy
5% United Kingdom (the)
56% United States of America (the)
6% Spain
8% France
Source: UNAIDS estimates, 2013.
The burden of HIV disproportionally impacts three populations in this
region: gay men and other men who have sex with men, African American
communities, particularly African American women and migrants who
originate from high-endemic areas primarily in sub-Saharan Africa.
In western and central Europe, the people at highest risk for HIV also
include people who inject drugs and their sexual partners, transgender
people, prisoners, and sex workers (1). However, the main modes of
transmission vary between countries in the region. In 2011, gay men and
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Gap report
other men who have sex with men accounted for 40.1% of new diagnoses
in western Europe and 27.3% of new diagnoses in central Europe. In central
Europe, however, people who inject drugs accounted for twice as many new
infections (8.2%) compared with people who inject drugs in western Europe
(4.2%) (2).
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs versus the general population in France and
Canada, 2012–2013
HIV prevalence (%)
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
France
Canada
HIV prevalence for people who inject drugs
HIV prevalence for the general population
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
AIDS-related deaths
It is estimated that 27 000 [23 000–34 000] AIDS-related deaths in western
and central Europe and North America occurred in 2013. France accounts
for 5% of all AIDS-related deaths in the region and Spain for 3% (3).
In the United States, the late diagnosis of HIV, poor treatment adherence and
high levels of early treatment discontinuation contribute to avoidable deaths
(4). African Americans accounted for about half of all deaths among people
with an HIV diagnosis in 2010. The number of AIDS-related deaths among the
country’s white population remained stable over the same period (5).
One of the key challenges throughout western and central Europe is that
people at risk are not getting tested for HIV. A study in France found that
29 000 people were living with an undiagnosed HIV infection in 2010 (6).
Surveillance data from a number of countries indicate a high proportion
of late HIV diagnoses (7). Half of all HIV cases with information on CD4 cell
counts have been diagnosed as late presenters or with advanced infection (7).
The problem of late diagnosis reflects a lack of access to and uptake of HIV
testing and counselling services in many countries.
Regional snapshots: Western and central Europe and North America 97
When people delay seeking an HIV test until years after they have been
exposed to the virus, it has knock on implications for the effectiveness of
treatment and life expectancy. In 2012 in the United Kingdom, just under
half (47%) of adults newly diagnosed with HIV were diagnosed at a late
stage of infection (8). A late diagnosis means that the individual is 11 times
more likely to die within a year of being tested than if they had been tested
after they were first exposed. Over the last decade, 81% of the 2 000 AIDSrelated deaths in England and Wales were attributable to a late diagnosis
(8). A late diagnosis also means that a person has remained unaware of their
HIV status for an indeterminate length of time, thus increasing the risk of
transmitting the virus.
AIDS-related deaths in western and central Europe and North America, 2013
1% Switzerland
8% Rest of the region
1% Estonia
2% Germany
2% Canada
2% Romania
2% United Kingdom (the)
3% Spain
5% Italy
5% France
69% United States of America (the)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
New HIV infections
It is estimated that 88 000 [44 000–160 000] new infections occured in the
region by the end of 2013 (3). France and the United Kingdom account for
8% each, and Canada, Germany, Italy and Spain each account for 4% of all
new HIV infections in the region.
In the United States, the majority of new infections occur among gay men
and other men who have sex with men. African American heterosexual
women are the second most at risk population, accounting for the largest
share of new HIV infections among women in the United States (5).
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New HIV infections in western and central Europe and North America, 2013
10% Rest of the region
1% Belgium
1% Portugal
2% Poland
4% Canada
4% Italy
4% Spain
54% United States of America (the)
4% Germany
8% United Kingdom (the)
8% France
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Estimated number of new HIV infections in the United States among the most affected
subpopulations, 2010
Number of new HIV
infections
12 000
10 000
8 000
6 000
4 000
2 000
0
White men
Black men
Hispanic /
Black
Black
White
who have sex who have sex Latino men heterosexual heterosexual heterosexual
with men
with men
who have sex
women
men
women
with men
Hispanic /
Latina
heterosexual
women
Black men
who inject
drugs
Black women
who inject
drugs
Source: HIV in the United States: at a glance. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2013.
Regional snapshots: Western and central Europe and North America 99
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
In western and central Europe, the number of HIV diagnoses among gay
men and other men who have sex with men increased by 33% between
2004 and 2011. Between 2004 and 2011, increases of more than 100% were
observed in Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Slovakia
and Slovenia. Increases of more than 50% were observed in Austria and
Belgium (2). The United Kingdom has experienced a steady increase since
2007, with 3 010 new diagnoses in 2011 (9). Rates of HIV prevalence are
particularly high among male sex workers.
HIV prevalence among male and female sex workers in western Europe in selected countries,
2009–2013
25
HIV prevalence (%)
20
15
10
5
0
Belgium
Male sex workers
Portugal
Spain
Female sex workers
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
In the United States, although gay men and other men who have sex with
men represent only 4% of the male population, they accounted for 78% of
new HIV infections among men and 63% of all new infections in 2010.
The key populations in the United States who are most at risk for HIV are
young African American gay men and other men who have sex with men. In
2010, young African American men who had sex with men aged 13–24 years
experienced the highest rates of new HIV infections (4 800) (5).
100 Gap report
Germany
The availability of antiretroviral treatment has become more widespread and
the costs more affordable. However, access to comprehensive HIV services,
including behaviour change programmes, remains a challenge.
In an internet survey among gay men and other men who have sex with
men, a median of 32% reported sero-discordant unprotected anal sex
with any male partner in the last 12 months, ranging from 21–49% across
countries (15). To improve information gathering in order to support
prevention services, digital mapping has been used in New York City to
directly reach gay men and other men who have sex with men (10).
France
Netherlands (the)
Canada
Spain
Greece
Germany
Denmark
Switzerland
Belgium
Serbia
Latvia
Slovenia
Portugal
Italy
Ireland
Romania
Poland
Czech Republic (the)
Montenegro
Hungary
Sweden
United Kingdom (the)
Croatia
Lithuania
Estonia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Albania
The former Yugoslav
Republic
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Finland
HIV prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men across western and central
Europe and North America, 2009–2013
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014 .
African Americans
The country with the highest HIV burden in the region—with 56% of the
total number of people living with HIV in the region—is the United States.
Within this country, African Americans experience the highest burden of HIV
compared with other ethnic groups.
African Americans were estimated to make up 13.2% of the population of
the United States in 2013 (11), yet they accounted for an estimated 46% of
Regional snapshots: Western and central Europe and North America 101
all people living with HIV in the country. Of an estimated 1.1 million people
living with HIV in the United States, more than 506 000 are African American
(5).
Between 2008 and 2010, the number of African Americans living with HIV
increased by 7%, whereas the number of white Americans living with HIV
increased by 5% (12).
The health outcomes for African Americans living with HIV are also
disproportionately negative. In 2010, they had the highest rate of AIDSrelated deaths at 11.6 deaths per 100 000 people, compared to 2.8 deaths
per 100 000 among Latinos and 1.1 deaths per 100 000 whites (13). HIV
was the fifth leading cause of death among African American men and the
seventh leading cause of death among African American women aged
25–44 years in 2010, ranking higher than for their respective counterparts in
any other ethnic group (14).
Among African Americans, the rates of new infections among heterosexual
women are nearly double that of heterosexual men (15). African American
women represented the largest share (60%) of women living with HIV at the
end of 2010 (12). However, recent data indicated a 21% decrease in HIV
incidence among African American women between 2008 and 2010 (5).
Studies suggest that the biggest risk factor for African American women
includes being the sexual partner of an African American bisexual man who
is unlikely to know or to reveal his HIV status (16–17).
Distribution of new HIV infections and U.S. population by ethnic groups, 2007–2010
New HIV Infections
U.S. Population
White
Multiple races
Black
American Indian / Alaska Native
Latino
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander
Asian
Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2007–2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report. 2012;17(4).
102 Gap report
Migrants originating from sub-Saharan Africa
In Europe, 35% of all new HIV infections in 2010 occurred among migrants
originating from countries in sub-Saharan Africa (18). Individuals may have
acquired HIV in their home country before departure or during their journey
to their current country of residence. Sexual harassment, abuse and rape are
experiences commonly reported by female migrants (19).
Both Portugal and the United Kingdom provide antiretroviral treatment
regardless of a person’s immigration status (18).
High HIV incidence rates among migrants in Europe highlight the negative
impact that restrictive health policies, including access to HIV treatment,
have on migrants living with HIV. Providing treatment brings economic
gains to a society through a person’s improved health and productivity. It
also has a public health prevention effect, reducing viral load and thereby
reducing the chances of transmitting the virus. Coupled with the falling costs
of treatment, it is increasingly difficult to argue that people living with HIV
incur greater costs to the destination country compared to the benefits they
could contribute over a long-term stay while they are healthy. However, 16
European countries do not provide treatment to undocumented migrants
who are living with HIV(18). Other countries only provide emergency healthcare services, which end when a patient’s condition is considered stable.
Migrants who were receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV in their country of
origin may experience treatment disruptions while in transit or face difficulties
in accessing the same drug regimen in their host country. For undocumented
migrants who face deportation, they may have their treatment disrupted by
immigration detention and have difficulties accessing the same antiretroviral
therapeutic regimen in the country to which they return.
Availability of antiretroviral therapy among specific population groups in selected countries in
Europe
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
People who
inject drugs
Government
Gay men and other
men who have sex
with Men
Migrants
(generally)
Undocumented
migrants (specifically)
Prisoners
Civil Society
Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Surveillance report: HIV/AIDS
surveillance in Europe 2012. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2013.
Regional snapshots: Western and central Europe and North America 103
REGIONAL SNAPSHOT
EASTERN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA
HIV burden
At the end of 2013, there were an estimated 1.1 million [0.98 million–1.3
million] people living with HIV in eastern Europe and central Asia,1 which
accounts for 3% of the global number of people living with HIV. The HIV
epidemic in this region continues to grow, including most significantly, in
the Russian Federation (1), Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
HIV in this region continues to be concentrated among men who inject
drugs, although all people who inject drugs and their sexual partners
continue to be predominantly affected by the epidemic. Extensive
epidemiological evidence also shows that sex workers, gay men and other
men who have sex with men are also disproportionally affected (2).
Two countries, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, account for over 85% of
the people living with HIV in the region.
People living with HIV in eastern Europe and central Asia, 2013
1% Azerbaijan
1% Tajikistan
1% Republic of Moldova (the)
2% Kazakhstan
1% Kyrgyzstan
1% Georgia
0.4% Rest of the Region
2% Belarus
3% Uzbekistan
19% Ukraine
69% Russian Federation (the)
Source: UNAIDS estimates, 2013.
Most recent data are from Armenia (2013), Azerbaijan (2013), Belarus (2013), Georgia (2013), the Republic of Moldova (2013), Kazakhstan (2011),
Kyrgyzstan (2013), Tajikistan (2013), Ukraine (2013) and Uzbekistan (2012). Data for the Russian Federation based on published case reporting.
1
104 Gap report
Ukraine is one of the few countries in the region which has extensive
experience in providing evidence-informed HIV prevention services to
people who inject drugs. In addition, evidence in Ukraine suggests that
such services are having a positive impact on the HIV epidemic. These
programmes and policies are supported by the Government, include
needle and syringe programmes as well as opioid substitution therapy. As a
direct consequence of harm reduction services, the proportion of all newly
registered HIV infections among people who inject drugs in Ukraine has
continued to decline, from over 42% in 2010 to 33% in 2013 (3).
Newly registered HIV cases among people who inject drugs and total number of newly
registered HIV cases, Ukraine, (2002–2013)
Number of new HIV
infections
25 000
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
New HIV cases
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
New HIV cases among people who inject drugs
Source: HIV-infection in Ukraine. Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Ukrainian centre for socially dangerous diseases, Institute of epidemiology and infectious
diseases. Information bulletin 41. Kyiv; 2014.
It is critical that all countries in the region that face epidemics driven by
unsafe injecting drug use adopt evidence-informed harm reduction strategies,
including opioid substitution therapy, in order to reduce HIV transmission. There
is also a need to increase access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy for
people who inject drugs and are living with HIV.
In addition, it is equally important to reconsider the punitive laws and abusive
law enforcement practices that affect people who inject drugs, gay men and
other men who have sex with men, transgender people and sex workers, and
which restrict their access to HIV-related information and services.
Regional snapshots: Eastern Europe and central Asia 105
AIDS-related deaths
In eastern Europe and central Asia,2 the estimated number of AIDS-related
deaths increased by 5% between 2005 and 2013 to 53 000 [43 000–69000].
AIDS-related deaths in eastern Europe and central Asia, 2013
1% Azerbaijan
2% Republic of Moldova (the)
2% Tajikistan
2% Kazakhstan
0.6% Kyrgyzstan
0.4% Armenia
0.3% Rest of the Region
2% Belarus
5% Uzbekistan
25% Ukraine
61% Russian Federation (the)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates. Data for the Russian Federation derived from published case reporting data for 2013.
The reported rate of registered AIDS cases in the eastern region in
2012 was 10.9 per 100 000, over 13 times higher than in western
Europe (4).
In the Russian Federation, officially reported AIDS-related deaths
have continued to increase, growing from 20 511 in 2012 to
22 387 in 2013 (1). This trend suggests that the rapid increase
whereby over 156 000 people living with HIV gained access to
antiretroviral therapy in the Russian Federation by the end of 2013
is still inadequate to reduce the negative trend in AIDS-related
mortality. In Ukraine, 7 657 people living with HIV were receiving
antiretroviral therapy in 2007, 26 730 in 2010 and over 55 000 as
of January 2014 (3). Ukraine has reported a decline in registered
AIDS related deaths, from 2012 to 2013.
Between 2010 and 2012, the number of people reported to be
receiving antiretroviral therapy increased by 50% in Azerbaijan
and doubled in Tajikistan. However, coverage with antiretroviral
therapy is still poor across the eastern Europe and central Asian
Most recent data are from Armenia (2013), Azerbaijan (2013), Belarus (2013), Georgia (2013), the Republic of Moldova (2013), Kazakhstan (2011),
Kyrgyzstan (2013), the Russian Federation (2013), Tajikistan (2013), Ukraine (2013) and Uzbekistan (2012).
2
106 Gap report
region, with most countries only now moving towards implementation of the
World Health Organization’s 2013 treatment guidelines.
Less than 50% of gay men and other men who have sex with men living with
HIV reported receiving antiretroviral therapy in the Russian Federation and
Ukraine (5). In addition, undocumented migrants face some of the greatest
challenges in accessing antiretroviral therapy in the region (7). The barriers
for undocumented migrants include the provision of antiretroviral therapy
on the basis of citizenship, as in the case of Georgia and Ukraine, or on
the basis of health insurance policies. Most undocumented migrants are
uninsured (7).
New HIV infections
The number of new HIV infections in eastern Europe and central Asia
began increasing towards the end of the last decade after having remained
relatively stable for several years since 2000. The region now has 3% of the
global number of adults living with HIV. The majority of people living with
HIV in the region live in the Russian Federation, where eight out of ten new
HIV infections in the region occur.
New HIV infections in eastern Europe and central Asia, 2013
1% Uzbekistan
1% Azerbaijan
1% Republic of Moldova (the)
2% Tajikistan
1% Kyrgyzstan
1% Georgia
0.6% Rest of the Region
2% Kazakhstan
3% Belarus
8% Ukraine
80% Russian Federation (the)
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates. Data for the Russian Federation derived from published case reporting data for 2013
In 2012, 37% of new HIV diagnoses in the WHO European region occurred
among adults aged 30–39 years. Roughly 10% of new infections were
among young people aged 15–24 years. HIV is particularly affecting men
in the region: two men become newly infected for each woman (4).
Regional snapshots: Eastern Europe and central Asia 107
Surveillance data in the WHO European region for 2012 indicate that
1% of newly registered HIV infections were attributed to mother-to-child
transmission (4). This figure is likely low thanks to the high coverage of
programmes aimed at the prevention of vertical transmission operating
throughout the region. A significant decline in the rate of mother-to-child
transmission was recorded in Ukraine, where the rate decreased from 27%
(in 2000) to 3.7% in 2013 (calculated in 2013 for children born in 2011)(3).
Heterosexual transmission, and injecting drug use are the reported
predominant modes of HIV transmission among case reports. Heterosexual
transmission among people who inject drugs is known to be of significant
importance but the proportion of sexual transmission independent of drug
use is not known (4).
Overall, rates of late diagnosis of HIV remain high across the region. Almost
half of people being newly diagnosed with HIV already have CD4 counts
lower than 350. As a consequence of late testing, many people in need of
ART are not receiving it because they remain undiagnosed (7).
People who inject drugs
There are an estimated 2.9 million people who inject drugs in eastern
Europe and central Asia. With more than 1.8 million people who inject drugs
living in the Russian Federation (8) — nearly 2.3% of its adult population—
this country is estimated to have the highest number of people who inject
drugs in the region. In the Republic of Moldova, the proportion of the adult
population who injects drugs stands at 1%, while in Belarus it is 1.11% and
in Ukraine it is between 0.88% and 1.22% (9).
Across eastern Europe and central Asia, estimates suggest that HIV
prevalence is significantly higher among people who inject drugs than in the
general population. HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in the
Russian Federation is between 18% and 31% (9).
Because of the significantly higher HIV prevalence among people who inject
drugs, there is a need to better tailor HIV prevention strategies so that they
effectively reach this population.
According to a World Bank study, only 4% of people who inject drugs living
with HIV are currently receiving antiretroviral therapy. Drawing on extensive
evidence from global HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs, the
authors also argue that ending the AIDS epidemic will not be possible
unless HIV prevention, treatment and care are taken to scale for people who
inject drugs (6).
In Ukraine, HIV prevalence is 6.4% among people who inject drugs
younger than 25 years and 21.7% among people who inject drugs 25 years
and older (2).
108 Gap report
There is concern that the number of young people who inject drugs—as
well as HIV prevalence among them—may be underestimated across the
region. In many countries in this region, people must be 18 or older in order
to access harm reduction services or to participate in surveys focused on
HIV-related behaviour.
Eleven countries in the region reported data on women who inject drugs.
The median HIV prevalence among these women was 10%, similar to the
9% prevalence found among men from the same countries. However, in a
number of countries in the region, HIV prevalence among women who inject
drugs is higher than that among men.
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in selected countries in eastern Europe and
central Asia, 2009-2013
25
HIV prevalence (%)
20
15
10
5
0
Georgia
Male
Kazakhstan
Uzbekistan
Republic of
Moldova (the)
Azerbaijan
Kyrgyzstan
Belarus
Ukraine
Female
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Estimates suggest that 62% of women who inject drugs in Kyrgyzstan and
84% in Azerbaijan also engage in sex work (12). Elsewhere in the region,
rates were much lower—in Uzbekistan, 2% of respondents reported having
exchanged sex for drugs, while in Ukraine, 3% reported having sold sex in
the past three months (13–14).
Regional snapshots: Eastern Europe and central Asia 109
Some countries, such as Armenia, Belarus, Georgia and Ukraine, have
identified the criminalization of drug use and drug possession as obstacles
to the delivery of HIV programmes (7). While most countries in the region
now provide access to harm reduction services, coverage is low and the
package of services offered is not comprehensive.
During the period 2011–2013, there was a 30% increase in the number of
syringes distributed across the region and an increase in the number of
syringes distributed per person who injects drugs. However, the regional
average is only 106 syringes per person who injects drugs (15), almost half
the recommended threshold for effective harm reduction programmes.
As of 1 January 2014, opioid substitution therapy was offered in nine
countries in the region, at 263 sites covering 16 559 clients, reaching less
than 1% of people who inject drugs. Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan
and Ukraine have all significantly scaled up access to opioid substitution
therapy. In Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Republic of Moldova and Tajikistan,
opioid substitution therapy is offered at limited scale (16). The provision
of opioid substitution therapy remains illegal in the Russian Federation
and Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan halted the implementation of opioid
substitution therapy programmes in 2009.
Availability of needle and syringe exchange programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution
therapy (OST) in eastern Europe and central Asia, 2012
NSP only
Both NSP and OST available
OST only
Source: The global state of harm reduction 2012. Towards an integrated response. London: Harm Reduction International; 2012.
110 Gap report
Sex work
In eastern Europe and central Asia, HIV prevalence is high among sex
workers. A 2012 analysis estimated that the pooled HIV prevalence among
sex workers in eastern Europe stood at 10.9% (17). While these estimates
are based mainly on data from Ukraine, a recent study in the capital city
of the Republic of Moldova found an HIV prevalence of 11.6% among sex
workers (18).
HIV prevalence among sex workers in eastern Europe and central Asia, 2009-2013
14
12
HIV prevalence (%)
10
8
6
4
2
Republic of
Moldova (the)
Ukraine
Belarus
Russian
Federation (the)
Tajikistan
Kyrgyzstan
Uzbekistan
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Armenia
Azerbaijan
0
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Regional snapshots: Eastern Europe and central Asia 111
Although there is limited data in the region on HIV prevalence for male sex
workers, the available data point to an even higher HIV prevalence (2).
The majority of sex workers are female. Estimates from the European Union
suggest that 87% of sex workers in Europe are women, 7% are male and 6%
are transgender (21). Some countries recognize the criminalization of sex
work as an obstacle to the delivery of HIV programmes (7). Several studies
have reported that male and female sex workers lack contact with outreach
services for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted infections (20).
HIV prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among male and female sex workers in Kyrgyzstan, 2011
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
17
2
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
112 Gap report
Male sex workers
Female sex workers
Trends in median coverage of prevention programmes and HIV prevalence among sex
workers in eastern Europe and central Asia, 2009-2013
100
Percentage (%)
75
50
25
0
2009
2011
2012
Prevention programmes (n=7)
Condom use with last commercial partner (n=10)
HIV tested last 12 months (n=11)
HIV prevalence (n=10)
2013
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
As mentioned above, the overlapping risk behaviours of sex work and
injecting drug use exacerbate the risk to HIV across the region. Available
data indicate a clear relationship between HIV prevalence and injecting drug
use among sex workers in Europe. In central Asia, HIV prevalence was 20
times higher among female sex workers who reported injecting drug use
than sex workers who did not (19).
Regional snapshots: Eastern Europe and central Asia 113
The relationship between HIV and injecting drug use among female sex workers in Europe
HIV prevalance among female sex
workers (%)
20
Latvia
15
Portugal
Ukraine
10
Russian Federation (the)
5
Serbia
0
0
20
Croatia
40
60
Female sex workers who inject drugs (%)
Source: Platt L, Jolley E, Hope V, Latypov A, Hickson F, Reynolds L, Rhodes T. HIV in the European region: using evidence to strengthen policy and
programmes. Synthesis report 2013. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2013.
Gay men and other men who have sex with men
Across the region, estimates, where available, put the proportion of the adult
male population which is gay or other men who have sex with men at 2% or less
(22). From survey data, HIV prevalence among gay men or other men who have
sex with men stands at 6% in Ukraine and 7% in Georgia (2011), and 9.2% in the
city of Moscow (2010). It is important to note, however, that there is significant
underreporting of HIV among gay men or other men who have sex with men
in official epidemiological data from eastern Europe and central Asia. Case
registration puts the cumulative number of HIV infections among gay men or
other men who have sex with men at 701 in Ukraine, 151 in Georgia and 1 718 in
the Russian Federation (2012) (22).
Throughout eastern Europe and central Asia, laws prohibiting consensual adult
same-sex relationships were repealed as recently as 1998, but are still in force
in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. In addition, nondiscrimination on the basis of
sexual orientation is not evenly nor consistently enforced. In 2013, the Russian
114 Gap report
HIV prevalence among gay men and another men who have sex with men in eastern Europe
and central Asia, 2009-2013
HIV prevalence (%)
14
10.5
7
3.5
Georgia
Russian Federation (the)
Kyrgyzstan
Belarus
Ukraine
Republic of Moldova (the)
Uzbekistan
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Tajikistan
Kazakhstan
0
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Federation adopted a law banning “propaganda of nontraditional sexual
relations among minors.” Similar draft legislation is under consideration in
Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, creating new obstacles and disincentives
for gay men or other men who have sex with men in accessing HIV
programmes and services.
Public attitudes towards gay men and other men who have sex with men are
increasingly marked by negative attitudes and hostility. Such discrimination
creates an environment of increased HIV risk behaviour and constrains the
collection of reliable data.
The relationship between coverage of HIV testing and condom use among gay men and
other men who have sex with men, 2010–2013
HIV testing (%)
80
Kazakhstan
60
Belarus
40
Republic of
Moldova (the)
Azerbaijan
The relative sizes
of the bubbles
represent the
relative reported
population size
estimates.
Kyrgystan
Armenia
20
0
Ukraine
20
40
60
80
100
Condom use at last sexual intercourse (%)
Source: UNAIDS. GARPR 2010–2014
Regional snapshots: Eastern Europe and central Asia 115
Investments for the AIDS response
Since 2008, the Government of Ukraine has significantly increased
investments in providing antiretroviral therapy. Resources allocated for HIV
treatment in the central state budget covered 43 790 people living with HIV
at the end of 2013, an impressive increase from 12 751 people receiving
treatment as of 1 January 2010 (3).
Funding for the majority of harm reduction programmes in eastern Europe
and central Asia comes from external sources, primarily the Global Fund to
Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria or other donors. This makes it difficult
to scale up programmes sufficiently in order to impact the spread of HIV.
Furthermore, the long-term prognosis for ensuring the sustainability of such
programmes is unclear.
Domestic funding for the AIDS response frequently comes from medical
insurance funding pools; however, key populations are likely to have less
access to health insurance. For instance, around 30–50% of people who
inject drugs in Estonia, a country in central Europe similar to its eastern
neighbours, are uninsured (7).
Many countries in eastern Europe and central Asia remain highly dependent
on international funding, although there are large differences between
countries.
100
75
50
25
EECA Total
Uzbekistan
Ukraine (2010)
Tajikistan
Republic of
Moldova (the)
Kyrgyzstan
Kazakhstan
Georgia
Belarus
Azerbaijan
0
Armenia
Domestic spending for HIV as a per
cent of total funding on HIV (%)
Public domestic funding of total HIV spending in select countries in eastern Europe and
central Asia (excluding private spending)
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014. Data reported are for 2013, except for Ukraine reporting data for 2010.
116 Gap report
117
PEOPLE
LEFT BEHIND
Anyone can acquire HIV. AIDS affects us all.
Yet there are people who are more at risk, more vulnerable and more
affected than others. Many have benefitted from advancements in the
global AIDS response, as HIV prevention, treatment and care services are
more widely available now than a decade before.
However, not all have equitable access to these services. Some populations
do not have access because they are marginalized, others because of
harmful gender norms, poverty, legal and social inequalities. Where HIV
services are available, uptake is dependent on the quality of services as well
as the levels of stigma and discrimination by service providers.
In many instances, marginalized populations face complex life challenges,
risks and obstacles on multiple fronts. But these are often taboo within
a society which collectively looks the other way—an adolescent girl
experiencing sexual abuse and violence while looking after younger
siblings; a drug user who is a prisoner; a migrant who has to send money
home and has very little left to access health care or safe housing; or a sex
worker who uses drugs and struggles to protect her children and send them
to school.
AIDS does not exist in isolation, nor does it only relate to health. Treating
AIDS as an isolated issue brings only partial benefits. An integrated
approach that supports the person as a whole is necessary to address
issues of physical health, nutrition, psychological support, education, social
security as well as economic and development opportunities.
Equally important are issues of political leadership, policies, and laws that
protect people. Even more critical is community ownership and leadership
in the AIDS response. Where communities have taken charge, the impact
has been significant. HIV infections have been averted and lives saved.
Respect and dignity of people restored.
This section of the report explores issues faced by 12 populations that have
been left behind by the AIDS response. It describes the struggles they face,
why they have been left behind and how to close the gap.
118 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
01 PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV
02 ADOLESCENT GIRLS AND YOUNG WOMEN
03 PRISONERS
04 MIGRANTS
05 PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS
06 SEX WORKERS
07 GAY MEN AND OTHER MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN
08 TRANSGENDER PEOPLE
09 CHILDREN AND PREGNANT WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV
10 DISPLACED PERSONS
11 PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES
12 PEOPLE AGED 50 YEARS AND OLDER
12 populations 119
12 POPULATIONS
01
PEOPLE LIVING
WITH HIV
Since the start of the AIDS epidemic, more than
78 million people have been infected with HIV and
39 million have died (1).
Acquiring HIV no longer means certain death. A
person on HIV treatment in a high-income setting now
has nearly the same life expectancy as a person who
does not have the virus. However, only two out of five
people living with HIV have access to antiretroviral
therapy. Among people who do have access, great
inequities exist.
People living with HIV are being left behind
because they are not benefitting from health care,
employment, education or social protection. This is
often due to stigma, discrimination, prohibitive laws
and policies or a lack of services.
12 POPULATIONS
01 PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV
I am a person living with HIV.
I face these issues.
I may have
tuberculosis
I am
criminalized
I can be
arrested for
exposing my
partner to HIV
My status
was disclosed
without my
consent
My family may
reject me
I do not have
access to
treatment
I am scared that I
will lose my job
I face discrimination
from health staff
I have no
one who
understands
I have a right
to dignified
care
I am proud to
help my peers
living with HIV
I had the courage
to seek treatment
and care
122 Gap report
WHY PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV ARE BEING
LEFT BEHIND
Since the start of the AIDS epidemic, more than 78 million people have
been infected with HIV and 39 million have died (1).
Acquiring HIV no longer means certain death. A person on HIV
treatment in a high-income setting now has nearly the same life
expectancy as a person who does not have the virus. However, only two
out of five people living with HIV have access to antiretroviral therapy.
Among people who do have access, great inequities exist.
People living with HIV are being left behind because they are
not benefiting from health care, employment, education or social
protection. This is often due to stigma, discrimination, prohibitive laws
and policies or a lack of services.
HIV burden
There are people living with HIV in all parts of the world, from all walks of life and
cultures, all ages and all genders. Some are more affected than others, and some
have better access to services than others.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
Human rights violations, stigma
and discrimination
02
Access to treatment
and services
03
04
Gender-based inequalities
There are 35 million people living with HIV globally.
There are 3.2 million children and 2.1 million adolescents living
with HIV.
There are 4.2 million people 50 years and older living with HIV.
Criminalization
and exclusion
At the end of 2013, there were 35 million [33.2 million–37.2 million] people living
with HIV globally. Seventy per cent of the people living with HIV are located in
sub-Saharan Africa.
Human rights violations, stigma and discrimination
Stigma, discrimination and other human rights violations against people
living with HIV limit their access to HIV services. These violations also
negatively affect their ability to lead full and dignified lives (2–5).
Human rights violations affect people living with HIV in the workplace and
affect their access to insurance, social security, housing and education.
Sixty-eight per cent of countries have non-discrimination laws or
regulations that specify protections for people living with HIV (6). Yet, in
12 populations 123
many contexts, stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV
still happen despite these laws. People living with HIV may experience
further discrimination or a lack of legal protection because of their sexual
orientation, gender identity, drug use or sex work.
Punitive laws, policies and practices increase the vulnerability of people
living with HIV and affect their ability to access voluntary testing and
treatment. Overly broad laws and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure,
exposure and transmission have been recorded in all regions of the world.
Some 61 countries have adopted legislation that specifically allows for
criminalization, while prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and
transmission have been recorded in at least 49 countries (7).
61 countries have adopted
legislation that specifically
allows for criminalization,
while prosecutions for HIV
non-disclosure, exposure
and transmission have been
recorded in at least 49
countries.
There are 38 countries, territories and areas with restrictions on the entry, stay or
residence of people living with HIV as of July 2014 (8).
Countries with laws or recorded prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure or
transmission
Laws or recorded prosecutions for HIV
Source: Global Network of People Living with HIV, HIV Justice Network. Advancing HIV justice: A progress report on achievements and challenges in
global advocacy against HIV criminalization. Amsterdam / London: Global Network of People Living with HIV / HIV Justice Network; 2013.
124 Gap report
1.91
1.6
6
1.33
4
1.33
4
1.05
Florida (US)
Switzerland
Oklahoma (US)
Hungary
Singapore
33
1.93
Ohio (US)
20
2.02
4
2
Czech Republic (the)
Western Australia (Aus)
Indiana (US)
27
2.48
3
2.22
3.3
Canada
Missouri (US)
3.8
Illinois (US)
3.18
Tennessee (US)
40
50
55
3.26
Louisiana (US)
Victoria (Aus)
20
3.63
Denmark
3.6
16
3.3
17
3.67
Norway
Known arrests or prosecutions per 1000 people living with HIV
Michigan (US)
3.67
Austria
53
55
1
3.72
5
15
Finland
Australian Capital
Territory (Aus)
5
5.2
South Australia (Aus)
Tasmania (Aus)
New Zealand
6.17
11
5.5
1
5.5
Sweden
10
2
Malta
Iowa (US)
Bermuda
Idaho (US)
South Dakota (US)
6
30
25
13.68
50
54
43.32
69
100
146
170
239
Law enforcement hot spots: top 30 jurisdictions
(in order of known arrests or prosecutions per 1000 people living with HIV)
Total known arrests or prosecutions
Top 30 jurisdictions for HIV criminalization based on known arrests or prosecutions per 1000 people living with HIV and including absolute numbers of
known arrests or prosecutions (data are cumulative and correct as of July 2012).
Source: Global Network of People Living with HIV, HIV Justice Network. Advancing HIV justice: A progress report on achievements and challenges in
global advocacy against HIV criminalization. Amsterdam / London: Global Network of People Living with HIV / HIV Justice Network; 201.
Three decades into the response to the AIDS epidemic, people living with HIV
continue to face stigma and discrimination. HIV-related stigma has damaged
the social and psychological well-being of many people living with HIV. It is
associated with low social support, poor physical and mental health and a
poorer quality of life (5). The People Living with HIV Stigma Index shows that
people living with HIV experience unemployment rates three times higher than
national unemployment rates—37.7% among people living with HIV compared
to average national unemployment rates of 11.7%. Reasons reported for
unemployment include stigma, discrimination, restrictive policies and practices
and ill health.
Evidence from the People Living with HIV Stigma Index demonstrates the
significant impact of stigma and discrimination on the health and ability of people
living with HIV to be active members of their community. On average, one in
eight people living with HIV report being denied health services and one in nine
is denied employment because of their HIV-positive status. An average of 6%
reported experiencing physical assault because of their HIV status. People living
with HIV who are members of key populations face a double stigma because of
their sexual orientation, gender identity, drug use or engagement in sex work.
Their HIV-positive status increases their risk of experiencing violence, being
denied services or being excluded from community activities.
12 populations 125
Discriminatory attitudes are common in many parts of the world. But evidence
suggests that where knowledge of HIV is higher, discriminatory attitudes towards
people living with HIV are lower.
Health-care providers and health professionals are sometimes the source of the
stigma affecting people living with HIV. Examples include neglecting patients,
providing a different quality of treatment based on one’s HIV status, denying care
and breaching confidentiality (4). Instances of verbal abuse by health-care staff
have been reported in a number of studies (9–15).
Access to treatment and services
Voluntary HIV testing and counselling is the gateway to life-saving HIV treatment
for people living with HIV, yet only half of all people living with HIV know their HIV
status.
Globally, only 38% of adults
living with HIV have access
to treatment.
Evidence from the People Living with HIV Stigma Index shows that fear of stigma
and discrimination results in delays in a person seeking an HIV test (16). This, in
turn, results in the late initiation of treatment, which can result in poorer health
outcomes.
For some groups, access to services is challenging, due to systemic and policy
issues. For example, adolescents living with HIV face major barriers in accessing
HIV testing in many countries, owing to restrictive parental consent laws and
policies. Data collected from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that only 10% of young
men and 15% of young women (15–24 years) were aware of their HIV status (17).
Sometimes, the way in which HIV testing is carried out violates individuals’
rights. Lack of confidentiality, mandatory or forced testing among certain
populations, coerced treatment initiation and mandatory disclosure of HIV
status to sexual partners are violations of individual rights.
Globally, only 38% [36–40%] of adults (15 and older) living with HIV and
24% [21–26%] of children living with HIV have access to treatment.1 As of
2013, 12.9 million people had access to antiretroviral therapy.
Access to treatment is key to halting AIDS-related deaths (18). It extends
life expectancy and improves the quality of life. It is also a key to preventing
and reducing morbidity. For example, evidence shows that the risk of
tuberculosis declines dramatically with HIV treatment (19).
In addition to the undeniable impact of antiretroviral therapy on the lives
of people living with HIV, treatment access results in a lower viral load, at
individual and community levels, which in turn, reduces the potential to
transmit HIV on to sexual partners (20). In other words, treatment is first and
foremost to save lives. It also prevents HIV infection.
Starting in 2014, UNAIDS and its partners are presenting the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy as a proportion of people living with HIV.
This is done in order to avoid comparing antiretroviral therapy coverage in countries with different eligibility criteria and to avoid comparing coverage
over time when the criteria have changed. This new indicator does not endorse a policy of treatment initiation regardless of CD4 cell count; it merely
allows for comparisons between countries and over time.
1
126 Gap report
The full benefits of HIV treatment are realized when people living with HIV
are given the support and care required for optimal adherence. About
86% of adults remain on treatment 12 months after initiation. While some
people may move from one clinic to another, recent evidence suggests
that, in southern Africa, approximately 30% of patients lost to treatment
follow-up have died (21).
Gender-based inequalities
Women represent 50% of all adults living with HIV globally. However in the
most affected region, sub-Saharan Africa, 59% of adults living with HIV are
women. Almost 1000 young women are newly infected with HIV every day.
Infection rates among young women are twice as high as among young
men in sub-Saharan Africa.
Some women living with HIV also experience forms of institutional violence,
including forced sterilization and forced abortion and the denial of
voluntary sterilization or safe abortion services (22). Involuntary and coerced
sterilization and abortion among women living with HIV occur in many
countries. These practices have been reported in Bangladesh, Cambodia,
Women represent 50% of
all adults living with HIV
globally. However, in the
most-affected region, subSaharan Africa, 59% of
people living with HIV are
women.
Chile, the Dominican Republic, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Namibia,
Nepal, South Africa, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Viet Nam and
Zambia, among others (23–27).
Criminalization and social exclusion
People who are socially marginalized or criminalized carry a higher burden of
HIV than the general population:
■■ Gay men and other men who have sex with men are 19 times more likely
to be living with HIV than the general population (28).
People who inject drugs are
28 times more likely to be
living with HIV.
■■ People who inject drugs bear 28 times higher HIV prevalence than the
general population (29).
■■ HIV prevalence among sex workers is 12 times greater than among the
general population (30).
■■ Transgender women are 49 times more likely to be living with HIV than
other adults of reproductive age (31).
The double stigma and discrimination of living with HIV and being a member
of a marginalized population creates barriers to accessing services, including
antiretroviral therapy, and to protecting human rights. Furthermore, politicians
are not inclined to support programmes for marginalized and criminalized
communities, especially during times of constrained national spending and
competing public service needs.
12 populations 127
CLOSING THE GAP
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
The greater and meaningful involvement of people living with HIV in all
aspects of the response to HIV leads to policies and services that are
acceptable and can reach the communities they aim to reach. People living
with HIV must be meaningfully involved in decision- and policy-making,
programme design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
01
Meaningful participation of people
living with HIV
02
Earlier testing leads to earlier diagnosis and better health outcomes.
Significant numbers of people living with HIV continue to present themselves
for testing at a late stage, with CD4 cell counts below 200. Acceptable,
accessible and affordable voluntary and confidential HIV testing with effective
linkage to treatment services—whether it is at the community or health service
level—results in earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation, with better
health outcomes.
Community-based service delivery can reach key populations where statebased facilities may not be able to. It can support health systems where
capacity has been maximized and can provide services that respond to the
needs of their own communities. Moreover, community-based service delivery
can extend services into areas that have previously been difficult to reach.
Improve services, including
community-based services
03
Scale up antiretroviral therapy and
integrated health services
04
Programmes to sensitize and reduce stigma among service providers result
in increased satisfaction with services and improved outcomes. Parallel to
removing systemic barriers to access, efforts are needed to put into place
measures to reduce stigma and discrimination. This includes training healthcare providers, dialogue between community leaders and people living with
HIV, protective workplace policies and psychosocial support.
Increase treatment and rights
awareness
Communities deliver: Malawi and South Africa
MALAWI
Percentage (%)
100
SOUTH AFRICA
80
60
40
20
0
H
With
Without
community
community
health workers health workers
Alive and on
antiretroviral therapy
With
community
health workers
Without
community
health workers
Lost to follow-up
Health centers
Hospital
Alive and on
antiretroviral therapy
H
Health centers
Hospital
Lost to follow-up
Source: Zachariah et al. 2009. Task Shifting in HIV/AIDS: opportunities, challenges and proposed actions for sub-Saharan Africa. Transactions of the Royal
Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2009) 103, 549–558.
128 Gap report
Access to life-saving antiretroviral therapy and integrated health services
is essential. Affordable and accessible treatment for all—irrespective of
age, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, socioeconomic status or
ethnicity—is an absolute necessity for the survival of people living with HIV.
Evidence shows that people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy can
have life expectancies comparable to the general population. Continuous
efforts in research and the development of better treatment and easier
formulations to support adherence and retention are crucial in ensuring
sustainable and quality treatment for people living with HIV.
Increasing HIV knowledge and awareness among the general population
enables people to protect themselves and works to reduce stigma and
discrimination against people living with HIV.
Knowledge of fundamental human rights and understanding where and how
to access HIV testing and treatment are essential to removing the barriers
caused by rights violations, stigma and discrimination. Literacy programmes
that are community-led and delivered can reach key populations and
communities, creating the necessary demand for services.
Science evolved: smarter and better HIV treatment options now available
Era before highly active antiretroviral therapy
(mono- and dual therapy)
Potency
AZT (1987)
2 tablets 3 x day
Toxicity
Zalcitabine
Didanosine
Zidovudine
1985
1987
1989
1991
Era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
(triple therapy)
Potency
Toxicity
AZT/3TC +
LPV/r (2001)
3 tablets
2 x day
Toxicity
Etravirine
Raltegravir
Maraviroc
Darunavir
Tipranavir
Fosamprenavir
Emtricitabine
Atazanavir
Enfuvirtide
Tenofovir
Lopinavir/ritonavir
Amprenavir
Abacavir
Efavirenz
Delavirdine
Nelfinavir
Nevirapine
Indinavir
Ritonavir
Saquinavir
Lamivudine
Stavudine
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
TDF/FTC/
EFV (2006)
1 tablet
once day
Potency
2007
2009
Dolutegravir
Elvitegarvir
2011
2013
12 populations 129
Where the criminalization of behaviours that affect key populations exists,
access to testing and treatment must not be linked to criminal prosecution
or other punitive consequences. A combination of approaches is needed
in order to reach a greater number of people. Confidential and voluntary
HIV testing options should include clinic-based testing, mobile testing,
community-based testing, door-to-door testing and home-based testing kits
with linkages to clinic- or community-based confirmation testing for positive
results.
Innovative testing and service delivery models include multi disease,
community health campaigns and service delivery (32). New technologies
such as self-testing encourage a high uptake of HIV testing (33).
Projected impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on expected survival of a 20-year-old
person living with HIV in a high-income country
Potential survival gains (years)
Era before highly active
antiretroviral therapy
(mono- and dual therapy)
Era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
(triple therapy)
+80
+70
+36
years
+60
+45
years
+51
years
+55
years
+60
years
+50
+40
+8
+30
years
+20
HIV+
1995–1996
HIV+
2000–2002
HIV+
2003–2006
HIV+
2006–2007
Source: Adapted from Lohse et al, 2007; Hoog et al, 2008, May et al, 2011 & Hogg et al, 2013.
130 Gap report
HIV+
2010
HIVnegative
131
132 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
02
ADOLESCENT
GIRLS AND
YOUNG WOMEN
Worldwide, there are approximately 880 million
adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 years
(1). Despite making up 12% of the world’s population,
this population is often left without a voice or control
of their own bodies.
Gender-based violence and limited access to health
care and education, coupled with systems and policies
that do not address the needs of young people,
are obstacles that block adolescent girls and young
women from being able to protect themselves against
HIV, particularly as they transition into adulthood.
12 populations 133
12 POPULATIONS
02 ADOLESCENT GIRLS AND YOUNG WOMEN
I am a young woman.
I face these issues.
I need to learn
new skills
I need to be able to
earn money
I cannot negotiate
condom use
I experience
violence
I do not have access
to education
Others make decisions
for me about my own
health
134 Gap report
I am discriminated
against
I do not have
access to health
services
Nobody appreciates
that I take care of
family members
living with HIV
I fear I may
be forcibly
sterilized
I am not
represented
My views and
opinions are
not heard
WHY ADOLESCENT GIRLS AND YOUNG
WOMEN ARE BEING LEFT BEHIND
Worldwide, there are approximately 880 million adolescent girls and young
women aged 15–24 years (1). Despite making up 12% of the world’s population,
this population is often left without a voice or control of their own bodies.
Gender-based violence and limited access to health care and education, coupled
with systems and policies that do not address the needs of young people, are
obstacles that block adolescent girls and young women from being able to
protect themselves against HIV, particularly as they transition into adulthood.
HIV burden
Over the past three decades, in some regions young women and adolescent girls
have remained at a much higher risk of HIV infection than their male peers. As a
result, young women and adolescent girls account for a disproportionate number
of the new infections among young people and the number of young people
living with HIV.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
02
03
04
Gender-based violence
Lack of access to health services
Lack of access to education
Globally, there are about 380 000 new HIV infections among
adolescent girls and young women(10–24) every year.
Globally, 15% of women living with HIV are aged 15–24, of whom
80% live in sub-Saharan Africa.
In sub-Saharan Africa, women acquire HIV five to seven years
earlier than men.
Policies that do not translate
into action
There are about 380 000 [340 000–440 000] new HIV infections among young
women aged 15–24 every year. In 2013, almost 60% of all new HIV infections
among young people aged 15–24 occurred among adolescent girls and young
women (2). Globally, 15% of women living with HIV are aged 15–24, of whom
80% live in sub-Saharan Africa.
Gender-based violence
Gender inequalities and gender-based violence prevent adolescent girls and
young women from being able to protect themselves against HIV. Equally,
adolescent girls and young women are often not able to access treatment (3).
In some settings, up to 45% of adolescent girls report that their first sexual
experience was forced (5). Numerous studies demonstrate that partner violence
increases the risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancies (6,7).
12 populations 135
Violence, abuse and exploitation: increasing risk and vulnerability
45%
Source: Multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence
against women. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.
A review of more than 45 studies from sub-Saharan Africa revealed that
relationships between young women and older male partners were common.
Relationships with large differences in age are associated with unsafe sexual
behaviour and low condom use (8).
A study in South Africa found that young women who experienced intimate
partner violence were 50% more likely to have acquired HIV than women who
had not experienced violence (9). The available data suggest that ever-married
adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 years are the most affected by
spousal physical or sexual violence (10).
Percentage of ever-married women who have experienced spousal physical or sexual violence
by their current or most recent husband or partner in the past 12 months, by age
50
Intimate partner violence (%)
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
2010
Rwanda
Ages 15–19
2011
Uganda
Ages 20–24
2011
Cameroon
2010
United Republic
of Tanzania
2010–11
Zimbabwe
Ages 25–49
Source: Demographic and Health Survey data, countries with available data in sub-Saharan Africa.
136 Gap report
2010 Malawi
2010 Burkina
Faso
Over half of adolescent girls and young women who are married in sub-Saharan
countries with available data do not have the final say regarding their own health
care (10). Respect for and the protection and promotion of women’s autonomy
are central to ensuring access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health
and HIV services.
Young women who
experience intimate partner
violence are 50% more likely
to acquire HIV than women
who have not.
Lack of access to health services
Adolescent girls and young women often do not have the final say on
matters related to their own health care. Punitive and age-restrictive laws
and policies present barriers to young women accessing health services.
These include laws that govern the age of consent for HIV testing and
access to sexual and reproductive health services, the criminalization of HIV
non-disclosure, exposure and transmission, and punitive laws related to
key populations (11). Negative gender stereotypes and harmful norms are
equally damaging.
Adolescent girls and young women face significant barriers in accessing
health services or protecting their own health. Lack of access to
comprehensive and accurate information on sexual and reproductive health
means that adolescent girls and young women are not equipped to manage
their sexual health or to reduce potential health risks.
Furthermore, adolescent girls and young women are less able to negotiate
condom use, have limited access to HIV testing, modern contraception
and family planning and are less able to adhere to HIV treatment. In subSaharan Africa, only 26% of adolescent girls possess comprehensive and
correct knowledge about HIV, compared with 36% of adolescent boys. In
this context, according to UNICEF, among girls aged 15–19 who reported
having multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months, only 36% reported
that they used a condom the last time they had sex.
Many adolescent girls and young women in this age group are having
sex for the first time. Restricted access to sexual and reproductive health
services tailored to their specific needs, including comprehensive sexuality
education, has a particularly negative impact. Health services must be
adapted to the needs of adolescent girls and young women. However,
some countries lack adequate, integrated and comprehensive youth-friendly
sexual and reproductive health and HIV services that respond to the specific
needs of adolescent girls and young women (11).
In some contexts, HIV-positive women have been forced, or feel pressured
by, health-care workers to be sterilized. In addition, HIV-positive pregnant
women may choose to have an abortion because they are misinformed
about their sexual and reproductive health options to preserve their
children’s and their own health (12).
12 populations 137
Currently married women who do not have the final say on their own health care by age
groups in selected countries, 2010–2012*
Young women 15–19 years
16%
17%
20%
83%
84%
20%
Cameroon
Guinea
Senegal
19%
75%
21%
28%
81%
Côte
d’Ivoire
79%
27%
23%
Senegal
Cameroon
73%
Do not have a final say (%)
* Reciprocal of currently married women who report having a final say in their own health.
Source: Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010–2012.
72%
29%
Guinea
77%
138 Gap report
80%
Burkina
Faso
Niger (the)
Have a final say (%)
80%
20%
26%
81%
Young women 20–24 years
Côte
d’Ivoire
Burkina
Faso
Niger (the)
71%
Sex before the age of 15 among young women by age groups in selected countries,
2010–2012
30
Percentage (%)
25
20
15
10
5
15–19 years
20–24 years
Ethiopia, 2011
Honduras, 2011–12
Benin, 2011–12
Nicaragua, 2011
United Republic of
Tanzania, 2010
Haiti, 2012
Colombia, 2010
Uganda, 2011
Malawi, 2010
Gabon, 2012
Cameroon, 2011
Côte d’Ivoire, 2011–12
Niger (the), 2012
Mozambique, 2011
Guinea, 2012
0
Total (15–24 years)
Source: Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010–2012.
Another gap in services for adolescent girls and young women can be found in
HIV testing. The proportion of young people who have received an HIV test and
have learned the result has increased globally since 2000. Yet, in sub-Saharan
Africa, the region most affected by the AIDS epidemic, only 15% of adolescent
girls and young women aged 15–24 are aware of their HIV status (13).
In sub-Saharan Africa, only
15% of young women aged
15–24 are aware of their HIV
status.
In general, young people living with HIV have lower levels of awareness of their
HIV status compared to older people living with HIV. In Gabon, for example,
people living with HIV 15–24 years old were seven times less likely to know their
HIV status compared to people living with HIV 25–34 years old (10).
Lack of access to education
Learning to count, read, write and expand the ability to reason critically can
improve people’s future life prospects considerably (14). Many studies show that
increasing girls’ and young women’s educational achievement is linked to better
HIV and sexual and reproductive health outcomes. When girls attend school, the
risk of being married or becoming pregnant decreases, and it is more likely that
they will have healthier pregnancies and birth outcomes in the future. Not having
access to education, on the other hand, or leaving school because of pregnancy
or other reasons, can jeopardize a girl’s future (15).
12 populations 139
However, one child in every four who starts school will leave before finishing
her or his primary education. More than 200 million young people aged 15–24
do not complete primary school. In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 80% of
young women have not completed their secondary education, and one in three
young women cannot read (16).
A 32-country study found that women with post-primary education were five
times more likely than non-literate women to have knowledge about HIV, while
non-literate women were four times more likely to believe that it is not possible
to prevent HIV (17).
Expected cohort retention rate to last grade of primary school and first grade of secondary
school among girls in selected eastern and southern African countries, 2010
100
Percentage (%)
80
60
40
20
Angola
Burundi
Ethiopia
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Rwanda
Swaziland
Uganda
United Republic of
Tanzania
Zambia
0
Expected retention rate to first grade of secondary school, female (%)
Expected retention rate rate to last grade of primary school, female (%)
Expected net intake rate into first grade of primary school, female (%)
Source: Young people today. Time to act now. Why adolescents and young people need comprehensive sexuality education and sexual and reproductive
health services in eastern and southern Africa. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; 2013.
Owing to the high dropout rate, adolescent girls and young women are less
likely than their male peers to access comprehensive sexuality education.
This education includes HIV awareness and negotiating power relationships,
which are crucial to enabling young women to protect themselves.
140 Gap report
However, even those young women who are able to remain in school
often do not receive quality, comprehensive sexuality education that
includes information on HIV (18). In sub-Saharan Africa, only 28% of young
women have knowledge about how to protect themselves from HIV (19). In
some settings, schools are often not equipped to guarantee the safe and
productive learning environment for adolescent girls and young women
needed to achieve their full potential (11). A study in South Africa found that
30% of young female rape survivors were assaulted in or around their school
(20).
In sub-Saharan Africa,
approximately 80% of young
women have not completed
their secondary education,
and one in three young
women cannot read.
Policies that do not translate into action
At this critical stage in their lives, adolescent girls can become lost as they
transition out of systems designed for children but are not yet covered by
services for adults. Often, legal frameworks bar adolescent girls and young
women from exercising their basic human rights.
In 2014, 9% of all reporting countries had laws that created obstacles for
women and girls accessing HIV prevention, treatment, care and support
services (21). These barriers include coercive HIV testing and age-of-consent
requirements (22). Furthermore, mandatory parental consent notification
requirements have detrimental effects on the decisions of adolescents to
access HIV testing (4) and inhibit adolescent girls’ use of sexual health-care
services (23).
A significant proportion of women who experience physical and/or sexual
violence do not seek help. The proportion of women survivors of physical
and/or sexual violence who do seek help ranges from 18% in Azerbaijan and
the Philippines to 52% in Colombia (24).
Discriminatory social and cultural norms—particularly when translated into
customary or statutory laws—result in public denial and, at times, repression
of the sexuality and autonomy of young women. In some developing
countries, many adolescent pregnancies occur within child marriage (15). In
158 countries, 18 years old is the minimum legal age for women to marry
without parental consent. Nevertheless, state or customary laws allow
girls younger than 18 to marry with the consent of their parents or other
authorities in 146 countries, while in 52 countries girls under the age of 15
can marry with the consent of their parents (15).
Approximately 40% of women of reproductive age live in countries with
restrictive abortion legislation (25). In countries where abortion legislation is
restrictive, the incidence of unsafe abortion is generally high, contributing to
increased rates of maternal mortality and morbidity (26).
Every year, there are approximately 16 million births among adolescent girls
aged 15–19 (27), accounting for 11% of all births worldwide (28). Adolescent
girls experience a disproportionate 23% of the global burden of disease
associated with pregnancy (29).
Often, legal frameworks bar
adolescent girls and young
women from exercising their
basic human rights.
12 populations 141
CLOSING THE GAP
Gender-based violence is a violation of human rights that affects adolescent
girls and women in all their diversity. Violence undermines the HIV response
by creating a barrier to accessing HIV services. Adolescent girls and young
women in all their diversity—especially those living with and affected by
HIV—continue to experience multiple layers of stigma, discrimination,
exclusion and gender-based violence, resulting in negative health and rights
outcomes (11). Stigma, discrimination and violence based on age, gender
and sex must be stopped.
Discriminatory laws that present obstacles to the realization of young
women’s rights, including their sexual and reproductive rights, must be
revoked to reduce new HIV infections, AIDS-related deaths and genderbased violence and to improve adolescent girls and young women’s sexual
and reproductive health. It is especially important to remove mandatory
parental or spousal consent requirements for accessing sexual and
reproductive health and HIV services (11).
According to the World Health Organization, there are four overarching
approaches that can help to reduce women’s vulnerabilities to violence and
HIV (30):
■■ Empowering girls and young women through multisectoral approaches,
for example through integration with economic empowerment
interventions and possibly through engagement with families.
■■ Transforming harmful cultural and social gender norms through effective
school-based interventions, for example by focusing on the socialization
of boys and girls.
■■ Integrating services against gender-based violence into HIV services,
such as through addressing violence during HIV testing and counselling.
■■ Promoting and implementing laws and policies related to violence
against women, gender equality and HIV, including developing and
implementing national plans and policies to address violence against
women as a component of the HIV response.
Comprehensive sexual and reproductive health and HIV services must be
integrated. This requires significantly expanding access to quality services,
including HIV testing, and integrating HIV counselling within sexual and
reproductive health services for adolescents and young people. The
contraceptive needs of all people, including people living with HIV, must be
addressed. Equally, evidence-informed policies must be vigorously pursued,
adequately financed and implemented. And all forms of forced or coerced
sterilization of adolescent girls and young women living with HIV should be
eliminated.
142 Gap report
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
End all forms of gender-based
violence
02
Ensure access to quality health
services
03
04
Keep girls in school
Empower young women and girls
and challenge and change social
norms
Adolescent girls and young women bear a disproportionate burden related
to HIV, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Caribbean in particular
in countries with generalized epidemics and with hyperendemic levels.
Additional comprehensive assessments are needed to determine the causes
of this high burden. This includes understanding the multiple dimensions
of gender inequalities and power imbalances. We must improve our
understanding of the vulnerabilities of adolescent girls and young women
who have lost one or both parents to an AIDS-related illness or who have
lived with HIV through infancy and childhood.
Completion of secondary education contributes to protection against HIV.
Efforts must be doubled to keep adolescents girls and young women in
school, free of HIV, able to plan their pregnancies and safe from all forms
of stigma, discrimination and violence. Education should also enable the
development of skills and knowledge to live better with HIV. Indeed, during
the post-2015 debate, young women have highlighted access to a good
education, better health care and an honest and responsive government as
the top three priority areas to be included in the post-2015 development
framework (31).
Given the overwhelming burden of HIV on adolescent girls and young
women in eastern and southern Africa, there is a need for a geographically
targeted approach that comprehensively addresses their needs and rights.
Young women are powerful drivers for social change and the achievement
of global targets for health and development. Participatory, people-centred
approaches to adolescent girls and young women’s health and rights must
be scaled up.
Removing social and legal barriers that prevent young people—in particular
young women and girls from key populations (including young people who
use drugs, young people who sell sex and young transgender people)—
from accessing comprehensive, integrated sexual and reproductive health
and HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services has been shown
to be important.
Increasing investments in integrated programmes, including the use of social
benefits or cash transfers and skills development to prevent negative HIV
and sexual and reproductive health outcomes, has been shown to work. A
study in the United Republic of Tanzania found that the prevalence of sexually
transmitted infections was 25% lower among young people who benefited
from conditional cash transfers than among those in the control group (32).
Furthermore, although cash transfers did not reduce all risks related to HIV,
child-focused cash transfers in South Africa have proven to reduce the risk of
transactional sex and age-disparate sex among teenage girls (33).
What do adolescent girls
and young women want?
■■ 68% want a good
education
■■ 54% want better health
care
■■ 47% want better job
opportunities
■■ 42% want protection
from violence
12 populations 143
Percentage of votes by topic among women 16–30 years old at all education levels from all
countries on their priorities for the post-2015 development framework
Reliable energy at home
22
Phone and Internet access
23
Action taken on climate
change
24
Political freedoms
25
28
Better transport and roads
Support for people who
cannot work
29
Protecting forests, rivers
and oceans
32
Freedom from discrimination
and persecution
32
Equality between men
and women
34
Affordable and
nutritious food
42
Protection against crime
and violence
42
Access to clean water
and sanitation
43
47
Better job opportunities
An honest and responsive
government
50
Better health care
54
68
A good education
0
10
20
30
40
Percentage (%)
Source: MYWorld Analytics. New York: United Nations; 2014.
144 Gap report
50
60
70
80
145
146 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
03
PRISONERS
Every year, 30 million people spend time in prisons
or closed settings (1) and 10 million are incarcerated
at any given point in time (2). Virtually all will return
to their communities, many within a few months to a
year. Health in prisons and other closed settings is thus
closely connected to the health of the wider society.
Prisons are often overcrowded due to inappropriate,
ineffective and excessive criminal laws. People who
are already more likely to be exposed to HIV, including
people who use drugs, sex workers, and gay men and
other men who have sex with men, are overrepresented
in prisons and other closed settings.
Overcrowding increases vulnerability to infections such
as HIV, tuberculosis and hepatitis. Prisoners are also at
risk of violence and disruption in HIV prevention and
treatment services, including access to harm reduction
measures.
12 populations 147
12 POPULATIONS
03 PRISONERS
I am a prisoner.
I face these issues.
I have to share a
needle to inject
drugs because they
are banned
There is no
methadone so I
started injecting
drugs again
There are no
condoms and
lubricants in
prison
I am very sick
but I cannot see a
doctor
My HIV treatment has
stopped since coming
to prison
There is lots of
unprotected sex in
prison but nobody
cares
I was gang raped
when I first arrived
in prison
20 of us are
locked in the
same cell for
hours
each day
I sold sex to feed
my children. No one
looks after them while
I am here
I have been
locked up for
months without a
trial
I am forced to
have sex to
protect myself
from violence
I am worried
about my safety
I do not know my
rights and I don’t
have a lawyer
148 Gap report
WHY PRISONERS ARE BEING LEFT BEHIND
Every year, 30 million people spend time in prisons or closed settings (1), and
10 million are incarcerated at any given point in time (2). Virtually all will return
to their communities, many within a few months to a year. Health in prisons and
other closed settings is thus closely connected to the health of the wider society.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
Prisons are often overcrowded due to inappropriate, ineffective and excessive
criminal laws. People who are already more likely to be exposed to HIV,
including people who use drugs, sex workers and gay men and other men who
have sex with men, are overrepresented in prisons and other closed settings.
Unmet health-care needs
Overcrowding increases vulnerability to infections such as HIV, tuberculosis and
hepatitis. Prisoners are also at risk of violence and disruption in HIV prevention
and treatment services, including access to harm reduction measures.
HIV burden
The prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, hepatitis B and C and
tuberculosis in prison populations has been estimated to be between two and 10
times higher than in the general population (3).
In some settings, the HIV burden among prisoners may be up to 50
times higher than in the general population (9).
In Mauritania, in 2012 there was an estimated HIV prevalence of
24.8% among prisoners, 40% of whom inject drugs (10).
01
02
03
Overcrowding
Sexual violence, unsafe sexual
practices and unsafe drug injection
practices
04
Inappropriate, ineffective and
excessive laws
It has been estimated that between 56 and 90% of people who
inject drugs will be incarcerated at some stage (11).
Women in prison settings
HIV infection rates are particularly high among women in detention (4). Women
who inject drugs who have been sex workers or who have experienced sexual
violence are at higher risk of HIV and are disproportionately represented among
the female prison population. A significant number of women will already have
sexually transmitted infections at the time they enter prison (5,6). A 2010 report
from Indonesia found that HIV prevalence was over five times higher in female
(6%) than in male respondents (1%) (7,8).
12 populations 149
HIV prevalence is higher among prisoners than in the general adult population in many
countries
Ukraine
15 times
Argentina
South Africa
United States
2.4 times
2.4 times
10 times
Sources:
1. South African national HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour survey, 2012. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council; 2008.
2. HIV in correctional settings. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2012.
3. World report 2011: Events of 2010. New York: Human Rights Watch; 2011.
4. Balakireva OM, Sudakova AV, Salabai NV, Kryvoruk AI. Analysis of HIV/AIDS response in penitentiary system of Ukraine. Summary report on the
comprehensive study. Kyiv: Ukrainian Institute for Social Research after Olexander Yaremenko and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; 2012.
Unmet health-care needs
The health of prisoners is often neglected due to the intense stigma that
this population faces and low levels of investments in their care. Budgetary
constraints, along with legal and policy barriers and low political will to
invest in prisoners’ care means that prison health services are often minimal
(12).
Most of the time access to health care in prison settings is limited and not
equivalent to the services that are available in the wider community. When
men and women living with HIV who are receiving treatment are arrested
and incarcerated, it damages treatment retention and adherence (11), which
risks their health.
Health care in prisons is often provided by the ministry responsible for
prison administration rather than by public health authorities (13,14).
Consequently, prison HIV and coinfection service provision is often
disconnected from national public health programmes.
150 Gap report
Only a third of reporting countries in Europe provide opioid substitution therapy to over
10% of their prison population
>10%
3–10%
<3%
Source: Dublin Declaration questionnaire, ECDC 2012.
In prisons, there may be little or no access to prevention commodities such as
condoms and lubricants or needle and syringe programmes. Opioid substitution
therapy may not be available. Critical HIV services, including voluntary HIV testing
and counselling, antiretroviral therapy for treatment, prevention of mother-tochild transmission or post-exposure prophylaxis, are much harder to access than
in the community. In addition, lack of confidentiality, mandatory HIV testing or
treatment without informed consent, denial of treatment, and segregation of
people living with HIV are commonplace practices (15).
Despite a high frequency of dual infection of tuberculosis and HIV, prisoners
have been shown to respond well to HIV treatment (16). Effective treatment
not only decreases the risk of mortality and the likelihood of developing active
tuberculosis, it reduces the risk of further transmission of HIV to others. Treatment
programmes should, therefore, be available to eligible prisoners after arrival,
along with follow-up support to ensure continuity of care, especially during
interfacility transfers and release. However, treatment adherence has proved
to be challenging, particularly where food is scarce (17). Active detection and
treatment of tuberculosis is also critical.
In prisons, the health and safety of prisoners needs to be improved through
protective laws, policies and programmes that are adequately resourced,
monitored and enforced. Access to preventive, curative, reproductive and
palliative health care should be equivalent to that provided in the community,
in accordance with the United Nations Basic Principles for the Treatment of
Prisoners, which recognizes that “Prisoners shall have access to the health
services available in the country without discrimination” (18).
When men and women
living with HIV who are on
treatment are arrested and
incarcerated, it damages
treatment retention and
adherence.
12 populations 151
Overcrowding
On a global scale, the prison population is growing rapidly, leading to
overcrowding in prisons and other closed settings like pretrial detention centres.
In 16 countries, primarily in Africa, the occupancy rate was reported to exceed
200% (19). Overcrowding and ventilation, are the two main environmental
conditions in which tuberculosis infection thrives (19).
This has a particularly serious impact on people living with HIV, as they have around
a 12–20 times greater risk of developing tuberculosis than people who do not have
HIV (19); also, their weakened immune systems are harder hit by the infection.
People living with HIV
have around a 12–20 times
greater risk of developing
tuberculosis than people
who do not have HIV.
Overcrowding is found in prison settings in countries all around the world
350
Prison capacity (%)
300
250
200
150
100
50
Source: International Centre for Prison Studies – World Prison Briefs http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief.
Overcrowding increases the risk of infection
SOUTH AFRICA
13
are living with HIV
6
have been treated for TB
Source: International Centre for Prison Studies – World Prison Briefs http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief.
152 Gap report
India
France
Mexico
South Africa
Italy
Brazil
Pakistan
Iran (Islamic
Republic of)
Kenya
Prison population
United Kingdom (the)
Full capacity
Venezuela
(Bolivarian
Republic of)
Philippines (the)
Haiti
0
Sexual violence, unsafe sexual practices and unsafe drug
injection practices
Prison populations are predominantly comprised of men aged 19–35 years:
a segment of the population that is at higher risk of HIV infection prior to
entering prison (9). The actual prevalence of sexual activity is likely to be
much higher than that reported, mainly due to denial, fear of stigma and
homophobia as well as the criminalization of sex between men.
Many prison systems provide condoms, including in countries in western
Europe, parts of eastern Europe and central Asia, as well as Australia,
Canada, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, South Africa and the United
States of America. There is evidence that condoms can be provided in
a wide range of prison settings—including in countries where same-sex
activity is criminalized—and that prisoners use condoms to prevent HIV
infection during sexual activity when condoms are accessible in prisons (20).
While much of the sex in prisons is consensual, rape and sexual abuse are
used to exercise dominance (9). About 25% of prisoners suffer violence each
year, around 4–5% experience sexual violence and 1–2% are raped (19,21).
A study in the United States of America showed that 4% of state and federal
prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization (22).
Women prisoners are also vulnerable to sexual assault, including rape, by
both male staff and other male prisoners (5).1 They are also susceptible to
About 25% of prisoners
suffer violence each year,
around 4–5% experience
sexual violence and 1–2%
are raped.
sexual exploitation and may engage in sex for exchange of goods (5).
People who inject drugs often continue drug use inside prison. Many
prisoners initiate injecting drugs for the first time in prison (13). Unsterile
injection equipment is often shared in the absence of the provision of
needles and syringes.
HIV infections among prisoners can be averted by the provision of noncoercive harm reduction programmes. Available evidence indicates that
most harm-reduction programmes, including opioid substitution therapy
and needle and syringe programmes, can be implemented within prisons
without compromising security or increasing illicit drug use (23).
There are countries where women prisoners are held in small facilities adjacent to or within prisons for men. In some prison facilities, there are no separate
quarters for women and they may be supervised by male prison staff.
1
12 populations 153
Inappropriate, ineffective and excessive laws
The high incarceration rates that lead to overcrowding largely stem from
inappropriate, ineffective and excessive national laws and criminal justice
policies.
People who are poor, discriminated against and marginalized by
society disproportionately populate prisons all over the world (24,25).
Inappropriate, ineffective and excessive criminal laws are widespread across
countries, and particularly affect people living with HIV and other key
populations.
Inappropriate, ineffective
and excessive criminal laws
are widespread across
countries and particularly
affect people living with HIV
and other groups of people
who are at higher risk of HIV.
Because of weak criminal justice systems, people who are detained may
have to wait for long periods during the investigation of a crime, while
awaiting trial and before sentencing (26). These delays increase the
likelihood of acquiring HIV (26).
CLOSING THE GAP
Prisoner health, particularly in relation to communicable diseases, is a
critical concern. An important step to ensure prisoners’ access to the health
services available without discrimination (18) is to assign responsibility for
prison health with the ministry of health in each country (26). Protective
laws, policies and programmes that are adequately resourced, monitored
and enforced can improve the health and safety of prisoners as well as the
community as a whole.
A comprehensive package of interventions for HIV prevention, treatment
and care in prisons and other closed settings has been put forward by the
UNODC (15).2 This package of 15 interventions has the greatest impact
In addition to interventions
essential for HIV prevention
and treatment, efforts
are urgently needed to
address broader concerns
related to penal reform and
overcrowding of prisons.
when delivered as a whole and includes:
■■ Access to HIV treatment, including preventing mother-to-child transmission
and post-exposure prophylaxis.
■■ Providing condoms and water-based lubricants in prisons and closed
settings, including in countries in which same-sex activity is criminalized.
2
The comprehensive package consists of 15 interventions that are essential for effective HIV prevention and treatment in closed settings. While each of
these interventions alone is useful in addressing HIV in prisons, together they form a package and have the greatest impact when delivered as a whole. They
are: 1. information, education and communication; 2. HIV testing and counselling; 3. treatment, care and support; 4. prevention, diagnosis and treatment of
tuberculosis; 5. prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; 6. condom programmes; 7. prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections;
8. prevention of sexual violence; 9. drug dependence treatment; 10. needle and syringe programmes; 11. vaccination, diagnosis and treatment of viral
hepatitis; 12. post-exposure prophylaxis; 13. prevention of transmission through medical or dental services; 14. prevention of transmission through tattooing,
piercing and other forms of skin penetration; and 15. protecting staff from occupational hazards.
154 Gap report
■■ Adopting policies and strategies for the prevention, detection and
elimination of all forms of violence.
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
■■ Offering harm-reduction programmes, including opioid substitution therapy
and needle and syringe programmes.
Improve health-care provision,
including harm reduction services
In addition to interventions essential for HIV prevention and treatment, efforts
are urgently needed to address broader concerns related to penal reform and
overcrowding of prisons. Such measures include:
02
03
■■ Reforming laws so that they are human rights and evidence-informed to
ensure that people who are dependent on drugs, engage in sex work or
have same-sex relations are not criminalized.
Reduce prison overcrowding
■■ Ensuring that people who are dependent on drugs can access voluntary
treatment as an alternative to incarceration, which substantially increases
recovery, reduces crime and criminal justice costs and reduces the number of
people being incarcerated.
Address unsafe sex and sexual
violence
■■ Improving access to legal representation for people who have been
detained (27) and increasing the availability of non-custodial alternatives,
including community service and bail (28).
04
Reform inappropriate laws
Harm reduction programmes in Spain help keep HIV incidence and AIDS rates low
Cases per 1000 inmates
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Seroconversion (incidence: cases per 1000 inmates HIV negative)
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
AIDS rate (incidence: cases per 1000 inmates)
Source: T. Hernandez-Fernandez, JM Arroyo-Cobo, “Results of the Spanish experience: a comprehensive approach to HIV and HCV in prisons,” National
Plan on AIDS, Health Department, Social and Equality Policy, Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2010.
12 populations 155
156 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
04
MIGRANTS
There are approximately 231.5 million international
migrants (1). Combined with some 740 million internal
migrants, this means that there are about 1 billion
people on the move at any given time (2).
Migration can place people in situations of heightened
vulnerability to HIV, and has been identified in certain
regions as an independent risk factor for HIV (3–5). In
a majority of countries, undocumented migrants face
complex obstacles, such as a lack of access to healthcare services or social protection. Social exclusion also
leaves migrants highly vulnerable to HIV.
12 populations 157
12 POPULATIONS
04 MIGRANTS
I am a migrant.
I face these issues.
I am HIV-positive and
I have no access to
treatment
I do not understand
the language
spoken where I now
live
I was forced to
leave my country
because of my sexual
orientation
I have no access
to HIV-related
information
Away from my family
I visit sex workers,
but no condoms are
available
I am unable to
find a doctor who
understands me
I need to send all
my earnings home
to my family
My employer took
away my passport and
forces me to have sex
Who is looking
after my family
while I am gone?
I fear being
deported if I test
positive for HIV
I do not know
what my rights
are here
My new neighbours
do not like
foreigners
158 Gap report
WHY MIGRANTS ARE BEING LEFT BEHIND
There are approximately 231.5 million international migrants (1). Combined with
some 740 million internal migrants, this means that there are about 1 billion
people on the move at any given time (2).
THE TOP 4 REASONS
Migration can place people in situations of heightened vulnerability to HIV and
has been identified in certain regions as an independent risk factor for HIV (3–5).
In a majority of countries, undocumented migrants face complex obstacles, such
as a lack of access to health-care services or social protection. Social exclusion
also leaves migrants highly vulnerable to HIV.
Restrictive laws and policies
HIV burden
Social, economic and political factors in both the country of origin and destination
countries influence migrants’ risk of HIV infection. HIV prevalence can be higher
among migrants, especially for people originating from countries where the
primary contributor to the scale of the epidemic is heterosexual transmission and
the unequal vulnerability and risk of adolescent girls and young women to HIV,
or among migrants in a key population, such as sex workers, gay men and other
men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. Migrants may acquire
HIV in their country of destination or while in transit and often face a specific
vulnerability to HIV related to their status as a migrant.
In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where migration is common,
studies found that HIV prevalence among migrant women aged
25–29 was as high as 63% (10).
01
02
Limited access to health information
and services
03
04
Vulnerability to exploitation
Stigma and discrimination
In South-East Asia, HIV prevalence among migrants to Thailand
from neighbouring countries is up to four times the rate of HIV
prevalence found among the general population.
In India, HIV prevalence among people who have migrated from
rural to urban areas is estimated at 0.9%, almost four times the
national prevalence.
Whatever their diverse reasons for travel, migrants often find themselves
separated from their spouses, families and familiar social and cultural norms.
They may experience language barriers, substandard living conditions,
exploitative working conditions and a lack of social protection, such as health
insurance and other social security benefits. The resulting isolation and stress
may lead migrant workers to engage in risky behaviours, such as unsafe sex or
drug use, and they may face sexual violence and other human rights abuses. This
increased HIV risk and vulnerability is exacerbated by inadequate access to HIV
prevention, treatment and care services and the fear of being stigmatized for
seeking HIV-related information or support (6,7).
12 populations 159
In 2011, around 37% of new HIV diagnoses among heterosexual people in
the European Union and European Economic Area occurred among people
originating from countries where the primary contributor to the scale of the
epidemic is heterosexual transmission and the unequal vulnerability and risk of
adolescent girls and young women to HIV, primarily sub-Saharan African countries
(8). Rates ranged from very low levels in parts of eastern Europe to approximately
60% in Belgium and approximately 50% in Sweden and the United Kingdom.
In South-East Asia, HIV prevalence among migrants to Thailand from Cambodia,
Myanmar, southern China and Viet Nam is up to four times the HIV prevalence
among the general population. The highest prevalence among migrants in
Thailand was found in the fishing industry, with rates of 2% among fishermen and
2.3% among fishery workers, versus HIV prevalence of 1.1% and 0.74% among
factory workers and farm workers, respectively (9).
Internal migrants and their families are also vulnerable. In urban settings,
migration was identified as an independent risk factor for HIV infection, with
female migrants 1.6 times more likely to be HIV-positive than non-migrants in
certain cities in South Africa (11). In Kenya, urban HIV prevalence is 8% in formal
settlements and 12% in informal settlements (12).
In Thailand, the vast majority of sex workers are migrants from villages, who use
the income from sex work to support families in their home communities.
In India, HIV prevalence among people who have migrated from rural to urban
areas is estimated at 0.9%, almost four times the national prevalence of 0.27%
(13). Significantly higher HIV prevalence were found among Chinese male migrant
workers and Chinese male miners compared to the general population in surveys
conducted in Yunnan, China (14).
Cases per 1000 inmates
HIV prevalence in women by migrant status in selected countries
30
20
10
0
Cameroon
Away for more than one month
Haiti
Uganda
Not away
Source: Demographic and Health Surveys, 2009–2012.
160 Gap report
Burundi
Rwanda
Malawi
United
Republic
of Tanzania
(the)
Lesotho
Workers in the transportation sector, particularly long-distance truck drivers, have
also been identified in different parts of the world as associated with an increased
risk of acquiring HIV. HIV prevalence is higher among transport workers and in
communities along transportation routes than among the general population.
Studies of sex workers and their truck driver clients along a South African trucking
route found that up to 56% of both were HIV-positive (15). In Paraguay, the majority
of HIV cases among transport workers are concentrated in the capital city of
Asunción, the Central Region and in regions bordering Argentina and Brazil (16).
Data show that the highest prevalence occurred in locations where goods
are loaded and unloaded or where truckers have long waits associated with
the processing of documentation (17). Significantly higher rates of HIV have
been found among workers in the fishing industry in various parts of the world,
particularly in western Africa (17,18).
Studies indicate that women who have been internationally trafficked and forced
into sexual exploitation also have significantly higher HIV prevalence as well as an
increased vulnerability and exposure to violence (19). In Mumbai, India, almost
a quarter (22.9%) of sex-trafficked women and girls were HIV-positive (20). HIV
prevalence was 38% among sex-trafficked women and girls returning from India
to Nepal (21). In Indonesia, one in five women trafficked internationally was HIVpositive in 2011 (19).
Restrictive laws and policies
While the majority of countries worldwide have no restrictions on the entry,
stay and residence of people living with HIV, 38 countries, territories and areas
still have such restrictions (22). Of these, five countries maintain a blanket ban
on entry by people living with HIV, five require proof of an HIV-negative status
for those seeking to stay for 10–90 days and at least 18 countries authorize the
deportation of individuals found to be living with HIV (23).
Restrictions on entry, stay and residence based on HIV status exist in all of the
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, which are an important destination
for migrants from the Asia and the Pacific region. Thus, the largest numbers of
migrants affected are those seeking entry, stay and residence in countries in the
Middle East and North Africa, where migration increased by 3% between 2000
and 2010 (1).
12 populations 161
Number of countries, territories and areas
HIV-specific restrictions on entry, stay or residence, 2010–2014
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
2010
Have restrictions
July 2014
Unreported
No restrictions
Source: UNAIDS human rights and laws database. Geneva, UNAIDS, 2014.
Mandatory HIV testing and deportation is also an issue (24,25). All GCC countries
require HIV testing for the renewal of migrant visas. Despite repeated calls by
international migrant rights organizations, mandatory HIV testing is ongoing in
contravention of internationally agreed standards related to informed consent,
confidentiality and counselling. Those who test positive for HIV are often put
in detention and deported. Moreover, their status is shared with testing clinics
throughout the region, where they are designated as permanently unfit for
employment.
Migrants often face conditions in their host country that make them vulnerable
to acquiring HIV. Further violating their rights, through compulsory testing and
treating them as criminals with detention and deportation, is traumatic. This
experience is compounded by the stigma and financial consequences of being
deported due to an HIV-positive status.
There is no evidence that HIV-related restrictions protect the public health
or help prevent HIV transmission. Restrictive policies such as these not only
violate individuals’ right but also limit the uptake of voluntary HIV testing and
hinder adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Countries should end these punitive,
discriminatory approaches and have committed to doing so as signatories to the
2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS (26).
162 Gap report
Mandatory HIV testing is
ongoing in contravention
of internationally agreed
standards related to
informed consent,
confidentiality and
counselling.
Limited access to health information and services
Migrants often cannot access HIV services—either for prevention if they are
HIV-negative or for treatment, care and support if they are living with HIV.
Migrants rarely have the same entitlements as citizens to insurance schemes that
make health care affordable, particularly if they are undocumented. Findings
from a study of low-income families in the United States of America suggest
that individuals with a precarious immigration status have the poorest health
outcomes and families that include non-citizen members face barriers—real or
perceived—to accessing health services (27).
Undocumented migrants who were receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV may
experience treatment disruptions due to detention pending their deportation
and may face difficulties in accessing the same treatment regimen in the country
to which they are returned.
Availability of antiretroviral therapy for undocumented migrants in Europe and central Asia,
2012
Yes
No
Not reporting
Not applicable
Source: ECDC 2013. Thematic report: Migrants. Monitoring implementation of the Dublin Declaration on Partnership to Fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and
central Asia: 2012 progress.
12 populations 163
Culturally appropriate health and HIV services in languages migrants are
comfortable with may be scarce. Migrant workers living at construction,
plantation or mining sites with little provision of health services struggle to
adhere to treatment. Employers may also exercise considerable power over
their migrant employees. They can refuse sick leave and enforce long work
shifts, making it extremely challenging to access HIV services. Health clinics
often require patients to be registered in a local residential area, which migrants
often cannot do. Additional medical treatment costs, transportation costs to
reach health-care facilities and the fear of the loss of income further hamper
their access to services. Other barriers include the fear of being arrested or
harassed by the police when travelling, which may force migrants to pay bribes.
Migrants rarely have
the same entitlements
as citizens to insurance
schemes that make health
care affordable, particularly
if they are undocumented.
Knowledge of antiretroviral therapy and how one can benefit from treatment
tends to be low among migrant populations, further highlighting the need
to increase outreach activities. One study found that only 10% of Nepalese
migrants in India were aware of the availability of treatment for HIV (28). These
low rates of antiretroviral therapy knowledge were found across the region: just
14% of spouses in Nepal had heard of antiretroviral therapy, while just 20% of
respondents had heard of antiretroviral drugs in Bangladesh. These rates are
much lower than those found among other key populations at higher risk of HIV
exposure (29).
Proportion of migrants with comprehensive knowledge on HIV in India, Mongolia and Nepal
(2008–2011)
Wives of migrants, Nepal (2010)
Returned migrants, mid- to far-western Nepal (2008)
Mobile men, Mongolia (2009)
Returned migrants, northern Bihar, India (2011)
Active migrants, northern Bihar, India (2011)
Returned migrants, Ganjam, India (2011)
Active migrants, Ganjam, India (2011)
Returned migrants, Thane, India (2011)
Active migrants, Thane, India (2011)
0
10
20
30
40
Percentage (%)
Source: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific (www.aidsdatahub.org).
Some countries—for example, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nepal—have recognized
the increased vulnerability of migrants to acquire HIV. National AIDS strategies
include programmes aimed at reaching out further to mobile populations
so that they receive effective HIV prevention, treatment, care and support
services. The Philippines has developed pre-departure briefings for migrants
related to HIV, health care and similar issues, much of which is carried out by
civil society.
164 Gap report
50
60
70
Vulnerability to exploitation
Female migrants employed in lower skilled jobs within the manufacturing,
domestic service or entertainment sectors are often undocumented and
have little access to health services. This leaves them particularly vulnerable
to HIV. They are susceptible to exploitation and/or physical and sexual
violence, in some cases perpetrated by their employer.
Female migrants in transit may be forced to engage in transactional and
unprotected sex to facilitate their border crossing. Once in the destination
country, they may face huge debts owed to recruiting agents and for
transportation costs combined with high interest rates, which puts them in
a particularly vulnerable position. Sexual harassment, abuse and rape are
experiences commonly reported by female migrants (30).
Total number of victims of cross-border sexual exploitation by region
245 000 Developed economies and
European Union
97 000 Middle East
260 000 Central and south-eastern Europe
(non European Union) and Commonwealth
of Independent States
290 000 Latin America and the Caribbean
1 900 000 Asia and the Pacific
600 000 Africa
Source: Recalculated from ILO global estimates of forced labour: results and methodology. Geneva, ILO, 2012.
In 2008, the United Nations estimated that approximately 2.5 million people
from 127 countries had been trafficked to 137 countries (9). More than half of
the victims of forced labour—primarily associated with domestic service and
sexual exploitation—were women and girls (31). Sexual exploitation is shown
to significantly increase risk of exposure to HIV. Data collected from interviews
in India indicate that women forced into prostitution are nearly three times as
likely to be HIV-positive (32). Among trafficked women who also report physical
or sexual violence, the risk of exposure to HIV is more than 10 times that found
in other populations at higher risk, such as female sex workers (19).
12 populations 165
Sexual exploitation is commonly associated with high numbers of clients,
violent sex, unprotected sex, poor hygiene both in the venue and among
the clientele, voluntary or induced drug use, including unsafe injecting
practices, and inadequate screening and treatment for common sexually
transmitted infections. Women and girls are at higher risk, but so, too, are
young boys (19).
Sexual harassment, abuse
and rape are experiences
commonly reported by
female migrants.
Economic and social vulnerability
Spouses separated for longer periods of time for economic and social
reasons can find themselves in situations of increased vulnerability. For
women who stay behind when their spouses migrate, the economic
challenges and food insecurity that precipitated their husband’s migration
may continue. Thus, they may be forced to exchange sex for food or money.
They may also be at risk if their husband returns home having become
HIV-positive. In certain states in India, nearly 90% of newly diagnosed HIV
infections were among wives with a migrant husband (33).
The mining sector is one industry in which migrants are shown to have
an increased risk of acquiring HIV. The mining industry in southern Africa
is overwhelmingly staffed by migrant men aged 18–49 with lower levels
of education. They are referred to as oscillating workers, individuals who
spend 11 months of the year in their place of work and return to their family
home for one month each year. Migrant miners between Lesotho, South
Africa and Swaziland aged 30–44 are 15% more likely to be HIV-positive
(4). Having a migrant miner as a partner increases a woman’s probability of
becoming HIV-positive by 8% (4). By way of comparison, non-migrant miners
in Zimbabwe do not appear to experience a similar added comparative risk
(4).
The danger and risk involved in their daily work may mean that miners have
a different perspective on HIV risk. The likelihood that these workers will
engage in risky sexual behaviour may be influenced by the separation from
their family, their higher income in relation to the surrounding communities
and the presence of brothels. Once infected, they may risk transmitting HIV
to their partners upon returning home.
Stigma and discrimination
Stigma, discrimination and social exclusion have made it more difficult to
provide health services to migrants. Migrants who are living with HIV endure
a double stigma: for being migrants and for being HIV-positive. This hinders
their access to HIV prevention, care and treatment services. Furthermore,
migrants—whether documented or not—may face significant challenges in
accessing mechanisms of redress in relation to discrimination or abuse.
166 Gap report
Migrants who are living with
HIV endure a double stigma:
for being migrants and for
being HIV-positive.
Case studies from South Africa and Thailand illustrate the difficulties
undocumented migrants may face in accessing treatment due to stigma and
discrimination directed at them from health-care workers and employers (35).
These barriers exist despite quite protective legislation that guarantees the
right to basic health care for migrants.
Undocumented migrants have reported being turned away from public health
clinics when unable to present citizenship papers. Mine workers—including
miners living with HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis—have been
expelled from the destination country and left at the border of their home
country without access to treatment or a referral to local health services so
that they may access treatment (35).
Without a multifaceted, rights-based approach to addressing the HIV
and health needs of migrant populations within their specific contexts,
interventions run the risk of missing key groups of this mobile population (3).
CLOSING THE GAP
Because migrants have difficulties in accessing HIV-related services and face
significant human rights challenges, countries—along with their neighbours—
must address some of the structural factors causing harm. Constraints often
include a lack of effective cross-border mechanisms to address the needs
of migrants in a comprehensive way and respect for their human rights. In
addition, too little is being done to address the stigma and discrimination
that people face when they are both a migrant and HIV-positive. Better
understanding of the depth of these issues is needed.
Providing treatment to people living with HIV brings economic gains to a
society through a person’s improved health and productivity. It also has a
preventive effect by reducing the individual’s viral load, thereby reducing
the likelihood of transmitting the virus. Coupled with the falling costs for
treatment, it is increasingly difficult to argue that people living with HIV incur
greater costs to the destination country compared to the benefits they could
contribute over a long-term stay while they are healthy. Perhaps recognizing
these factors, the United Kingdom makes antiretroviral therapy available
to all people living with HIV in the country at no cost regardless of their
immigration status.
Cross-border coordination is key to an effective treatment strategy, which
should include cooperation between the countries of destination and origin
to improve adherence after migrants return home.
For example, Thai and Cambodian authorities have collaborated on a scheme
that allows Cambodian migrants living with HIV to return to their home
country to obtain a three-month supply of antiretroviral medicines. Crossborder tuberculosis treatment systems were effectively developed between
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
02
End restrictions and ensure rights
Provide access to health services,
including cross-border initiatives
03
Protection from sexual and labour
exploitation
04
Non-discrimination laws and
strengthened civil society leadership
12 populations 167
the United States and Mexico and may serve as an example for enabling care
for mobile individuals elsewhere (35).
The danger and risks involved with daily work may mean that workers have a
different perspective on their risk of contracting HIV. The likelihood that migrant
workers will engage in higher risk sexual behaviour may be influenced by the
separation from their family, their higher income in relation to the surrounding
communities and the presence of brothels. Once infected, they may risk
transmitting HIV to their partners upon returning home. To address such issues,
the South African National AIDS Council is establishing a multistakeholder
advisory committee on mobile men and migrant populations to provide advice
on a comprehensive and strong programme aimed at reducing the risk of HIV
transmission and other infectious diseases among migrants.
Anonymous and free-of-charge HIV testing and counselling has helped many
migrants and other key populations to know their HIV status and, if HIVnegative, reduce their risk of exposure to the virus. Antenatal testing for all
pregnant women is often seen as an effective strategy for achieving good
coverage of HIV testing in migrant populations and ethnic minorities. HIV
testing uptake in antenatal settings among migrants has been shown to be
high and similar to that for non-migrant women (36).
Despite the documented economic benefits related to migration, in times
of limited public spending the needs of international migrants are too often
considered a lower priority than services for citizens, even in high-income
countries. A climate of austerity can fuel attitudes whereby migrants are
viewed suspiciously and resented as a drain on scarce resources. Furthermore,
since they usually are not entitled to vote, politicians rarely make migrants an
investment priority.
Civil society can play a greater role as advocates and providers of HIV-related
services to people on the move. In Asia, one network is bringing together
nongovernmental organizations working on migration and health issues
spanning across South-East Asia, North-East Asia, the Gulf and the Middle East.
It engages in national and regional advocacy, partnering with and supporting
the capacity of local groups working with migrants to protect their health
and rights. Based on its research on the impact of mandatory health and HIV
testing, it has issued a call for the removal of such mandatory approaches (37).
In eastern and southern Africa, a network has brought together more than 70
public, private and nongovernmental partners to deliver health services to truck
drivers, sex workers and communities with limited access to medical facilities.
Since 2007, it has expanded from one clinic with 5 000 visitors to a network of
clinics in 13 countries that is reaching more than 250 000 people (38).
Business leaders are encouraging countries to repeal HIV-related entry,
stay and residence restrictions based on economic grounds. They argue
that, in a globalized world, companies require flexibility in the recruitment
and deployment of workers to where they are most needed. More than 40
chief executive officers have signed a pledge opposing HIV-related travel
restrictions (39).
168 Gap report
Countries can make a difference to migrants by:
■■ Ending all restrictions on the entry, stay and residence of people living
with HIV.
■■ Ending all mandatory HIV testing practices and, instead, offer routine HIV
counselling and testing without the potential for negative consequences
related to migration decisions.
■■ Ensuring that all people on the move—citizens and non-citizens alike—
have access to essential HIV services.
■■ Enforcing national non-discrimination laws and frameworks that specify
protections for people living with HIV and guarantee access to health and
other services.
■■ Expanding access to HIV treatment and other health services to migrants,
ensuring that services are delivered through a rights-based approach.
■■ Recognizing the increased vulnerability of migrants in national AIDS
strategies and including programmes to reach mobile populations with
effective HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services.
■■ Ensuring that resources are directed to those migrant populations and
communities that are most vulnerable to HIV.
■■ Designing programmes that are responsive to migrants’ different
backgrounds and needs.
■■ Designing HIV information in the languages that migrants feel most
at ease with when making decisions about their health and personal
behaviour.
■■ Implementing and coordinating cross-border initiatives for issues with an
impact that transects borders, including HIV treatment.
■■ Mobilizing communities by engaging people from within migrant and
ethnic minority populations in order to ensure that their needs are being
met and that programmes are culturally appropriate.
■■ Protecting all people from sexual and labour exploitation.
■■ Strengthening civil society leadership to counter stigma and social
exclusion.
■■ Meaningfully including migrants, as well as members of their families, in
community health programmes at the local level.
■■ Ensure consultations on health and development frameworks and
programmes at the national level.
Providing treatment to
people living with HIV brings
economic gains to a society
through a person’s improved
health and productivity.
12 populations 169
170 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
05
PEOPLE WHO
INJECT DRUGS
It is estimated that worldwide there are nearly 12.7
million people who inject drugs (1). Approximately 1.7
million, or 13%, are also living with HIV. Injecting drug
use is found in nearly every country. Typically, when
heroin injection reaches a new community, there is an
exponential increase in HIV transmission (2).
People who inject drugs continue to face punitive legal
environments, a variety of human rights abuses and
have poor access to services; these and other factors
combine to exacerbate their risks of acquiring HIV.
UNAIDS HIV treatment situation room 171
12 POPULATIONS
05 PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS
I am an injecting drug user.
I face these issues.
I am treated as a
criminal and this makes
it hard to take care of
my health
Health-care
workers do not
trust me, as if I just
want drugs
There are no
friendly
health-care
services near
where I live
I do not have
a permanent
home
Without clean
needles and
syringes, I have
to share
172 Gap report
I started using
drugs when I was
young and now
I sell sex to get
drugs
I cannot get opioid
substitution because
it is illegal
The police arrest
us for anything and
often extort money
or sex in exchange
for letting us go
I want a job,
a family and
some
security
I would like to give
up drugs, but I
cannot get help
I was forced to
take a drug test
and ended up
in compulsory
treatment
WHY PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS ARE
BEING LEFT BEHIND
It is estimated that worldwide there are nearly 12.7 million people who inject
drugs (1). Approximately 1.7 million, or 13%, are also living with HIV. Injecting
drug use is found in nearly every country. Typically, when heroin injection reaches
a new community, there is an exponential increase in HIV transmission (2).
People who inject drugs continue to face punitive legal environments, a variety
of human rights abuses and have poor access to services; these and other factors
combine to exacerbate their risks of acquiring HIV.
HIV burden
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs is typically far greater than it is
among the rest of the adult population, with people who inject drugs bearing a
28 times higher prevalence, ranging from 1.3 to more than 2 000 times higher
HIV prevalence in 74 countries reporting such figures to UNAIDS (3). In eastern
Europe and central Asia, a region where the number of people newly infected
is rising, national HIV epidemics are typically driven by the use of contaminated
injecting equipment and by further transmission to the sexual partners of people
who use drugs.
People who inject drugs account for 30% of new HIV infections outside
sub-Saharan Africa.
HIV prevalence among young people under 25 years old who inject
drugs was 5.2%.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
02
Criminalization and punitive laws
Absent or inadequate prevention
services
03
04
Widespread societal stigma
Lack of investment
Approximately 13% of people who inject drugs are living with HIV.
Risk begins early. In 45 countries reporting youth data since 2009, HIV prevalence
among young people under 25 years old who inject drugs was 5.2% (3).
People who inject drugs are severely affected by HIV. Preliminary analyses of
2013 Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting (GARPR) data estimate that
people who inject drugs account for 30% of new HIV infections outside of subSaharan Africa (5).
HIV prevalence appears to be rising in the Asia and the Pacific and in
eastern Europe and central Asia. The Russian Federation leads injecting
drug use prevalence in eastern Europe and central Asia at 2.29%, where HIV
prevalence among people who inject drugs ranges from 18 to 31%. Injecting
drug use prevalence is 1.0% in the Republic of Moldova, 1.1% in Belarus and
0.9–1.2% in Ukraine (1).
12 populations 173
In countries with generalized epidemics, such as Kenya, Nigeria and United
Republic of Tanzania, increases in injecting drug use and, subsequently, HIV
prevalence among people who inject drugs have recently required AIDS
programme responses.
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs
HIV Prevalence
0–4.9%
5–9.9%
10–19.9%
20–39.9%
≥40%
Source: Based on GARPR reporting from 79 countries since 2009, plus the UNODC World Drug Report 2014.
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs compared to the general population in
countries reporting >30 000 people who inject drugs, 2009–2013
HIV prevalence (%)
40
30
20
10
People who inject drugs-HIV prevalence
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
174 Gap report
General population-HIV prevalence
Australia
Serbia
Mexico
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Brazil
Nepal
India
Uzbekistan
Republic of
Moldova (the)
Azerbaijan
France
Bulgaria
Canada
Viet Nam
Belarus
Myanmar
Malaysia
Ukraine
Thailand
Pakistan
Indonesia
0
Compared with the general population, people who inject drugs have an
elevated risk of death, although mortality rates vary across settings. A 2013
analysis showed higher mortality among people who inject drugs in low- and
middle-income countries than in high-income countries, with an added risk
among males and people who inject drugs who were also living with HIV.
Drug overdose and AIDS-related illness were the primary causes of death (4).
Women who inject drugs
Women who inject drugs are rarely the subject of surveys, and their injecting
practices are poorly understood. However, 30 countries reported data on
women who inject drugs. The pooled HIV prevalence among women was
13% compared to 9% among men from the same countries. Surveys from
disparate sites such as Canada, Mauritius and the Republic of Moldova have
found high rates of sex work among injecting respondents (6) and high rates
of injecting drug use among sex-worker respondents (7,8).
Sex workers who inject drugs often have much higher HIV prevalence
than non-injecting sex workers. In central Asia, Afghanistan and Mongolia,
the odds of HIV were up to 20 times higher among female sex workers
reporting injecting drug use (9). Sex workers along the United States–
Mexico border were observed to play equal roles earning money, procuring
drugs and assisting each other with injections (10). Transgender women who
sell sex and inject drugs are at an even greater risk of acquiring HIV (11).
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs by sex since 2011
70
HIV prevalence (%)
60
50
40
30
20
10
Uzbekistan
Ukraine
Seychelles
Serbia
Senegal
Romania
Philippines (the)
Pakistan
Nigeria
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
Source: Based on data submitted through GARPR reporting submitted since 2011. Geneva, UNAIDS.
Mauritius
Malta
Morocco
Latvia
Kyrgyzstan
Kazakhstan
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
India
Georgia
United Kingdom (the)
Spain
Estonia
Germany
Switzerland
Belarus
Bulgaria
Bangladesh
Male
Republic of Moldova (the)
Female
Azerbaijan
Australia
0
12 populations 175
Criminalization and punitive laws
National responses to people who inject drugs range from the evidenceinformed—that is, properly scaled up, community-led harm reduction services
in much of western Europe and Australia—to the punitive—long prison
sentences, so-called compulsory treatment and even the death penalty.
People who inject drugs are almost universally criminalized, either for their
drug-use activity or through the lifestyle adopted in order to maintain their
drug use. Many are in prison or held in detention at some point in their lives,
often for long periods. Estimates suggest that 56–90% of people who inject
drugs will be incarcerated at some stage during their life (12).
The criminalization strategy adopted by national drug control systems hinders
the HIV response, as fear of arrest impedes people’s access to and the uptake
of HIV services. Punitive laws can deter people from accessing the HIV testing
and treatment services they need. In Bangkok, Thailand, 25% of respondents
said they were avoiding health care out of fear of being referred to so-called
compulsory treatment (13).
An evidence-informed combination prevention approach, including needle
and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, HIV testing and
counselling and antiretroviral therapy, has the greatest and most cost-effective
impact on the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs. Unfortunately, in
some countries, such programmes are illegal or simply unavailable (14).
The majority of national drug control policies focus on supply reduction and
law enforcement against any drug use, and people who use drugs are often
collateral victims of those interventions. This leads to the violation of people’s
human rights in the name of drug control, including through forced drug
testing, compulsory detention and the imposition of the death penalty for
drug-related offences.
Compulsory detention centres and prisons often include forced labour and
violence, in contravention of internationally recommended approaches and
human rights. Compulsory detention centres remain common in Asia (15–17),
particularly in Cambodia, China, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic,
Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Turkmenistan and Viet Nam. Some countries
in Latin America use some form of so-called compulsory rehabilitation, while
others are considering adopting such an approach (18), including, Brazil,
Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay.
A recent study of outcomes from compulsory detention in a Chinese
city found that 90% of participants had on average 4.5 separate stays in
detention. While HIV knowledge increased with more stays, overall condom
use and needle sharing remained unchanged, and the sharing of cookers and
cottons increased, as did HIV prevalence (19).
In various parts of the world, the possession of clean syringes can be used as
evidence to prosecute people who inject drugs or provide grounds for police
harassment, thereby deterring safe injecting practices. Regardless of the written
176 Gap report
The majority of national
drug control policies focus
on supply reduction and
law enforcement against
any drug use, and people
who use drugs are often
collateral victims of those
interventions.
law, even in some countries where syringe possession is not criminalized—for
example, Kyrgyzstan and Mexico—people who inject drugs report still being
subject to police arrest due to the possession of syringes (20,21).
In 2010, an analysis highlighted the shortcomings of HIV strategies in the six
countries with the greatest number of people who inject drugs (22). A 2014 review
of the status of these countries shows that four—China, Malaysia, Ukraine and
Viet Nam—have shifted their policies towards increased HIV service coverage.
China and Viet Nam have expanded HIV treatment and opioid substitution
therapy, and Malaysia has moved from a punitive to an evidence-informed HIV
response. The policies of the fifth country, the United States of America, remain
largely unchanged, with criminalization still the focus and evidence-informed harm
reduction largely unsupported by the federal government. The Russian Federation,
the sixth country mentioned, continues to steadfastly deny the evidence on the
effectiveness of harm reduction, and the rates of HIV infection among people who
inject drugs in the country are among the highest in the world (23).
Absent or inadequate prevention services
In most countries, HIV service provision for people who inject drugs falls below
even the lower-level targets outlined in the WHO, UNODC and UNAIDS
technical guide to reduce HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (24).
Percentage of countries (%)
Percentage of countries reporting HIV prevention service coverage for people who inject
drugs by level of coverage
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Coverage of HIV testing
and counselling
No data
No service coverage
Coverage of needle and
syringe programmes
Low coverage
Needles and syringes
distributed per person
who injects drugs per
year
Medium coverage
Coverage of
opioid substitution
therapy
Coverage of antiretroviral
therapy
High coverage
Source: World drug report 2014. Vienna, UNODC, 2014. Based on data submitted through GARPR reporting submitted since 2011 (only for the number of needles and syringes distributed per person who injects
drugs). Geneva, UNAIDS. 12 populations 177
Analysis of the latest data reported by countries for the 2014 GARPR shows
important regional variations.
In western and central Europe, where overall incidence of HIV among
people who inject drugs is low, 50–60% of reporting countries reported high
access to services, particularly needle and syringe programmes and opioid
substitution treatment.
On the other hand, in South-West Asia, the region that has the highest
prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs, no country reports a high
level of coverage for any of the prevention services.
An estimated 45% of all people who inject drugs live in 16 countries. These
countries are home to an estimated 66% of all people who inject drugs who
are living with HIV. Despite the high disease burden, these countries nearly
universally have low coverage with evidence-informed HIV and drug-use
intervention prevention programmes (1).
Overview of the level of provision of harm reduction services
Countries reporting low,
medium or high coverage
(percentage)
a
Number of
countries
reporting
Global
median
value
Low
Medium
High
Less than
From-to
More than
40%
40–75%
75%
20%
20–60%
60%
100
100–200
200
Low
Medium
High
Percentage of people
who inject drugs who
were tested for HIV in
the last 12 months and
who know the results
31%
29%
40%
83
Percentage of all people
who inject drugs who
were reached by a needle
and syringe programme
over the last 12 months
49%
25%
26%
85
Number of needles and
syringes distributed per
person who injects drugs
per year
62%
20%
18%
55
Percentage of opioiddependent people who
inject drugs on opioid
substitution therapy
35%
32%
33%
79
20%
20–40%
40%
Percentage of all HIVpositive people who
inject drugs receiving
antiretroviral therapy at a
specified date
32%
31%
37%
74
25%
25–75%
75%
Based predominantly on behavioural survey data.
Source: World drug report 2014. Vienna, UNODC (1).
178 Gap report
36%a
74
Insufficient availability of needles and syringes, 2011-2013
Romania
60
45
Pakistan
30
Indonesia
Kenya
15
0
Belarus
0
recommended 200 minimum per
person who injects drugs per year
HIV prevalence (%)
Mauritius
Myanmar
Cambodia
Madagascar
Kyrgyzstan
200
400
600
800
Number of needles and syringes distributed per person who injects drugs
(per year, needle and syringe exchange programmes)
Relative sizes of the reported populations of people who inject drugs.
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
According to the World Drug Report 2014, only 79 of the 192 reporting
countries offered opioid substitution therapy, and 55 countries provided
needle and syringe programmes. Coverage of these critical services, along
with HIV testing, is low across the majority of countries reporting: only 18%
are meeting the target of distributing 200 clean needles per person injecting
per year. Some 33% of the countries reporting opioid substitution therapy
provision indicate good coverage (>40%) for opioid substitution therapy, and
40% of reporting countries have high coverage (>75%) for HIV testing (1).
The majority of people who use drugs living with HIV do not have access to
HIV treatment. A World Bank analysis estimates that about one in ten people
In most countries, HIV
service provision for people
who inject drugs falls
below even the lower-level
targets outlined in the
WHO, UNODC and UNAIDS
technical guide to reduce
HIV transmission among
people who inject drugs.
who inject drugs and is living with HIV is receiving antiretroviral therapy (25).
Based on these estimates, people who inject drugs lag far behind other
people living with HIV in accessing life-saving HIV treatment, particularly in
low- and middle-income countries.
12 populations 179
A 2010 review found that, in China, Malaysia, the Russian Federation,
Ukraine and Viet Nam, people who inject drugs constituted 67% of all HIV
cases, but only 25% of the people receiving antiretroviral therapy (26,27).
The figures for treatment coverage vary from less than 1% (Chile, Kenya,
Pakistan, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan) to all HIV-positive drug users
in six European countries. Countries in western Europe report the highest
proportion of people living with HIV who inject drugs on antiretroviral therapy
(89% coverage), while countries in eastern Europe report the lowest (less than
1% coverage for antiretroviral therapy) (28).
Proportion of people who inject drugs living with HIV who receive antiretroviral therapy
Receiving antiretroviral
therapy (log scale) (%)
100
10
No data
available
1
No data
available
0,1
South, East and
South-East Asia
Latin America
and the
Caribbean
Middle East and Western Europe, Eastern Europe
North Africa
North America and central Asia
and Australasia
Sub-Saharan
Africa
Source: World Bank literature review and estimates, based on Mathers BM, et al. HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for people who inject
drugs: a systematic review of global, regional, and national coverage. Lancet. 2010;375(9719):1014–1028. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60232-2.
Widespread societal stigma
People who inject drugs are among the most marginalized and invisible
people in all societies. Many governments find it politically unpalatable to
provide adequate HIV and health services for people who inject drugs, who
are a socially stigmatized and criminalized population.
Since they are readily ignored and left behind by politicians and policy
makers, often their only support comes from each other through formal and
informal peer networks. When people are socially marginalized, they are less
likely to approach health authorities for their sexual and reproductive health,
as well as other health services.
Stigma and discrimination in health- and social-care settings also keep people
who use drugs away. Health services may even exclude people who inject
drugs or treat them badly when they ask for help.
180 Gap report
Many governments find it
politically unpalatable to
provide adequate HIV and
health services for people
who inject drugs, who are
a socially stigmatized and
criminalized population.
The Mauritius Stigma Index of 2013 shows that people living with HIV face
layered stigma related to their perceived or actual belonging to one or more
key population groups (29). The Stigma Index in Viet Nam found similar
sentiments among respondents who reported that they felt more stigma from
their behaviours—whether from injecting drug use or selling sex—than from
their HIV status.
Of serious concern to people in Viet Nam who inject drugs and are living
with HIV was the threat of disclosure of their status to their community by
health officials (30). What is clear is that people who inject drugs frequently
face multiple sources of stigma, making it very hard for them to demand and
access the support they need.
Evidence indicates that, when women who inject drugs and are living with
HIV become pregnant, they face substantial barriers to accessing services to
prevent their infants from acquiring HIV infection—even more so than other
women who are living with HIV. Female sex workers in the Russian Federation
reported additional barriers that apply to women who inject drugs: poverty,
lack of official documentation, lack of anonymity in testing and the official
registration system. The availability of HIV services was not enough for them
to access treatment successfully. To overcome the debilitating effects of
stigma, service uptake was facilitated when there was support from family
members, social connections within the health-care system and referral
services from a nongovernmental organization (31).
To counter institutional stigma, discrimination and bias against people who
inject drugs, successful advocacy for programme investments must be evidenceinformed. Therefore, there is a need for valid programmatic monitoring data,
with important disaggregation by sex and age (32) to support evidence-informed
arguments for funding programmes based on actual need.
Lack of investment
Funding for the vast majority of harm reduction programmes outside of
western Europe and Australia comes from non-domestic sources, either
through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria or other
donors, or arises from outside of specific HIV-earmarked budgets. This makes
it difficult to scale up quality programmes sufficiently to have an impact, and
the long-term prognosis for their sustainability is extremely precarious.
Most of the countries reporting high programme coverage are highincome countries. The vast majority of low- and middle-income countries
are not adequately meeting their programmatic obligations to address HIV
prevention among people who inject drugs (3).
The vast majority of
low- and middle-income
countries are not adequately
meeting their programmatic
obligations to address HIV
prevention among people
who inject drugs.
Commitments to an effective response for people who inject drugs are
uneven across countries. Seventy-eight countries reported that people
who inject drugs are explicitly addressed in national HIV plans and policies,
and only 44 of 141 countries reporting on the issue stated that they have a
comprehensive package of interventions (33).
12 populations 181
Countries with large or growing HIV epidemics among this population include
many newly middle-income countries. As international funding of their HIV
response dries up, funding for services for people who inject drugs is not
being replaced by domestic sources.
While many countries report expenditures on HIV, there has been a lack of
political will to disaggregate spending by key populations. Thus the actual
picture of where resources are being spent is not widely accessible (33). Even
where spending for people who inject drugs looks reasonable, report funds
might actually be used for interventions such as compulsory detention that
have no evidence base.
Among those countries that do successfully report disaggregated spending,
Pakistan is notable. HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in
Pakistan is 27%, and the share of spending on their prevention programmes
is one third of total spending. Overall, only eight countries reported spending
above 10% on programming for people who inject drugs (33).
HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs
Countries reporting >10% of domestic HIV spending on harm reduction, with the HIV
prevalence (%) among people who inject drugs
29.2
Pakistan (27%)
Georgia (3%)
22.1
Mauritius (44%)
21.8
Bangladesh (1%)
19.4
Afghanistan (4%)
17.0
Republic of Moldova (the) (9%)
13.2
Montenegro (0.3%)
12.7
0
10
20
30
40
Percentage of domestic HIV spending on harm reduction (%)
Source: Based on GARPR reporting since 2010. Geneva, UNAIDS.
182 Gap report
50
CLOSING THE GAP
WHO, UNODC and UNAIDS, along with international partners, have
defined a comprehensive package of nine interventions that need to be
implemented to address HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual
partners.
They are: (1) needle and syringe programmes; (2) opioid substitution
therapy and other evidence-informed drug dependence treatment; (3)
HIV testing and counselling; (4) antiretroviral therapy; (5) prevention and
treatment of sexually transmitted infections; (6) condom programmes for
people who inject drugs and their sexual partners; (7) targeted information,
education and communication for people who inject drugs and their sexual
partners; (8) prevention, vaccination, diagnosis and treatment for viral
hepatitis; and (9) prevention, diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis.
Adopting a harm reduction approach is not only good for the health
outcomes of people who use drugs, their families and the communities in
which they live, it is also cost effective (34).
In order to close the programming gap for people who inject drugs, the
following should be given priority.
Transform punitive laws that criminalize the use of drugs:
■■ End the criminalization of people who use drugs. Continued movement
away from criminalization towards a humane and supportive approach
to drug users and the problems they face will transform national
strategies into the best public health outcomes.
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
Transform punitive laws that
criminalize the use of drugs
02
03
Expand evidence-informed services
Address institutionalized stigma and
discrimination
04
Increase domestic funding for harm
reduction programmes
■■ End arbitrary detention, so-called compulsory treatment, torture and
other forms of ill-treatment.
■■ Increase access to justice for people who inject drugs whose rights have
been violated.
Expand evidence-informed services:
■■ Integrate HIV services so that people who inject drugs can access what
they need in a simple, coordinated and friendly fashion.
■■ Improve access to antiretroviral therapy among people who inject drugs
living with HIV.
■■ Monitor and evaluate services and report to the community of people
who use drugs.
12 populations 183
■■ Design, plan and implement as many services in cooperation with the
community of people who inject drugs and as close as possible to
where they are located.
■■ Improve programme monitoring with data collection that is
disaggregated by sex and age.
Address institutionalized stigma and discrimination:
■■ Develop legal literacy and legal services that will empower people who
inject drugs to challenge discrimination and abuse.
■■ Sensitize law enforcement and health-care personnel to reduce stigma,
discrimination and abuse and enhance the quality of life of people who
inject drugs and initiate surveys to monitor stigma and its effects.
■■ Expand social support to manage drug dependence.
■■ Foster leadership so that people who inject drugs can support their
peers and be active in the HIV response in their communities.
Increase domestic funding for harm reduction programmes:
■■ Commit to fully funding evidence-informed programmes.
■■ Report expenditures on HIV disaggregated by key populations.
■■ Strengthen civil society engagement in the planning and roll-out of HIV
services.
■■ Include people who inject drugs in national HIV plans and policies.
Despite the challenges they face, which include social isolation and the risk
of overdose and early death, people who inject drugs continue to care for
themselves, their families and each other. They overcome huge hurdles on
a daily basis, often at an enormous cost. A concerted effort to remove the
obstacles that prevent them from accessing the range of services they want
in a way that they can use them is required in order to support their HIVrelated needs.
Harm reduction strategies—including opioid substitution therapy, needle
and syringe distribution, condom promotion and distribution and peer
outreach along with standard and free access antiretroviral therapy—were
implemented in Xichang City, Sichuan Province, China in 2004. Two cohorts
were followed before and after implementation. HIV incidence among
people who inject drugs dropped from 2.5 to 0.6 cases per 100 personyears. In addition, the incidence of hepatitis B virus declined from 14.2 to
8.8 cases per 100 person-years (35).
184 Gap report
Adopting a harm reduction
approach is not only good
for the health outcomes
of people who use drugs,
their families and the
communities in which they
live, it is also cost effective.
HIV incidence rate among people who inject drugs drops by 75% in one Chinese city with
strong harm reduction programmes
HIV incidence per 100 people per
year
3
1.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
2002–2004
2006–2008
Cohorts
Source: Ruan Y, et al. Evaluation of harm reduction programmes on seroincidence of HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis among intravenous drug users in
southwest China. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40(4):323–328. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31827fd4d4.
12 populations 185
186 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
06
SEX WORKERS
Evidence shows that HIV prevalence among sex
workers is 12 times greater than among the general
population. Even in very high prevalence countries,
HIV prevalence among sex workers is much higher
than among the general population (3). An analysis
of 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa in 2012 showed
a pooled prevalence of more than 37% among sex
workers (1).
Stigma and discrimination, violence and punitive legal
and social environments are key determinants of this
increased HIV vulnerability. Punitive environments have
been shown to limit the availability, access and uptake
of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support for sex
workers and their clients.
12 populations 187
12 POPULATIONS
06 SEX WORKERS
I am a sex worker.
I face these issues.
I am afraid to
test for HIV
Neither I nor my
child can access
health care
I only use the
local clinic for
emergencies
because they are
so rude
I have more
clients
than condoms
When I am
beaten by
clients, I have
nowhere to
turn
I was detained
by the police
for carrying
condoms
My brothel owner
charges me more
than 50% of
everything I earn
I was sterilized
against my will
The police took
me to their car
and took turns
raping me
My
landlord
evicted me
Some of my
clients refuse to
wear condoms
188 Gap report
I have been
unable to keep
my family fed
and housed
WHY SEX WORKERS ARE BEING LEFT
BEHIND
Evidence shows that HIV prevalence among sex workers is 12 times
greater than among the general population. Even in very high
prevalence countries, HIV prevalence among sex workers is much higher
than among the general population (3). An analysis of 16 countries in
sub-Saharan Africa in 2012 showed a pooled prevalence of more than
37% among sex workers (1).
Stigma and discrimination, violence and punitive legal and social
environments are key determinants of this increased HIV vulnerability.
Punitive environments have been shown to limit the availability, access
and uptake of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support for sex
workers and their clients.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
02
03
04
Violence
Criminalization
HIV burden
In low- and middle-income countries, the average HIV prevalence among
sex workers is estimated to be approximately 12% (2), with an odds ratio
for HIV infection of 13.5 compared to all women aged 15–49. However,
considerable variations exist within regions.
In 110 countries where data are available, the HIV prevalence
is on average twelve times higher among sex workers than for
the general population (15–49 years), with prevalence at least
50-fold higher in four countries.
Stigma and discrimination
Lack of programmes and funding
In Nigeria and Ghana, HIV prevalence among sex workers is
8-fold higher than for the rest of the population.
HIV prevalence among male sex workers, reported from 27
countries, was 14%.
In 110 countries with available data, the prevalence of HIV infection is
almost 12 times higher among sex workers than for the population as a
whole, with prevalence at least 50-fold higher in four countries (3).
HIV prevalence among sex
workers
12x
HIV prevalence among the
general population
12 populations 189
HIV prevalence among sex workers, 2009–2013
<1%
1–4.9%
5–19.9%
≥20%
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Nine reporting countries have a HIV prevalence among sex workers that is higher than the
highest national value of HIV prevalence among the general population, 2009–2013
HIV prevalence (%)
100
80
60
40
27.4%
20
0
Côte
d’Ivoire
United
Uganda
Republic of
Tanzania
Country with highest HIV prevalence (Swaziland)
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
190 Gap report
Cameroon
GuineaBissau
Zimbabwe
Rwanda
Botswana Swaziland
HIV prevalence among sex workers for 19 countries that have reported having more than
50 000 sex workers, 2009–2013
25
HIV prevalence (%)
20
15
10
5
Sex workers HIV prevalence
Bangladesh
Cuba
Spain
Morocco
Pakistan
Viet Nam
India
Thailand
Malaysia
Brazil
Argentina
Belarus
Mexico
Ukraine
Myanmar
Haiti
Indonesia
Ghana
Nigeria
0
General population-HIV prevalence
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Violence
Across the globe, violence perpetrated against sex workers is common
and associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV (4,5). It also deters
sex workers from seeking health services. Violence can happen anywhere,
including at the workplace, and can be perpetrated by anyone—by law
enforcement officials, by intimate partners and clients.
In many settings, law enforcement officers themselves are the perpetrators,
making instability and uncertainty the norm for sex workers trying to earn
a living. Abusive law enforcement officers, accompanied by violence,
extortion, sexual abuse, rape and mandatory testing for HIV and sexually
transmitted infections, exacerbate the vulnerability of sex workers. For
example, a survey of female sex workers in the Russian Federation found
that rape during sex work was reported by two thirds of respondents and
sexual coercion by police was reported by more than one third (6).
Where sex work is
criminalized, violence
against sex workers is often
not reported or monitored,
and legal protection is
seldom offered to victims of
such violence.
Extreme sexual violence, including gang rape and forced unprotected sex,
has been documented among male, female and transgender sex workers,
including while being arrested and in detention (7–10). In Adama, Ethiopia,
nearly 60% of female sex workers reported work-related violence (11). In
Mombasa, Kenya, this figure was 79%, while 16% of female sex workers in
Hunan, China, and 9% in Karnataka, India, reported work-related violence
(12,13).
12 populations 191
Female sex workers reporting work-related violence (%)
Area
Adama City (Ethiopia)
Mombasa (Kenya)
Hunan (China)
Karnataka (India)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Reported work-related violence (%)
Sources: Mooney A, Kidanu A, Bradley HM et al. Work-related violence and inconsistent condom use with non-paying partners among female sex
workers in Adama City, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:771.
Pack AP, L’Engle K, Mwarogo P & N Kingola. Intimate partner violence against female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Cult Health Sex 2014; 16(3): 217-230.
Kelvin E, Sun X, Mantell J, Zhou J, Mao J and Peng Y. Vulnerability to sexual violence and participation in sex work among high-end entertainment centre
workers in Hunan Province, China Sexual Health 2012; 10(5) 391-399.
Deering K, Bhattacharjee P, Mohan H.L., Bradley J, Shannon K, Boily M.C., Ramesh B.M., Isac S, Moses
S, Blanchard J. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. February 2013; 40(2): 168–174.
Too many countries tolerate violence against women and violence based
on sexual orientation and gender identity. The social isolation brought on
by the stigma and discrimination against sex workers and the criminalization
of sex work create environments in which the repercussions against the
perpetrators of violence vary from negligible to non-existent.
The legal status of sex work is a critical factor defining the extent and
patterns of human rights violations, including violence against sex workers.
Where sex work is criminalized, violence against sex workers is often not
reported or monitored, and legal protection is seldom offered to victims of
such violence (14).
Addressing and reducing violence against sex workers has the potential
to reduce HIV transmission. Modelling estimates in two different epidemic
contexts—Kenya and Ukraine—show that a reduction of approximately 25%
in HIV infections among sex workers may be achieved when physical or
sexual violence is reduced (15).
192 Gap report
Criminalization
The criminalization of sex work impedes evidence-informed HIV responses
for sex workers. The threat of detention and laws that equate carrying
condoms with evidence of sex work are serious barriers to the availability
and uptake of HIV prevention programmes and services for sex workers.
Fear of arrest and/or police-led sexual and other physical violence forces
sex workers to remain mobile in order to avoid detection by the authorities.
There is strong evidence
that the criminalization
of sex work increases
vulnerability to HIV and
other sexually transmitted
infections.
There is strong evidence that the criminalization of sex work increases
vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (16–18). Punitive
laws are not an effective response to the public health challenge of HIV.
In Kenya, police use the possession of condoms as evidence of sex work,
leading to the arrest of the individual and confiscation of their condoms
(19). A group of sex workers in Zimbabwe reported that relations with police
were difficult and that police were confiscating their condoms, thus placing
them at risk as they struggle to earn a living (20). In the Russian Federation,
80% of sex workers and in the United States 48% of sex workers said that
the police had taken their condoms and, in Namibia, 50% of sex workers
said that the police had destroyed their condoms and 7% subsequently had
unprotected sex (17). In China, widespread violations of sex worker rights
have been documented. A 2013 report estimates that some 15 000 sex
workers are detained in so-called custody and education centres (21).
Unfortunately, countries are still considering or have adopted laws criminalizing
various aspects of sex work. A recent change in the law criminalizing sex work in
Fiji has led to round-ups, detentions, beatings and torture. Sex work has been
driven underground, functionally isolating sex workers from each other and
from government-supported HIV prevention services (22).
Similarly, a new law in Cambodia nominally aimed at combating human
trafficking and sexual exploitation has negatively affected sex workers.
Police have used the law to close brothels, effectively shifting sex workers
to less regulated entertainment venues and street sites. Female sex
workers report that this displacement has resulted in a diminished ability to
negotiate condom use, while also exposing them to further violence and
reducing their access to services (23).
The global report for the International Conference on Population and
Development Beyond 2014, launched in February 2014 by the United
Nations Secretary-General, calls on States to “decriminalize adult, voluntary
sex work to recognize the right of sex workers to work without coercion,
violence or risk of arrest” (24).
Removing punitive laws associated with sex work can help to create
empowering environments that allow sex workers to access HIV and other
health services, to report violence and abuse (including by police and third
parties) and to take steps to mitigate the impact of HIV (18).
12 populations 193
Stigma and discrimination
Discrimination towards sex workers is nearly universal. In addition to the
criminalization of sex work, entrenched social stigma means that sex workers
often avoid accessing health services and conceal their occupation from
health-care providers.
Sex workers of all genders struggle to meet their own health and well-being
needs and face significant legal and institutional discrimination. Health
service providers often neglect their duty to provide care when seeing sex
workers. Similarly, police and other law enforcement officials often violate
the human rights of sex workers rather than promote and protect them.
In four African countries—Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe—
sex workers felt that stigma was very high, with stigma towards male sex
workers who have sex with men exacerbated owing to homophobia. In
these countries, many sex workers do not wish to disclose their occupation
to health-care providers and, generally, stigma and discrimination were
considered a major barrier in their willingness or desire to test for HIV (25).
Female sex workers in Saint Petersburg, the Russian Federation, found that
stigma from health-care providers towards sex workers living with HIV had a
greater impact than the stigma owing to sex work alone. Experiencing HIVrelated stigma prevented female sex workers from seeking HIV testing (26).
Male sex workers in Viet Nam reported experiencing stigma in health-care
settings if they revealed their occupation (27). Social and cultural isolation
combined with stigma and discrimination further reduces sex worker access
to social and health services.
Lack of programmes and funding
Only about one third of countries report having risk reduction programmes
for sex workers, but they tend to vary in quality and reach. The remaining
two thirds of countries expect sex workers to obtain services through
general health-care settings, where they may not be, or feel, welcome.
In only a very few countries, notably in Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa, has
there been a nationwide scale-up of HIV programmes specifically for sex
workers. Most programmes across sub-Saharan Africa have a limited scale,
scope and coverage. For example, a review of 54 projects found that most
included small, local-level efforts that provided condoms and occasionally
included HIV testing (28). HIV care and treatment as well as CD4 cell
count was infrequently offered. The situation is even graver for male and
transgender sex workers, as well as for male clients of sex workers (1).
194 Gap report
Discrimination towards sex
workers is nearly universal.
Ample data are available demonstrating the effectiveness of communitybased prevention and treatment programmes for sex workers in western
Africa. Yet, few countries have scaling up their programmes (29). The time
for scale up is overdue.
Estimated population size of sex workers, with the estimated proportion who are
HIV-positive, in selected countries, 2009–2013
868 000
546 848
237 798
236 146
176 400
123 530
2.8%
4.9%
7%
24.5%
8.4%
3.2%
India
Brazil
Mexico
Nigeria
Haiti
Thailand
80 000
38 582
37 000
27 546
12 278
2%
7.3%
36.8%
14.7%
22.5%
50.8%
Morocco
Ukraine
Cameroon
Cambodia
Burundi
Rwanda
85 000
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Moreover, very few countries sufficiently invest in HIV programmes for sex
workers specifically. Estimates suggest that only 14% of all funding for
HIV services for sex workers and their clients comes from public, domestic
sources in low- and middle-income countries (3). Even countries that report
investing in HIV prevention for sex workers may not allocate funds for
evidence-informed interventions.
Supporting sex workers to organize, establish alliances and collectives and
use their expertise to deliver services themselves is an essential component
in delivering sex work services. Community empowerment is more than a
set of activities; it is an approach that should be integrated into all aspects
of health and HIV programming. It is the cornerstone of a human rightsbased approach to HIV and sex work.
12 populations 195
However, around the world, whether in high-, low- or middle-income
countries, sex worker organizations suffer from a lack of funding, which is,
in some places, compounded by authorities who deny sex workers official
registration owing to a refusal to recognize sex work as an occupation (30).
Reported domestic HIV spending on HIV prevention among sex workers in selected
countries
Country and HIV prevalence among sex workers (%)
Myanmar (8%)
Cambodia (15%)
Republic of Moldova (the) (12%)
Burundi (23%)
Belarus (6%)
Indonesia (9%)
Ukraine (7%)
Ghana (11%)
Niger (the) (17%)
Mexico (7%)
Benin (21%)
Rwanda (51%)
Nigeria (25%)
Argentina (5%)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16%
Domestic HIV spending on HIV prevention among sex workers (in countries
with >10 000 reported size estimate and >5% HIV prevalence) (%)
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Studies have now shown that sex worker-led, community-based services
can have a real and lasting impact on the health and social outcomes of sex
workers, including by reducing their vulnerability to HIV (31).
In Kenya, the Bar Hostess Empowerment Programme developed a set of
activities to train local sex workers as paralegals, which included learning
about local and national laws and educating other sex workers about their
rights. The result was a strong and empowered sex worker network that is
resilient and can benefit from community-led services.
196 Gap report
Similarly, VAMP, a sex worker organization in southern India, trained sex
workers to support community members facing financial difficulties to
access non-stigmatizing, subsidized health care. This is accomplished by
negotiating access to a range of government service providers as well
providing direct financial support (16).
Health-care professionals should work with sex workers, including
community gatekeepers, to create a supportive local environment that
encourages condom use in sex work establishments (32,33).
Health-care professionals
should work with sex
workers, including
community gatekeepers,
to create a supportive
local environment that
encourages condom use in
sex work establishments.
CLOSING THE GAP
Often in the face of enormous adversity, sex workers in partnership with
others have led the development of effective, evidence-informed services
that help to reduce their vulnerability to HIV and mitigate the hostile
environments that perpetuate their vulnerability.
The guidelines developed by the World Health Organization, the United
Nations Population Fund, UNAIDS and the Global Network of Sex Work
Projects on the prevention and treatment of HIV and sexually transmitted
infections among sex workers in low- and middle-income countries
provide comprehensive recommendations for all countries, including
working towards decriminalization, taking action to reduce stigma and
discrimination, addressing violence against sex workers and providing
improved access to health services (16).
Where capacity of sex worker communities is strengthened and where
they are given the opportunity to design, plan and implement services for
themselves, sex workers have shown that they are strong, capable allies in
the HIV response.
In order to address the high burden of HIV among sex workers, the
following are needed:
■■ Human rights violations perpetrated against sex workers robustly and
routinely challenged whenever and wherever they occur.
■■ Sex workers empowered to challenge human rights abuses.
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
02
03
04
Address violence
Decriminalize sex work
Empower sex work communities
Scale up and fund health and social
services for sex workers
■■ Know your rights and legal literacy programmes, as well as legal
services, implemented.
■■ Sex work decriminalized and punitive laws that make it a crime to carry
condoms ended.
12 populations 197
■■ Government ministries, the police, health authorities and community and
religious leaders actively engaged in order to ensure that they protect the
health and safety of all of their citizens, including sex workers.
■■ Sensitive, rights-based and evidence-informed health and social care
services that meet the needs and circumstances of sex workers are
implemented.
■■ Communities empowered to counter and reduce the harm related to
stigma and discrimination.
■■ Comprehensive, available and accessible packages of health and social
care services that meet the expressed needs of sex workers scaled up.
■■ The inclusion of all sex workers in the design of programmes intended
for them, in particular migrants and people living with HIV, as well as
people who sell sexual services but who do not identify as sex workers.
■■ Evidence-informed, quality services for sex workers funded to scale.
■■ Direct funding for rights-based, evidence-informed community services,
rather than services that are driven by morality or a punitive approach.
198 Gap report
Where capacity is built among
sex workers and where they
are given the opportunity to
design, plan and implement
services for themselves, sex
workers have shown that they
are strong, capable allies in
the HIV response.
199
200 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
07
GAY MEN AND
OTHER MEN
WHO HAVE SEX
WITH MEN
Globally, gay men and other men who have sex with
men are 19 times more likely to be living with HIV than
the general population (1). The incidence of HIV among
gay men and other men who have sex with men is
rising in several parts of the world (2).
Structural factors, such as stigma, discrimination and
violence based on sexual orientation and gender
identity and the criminalization of same-sex sexual
practices, contribute to hindering the availability, access
and uptake of HIV prevention, testing and treatment
services among gay men and other men who have sex
with men.
12 populations 201
12 POPULATIONS
07 GAY MEN AND OTHER MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN
I am gay.
I face these issues.
My wife does not
know that I have sex
with men, so we do
not use condoms
I cannot get the
right lubricants
to use with
condoms
I am not gay and
I do not want to
go to a clinic that
serves gay men
If I test HIVpositive, my own
gay community
will reject me
202 Gap report
I do not want to be
arrested, so I cannot
ask the doctor
about my sexual
health
If my family
finds out I am
gay, I will be
thrown out of
the house
Some of my
friends were
beaten up
last night
My friends
who accept
me are
my family
I get bullied
at school and
called names
My boss and
colleagues
make fun of
gay people
I need HIV
treatment, but I
do not want to
be judged
WHY GAY MEN AND OTHER MEN WHO HAVE
SEX WITH MEN ARE BEING LEFT BEHIND
Globally, gay men and other men who have sex with men are 19 times more
likely to be living with HIV than the general population (1). The incidence of HIV
among gay men and other men who have sex with men is rising in several parts
of the world (2).
Structural factors, such as stigma, discrimination and violence based on sexual
orientation and gender identity and the criminalization of same-sex sexual
practices, contribute to hindering the availability, access and uptake of HIV
prevention, testing and treatment services among gay men and other men who
have sex with men.
HIV Burden
While HIV incidence is declining in most of the world, incidence among gay
men and other men who have sex with men appears to be rising in several
regions, including in Asia, where this mode of transmission is a major
contributor to the HIV epidemics in several countries.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
02
Violence
Criminalization, stigma, discrimination
and social exclusion
03
Poor access to HIV and other health
services
Worldwide, gay men and other men who have sex with men
are 19 times more likely to be living with HIV than the general
population.
The median HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who
have sex with men is 19% in western and central Africa and 13%
in eastern and southern Africa.
04
Inadequate investments
Gay men and other men who have sex with men often acquire
HIV while quite young—HIV prevalence is about 4.2% for young
(under 25 years) gay men and other men who have sex with men.
According to national global AIDS response progress reports, the highest
median HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men
were found in western and central Africa (15%) and eastern and southern Africa
(14%) (1). Somewhat lower yet still high levels of HIV infection were reported
among gay men and other men who have sex with men in Latin America
(13%), western and central Europe and North America (10%), the Middle East
and North Africa (7%), Asia and the Pacific (6%) and the Caribbean (6%) (1).
This information is roughly consistent with a 2012 global analysis of available
epidemiological studies, which found that HIV prevalence among gay men and
other men who have sex with men in the Americas, South and South-East Asia
and sub-Saharan Africa ranged from 14% to 18% (2).
12 populations 203
Countries by region
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men across regions, 2013
Maldives
Afghanistan
Fiji
Bangladesh
Sri Lanka
Timor-Leste
Cambodia
Republic of Korea (the)
Singapore
Philippines (the)
Viet Nam
Nepal
Japan
India
Papua New Guinea
China
Thailand
Indonesia
Myanmar
Mongolia
Australia
Malaysia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Antigua and Barbuda
Cuba
Dominican Republic (the)
Belize
Bahamas (the)
Haiti
Guyana
Dominica
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Jamaica
Albania
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Kazakhstan
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tajikistan
Azerbaijan
Armenia
Uzbekistan
Montenegro
Republic of Moldova (the)
Ukraine
Belarus
Kyrgyzstan
Russian Federation (the)
Georgia
Comoros (the)
Angola
South Africa
Botswana
Seychelles
Uganda
Madagascar
Swaziland
Kenya
Mauritius
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
Nicaragua
Guatemala
Uruguay
El Salvador
Argentina
Brazil
Costa Rica
Ecuador
Peru
Honduras
Mexico
Paraguay
Panama
Chile
Jordan
Lebanon
Egypt
Morocco
Yemen
Tunisia
Algeria
Finland
Bulgaria
Estonia
Lithuania
Croatia
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
Sweden
Hungary
Czech Republic (the)
Poland
Romania
Ireland
Italy
Portugal
Slovenia
Latvia
Serbia
Belgium
Switzerland
Denmark
Germany
Greece
Spain
Canada
Netherlands (the)
France
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Sierra Leone
Niger (the)
Benin
Cabo Verde
Nigeria
Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
Ghana
Senegal
Côte d'Ivoire
Togo
Liberia
Mali
Congo (the)
Central African Republic (the)
Cameroon
Mauritania
Guinea
Asia and Pacific
Caribbean
Eastern Europe and central Asia
East and southern Africa
Latin America
Middle East and North Africa
Western and central Europe and North America
West and central Africa
0
10
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
204 Gap report
20
30
HIV prevalence (%)
40
50
60
Reported HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex
with men for all ages in 2013 ranged from <1% in nine countries to 57% in
Guinea (1) (survey of 242 men). Seventy-three countries did not report data
on HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men.
Gay men and other men who have sex with men often acquire HIV
while quite young—according to studies primarily in countries where
the epidemic among gay men and other men who have sex with men is
significantly higher than among the general population. HIV prevalence is
about 4.2% for gay men and other men who have sex with men below the
age of 25. According to Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting data
from 96 countries, the median HIV prevalence among gay men and other
men who have sex with men is 3.7% (1).
Available data show high HIV prevalence among young gay men and
other men who have sex with men in several countries across the
globe. Prevailing stigma, discrimination and punitive social and legal
environments based on sexual orientation and gender identity, often
compounded by the limited availability of and access to sexual and
reproductive health services for young people, are among the main
determinants of this high vulnerability to HIV among young gay gay men
and other men and other men who have sex with men (3).
HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men and the general population by region,
2009–2013
20
Median HIV prevalence (%)
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
Asia and the
Pacific (n=22)
Eastern Europe and
central Asia (n=26)
Middle East and
North Africa (n=6)
High-income
countries (n=15)
Latin America
(n=16)
Caribbean
(n=7)
Eastern and
southern Africa
(n=8)
0
Western and
central Africa
(n=19)
2
Region (number of countries reporting)
HIV prevalence-gay men and other men who have sex with men
HIV prevalence-general population
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
12 populations 205
Median HIV prevalence (%)
HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have sex with men by age and region,
2009–2013
25
20
15
10
5
0
Eastern
Europe and
central Asia
(n = 17)
High-income
countries
(n = 8)
Asia and the
Pacific (n = 17)
Eastern and
southern
Africa (n = 5)
Western and
central Africa
(n = 15)
Caribbean
(n = 8)
Latin America
(n = 9)
Middle East
and North
Africa (n = 5)
Region (number of countries reporting)
<25 years
25+ years
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Violence
Very high levels of physical, psychological or sexual violence against gay men
and other men who have sex with men have been reported worldwide.
Extortion, humiliation, discrimination and violence against gay men and other
men who have sex with men, including rape based on sexual orientation and
gender identity, have been reported (4).
Very high levels of physical,
psychological or sexual
violence against gay men
and other men who have
sex with men have been
reported across the world.
Proportion of gay men and other men who have sex with men who report physical, psychological
or sexual violence in selected countries
Percentage (%)
50
40
30
20
10
0
United
States
206 Gap report
Brazil
Mongolia
Kazakhstan
India
China
In many countries, such acts are committed or condoned by officials of national
authorities, including law enforcement officials (1). This leads to a climate of
fear that further fuels human rights violations and that also deters gay men and
other men who have sex with men from seeking and adhering to HIV prevention,
treatment, care and support services (5–7).
Criminalization, stigma, discrimination and social exclusion
In total, 78 countries criminalize same-sex sexual practices, with seven countries
exacting the death penalty. In recent years, new legislation has emerged that
further targets gay men and other men who have sex with men. These laws
include overly broad criminal legislation that punishes the public expression
of same-sex sexual preferences or identities as well as the distribution of
information related to same-sex relationships (8).
In some countries, laws also ban organizations that represent or support lesbian,
gay, bisexual or transgender individuals (8).
These punitive laws are based on and further incite stigma, discrimination and
other human rights violations towards gay men and other men who have sex
with men. In Nigeria and Uganda, the adoption of new restrictive legislation
is thought to have resulted in increased harassment and prosecution based
on sexual orientation and gender identities (9,10). HIV outreach workers and
services providers working with gay men and other men who have sex with men
in these two countries have also reported heightened challenges in reaching
this population. Some outreach organizations and health service providers have
stopped or reduced the scope of their activities owing to the fear of harassment
and prosecution (9,11).
The involvement of gay
men and other men who
have sex with men and
transgender people
in peer outreach and
other community-level
behavioural interventions
can reduce HIV risk
behaviours by up to 25%.
Consensual, adult same-sex sexual conduct is criminalized in 78 countries
Protected
Legal
Illegal
Death penalty
Source: International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA), UNAIDS Global Report 2012, and Baral S. et al. 2013.
12 populations 207
These reports are consistent with studies that have documented serious
disruptions in the availability of and access to HIV and other health services
following widely publicized prosecutions of gay men and other men who have
sex with men (12). The passage of the Anti-Homosexuality Act in Uganda also
triggered negative discussions in social media. The most worrisome signs
included messages that advocated violence and that were highly discriminatory.
Criminalization, stigma, homophobia and social prejudice against gay men
and other men who have sex with men have also been shown to contribute to
depression, psychological distress and other mental health concerns (12–14).
Punitive legal and social environments hinder the ability of gay men and other
men who have sex with men to organize and participate meaningfully in the
design and implementation of programmes to provide HIV-related services.
This poses a concern for the HIV response—studies have demonstrated that the
involvement of gay men and other men who have sex with men and transgender
people in peer outreach and other community-level behavioural interventions can
reduce HIV risk behaviours by up to 25% (15).
Overcoming social exclusion will take time. Broadened advocacy for gay men and
other men who have sex with men is needed.
Poor access to HIV and other health services
The early and continuing activism and solidarity of gay men and other men who
have sex with men paved the way for the creation of the global AIDS response,
including advances in HIV prevention, care and access to safe and effective
antiretroviral therapy. Yet, today, in many parts of the world, they are excluded from
the benefits of the very prevention, treatment and care services and commodities
that they helped to secure.
According to surveys, gay men and other men who have sex with men often have
extremely limited access to HIV prevention commodities, such as condoms, waterbased lubricants, HIV education and support for sexual risk reduction (16).
According to reports from 20 countries in both 2009 and 2013, the percentage of gay
men and other men who have sex with men reached by HIV prevention programmes
fell from 59% to 40%. Median coverage fell in Asia and the Pacific from 52% to
33% and in eastern Europe and central Asia from 63% to 60%. In Latin America, the
median coverage for two reporting countries rose from 35% to 67% (1). However,
these estimates of HIV prevention coverage, which are based on limited information
provided by countries, are considerably higher than other estimates. One
international review concluded that fewer than one in ten gay men and other men
who have sex with men receive a basic package of HIV prevention interventions (16).
There are also great disparities in access to HIV services and commodities among gay
men and other men who have sex with men across and within countries. Gay men
and other men who have sex with men with higher incomes are several times more
likely to access lubricants and antiretroviral therapy compared to those with the lowest
income levels.
208 Gap report
According to surveys, gay
men and other men who
have sex with men often
have extremely limited
access to HIV prevention
commodities, such as
condoms, water-based
lubricants, HIV education
and support for sexual risk
reduction.
Percentage of gay men and other men who have sex with men reporting that condoms, lubricants,
HIV testing and HIV treatment are easily accessible, by country income level, 2012
60
54%
Percentage (%)
51%
40
45%
37%
31%
34%
32%
32%
29%
25%
20
14%
28%
25%
14%
14%
8%
0
Access to
condoms
Low income
Lower-middle income
Access to
lubricants
Upper-middle income
Access to testing
Access to
treatment*
High income
Access to HIV treatment was measured only among respondents who reported living with HIV.
*
Source: Access to HIV prevention and treatment for gay men or other men who have sex with men; findings from the 2012 Global Men’s Health and Rights
Study (GMHR)—an internet survey of men from 165 countries.
This leads to questions regarding the effectiveness of mainstream HIV
programmes in reaching and addressing the specific needs of highly stigmatized,
criminalized and lower-income gay men and other men who have sex with men
who have no other option than to rely on such services for their health needs.
Fear of disapproval and discrimination by health-care providers are likely to deter
many gay men and other men who have sex with men from accessing mainstream
health services (17). Increasing access to culturally sensitive HIV counselling and
testing and antiretroviral therapy for gay men and other men who have sex with men
is an urgent global health priority. Current levels of HIV testing are insufficient to link
gay men and other men who have sex with men to care in sufficient numbers to
effectively reduce HIV transmission. The trends for testing uptake are essentially flat,
standing at below 55% across all regions.
Because gay men and other men who have sex with men continue to be left
behind, further innovative programming needs to be encouraged and financed in
addition to already proven strategies. Recent studies emphasize the importance
of trying new approaches to expand counselling and testing and improve linkages
to care.
12 populations 209
Trends in median HIV testing and status knowledge, by region, 2009–2013
People living with HIV testing
and status knowledge (%)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2009
2011
2012
2013
Asia and the Pacific (n=10)
Caribbean (n=3)
Eastern Europe and central Asia (n=9)
Latin America (n=10)
High-income countries (n=5)
Western and central Africa (n=3)
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Inadequate investments
The inadequate financing of HIV services for gay men and other men who have
sex with men impedes efforts to reach them with essential services (18).
Most of this investment comes exclusively from international donors rather than
national spending (19). In fact, international funding vastly outweighs domestic
spending on focused prevention services for gay men and other men who have
sex with men except in only a few upper upper-middle income such as Brazil
and Mexico in Latin America and in Cuba in the Caribbean.
Of 131 countries that reported their HIV spending data between 2005 and
2013, 93 low- and middle-income countries reported at least for one year on
their expenditure on prevention programmes for gay men and other men who
have sex with men. Those reports, across all years, indicated combined annual
spending of US$ 37 million in this category, but not all countries provided
continuous, disaggregated or detailed spending on specific activities directed
to gay men and other men who have sex with men. Eleven per cent of global
spending on programmes for gay men and other men who have sex with men
came from public domestic sources (with 26 countries reporting), while the
remaining countries fully relied on international funding (67 countries). Funding
for HIV prevention services for gay men and other men who have sex with men
210 Gap report
National commitments to
respond to the HIV epidemic
among gay men and other
men who have sex with men
lag behind those for other
populations.
has been poorly monitored in particular in the last five years, even while the
financial and coverage tools to do so exist. However, it appears that funding is
especially limited in the Middle East and North Africa and across sub-Saharan
Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 14 of 45 countries reported any spending on
programmes for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and only two
countries reported any public domestic spending (1).
National commitments to respond to the HIV epidemic among gay
men and other men who have sex with men lag behind those for other
populations, even though, where data are collected, gay men and other
men who have sex with men typically share a disproportionate burden of
HIV infection (19).
For example, according to modes of transmission analyses in Latin
America, gay men and other men who have sex with men represent the
largest source of new HIV infections in the region—ranging from 33% in
the Dominican Republic to 56% in Peru (20,21).
It is important that governments recognize this bias and set it aside in the
interest of national public health. There is a need to increase domestic
spending to finance evidence-informed programmes that are delivered
with an increased sensitivity to the health needs of gay men and other
men who have sex with men.
Quality HIV testing and counselling services increase satisfaction
How satisfied were you with the way the testing service maintained your confidentiality? (n=2368)
Very satisfied or satisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
How satisfied were you with the counselling you received [among those who received it]? (n=1704)
Very satisfied or satisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
0
20
40
60
80
100
Percentage (%)
All respondents who received a test result
Diagnosed positive
Last test was negative
Source: The Caribbean Men’s Internet Survey (CARIMIS), in print. UNAIDS Caribbean; 2014.
12 populations 211
CLOSING THE GAP
A number of essential legal and health interventions and strategies are
needed to address the challenges to the health and well-being of gay men
and other men who have sex with men.
Gay men and other men who have sex with men are entitled to the full
protection of their rights, as outlined in the Yogyakarta Principles (22). These
include the right to the highest attainable standard of non-discriminatory
health care.
To be effective, HIV programmes and services need to be rooted in
universal concepts of dignity and social justice. Prevention and treatment
programmes must be implemented as part of an effective public health
approach, even in countries where gay men and other men who have sex
with men are criminalized. At the same time, work must be directed towards
decriminalization.
Evidence is growing on promising approaches to HIV prevention and service
outreach for gay men and other men who have sex with men, including the
application of information technologies and new media (23). In South Africa,
for example, a pilot study reported an increase in HIV testing through an
intervention involving 10 or more text messages (24).
In New York City, digital mapping has been used to strategically reach gay
men and other men who have sex with men, while studies in France have
focused on reaching those living in secret and those who use drugs before
sex (23). In other countries, a new emphasis on home-based counselling and
testing helps individuals avoid identification and being stigmatized.
Gay men and other men who have sex with men must be fully involved
in the AIDS response. When treated fairly and equally and when freely
able to access health services, gay men and other men who have sex with
men can drive HIV incidence downwards. Community systems need to be
strengthened, including increased peer support and the encouragement of
local leadership among gay men and other men who have sex with men.
Studies have shown that the strategic use of antiretroviral therapy as a preexposure prophylaxis is a biomedical HIV prevention strategy that protects
sexual partners and reduces new infections. One study estimates that preexposure antiretroviral prophylaxis can reduce the risk of HIV transmission by
more than 40% among gay men and other men who have sex with men (25).
Currently, there are inadequate data to help plan and guide the response
to HIV among gay men and other men who have sex with men. In many
countries, data on HIV prevalence among gay men and other men who have
sex with men do not exist. Countries need to undertake more concerted
212 Gap report
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
Protective social and legal
environments, including
decriminalization
02
Access to quality, discrimination-free
health services
03
Data collection on HIV and gay men
and other men who have sex with men
04
Strengthening community systems
efforts to measure the extent of the epidemic among gay men and other
men who have sex with men, while also building comprehensive services
that remove barriers to access.
Comprehensive education on human sexuality in their training would ensure
that health and social service workers are inclusive and non-judgemental. In
the Caribbean, quality HIV testing and counselling services have proven to
increase satisfaction (26).
A range of other interventions have been shown to be effective, including:
Countries need to undertake
more concerted efforts to
measure the extent of the
epidemic among gay men
and other men who have
sex with men, while also
building comprehensive
services that remove barriers
to access.
■■ Countering anti-homosexual and stigmatizing myths through strategic
engagement with the media and through education.
■■ Decriminalizing same-sex sexual practices and ending other punitive
laws based on sexual orientation.
■■ Encouraging new testing strategies, including home-based testing
and couples testing, and promoting the strategic use of antiretroviral
medicines to decrease new infections.
■■ Increasing domestic spending to finance evidence-informed
programmes proportionate to the HIV burden among gay men and
other men who have sex with men.
12 populations 213
214 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
08
TRANSGENDER
PEOPLE
Many transgender people experience social exclusion
and marginalization because of the way in which they
express their gender identity. A transgender person
does not identify with the gender assigned at birth (1).
Estimates from countries indicate that the transgender
population could be between 0.1% and 1.1% of
reproductive age adults (2–9).
12 populations 215
12 POPULATIONS
08 TRANSGENDER PEOPLE
I am a transgender woman.
I face these issues.
I was beaten
up
There are no
transgender clinics
near me
I have no health
insurance
My doctor
ridiculed me
I am a sex worker
and police and clients
have raped me
My family has
rejected me
My identity
papers do not
reflect who I
am
My landlord threw
me out
I have been
turned down for
jobs
I want
respect
I reuse syringes to
inject hormones
216 Gap report
People make fun
of me
WHY TRANSGENDER WOMEN AND MEN ARE
BEING LEFT BEHIND
Many transgender people experience social exclusion and marginalization
because of the way in which they express their gender identity. A
transgender person does not identify with the gender assigned at birth (1).
Estimates from countries indicate that the transgender population could be
between 0.1% and 1.1% of reproductive age adults (2–9).
HIV burden
Transgender women are among the populations most heavily affected by HIV.
Transgender women are 49 times more likely to acquire HIV than all adults of
reproductive age. An estimated 19% of transgender women are living with HIV
(10). The impact of HIV on transgender men has yet to be established.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
Family rejection and violation of the
right to education and employment
02
03
04
Violence, criminalization and
transphobia
Globally, an estimated 19% of transgender women are living with
HIV.
Globally, the chance of acquiring HIV is 49 times higher for
transgender women than all adults of reproductive age.
Estimates suggest that the transgender population could be
between 0.1% and 1.1% of reproductive age adults.
Lack of recognition of gender identity
Discrimination in health systems
Many transgender people lack legal recognition of their affirmed gender
and therefore are without identify papers that reflect who they are. Without
appropriate identity papers, transgender people are excluded from education
and employment. Transgender people face discrimination, violence and lack of
access to appropriate health care. All of these factors contribute to increasing the
vulnerability of transgender people to HIV.
Evidence suggests that, in some settings, a significant proportion of young
transgender women engage in selling sex. This is often a result of social
exclusion, economic vulnerability and difficulty in finding employment (11).
In El Salvador, close to 47% of transgender women reported that their
main income comes from selling sex (12). Selling sex has been significantly
associated with low levels of education, homelessness, drug use and a
perceived lack of social support (13).
12 populations 217
HIV prevalence among transgender women in Latin America
35
31.9
30
HIV prevalence (%)
30
29.3
25.8
25
23.8
20
15
9.7
10
5
HIV prevalence among transgender women
Nicaragua
2009
National general
population prevalence
0.4
Lima (n=450)
Guatemala
2012
National general
population prevalence
El Salvador
2008
0.2
Managua (n=62)
0.6
Ciudad de Guatemala
(n=126)
National general
population prevalence
National general
population prevalence
Ecuador
2012
0.6
San Salvador/
San Miguel (n=89)
National general
population prevalence
Bolivia
(Plurinational
State of)
2012
0.4
Quito
Santa Cruz
National general
population prevalence
0.3
0
Peru
2009
National HIV prevalence in the general population
Source: Plurinational State of Bolivia: http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=19310&Itemid= (Slide 7)
Ecuador: Manejo de la sertividad sexual en hombres homosexuales diagnosticados con VIH, que son usuarios de la unidad de atención intergral para
personas viviendo con VIH y sida, del hospital Enrique Garces (Page 18).
El Salvador: ECVC El Salvador_trans 2010 (Page 44) / Social network characteristics and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in San Salvador:
identifying opportunities for HIV prevention strategies (Table 2).
Guatemala: ECVC Guatemala 2012–2013 (Page 44).
Nicaragua: Nicaragua (2009): Encuesta Centroamericana de Vigilancia de Comportamiento Sexual y Prevalencia de VIH e ITS en poblaciones vulnerables
ECVC. Resultados de HSH y Trans.
Peru: Understanding the HIV/AIDS epidemic in transgender women of Lima, Peru: results from a sero-epidemiologic study using respondent driven
sampling. (Abstract: AIDS and Behavior. May 2012; 16(4):872-81).
UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
Transgender women who engage in sex work are at increased risk of HIV
infection. A systematic review and meta-analysis in 2008 reported an overall
crude HIV prevalence of 27.3% among transgender women who engage in
sex work. This is compared to 14.7% among transgender people who did
not report participating in sex work (14). Country reports suggest that HIV
prevalence for transgender sex workers is on average nine times higher than
for female sex workers and three times higher than for male sex workers.
218 Gap report
HIV prevalence (%)
Sex workers: HIV prevalence by gender, 2013
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Female
(n=39)
Male
(n=11)
Transgender (n=14)
Mean HIV prevalence
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2014.
Family rejection and violation of the right to education and
employment
From a young age, many transgender people experience social rejection
and marginalization because of their expression of their gender identity.
This social exclusion affects their self-perception and sense of worth. It may
contribute to depression, anxiety, drug and alcohol use, self-harm and suicide.
Young transgender people are particularly vulnerable to homelessness,
unemployment and economic instability, as they often depend on family and
education institutions for housing and other resources (15,16).
In Latin America, 44–70%
of transgender women and
girls have felt the need to
leave home or were thrown
out of their homes.
In Latin America, 44–70% of transgender women and girls have felt the
need to leave home or were thrown out of their homes (17). In a small study
of transgender youth in New York City, United States of America, 71% of
female-to-male youth reported experiencing past verbal abuse and 17% had
experienced past physical abuse. Of male-to-female youth, 87% reported
experiencing past verbal abuse; 36% had experienced physical abuse and
16% sexual abuse (18).
A study from Thailand and the Philippines found that 40% of Filipino
transgender women and 21% of Thai transgender women reported paternal
rejection when transitioning (19).
In Mexico, the 2010 People Living with HIV Stigma Index showed that 11.4%
of transgender people living with HIV responded that they were frequently
excluded from family activities, compared to 1.7% of men living with HIV and
2.9% of women living with HIV.
12 populations 219
Family rejection towards transgender people
Family rejection towards transgender people: New York City
Percentage (%)
100
80
60
40
20
0
Reported experiencing
past verbal abuse
Female-to-male youth
Reported past physical abuse
Male-to-female youth
Family rejection towards transgender people:
Thailand and the Philippines
60
Family rejection towards transgender people:
Mexico
Percentage (%)
Percentage (%)
Reported past sexual abuse
40
20
0
Philippines (the)
Thailand
Reported paternal rejection when
transitioning
15
10
5
0
Were frequently excluded
from family activities
Transgender women-Philippines (the)
Transgender people living with HIV
Transgender women-Thailand
Men living with HIV
Women living with HIV
Sources: Borgogno U, Gabriel I (2009), La Transfobia en América Latina y el Caribe: Un estudio en el marco de REDLACTRANS, Buenos Aires, Argentina:
Grossman, Arnold H., Anthony R. D’augelli, and John a. Frank. 2011. “Aspects of Psychological Resilience among Transgender Youth.” Journal of LGBT
Youth 8 (2) (March 29): 103–115. doi:10.1080/19361653.2011.541347. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19361653.2011.541347.
Winter, S. (2009) ‘Lost in transition: transpeople, transprejudice and pathology in Asia’ in The International Journal of Human Rights, (13), p. 375.
Mexican People living with HIV Stigma and Discrimination Index 2012.
220 Gap report
Transgender people also experience bullying and harassment at school,
which, apart from the physical and psychological effects, can undermine
learning opportunities and educational achievement, thus affecting their
future employment prospects (20). A national survey in the United States
showed high unemployment rates for transgender people—twice the
national unemployment rate. Ninety-seven per cent reported mistreatment,
harassment and discrimination while working (21,22).
Employment discrimination
Unemployed
Employed part time or full time
Unemployed
Problems at work due to being transgender
General population lived below the poverty threshold
Transgender people lived below the poverty threshold
Lost their jobs due to their gender identity or expression
Past experience of mistreatment, harassment,
or discrimination on the job including invasion of privacy
0
20
40
60
80
100
Percentage (%)
United Kingdom (the)
Ireland
United States of America (the)
Sources: S. Baral, Beyrer, and Poteat 2011; The National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force 2009
McNeil J, Baile L, Ellis E, Regan M. Transgender Equality Network Ireland (TENI). The Speaking from the Margins: Trans Mental Health and Wellbeing in
Ireland. 2013.
McNeil J, Bailey L, Ellis S, Morton J, Regan M. Trans mental health and emotional wellbeing study 2012. Edinburgh: Scottish Transgender Alliance; 2013.
12 populations 221
Violence, criminalization and transphobia
Around the world, transgender people experience physical and sexual
violence and hate crimes. The full extent of the violence and hate crimes
faced by transgender people is difficult to gauge because it is thought to
be underreported. However, an international community-based project to
monitor killings of transgender and gender variant people collected 1509
cases of reported killings in 61 countries from 1 January 2008 to 31 March
2014. Close to 80% of the reported killings took place in Latin America,
a region with a well-organized transgender community that contributed
to the monitoring. In other regions, potentially large numbers of cases go
unreported, as there is less capacity for monitoring (23).
Number of transgender people killed
Killings of transgender and gender-variant people, 2008–2014
1200
900
600
300
0
Asia
(n=16)
North America
Europe
(n=12)
Central and South
America
(n=23)
Region (number of countries reporting)
Adapted from: Transgender Europe. IDAHOT Press Release, May 1, 2014. http://www.transrespect-transphobia.org/uploads/downloads/2014/TvT-PRIDAHOT2014-en.pdf.
Exposure to transphobia is a mental health risk for transgender people and
can result in increased levels of depression and suicidal thoughts (24). In the
United States, 46% of transgender men and 41% of transgender women
have attempted suicide. Prevalence of suicide attempts was highest among
those who are younger (25–27). Among transgender women living with HIV
in Mexico, 25.7% experienced suicidal thoughts, compared to 16.1% of men
living with HIV and 16.7% of women living with HIV (28).
222 Gap report
Lack of recognition of gender identity
Without official documents that recognize their gender identity, transgender
people can be denied access to basic rights, including the right to health,
education and social welfare, resulting in a detrimental effect on their health
and well-being.
Transgender people are vulnerable to arrest in those countries that criminalize
cross-dressing (30,31). Gender identity is not a protected status in binding
international human rights instruments, so transgender people struggle to
find a recognized platform upon which to base their advocacy efforts.
Transphobia can affect
the mental health of
transgender people and
can result in increased
levels of depression and
suicidal thoughts. In the
United States, 46% of
transgender men and 41%
of transgender women have
attempted suicide.
Several countries have a precondition for transgender people to be sterilized
before undergoing sex reassignment surgery and/or the legal recognition of
their gender identity. Sterilization should only be carried out with the full, free
and informed consent of an individual (32). Sterilization has a profound impact
on bodily autonomy. Any form of coercion is a violation of basic rights.
Stigma, discrimination and gender-based sexual violence and a lack of legal
recognition of their affirmed gender, and social and economic exclusion,
including from education and employment opportunities, represent the
fundamental drivers of HIV vulnerability and risk among transgender women
worldwide (33).
Transgender people remain severely underserved in the response to HIV,
with only 39% of countries reporting in the National Commitment and Policy
Instrument 2014 that their national AIDS strategies address transgender
people (34).
Countries reporting that their national AIDS strategies addressed transgender people (2014)
39% Countries reporting that their national AIDS
strategies addressed transgender people (2014)
61% Strategic plans do not
include transgender people
Source: National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI), global AIDS response and progress reporting, preliminary data as of 14 May 2014. Geneva:
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2014.
12 populations 223
Discrimination in health systems
In health-care settings, transgender people often face stigma and ill treatment
(25), including refusal of care, harassment, verbal abuse and violence (35).
Despite evidence of heightened HIV vulnerabilities and risks, resulting in high
HIV prevalence among transgender people, the coverage of HIV prevention
programmes among transgender people remains poor across all regions (36).
A meta-analysis of 15 countries shows that transgender women are in urgent
need of HIV prevention, treatment and care services (10).
At the same time, stigma and discrimination in the health system alongside
lack of knowledge of transgender people’s health-related needs by health
personnel deter transgender people from using services. A qualitative study
in San Francisco, United States, showed that where transgender women had
negative or transphobic experiences in the health-care system in the past,
they were reluctant to get tested for fear that a diagnosis would require
additional interaction with health-care providers (35).
Barriers to accessing antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive transgender
people are well documented (37). Transgender women and men are
drastically underserved by current treatment efforts and report lower rates of
treatment adherence than other groups (38).
CLOSING THE GAP
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
02
Community leadership
Meaningful participation of and partnership with community-led
organizations and networks in the planning, implementation, monitoring
and evaluation of activities is fundamental to improving HIV service
provision for transgender people (39).
There is an urgent need to ensure that community engagement, policies
and programming for transgender women and men are developed and
implemented.
There must be investment in transgender community leadership. There
has been a considerable mobilization and organization of transgender
organizations in the past decade. Transgender communities have been
active in delivering services and advocating for their rights. However,
funding of their activities remains a challenge.
Given the central role that community engagement plays in ensuring access
to HIV services, transgender-led organizations need support to develop a
robust community voice within a safe environment. Countries should forge
a respectful working partnership with transgender people and mobilize
funding for community system strengthening.
224 Gap report
Recognition of rights and freedom
from violence
03
Quality health services and access to
work
04
Better research
The rights of transgender people should be recognized, and transgender
people should be free from the threat of violence. Countries must take steps
to enact robust laws that recognize non-discrimination with respect to gender
identity in access to education, work, housing and health services. Equally,
steps should be put in place to remove those laws that criminalize aspects of
transgender identity, including cross-dressing.
Some countries have passed progressive laws and policies. Argentina approved
in 2012 the Gender Identity and Comprehensive Health Care for Transgender
People Act, which gives transgender women and men the right—without a
clinical diagnosis—to request that their recorded sex, first name and image be
amended to match their self-perceived gender identity (40,41). In June 2014,
Denmark became the first European country to allow legal change of gender
without clinical diagnosis, removing previous requirements like compulsory
surgical intervention and compulsory sterilization (42).
Transgender people are often subject to both physical and psychological
violence and arbitrary arrest and detention, with such risks especially acute
for transgender people who are sex workers. Countries should take steps
to address the lack of a system or mechanism for monitoring, reporting and
investigating such incidents and for holding perpetrators accountable.
Access to comprehensive, integrated quality health services, including HIV
services that respond to transgender needs, must be improved. Services
must respond to the particular health needs of transgender people, including
integrated delivery of sound advice on safe gender-affirmation treatment and
services, mental health and substance misuse (43–46). The specific needs
transgender people have in terms of HIV prevention, treatment and care should
be addressed and the transgender community engaged in service provision.
Effective HIV prevention outreach programmes are urgently needed.
Programmes that engage with transgender sex workers show that the use of
testing services can be extended within their peer communities–in Germany,
Honduras, Mexico and Paraguay, two thirds of transgender people reported
that they had accessed testing services (47).
HIV testing among transgender sex workers
Middle
40–75%
High >75%
Germany
Honduras
Uruguay
Bangladesh
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
Ecuador
Mexico
Paraguay
Low <40%
Colombia
Pakistan
Panama
Philippines (the)
Source: Global AIDS response and progress reporting. Geneva, UNAIDS, 2014. Denominators ranges from n=70 in Honduras to n=3813 in Pakistan.
12 populations 225
Particular attention should be given to transgender women and men living
with HIV, who continue to experience multiple layers of discrimination,
resulting in them being drastically underserved by current treatment efforts.
Furthermore, transgender women and men living with HIV report lower rates
of treatment adherence than other groups (35).
A small survey of transgender women in San Francisco showed that
antiretroviral therapy adherence was associated with satisfaction in their
current gender expression and the extent to which society and their
community recognized and affirmed their chosen gender identity. Adherence
to hormone therapy and societal recognition of their gender identity was also
associated with antiretroviral therapy adherence (35).
Quantitative and qualitative research on transgender women and men must be
expanded. There is very limited research or data related to transgender people,
particularly transgender men. A research agenda should be developed that
includes the structural drivers of the vulnerabilities experienced by transgender
people and that seeks to improve understanding of the best HIV prevention,
treatment and care options. The research agenda should engage with and take
into consideration the diversity within transgender communities. This agenda
should be accompanied by improvements in the way gender variables are
captured in health surveys and surveillance systems.
226 Gap report
Countries should forge
a respectful working
partnership with
transgender people
and mobilize funding
for community system
strengthening.
227
228 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
09
CHILDREN AND
PREGNANT
WOMEN LIVING
WITH HIV
HIV is the leading cause of death among women of
reproductive age. In 2013, 54% of pregnant women
in low- and middle-income countries did not receive
an HIV test, a key step to accessing HIV prevention,
treatment and care (1). Without treatment, about one
third of children living with HIV die by their first birthday
and half die by their second. For children, the health
benefits of HIV treatment are magnified. Beginning
antiretroviral therapy before the twelfth week of life
reduces HIV-related mortality in children living with HIV
by 75% (2).
12 populations 229
12 POPULATIONS
09 CHILDREN AND PREGNANT WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV
I am a pregnant woman living with HIV.
I face these issues.
I live far away
from a clinic and
have not been
tested for HIV
If I take treatment,
my husband
will know I am
HIV-positive
I am scared that
my baby will be
born with HIV
I would like family
planning advice,
but there are no
services near me
When I take
my child to
the clinic, the
services are
poor
My husband will
beat me
and leave me if
he knows I have
HIV
I am afraid
that my other
children also
have HIV
Lines are long at the
clinic and nobody
can care for
my children,
so I cannot always
go
The health
worker
insisted I have
an abortion
I just want my
baby to be
born healthy
If I talk with my
child about HIV,
I will have to talk
about sex and
I am not ready
230 Gap report
There is no privacy
when I visit
the clinic; I feel
exposed
I am a child living with HIV.
I face these issues.
I get sick often,
but my mother
has no money
to pay for the
clinic
My parents both
died of AIDS and
I live with my
grandmother
I am scared
that I will die
because my
baby sister died
My HIV treatment
stopped when my
family moved to a
different village
Other children
will not play with
me in school,
because they
know I have HIV
The school does
not teach us about
our bodies or
sexual health
People whisper
that I have
something bad,
but I do not
understand
I have dropped
out of school,
because I am
often sick
I worry about
my mother
because she
gets ill often
12 populations 231
WHY CHILDREN AND PREGNANT WOMEN
LIVING WITH HIV ARE BEING LEFT BEHIND
HIV is the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age.
In 2013, 54% of pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries
did not receive an HIV test, a key step to accessing HIV prevention,
treatment and care (1). Without treatment, about one third of children
living with HIV die by their first birthday and half die by their second.
For children, the health benefits of HIV treatment are magnified.
Beginning antiretroviral therapy before the twelfth week of life
reduces HIV-related mortality in children living with HIV by 75% (2).
HIV BURDEN
Of the 3.2 million children living with HIV, 91% live in sub-Saharan Africa,
6% live in Asia and the Pacific and the remaining 3% are situated in the
rest of the world (3).
In 2013, an estimated 1.5 million women living with HIV gave
birth, virtually unchanged from 2009.
Globally, 3.2 million children under 15 were living with HIV in
2013, comprising 9.1% of all people living with HIV.
240 000 children worldwide acquired HIV in 2013: one new
infection every two minutes.
The Top 4 Reasons
01
Limited access to sexual and
reproductive health and HIV services
02
03
04
Limited access to HIV treatment
Failure to prioritize children
Poorly integrated health-care
services
Children (aged 0–14 years) living with HIV, globally
3% Remaining countries
6% Asia and the Pacific
6% Remaining sub-Saharan Africa
85% 21 Global Plan priority countries
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
232 Gap report
Launched in 2011, the Global Plan towards the elimination of new child HIV
infections and keeping their mothers alive has focused efforts on priority countries
(4), 21 of which are in sub-Saharan Africa, where 85% of pregnant women living with
HIV reside.1
While progress has been made in these priority countries, much more effort
is needed to reach the Global Plan’s target of reducing new infections among
children by 90% by 2015. In 2013, 1.3 million [1.2 million–1.4 million] women
living with HIV gave birth—a figure which is unchanged from 2009. However, the
number of children newly infected fell from 350 000 in 2009 to 199 000
[170 000–230 000] in 2013. The rate of mother-to-child transmission also fell—in
2013, 16% [13–18%] of children born to women living with HIV became infected
compared to 25.8% in 2009.
HIV testing among pregnant women remains challenging. Globally, about 44%
of pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries received HIV testing
and counselling in 2013, up from 26% in 2009 (1).
Limited access to sexual and reproductive health and HIV
services
Many women living with HIV continue to lack access to HIV prevention,
treatment, care and support services and sexual and reproductive health
services. Children also continue to become infected perinatally—that is, in
utero, during labour or while breastfeeding.
Progress in stopping new infections among children and ensuring that mothers
are alive and healthy requires reaching the full cross-section of pregnant
women with essential health services.
Number of new HIV infections
Number of new HIV infections among reproductive-age women (15–49 years old) globally
and in 21 priority countries, 2001–2012
1 600 000
1 400 000
1 200 000
1 000 000
800 000
600 000
400 000
200 000
Global
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
21 priority countries
Source: UNAIDS estimates, 2013.
1
There are 22 Global Plan countries, and 21 of these are in sub-Saharan Africa, They are: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire,
the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda,
the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The 22nd country is India.
12 populations 233
Services to help pregnant women remain HIV-free
In virtually every country, the majority of pregnant women who receive an
HIV test are HIV-negative. Programmes focus attention on women who test
positive for HIV, with an understandable desire to initiate treatment and care.
However, equal attention is needed to help HIV-negative pregnant women
who are already in contact with the health-care system prevent infection.
There are currently few interventions being implemented to help women to
remain HIV-free during pregnancy, breastfeeding and beyond. More effort is
needed to address this gap. It may be particularly important for adolescent
women, who may have less experience with and information about HIV.
Services to ensure reproductive rights and prevent
unintended pregnancies
Women, including women living with HIV, should have a right to have the
number of children they want and to space them to suit their own life’s
circumstances. For this reason, family planning remains one of the four
pillars of guidance on the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV.
Reducing the number of unintended pregnancies among women living with
HIV would not only reduce the number of children acquiring HIV but would
also improve the lives of women and children. This is crucial for adolescent
women, who are at greater risk for pregnancy-related complications. Spacing
pregnancies is also beneficial to the health of a woman living with HIV infection.
A mathematical projection from 2009 on the burden of paediatric HIV in
Uganda indicated the synergistic effect of family planning on reducing the
number of HIV-positive pregnancies. The model showed that, while HIV
services to prevent mother-to-child transmission averted an estimated 8.1%
of vertical infections, family planning averted 19.7%. According to the model,
unintended pregnancies accounted for 21.3% of new paediatric infections (5).
A recent systematic review of family planning uptake indicates that services
that provided more immediate access to a wider range of contraception
produced somewhat better results than those that offered referral or access
to a reduced range of family planning methods (6). This includes recognizing
the reproductive rights of women living with HIV, allowing them to make
informed choices regarding their childbearing desires and to access sexual
and reproductive health services.
Expanding access to contraception has also been shown to be a particularly
cost-effective investment: a recent analysis published in The Lancet
demonstrated that family planning would potentially account for half of
all deaths prevented from among several interventions examined (7). If all
women wanting to avoid pregnancy used modern family planning methods,
unintended pregnancies would decline by 71%. At present, providing health
care related to unintended pregnancies costs about US$ 5.7 billion annually
(8).
234 Gap report
HIV testing and counselling services for pregnant women
Access to treatment begins with access to counselling and testing. Despite
global efforts, only 44% of pregnant women in low- and middle-income
countries received HIV testing and counselling in 2013, with even fewer
receiving testing services with their male partners.
Pregnant women who test negative during pregnancy should also be
offered opportunities to retest in order to identify seroconversion during
pregnancy or during breastfeeding. Community- and home-based testing
efforts can be useful in reducing the financial, social and opportunity costs
that women may incur if they have to go to the facility for the test. All HIV
counselling and testing should be provided confidentially and voluntarily.
Access to health care for the poorest women
An analysis by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) shows
pronounced inequities in coverage for many essential health services,
whereby pregnant women from wealthier households are more likely to
receive care than those from poorer households (9).
This pattern is particularly evident for services that require a functional
health system, which includes personnel such as skilled birth attendants.
Consequently, women in the poorest quintile are two to three times less
likely than those in the richest households to have access to or use these
vital interventions. Data show that countries achieving rapid progress in
the coverage of essential interventions have accomplished this primarily by
Progress in stopping new
infections among children
and ensuring that mothers
are alive and healthy
requires reaching the full
cross-section of pregnant
women with essential health
services.
improving coverage among the poorest wealth quintiles. This is, in part, due
to the recognition that these populations have the greatest potential for
gains.
Pregnant women who are poor, the most deprived, achieve low levels of
education, live in rural areas and are more likely to lack access to services
than other women, many of whom are adolescent women. Efforts must
concentrate on addressing the HIV needs of the poorest—and other
vulnerable groups of—pregnant women in the population.
Therefore, programme advisers are now recommending that countries
decentralize services to the lowest levels and include equitable
considerations in order to target vulnerable women when developing
strategies for scaling up interventions (9,10).
12 populations 235
Limited access to antiretroviral medicines
To improve the health outcomes of women and children, improvements in
accessing HIV treatment as well as adherence to therapy are needed.
As of 2013, all pregnant women living with HIV are eligible for treatment.
Although solid progress has been made in providing services to prevent
vertical transmission, three out of ten pregnant women living with HIV in
2013 still did not receive effective antiretroviral medicines to prevent the
transmission of HIV to their children.
Paediatric medicines
There are fewer antiretroviral drugs available for use by children and
children incur higher treatment costs. Children living with HIV are one third
less likely to receive antiretroviral therapy compared to adults. Treatment
can only be successful if children receive and are assisted to adhere to their
medication, but often this is not the case. Results from a study of 11 sites
in Cameroon showed that only 32% of infants with a positive HIV test result
were alive and on treatment 18 months later (11).
There is also a need for countries to reprioritize co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
in paediatric HIV treatment, as recommended by the World Health
Organization (WHO) since 2006. Expanding access to co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis requires a set of interrelated interventions, including
strengthening links between HIV testing and treatment and establishing
mechanisms to identify and follow up HIV-exposed infants.
Medication supply issues further hamper paediatric treatment. Complex
formulas complicate pricing and ordering decisions and are contrary to a
public health approach that focuses on the uptake of a limited number of
optimized regimens.
236 Gap report
To improve the health
outcomes of women and
children, there is a need
to improve access to
HIV treatment as well as
adherence to therapy.
Percentage of adults (aged 15+) and children (aged 0–14) living with HIV who were receiving
antiretroviral therapy in 2013, in 21 priority countries
Chad
Cameroon
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
Côte d’Ivoire
Ethiopia
Ghana
Nigeria
Burundi
Angola
Lesotho
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
Uganda
Malawi
Zimbabwe
Kenya
Zambia
South Africa
Namibia
Swaziland
Botswana
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
People living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy (%)
Adults
Children
Source: 2013 estimates from UNAIDS, WHO and UNICEF.
12 populations 237
Failure to prioritize children
Without treatment, about one third of children living with HIV die by their
first birthday and half die by their second birthday. Initiating antiretroviral
therapy before the twelfth week of life reduces HIV-related mortality in
children living with HIV by 75% (2).
HIV-exposed infants should be tested using a specialized virological test.
Yet, in 2013, only 42% of infants born to mothers living with HIV in low- and
middle-income countries received this test within two months as recommended
by WHO (1,12). While this is appreciable progress considering the
recommendations were released in 2010, 58% of children were still missed.
By making children a higher
priority, sites offering adult
treatment could achieve
the capacity to provide
paediatric diagnoses and
treatment as well.
There are often limited laboratories and clinics available that meet paediatric
care needs. By making children a higher priority, sites offering adult treatment
could achieve the capacity to provide paediatric diagnoses and treatment as
well.
Provider-initiated paediatric testing in locations where children living with
HIV might be found can expand efforts to identify eligible children. Data
from four facilities in Uganda showed a 50% increase five months following
the scaling up of infant diagnosis among HIV-exposed babies tested each
month, a 19% increase in the proportion of those tested receiving results
and a younger age at infant diagnosis (13).
In addition, many children do not receive their conclusive HIV test at
the end of breastfeeding when the risk of vertical transmission ends—a
lost opportunity to link those who may have seroconverted into care.
Programmes are now strengthening their efforts to ensure that HIV-exposed
children receive a final diagnosis once breastfeeding ends.
Percentage of children born to HIV-positive women tested for HIV within two months of
birth by region
Percentage (%)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Low- and
middle-income
countries
Eastern and
southern Africa
Source: Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2013.
238 Gap report
Western and central
Africa
In 2012, only 30% of children who were tested were referred for initiation
of antiretroviral therapy (14). Given the rapid mortality associated with
paediatric HIV infection, this slow action intuitively condemns many
children to ill health and death.
Need for disaggregated data on children
To be effective, programmes need accurate data. At the moment, the
data being collected on children are not providing a clear enough picture
to enable programme planners to assess and respond fully to children’s
needs.
At a minimum, the numbers of children tested and on treatment should
be disaggregated and monitored using the following age groups:
under <1 year, 1–4 years, 5–9 years, 10–14 years and 15–19 years. This
disaggregation can enable greater attention to the specific gaps that need
to be addressed for children and adolescents.
Disaggregation by sex and risk factors are particularly important in
adolescents—those aged 10–19 years.
More broadly, disaggregated data is needed for men and women,
especially in order to identify inequities and vulnerabilities. Analysing data
by wealth quintiles, for example, can help assess which factors exclude key
subpopulations of women and children in order to design equitable and
effective solutions.
Poorly integrated health care
There are great opportunities for better-coordinated care which takes into
account the health and well-being of the whole person. Broader health
service integration that is family-centred, covering maternal and child
health, sexual and reproductive health and HIV services, would help to
ensure that women and children receive the care they need when they
need it.
Service delivery integration shows promise in improving various outcomes,
with existing examples of promising models of integration (15). A Zambian
study demonstrated a doubling in the proportion of treatment-eligible
pregnant women starting antiretroviral therapy prior to delivery through
an integrated HIV treatment and antenatal care strategy compared to
those simply referred to an antiretroviral therapy clinic (16). Another study
carried out in a clinical research setting demonstrated the effectiveness of
integrating family planning into HIV services through a higher uptake of
contraception and a decrease in pregnancy rates (17).
12 populations 239
Family-centred care including positive male involvement
Because HIV affects the family, it helps to manage it within a family context.
Through couples’ testing and counselling services, couples can learn their
results together with the assistance of a trained counsellor or health worker.
Unfortunately, such services are not always available.
An HIV-positive diagnosis for a pregnant woman can be an opportunity for a
health-care provider to facilitate family conversations and to reach the whole
family, to identify other HIV- positive children and to ensure that they are
linked to life-saving care. This may be especially important for adolescents,
who may have been missed during perinatal diagnoses and whose HIV
infection may progress slowly.
The role of men is particularly important. A prospective cohort study in Kenya
showed significantly lower rates of vertical HIV transmission among the infants
of women whose male partners accompanied them to antenatal clinics or
who reported that their male partners had been tested for HIV. Adjusting
for maternal viral load, the combined risk for either vertical transmission or
mortality was 45% lower with male antenatal attendance and 41% lower with
previous partner testing (18). The involvement of male partners also provides
an opportunity to identify discordant couples and, therefore, facilitate access
to treatment.
Family-centred care will require age-sensitive disclosure. Non-disclosure of
a pregnant woman’s HIV status to her partner has been associated with the
suboptimal prevention of mother-to-child transmission and poor treatment
adherence (19). Non-disclosure to adolescents can lead to fear and frustration
during this vulnerable and turbulent age period. Disclosure can help increase
the uptake of HIV testing and other services, and can enable a supportive and
cohesive family environment. It, however, needs to be voluntary, sensitive and
address the risks of negative consequences.
Community involvement, outreach and treatment literacy
Services also need to go beyond the health centre into the community.
Psychosocial peer support has been shown to improve services aimed at
preventing HIV transmission from mothers to their children. An evaluation of
mothers to mothers (m2m), a clinic-based support initiative that employs HIVpositive mothers as peer educators, revealed that those participating in the
m2m programme were significantly more likely to:
■■ Disclose their HIV status to at least one person.
■■ Receive CD4 cell count testing during pregnancy.
■■ Receive antiretroviral drugs for themselves and their infants.
240 Gap report
■■ Practice an exclusive method of infant feeding.
Treatment literacy is particularly essential for paediatric diagnosis,
treatment and disease management. In addition, women need accurate
information about their own use of antiretroviral drugs. Misunderstandings
about treatment have been linked to poor adherence and loss to followup, increasing the chances of drug resistance and treatment failure (20).
Caregivers who support children may delay care if they fail to recognize
symptoms, are unaware of where to receive care and if they live in the
context of a stigmatizing and misinformed community. Poor treatment
literacy may also foster a passive environment, where caregivers may be
unaware of their rights—and obligations—to quality services.
Ensuring service provision respects human rights
Protecting human rights is essential to ensuring that women living with
HIV come forward to access HIV-related services in order to avoid the risk
of vertical transmission to their children and to receive and adhere to the
treatment that they need for their own health.
A broad range of human rights concerns have been documented in the
context of HIV services for pregnant women and children (21–25). They
include the experiences of stigma, neglect and other negative attitudes
and behaviours towards pregnant women living with HIV in health-care
facilities (21,24). People have been subjected to mandatory or a lack of
informed consent to HIV testing and/or treatment, a lack of confidentiality
Broader health service
integration that is familycentred, covering maternal
and child health, sexual and
reproductive health and
HIV services, would help
to ensure that women and
children receive the care they
need when they need it.
or insufficient information and counselling on HIV testing and treatment
(23). The involuntary sterilization of women living with HIV, forced
abortions and the criminalization of the vertical transmission of HIV have
all been reported (22).
There are also concerns over a lack of sensitivity in programmes towards
the needs of women living with HIV who are also marginalized because
they are, for example, poor, young, disabled, sex workers or drug users.
In recent years, increased advocacy and actions by women living with
HIV and others are yielding results. In 2013, the African Commission on
Human and Peoples’ Rights adopted a resolution that expressly condemns
involuntary sterilization as a human rights violation and called on African
States to adopt measures to prevent and address it (26).
In June 2014, WHO, UNAIDS, OHCHR, UN Women, UNDP, UNICEF and
UNFPA adopted an interagency statement on eliminating forced, coercive
and otherwise involuntary sterilization, which calls for an end to the
involuntary sterilization of women living with HIV (27). Addressing human
rights concerns and violations in the context of eliminating mother-to-child
HIV transmission requires a number of concrete actions at the country and
community levels (28,29).
12 populations 241
CLOSING THE GAP
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
We will continue to fail many children and pregnant women unless efforts
are redoubled to overcome the obstacles which bar their access to lifesaving HIV services, including testing, prevention, treatment, care and
support.
Improve access to health and HIV
services for all women and children
01
02
Business as usual will only take us to a 65% reduction in new HIV infections
among children between 2009 and 2015, instead of the target of 90% that
countries aspire to reach.
Meeting global targets for antiretroviral therapy access among children
and pregnant women living with HIV will require the equitable expansion
of services along the entire maternal and child health continuum at
primary-level facilities and strengthening health systems including
antenatal and postnatal services as well as in the sphere of labour and
delivery. It will also require the integration of HIV services—including
chronic care management—for women, children and others in the family
as well as in the broader community.
Ensure treatment is available for all
in need
03
Invest in paediatric commodities and
approaches
It will also require strengthening links to other key services, such as
nutritional counselling, to support safe breastfeeding based on personal
preferences and circumstances.
04
The community and private sectors, in collaboration with governments,
have the potential to address the long-standing gaps among the hardest to
reach. Such programmes are likely to be challenging; but, as AIDS activism
has shown, a social justice focus can catalyse the most lasting benefits.
Scale up integrated, family-centred
health care services and information
Number of new child HIV infections
Number of new child HIV infections globally, 2005–2013, and projected targets
600 000
500 000
400 000
300 000
60%
reduction
65%
reduction
2001 to 2013
Continuing
current trends
from 2010
200 000
100 000
0
2001
2002
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
242 Gap report
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
90% reduction
Global Plan target
2015
A number of actions can accelerate progress.
For both children and pregnant women living with HIV:
■■ Adopt the 2013 WHO guidelines on antiretroviral therapy and
improving service delivery.
■■ Integrate maternal and child health and paediatric HIV treatment and
other care services, so that a woman and her child can receive care
from the same provider during a single visit.
We will continue to fail
many children and pregnant
women unless efforts are
redoubled to overcome the
obstacles which bar their
access to life-saving HIV
services, including testing,
prevention, treatment, care
and support.
■■ Reduce the key barriers to utilizing and accessing services, such as
distance to the clinic, out-of-pocket costs, waiting times and poor
treatment by health-care providers.
■■ End stigma and discrimination.
■■ Promote family-centred care, including male involvement where the
woman desires it.
■■ Improve health service delivery by strengthening human resources,
creating mentoring systems, maximizing the capacity of community
health workers and optimizing task shifting.
■■ Decentralize health services and scale up actions to reach the poorest
households, who often live in remote areas or urban slums and
disproportionately comprise ethnic minorities.
■■ Foster grassroots innovative approaches in order to reach isolated and
marginalized groups and bring them much-needed programmes and
services.
■■ Train health-care workers on non-discrimination, confidentiality,
informed consent and other human rights and ethical principles.
■■ Monitor and evaluate human rights issues to ensure that they are
documented and addressed.
■■ Reform laws, policies and practices that negatively impact human
rights.
■■ Empower women living with HIV to know their rights and inform
decision-making through legal literacy and information on patient
rights and legal services programmes.
■■ Strengthen community and peer support especially through other
women living with HIV.
■■ Meaningfully engage women living with HIV, human rights groups and
women’s organizations in the development and implementation of HIV
programmes, including through technical and financial support.
12 populations 243
■■ Engage community-based organizations, including networks of
women living with HIV, to support patients and health-care workers in
improving the access to and uptake, quality and effectiveness of HIV
services.
Actions to address the gaps in meeting the HIV service needs of
pregnant women living with HIV include:
■■ Improving access to voluntary counselling and testing.
■■ Ensuring that voluntary couples counselling and testing is available.
■■ Ensuring that all HIV services are voluntary, confidential and of high
quality, including referrals and follow-up.
■■ Ensuring that women living with HIV have full and complete
information and an understanding of their sexual and reproductive
health options, risks and benefits and the ability to choose freely
among them.
■■ Providing lifelong treatment for all pregnant women according to the
2013 WHO guidelines (12) to prevent vertical transmission while at the
same time safeguarding the woman’s health.
■■ Providing treatment to the remaining 30% of pregnant women living
with HIV who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy to prevent vertical
transmission.
■■ Paying extra attention to pregnant adolescents.
The interventions that are needed in order to better support children
living with HIV include:
■■ Improving early infant diagnosis by identifying HIV-exposed infants
and ensuring that all HIV-exposed children receive a final diagnosis
once breastfeeding ends.
■■ Increasing the number of sites and providers who can provide testing
and treatment for children.
■■ Strengthening the supply chain of paediatric commodities including
drugs and diagnostics.
■■ Promptly treating all children younger than 5 years of age immediately
once a positive HIV test is confirmed.
■■ Expanding access to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in paediatric HIV
treatment, as recommended by WHO since 2006.
■■ Strengthening the continuum of care as children transition to
adolescence.
244 Gap report
■■ Involving the community in outreach and paediatric treatment literacy,
including phased age-sensitive disclosure.
■■ Gathering more strategic information for programme design through
disaggregated data on children.
12 populations 245
246 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
10
DISPLACED
PERSONS
The forcible displacement of people through conflict
or disaster is associated with increased food insecurity,
the destruction of livelihoods and resulting poverty.
Emergencies can disrupt care and treatment for people
already living with HIV, and the negative impact of HIV
on their health and livelihoods can increase the severity
of the disasters they experience.
HIV in emergency situations is often addressed as a
generic set of issues. However, available evidence
suggests that different types of emergencies have
different impacts on people living with HIV, which
require tailored humanitarian responses and the
integration of HIV-related concerns.
12 populations 247
12 POPULATIONS
10 DISPLACED PERSONS
I am a displaced person.
I face these issues.
I need to continue
my treatment, but
the earthquake
destroyed the
health clinic
I was
raped and
received no
care
I am worried
that my HIV test
result will be
used to deny my
asylum request
I want
condoms, but
the health
clinic has run
out of them
248 Gap report
I am young. I need
education and skills
to lead a better life
when I return home
It is not safe
for me to go
alone to get
firewood
I am
discriminated
against in
the local
community
I resort to sex
work to meet
my basic needs
and to care for
my children
I want to
enjoy a decent
standard of
health
I want to be
independent
and self-reliant
again
I cannot plan my
future when I do
not know what
will happen to me
tomorrow
We lost
everything in
the war
WHY DISPLACED PERSONS ARE BEING LEFT
BEHIND
The forcible displacement of people through conflict or disaster is associated
with increased food insecurity, the destruction of livelihoods and resulting
poverty. Emergencies can disrupt care and treatment for people already living
with HIV, and the negative impact of HIV on their health and livelihoods can
increase the severity of the disasters they experience.
HIV in emergency situations is often addressed as a generic set of issues.
However, available evidence suggests that different types of emergencies have
different impacts on people living with HIV, which require tailored humanitarian
responses and the integration of HIV-related concerns.
HIV burden
By the end of 2013, there were 51.2 million people forcibly displaced
worldwide, the highest level on record according to the Office of the United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). These included 16.7 million
refugees, 33.3 million internally displaced persons and 1.2 million asylum
seekers. Every four seconds, someone is forced to flee their home (1).
In 2006, 1.8 million people living with HIV were also affected
by conflict, disaster or displacement, representing 5.4% of the
global total. Given that the numbers of displaced persons in
2013 increased by 24.2%, it is likely that the number of displaced
persons living with HIV is also significantly higher.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
02
Restrictive laws, policies and practices
Limited access to quality health
services
03
04
Stigma and discrimination
HIV services not prioritized in
humanitarian responses
In 10 countries, there was no consistent difference in the level of
risky sexual behaviour between refugees and the host country
population, as documented by behavioural surveillance surveys
from 2004 to 2012.
In 17 studies from 13 countries, 87–99.5% of conflict-affected
people adhered to antiretroviral therapy, which was similar to rates
among non-affected groups.
The determinants of HIV among people affected by conflict are complex,
and prevalences vary according to a number of interacting factors, the
phases of disasters and contexts (2,3).
12 populations 249
According to estimates in 2008, 1.8 million people living with HIV—5.4% of
the global total—were affected by conflict, disaster or displacement in 2006.
In the same year, an estimated 930 000 women and 150 000 children aged
under 15 years living with HIV were affected by emergencies. Given that the
number of displaced persons increased by 12.4 million—or by 24.2%—from
2006 to 2013, it is likely that the number of people living with HIV who are
affected by conflict, disaster or displacement has also increased (4).
The 2013 levels of forced displacement were the highest since at least
1989, the first year for which comprehensive statistics on global forced
displacement were published (1).
People living with HIV affected by emergencies by region (2006)
Sub-Saharan Africa
East Asia
Oceania
South and South-East Asia
Eastern Europe and central Asia
Western and central Europe
Middle East and North Africa
North America
Caribbean
Latin America
Global
Number
Percentage (%)
1 500 000
7
38 000
5.2
< 1 000
1.4
90 000
2.3
6 200
0.4
11 000
1.5
48 000
13.3
8 200
0.6
< 1 000
0.2
16 000
1
1 800 000
5.4
Source: Lowicki-Zucca M, Spiegel PB, Kelly P B, Dehne KL, Walker N, Gyhs PD. Estimates of HIV burden in emergencies. Sex Transm Infect.
2008;84(Suppl 1):i42–i48. doi:10.1136/sti.2008.029843.
How HIV transmission is affected by emergencies is complicated and
includes an interconnected mixture of exacerbating and diminishing
vulnerability and risk factors that are context-specific.
Factors that increase a displaced person’s vulnerability to HIV include a
breakdown in social structures, a lack of income and basic needs, sexual
violence and abuse, increased drug use and a lack of health infrastructure
and education.
250 Gap report
HIV risk factors in conflict zones and camps for displaced persons
Key factors
HIV prevalence in the area of origin
HIV prevalence in the surrounding host population
Increased risk
Decreased risk
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Behavioural change
Gender-based violence
Transactional sex
Reduction in resources and services
(e.g. health, education, community,
services, protection, food)
Reduction in mobility
Reduction in accessibility
Increase in resources and services in
host country
Source: Spiegel PB. HIV/AIDS among conflict-affected and displaced populations: dispelling myths and taking action. Disasters. 2004;28(3):322–39.
However, there are also factors that may reduce the risk to HIV in such
situations. These include reduced mobility and accessibility (e.g., destroyed
infrastructure reducing travel to high-prevalence urban areas, displacement
to remote locations and surviving in the bush) and, in the case of many
displaced person camps, improved protection, health, education and social
services.
The ultimate influence that these factors have is dependent on the HIV
prevalence among the affected community prior to the conflict, the HIV
prevalence among the surrounding community for those who have been
displaced, exposure to violence during the conflict and flight from it and
the level of interaction between the two communities. A study using
data collected from 27 sites in 10 countries conducted among 24 219
people showed that there was no consistent difference in the level of risky
sexual behaviour between refugees and the surrounding population, as
documented by behavioural surveillance surveys from 2004 to 2012 (5).
Complicating these factors are the duration of the conflict and the length of
time the displaced persons have resided in a particular camp. The former
may keep people isolated and inaccessible for years, while the latter,
depending upon the camp’s location, may have the same result. Long-term
post-emergency refugee camps generally provide better preventive and
curative health services than do the surrounding local communities (7).
12 populations 251
Restrictive laws, policies and practices
In the many states that restrict immigration by people living with HIV,
refugees and asylum seekers may face significant additional burdens. Some
countries harbour concerns that allowing HIV-positive asylum seekers to
enter would result in large-scale immigration for treatment. These countries
also fear that an influx of HIV-positive asylum seekers or refugees would
pose a substantial public health threat, although this conclusion is contrary
to evidence and has no moral, legal or public health basis.
Some countries refuse to grant asylum or refugee status to people on the
basis of their HIV-positive status, who would otherwise qualify. For those
applicants who have credible fears of persecution in their home country, the
strict application of national policies prohibiting entry for people living with
HIV seems particularly inhumane. Under these circumstances, HIV-positive
applicants may be prevented from obtaining asylum.
More likely, they may not even seek asylum, instead opting to live illegally in
a country other than their country of origin. This can have significant adverse
effects on their health, since undocumented migrants are less likely to seek
health care or acknowledge that they are HIV-positive (8).
In a number of countries, mandatory HIV testing of refugees and asylum
seekers includes HIV testing without pre- or post-test counselling and a lack
of privacy for refugees who undergo HIV tests. In some countries, this occurs
even where national legislation clearly states that all HIV testing should be
voluntary, conducted with informed consent and combined with counselling
and strict confidentiality (9).
Even in countries where displaced persons who are living with HIV are
permitted to stay, their access to treatment is not guaranteed. Some host
countries fail to recognize that HIV programmes for displaced persons
are not only a human rights issue, but a public health priority for affected
populations and host populations alike.
An analysis of national HIV strategic plans and grants awarded by the Global
Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) in rounds 1–8
in sub-Saharan Africa shows that there are gaps in service planning and
provision for displaced persons (10). A majority of countries (57%) did not
mention internally displaced persons, and only 48% accounted for refugees
in their HIV national strategic plans. A minority (21–29%) of plans included
activities for refugees and internally displaced persons. Between 61% and
83% of countries with ≥10 000 refugees and internally displaced persons did
not include these groups in their approved proposals.
252 Gap report
Some countries refuse to
grant asylum or refugee
status to people on the
basis of their HIV-positive
status who would otherwise
qualify.
Round 8
2008
Round 7
2007
Round 6
2006
Round 5
2005
Round 4
2004
Round 3
2003
Round 2
2003
Round 1
2002
Number of African countries with >10 000 displaced people including refugees and/or
internally displaced people in accepted Global Fund proposals with an HIV component (Rounds
1–8; 2002–2008)
Refugees
Internally displaced people
Refugees
Internally displaced people
Refugees
Internally displaced people
Refugees
Internally displaced people
Refugees
Internally displaced people
Refugees
Internally displaced people
Refugees
Internally displaced people
Refugees
Internally displaced people
0
No mention
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
Number of countries
Reference
Reference and activities
Nonsubmitting countries
Source: Spiegel PB, Hering H, Paik E, Schilperoord M. Conflict-affected displaced people need to benefit more from HIV and malaria national strategic
plans and Global Fund grants. Confl Health 2010;4:2.
12 populations 253
Limited access to quality health services
For people who are forced to leave their home, life is focused on survival
and meeting the most basic needs of safety, shelter, food and water.
Displaced persons find themselves in different types of living situations. By
the end of 2013, 58% of refugees globally were living in non-camp settings
in urban areas. Among those who were living in camps, 93% of them
resided in rural areas, most in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia (1).
Within conflict-affected settings, there can be unique challenges to
providing, accessing and adhering to treatment. Access to HIV-related
services may be limited by logistical challenges on the ground, which pose
risks for the discontinuation of HIV and tuberculosis treatment, putting lives
at risk and contributing to resistance. The provision of condoms is key to
preventing the transmission of HIV. Pregnant women and breastfeeding
mothers also need services to prevent vertical transmission.
HIV-related services in conflict settings are neglected for various reasons,
including poor health infrastructure and resources and a lack of giving
priority to HIV-related health needs given the limited resources and
competing medical priorities. There may be fears related to the complexity
of providing antiretroviral therapy and a lack of relevant guidelines. The
unstable nature of the situation leads to concerns about interrupting
treatment, which may lead to antiretroviral resistance and a belief that,
unless the provision of treatment can be maintained for the person’s life,
then it should not be initiated at all. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated
that treatment for HIV in conflict zones is both feasible and effective, and
guidelines related to the process have been produced (11). An analysis of
17 studies in 13 countries showed that 87–99.5% of people affected by
conflicts adhered to treatment, which was similar to adherence rates among
non-affected groups (6).
Antiretroviral therapy disruption should be anticipated in emergencies. As
treatment access increases, ever-larger numbers of people living with HIV
in currently stable areas are at risk of treatment disruption should conflicts
affect their health services or force their migration. Effective supply chain
management systems are fundamental to the stocking of antiretroviral
medicines.
Treatment interruption during the 2008 post-election violence period (30
December 2007 to 28 February 2008) in Kenya was measured among adults
attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic in Nairobi and compared with the
same time period one year earlier (12). Despite clinical services remaining
open, more clients (16.1%) experienced treatment interruption during
the violence than during the comparison period (10.2%). Clients listed
fear, a lack of transportation and violence as contributing to the treatment
interruption.
254 Gap report
The health of people living
with HIV is vulnerable during
violent conflicts, and HIV
programmes should have
appropriate contingency
plans wherever political
instability may occur.
As this study demonstrates, the health of people living with HIV is
vulnerable during violent conflicts, and HIV programmes should have
appropriate contingency plans wherever political instability may occur.
Innovative service delivery models may help to address this (12).
In emergencies, reduced access to basic foods, health services and water
and sanitation are common. These factors present particular problems
for people living with HIV who have specific nutritional needs and have
increased energy requirements. Thus, access to food is particularly vital for
them (13).
Children below 18 years constituted 50% of the refugee population in 2013
(1). Concerns remain that the specific needs of displaced children living with
HIV may be not met due to the limited availability of HIV-related paediatric
services in settings with poor infrastructure and extremely weak health
systems in the host areas. Similar to adults, children, when provided with
access to treatment even in armed conflict zones, are likely to adhere to
treatment, as demonstrated in previous studies (14).
Stigma and discrimination
Stigma and discrimination weaken the ability of individuals and communities
to protect themselves from HIV and to remain healthy when they are HIVpositive. This is more pronounced for displaced persons.
Displaced persons, in general, have long been falsely blamed for spreading
HIV among host populations. In the largest study of paired sites of
refugees in protracted refugee camps and settlements and surrounding
populations, the data showed no consistent difference in the level of risky
sexual behaviour, such as multiple sexual partners, premarital sex and early
sexual debut, as well as the prevalence of HIV testing and comprehensive
knowledge of HIV among the two populations (5).
Displaced persons, in
general, have long been
falsely blamed for spreading
HIV among host populations.
Studies focusing on Guinea, the Sudan and Uganda found that media
reporting was incomplete, misleading or incorrect. Given the unique
characteristics of the HIV epidemic and conflict-affected and displaced
persons, the media have a special obligation to report in a balanced and
nondiscriminatory manner, which may go beyond the accepted standards of
journalism. The media may wish to have HIV data and their interpretations
reviewed by technical experts before going to press. Specific training for
reporters and editors regarding ethical issues and basic epidemiological
methods may help them to better understand the complexity of the
situation and to report more accurately (15).
In addition, power imbalances that make girls and women
disproportionately vulnerable to HIV become even more pronounced during
conflicts and displacement. There may be increased pressure to engage in
sex work. HIV risk among sex workers and their clients may be increased
due to lower condom use and increased violence. Sex workers are highly
12 populations 255
stigmatized in the community and often may not access HIV prevention and
response services, thus increasing their risk of acquiring and transmitting
HIV. Gay men and other men who have sex with men, male sex workers and
people who inject drugs also face high levels of stigma and often do not
have access to HIV prevention and treatment services (13).
In an analysis of baseline and end-of-project behavioural surveillance
surveys in 2010 in Kenya, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania,
accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV decreased in five of
seven sites over a five-year period. The decrease ranged from a drop of
4.4% in a camp in Uganda to 75.5% in the town of Lukole, a host area in the
United Republic of Tanzania (16).
Direction and magnitude of change in accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV
among people aged 15–49
250
200
Percentage (%)
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
Refugee camp
Host community
Kenya
Uganda
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, The World Bank. Changing regional trends in HIV-related behaviours in refugee
camps and surrounding communities. Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania (the), and Uganda. Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees; 2011.
HIV services not prioritized in humanitarian responses
The different stages of emergencies have funding needs that require
support at strategic points in time. Donor agencies generally maintain a
scope of funding and focus on specific fields or interests.
256 Gap report
Donors and humanitarian actors do not adequately prioritize HIV in
emergency responses. This is largely because HIV is generally subsumed
under other health concerns or is considered a development issue. This
oversight must change in order to address HIV within the continuum of the
cycle of displacement (17).
The Horn of Africa experienced two consecutive seasons of poor rainfall in
2011, resulting in one of the driest periods since 1995. The United Nations
declared a famine in Somalia. Approximately 12.4 million people were
affected in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. In the appeal documents
detailing the humanitarian requirements for the Horn of Africa, HIV was
referred to in only three insignificant places, with no reference to data on
the magnitude of the problem nor mention of existing gaps in HIV-related
services responding to the crisis.
Donors and humanitarian
actors do not adequately
prioritize HIV in emergency
responses, since HIV is
generally subsumed under
other health concerns or
considered a development
issue.
An analysis of the drought-related humanitarian appeals revealed that no
HIV-specific projects were included as a part of country appeals despite
both Ethiopia and Kenya being high-burden HIV countries and Djibouti
experiencing a concentrated epidemic.
Failure to articulate HIV needs in humanitarian instruments is a lost advocacy
and resource mobilization opportunity. Despite global advocacy by UNAIDS
and other actors on the need to systematically address HIV-related needs
during emergencies, the focus of traditional humanitarian actors during a
crisis is on outbreak-prone diseases and malnutrition. In future, stronger
regional-level coordination and advocacy efforts need to occur (18).
Humanitarian requirements for the Horn of Africa drought, 2011
Total funding requirement (US$)
Health and nutrition funding
requirement (US$)
Funding requirement for HIV-specific
projects (US$)
Djibouti
Ethiopia
Kenya
Somalia
1 062 510 067
644 568 098
740 700 000
1 062 510 067
7 672 500
31 360 739
16 696 699
80 078 772
0
88 000
Female genital
mutilation-HIV link
under protection
0
0
Source: Doraiswamy S, Cornier N, Omondi M, Spiegel P. HIV in the Horn of Africa crisis: what can we learn? Review of humanitarian instruments. In: XIXth
International AIDS Conference, abstract no. WEPE594. Washington, DC; 22–27 July 2012.
12 populations 257
CLOSING THE GAP
Increasing numbers of people are being displaced to low-income
countries that have fewer resources to dedicate to the complex needs
of this vulnerable population, including their HIV-related needs. In 2013,
developing countries hosted 86% of the world’s refugees compared to 70%
10 years ago; the least-developed countries provided asylum to 2.8 million
refugees by the end of the year (1).
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
02
03
04
Reform punitive laws and policies
As the number of people being affected by displacement continues to
grow, the need for services to address the HIV prevention and treatment
needs of displaced persons affected by or vulnerable to HIV are key.
An HIV-positive serostatus should not adversely affect a person’s right to
seek asylum, to access protection or to avail oneself of a durable solution.
All mandatory HIV testing—which has no public health justification—of
displaced persons, including asylum seekers and refugees, must end.
Ensure access to treatment
Appropriate measures need to be taken to ensure that women and children
are protected from sexual and physical violence and exploitation.
Address stigma and discrimination
The right to health includes access not only to antiretroviral therapy but
also to HIV-related educational materials. Therefore, governments and
humanitarian actors should ensure the widespread dissemination of
HIV-related information to displaced persons, particularly with regard to
prevention, treatment and care, as well as information related to sexual and
reproductive health.
Integrate HIV into national disaster
preparedness and response plans
Treatment must be made available to all eligible displaced persons. The
right to health, including the principle of access to essential medicines,
articulates the rationale for providing access to life-saving interventions
for people living with HIV, regardless of their personal circumstance. The
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees enshrines the principle
of equity, whereby host countries should provide refugees with a similar
standard of medical care to that which is routinely available to its citizens.
Since antiretroviral therapy can help prevent the onward transmission of
HIV to sexual partners, it is in the self-interest of governments which host
displaced persons to support programmes that serve all populations within
their borders to the highest possible standard (19).
Programmes which are based on a situation analysis and designed to
address stigma and discrimination directed at displaced persons living with
HIV are needed. Furthermore, programmes should target the key drivers of
stigma and discrimination at all levels. They should also be based on clear,
specific objectives or results, including specific attitudinal and behavioural
objectives related to stigmatizing groups, stigmatized groups and changes
in the structural drivers and facilitators of stigma and discrimination (20).
258 Gap report
It is vital that HIV services be integrated into humanitarian response design
and implementation. Ensuring and sustaining access to HIV prevention,
treatment and care services need to be priorities.
At a minimum, HIV-related services should initially be restored in an
emergency setting to include (21):
■■ Identifying a single agency to lead HIV coordination efforts.
■■ Protecting all people living with HIV against human rights violations.
The goal is to develop
an integrated response
ensuring that people who
have been displaced by
conflicts or disasters have
equal access to HIV-related
services at a level similar
to that of the surrounding
national population.
■■ Maintaining the provision of antiretroviral therapy for HIV and treatment
for tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections and opportunistic
infections, including for specific services for pregnant women.
■■ Ensuring that information on HIV prevention and access to prevention
and reproductive health commodities are available and providing
post-exposure prophylaxis for survivors of sexual violence and anyone
experiencing occupational exposure to HIV should be provided.
■■ Sustaining community-level home-based care and support for adults
and children living with HIV.
■■ Supporting mechanisms to prevent, protect and respond to genderbased violence.
■■ Ensuring that appropriate care and nutrition is available for all adults
and children living with HIV.
Avoiding the establishment of vertical systems to address HIV among
displaced persons is important. Instead, their needs should be integrated
into existing HIV responses and health programmes. It is also important,
where and as much as possible, to ensure that HIV programmes are
developed in consultation with these affected populations.
In the first instance, services should be provided through existing national
structures during emergencies when the capacity exists. If the capacity of
public health institutions is fully stretched, the second option is to work
through international or national nongovernmental organizations based on
the available capacity.
As soon as the minimum level of activities are in place and the emergency
has stabilized, the primary goal should focus on developing an integrated
response that ensures people who have been displaced by conflicts or
disasters have equal access to HIV-related services at a level similar to that
of the surrounding national population.
12 populations 259
260 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
11
PEOPLE WITH
DISABILITIES
There are more than one billion people living with a
physical, sensory, intellectual or mental health disability
in the world—four out of five live in low- and middleincome countries (1).
People with disabilities experience negative attitudes
that can result in violence, sexual abuse, stigma and
discrimination, which can lead to low self-esteem and
social isolation.
Vulnerability, combined with a poor understanding and
appreciation of their sexual and reproductive health
needs, places people with disabilities at higher risk of
HIV infection (2).
12 populations 261
12 POPULATIONS
11 PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES
I am a person living with disabilities.
I face these issues.
I have difficulty
finding work
People
think I am a
burden
I am a
sexual
being
I am equal
to you
I face
obstacles
everywhere
I am
sexually
abused
262 Gap report
I am
gay
I am
capable
I am
physically
abused
I cannot
afford
health care
I was
excluded
from
school
WHY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES ARE BEING
LEFT BEHIND
There are more than one billion people living with a physical, sensory,
intellectual or mental health disability in the world—four out of five live
in low- and middle-income countries (1).
People with disabilities experience negative attitudes that can result in
violence, sexual abuse, stigma and discrimination, which can lead to low
self-esteem and social isolation.
Vulnerability, combined with a poor understanding and appreciation
of their sexual and reproductive health needs, places people with
disabilities at higher risk of HIV infection (2).
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
02
03
04
Lack of awareness by society
Violence and sexual abuse
HIV burden
A 2012 survey in South Africa reported an HIV prevalence among people
with disabilities of 16.7%, and a study among deaf people in Kenya
indicated that nearly 7% were living with HIV (3). However, risk perception
remained low: 78% of people with disabilities in South Africa felt that they
were at a low risk of acquiring HIV (4).
A 2012 survey in South Africa reported an HIV prevalence of
16.7% among people with disabilities.
Discrimination in health-care settings
Low awareness and risk perception
about HIV
Seventy-eight per cent of people with disabilities felt that they were
at a low risk of acquiring HIV.
A study among deaf people in Kenya indicated that nearly 7% were
living with HIV.
Disability varies widely according to age, sex, stage of life, exposure
to environmental risks, socioeconomic status and culture. People with
disabilities and households that include people with disabilities experience
poorer social and economic outcomes compared with individuals and
households without disabilities. Often, additional costs are incurred to
achieve a standard of living equivalent to that of people without disabilities.
Whether or not they are living with HIV, people with disabilities have an
unmet need for health and HIV services in order to protect themselves. They
represent one of the largest and most underserved populations.
12 populations 263
Lack of awareness by society
HIV-related data on people with disabilities are sparse, since most countries
do not measure HIV prevalence among the group. However, the few
existing studies show that HIV prevalence among people with disabilities is
nearly the same or higher compared with people without disabilities (5).
Services that people with disabilities need versus what they receive
Health services
Welfare services
Counselling
Educational
services
Vocational training
90.5
79.5
64.6
58.1
47.3
23.3
15.2
Namibia
Namibia
Namibia
Namibia
76
52.1
51.2
41.1
40.8
43.4
72.9
Namibia
27.4
5.2
93.7
92
23.6
22.7
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
83.4
69
52.7
43.9
45
61
5
Malawi
10.7
20.3
5.6
Malawi
Malawi
Malawi
Malawi
62.6
51.2
47
35.1
14.3
17.8
Zambia
Zambia
79.3
76.7
8.4
Zambia
Needed
Zambia
Received
Source: World report on disability. Geneva, WHO/The World Bank, 2011.
264 Gap report
8.4
Zambia
Neglect and discrimination in all their forms place people with disabilities
at risk of HIV infection. Often family, caregivers, employers and health-care
providers fail to fully understand or appreciate the sexual and reproductive
health needs of people with disabilities.
People with disabilities are often neglected in HIV policy planning as well
as wider health-care provisioning. Common misperceptions affecting public
health planning include the belief that people with disabilities are sexually
inactive or unlikely to use drugs or alcohol.
People with disabilities
experience all of the risk
factors associated with
acquiring HIV.
People with disabilities experience all of the risk factors associated with
acquiring HIV. They are often at an increased risk because of poverty,
severely limited access to education and health care, and a lack of
information and resources to facilitate safer sex. Often, they lack legal
protection and are vulnerable to substance abuse and stigma. People with
disabilities, particularly women and girls, are more vulnerable to sexual
violence and abuse (6).
People with disabilities may experience compounded negative
consequences, such as low self-esteem and reduced political and civic
engagement and participation, and face the double burden of stigma and
discrimination if they are also living with HIV.
Violence and sexual abuse
Children and adults with disabilities are at a higher risk of violence than
are non-disabled children and adults. People with mental disabilities are
particularly vulnerable. There are several factors for this higher risk: exclusion
from education and employment; the need for personal assistance with daily
living; reduced physical and emotional defences; communication barriers that
hamper the reporting of violence; and societal stigma and discrimination (1).
Violence is linked to health outcomes both in the immediate and long
term, including injuries, physical and mental health problems, substance
abuse and death (7). In the United States of America, reports of violence
against people with disabilities were four to 10 times greater than reports of
violence against people without disabilities (8).
In the United States of
America, reports of violence
against people with
disabilities were 4 to 10
times greater than reports
of violence against people
without disabilities.
Studies have found that the prevalence of sexual abuse experienced by
people with disabilities is higher (9,10), especially for institutionalized men
and women with intellectual disabilities (11–13), intimate partners (9,14)
and adolescents (6). Research has also found that the incidence of intimate
partner violence experienced by people with disabilities is high (6).
Violence against students with disabilities perpetrated by teachers, other
staff and fellow students is common in educational settings (15). Students
with disabilities often experience physical threats and abuse, verbal abuse
and social isolation. Violence and sexual abuse increase an individual’s
vulnerability and risk of HIV infection. Violence against people with
disabilities is a significant public health and human rights issue.
12 populations 265
Proportional risk of violence against people with a disability compared with people without
a disability
Mental illnesses
Intellectual impairments
Non-specific impairments
0
1
2
3
4
5
Proportional risk of violence
Proportional risk of violence in people with a disability
Risk of violence in people without a disability
Source: Hughes K, Bellis MA, Jones L, Wood S, Bates G, Eckley L, McCoy E, Mikton C, Shakespeare T, Officer A. Prevalence and risk of violence against
adults with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet 2012; doi:10.1016/S0410-6736(11)61851-5.
Discrimination in health-care settings
All countries need to work towards removing barriers and making existing
health-care systems more inclusive and accessible to people with disabilities
(1). Globally, more than 10% of women and 23% of men living with a
disability reported not returning to seek health care because they were
treated badly during a previous visit (1). A national study in the United
States showed that women with functional limitations were less likely to be
asked about contraceptive use during visits to their doctor (16).
The provision of sexual health information and support for people with
disabilities has often been given limited attention or priority. This is, in part,
because people with disabilities have not been included in the design and
development of these services and hence have not been able to articulate
their needs.
HIV services are needed both for people with disabilities who acquire HIV
or who are at risk of HIV infection. Services must also respond to the needs
266 Gap report
Globally, more than 10%
of women and 23% of
men living with a disability
reported not returning to
seek health care because
they were treated badly
during a previous visit.
of people living with HIV, who then develop disabilities as a result of the
progression of HIV or due to the side-effects of antiretroviral therapy. Many
health practitioners lack the necessary knowledge, skills and resources
to provide these accessible, appropriate services. Thus, better training is
needed and peer support will help to close this gap.
Reasons why people with disabilities cannot access health services
People with a disability in high-income
countries
90
90
80
80
70
70
60
60
Percentage (%)
Percentage (%)
People with a disability in low-income
countries
50
40
30
50
40
30
20
20
10
10
0
Could not
afford
the visit
Tried, but were
denied health
care
Were previously
treated badly
0
Could not
afford
the visit
Tried, but were
denied health
care
Were previously
treated badly
People with a disability globally
90
80
Percentage (%)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Female
Could not
afford
the visit
Tried, but were
denied health
care
Were previously
treated badly
Male
Source: World report on disability. Geneva, WHO/The World Bank, 2011.
12 populations 267
Low awareness and risk perception about HIV
Adolescents and adults with disabilities are more likely to be excluded
from sex education programmes than other people (17,18). Knowledge
about HIV among people with disabilities is generally low (5), due in part to
difficulties in accessing any kind of HIV education or prevention services.
Information materials and approaches to disseminating information
are rarely adapted to the diverse communication needs of people with
disabilities (19). The lack of appropriate information is thought to limit
the ability of people with disabilities to access and understand safer sex
messages or to negotiate safer sexual behaviours (20).
People with disabilities are
less likely to have access to
information and services,
since it is assumed that they
are not sexually active.
A study in South Africa shows that people with disabilities are less likely to
have access to information and services, since it is assumed that they are not
sexually active. They are, therefore, less likely to have the skills and means
to protect themselves against HIV infection (4).
Low HIV awareness and risk perception among people with disabilities, South Africa
90
80
Percentage (%)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Condom use at last
sexual encounter
Perceived low risk of
HIV infection
More than one
sexual partner in the
last 12 months
Correct
knowledge of HIV
transmission and
rejection of major
misconceptions
People with disabilities (15 years and older ) at higher risk of exposure (%)
National average (%)
Source: Shisana O, et al. South African National HIV prevalence, incidence, behaviour and communication survey, 2012. Cape Town, HSCR, 2014.
268 Gap report
CLOSING THE GAP
HIV programmes must be accessible and meet the needs of people with
disabilities. People with disabilities are often denied the opportunity to
articulate their specific needs or be heard, owing to their marginalized
position in society. Like many individuals, people with disabilities need and
want access to HIV education, testing and treatment, as well as to broader
sexual and reproductive health services.
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
02
Ending violence and sexual abuse
People with disabilities should be fully included in national HIV responses.
National strategic plans on HIV must include good practice on disability.
HIV must also be included as an integral part of disability rights strategies,
initiatives and programmes.
Since people with disabilities are vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse
in both community and residential settings, protection safeguards are
particularly important (21). Mechanisms to detect and prevent physical and
sexual abuse in both formal and informal support services are needed.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
must be implemented. Under the Convention, people with disabilities
have the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health without
discrimination on the basis of disability (22). Countries are tasked with taking
all appropriate measures to ensure access to health services for people with
disabilities.
For national AIDS responses to genuinely address the unmet needs of
people with disabilities, improved disability data collection is needed.
This can be achieved by including disability questions in existing surveys,
such as national household or national health surveys. Data need to be
disaggregated by population features, such as by the type of disability, age,
sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, to uncover patterns, trends and
information about subgroups of people with disabilities. Understanding
the specific realities of people with disabilities better will help to remove
barriers in country-level efforts and improve the provision of HIV and other
health services.
Additional data are also needed on the prevalence of unsafe sex as well
as linkages between disability and poverty, sexual violence, stigma, risk
behaviours and gender inequality. The absence of data reflects an overall
failure to recognize the needs of people with disabilities and a failure to
develop services that will respond to these needs.
Including people with disabilities fully
in national HIV responses
03
04
Data collection on disability and HIV
Access to sexual and reproductive
health services and information
Improved disability data
collection is needed, which
can be achieved by including
disability questions in
existing surveys.
12 populations 269
270 Gap report
12 POPULATIONS
12
PEOPLE AGED
50 YEARS
AND OLDER
The ageing of the world’s population is one of the most
significant demographic trends of this era, and there are
a growing number of people aged 50 and older living
with HIV in the world today (1). With the size of this
demographic growing, there will be an increased need
for long-term access to HIV and other health services.
This group includes men, women and transgender
people. A large proportion of people aged 50 and
older are sexually active. Like younger people, people
aged 50 and older also need HIV services, although
their needs are often overlooked, neglected or ignored.
12 populations 271
12 POPULATIONS
12 PEOPLE AGED 50 YEARS AND OLDER
I am 50+.
I face these issues.
I am sexually
active
I think condoms
are for younger
people
I am told I do
not need an
HIV test
I am denied
HIV treatment
I do not have
savings to
pay for my
health
I am not
treated well
by health
workers
I still have to
look after my
grandchildren
No one listens to
my concerns
I am ignored
by younger
people
I fear being a
burden
272 Gap report
I worry
about my
safety
WHY PEOPLE OVER THE AGE OF 50 ARE
BEING LEFT BEHIND
The ageing of the world’s population is one of the most significant demographic
trends of this era, and there are a growing number of people aged 50 and older
living with HIV in the world today (1). With the size of this demographic growing,
there will be an increased need for long-term access to HIV and other health
services.
This group includes men, women and transgender people. A large proportion of
people aged 50 and older are sexually active. Like younger people, people aged
50 and older also need HIV services, although their needs are often overlooked,
neglected or ignored.
HIV BURDEN
There are 4.2 million people aged 50 and older living with HIV
today.
More than 2 million people aged 50 and older live in sub-Saharan
Africa, which accounts for 60% of all people living with HIV over
the age of 50.
Thirteen per cent of the adult population living with HIV is aged
50 or older.
THE TOP 4 REASONS
01
02
Low perception of HIV risk
Managing HIV and other health
issues is complicated
03
04
Access to services
Stigma and discrimination
HIV vulnerability and risk among older adults is found in all regions.
Approximately one out of five people living with HIV who are aged 50 and older
live in western and central Europe and North America (2). This demographic is
expected to continue to grow worldwide, and, as it does, so will the need for
long-term access to HIV and other health services.
The number of people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries aged
50 or older continues to grow, representing 12% of all adult people living with
HIV in 2013. In high-income countries, the sub-population of people aged 50
and older represents approximately 30% of the adult population living with HIV
(1). In 2008, about 31% of people living with HIV in the United States of America
were aged 50 or older, compared to 17% in 2001 (3,4). The trend is similar across
sub-Saharan Africa, where recent modelling projected that the total number of
people living with HIV aged 50 or older will nearly triple in the coming years (5).
12 populations 273
Estimated number of people living with HIV aged 50 and older by region, 1995–2013
Number of people living with HIV aged 50 and older
1 600 000
1 400 000
1 200 000
1 000 000
800 000
600 000
400 000
200 000
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Central Africa
Eastern Africa
Southern Africa
Western Africa
Asia and the Pacific
Carribbean
Eastern Europe
and central Asia
Latin America
Middle East
and North
Africa
Western and central
Europe and North
America
Source: UNAIDS 2013 estimates.
The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 and older is largely due
to three factors. First, antiretroviral therapy has been successful in prolonging
the lives of people living with HIV in high-income countries. Second, the
life expectancy of a person living with HIV who achieves and maintains viral
suppression on antiretroviral therapy is now similar to that of a person who
has not acquired HIV (6). Finally, the trend of decreasing HIV incidence among
younger adults is shifting the proportion of disease burden to older age groups.
However, few HIV strategies in low- and middle-income countries have caught up
with this trend. Many countries are failing to address this increasingly significant
dimension of the HIV epidemic.
274 Gap report
Low perception of HIV risk
Every year, 100 000 people in low- and middle-income countries aged 50 and
older acquire HIV (1). Seventy-four per cent of this population lives in sub-Saharan
Africa.
People in this age group exhibit many of the same HIV risk behaviours found in
younger age groups (7). However, HIV prevention and other services, including
tuberculosis screening, rarely mention older people or reflect their specific
realities and needs (8). Data from countries show that the majority of people aged
50 and older with multiple partners do not use condoms.
Percentage of men aged 50 and older with multiple partners who did not use a condom
during last sex in selected countries, 2009–2012
100
Percentage (%)
80
60
40
20
0
Mozambique
(50–64 years)
Côte d’Ivoire
(50–59 years)
Uganda
(50–59 years)
Gabon
(50–59 years)
Source: Demographic and Health Surveys (further analysis by UNAIDS).
Sexually active women aged 50 and older are at high risk of acquiring HIV, owing
to biological changes. The thinning of the vaginal wall after menopause, for
example, increases the chances of lesions and tears, thereby increasing the risk of
HIV transmission during sex (9).
People aged 50 and older generally have a low perception of their own risk of
acquiring HIV and HIV awareness.
12 populations 275
Managing HIV and other health issues is complicated
People aged 50 and older need specialized care for HIV and other chronic
conditions.
Providing treatment can be challenging if the person living with HIV also has one
or more chronic conditions (17). In a South African study, 30% of the people living
with HIV aged 50 and older were found to have two or more chronic medical
conditions (18).
In a South African study,
30% of the people living
with HIV aged 50 and older
were found to have two
or more chronic medical
conditions.
In countries with a high HIV prevalence, the large number of AIDS-related deaths
tends to mask the nation’s potential burden of noncommunicable diseases
among older people since large proportions of this population do not survive
long enough for non-AIDS-related illnesses to manifest (5).
The demographic shift may have consequences for health systems more
generally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Increased life expectancy is likely
to increase the relative burdens of other diseases in this region, notably
noncommunicable diseases.
People aged 50 and older are more likely than their younger counterparts to
remain on antiretroviral therapy (12,13). But adherence can suffer when individuals
are experiencing several chronic conditions simultaneously or facing poverty and
food insecurity (19–21). In addition, people aged 50 and older do not respond to
antiretroviral therapy as well as younger people (14).
Percentage of men aged 50 and older living with HIV who have never been tested for HIV
in selected countries, 2007–2011
Percentage (%)
80
60
40
20
0
Mozambique
(50–64 years)
Zambia
(50–59 years)
Zimbabwe
(50–54 years)
Source: Demographic and Health Surveys (further analysis by UNAIDS).
276 Gap report
Uganda
(5–59 years)
Lesotho
(50–59 years)
Access to services
Health communication and health services are not geared towards people
aged 50 and older living with HIV. Clinicians are less likely to be trained on
the specific needs of people 50 and older living with HIV (22). As a result,
this population is likely to be diagnosed late in the course of HIV infection
and often after their health has deteriorated considerably (23).
Health services are not
geared towards people
aged 50 and older living
with HIV.
Stigma and discrimination
For people living with HIV aged 50 and older, the consequences of
stigma and discrimination are potentially devastating. In addition to
the psychological impact of being shunned by family, peers and the
wider community, poor quality and delayed services in health-care
settings significantly reduce the potential for positive outcomes from HIV
treatment.
Experiences by people living with HIV aged 50 and older in Cameroon
100
Percentage (%)
80
60
40
20
0
52% had their status
disclosed without
their consent
24% did not receive any
counselling
88% are on
antiretroviral therapy
Source: People Living with HIV Stigma Index Report, Cameroon. HIV Leadership through Accountability Programme, GNP+, and RéCAP+, 2012.
12 populations 277
CLOSING THE GAP
As the number of people living with HIV who are aged 50 or older continues
to grow, the demand and need for long-term access to HIV and other health
services will also grow. A large proportion of this group continues to be
physically and sexually active and does not consider themselves to be elderly.
Many people aged 50 and older continue to be active in the workplace and in
the social fabric of their communities and societies. They are men, women and
transgender people. HIV testing and treatment services need to address the
distinct needs and realities of people aged 50 and older who are living with
HIV. The timely detection and initiation of antiretroviral therapy is especially
important, since the immune systems of people 50 and older tend to recover
more slowly compared with those of younger people (8,24).
Twenty-four per cent of
people aged 50 and older
living with HIV in Cameroon
received no counselling at
the time of their test or
afterwards.
More and more, studies are showing that early HIV treatment has a positive
impact on the lives of people living with HIV who are 50 and older. Where the
health systems are strong, this population, when taking antiretroviral therapy,
can have life expectancy comparable to people who have not acquired HIV.
In order to respond to the varied needs of people aged 50 and older,
knowledge about the efficacy of and modifications to treatment regimens
in different age groups must improve. At the moment, research and data
are sparse. A greater understanding is required around issues related to the
body’s ageing process, and how the presence of other illnesses may affect
HIV-related treatment.
Life expectancy in years
Life expectancy among people reaching age 50 at one, two,
three, four and five years after the start of antiretroviral
therapy in the United Kingdom
85
80
HOW TO CLOSE THE GAP
01
02
03
04
Early HIV detection and treatment
Integration of services
75
70
From start
of
antiretroviral
therapy
Men
From
From
1 year
2 years
after
after
antiretroviral antiretroviral
therapy
therapy
start
start
From
3 years
after
antiretroviral
therapy
start
From
4 years
after
antiretroviral
therapy
start
From
5 years
after
antiretroviral
therapy
start
Women
Source: Based on data from Margaret T. et al. Impact on life expectancy of HIV-1 positive individuals
of CD4+ cell count and viral load response to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2014;28(8):1193–1202 and
UK national statistics.
278 Gap report
Psychological and medical support
Social protection
To the extent possible, all health services should be integrated to facilitate
easy access and supported by linkages to the community. As we move
forward and the absolute number of people who are aged 50 and older
who are living with HIV continues to grow, data collection systems need to
improve and services need to adapt and evolve. Further efforts are required
to integrate antiretroviral therapy effectively within care systems for other
chronic diseases. HIV services for people aged 50 and older should be
managed alongside concurrent health considerations (5), such as diabetes,
heart disease and hypertension.
When taking antiretroviral
therapy, people aged 50
and older living with HIV
can have life expectancies
comparable to people who
have not acquired HIV.
HIV responses need to account for the sexual rights and evolving family
and economic contexts of older people and provide prevention, testing,
treatment, care and support services that are accessible and that meet their
specific needs.
Increasingly, health and social services for people aged 50 and older should
be informed by—and, in some cases, integrated with—broader initiatives to
combat inequality and to end extreme poverty. Community-based services
and, in particular, the provision of services and support through community
and faith-based organizations will be key to the scale up of social services
for older people living with HIV.
Health-care providers must be trained to respond to the specific needs and
challenges of this population. Special attention must be given to providing
psychological and medical support as well as concrete social protection for
people over 50.
Even well-planned, integrated and appropriate services are only truly
accessible to people if they are affordable. Data disaggregated by older
age groups are scarce, but available data indicate that this group is
overrepresented among the poor and the extremely poor, especially in the
two thirds of the world’s countries that do not have social pensions or other
social protection for older adults (25).
Social protection instruments, such as non-contributory pensions and
health and disability insurance, have been shown to dramatically improve
the welfare of older people who are living with HIV themselves or caring
for their children and grandchildren affected by HIV. For the urban and
rural poor, even small, predictable payments enable them to buy food, pay
transportation costs and contribute to their families’ expenses.
12 populations 279
SPECIAL FEATURES AND ANALYSIS
280 Gap Report
THE IMPORTANCE OF LOCATION
EFFECT OF SCALING UP ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON
REDUCING NEW HIV INFECTIONS
UNAIDS HIV TREATMENT SITUATION ROOM
THE COST OF INACTION
12 populations 281
THE IMPORTANCE
OF LOCATION
A new approach to view the HIV epidemic
The old concept of concentrated, mixed and generalized epidemics
is making way for a new approach of viewing and responding to the
epidemic—the AIDS epidemic is about locations and populations.
Although global and regional data help to provide a snapshot of the
epidemic, they hide the national, subnational and local diversities of the AIDS
epidemic. The AIDS epidemic is a sum total of several local epidemics that are
interconnected. Within the local epidemics, select populations are affected.
Many countries now focus on local epidemics using the data available from
household surveys combined with other epidemiological data to sharpen
the focus on delivering high-quality HIV services.
For example, Nigeria has a national HIV prevalence of 3.1%. However, the HIV
prevalence varies significantly between states within the country. Models that
incorporate HIV prevalence data from household surveys and antenatal clinic
surveillance showed that the central and western parts of the country have
higher HIV prevalence. However, closer inspection of the map of the proportion
of adults who are receiving antiretroviral therapy among those eligible
according to the national eligibility criteria showed that some of the states with
the highest HIV prevalence have the lowest coverage of HIV treatment.
An HIV density map for Burkina Faso reveals that the greatest concentration
of people living with HIV are in Bobo-Dioulasso, Koudougou and
Ouagadougou—which represent the areas with the greatest population
density. Outside these areas, HIV is spatially distributed along the two main
transport routes of the country, which are the main areas of commerce as
well as of sex work. In Burkina Faso, five provinces (11% of all provinces)
represent 50% of the total number of people living with HIV aged 15 years
and older.
282 Gap report
Antiretroviral therapy coverage using national eligibility criteria in Nigeria, 2013
Antiretroviral therapy coverage using national
eligibility criteria in Nigeria, 2013 (%)
Adult HIV prevalence by state,
Nigeria, 2013 (%)
>65
41.7 – 53.3
<30
>3.9
2.2 – 3.1
<1.4
53.3 – 65
30 – 41.7
No data
3.1 – 3.9
1.4 – 2.2
No data
Source: Spectrum estimates 2013.
In Mozambique, the mapping clearly shows that the districts with the highest
density of people living with HIV are located along transport corridors and
important seaports in the centre and in the southern regions of the country.
These areas are associated with rapid economic growth and high levels of
migration and mobility that may lead to increased transactional sex.
Burkina Faso: density of people living with HIV (15 years and older) per square kilometre
Density of people living with HIV/km2
122.7
7.7
3.9
2.1
1.4
0.8
0.5
0.1
0.0
Source: UNAIDS 2014.
Special features and analysis 283
The line from Beira to Mutare corresponds to the Beira Transport Corridor,
one of southern Africa’s main transport routes linking large parts of Malawi,
Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe to the port of Beira on the Indian
Ocean. In the south, the districts with highest density of people living with
HIV are located along the Maputo Development Corridor, which connect
the industrial areas around Gauteng in South Africa, and mines and
agricultural districts to the east of it, with ports on the Mozambique coast.
The area around Quelimane, in Zambezia Province, is an important seaport
in the country. In Mozambique, 18 districts (14% of all districts) represent
50% of the total number of people living with HIV aged 15 years and older.
Ensuring that HIV services are available in these places is a very costeffective approach to AIDS programming.
Mozambique: density of people living with HIV (15 years and older) per square kilometre
Density of people living with HIV/km2
977.8
39.1
21.4
13.7
9.4
4.7
2.8
0.5
0.0
Source: UNAIDS 2014.
284 Gap report
EFFECT OF SCALING UP
ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY
ON REDUCING NEW HIV
INFECTIONS
Clinical trials have demonstrated that besides saving the lives of people
living with HIV, antiretroviral therapy reduces the transmission of HIV to the
sexual partners of people living with HIV with suppressed viral load. Several
community-level studies have also shown the effect of antiretroviral therapy
in stopping HIV transmission.
Many countries have scaled up access to HIV treatment significantly in
recent years. A new analysis by UNAIDS has examined the correlation
between increased access to antiretroviral therapy and HIV incidence.
Using UNAIDS estimates, we compare antiretroviral coverage with the
transmission rate (the number of new HIV infections divided by the total
number of people living with HIV in a country) (4). The new HIV infections
calculated in the model are primarily derived from the HIV prevalence data
collected through surveillance, and the numbers on antiretroviral therapy
that are entered into the model are from national health information
systems.
Simple weighted linear regression suggests that these two variables are
statistically significantly associated. For each 10% increase in antiretroviral
therapy coverage, the population-level transmission rate decreases by 1%.
Analysis of the latest estimates shows evidence of the effect of antiretroviral
therapy on transmission. Among the 30 low and middle income countries
with the highest antiretroviral therapy coverage levels, the percent of new
infections is only about half of what it is in the 30 countries with the lowest
antiretroviral therapy coverage levels.
Special features and analysis 285
30 countries with high antiretroviral therapy coverage
30 countries with low antiretroviral therapy coverage
Adult HIV transmission rate in low- and middle-income countries with high and low
antiretroviral therapy coverage, 2013
Nepal
Uzbekistan
Mauritius
Madagascar
Nigeria
Central African Republic (the)
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Sierra Leone
Democratic Republic of Congo (the)
Guinea Bissau
Guinea
Malaysia
Republic of Moldova (the)
South Sudan
Morocco
Sudan (the)
Somalia
Algeria
Belarus
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Kyrgyzstan
Tajikistan
Indonesia
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Armenia
Egypt
Tunisia
Pakistan
Burundi
Cambodia
Thailand
Eritrea
Dominican Republic (the)
Ethiopia
Botswana
Rwanda
Malawi
Gabon
Zambia
Costa Rica
Namibia
Zimbabwe
Lao People’s Democratic Republic (the)
Cabo Verde
Trinidad and Tobago
Belize
Swaziland
Mexico
Peru
Burkina Faso
Chile
El Salvador
Brazil
Panama
Argentina
Papua New Guinea
Guyana
0
5
10
15
Adult HIV transmission ratio (%)
286 Gap report
20
25
UNAIDS HIV
TREATMENT
SITUATION ROOM
In order to reach the 2015 global AIDS targets, getting the right information
to the right people at the right time is necessary. Using a modelling tool that
projects trends based on actual programme data from the most-recent 24
months, the UNAIDS Treatment Situation Room provides an up-to-the-minute
estimate of the number of people living with HIV receiving antiretroviral
therapy in low- and middle-income countries. As of 17 July 2014, 13 936 324
people were estimated to be receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Subnational data on treatment utilization and the epidemic
burden
While global and national numbers are critically important for monitoring
and accountability purposes, the real struggle lies in meeting the HIVrelated treatment needs of people living with HIV at the community, city,
district and provincial levels. UNAIDS is building capacity for a more
granular, subnational understanding of trends in treatment access and HIV
burden. Through initial work with agencies in Brazil, Ethiopia, Kenya and
South Africa, UNAIDS has developed a snapshot of subnational coverage
for the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy.
The Treatment Situation Room allows programme planners to visualize how
national coverage may obscure provincial- or district-level coverage and
to identify areas that are being left behind. For example, Kenya’s national
coverage reached 41% in 2013, placing it in the intermediate coverage
category. However, coverage in the North Eastern Province was much lower
at less than 20%, indicating that greater efforts are needed in this region.
Special features and analysis 287
Subnational data on treatment
KENYA
People on antiretroviral therapy:
656 369
People living with HIV: 1 590 000
Antiretroviral coverage*: 41%
* Antiretroviral coverage = # of people on
antiretroviral coverage / people living with HIV
Antiretroviral treatment coverage levels
<20%
20 to 70%
>70%
Identifying and addressing stock-outs in real time
Stock-outs resulting in potentially life-threatening treatment interruptions
remain unacceptably frequent. UNAIDS has developed a smartphone
application that allows community members and other stakeholders to
provide real-time information on stock-outs to national and subnational
health officials, implementing partners and UNAIDS offices. This information
accelerates the process of putting into place corrective actions and shortens
the time that patients are deprived of essential medicines.
Tracking HIV treatment policy implementation
A key step towards ensuring that all people living with HIV receive
antiretroviral therapy is to align national treatment guidelines with
international recommendations. Thus, UNAIDS now tracks national HIV
treatment policy. As of July 2014, many countries have yet to adopt the
2013 WHO guidelines.
288 Gap report
Antiretroviral therapy policy. Recommended CD4 cell count to initiate treatment
CD4 cell count for treatment initiation
<200 or <250
<300
<500
>500
irrespective of
CD4 cell count
Projecting future trends to identify countries that are not on
track
The Treatment Situation Room projects which countries are on track to
achieve their specific goals vis-à-vis global treatment targets and is able
to make adjustments based on changing circumstances. The Treatment
Situation Room provides visualizations and projections of the incremental
coverage increases needed in different years to help put countries on track
to bring HIV treatment to all people living with HIV who need it.
Special features and analysis 289
THE COST OF
INACTION
When any population is marginalized, stigmatized or criminalized, inequities
will arise and gaps in social services will widen. Specifically, programmes that
fail to provide health, welfare and personal security will inevitably allow these
populations to fall through the cracks—forcing them to live in the shadows
of society and on the brink of disaster. These marginalized populations bear
the cost of this neglect most directly, but there is an equally damaging effect
on the entire society. However, simple, empowering actions can change this
outcome completely—from despair to hope.
The global AIDS response is a dramatic testament to that. Gay men and
other men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers
and transgender people—populations with an increased risk of acquiring
HIV infection—have, through their own efforts, prevented millions of people
from becoming infected and saved millions of lives, by working together to
protect themselves and their loved ones. Without these efforts, often at a
small cost with shoestring budgets, and extensive community solidarity and
leadership, the total number of people living with HIV today would have
been several times more than the current 35 million.
This section analyses the implications of not providing HIV services for sex
workers, gay and other men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs
and transgender people. It also forecasts the cost of inaction and benefits
accrued from existing HIV programmes that reach these populations.
Millions saved
The numbers are nothing short of heroic. Modelling by UNAIDS suggests
that nearly 74.2 million people avoided acquiring HIV infection and 36.2
million AIDS-related deaths were avoided from 1990 to 2013, thanks to
community empowerment and HIV prevention and treatment services
accessed by gay men and other men who have sex with men, people who
inject drugs, sex workers and transgender people and the rolling out of
antiretroviral therapy in the same period.
290 Gap report
A separate study in Thailand (1) showed that nearly 10 million people
avoided acquiring HIV infection because of early programmes with key
populations between 1990 and 2010. Similar modelling in Cambodia, a
country with a much smaller population, shows that giving priority to key
populations averted nearly 1 million HIV infections. A recent study from
Kenya (2) showed that removing HIV transmission from sex work would
ultimately contribute to lowering incidence by 66% in 20 years.
These numbers do not capture the additional benefits of other prevention
and treatment programmes such as rolling out antiretroviral therapy,
preventing the mother-to-child transmission of HIV and other prevention
programmes for heterosexual populations. The HIV prevention and
treatment efforts in averting HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths have
enormous cumulative effects.
The future can be very different
There is still an opportunity and a moral imperative to correct injustices.
It also makes sound public health sense. Sex workers, gay men and other
men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs and transgender
people have a right to protect themselves from HIV infection and access
life-saving antiretroviral therapy. These services must be made available
without exception and without interruption. This would mean that HIV
services must reach at least 85% of all sex workers, gay men and other
men who have sex with men, transgender people and harm-reduction
programmes must reach at least 40% of people who use drugs by 2020.
Number of AIDS-related deaths
Cost of inaction: number of AIDS-related deaths (2010–2030, various scenarios)
2 500 000
2 000 000
1 500 000
1 000 000
500 000
0
1990
No key population programmes
after 2013
1995
2000
2005
Constant coverage of
prevention programmes
2010
2015
Key population
programmes only
2020
2025
2030
All prevention and
treatment programmes
Special features and analysis 291
Countries building on existing programmes and reaching these ambitious
targets can enable 13.1 million people to avert acquiring HIV infection and
avert 9.2 million deaths by 2030. In the same year, together with other
HIV prevention and treatment efforts, the number of people acquiring
HIV infection would reach a record low of 681 000 and the number of
people dying from AIDS-related causes a record low of 676 000. Other HIV
prevention programmes that benefit other populations are also equally
essential and, in combination with full-scale antiretroviral therapy, contribute
to nearly 17.9 million new infections and 10.8 million AIDS-related deaths
averted between 2015 and 2030.
However, in the unlikely event that countries stop all programmes for these
populations, the number of people acquiring HIV infection could climb back
to 2010 levels by 2030, wiping out 40 years of gains. Business as usual is
also not acceptable. In this scenario, just staying content with the current
state of affairs and maintaining the 2013 levels of coverage of prevention
and antiretroviral therapy services through 2030, the number of people
becoming newly infected with HIV will rise to nearly 2.4 million in 2030.
Each new person acquiring HIV infection, each person dying from an
AIDS-related cause and each act of stigma and discrimination brings an
associated loss, which is immeasurable in human terms for the individuals
and their families. However, investments to prevent these tragedies among
sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men, people who
inject drugs and transgender people pays off handsomely.
Number of new HIV infections
Cost of inaction: number of new HIV infections (2010–2030, various scenarios)
3 500 000
3 000 000
2 500 000
2 000 000
1 500 000
1 000 000
500 000
0
1990
1995
2000
2005
No key population after 2013
Constant coverage of
prevention programmes
Key populations and antiretroviral
therapy programmes
Expanded Coverage
292 Gap report
2010
2015
Key population
programmes only
2020
2025
2030
Key population and ART for
Key population
How were these modelling estimates developed?
The UNAIDS model developed three future scenarios for low- and middleincome countries for calculating the cost of inaction. The first shows how
the AIDS epidemic would look from 2013 to 2030 if there were absolutely
no HIV prevention and treatment programmes to reach gay men and other
men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who inject drugs and
transgender people from 2013 onwards: no key population scenario.
The second scenario measured the effect of current AIDS response (by
maintaining the prevention, treatment and care at 2013 levels): constant
coverage scenario.
Lastly, the third scenario examined the AIDS epidemic if ambitious targets
to reach these populations and others in generalized epidemics with
comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programmes were achieved:
all scenario.
The model only examined the effect of reaching these select populations in
the total number of people newly infected with HIV and dying from AIDSrelated causes. The total number of HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths
averted would be much larger considering other prevention and treatment
programmes aimed at other populations, which is shown in the third
scenario (expanded coverage scenario).
Special features and analysis 293
ENDING THE AIDS EPIDEMIC IS POSSIBLE
ENDING THE
AIDS EPIDEMIC
IS POSSIBLE
The world has witnessed extraordinary changes in the AIDS landscape. There
have been more achievements in the past five years than in the preceding
23 years. There is evidence about what works and where the obstacles
remain. More than ever before, there is hope that ending AIDS is possible.
However, a business-as-usual approach or simply sustaining the AIDS
response at its current pace cannot end the epidemic. It calls for shaking up
outdated modes of thinking. It means dreaming big and must include the
whole human family.
Ending a modern global challenge such as the AIDS epidemic takes
considerable resolve and carries more weight than simply responding to the
issue.
It necessitates shifting away from aspiring to incrementally scale up access to
services to determining how to collectively address the fundamental causes
that are blocking the delivery of sustainable health. Accomplishing this
requires collective commitment. In fact, new modelling by UNAIDS suggests
that actions taken in the next five to eight years will determine whether we
can end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.
The next five years will determine the next 15 years. If the world scales up by
2020, humanity will be able to end the epidemic by 2030.
What does ending the AIDS epidemic mean?
UNAIDS convened a group of thought leaders and scientists to define the
meaning of ending the AIDS epidemic in September 2013. Experts agreed
that the AIDS epidemic can be ended by 2030.
Ending the AIDS epidemic means that the spread of HIV has been controlled
or contained and that the impact of the virus in societies and in people’s
lives has been marginalized and lessened thanks to significant declines in ill
health, stigma, deaths and the number of orphans. It means increased life
296 Gap report
expectancy, unconditional acceptance of people’s diversity and rights and
increased productivity and reduced costs as the impact diminishes.
Targets for 2030
HIV, the virus, will probably exist for a long time, but its impact can be
nullified by aggressively implementing existing HIV prevention and treatment
options and strong community action to reduce stigma and discrimination.
Ultimately reaching the vision of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination
and zero AIDS-related deaths requires setting new targets for 2030. The
UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board, the body that sets the direction
for UNAIDS and the global AIDS response, in its July 2014 meeting asked
UNAIDS to pursue ending the AIDS epidemic as a public threat. The
Programme Coordinating Board provisionally endorsed the following targets
for 2030:
■■ 90% reduction in new HIV infections, including among key populations,
and eliminating new HIV infections among children towards achieving
zero new HIV infections, which would mean a reduction to
200 000–300 000 people newly infected with HIV annually.
■■ 90% reduction in stigma and discrimination faced by people living with
HIV, vulnerable populations and key populations towards achieving zero
discrimination.
■■ 90% reduction in AIDS-related deaths towards achieving zero AIDSrelated deaths, which would mean a reduction to 200 000–300 000
people dying from AIDS-related causes.
Optimism is growing that these impact targets can be achieved. These
outcomes, measured from a baseline of 2010 in accordance with other
post-2015 targets, are extremely bold since, so far, the numbers of AIDSrelated deaths and new HIV infections have only been reduced by one third.
Attaining this impact requires adopting a mission approach by defining clear
country and global coverage and outcome targets across the broad spectrum
of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support programmes.
Results
Sustaining the AIDS response at the current levels would initially reduce the
number of people newly infected with HIV, but then this would rise to nearly
2 million, 6.5 times more than the desired targets in 2030. Similarly, AIDSrelated deaths would also increase to nearly 1.5 million, four times more than
anticipated in 2030. The total number of people living with HIV would be 39.4
million instead of the projected 31 million by 2030 if the above targets are not
met.
On the other hand, achieving the 2030 targets would avert 18 million new HIV
infections and 11.2 million AIDS-related deaths between 2013 and 2030.
Ending the AIDS epidemic is possible 297
These gains require fully implementing evidence-informed programmes. For
example, if harm-reduction programmes are not rolled out in eastern Europe
and central Asia, the number of people acquiring HIV infection will continue to
rise. In contrast, if harm-reduction measures are introduced, new HIV infections
will dramatically decline and be virtually eliminated by 2030 in the region.
In eastern and southern Africa, prevention programmes should include cash
transfers for adolescent girls combined with scaling up other prevention and
treatment services such as male circumcision. In every setting it is important to
reach the majority of sex workers, their clients, gay men and other men who
have sex with men, transgender people and people who inject drugs.
Ending AIDS scenario: people living with HIV (2010–2030)
Number of people living with
HIV (millions)
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
41
36
31
34
2010
31
2020
Constant coverage (%)
2030
Expanded coverage (%)
Source: UNAIDS 2014 estimates.
Number of new HIV infections
(millions)
Ending AIDS scenario: new HIV infections (2010–2030)
3.00
2.9
2.50
2.4
2.00
–69.4%
Percentage
variation
2010–2030
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.5
0.3
0
2010
2012
Constant coverage (%)
Source: UNAIDS 2014 estimates.
298 Gap report
2014
2016
2018
Expanded coverage (%)
2020
2022
2024
2026
2028
2030
Number of AIDS-related deaths
Ending AIDS scenario: AIDS-related deaths (2010–2030)
2 000 000
1 500 000
-63%
Percentage
variation
2010–2030
1 000 000
5 000
0
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
2020
2022
2024
2026
2028
2030
Constant coverage (%)
Expanded coverage (%)
Source: UNAIDS 2014 estimates.
Moving from a response mode to mission mode
The year 2030 might seem a long time away; enough for people to prepare,
scale up and catch up if needed. Nevertheless, UNAIDS modelling shows
that the next seven years—until 2020—are make-or-break years for the AIDS
response.
It is estimated that if countries reach the 2020 target one decade later, in
2030, almost 3 million new HIV infections and 3 million AIDS-related deaths
would not be averted.
The current business-as-usual mode, although it saves lives, will not be able to
break the cycle of continuing new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths and
take the epidemic beyond the tipping point. For example, the current annual
rate of reduction of new HIV infections is about 5% and AIDS-related deaths
is 7%, but to reach the 2030 target, new HIV infections will have to decline by
20% annually and AIDS-related deaths by 15.5% from 2014 onwards.
Between 2013 and 2020, the cumulative decline in new HIV infections
is required to be about 74% and AIDS-related deaths 63%. Setting and
achieving bold HIV prevention, treatment and anti-discrimination targets for
2020 is imperative.
Ending the AIDS epidemic is possible 299
Ending the AIDS epidemic—eight action points
1. Protect human rights, embrace the human family and leave no one
behind
This goal embraces the human family. The last mile to ending the AIDS
epidemic is the most important, and no one should be left behind.
Redoubling efforts to include and empower key populations that have been
failed by past efforts is vital. HIV programmes—access to treatment and
prevention—must reach all areas of high incidence of HIV infection with
more and better interventions while ensuring that people are not further
stigmatized with targeted approaches. At the heart of increased outreach and
focus must be equity—between the global North and South, children and
adults, women and men and people of all sexual orientations. The gender
dimensions of the AIDS epidemic have to be addressed holistically. Violence
against women and the sexual exploitation of women and young boys and
girls must end.
Any progress that excludes human rights in reaching the end of the AIDS
epidemic will not be complete. Criminalization of HIV transmission, sexual
behaviour and drug use is hampering the progress towards ending AIDS.
There are certainly challenging human rights and stigma-related issues across
the world, especially where the number of people acquiring HIV infection
is increasing and not declining. Human rights issues must be taken on if the
world wants to end the AIDS epidemic. AIDS responses must invest in human
rights programmes and human rights organizations.
2. Invest in communities
Communities are rising to meet the challenge of their role as the heart
and hands of the response; innovation in community delivery of services is
breaking the logjam in the capacity of health services to deliver. Progress
in collecting and analysing data has led to designing evidence-informed
programmes. UNAIDS is calling more and more on the crucial role that
community responses will play in reaching the scale of post-2015 targets.
Policy-makers need to be transformative in trusting and investing more in
community systems and organizations. Special efforts have to be made to
integrate them more with the health sector. This begins by recognizing that:
■■ Communities are needed.
■■ Investment is not being made now and investment needs to shift.
■■ Communities must be better connected with the formal system.
■■ Communities deliver.
Community empowerment and leadership can ensure that the AIDS response
is people-centred and take it to new levels that are out of the reach of
traditional HIV programmes.
300 Gap report
3. Think big—secure leadership and investments
The epidemic cannot be completely controlled as long as the focus is on
driving towards individual programme targets such as treatment coverage
rather than a higher-level all-encompassing goal. The perspective of national
planning must begin to shift from “How many people do I need to treat?”
to “What is my viral suppression rate?” and from “What do I want my HIV
transmission rate from mother to child to be?” to “How do I end all my local
epidemics?”. The perspective needs to change and embrace evidenceinformed programmes, especially for people who are neglected and left
behind—people living with HIV, especially children, young women and
adolescent girls, migrants, prisoners, people who inject drugs, gay men and
other men who have sex with men, sex workers and transgender people.
Leaders have to dream big and prepare big. Political efforts are needed
for better social involvement and structural change. Ending the AIDS
epidemic requires sustained investment, both domestic and international.
This investment must be front-loaded in the next decade. There are large
economic returns if the pace of action is now quickened in countries: “you
pay now or you pay forever”. At the same time, AIDS responses in many
places have adopted a business-like investment approach striving for greater
efficiency and effectiveness without sacrificing quality and equity. This effort
is essential. Investing in evidence-informed programmes can increase the
effectiveness of investments and can reach more people in need.
Complacency may arise from the short-term gains made in declining numbers
of new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths and lead to resources being
diverted from HIV to other issues. The AIDS response is still not fully funded,
the final push is likely to need significant additional resources and all efforts
must be made to close the resource gap.
4. Focus on local epidemics and populations
With strategic focus, programme investment becomes more efficient and
delivers better-quality services that result in greater and better outcomes.
Responses can be tailored to the local epidemics, giving customized service
options according to the specific needs of the area or population.
The drivers of the epidemic need to be examined, not just at the national
level but also at the local level. It is important to continue to collect and
analyse data at the subnational level, district by district, and in cities to
identify areas of high incidence of HIV infection and the sociobehavioural
reasons that contribute to people becoming newly infected with HIV. With
local information, HIV services can be scaled up and saturated to meet
community needs. For example, young women in countries with high HIV
prevalence need strategic choices to mitigate their vulnerability to sexual
HIV transmission, and people who inject drugs in a particular city need HIV
prevention and treatment services close to their place of residence or drug
use.
Ending the AIDS epidemic is possible 301
5. Decentralize delivery of HIV services
The AIDS epidemic is increasingly a sum total of multiple local epidemics.
Bringing services out of health centres to the doorsteps of people while
ensuring that they have access to the appropriate technologies and social
change programmes relevant to their local context can vastly increase
coverage levels, promote adherence and potentially decrease costs.
Decentralized delivery of services can also contribute to reducing the stigma
and discrimination faced by people living with HIV and key populations.
6. Expand the choices for HIV prevention and treatment
There is a need to move beyond prescriptive interventions to offer people
different effective and safe options for managing prevention and treatment.
Antiretroviral medicines now play a larger and more comprehensive role in
the AIDS response. Their use now encompasses HIV treatment, preventing
children from becoming newly infected with HIV, stopping HIV transmission
among adults by using them as pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis and
reducing the onset of tuberculosis illness and deaths. A special drive to
increase access to HIV treatment for everyone, everywhere is a vital strategy
for ending the AIDS epidemic. Increased access to treatment should not
come at the expense of other HIV programmes and services.
HIV treatment alone is not a magic bullet for ending the AIDS epidemic but
can provide a killer blow to the AIDS epidemic in combination with other
HIV prevention services. It is essential to rapidly scale up the availability of
male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, male and female condoms
and lubricants, family planning options and HIV treatment. At the same
time, services and options that address structural factors contributing to the
increased vulnerability of women as well as young boys and girls, such as cash
transfers, must be included in combination packages of HIV services.
7. Integrate HIV programmes with other health and development
programmes
Integrated implementation of services for tuberculosis, sexual and
reproductive health, hepatitis C and HIV would result in much broader
health outcomes for people. Including HIV testing along with other routine
screening, such as that for diabetes or pregnancy testing, would increase the
uptake of voluntary testing by removing people’s reluctance to ask for an
HIV test. People living with HIV increasingly need attention to manage their
conditions related to noncommunicable diseases. Isolated programmes are
no longer efficient and miss out on providing holistic care that focuses on the
individual.
8. Innovate and invest in science for a cure and vaccine
Innovative ways of using existing resources and technologies will play a
key role in ending the AIDS epidemic. For example, if the incidence of HIV
infection is reduced to certain low levels within a community, then a partly
302 Gap report
effective vaccine could potentially cut HIV transmission to negligible levels.
For women, developing a combined contraceptive and antiretroviral medicine
for pre-exposure prophylaxis could simultaneously avert HIV infection and
unplanned pregnancies.
Science urgently needs to be better translated into implementation. Home
or self-testing for HIV can potentially change how risk is assessed and
provide increased opportunities for people to access HIV treatment and
prevention services. Innovation in delivery of services as well as in prevention
products can accelerate the impact of programmes. These include longacting injectable antiretroviral drugs. A special emphasis is needed to enable
early infant diagnosis of HIV and in developing formulations appropriate for
children living with HIV.
Investment must continue for the search for a cure and vaccine. Countries
must have the flexibility and agility to deploy new technologies as they are
made available. As vaccine, cure or new treatment and prevention options
emerge, issues related to intellectual property, prices or human resource
capacity must not inhibit access.
Summon the courage to change the world
Nelson Mandela said, “The more we lack the courage and the will to act,
the more we condemn to death our brothers and sisters, our children and
our grandchildren. When the history of our times is written, will we be
remembered as the generation that turned our backs in a moment of a global
crisis or will it be recorded that we did the right thing?”
As the world shapes the post-2015 goals, it has the historic opportunity to set
a bold new target for AIDS. The world has kept its Millennium Development
Goals promise of halting and reversing the spread of AIDS. It is now time to
end the AIDS epidemic.
In his speech at the 16th International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa,
UNAIDS Executive Director Michel Sidibé said, “We need to be courageous
enough to confront society’s wrongs. It is unacceptable that women and
adolescent girls, sex workers, people who use drugs, migrants, prisoners,
transgender people and gay men and other men who have sex with men are
assaulted, violated, and murdered, and yet our conscience is not revolted,
nor our sense of human dignity challenged. How can the world accept that
some people have access to services while others are excluded because of
race, social status, income and sexual orientation? We must reject this double
standard wherever we encounter it. We must not be scared of radically
reshaping our future.”
That is the unfinished business ahead.
Ending the AIDS epidemic is possible 303
ENDING AIDS:
KEY QUESTIONS
When mortality due to HIV
declines, how will we lobby for
maintaining vital prevention and
treatment programmes to avoid
the hard-won HIV gains being
lost?
Could we combine
hepatitis C, human
papillomavirus
eradication and
ending the AIDS
epidemic together as
a collective goal?
With the social
implications of HIV, we
need to be explicit: are we
talking about ending the
AIDS epidemic or ending
HIV?
How do we make
sure AIDS is
not isolated but
integrated into
We need to examine
health?
ourselves: are we
actually responding to
How can science
our populations that we
be translated into
represent?
implementation?
How do we ensure
that all people are
treated equally
and with a respect
that preserves their
dignity?
Do we have the
social tools to
Could the work on stigma end the AIDS
epidemic?
and discrimination be
done with the same
granularity as that of
How will people
epidemiology?
feel about taking
pills for the long
How can we
term?
Will they be
normalize HIV
able to adhere?
How can we
testing?
normalize
HIV?
Is it a cure? Is it no
new infections? Is it
something else?
304 Gap report
How can we reach
key populations
without creating
further stigma?
How can we change the
social environment to end
epidemics in marginalized
populations?
ENDING AIDS:
KEY ANSWERS
Ending the AIDS
epidemic is a bright and
shining light.
Talking about ending the AIDS epidemic without a
vaccine and without a cure is what makes the AIDS
response bold. That is what makes us all bold.
We need to work with all the fields—treatment,
stigma and social and structural interventions.
Only then can we end the AIDS epidemic.
Ending the AIDS
epidemic is a hope,
not a threat.
We have to come up with a bio-social response and not just a medical
response to end the AIDS epidemic.
When we ask how to begin to
end the AIDS epidemic, we
have to focus on people, the
community.
Beyond treatment, beyond prevention, will
get us beyond the heart of what epidemic
is about.
Before, when people cried, I cried
with them. Today if they cry I say,
“No, this is a chronic condition.”
For me, achieving zero new HIV
infections is the most important
target at this point. How can we
normalize HIV testing? How can
we normalize HIV?
Let’s remember the human
rights lesson—every human
being has equal value.
Exceptional epidemic,
exceptional end—we need
an end to the epidemic that
leaves no one behind.
Ending the AIDS epidemic
used to be a vision. Now it
is a target.
Ending the AIDS epidemic is
transforming the environment
so that people can have access
to scientific breakthroughs from
North to South.
I would like to see
that AIDS is no
longer an epidemic.
We need to think about
how to control this
epidemic and about how
we will be able to stay
ahead of this epidemic.
The undone work of HIV among key
populations is the fundamental challenge for all
the targets towards ending the AIDS epidemic.
An HIV cure will have a
critical role in ending the
AIDS epidemic.
The undone work of HIV among
key populations is the fundamental
challenge for all the targets towards
ending the AIDS epidemic.
These comments were drawn from the consultation convened by UNAIDS on ending the AIDS epidemic in September 2013.
Ending the AIDS epidemic is possible 305
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334 Gap report
ANNEXES
Annex:
A1
NOTES ON UNAIDS METHODOLOGY
Unless otherwise stated, findings in this report are based on modelled HIV
estimates. Modelled estimates are required because it is impossible to count
the exact number of people living with HIV, who are newly infected or who
have died of AIDS in the world. To know this for certain requires testing every
person for HIV regularly and investigating all deaths, which is logistically
impossible and ethically problematic.
Partnerships in creating UNAIDS estimates
Modelled HIV estimates are created by country teams using UNAIDSsupported software. The country teams are comprised primarily of
epidemiologists, demographers, monitoring and evaluation specialists and
technical partners. Country-submitted files are reviewed at UNAIDS, and
selected HIV service data contained in the files are reviewed and validated
in partnership with WHO and UNICEF. UNAIDS review aims to ensure
comparability of results across regions, countries and over time.
The software used to create the estimates is Spectrum, developed by the
Futures Institute, and the Estimates and Projections Package, developed by
East-West Center (www.futuresinstitute.org). The UNAIDS Reference Group
on Estimates, Modeling and Projections provides technical guidance on the
development of the HIV component of the software (www.epidem.org).
A brief description of UNAIDS methods to create estimates
Country teams use UNAIDS-supported software to create national HIV
prevalence curves that are consistent with all pertinent, available HIV data in
the country.
These data typically consist of HIV prevalence results from surveillance
among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics and from nationallyrepresentative population-based surveys in countries with generalized
epidemics, where HIV transmission is sufficiently high to sustain an epidemic
in the general population.
Because antenatal clinic surveillance is performed on a regular basis, these
data can be used to inform national prevalence trends. Data from population
surveys, which are conducted less frequently but have broader geographic
coverage and also test men, are more useful for informing national HIV
prevalence levels. For countries with high prevalence that have not conducted
population surveys, HIV prevalence levels are adjusted downwards based on
comparisons of antenatal clinic surveillance and population survey data from
other countries in their region.
A2 Gap report
In countries where there is a high level of burden of disease among key
populations at higher-risk of HIV infection (e.g., people who inject drugs,
sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men), repeated HIV
prevalence studies in these populations are used to inform national estimates
and trends. Estimates of the size of key populations are increasingly derived
empirically in each country or, when studies are not available, based on
regional values and consensus among experts. Other data sources, including
population surveys, surveillance among pregnant women, and HIV case
reporting data are used to estimate HIV prevalence in the general, low-risk
population.
The HIV prevalence curves and numbers on antiretroviral therapy are used
to derive national HIV incidence trends. For countries with insufficient HIV
surveillance or survey data but strong vital registration and disease reporting
systems, trends and levels in national HIV prevalence and incidence are
matched directly to HIV case reporting and AIDS-related mortality data.
To obtain age and gender-specific incidence, prevalence and death rates,
along with other important indicators, including programme coverage
statistics, assumptions about the effectiveness of HIV programme-scale up
and patterns of HIV transmission and disease progression, are applied to
the national incidence curve. These assumptions are based on systematic
literature reviews and analysis of raw study data by scientific experts.
Demographic population data, including fertility estimates, are based on
United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2012.
Uncertainty bounds around UNAIDS estimates
The software calculates uncertainty bounds around all estimates, which can
be used to measure how precisely we can speak about the magnitude of the
epidemic. These bounds define the range within which the true value lies.
There are two factors that determine the width of the ranges around the HIV
estimates. The first is the quantity and source of the HIV data available -countries with more HIV surveillance data have smaller ranges than countries
with less surveillance data or smaller sample sizes. Countries in which a
national population-based survey has been conducted will generally have
smaller ranges around estimates than countries where such surveys have not
been conducted.
The second factor that determines the extent of the ranges around estimates
is the number of assumptions required to arrive at the estimate – the
more assumptions, the wider the uncertainty range since each assumption
introduces additional uncertainties. For example, ranges around estimates
of adult HIV prevalence are smaller than those around estimates of HIV
incidence among children, which requires additional data on the probability
of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The latter are based on prevalence
among pregnant women, the probability of mother-to-child HIV transmission,
and estimated survival times for HIV-positive children.
Annex:
A3
Although UNAIDS is confident that the actual numbers of people living with
HIV, people who have been newly infected or who have died of AIDS lie
within the reported ranges, more and better data from countries will steadily
reduce this uncertainty.
Improvements to the 2013 UNAIDS estimates model
Country teams create new Spectrum files every year. Files from one year to
the next may differ for two reasons. First, new surveillance and programme
data are entered into the model, which can change HIV prevalence and
incidence trends over time, including for past years.
Second, improvements are incorporated into the model based on the latest
available science and understanding of the epidemic. Between the previous
and current rounds of estimates, the following changes were applied to the
model under the guidance of the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates,
Modelling and Projections:
■■ Updated population data from the United Nations Population Division
2012 World Population Prospects
■■ Revised calibration of HIV prevalence from antenatal clinics to the general
population in countries with high HIV prevalence without national surveys
■■ Corrected calculations of incidence trends among people 15–49 to be
informed by the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy among
persons ages 15–49 instead of ages 15+
■■ Revised estimates of non-AIDS mortality among people who inject drugs
based on recent literature
■■ Adjusted AIDS mortality for key populations in countries where burden of
disease is carried mainly among key populations, keeping the sizes of key
populations the same as those entered by the user
Because there are improvements to the data and methods used to create the
estimates each round, users of the data should not compare results from one
round to the next. A full historical set of estimates are created for each round
allowing for estimation of trends over time from within the same round.
Measuring antiretroviral coverage
Beginning in 2013, UNAIDS provides estimates of the proportion of adults
and children living with HIV who are receiving antiretroviral therapy, rather
than estimates of the proportion of adults and children eligible according to
national or international guidelines who are receiving antiretroviral therapy.
This change was made because the eligibility criteria for starting antiretroviral
therapy vary over time and by country.
A4 Gap report
Publication of country-specific estimates
UNAIDS aims to publish estimates for all countries with populations of
250,000 or more.
Although UNAIDS encourages all countries to submit estimates, for
countries that do not submit estimates, draft estimates are created by
UNAIDS based on published or otherwise available information. These
draft estimates contribute to regional and global totals but are not
published.
In countries where the burden of disease is carried among key
populations, the estimated number of pregnant women living with HIV
is not easily available. Many women living with HIV in these countries are
sex workers or partners of gay men and other men who have sex with
men or drug users and thus are likely to have different fertility levels than
the general population. UNAIDS does not present estimates of mother
to child transmission or estimates related to children living with HIV
through mother to child transmission in some concentrated epidemic
countries, unless the country reports that adequate data are available to
validate these estimates.
With regard to monitoring incidence trends, if there is not enough
historical data to confidently state whether a decline in incidence has
occurred, UNAIDS will not publish earlier data to avoid users making
inaccurate inferences about trends. Specifically, incidence trends are not
published if there are less than four data points for the key population or
if there has been no data for the last four years.
Finally, in a few instances UNAIDS will not publish country estimates
when further data or analyses are needed to produce valid estimates.
More information on the UNAIDS estimates can be found at our website
www.unaids.org. The individual Spectrum files are available for most
countries from the above website.
Annex:
A5
EPIDEMIOLOGY
1. Estimated HIV prevalence – adults (15–49 years), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
Bangladesh
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Bhutan
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.4
1.2
0.5
2.4
0.7
0.3
1.5
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.1
India
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.3
Indonesia
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.7
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
Malaysia
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.6
Maldives
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Mongolia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Myanmar
0.8
0.7
1.0
0.6
0.5
0.7
Nepal
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.3
...
...
...
...
...
...
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.9
0.8
1.0
0.7
0.6
0.7
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Thailand
1.4
1.3
1.6
1.1
1.0
1.2
Viet Nam
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
Caribbean
1.2
1.0
1.5
1.1
0.9
1.2
Bahamas (the)
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.2
3.1
3.5
Barbados
0.8
0.7
1.1
0.9
0.7
1.2
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
Dominican Republic (the)
1.1
0.7
1.7
0.7
0.5
0.9
Haiti
2.4
2.2
2.7
2.0
1.8
2.1
Jamaica
2.1
1.8
2.4
1.8
1.4
2.0
Trinidad and Tobago
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.7
Asia and the Pacific
Afghanistan
Australia
Cambodia
Fiji
Japan
New Zealand
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Cuba
A6 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
1. Estimated HIV prevalence – adults (15–49 years), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.8
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.3
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.5
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.3
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.7
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.4
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Ukraine
1.0
0.9
1.2
0.8
0.7
1.0
Uzbekistan
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.3
Latin America
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.6
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belize
1.7
1.6
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.7
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.3
0.1
0.4
Brazil
...
...
...
0.6
0.5
0.6
Chile
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.5
Colombia
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.6
Costa Rica
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
Ecuador
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.7
El Salvador
0.6
0.4
0.8
0.5
0.3
1.0
Guatemala
0.6
0.3
1.4
0.6
0.1
3.3
Guyana
1.0
0.5
1.8
1.4
0.7
2.5
Honduras
0.9
0.7
1.0
0.5
0.4
0.6
Mexico
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
Nicaragua
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.3
Panama
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.7
0.5
0.8
Paraguay
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.8
Peru
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.5
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
Albania
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Tajikistan
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
Argentina
Annex: Epidemiology
A7
EPIDEMIOLOGY
1. Estimated HIV prevalence – adults (15–49 years), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Suriname
1.1
1.0
1.2
0.9
0.8
1.0
Uruguay
0.7
0.5
1.0
0.7
0.5
1.1
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
0.6
0.3
0.9
0.6
0.3
0.9
Middle East and
North Africa
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
Algeria
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.1
<0.1
0.2
2.4
1.9
3.0
0.9
0.7
1.2
Egypt
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Iran
(Islamic Republic of)
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
Morocco
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
...
...
...
...
...
...
Somalia
0.6
0.4
0.9
0.5
0.3
0.8
Sudan (the)
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
Tunisia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Yemen
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Sub-Saharan Africa
5.6
5.4
5.9
4.7
4.4
4.9
Angola
1.9
1.3
2.6
2.4
1.7
3.2
Benin
1.3
1.2
1.4
1.1
1.1
1.2
25.4
24.3
26.7
21.9
20.8
23.1
Burkina Faso
1.3
1.2
1.5
0.9
0.8
1.1
Burundi
2.1
1.9
2.4
1.0
0.9
1.1
Cameroon
5.2
4.9
5.5
4.3
4.0
4.6
Cabo Verde
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.6
Central African
Republic (the)
6.8
5.9
7.8
3.8
3.4
4.3
Chad
3.6
3.1
4.3
2.5
2.1
3.0
Congo (the)
3.9
3.6
4.2
2.5
2.3
2.7
Côte d’Ivoire
5.1
4.7
5.5
2.7
2.4
3.0
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
1.4
1.2
1.7
1.1
0.9
1.3
...
...
...
...
...
...
1.3
1.0
1.8
0.6
0.5
0.8
Djibouti
Oman
Botswana
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
A8 Gap report
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
EPIDEMIOLOGY
1. Estimated HIV prevalence – adults (15–49 years), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Ethiopia
2.6
2.3
2.9
1.2
1.1
1.4
Gabon
5.8
4.9
7.0
3.9
3.5
4.4
Gambia (the)
1.3
0.9
2.0
1.2
0.8
1.7
Ghana
2.0
1.5
2.5
1.3
1.0
1.7
Guinea
1.5
1.3
1.8
1.7
1.5
2.0
Guinea-Bissau
4.0
3.3
4.8
3.7
3.3
4.3
Kenya
6.6
6.3
7.0
6.0
5.6
6.6
Lesotho
22.0
20.9
23.0
22.9
21.6
24.1
Liberia
2.4
2.0
2.8
1.1
0.9
1.3
Madagascar
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.3
0.5
15.2
14.5
16.0
10.3
9.6
10.8
1.3
1.1
1.6
0.9
0.7
1.1
...
...
...
...
...
...
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.1
1.0
1.2
Mozambique
11.1
10.0
12.4
10.8
9.6
12.3
Namibia
16.4
13.5
19.7
14.3
11.8
17.3
Niger (the)
0.9
0.8
1.2
0.4
0.3
0.5
Nigeria
3.8
3.4
4.1
3.2
3.0
3.5
Rwanda
3.3
3.0
3.6
2.9
2.6
3.1
São Tomé and Príncipe
1.4
1.2
1.7
0.6
0.5
0.8
Senegal
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
Sierra Leone
1.5
1.3
1.8
1.6
1.2
2.0
South Africa
18.5
17.8
19.3
19.1
18.1
19.9
South Sudan
2.5
1.1
5.7
2.2
0.8
5.3
26.2
25.2
27.0
27.4
26.6
28.1
Togo
3.8
2.2
6.6
2.3
1.4
4.1
Uganda
6.2
5.8
6.5
7.4
7.0
8.0
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
6.6
5.9
7.2
5.0
4.6
5.3
Zambia
13.7
13.1
14.3
12.5
11.9
13.3
Zimbabwe
19.8
18.9
20.7
15.0
14.2
15.7
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Swaziland
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Annex: Epidemiology
A9
EPIDEMIOLOGY
1. Estimated HIV prevalence – adults (15–49 years), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.5
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
...
...
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Czech Republic (the)
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Denmark
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
Estonia
1.0
0.9
1.3
1.3
1.0
1.6
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.1
0.1
0.1
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
Italy
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.3
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.1
<0.1
0.2
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Western and central
Europe and North
America
Germany
Serbia
A10 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
1. Estimated HIV prevalence – adults (15–49 years), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
lower estimate
2013
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.5
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom (the)
United States of
America (the)
GLOBAL
Annex: Epidemiology A11
EPIDEMIOLOGY
2. Percent of young people (15–24 years) living with HIV, 2013
Young women
Young men
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Asia and the Pacific
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Afghanistan
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Australia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Bangladesh
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Bhutan
0.1
<0.1
0.5
<0.1
<0.1
0.4
Cambodia
0.2
<0.1
0.3
0.2
<0.1
0.2
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
<0.1
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.9
0.4
0.2
0.9
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Malaysia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
Maldives
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Mongolia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Myanmar
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.4
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
...
...
...
...
...
...
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
<0.1
0.2
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Thailand
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.6
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
Caribbean
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.5
Bahamas (the)
1.9
1.4
2.4
1.4
1.1
1.7
Barbados
0.3
0.1
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.7
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.3
Dominican Republic (the)
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.2
<0.1
0.3
Haiti
0.9
0.8
1.1
0.6
0.4
0.7
Jamaica
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.9
0.5
1.4
Trinidad and Tobago
0.9
0.7
1.2
0.6
0.5
0.7
Fiji
India
Indonesia
Japan
Nepal
New Zealand
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Viet Nam
Cuba
A12 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
2. Percent of young people (15–24 years) living with HIV, 2013
Young women
Young men
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.2
Albania
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Armenia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Azerbaijan
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.4
...
...
...
...
...
...
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.4
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.3
0.2
0.4
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.6
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Tajikistan
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.1
<0.1
0.2
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.4
0.2
0.6
0.1
<0.1
0.2
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.5
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.6
0.4
0.9
0.6
0.3
1.0
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.1
<0.1
0.3
Brazil
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.6
Chile
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.2
<0.1
0.6
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.5
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
Ecuador
0.2
<0.1
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.6
El Salvador
0.3
0.1
0.7
0.2
<0.1
0.6
Guatemala
0.3
<0.1
2.3
0.3
<0.1
2.3
Guyana
0.9
0.4
1.9
0.6
0.2
1.4
Honduras
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
Mexico
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.3
Nicaragua
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.3
Panama
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.6
Paraguay
0.2
<0.1
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.8
Peru
0.2
<0.1
0.3
0.2
<0.1
0.3
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
Belarus
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Argentina
Belize
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
Colombia
Costa Rica
Annex: Epidemiology A13
EPIDEMIOLOGY
2. Percent of young people (15–24 years) living with HIV, 2013
Young women
Young men
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Suriname
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.5
Uruguay
0.2
<0.1
0.4
0.5
0.2
1.0
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.7
Middle East and
North Africa
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Algeria
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Egypt
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Iran
(Islamic Republic of)
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.1
<0.1
0.3
Morocco
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
...
...
...
...
...
...
Somalia
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.2
<0.1
0.3
Sudan (the)
0.2
<0.1
0.3
0.1
<0.1
0.3
Tunisia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Yemen
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Sub-Saharan Africa
2.2
2.0
2.6
1.1
0.9
1.4
Angola
1.2
0.8
1.8
0.6
0.3
1.1
Benin
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.3
Botswana
6.0
5.2
7.4
3.5
2.4
5.0
Burkina Faso
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.5
Burundi
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
<0.1
0.2
Cameroon
1.9
1.6
2.3
1.0
0.7
1.5
Cabo Verde
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3
Central African
Republic (the)
1.5
1.2
1.9
0.9
0.7
1.2
Chad
0.9
0.7
1.2
0.5
0.3
0.7
Congo (the)
1.2
1.0
1.5
0.7
0.5
0.9
Côte d’Ivoire
1.0
0.8
1.3
0.7
0.5
0.9
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.3
0.2
0.4
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.2
<0.1
0.2
Djibouti
Oman
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
A14 Gap report
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
EPIDEMIOLOGY
2. Percent of young people (15–24 years) living with HIV, 2013
Young women
Young men
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Ethiopia
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.5
Gabon
1.9
1.4
2.6
0.4
0.3
0.7
Gambia (the)
0.4
0.2
0.7
0.2
<0.1
0.4
Ghana
0.4
0.3
0.7
0.3
0.2
0.4
Guinea
0.8
0.6
1.1
0.4
0.2
0.6
Guinea-Bissau
1.7
1.1
2.3
0.9
0.5
1.5
Kenya
2.8
2.4
3.4
1.7
1.3
2.3
Lesotho
10.5
9.3
12.8
5.8
3.9
8.3
Liberia
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.3
Madagascar
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.3
Malawi
3.8
3.3
4.6
2.4
1.8
3.3
Mali
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.2
<0.1
0.3
...
...
...
...
...
...
Mauritius
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.4
Mozambique
6.1
5.2
7.4
2.7
2.0
3.6
Namibia
4.8
3.5
6.7
2.7
1.7
4.2
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Nigeria
1.3
1.1
1.6
0.7
0.4
1.0
Rwanda
1.2
1.1
1.4
0.9
0.7
1.1
São Tomé and Príncipe
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.1
<0.1
0.3
Senegal
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
<0.1
0.2
Sierra Leone
0.6
0.4
1.0
0.3
0.1
0.5
South Africa
13.1
11.9
16.1
4.0
2.5
5.9
South Sudan
1.1
0.4
2.9
0.6
0.2
1.6
12.4
11.3
14.8
7.1
4.9
10.2
Togo
0.7
0.3
1.4
0.4
0.2
0.9
Uganda
4.2
3.7
5.0
2.4
1.7
3.3
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
2.2
1.9
2.6
1.4
1.0
1.8
Zambia
4.5
4.0
5.4
3.4
2.5
4.8
Zimbabwe
6.6
5.9
7.9
4.1
3.1
5.6
Mauritania
Niger (the)
Swaziland
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Annex: Epidemiology A15
EPIDEMIOLOGY
2. Percent of young people (15–24 years) living with HIV, 2013
Young women
Young men
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.2
<0.1
0.3
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
...
...
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Czech Republic (the)
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Denmark
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
Estonia
0.5
0.3
0.8
0.8
0.5
1.2
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
...
...
Germany
...
...
...
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.1
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Serbia
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Western and central
Europe and North
America
Italy
A16 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
2. Percent of young people (15–24 years) living with HIV, 2013
Young women
estimate
lower estimate
Young men
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
Sweden
...
...
...
...
...
...
Switzerland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Turkey
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.3
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.3
Spain
United Kingdom (the)
United States of
America (the)
GLOBAL
Annex: Epidemiology A17
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3. People living with HIV (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
4 500 000
4 100 000
4 900 000
4 800 000
4 100 000
5 500 000
2500
1100
9200
4500
1700
17 000
22 000
20 000
26 000
28 000
26 000
34 000
Bangladesh
5100
2700
12 000
9500
4100
97 000
Bhutan
<500
<500
<500
<1000
<500
2100
94 000
38 000
190 000
75 000
41 000
130 000
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
<500
<500
<1000
<1000
<500
<1000
2 400 000
2 000 000
2 700 000
2 100 000
1 700 000
2 700 000
250 000
160 000
370 000
640 000
420 000
1 000 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
4200
3000
6600
5800
4300
8200
Malaysia
67 000
52 000
93 000
86 000
66 000
120 000
Maldives
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Mongolia
<100
<100
<200
<1000
<500
<1000
Myanmar
240 000
210 000
270 000
190 000
170 000
220 000
54 000
44 000
68 000
39 000
31 000
52 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Pakistan
14 000
9500
23 000
68 000
41 000
130 000
Papua New Guinea
33 000
29 000
38 000
32 000
29 000
35 000
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
1200
<1000
2300
2900
1800
5300
Thailand
540 000
500 000
600 000
440 000
400 000
470 000
Viet Nam
210 000
200 000
240 000
250 000
230 000
280 000
Caribbean
270 000
230 000
320 000
250 000
230 000
280 000
Bahamas (the)
6800
6600
7000
7700
7300
8300
Barbados
1400
1100
1800
1700
1300
2200
Cuba
4900
4300
5600
16 000
14 000
18 000
61 000
39 000
93 000
46 000
33 000
59 000
150 000
140 000
160 000
140 000
130 000
150 000
Jamaica
32 000
26 000
37 000
30 000
25 000
35 000
Trinidad and Tobago
13 000
12 000
13 000
14 000
13 000
15 000
Asia and the Pacific
Afghanistan
Australia
Cambodia
Fiji
India
Indonesia
Japan
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
Nepal
New Zealand
Dominican Republic (the)
Haiti
A18 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3. People living with HIV (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
830 000
720 000
980 000
1 100 000
980 000
1 300 000
Albania
<500
<200
<500
<1000
<500
1100
Armenia
2200
1300
4200
3700
2400
5900
Azerbaijan
4700
3000
7100
9200
6700
12 000
12 000
10 000
14 000
25 000
24 000
27 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
2600
1900
3400
6400
5000
8000
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
2000
1600
2600
8000
6500
10 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
11 000
9100
13 000
15 000
13 000
17 000
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
10 000
7300
15 000
14 000
10 000
20 000
<200
<100
<200
<200
<200
<500
270 000
240 000
310 000
210 000
180 000
250 000
46 000
37 000
63 000
35 000
27 000
48 000
1 300 000
1 200 000
1 600 000
1 600 000
1 400 000
2 100 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
2800
2700
3100
3300
2900
3600
22 000
17 000
45 000
15 000
7900
33 000
Brazil
...
...
...
730 000
660 000
810 000
Chile
31 000
16 000
47 000
38 000
23 000
59 000
130 000
100 000
170 000
140 000
110 000
180 000
5400
3600
6600
7600
5400
9200
Ecuador
31 000
22 000
43 000
37 000
26 000
64 000
El Salvador
19 000
14 000
26 000
21 000
14 000
39 000
Guatemala
37 000
18 000
90 000
53 000
13 000
300 000
4900
2500
8700
7700
4000
13 000
35 000
29 000
41 000
24 000
20 000
30 000
140 000
120 000
180 000
180 000
140 000
230 000
4200
2600
6200
7100
4700
9500
12 000
9700
15 000
16 000
13 000
19 000
6100
3600
14 000
16 000
8800
29 000
68 000
48 000
99 000
65 000
46 000
96 000
Belarus
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Tajikistan
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Argentina
Belize
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
Colombia
Costa Rica
Guyana
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Annex: Epidemiology A19
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3. People living with HIV (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Suriname
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
3500
3200
3800
3200
2900
3700
Uruguay
13 000
9100
18 000
14 000
10 000
21 000
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
87 000
54 000
130 000
100 000
57 000
150 000
160 000
110 000
230 000
230 000
160 000
330 000
Algeria
16 000
6200
45 000
25 000
13 000
43 000
Djibouti
11 000
9200
14 000
6200
4800
7800
3200
2200
5800
7400
4800
12 000
Iran
(Islamic Republic of)
43 000
29 000
60 000
70 000
47 000
110 000
Morocco
16 000
12 000
22 000
31 000
22 000
42 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Somalia
29 000
19 000
43 000
32 000
21 000
51 000
Sudan (the)
30 000
20 000
42 000
49 000
34 000
70 000
Tunisia
<1000
<1000
1900
3400
2100
5400
Yemen
5000
2100
16 000
6000
3300
15 000
23 200 000
22 000 000
24 600 000
24 700 000
23 500 000
26 100 000
150 000
110 000
210 000
250 000
180 000
340 000
63 000
59 000
68 000
74 000
69 000
80 000
Botswana
290 000
280 000
310 000
320 000
310 000
340 000
Burkina Faso
130 000
110 000
150 000
110 000
100 000
130 000
Burundi
110 000
98 000
120 000
83 000
76 000
91 000
Cameroon
580 000
540 000
620 000
600 000
560 000
650 000
1200
1000
1600
1500
1300
1800
Central African
Republic (the)
160 000
140 000
190 000
120 000
110 000
130 000
Chad
210 000
180 000
250 000
210 000
170 000
250 000
Congo (the)
86 000
79 000
93 000
69 000
64 000
75 000
Côte d’Ivoire
550 000
500 000
600 000
370 000
330 000
410 000
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
440 000
370 000
520 000
440 000
370 000
520 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
26 000
19 000
35 000
18 000
14 000
22 000
Middle East and
North Africa
Egypt
Oman
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Cabo Verde
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
A20 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3. People living with HIV (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
1 200 000
1 100 000
1 300 000
790 000
720 000
890 000
Gabon
45 000
38 000
54 000
41 000
36 000
46 000
Gambia (the)
10 000
7400
15 000
13 000
9200
18 000
Ghana
260 000
200 000
330 000
220 000
170 000
300 000
Guinea
86 000
73 000
100 000
130 000
110 000
140 000
Guinea-Bissau
34 000
28 000
42 000
41 000
37 000
47 000
1 400 000
1 400 000
1 500 000
1 600 000
1 500 000
1 700 000
Lesotho
290 000
280 000
310 000
360 000
350 000
380 000
Liberia
46 000
38 000
54 000
30 000
25 000
36 000
Madagascar
67 000
56 000
80 000
54 000
46 000
64 000
1 100 000
1 100 000
1 200 000
1 000 000
970 000
1 100 000
110 000
90 000
130 000
97 000
80 000
120 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
9800
8900
11 000
9600
8700
11 000
1 200 000
1 100 000
1 400 000
1 600 000
1 400 000
1 800 000
210 000
180 000
260 000
250 000
210 000
290 000
62 000
50 000
79 000
41 000
33 000
52 000
Nigeria
2 900 000
2 700 000
3 300 000
3 200 000
3 000 000
3 600 000
Rwanda
190 000
180 000
210 000
200 000
180 000
210 000
3700
3000
4300
2300
1900
3000
Senegal
39 000
33 000
49 000
39 000
33 000
45 000
Sierra Leone
44 000
37 000
53 000
57 000
45 000
72 000
South Africa
5 600 000
5 300 000
5 900 000
6 300 000
6 000 000
6 500 000
South Sudan
120 000
50 000
260 000
150 000
59 000
350 000
Swaziland
160 000
150 000
160 000
200 000
200 000
210 000
Togo
130 000
78 000
240 000
110 000
67 000
190 000
Uganda
1 000 000
960 000
1 100 000
1 600 000
1 500 000
1 700 000
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
1 500 000
1 300 000
1 600 000
1 400 000
1 300 000
1 500 000
940 000
900 000
1 000 000
1 100 000
1 100 000
1 200 000
1 500 000
1 500 000
1 600 000
1 400 000
1 300 000
1 400 000
Ethiopia
Kenya
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger (the)
São Tomé and Príncipe
Zambia
Zimbabwe
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Annex: Epidemiology A21
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3. People living with HIV (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
1 800 000
1 600 000
2 100 000
2 300 000
2 000 000
3 000 000
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
...
...
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
<500
<200
<500
<500
<500
<1000
Czech Republic (the)
1500
1400
1700
3400
3000
3800
Denmark
4200
3600
4800
5800
4900
6900
Estonia
6900
5800
8500
8600
6900
11 000
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
...
...
57 000
52 000
63 000
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
110 000
91 000
130 000
120 000
110 000
140 000
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
17 000
14 000
21 000
16 000
13 000
21 000
2200
1600
3000
3000
1900
5400
Western and central
Europe and North
America
Germany
Italy
Serbia
A22 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3. People living with HIV (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
130 000
120 000
150 000
150 000
130 000
160 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
16 000
12 000
20 000
20 000
15 000
27 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
75 000
61 000
94 000
130 000
100 000
160 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
32 100 000
30 500 000
34 000 000
35 000 000
33 200 000
37 200 000
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom (the)
United States of
America (the)
GLOBAL
1
2013
Estimates for China and India are based on 2011 national estimates.
Annex: Epidemiology A23
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.1 People living with HIV (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
4 300 000
3 900 000
4 600 000
4 600 000
3 900 000
5 300 000
2400
1100
8200
4200
1600
16 000
22 000
20 000
26 000
28 000
26 000
34 000
Bangladesh
5000
2700
12 000
9300
4000
95 000
Bhutan
<500
<200
<500
<1000
<500
1900
88 000
35 000
180 000
70 000
29 000
140 000
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
<500
<200
<1000
<1000
<500
<1000
2 200 000
1 900 000
2 500 000
1 900 000
1 500 000
2 500 000
240 000
150 000
370 000
620 000
400 000
970 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
3900
2800
6000
5300
3900
7400
Malaysia
67 000
51 000
93 000
86 000
65 000
120 000
Maldives
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Mongolia
<100
<100
<200
<1000
<500
<1000
Myanmar
230 000
200 000
260 000
180 000
160 000
200 000
53 000
43 000
67 000
37 000
30 000
50 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Pakistan
14 000
9300
22 000
66 000
40 000
130 000
Papua New Guinea
30 000
27 000
34 000
28 000
25 000
31 000
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
1200
<1000
2200
2800
1700
5200
Thailand
520 000
490 000
590 000
430 000
390 000
470 000
Viet Nam
210 000
190 000
230 000
240 000
220 000
270 000
Caribbean
240 000
210 000
290 000
240 000
210 000
260 000
Bahamas (the)
6700
6500
6900
7600
7100
8200
Barbados
1400
1100
1800
1700
1300
2200
Cuba
4800
4200
5500
15 000
13 000
18 000
57 000
37 000
88 000
43 000
31 000
56 000
130 000
120 000
140 000
130 000
120 000
140 000
Jamaica
31 000
26 000
36 000
30 000
24 000
34 000
Trinidad and Tobago
13 000
12 000
13 000
14 000
13 000
14 000
Asia and the Pacific
Afghanistan
Australia
Cambodia
Fiji
India
Indonesia
Japan
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
Nepal
New Zealand
Dominican Republic (the)
Haiti
A24 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.1 People living with HIV (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
820 000
710 000
970 000
1 100 000
960 000
1 300 000
Albania
<500
<200
<500
<1000
<500
1100
Armenia
2200
1300
4200
3600
2400
5900
Azerbaijan
4600
3000
7000
9000
6600
12 000
12 000
10 000
14 000
25 000
23 000
27 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
2500
1900
3400
6300
5000
7900
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
1900
1500
2500
7900
6400
9900
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
11 000
9000
13 000
15 000
13 000
17 000
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Tajikistan
9500
6800
13 000
13 000
9500
18 000
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
<200
<100
<200
<200
<200
<500
270 000
240 000
310 000
210 000
170 000
250 000
44 000
36 000
61 000
32 000
24 000
45 000
1 200 000
1 200 000
1 600 000
1 500 000
1 300 000
2 000 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
2700
2500
2900
3000
2700
3400
21 000
15 000
42 000
14 000
7100
30 000
Brazil
...
...
...
720 000
660 000
800 000
Chile
30 000
16 000
47 000
38 000
23 000
59 000
130 000
99 000
160 000
130 000
100 000
170 000
5300
3500
6400
7600
5300
9100
Ecuador
30 000
21 000
41 000
37 000
25 000
63 000
El Salvador
18 000
13 000
25 000
20 000
13 000
37 000
Guatemala
35 000
17 000
87 000
50 000
12 000
260 000
4700
2400
8300
7500
3800
13 000
30 000
25 000
36 000
22 000
18 000
27 000
140 000
120 000
180 000
170 000
140 000
230 000
4000
2500
6000
6900
4600
9200
12 000
9400
15 000
15 000
13 000
19 000
5900
3500
14 000
15 000
8600
29 000
64 000
45 000
94 000
63 000
45 000
92 000
Belarus
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Argentina
Belize
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
Colombia
Costa Rica
Guyana
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Annex: Epidemiology A25
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.1 People living with HIV (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Suriname
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
3300
3000
3600
3100
2700
3500
Uruguay
13 000
9000
18 000
14 000
10 000
21 000
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
83 000
51 000
130 000
99 000
56 000
150 000
150 000
110 000
210 000
220 000
150 000
310 000
Algeria
15 000
6000
42 000
24 000
12 000
40 000
Djibouti
10 000
8300
13 000
5000
3900
6400
3100
2100
5500
7200
4600
12 000
Iran
(Islamic Republic of)
42 000
29 000
59 000
68 000
46 000
110 000
Morocco
16 000
11 000
22 000
30 000
22 000
41 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Somalia
25 000
16 000
38 000
27 000
17 000
43 000
Sudan (the)
28 000
19 000
38 000
45 000
30 000
65 000
Tunisia
<1000
<1000
1900
3400
2000
5300
Yemen
4700
2000
14 000
5600
3100
14 000
20 200 000
19 100 000
21 300 000
21 800 000
20 700 000
23 000 000
140 000
92 000
190 000
220 000
160 000
300 000
55 000
51 000
60 000
65 000
61 000
71 000
280 000
260 000
290 000
310 000
290 000
330 000
Burkina Faso
99 000
86 000
110 000
94 000
84 000
110 000
Burundi
94 000
84 000
110 000
64 000
59 000
71 000
490 000
460 000
530 000
510 000
470 000
550 000
1100
<1000
1300
1400
1200
1600
Central African
Republic (the)
140 000
130 000
160 000
100 000
91 000
110 000
Chad
180 000
160 000
220 000
170 000
140 000
210 000
Congo (the)
70 000
64 000
76 000
56 000
51 000
62 000
Côte d’Ivoire
450 000
410 000
500 000
300 000
260 000
330 000
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
370 000
310 000
440 000
380 000
320 000
440 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
21 000
16 000
29 000
14 000
12 000
17 000
Middle East and
North Africa
Egypt
Oman
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
A26 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.1 People living with HIV (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Ethiopia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
890 000
790 000
1 000 000
590 000
540 000
670 000
41 000
35 000
50 000
37 000
32 000
41 000
9400
6600
14 000
11 000
8000
16 000
Ghana
220 000
170 000
280 000
190 000
140 000
250 000
Guinea
76 000
65 000
91 000
110 000
97 000
130 000
Guinea-Bissau
29 000
24 000
36 000
35 000
31 000
40 000
1 200 000
1 100 000
1 300 000
1 400 000
1 300 000
1 500 000
Lesotho
260 000
250 000
270 000
330 000
310 000
350 000
Liberia
40 000
33 000
47 000
25 000
20 000
30 000
Madagascar
59 000
49 000
70 000
46 000
38 000
55 000
920 000
870 000
960 000
850 000
810 000
890 000
92 000
77 000
110 000
81 000
66 000
100 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
9700
8900
11 000
9600
8700
11 000
1 100 000
980 000
1 200 000
1 400 000
1 200 000
1 600 000
190 000
160 000
230 000
220 000
190 000
260 000
54 000
43 000
68 000
32 000
27 000
42 000
Nigeria
2 600 000
2 400 000
2 900 000
2 800 000
2 600 000
3 200 000
Rwanda
160 000
140 000
170 000
180 000
160 000
190 000
3300
2700
4000
1900
1500
2500
Senegal
34 000
29 000
42 000
33 000
29 000
39 000
Sierra Leone
41 000
35 000
49 000
52 000
41 000
67 000
South Africa
5 300 000
5 000 000
5 500 000
5 900 000
5 700 000
6 200 000
South Sudan
100 000
45 000
230 000
140 000
52 000
310 000
Swaziland
140 000
130 000
150 000
190 000
180 000
190 000
Togo
110 000
66 000
200 000
92 000
56 000
160 000
Uganda
820 000
770 000
880 000
1 400 000
1 300 000
1 500 000
1 200 000
1 100 000
1 300 000
1 200 000
1 100 000
1 300 000
780 000
750 000
830 000
960 000
910 000
1 000 000
1 300 000
1 300 000
1 400 000
1 200 000
1 200 000
1 300 000
Gabon
Gambia (the)
Kenya
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger (the)
São Tomé and Príncipe
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Annex: Epidemiology A27
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.1 People living with HIV (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
1 800 000
1 600 000
2 100 000
2 300 000
2 000 000
3 000 000
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
...
...
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
<500
<200
<500
<500
<500
<1000
Czech Republic (the)
1500
1400
1700
3400
3000
3800
Denmark
4200
3600
4800
5800
4900
6900
Estonia
6900
5800
8500
8600
6900
11 000
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
...
...
57 000
52 000
63 000
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
110 000
91 000
130 000
120 000
110 000
140 000
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
17 000
14 000
20 000
16 000
13 000
21 000
2200
1600
3000
3000
1900
5400
Western and central
Europe and North
America
Germany
Italy
Serbia
A28 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.1 People living with HIV (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
130 000
120 000
140 000
150 000
130 000
160 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
16 000
12 000
20 000
20 000
15 000
27 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
75 000
61 000
94 000
130 000
100 000
160 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
28 800 000
27 300 000
30 400 000
31 800 000
30 100 000
33 700 000
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom (the)
United States of
America (the)
GLOBAL
Annex: Epidemiology A29
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.2 People living with HIV (15 years and older) – women, 2005 and 2013
2005
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
1 500 000
1 300 000
1 600 000
1 700 000
1 400 000
1 900 000
<1000
<500
3000
1500
<1000
6000
Australia
1800
1000
2000
2800
1600
3200
Bangladesh
1300
<1000
3400
3300
1400
36 000
Bhutan
<200
<100
<200
<500
<200
<1000
48 000
18 000
110 000
39 000
15 000
88 000
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
<100
<100
<200
<500
<200
<500
830 000
700 000
920 000
750 000
600 000
970 000
82 000
52 000
120 000
240 000
160 000
390 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
1800
1300
2800
2400
1800
3400
Malaysia
4300
3300
5800
10 000
7700
13 000
Maldives
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Mongolia
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Myanmar
61 000
53 000
69 000
63 000
56 000
71 000
9400
7700
12 000
7900
6500
10 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
3600
2500
5900
19 000
12 000
36 000
17 000
15 000
19 000
16 000
14 000
18 000
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
<500
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
1700
Thailand
200 000
180 000
230 000
190 000
180 000
210 000
Viet Nam
60 000
54 000
67 000
67 000
62 000
75 000
120 000
110 000
150 000
120 000
110 000
140 000
Bahamas (the)
3100
3000
3300
3700
3500
4000
Barbados
<500
<500
<500
<500
<500
<1000
Cuba
1800
1600
2000
3600
3300
4200
Dominican Republic (the)
27 000
18 000
42 000
22 000
16 000
29 000
Haiti
74 000
67 000
82 000
74 000
68 000
81 000
Jamaica
11 000
9500
13 000
11 000
8800
12 000
6400
6100
6700
7100
6800
7500
Asia and the Pacific
Afghanistan
Cambodia
Fiji
India
Indonesia
Japan
Nepal
New Zealand
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Caribbean
Trinidad and Tobago
A30 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.2 People living with HIV (15 years and older) – women, 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
300 000
250 000
350 000
400 000
350 000
480 000
Albania
<100
<100
<100
<200
<200
<500
Armenia
<500
<200
<500
<1000
<500
1100
Azerbaijan
1400
<1000
2100
2700
2000
3500
Belarus
4600
3900
5500
11 000
10 000
12 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
<1000
<1000
<1000
1400
1100
1700
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
<1000
<500
<1000
1300
1100
1600
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
3300
2800
4100
4900
4300
5900
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Tajikistan
3400
2400
5000
4200
3100
6000
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Ukraine
99 000
86 000
120 000
87 000
72 000
110 000
Uzbekistan
11 000
8400
15 000
8600
6700
12 000
380 000
360 000
490 000
450 000
390 000
670 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belize
1200
1100
1300
1400
1200
1600
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
6300
4700
9400
4600
2400
7700
Brazil
...
...
...
210 000
200 000
230 000
Chile
3300
1800
5100
5000
3100
7500
Colombia
38 000
30 000
49 000
35 000
27 000
45 000
Costa Rica
<1000
<1000
1200
1400
<1000
1700
Ecuador
9000
6200
12 000
11 000
7500
19 000
El Salvador
7100
5100
10 000
9200
5700
18 000
Guatemala
11 000
4600
31 000
19 000
4000
110 000
2400
1200
4200
4000
2000
6800
Honduras
13 000
11 000
15 000
9000
7600
11 000
Mexico
28 000
23 000
35 000
36 000
28 000
48 000
Nicaragua
1200
<1000
1800
2100
1400
2900
Panama
3400
2800
4300
4600
3800
5700
Paraguay
1800
1100
4400
5200
2900
9700
19 000
13 000
28 000
20 000
14 000
30 000
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Latin America
Argentina
Guyana
Peru
Annex: Epidemiology A31
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.2 People living with HIV (15 years and older) – women, 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Suriname
1700
1500
1900
1500
1300
1700
Uruguay
2400
1700
3400
2900
2200
4500
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
26 000
16 000
39 000
35 000
21 000
51 000
Middle East and
North Africa
61 000
44 000
93 000
85 000
58 000
120 000
Algeria
9000
3500
25 000
12 000
6200
21 000
Djibouti
5900
4700
7400
3000
2300
3800
<1000
<1000
1800
1800
1200
2900
Iran
(Islamic Republic of)
9500
6400
13 000
19 000
12 000
32 000
Morocco
6700
4700
9000
10 000
7700
14 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Somalia
12 000
7900
19 000
14 000
8700
22 000
Sudan (the)
15 000
9900
21 000
22 000
15 000
32 000
Tunisia
<500
<500
<1000
1000
<1000
1500
Yemen
<1000
<500
3400
1500
<1000
3900
11 700 000
11 000 000
12 400 000
12 800 000
12 100 000
13 500 000
Angola
80 000
54 000
110 000
130 000
93 000
180 000
Benin
32 000
30 000
35 000
39 000
36 000
42 000
150 000
150 000
160 000
180 000
170 000
190 000
Burkina Faso
59 000
51 000
69 000
56 000
50 000
64 000
Burundi
56 000
50 000
64 000
39 000
36 000
44 000
290 000
260 000
310 000
300 000
280 000
320 000
Cabo Verde
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
<1000
Central African
Republic (the)
84 000
74 000
97 000
60 000
53 000
68 000
110 000
92 000
130 000
100 000
85 000
120 000
Congo (the)
40 000
36 000
43 000
35 000
31 000
38 000
Côte d’Ivoire
250 000
230 000
280 000
170 000
150 000
190 000
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
220 000
180 000
260 000
220 000
190 000
260 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
13 000
9400
18 000
8500
6900
10 000
Egypt
Oman
Sub-Saharan Africa
Botswana
Cameroon
Chad
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
A32 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.2 People living with HIV (15 years and older) – women, 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Ethiopia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
570 000
510 000
640 000
370 000
340 000
420 000
29 000
24 000
35 000
25 000
22 000
28 000
5600
4000
8300
6900
5000
9700
Ghana
130 000
100 000
170 000
110 000
87 000
150 000
Guinea
46 000
40 000
55 000
68 000
58 000
78 000
Guinea-Bissau
17 000
14 000
21 000
21 000
18 000
24 000
Kenya
690 000
650 000
750 000
820 000
750 000
890 000
Lesotho
150 000
140 000
160 000
190 000
180 000
200 000
Liberia
23 000
19 000
28 000
15 000
12 000
18 000
Madagascar
28 000
24 000
34 000
21 000
18 000
26 000
530 000
500 000
560 000
500 000
470 000
520 000
54 000
45 000
64 000
49 000
40 000
61 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
2600
2400
2900
2600
2300
3000
Mozambique
640 000
570 000
720 000
820 000
730 000
920 000
Namibia
110 000
92 000
130 000
130 000
110 000
150 000
26 000
21 000
33 000
17 000
14 000
21 000
Nigeria
1 500 000
1 400 000
1 700 000
1 600 000
1 500 000
1 800 000
Rwanda
92 000
85 000
100 000
100 000
97 000
110 000
1400
1100
1600
<1000
<1000
1100
Senegal
21 000
18 000
26 000
20 000
18 000
24 000
Sierra Leone
24 000
20 000
29 000
31 000
24 000
39 000
South Africa
3 100 000
2 900 000
3 300 000
3 500 000
3 300 000
3 700 000
South Sudan
61 000
26 000
140 000
79 000
30 000
180 000
Swaziland
81 000
77 000
86 000
110 000
110 000
120 000
Togo
66 000
38 000
110 000
54 000
33 000
90 000
Uganda
470 000
430 000
510 000
790 000
740 000
850 000
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
680 000
610 000
750 000
690 000
640 000
750 000
Zambia
400 000
370 000
420 000
500 000
470 000
530 000
Zimbabwe
760 000
720 000
790 000
720 000
690 000
750 000
Gabon
Gambia (the)
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Niger (the)
São Tomé and Príncipe
Annex: Epidemiology A33
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.2 People living with HIV (15 years and older) – women, 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Western and central
Europe and North
America
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
400 000
350 000
450 000
510 000
430 000
660 000
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
...
...
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
<100
<100
<100
<200
<100
<200
Czech Republic (the)
<500
<500
<500
<500
<500
<1000
Denmark
1100
<1000
1300
1600
1300
1800
Estonia
2100
1700
2600
2600
2100
3300
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
...
...
10 000
9000
11 000
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
11 000
9300
13 000
13 000
11 000
15 000
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
7200
5700
9000
7400
6100
9400
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<500
1200
Germany
Italy
Serbia
A34 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
3.2 People living with HIV (15 years and older) – women, 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
30 000
26 000
34 000
34 000
31 000
38 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
4700
3700
6000
6100
4500
8300
...
...
...
...
...
...
22 000
18 000
28 000
38 000
30 000
48 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
14 400 000
13 700 000
15 300 000
16 000 000
15 200 000
16 900 000
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom (the)
United States of
America (the)
GLOBAL
Annex: Epidemiology A35
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4. Estimated new HIV infections (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Asia and the Pacific
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
370 000
330 000
430 000
350 000
250 000
510 000
...
...
...
<1000
<200
2600
<1000
<500
1200
1200
<1000
1400
Bangladesh
...
...
...
1300
<500
27 000
Bhutan
...
...
...
<100
<100
<500
3900
1500
11 000
1300
<1000
3000
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Fiji
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
160 000
130 000
200 000
130 000
80 000
250 000
54 000
35 000
80 000
80 000
49 000
170 000
Japan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
...
...
...
<500
<200
<1000
Malaysia
...
...
...
8000
5500
12 000
Maldives
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
Mongolia
...
...
...
<200
<100
<200
Myanmar
16 000
13 000
18 000
6700
5300
8400
4200
2800
6500
1300
<1000
2400
...
...
...
...
...
...
Pakistan
3300
2200
5400
14 000
7000
33 000
Papua New Guinea
3200
2500
3900
2200
1600
2900
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
<200
<200
<500
<500
<500
<1000
Thailand
15 000
9400
19 000
8200
4100
17 000
Viet Nam
25 000
23 000
29 000
14 000
11 000
21 000
Caribbean
19 000
17 000
23 000
12 000
9400
14 000
<1000
<500
<1000
<500
<500
<1000
<100
<100
<200
<100
<100
<200
...
...
...
1500
1100
2100
2300
1200
3900
<1000
<500
1400
12 000
11 000
14 000
6700
5400
8300
Jamaica
2400
1900
3000
1400
<1000
2000
Trinidad and Tobago
1100
<1000
1200
<1000
<1000
<1000
Afghanistan
Australia
Cambodia
India
Indonesia
Nepal
New Zealand
Bahamas (the)
Barbados
Cuba
Dominican Republic (the)
Haiti
A36 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4. Estimated new HIV infections (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
100 000
85 000
120 000
110 000
86 000
130 000
...
...
...
<200
<100
<500
<500
<100
<1000
<500
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
1200
1200
<1000
1500
2200
1900
2500
2700
2300
3200
...
...
...
...
...
...
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<500
1000
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
1300
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
1500
1200
1700
1400
1200
1700
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
1200
<1000
1900
1700
1000
3100
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
24 000
20 000
30 000
8600
5500
14 000
...
...
...
1100
<1000
1900
97 000
83 000
130 000
94 000
71 000
170 000
Argentina
4800
...
...
5200
...
...
Belize
<200
<200
<500
<200
<200
<500
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
1100
<500
2800
<1000
<100
2400
Brazil
...
...
...
44 000
35 000
58 000
Chile
1600
<1000
2900
2100
<1000
6100
Colombia
9300
6700
13 000
8700
5800
13 000
Costa Rica
...
...
...
<500
<500
<500
Ecuador
...
...
...
2500
1200
6800
El Salvador
1400
<1000
2500
1300
<500
3800
Guatemala
4500
<1000
20 000
3600
<200
34 000
<1000
<500
1200
<1000
<200
1100
1200
<1000
1700
<1000
<1000
1400
15 000
11 000
21 000
9300
6100
15 000
<500
<500
<1000
<1000
<500
1100
<1000
<1000
1300
<1000
<1000
1400
Paraguay
...
...
...
2000
<1000
4800
Peru
...
...
...
3500
1800
6500
Albania
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Tajikistan
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Guyana
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Annex: Epidemiology A37
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4. Estimated new HIV infections (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Suriname
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
<200
<200
<500
<200
<100
<200
Uruguay
...
...
...
<1000
<500
2100
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
...
...
...
6300
2300
11 000
23 000
17 000
29 000
25 000
14 000
41 000
Algeria
2000
<1000
3700
2700
1300
4100
Djibouti
1000
<1000
1500
<200
<100
<500
<1000
<500
<1000
1100
<1000
2100
Iran
(Islamic Republic of)
8200
5600
11 000
7800
3800
22 000
Morocco
2600
1800
3700
3000
1800
4600
...
...
...
...
...
...
3200
2000
5300
3300
1600
6500
...
...
...
5200
2100
9700
Tunisia
<200
<200
<500
<1000
<500
<1000
Yemen
...
...
...
<1000
<200
1700
2 200 000
2 100 000
2 300 000
1 500 000
1 300 000
1 600 000
20 000
14 000
30 000
28 000
18 000
42 000
5100
4500
5800
4500
3900
5400
15 000
14 000
18 000
9100
7500
11 000
Burkina Faso
6800
5500
8100
6300
4800
8200
Burundi
7100
5800
8600
2100
1400
3200
66 000
61 000
73 000
47 000
39 000
55 000
...
...
...
<100
<100
<200
9900
8000
13 000
7700
6200
9400
23 000
19 000
28 000
12 000
9000
16 000
6800
6100
7500
3800
2900
4800
Côte d’Ivoire
33 000
29 000
38 000
19 000
12 000
26 000
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
45 000
37 000
54 000
34 000
27 000
42 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
<1000
<500
1200
<500
<500
<1000
Middle East and
North Africa
Egypt
Oman
Somalia
Sudan (the)
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Central African
Republic (the)
Chad
Congo (the)
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
A38 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4. Estimated new HIV infections (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Ethiopia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
51 000
43 000
61 000
21 000
15 000
32 000
Gabon
3500
2900
4300
1700
1100
2400
Gambia (the)
1600
1100
2200
<1000
<500
1300
Ghana
22 000
16 000
29 000
7800
2100
17 000
Guinea
...
...
...
11 000
8000
13 000
4100
3600
4800
3200
2000
4600
120 000
110 000
140 000
100 000
79 000
130 000
30 000
28 000
32 000
26 000
23 000
30 000
Liberia
2400
1500
3300
1800
1100
2600
Madagascar
7100
4500
8400
3100
1900
5400
98 000
93 000
100 000
34 000
28 000
41 000
9100
6900
12 000
4100
2100
7600
...
...
...
...
...
...
1600
1400
1800
<500
<200
<1000
160 000
140 000
180 000
120 000
92 000
150 000
18 000
14 000
22 000
12 000
8600
16 000
4200
3100
5900
<1000
<500
1300
Nigeria
340 000
300 000
390 000
220 000
180 000
270 000
Rwanda
13 000
12 000
14 000
5600
4500
6900
São Tomé and Príncipe
<500
<500
<500
<100
<100
<100
Senegal
4100
3300
4900
1200
<1000
1800
Sierra Leone
7200
5900
8700
4200
2200
7300
South Africa
560 000
520 000
590 000
340 000
310 000
370 000
South Sudan
...
...
...
15 000
4800
39 000
Swaziland
16 000
15 000
17 000
11 000
9500
12 000
Togo
12 000
6500
20 000
3900
<1000
9700
Uganda
120 000
110 000
120 000
140 000
120 000
160 000
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
130 000
120 000
150 000
72 000
59 000
87 000
92 000
87 000
99 000
54 000
46 000
64 000
110 000
100 000
110 000
69 000
61 000
78 000
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger (the)
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Annex: Epidemiology A39
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4. Estimated new HIV infections (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Western and central
Europe and North
America
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
95 000
70 000
130 000
88 000
44 000
160 000
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
3100
<1000
4800
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
...
...
...
<100
<100
<200
Czech Republic (the)
...
...
...
<500
<100
<500
Denmark
...
...
...
<500
<100
<500
Estonia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
6900
2800
11 000
Germany
...
...
...
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
Italy
...
...
...
...
...
...
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
...
...
...
<1000
<200
1100
Serbia
...
...
...
<200
<100
<1000
A40 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4. Estimated new HIV infections (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Spain
...
...
...
3300
2200
4300
Sweden
...
...
...
...
...
...
Switzerland
...
...
...
<1000
<200
1100
Turkey
...
...
...
...
...
...
United Kingdom (the)
...
...
...
6800
4800
9300
United States of
America (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
2 900 000
2 700 000
3 100 000
2 100 000
1 900 000
2 400 000
GLOBAL
Annex: Epidemiology A41
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.1 Estimated new HIV infections (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Asia and the Pacific
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
340 000
300 000
400 000
330 000
230 000
480 000
...
...
...
<1000
<200
2400
<1000
<1000
1300
1200
<1000
1400
Bangladesh
...
...
...
1200
<500
26 000
Bhutan
...
...
...
<100
<100
<500
3000
1200
8500
1100
<100
<100
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Fiji
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
140 000
110 000
180 000
120 000
71 000
230 000
52 000
34 000
77 000
75 000
46 000
150 000
Japan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
...
...
...
<500
<200
<500
Malaysia
...
...
...
8000
5500
12 000
Maldives
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
Mongolia
...
...
...
<200
<100
<200
Myanmar
14 000
12 000
17 000
5700
4500
7200
3900
2500
6100
1100
<1000
2200
...
...
...
...
...
...
Pakistan
3200
2100
5200
14 000
6700
32 000
Papua New Guinea
2500
1800
3200
1800
1300
2500
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
<200
<100
<500
<500
<500
<1000
Thailand
14 000
8800
18 000
8100
4000
16 000
Viet Nam
25 000
22 000
29 000
14 000
11 000
21 000
Caribbean
16 000
14 000
19 000
11 000
9000
14 000
Bahamas (the)
<500
<500
<1000
<500
<500
<1000
Barbados
<100
<100
<200
<100
<100
<200
...
...
...
1500
1100
2100
Dominican Republic (the)
1800
<1000
3100
<1000
<500
1300
Haiti
9500
8300
11 000
6300
5000
7700
Jamaica
2300
1800
2800
1400
<1000
1900
Trinidad and Tobago
1000
<1000
1100
<1000
<1000
<1000
Afghanistan
Australia
Cambodia
India
Indonesia
Nepal
New Zealand
Cuba
A42 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.1 Estimated new HIV infections (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
100 000
84 000
120 000
110 000
86 000
130 000
...
...
...
<200
<100
<500
<500
<100
<1000
<500
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
1200
1100
<1000
1500
2200
1900
2500
2700
2300
3200
...
...
...
...
...
...
<500
<500
<1000
<1000
<500
1000
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
1300
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
1400
1200
1700
1400
1200
1700
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
1100
<1000
1800
1600
<1000
2900
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
24 000
19 000
29 000
8200
5200
13 000
...
...
...
1100
<1000
1800
92 000
78 000
120 000
92 000
70 000
170 000
Argentina
4700
3200
6400
5100
3100
8000
Belize
<200
<200
<200
<200
<100
<500
<1000
<200
2100
<1000
<100
2100
Brazil
...
...
...
44 000
35 000
58 000
Chile
1600
<1000
2900
2100
<1000
6100
Colombia
8700
6200
12 000
8400
5600
12 000
Costa Rica
...
...
...
<500
<500
<500
Ecuador
...
...
...
2500
1200
6700
El Salvador
1300
<1000
2300
1200
<500
3600
Guatemala
4100
<500
19 000
3200
<200
31 000
Guyana
<1000
<500
1200
<1000
<200
1100
Honduras
<1000
<1000
1200
<1000
<1000
1300
Mexico
15 000
11 000
20 000
9200
6000
15 000
<500
<200
<1000
<1000
<500
1000
<1000
<1000
1200
<1000
<1000
1400
Paraguay
...
...
...
2000
<1000
4600
Peru
...
...
...
3400
1700
6200
Albania
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Tajikistan
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
Nicaragua
Panama
Annex: Epidemiology A43
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.1 Estimated new HIV infections (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Suriname
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
<200
<200
<200
<200
<100
<200
Uruguay
...
...
...
<1000
<500
2100
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
...
...
...
6000
2200
10 000
21 000
15 000
26 000
22 000
12 000
37 000
1800
<1000
3400
2500
1200
3900
Djibouti
<1000
<500
1200
<100
<100
<200
Egypt
<1000
<500
<1000
1100
<1000
2000
Iran
(Islamic Republic of)
8000
5500
11 000
7400
3600
21 000
Morocco
2500
1700
3600
2900
1700
4500
...
...
...
...
...
...
2400
1500
4100
2700
1200
5400
...
...
...
4400
1600
8400
Tunisia
<200
<200
<500
<1000
<500
<1000
Yemen
...
...
...
<1000
<200
1600
1 700 000
1 600 000
1 800 000
1 200 000
1 100 000
1 400 000
16 000
11 000
24 000
24 000
15 000
36 000
3700
3200
4400
3800
3300
4500
14 000
13 000
16 000
8900
7200
10 000
Burkina Faso
4000
3000
5000
5100
3800
6600
Burundi
3900
2800
5100
<1000
<500
1600
50 000
46 000
56 000
37 000
31 000
45 000
...
...
...
<100
<100
<200
6700
4900
9200
6200
4800
7800
18 000
14 000
22 000
8500
5900
12 000
4900
4200
5500
2900
2100
3700
Côte d’Ivoire
19 000
16 000
24 000
14 000
8300
20 000
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
33 000
27 000
41 000
26 000
21 000
33 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Middle East and
North Africa
Algeria
Oman
Somalia
Sudan (the)
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Central African
Republic (the)
Chad
Congo (the)
Equatorial Guinea
A44 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.1 Estimated new HIV infections (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Eritrea
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
<200
<100
<500
<500
<200
<500
14 000
9400
21 000
13 000
7700
21 000
Gabon
2700
2200
3400
1400
<1000
2000
Gambia (the)
1300
<1000
1900
<1000
<200
<1000
Ghana
15 000
11 000
21 000
5400
<1000
13 000
Guinea
...
...
...
9200
6700
12 000
3200
2800
3800
2700
1600
4000
Kenya
89 000
80 000
100 000
89 000
69 000
110 000
Lesotho
24 000
22 000
26 000
23 000
20 000
26 000
Liberia
1500
<1000
2300
1500
<1000
2200
Madagascar
5800
3400
7100
2200
1200
4200
68 000
64 000
72 000
27 000
22 000
32 000
6300
4500
8900
2700
1000
5600
...
...
...
...
...
...
1600
1300
1700
<500
<200
<1000
130 000
110 000
140 000
100 000
83 000
130 000
14 000
11 000
17 000
11 000
7900
14 000
2500
1700
3700
<100
<100
<500
Nigeria
270 000
230 000
320 000
170 000
140 000
210 000
Rwanda
9400
8300
10 000
5200
4100
6500
São Tomé and Príncipe
<500
<200
<500
<100
<100
<100
Senegal
3200
2500
3800
<1000
<500
1200
Sierra Leone
6300
5000
7700
3600
1800
6400
South Africa
480 000
450 000
520 000
330 000
300 000
360 000
South Sudan
...
...
...
13 000
3800
32 000
13 000
12 000
14 000
9800
8500
11 000
7900
4400
14 000
2800
<500
7300
Uganda
89 000
82 000
97 000
120 000
110 000
140 000
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
87 000
78 000
99 000
56 000
46 000
69 000
Zambia
68 000
63 000
74 000
42 000
35 000
50 000
Ethiopia
Guinea-Bissau
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger (the)
Swaziland
Togo
Annex: Epidemiology A45
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.1 Estimated new HIV infections (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Zimbabwe
78 000
74 000
83 000
60 000
53 000
68 000
Western and central
Europe and North
America
95 000
70 000
130 000
88 000
44 000
160 000
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
3100
<1000
4700
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
...
...
...
<100
<100
<200
Czech Republic (the)
...
...
...
<500
<100
<500
Denmark
...
...
...
<500
<100
<500
Estonia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
6800
2800
11 000
Germany
...
...
...
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
Italy
...
...
...
...
...
...
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
...
...
...
<1000
<200
1100
A46 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.1 Estimated new HIV infections (15 years and older), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Serbia
...
...
...
<200
<100
<1000
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Spain
...
...
...
3300
2200
4300
Sweden
...
...
...
...
...
...
Switzerland
...
...
...
<1000
<200
1100
Turkey
...
...
...
...
...
...
United Kingdom (the)
...
...
...
6800
<100
<100
United States of
America (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
2 300 000
2 200 000
2 500 000
1 900 000
1 700 000
2 100 000
GLOBAL
Annex: Epidemiology A47
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.2 Estimated new HIV infections (0–14 years), 2009 and 2013
2009
2013
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
26 000
23 000
34 000
22 000
18 000
32 000
Afghanistan
40
20
150
<100
<100
<200
Australia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bangladesh
40
20
240
<100
<100
<1000
Bhutan
...
...
...
...
...
...
430
170
1000
<200
<100
<500
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People's
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Fiji
...
...
...
...
...
...
17000
13000
21000
13 000
9300
19 000
4200
2700
6200
5500
2900
9500
Japan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People's Democratic
Republic (the)
70
50
110
<100
<100
<100
Malaysia
100
80
150
<100
<100
<100
Maldives
...
...
...
...
...
...
Mongolia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Myanmar
1400
1100
1700
<1000
<1000
1200
260
200
360
<200
<100
<500
...
...
...
...
...
...
Pakistan
250
170
420
<1000
<500
<1000
Papua New Guinea
520
450
620
<500
<500
<500
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
...
...
...
...
...
...
Thailand
300
260
360
<200
<200
<200
Viet Nam
540
450
660
<500
<500
<500
2000
1600
2400
<1000
<500
<1000
Bahamas (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Barbados
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cuba
...
...
...
...
...
...
Dominican Republic (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
1600
1400
1900
<500
<500
<1000
Jamaica
50
20
80
<100
<100
<100
Trinidad and Tobago
30
10
50
<100
<100
<100
Asia and the Pacific
Cambodia
India
Indonesia
Nepal
New Zealand
Caribbean
Haiti
A48 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.2 Estimated new HIV infections (0–14 years), 2009 and 2013
2009
estimate
lower estimate
<1000
<1000
Albania
...
Armenia
2013
estimate
lower estimate
1400
<1000
<1000
1200
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Azerbaijan
30
20
50
<100
<100
<100
Belarus
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
...
...
...
...
...
...
Georgia
10
10
20
<100
<100
<100
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
20
0
40
<100
<100
<100
Montenegro
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
20
10
30
<100
<100
<100
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
120
80
160
<200
<100
<500
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ukraine
...
...
...
...
...
...
130
70
470
<100
<100
<100
2500
1500
5300
1800
<1000
7400
Argentina
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belize
20
10
20
<100
<100
<100
120
70
220
<100
<100
<200
Brazil
...
...
...
...
...
...
Chile
...
...
...
...
...
...
Colombia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Costa Rica
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ecuador
40
20
190
<100
<100
<500
El Salvador
120
60
230
<100
<100
<500
Guatemala
410
20
2100
<500
<100
3300
...
...
...
...
...
...
Honduras
180
130
250
<100
<100
<200
Mexico
280
180
400
<100
<100
<500
Nicaragua
10
10
40
<100
<100
<100
Panama
20
10
50
<100
<100
<100
Paraguay
30
0
90
<100
<100
<200
270
120
500
<200
<100
<500
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
Tajikistan
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
Guyana
Peru
upper estimate
upper estimate
Annex: Epidemiology A49
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.2 Estimated new HIV infections (0–14 years), 2009 and 2013
2009
estimate
lower estimate
2013
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Suriname
...
...
...
...
...
...
Uruguay
...
...
...
...
...
...
370
100
710
<500
<100
<1000
2400
1700
3400
2300
1500
3400
Algeria
180
70
430
<200
<100
<500
Djibouti
170
120
220
<100
<100
<200
40
30
70
<100
<100
<100
310
210
430
<500
<500
<1000
Morocco
90
50
130
<100
<100
<200
Oman
...
...
...
...
...
...
Somalia
800
520
1200
<1000
<500
1000
Sudan (the)
750
610
910
<1000
<1000
1200
Tunisia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Yemen
50
30
160
<100
<100
<200
370 000
330 000
410 000
210 000
180 000
250 000
Angola
4400
2800
6400
4000
2100
6400
Benin
1100
890
1200
<1000
<1000
<1000
610
550
680
<500
<500
<500
Burkina Faso
1900
1500
2300
1200
<1000
1700
Burundi
2600
2200
3000
1300
<1000
1700
14000
12000
16000
9500
7700
11 000
10
10
20
<100
<100
<100
Central African
Republic (the)
2000
1600
2400
1500
1300
1800
Chad
4900
3900
6100
3700
2800
4900
Congo (the)
1500
1400
1700
<1000
<1000
1200
Côte d’Ivoire
8200
7000
9600
4900
3700
6200
10000
8300
13000
7400
5600
9600
...
...
...
...
...
...
300
210
440
<200
<200
<500
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
Middle East and
North Africa
Egypt
Iran (Islamic Republic
of)
Sub-Saharan Africa
Botswana
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
A50 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.2 Estimated new HIV infections (0–14 years), 2009 and 2013
2009
estimate
Ethiopia
lower estimate
2013
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
20000
17000
23000
8300
6200
11 000
Gabon
620
490
760
<500
<200
<500
Gambia (the)
260
170
410
<200
<100
<500
Ghana
4800
3300
6700
2400
1000
4500
Guinea
2200
1800
2600
1400
1200
1700
910
770
1100
<1000
<500
<1000
21000
17000
25000
13 000
9200
17 000
Lesotho
4400
3800
4900
3400
2800
3900
Liberia
590
460
740
<500
<500
<500
1100
940
1300
<1000
<1000
1000
23000
20000
25000
7400
5100
9800
2100
1600
2700
1400
<1000
2100
Mauritania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Mauritius
...
...
...
...
...
...
27000
23000
33000
12 000
8500
19 000
Namibia
2400
1800
3200
1100
<1000
1800
Niger (the)
1200
870
1600
<1000
<500
<1000
Nigeria
63000
55000
72000
51 000
44 000
60 000
Rwanda
...
...
...
...
...
...
São Tomé and Príncipe
60
40
70
<100
<100
<100
Senegal
670
500
910
<500
<500
<1000
Sierra Leone
860
670
1100
<1000
<500
<1000
South Africa
33000
24000
43000
16 000
14 000
19 000
South Sudan
2700
1100
6400
2600
<1000
6600
Swaziland
1900
1700
2200
1100
<1000
1200
Togo
2900
1500
5200
1100
<500
2800
Uganda
30000
26000
33000
16 000
10 000
21 000
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
31000
26000
36000
16 000
12 000
20 000
Zambia
19000
16000
21000
12 000
9800
15 000
Zimbabwe
21000
19000
24000
9000
6200
12 000
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mozambique
Annex: Epidemiology A51
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.2 Estimated new HIV infections (0–14 years), 2009 and 2013
2009
estimate
Western and central
Europe and North
America
lower estimate
2013
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
<500
<500
<500
<500
<200
<500
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
...
...
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
...
...
...
...
...
...
Czech Republic (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Denmark
...
...
...
...
...
...
Estonia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
...
...
Germany
...
...
...
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
Italy
...
...
...
...
...
...
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
0
0
0
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Serbia
...
...
...
...
...
...
2. Data are presented for 2009 because 2009 is the baseline year of the Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children
and keeping their mothers alive.
A52 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
4.2 Estimated new HIV infections (0–14 years), 2009 and 2013
2009
estimate
lower estimate
2013
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Spain
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sweden
...
...
...
...
...
...
Switzerland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Turkey
...
...
...
...
...
...
United Kingdom (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
United States of
America (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
400 000
370 000
450 000
240 000
210 000
280 000
Global
Annex: Epidemiology A53
EPIDEMIOLOGY
5. Estimated AIDS-related deaths (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Asia and the Pacific
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
340 000
300 000
400 000
250 000
210 000
290 000
Afghanistan
<200
<100
<500
<500
<200
1100
Australia
<100
<100
<200
<100
<100
<200
Bangladesh
<500
<100
<500
<500
<200
3000
Bhutan
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Cambodia
7600
1900
16 000
2200
1000
4000
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
210 000
160 000
260 000
130 000
93 000
160 000
5500
2900
9100
29 000
17 000
46 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People’s Democratic
Republic (the)
<200
<200
<500
<200
<100
<500
Malaysia
4900
3600
7000
5900
4100
8900
Maldives
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Mongolia
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Myanmar
15 000
13 000
17 000
11 000
8600
12 000
3000
2300
4000
3300
2500
4600
...
...
...
...
...
...
Pakistan
<500
<500
<1000
2200
1300
4000
Papua New Guinea
2000
1500
2400
1500
1300
1800
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
<100
<100
<200
<100
<100
<500
Thailand
42 000
38 000
45 000
18 000
16 000
21 000
Viet Nam
13 000
11 000
16 000
12 000
9800
16 000
Caribbean
23 000
20 000
28 000
11 000
8300
14 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Barbados
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Cuba
<100
<100
<200
<200
<200
<500
Dominican Republic (the)
5600
3600
8600
1700
<1000
3300
14 000
13 000
16 000
6400
5500
7700
2700
2200
3200
1300
<1000
1700
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
<1000
Fiji
India
Indonesia
Japan
Nepal
New Zealand
Bahamas (the)
Haiti
Jamaica
Trinidad and Tobago
A54 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
5. Estimated AIDS-related deaths (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
51 000
43 000
62 000
53 000
43 000
69 000
Albania
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Armenia
<200
<100
<500
<200
<200
<500
Azerbaijan
<500
<200
<500
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
1200
...
...
...
...
...
...
<100
<100
<200
<200
<100
<200
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
<100
<100
<100
<500
<500
<500
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
<1000
<1000
<1000
<1000
<1000
1100
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
<1000
<500
1200
<1000
<1000
1300
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
18 000
16 000
21 000
13 000
10 000
18 000
3100
2300
4000
2700
2000
4000
68 000
60 000
96 000
47 000
39 000
75 000
Argentina
1600
1000
2100
1500
<1000
2200
Belize
<200
<200
<200
<200
<100
<200
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
2200
1600
5300
1200
<1000
2900
Brazil
...
...
...
16 000
12 000
21 000
Chile
1700
<500
3100
<1000
<200
1600
...
...
...
...
...
...
Costa Rica
<200
<200
<500
<500
<200
<500
Ecuador
2300
1300
3300
1600
<1000
2800
El Salvador
<1000
<1000
1400
<1000
<500
1300
Guatemala
1300
<500
3600
2600
<500
12 000
Guyana
<200
<100
<500
<200
<100
<1000
Honduras
2900
2300
3700
1500
1100
2000
Mexico
5100
3900
6900
5600
3800
8100
Nicaragua
<500
<200
<500
<200
<100
<500
Panama
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<500
<1000
Paraguay
<500
<200
<1000
<500
<100
<1000
Peru
5700
4000
8400
2800
1400
5200
Belarus
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Tajikistan
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Colombia
Annex: Epidemiology A55
EPIDEMIOLOGY
5. Estimated AIDS-related deaths (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Suriname
<500
<200
<500
<200
<100
<200
Uruguay
<1000
<200
1200
<500
<500
<1000
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
5800
3200
10 000
4400
1300
8200
Middle East and
North Africa
8800
5500
16 000
15 000
10 000
21 000
Algeria
1000
<500
3700
1400
<1000
3300
<1000
<1000
1200
<1000
<500
<1000
Egypt
<200
<200
<500
<500
<500
<1000
Iran
(Islamic Republic of)
1600
<1000
2600
4400
3000
6200
<1000
<500
<1000
1400
<1000
2200
...
...
...
...
...
...
Somalia
2400
1400
3700
2500
1600
3800
Sudan (the)
1600
<1000
2900
3100
2500
3800
Tunisia
<100
<100
<100
<200
<100
<500
Yemen
<500
<200
1800
<500
<500
1300
1 800 000
1 700 000
2 000 000
1 100 000
1 000 000
1 300 000
11 000
7200
15 000
12 000
6300
18 000
4800
4400
5400
2700
2300
3200
Botswana
14 000
13 000
16 000
5800
5000
6900
Burkina Faso
14 000
12 000
17 000
5800
4600
7300
7900
6800
9200
4700
3900
5600
48 000
44 000
54 000
44 000
40 000
48 000
<100
<100
<200
<100
<100
<100
Central African
Republic (the)
16 000
13 000
20 000
11 000
9500
12 000
Chad
16 000
13 000
19 000
15 000
12 000
18 000
9300
8400
10 000
5400
4900
6000
Côte d’Ivoire
53 000
46 000
60 000
28 000
25 000
32 000
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
36 000
30 000
44 000
30 000
24 000
38 000
...
...
...
...
...
...
Djibouti
Morocco
Oman
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Burundi
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Congo (the)
Equatorial Guinea
A56 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
5. Estimated AIDS-related deaths (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Eritrea
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
2800
1900
4000
<1000
<1000
1400
120 000
110 000
140 000
45 000
36 000
55 000
2600
2100
3500
2100
1600
2600
Gambia (the)
<1000
<500
<1000
<500
<200
<1000
Ghana
23 000
17 000
30 000
10 000
5000
18 000
Guinea
5700
4100
7400
5400
4200
6800
Guinea-Bissau
2400
1800
3200
2300
1900
2700
150 000
140 000
160 000
58 000
49 000
72 000
22 000
20 000
24 000
16 000
15 000
18 000
Liberia
4400
3500
5600
2700
2100
3300
Madagascar
5200
4000
6700
5500
4800
6400
97 000
91 000
100 000
48 000
44 000
52 000
7900
6200
10 000
5500
4100
7400
...
...
...
...
...
...
Mauritius
<1000
<500
<1000
<1000
<1000
1000
Mozambique
73 000
64 000
84 000
82 000
70 000
98 000
Namibia
15 000
12 000
19 000
6600
4000
10 000
5100
4000
6600
2900
2000
4200
Nigeria
210 000
170 000
260 000
210 000
190 000
240 000
Rwanda
19 000
17 000
21 000
4500
3600
5600
São Tomé and Príncipe
<500
<200
<500
<500
<200
<500
Senegal
2200
1500
3000
1800
1300
2400
Sierra Leone
2400
1900
3000
3100
2400
4100
South Africa
380 000
350 000
420 000
200 000
170 000
220 000
South Sudan
8700
3000
22 000
13 000
4800
29 000
10 000
9600
11 000
4500
4200
5200
9900
5200
18 000
6600
2400
15 000
78 000
71 000
87 000
63 000
56 000
71 000
140 000
130 000
160 000
78 000
69 000
90 000
68 000
64 000
75 000
27 000
23 000
32 000
150 000
140 000
150 000
64 000
59 000
68 000
Ethiopia
Gabon
Kenya
Lesotho
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Niger (the)
Swaziland
Togo
Uganda
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Annex: Epidemiology A57
EPIDEMIOLOGY
5. Estimated AIDS-related deaths (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
Western and central
Europe and North
America
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
28 000
24 000
32 000
27 000
23 000
34 000
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
<1000
<500
<1000
<500
<500
<1000
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Czech Republic (the)
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Denmark
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Estonia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
1500
1300
1800
1500
1100
1800
<1000
<1000
<1000
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
<100
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
Italy
...
...
...
...
...
...
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
<500
<200
<1000
<1000
<500
<1000
Serbia
<100
<100
<200
<200
<100
<200
Germany
Greece
Hungary
A58 Gap report
EPIDEMIOLOGY
5. Estimated AIDS-related deaths (all ages), 2005 and 2013
2005
estimate
2013
lower estimate
upper estimate
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
1900
1700
2100
<1000
<1000
<1000
...
...
...
...
...
...
<500
<200
<500
<500
<500
<500
...
...
...
...
...
...
<500
<500
<500
<1000
<500
<1000
...
...
...
...
...
...
2 400 000
2 200 000
2 600 000
1 500 000
1 400 000
1 700 000
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom (the)
United States of
America (the)
GLOBAL
Annex: Epidemiology A59
HIV TREATMENT
6. Estimated percentage of pregnant women living with HIV who received antiretroviral medicines for
preventing mother-to-child-transmission, 2013
2013
Estimated number of pregnant women
living with HIV
estimate
Asia and the Pacific
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Number of pregnant women
receiving antiretroviral
medicines
Estimated coverage
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
74 000
61 000
97 000
22 188
30
23
36
<200
<100
<1000
4
2
1
7
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
<200
<100
1700
18
13
1
33
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1100
<500
2500
860
79
34
>95
China
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Democratic People's
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Fiji
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
India
35 000
26 000
50 000
6155
18
12
24
Indonesia
17 000
11 000
27 000
1551
9
6
15
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People's Democratic
Republic (the)
<200
<200
<500
60
36
24
53
Malaysia
<500
<500
<1000
343
86
62
>95
Maldives
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Mongolia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Myanmar
4300
3500
5000
3066
72
61
87
Nepal
<500
<500
<1000
120
27
19
36
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Pakistan
1500
<1000
2800
126
9
5
14
Papua New Guinea
1000
<1000
1200
427
41
35
47
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Thailand
4700
3900
5600
4843
>95
86
>95
Viet Nam
1800
1600
2100
1192
65
56
77
Caribbean
7400
6300
8400
7155
>95
85
>95
Bahamas (the)
<200
<200
<200
62
...
...
...
Barbados
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cuba
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Dominican Republic (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Haiti
5600
4900
6300
5226
93
83
>95
Jamaica
<500
<500
<1000
281
60
49
81
Afghanistan
Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Cambodia
Japan
New Zealand
A60 Gap report
HIV TREATMENT
6. Estimated percentage of pregnant women living with HIV who received antiretroviral medicines for
preventing mother-to-child-transmission, 2013
2013
Estimated number of pregnant women
living with HIV
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Number of pregnant women
receiving antiretroviral
medicines
Estimated coverage
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Trinidad and Tobago
<200
<200
<500
151
80
71
93
Eastern Europe and
central Asia
10 000
7 700
13 000
18 501
>95
82
>95
Albania
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Armenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
<200
<200
<500
43
27
20
37
Belarus
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
<100
<100
<100
42
79
59
>95
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
<200
<200
<200
129
95
71
>95
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
<200
<200
<500
146
81
67
>95
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
<500
<500
<500
117
39
26
56
The former Yugoslav
Republic of
Macedonia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ukraine
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
<1000
<500
1000
542
88
53
>95
17 000
13 000
40 000
17 876
>95
45
>95
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belize
<100
<100
<100
50
63
54
77
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
<500
<200
<1000
212
66
36
>95
Brazil
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Chile
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Colombia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Costa Rica
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
<1000
<500
<1000
520
95
52
>95
El Salvador
<500
<500
<1000
203
47
22
89
Guatemala
1800
<500
11 000
394
22
3
>95
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Honduras
<500
<500
<1000
220
...
...
...
Mexico
1500
1100
2100
1104
75
53
>95
Nicaragua
<200
<100
<200
109
87
60
>95
Panama
<500
<200
<500
185
93
70
>95
Azerbaijan
Georgia
Montenegro
Tajikistan
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Argentina
Ecuador
Guyana
Annex: HIV treatment A61
HIV TREATMENT
6. Estimated percentage of pregnant women living with HIV who received antiretroviral medicines for
preventing mother-to-child-transmission, 2013
2013
Estimated number of pregnant women
living with HIV
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Number of pregnant women
receiving antiretroviral
medicines
Estimated coverage
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Paraguay
<500
<200
<1000
172
48
24
93
Peru
1100
<1000
1700
740
70
44
>95
Suriname
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Uruguay
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
1600
<1000
2600
432
28
17
57
Middle East and
North Africa
7100
4700
10 000
807
11
8
17
Algeria
<1000
<500
1400
200
25
14
50
Djibouti
<500
<200
<500
82
36
26
52
Egypt
<200
<100
<500
19
15
9
22
<1000
<1000
1600
132
14
8
23
<500
<500
<1000
182
39
29
55
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Somalia
1800
1100
2900
52
3
2
5
Sudan (the)
2500
1600
3500
74
3
2
5
Tunisia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Yemen
<200
<100
<500
20
11
4
22
1 300 000
1 200 000
1 400 000
903 020
68
63
74
16 000
11 000
22 000
6104
39
28
58
3400
3000
3900
1528
45
39
51
11 000
9900
12 000
10 648
>95
87
>95
Burkina Faso
5400
4600
6600
3369
62
51
74
Burundi
5300
4500
6300
3084
58
49
69
38 000
34 000
43 000
23 173
61
54
69
Cabo Verde
<100
<100
<100
84
>95
>95
>95
Central African
Republic (the)
4700
3900
5500
1541
33
28
39
12 000
9200
15 000
2169
19
15
24
2900
2500
3300
655
23
20
27
Côte d’Ivoire
21 000
18 000
25 000
16 032
75
64
88
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
26 000
21 000
32 000
8575
33
27
41
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Eritrea
<1000
<500
<1000
238
38
29
50
Ethiopia
33 000
28 000
39 000
18 269
55
47
65
1900
1600
2200
1165
62
52
75
Iran (Islamic Republic
of)
Morocco
Oman
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Cameroon
Chad
Congo (the)
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
A62 Gap report
HIV TREATMENT
6. Estimated percentage of pregnant women living with HIV who received antiretroviral medicines for
preventing mother-to-child-transmission, 2013
2013
Estimated number of pregnant women
living with HIV
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Number of pregnant women
receiving antiretroviral
medicines
Estimated coverage
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Gambia (the)
<1000
<1000
1300
729
84
58
>95
Ghana
12 000
8400
16 000
7266
62
44
86
Guinea
6600
5400
7900
3030
46
38
56
Guinea-Bissau
2100
1800
2500
1184
56
47
66
Kenya
79 000
69 000
90 000
50 000
63
55
72
Lesotho
16 000
14 000
17 000
8218
53
49
59
Liberia
1300
<1000
1600
874
69
55
91
Madagascar
2200
1800
2700
62
3
2
3
58 000
52 000
65 000
46 175
79
71
88
5200
4000
7000
1527
29
22
39
Mauritania
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Mauritius
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
100 000
88 000
120 000
83 766
84
71
>95
10 000
8300
13 000
9412
90
73
>95
2500
1900
3300
1301
53
39
68
Nigeria
190 000
170 000
220 000
52 446
27
24
31
Rwanda
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
São Tomé and
Príncipe
<100
<100
<200
31
42
30
55
Senegal
2200
1800
2700
1371
62
51
77
Sierra Leone
2900
2200
3900
2686
93
70
>95
South Africa
260 000
230 000
280 000
232 854
90
83
>95
South Sudan
8200
3100
20 000
1277
16
7
41
10 000
9400
11 000
11 148
>95
>95
>95
6000
3400
11 000
4465
75
42
>95
Uganda
120 000
100 000
130 000
88 266
75
68
85
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
100 000
89 000
110 000
73 960
73
65
83
Zambia
78 000
70 000
87 000
59 227
76
68
84
Zimbabwe
70 000
63 000
78 000
54 842
78
70
87
Western and central
Europe and North
America
12 000
8400
18 000
11 998
>95
66
>95
Austria
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malawi
Mali
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger (the)
Swaziland
Togo
Annex: HIV treatment A63
HIV TREATMENT
6. Estimated percentage of pregnant women living with HIV who received antiretroviral medicines for
preventing mother-to-child-transmission, 2013
2013
Estimated number of pregnant women
living with HIV
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Number of pregnant women
receiving antiretroviral
medicines
Estimated coverage
estimate
lower
estimate
upper
estimate
Croatia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Czech Republic (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Denmark
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Estonia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Finland
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Germany
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Italy
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Latvia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Romania
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Serbia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Spain
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sweden
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Switzerland
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Turkey
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
United Kingdom (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
United States of
America (the)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1 500 000
1 300 000
1 600 000
980 000
67
61
73
Global
1. Estimates are not presented for selected countries with high levels of uncertainty in the number of pregnant women living with HIV. Countries not
presented are included in regional and global totals.
A64 Gap report
HIV TREATMENT
7.1 Estimated percentage of adults (15 years and older) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral
therapy, 2013
2013
Reported number
of adults on ART
estimated coverage
lower estimate
upper estimate
1 493 150
33
28
38
195
5
1
12
...
...
...
...
1023
11
1
26
120
21
6
40
46 607
67
34
>95
China
...
...
...
...
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
160
31
25
39
705 537
36
28
46
37 787
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
2448
46
33
62
Malaysia
16 862
20
15
26
Maldives
5
19
15
25
Mongolia
94
15
11
20
Myanmar
62 718
35
31
39
8228
22
16
28
...
...
...
...
4321
7
3
11
13 905
50
45
56
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
492
18
9
28
Thailand
240 907
56
52
62
Viet Nam
78 483
32
29
35
Caribbean
99 229
42
37
47
Bahamas (the)
1941
...
...
...
Barbados
1067
64
48
83
Cuba
9629
62
53
72
Dominican Republic (the)
20 712
48
37
67
Haiti
52 120
42
38
45
7772
26
23
32
Asia and the Pacific
Afghanistan
Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Cambodia
Fiji
India
Indonesia
Japan
Lao People's Democratic Republic (the)
Nepal
New Zealand
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Jamaica
Annex: HIV treatment A65
HIV TREATMENT
7.1 Estimated percentage of adults (15 years and older) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral
therapy, 2013
2013
Reported number
of adults on ART
estimated coverage
lower estimate
upper estimate
5988
43
41
46
225 475
20
17
23
Albania
335
...
...
...
Armenia
564
15
10
24
Azerbaijan
1216
13
10
18
Belarus
5008
20
19
21
...
...
...
...
2047
33
26
41
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
779
10
8
12
...
...
...
...
2411
16
14
19
...
...
...
...
1145
9
6
12
...
...
...
52 840
26
21
30
5146
16
11
21
669 087
44
33
50
49 035
61
51
78
Belize
1335
46
41
50
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
2921
20
10
41
Brazil
327 562
41
46
50
Chile
22 538
60
38
>95
Colombia
34 280
26
20
34
4250
56
47
80
11 217
31
18
45
El Salvador
9832
48
26
74
Guatemala
16 386
33
6
>95
Guyana
3870
52
29
>95
Honduras
8844
40
32
49
87 608
51
38
64
Nicaragua
2346
34
25
51
Panama
7011
46
37
56
Paraguay
4008
26
14
46
Trinidad and Tobago
Eastern Europe and central Asia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Georgia
Montenegro
Republic of Moldova (the)
Russian Federation (the)
Tajikistan
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Argentina
Costa Rica
Ecuador
Mexico
A66 Gap report
HIV TREATMENT
7.1 Estimated percentage of adults (15 years and older) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral
therapy, 2013
2013
Reported number
of adults on ART
estimated coverage
lower estimate
upper estimate
27 100
43
29
60
...
42
37
47
5551
40
26
55
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
42 095
43
28
76
Middle East and North Africa
23 838
11
8
16
Algeria
4205
17
10
34
Djibouti
1683
34
26
43
Egypt
1118
16
9
24
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
4300
6
4
9
Morocco
6131
20
15
28
...
...
...
...
Somalia
1177
4
3
7
Sudan (the)
3058
7
5
10
Tunisia
525
16
10
26
Yemen
842
15
6
27
8 449 370
39
37
41
Angola
60 738
27
20
38
Benin
23 436
36
33
38
213 953
69
66
73
Burkina Faso
40 276
43
38
48
Burundi
30 612
48
43
52
125 963
25
23
27
933
67
57
77
Central African Republic (the)
15 646
15
14
17
Chad
40 585
24
20
28
Congo (the)
18 393
33
30
36
Côte d’Ivoire
107 453
36
32
41
74 923
20
17
24
...
...
...
...
8362
59
49
72
298 512
50
45
55
22 106
60
54
68
3708
33
23
46
71 855
38
28
50
Peru
Suriname
Uruguay
Oman
Sub-Saharan Africa
Botswana
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia (the)
Ghana
Annex: HIV treatment A67
HIV TREATMENT
7.1 Estimated percentage of adults (15 years and older) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral
therapy, 2013
2013
Reported number
of adults on ART
estimated coverage
lower estimate
upper estimate
26 459
24
21
27
6485
18
16
21
596 228
42
39
46
96 392
29
28
31
6051
24
20
30
502
1
1
1
430 645
51
48
53
26 724
33
26
40
...
...
...
...
1818
19
17
21
Mozambique
456 055
33
29
37
Namibia
116 532
52
44
62
11 517
35
28
43
Nigeria
592 084
21
19
23
Rwanda
121 452
69
65
74
321
17
13
21
12 893
39
33
44
Sierra Leone
8680
17
13
21
South Africa
2 466 570
42
40
43
South Sudan
6613
5
2
13
Swaziland
92 240
49
47
51
Togo
31 231
34
20
56
Uganda
551 650
40
38
43
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
473 707
41
38
44
Zambia
530 702
55
52
59
Zimbabwe
618 980
51
49
53
1 153 950
50
38
59
Austria
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
Croatia
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
...
...
...
...
Czech Republic (the)
...
...
...
...
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Niger (the)
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Western and central Europe and North
America
A68 Gap report
HIV TREATMENT
7.1 Estimated percentage of adults (15 years and older) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral
therapy, 2013
2013
Reported number
of adults on ART
estimated coverage
lower estimate
upper estimate
Denmark
...
...
...
...
Estonia
...
...
...
...
Finland
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
Germany
...
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
Italy
...
...
...
...
Latvia
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
Romania
...
...
...
...
Serbia
...
...
...
...
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
Spain
...
...
...
...
Sweden
...
...
...
...
Switzerland
...
...
...
...
Turkey
...
...
...
...
United Kingdom (the)
...
...
...
...
United States of America (the)
...
...
...
...
12 114 100
38
36
40
Global
1. Estimates are not provided for countries that did not report through the Global AIDS Progress Reporting System or for countries in which HIV
estimates were not available.
Annex: HIV treatment A69
HIV TREATMENT
7.2 Estimated percentage of children (0–14 years) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy,
2013
2013
Reported number of
children (0–14 years)
receiving ART
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
67 989
32
25
35
Afghanistan
16
7
2
16
Australia
...
...
...
...
Bangladesh
60
21
3
47
Bhutan
...
...
...
...
4052
78
77
79
China
...
...
...
...
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
Fiji
...
...
...
...
41 638
30
24
37
1631
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Lao People's Democratic Republic (the)
183
35
23
51
Malaysia
507
68
54
77
Maldives
...
...
...
...
Mongolia
...
...
...
...
Myanmar
4925
43
37
51
638
34
26
43
New Zealand
...
...
...
...
Pakistan
70
4
2
6
876
20
17
23
Philippines (the)
...
...
...
...
Republic of Korea (the)
...
...
...
...
Singapore
...
...
...
...
Sri Lanka
...
...
...
...
Thailand
5142
62
57
68
Viet Nam
4204
85
75
89
Caribbean
4070
24
20
28
Bahamas (the)
49
...
...
...
Barbados
...
...
...
...
Cuba
...
...
...
...
Dominican Republic (the)
...
...
...
...
2625
20
17
23
515
93
89
94
Asia and the Pacific
Cambodia
India
Indonesia
Japan
Nepal
Papua New Guinea
Haiti
Jamaica
A70 Gap report
HIV TREATMENT
7.2 Estimated percentage of children (0–14 years) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy,
2013
2013
Reported number of
children (0–14 years)
receiving ART
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
146
72
70
74
13 603
>95
95
>95
Albania
...
...
...
...
Armenia
...
...
...
...
Azerbaijan
36
21
15
31
Belarus
...
...
...
...
Bosnia and Herzegovina
...
...
...
...
Georgia
45
74
67
75
Kazakhstan
...
...
...
...
Kyrgyzstan
295
>95
>95
>95
Montenegro
...
...
...
...
Republic of Moldova (the)
82
69
68
71
Russian Federation (the)
...
...
...
...
254
26
19
38
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia
...
...
...
...
Ukraine
...
...
...
...
3145
>95
>95
>95
22 636
64
42
84
3337
...
...
...
98
47
41
54
104
10
6
14
Brazil
...
...
...
...
Chile
...
...
...
...
Colombia
...
...
...
...
Costa Rica
...
...
...
...
Ecuador
580
70
43
90
El Salvador
308
35
20
59
Guatemala
945
31
7
>95
...
...
...
...
725
33
27
40
1802
80
61
>95
Nicaragua
112
75
45
83
Panama
226
84
80
87
Paraguay
219
78
36
>95
Trinidad and Tobago
Eastern Europe and central Asia
Tajikistan
Uzbekistan
Latin America
Argentina
Belize
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Guyana
Honduras
Mexico
Annex: HIV treatment A71
HIV TREATMENT
7.2 Estimated percentage of children (0–14 years) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy,
2013
2013
Reported number of
children (0–14 years)
receiving ART
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
901
37
23
60
Suriname
...
...
...
...
Uruguay
...
...
...
...
976
32
19
67
1708
11
8
15
Algeria
437
40
16
>95
Djibouti
46
4
3
5
Egypt
53
22
12
32
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
172
8
6
12
Morocco
333
53
38
79
...
...
...
...
Somalia
315
6
4
9
Sudan (the)
250
5
4
7
Tunisia
...
...
...
...
Yemen
59
17
5
35
630 716
22
20
24
Angola
4167
14
10
22
Benin
1374
16
14
19
Botswana
9553
84
79
91
Burkina Faso
1869
10
8
12
Burundi
2189
12
10
14
Cameroon
5631
6
5
7
63
48
39
57
922
5
5
6
Chad
1573
5
4
6
Congo (the)
1170
9
8
10
Côte d’Ivoire
5467
8
7
9
Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
5055
8
6
9
...
...
...
...
692
21
15
29
18 931
9
8
11
Gabon
732
18
15
22
Gambia (the)
289
18
12
26
3907
11
8
16
Peru
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Middle East and North Africa
Oman
Sub-Saharan Africa
Cabo Verde
Central African Republic (the)
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Ghana
A72 Gap report
HIV TREATMENT
7.2 Estimated percentage of children (0–14 years) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy,
2013
2013
Reported number of
children (0–14 years)
receiving ART
Guinea
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
1333
10
8
12
428
7
6
8
60 141
31
27
36
Lesotho
5243
15
13
16
Liberia
378
7
6
9
17
0
0
0
42 220
24
22
27
2001
13
10
16
Mauritania
...
...
...
...
Mauritius
...
...
...
...
Mozambique
41 400
22
18
26
Namibia
10 247
45
36
56
554
7
5
9
Nigeria
47 313
12
10
13
Rwanda
...
...
...
...
São Tomé and Príncipe
11
3
2
3
Senegal
823
15
12
19
Sierra Leone
385
8
6
10
South Africa
156 706
44
40
48
South Sudan
286
2
1
4
Swaziland
7898
46
42
49
Togo
3258
16
9
29
Uganda
43 525
22
20
26
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
38 848
16
14
18
Zambia
49 389
33
29
36
Zimbabwe
46 319
27
24
30
Western and central Europe and North
America
22 199
>95
>95
>95
Austria
...
...
...
...
Belgium
...
...
...
...
Bulgaria
...
...
...
...
Canada
...
...
...
...
Croatia
...
...
...
...
Cyprus
...
...
...
...
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Niger (the)
Annex: HIV treatment A73
HIV TREATMENT
7.2 Estimated percentage of children (0–14 years) living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy,
2013
2013
Reported number of
children (0–14 years)
receiving ART
estimate
lower estimate
upper estimate
Czech Republic (the)
...
...
...
...
Denmark
...
...
...
...
Estonia
...
...
...
...
Finland
...
...
...
...
France
...
...
...
...
Germany
...
...
...
...
Greece
...
...
...
...
Hungary
...
...
...
...
Iceland
...
...
...
...
Ireland
...
...
...
...
Israel
...
...
...
...
Italy
...
...
...
...
Latvia
...
...
...
...
Lithuania
...
...
...
...
Luxembourg
...
...
...
...
Malta
...
...
...
...
Netherlands (the)
...
...
...
...
Norway
...
...
...
...
Poland
...
...
...
...
Portugal
...
...
...
...
Romania
...
...
...
...
Serbia
...
...
...
...
Slovakia
...
...
...
...
Slovenia
...
...
...
...
Spain
...
...
...
...
Sweden
...
...
...
...
Switzerland
...
...
...
...
Turkey
...
...
...
...
United Kingdom (the)
...
...
...
...
United States of America (the)
...
...
...
...
762 921
24
22
26
Global
1. Estimates are not presented for selected countries with high levels of uncertainty in the number of children living with HIV. Countries not
presented are included in regional and global totals.
A74 Gap report
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Number of HIV+ women delivering
21 Global Plan
countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
2009
Low
High
2013
Low
High
Angola
13 000
8900
19 000
16 000
11 000
22 000
Botswana
13 000
12 000
14 000
11 000
9900
12 000
7500
6400
8700
5300
4500
6300
Cameroon
43 000
38 000
48 000
38 000
34 000
43 000
Chad
15 000
12 000
18 000
12 000
9200
15 000
Côte d’Ivoire
28 000
24 000
31 000
21 000
18 000
25 000
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
29 000
24 000
35 000
26 000
21 000
32 000
Ethiopia
50 000
43 000
58 000
33 000
28 000
39 000
Ghana
15 000
11 000
20 000
12 000
8400
16 000
Kenya
81 000
72 000
91 000
79 000
69 000
90 000
Lesotho
16 000
14 000
17 000
16 000
14 000
17 000
Malawi
72 000
65 000
78 000
58 000
52 000
65 000
100 000
91 000
120 000
100 000
88 000
120 000
Namibia
11 000
9300
14 000
10 000
8300
13 000
Nigeria
200 000
180 000
230 000
190 000
170 000
220 000
South Africa
270 000
250 000
300 000
260 000
230 000
280 000
Swaziland
10 000
9400
11 000
10 000
9400
11 000
Uganda
96 000
85 000
110 000
120 000
100 000
130 000
110 000
100 000
130 000
100 000
89 000
110 000
Zambia
78 000
71 000
85 000
78 000
70 000
87 000
Zimbabwe
70 000
63 000
77 000
70 000
63 000
78 000
1 300 000
1 200 000
1 400 000
1 300 000
1 200 000
1 400 000
Burundi
Mozambique
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
PMTCT High Burden
Countries
Sources: UNAIDS 2013 Estimates.
Annex: Global Plan A75
75
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Overall target 1 Number of new child infections
21 Global Plan
countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
2009
Angola
Low
High
2013
Low
High
4400
2800
6400
4000
2100
6400
<1000
<1000
<1000
<500
<500
<500
2600
2200
3000
1300
<1000
1700
14 000
12 000
16 000
9500
7700
11 000
Chad
4900
3900
6100
3700
2800
4900
Côte d’Ivoire
8200
7000
9600
4900
3700
6200
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
10 000
8300
13 000
7400
5600
9600
Ethiopia
20 000
17 000
23 000
8300
6200
11 000
Ghana
4800
3300
6700
2400
1000
4500
Kenya
21 000
17 000
25 000
13 000
9200
17 000
4400
3800
4900
3400
2800
3900
Malawi
23 000
20 000
25 000
7400
5100
9800
Mozambique
27 000
23 000
33 000
12 000
8500
19 000
2400
1800
3200
1100
<1000
1800
Nigeria
63 000
55 000
72 000
51 000
44 000
60 000
South Africa
33 000
24 000
43 000
16 000
14 000
19 000
1900
1700
2200
1100
<1000
1200
Uganda
30 000
26 000
33 000
16 000
10 000
21 000
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
31 000
26 000
36 000
16 000
12 000
20 000
Zambia
19 000
16 000
21 000
12 000
9800
15 000
Zimbabwe
21 000
19 000
24 000
9000
6200
12 000
350 000
310 000
380 000
200 000
170 000
230 000
Botswana
Burundi
Cameroon
Lesotho
Namibia
Swaziland
PMTCT High Burden
Countries
Sources: UNAIDS 2013 Estimates.
A76 Gap report
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Prong 1 Target: New HIV infections among women 15-49
21 Global Plan
countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
2009
Low
High
2013
Low
High
10 000
6.800
15.000
13 000
8.400
20.000
Botswana
5900
5.000
6.800
4500
3.700
5.400
Burundi
<500
<100
1.000
<500
<200
<1000
22 000
20.000
25.000
20 000
17.000
24.000
Chad
5800
4.300
7.900
4700
3.200
6.700
Côte d’Ivoire
5800
3.900
8.000
7200
4.300
11.000
15 000
12.000
20.000
14 000
11.000
18.000
Ethiopia
4500
1.800
8.500
7800
4.600
13.000
Ghana
6200
3.500
9.900
3000
<500
6.800
Kenya
52 000
44.000
60.000
48 000
37.000
63.000
Lesotho
13 000
12.000
15.000
12 000
10.000
14.000
Malawi
22 000
19.000
25.000
14 000
11.000
17.000
Mozambique
55 000
47.000
66.000
54 000
43.000
70.000
5300
3.800
7.500
5700
4.000
8.000
Nigeria
120 000
100.000
140.000
88 000
72.000
110.000
South Africa
220 000
200.000
240.000
160 000
150.000
180.000
6800
6.200
7.400
5200
4.500
6.000
Uganda
66 000
58.000
73.000
67 000
58.000
79.000
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
40 000
34.000
46.000
30 000
25.000
37.000
Zambia
26 000
23.000
30.000
20 000
17.000
24.000
Zimbabwe
39 000
35.000
44.000
33 000
28.000
38.000
740 000
680.000
800.000
620 000
560.000
680.000
Cameroon
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
Namibia
Swaziland
PMTCT High Burden
Countries
Sources: UNAIDS 2013 Estimates.
Annex: Global Plan A77
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Prong 2 Target: Unmet Need for Family Planning for women
21 Global Plan countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
Year
Angola
Botswana
Burundi
32
2010
Cameroon
24
2011
Chad
21
2004
Côte d’Ivoire
27
2012
Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
27
2007
Ethiopia
26
2011
Ghana
36
2008
Kenya
26
2008–09
Lesotho
23
2009
Malawi
26
2010
Mozambique
29
2011
Namibia
18
2013
Nigeria
16
2013
Swaziland
25
2006–07
Uganda
34
2011
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
25
2010
Zambia
27
2007
Zimbabwe
15
2010–11
South Africa
PMTCT High Burden Countries
Sources: Revised definition of unmet need for family planning among currently married women (15–49 years). Demographic and Health Surveys,
ICF International, 2012. MEASURE DHS STATcompiler.
A78 Gap report
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Prong 3 Target: Final mother to child transmission rate
21 Global Plan
countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
2009
Low
High
2013
Low
High
33
19
46
25
12
39
5
4
5
2
2
3
Burundi
34
29
40
25
18
32
Cameroon
32
28
36
25
20
29
Chad
34
26
41
32
23
41
Côte d’Ivoire
29
25
34
23
17
29
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
36
28
43
29
21
37
Ethiopia
39
33
46
25
18
32
Ghana
32
21
43
21
6
35
Kenya
26
21
30
16
11
21
Lesotho
27
24
31
22
18
25
Malawi
32
28
35
13
9
17
Mozambique
26
22
31
12
7
17
Namibia
22
15
28
10
4
16
Nigeria
31
27
35
26
22
31
South Africa
12
9
16
6
5
7
Swaziland
19
17
22
10
9
11
Uganda
31
27
35
13
9
18
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
27
23
32
16
11
20
Zambia
24
21
27
15
12
18
Zimbabwe
30
27
34
13
9
17
PMTCT High Burden
Countries
26
23
28
16
13
18
Angola
Botswana
Sources: UNAIDS 2013 Estimates.
Annex: Global Plan A79
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Prong 3 Target: Percent of women receiving antiretroviral medicines (excl sdnvp) to prevent MTCT
21 Global Plan
countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
2009
Low
High
2013
Low
High
Angola
23
16
34
39
28
58
Botswana
92
85
>95
>95
87
>95
Burundi
19
16
22
58
49
69
Cameroon
14
13
16
61
54
69
7
6
8
19
15
24
40
35
45
75
64
88
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
4
3
5
33
27
41
Ethiopia
9
7
10
55
47
65
Ghana
24
18
33
62
44
86
Kenya
37
33
42
63
55
72
Lesotho
41
37
45
53
49
59
Malawi
17
16
19
79
71
88
Mozambique
36
31
40
84
71
>95
Namibia
51
42
62
90
73
>95
Nigeria
13
12
15
27
24
31
South Africa
63
59
69
90
83
>95
Swaziland
63
59
68
>95
>95
>95
Uganda
25
22
28
75
68
85
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
28
25
31
73
65
83
Zambia
47
43
52
76
68
84
9
8
10
78
70
87
33
31
35
68
64
74
Chad
Côte d’Ivoire
Zimbabwe
PMTCT High Burden
Countries
Sources: UNAIDS 2013 Estimates.
A80 Gap report
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Prong 3 Target: Percent of women or infants receiving antiretroviral medicines during breastfeeding
21 Global Plan
countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
2009
Angola
Low
High
2013
Low
High
0
0
0
39
28
58
31
28
34
>95
87
>95
Burundi
0
0
0
22
18
26
Cameroon
8
8
9
16
14
18
Chad
7
6
8
19
15
24
Côte d’Ivoire
6
6
7
20
18
24
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
0
0
0
17
13
20
Ethiopia
2
2
2
55
47
65
Ghana
0
0
0
30
22
42
Kenya
17
15
20
63
55
72
Lesotho
11
10
13
41
38
46
Malawi
4
4
5
79
71
88
Mozambique
7
7
9
84
71
>95
Namibia
11
9
14
56
45
70
Nigeria
4
3
4
19
17
22
South Africa
63
59
69
90
83
>95
Swaziland
18
17
20
49
46
53
0
0
0
75
68
85
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
28
25
31
73
65
83
Zambia
16
14
17
43
39
48
1
1
1
78
70
87
20
19
21
61
57
66
Botswana
Uganda
Zimbabwe
PMTCT High Burden
Countries
Sources: UNAIDS 2013 Estimates.
Annex: Global Plan A81
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Prong 4 Target: Antiretroviral therapy coverage among children <15 years
21 Global Plan
countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
2009
Angola
Low
High
2013
Low
High
7
5
10
14
10
22
43
40
48
84
79
91
Burundi
9
8
11
12
10
14
Cameroon
3
3
4
6
5
7
Chad
2
2
3
5
4
6
Côte d’Ivoire
5
4
6
8
7
9
Democratic Republic
of the Congo (the)
8
7
10
8
6
9
Ethiopia
4
3
4
9
8
11
Ghana
4
3
5
11
8
16
Kenya
12
10
13
31
27
36
Lesotho
11
10
12
15
13
16
Malawi
8
8
9
24
22
27
Mozambique
8
7
9
22
18
26
Namibia
34
28
42
45
36
56
Nigeria
5
4
6
12
10
13
South Africa
8
7
9
44
40
48
23
21
25
46
42
49
Uganda
9
8
10
22
20
26
United Republic of
Tanzania (the)
4
4
5
16
14
18
Zambia
13
12
15
33
29
36
Zimbabwe
10
9
11
27
24
30
8
7
8
22
21
24
Botswana
Swaziland
PMTCT High Burden
Countries
Sources: UNAIDS 2013 Estimates.
A82 Gap report
GLOBAL PLAN
8. Summary table on the Progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Plan Towards the
Elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
Prong 4 Target: Percent of under-five deaths due to HIV
21 Global Plan countries in
sub-Saharan Africa
2009
2010
2%
2%
16%
15%
Burundi
6%
6%
Cameroon
5%
5%
Chad
3%
3%
Côte d’Ivoire
4%
3%
Democratic Republic of the Congo (the)
1%
1%
Ethiopia
2%
2%
Ghana
3%
3%
Kenya
8%
7%
Lesotho
23%
18%
Malawi
14%
13%
Mozambique
11%
10%
Namibia
18%
14%
Nigeria
4%
4%
South Africa
31%
28%
Swaziland
25%
23%
Uganda
7%
7%
United Republic of Tanzania (the)
6%
5%
Zambia
12%
11%
Zimbabwe
23%
20%
Angola
Botswana
PMTCT High Burden Countries
Sources: CHERG 2012 estimates.
Annex: Global Plan A83
84
Gap Report
UNAIDS / JC2656 (English original, July 2014, updated September 2014)
ISBN 978-92-9253-062-4
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