NEHRP RECOMMENDED PROVISIONS FOR SEISMIC REGULATIONS FOR NEW BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES

NEHRP RECOMMENDED PROVISIONS FOR SEISMIC REGULATIONS FOR NEW BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES
Program
on
Improved
Seismic
Safety
Provisions
Of the National Institute of Building Sciences
2000 Edition
NEHRP RECOMMENDED PROVISIONS
FOR SEISMIC REGULATIONS
FOR NEW BUILDINGS
AND OTHER STRUCTURES
Part 1: Provisions (FEMA 368)
The Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) was established in 1979 under the auspices of the National Institute of Building Sciences as an entirely new type of instrument for dealing with the complex
regulatory, technical, social, and economic issues involved in developing and promulgating building
earthquake hazard mitigation regulatory provisions that are national in scope. By bringing together in
the BSSC all of the needed expertise and all relevant public and private interests, it was believed that
issues related to the seismic safety of the built environment could be resolved and jurisdictional problems overcome through authoritative guidance and assistance backed by a broad consensus.
The BSSC is an independent, voluntary membership body representing a wide variety of building
community interests. Its fundamental purpose is to enhance public safety by providing a national forum that fosters improved seismic safety provisions for use by the building community in the planning,
design, construction, regulation, and utilization of buildings.
To fulfill its purpose, the BSSC: (1) promotes the development of seismic safety provisions suitable
for use throughout the United States; (2) recommends, encourages, and promotes the adoption of
appropriate seismic safety provisions in voluntary standards and model codes; (3) assesses progress in
the implementation of such provisions by federal, state, and local regulatory and construction agencies;
(4) identifies opportunities for improving seismic safety regulations and practices and encourages
public and private organizations to effect such improvements; (5) promotes the development of
training and educational courses and materials for use by design professionals, builders, building regulatory officials, elected officials, industry representatives, other members of the building community,
and the public; (6) advises government bodies on their programs of research, development, and implementation; and (7) periodically reviews and evaluates research findings, practices, and experience
and makes recommendations for incorporation into seismic design practices.
See the back of the Commentary volume for a full description of BSSC activities.
BOARD OF DIRECTION: 2000
Chairman
William W. Stewart, Stewart-Schaberg Architects, Clayton, Missouri
Vice Chairman
Charles Thornton, Ph.D., PE, The Thornton P Tomasetti Group, Inc., New York, New
York (representing the Applied Technology Council)
Secretary
Jack Prosek, PE, Turner Construction Company, San Francisco, California (representing
the Associated General Contractors of America)
Ex-Officio
Eugene Zeller, PE, City of Long Beach, California
Members
J. Gregg Borchelt, PE, Brick Institute of America, Reston, Virginia; Charles Carter, PE,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois; Bradford K. Douglas, PE,
American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, D.C.; S. K. Ghosh, Ph.D., S. K.
Ghosh Associates, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois (representing the Portland Cement Association); Gerald H. Jones, PE, Kansas City, Missouri (representing the National Institute of
Building Sciences); Do Y. Kim, PE, Institute for Business and Home Safety, Tampa,
Florida (through October 2000); H. S. Lew, Ph.D., PE, National Institute of Standards and
Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (representing the Interagency Committee for Seismic
Safety in Construction); Joseph Nicoletti, PE, URS/John A. Blume and Associates, San
Francisco, California (representing the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute); W. Lee
Shoemaker, Ph.D., Metal Building Manufacturers Association, Cleveland, Ohio; Howard
Simpson, Sc.D., P.E., Simpson, Gumpertz and Heger, Arlington, Massachusetts (representing the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations); Charles Spitz, NCARB,
AIA, CSI, Architect/Planner Code Consultant, Wall, New Jersey (representing the
American Institute of Architects); John C. Theiss, PE, Theiss Engineers, Inc., St. Louis,
Missouri (representing the American Society of Civil Engineers); David Wismer, PE,
CBO, Department of Licenses and Inspections, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (representing
the Building Officials and Code Administrators International)
BSSC Staff
Claret M. Heider, Acting Executive Director; Bernard Murphy, PE, Director, Special
Projects; Patricia Blasi, Administrative Assistant; Carita Tanner, Administrative Assistant;
Kelly Harris, Summer Intern
BSSC Program on Improved Seismic Safety Provisions
NEHRP RECOMMENDED PROVISIONS
(National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program)
FOR SEISMIC REGULATIONS
FOR NEW BUILDINGS AND
OTHER STRUCTURES
2000 EDITION
Part 1: PROVISIONS
(FEMA 368)
Prepared by the
Building Seismic Safety Council
for the
Federal Emergency Management Agency
BUILDING SEISMIC SAFETY COUNCIL
Washington, D.C.
2001
NOTICE: Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do
not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Additionally, neither
FEMA nor any of its employees make any warranty, expressed or implied, nor assume any legal
liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, product, or
process included in this publication.
This report was prepared under Contract EMW-97-CO-0481 between the
Federal Emergency Management Agency and the National Institute of Building
Sciences.
Building Seismic Safety Council activities and products are described at the end
of this report. For further information, contact the Building Seismic Safety
Council, 1090 Vermont, Avenue, N.W., Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005;
phone 202-289-7800; fax 202-289-1092; e-mail [email protected]
Copies of this report may be obtained by contacting the FEMA Publication
Distribution Facility at 1-800-480-2520.
The National Institute of Building Sciences and its Building Seismic Safety
Council caution users of these Provisions documents to be alert to patent and
copyright concerns especially when applying prescriptive requirements.
ii
PREFACE
One of the primary goals of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the
National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is to encourage design and building
practices that address the earthquake hazard and minimize the resulting damage. Publication of
the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulation of New Buildings and Other
Structures reaffirms the continuing FEMA-sponsored effort to improve the seismic safety of new
structures in this country. Its publication marks the fifth in a planned updating of both the
Provisions documents and several complementary publications. As in the case of the earlier
editions of the Provisions (1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, and 1997), FEMA is proud to sponsor this
Building Seismic Safety Council project and encourages widespread dissemination and voluntary
use of this state-of-the-art consensus resource document.
In contrast with the 1997 Provisions update, this update does not make significant changes to the
hazard maps or design procedures. Rather, the 2000 Provisions contains new material in select
areas that keep the document at the cutting edge of seismic design practices. An example of this
new material is the addition of a comprehensive procedure for the design of structures with
energy dissipating devices. As this new technology gains further acceptance in practice, the
design guidance within the Provisions will enjoy widespread use. Another example is the
inclusion of material on anchorage to concrete. A special anchorage subcommittee was
assembled to integrate this much-needed new material into the Provisions. A third example is
the comprehensive treatment of design of steel moment frame structures based on the research
results of a FEMA-funded project started after the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Finally, some
new material in the areas of ‘pushover’ design and simplified design procedures was developed.
Further refinement of these two areas is expected during the next update cycle.
The above changes are but a few of the nearly 170 that were balloted by the BSSC member
organizations. The number of changes continues to grow over the numbers of earlier update
efforts and is testament to the increased attention being paid to the Provisions. This is due in
large part to the decision to use the NEHRP Provisions as the basis for the seismic requirements
in both the International Building Code and NFPA 5000 Code. FEMA welcomes this increased
scrutiny and the chance to work with these code organizations.
Looking ahead, FEMA has already contracted with BSSC for and work already has begun on the
update process that will lead to the 2003 Provisions. The update effort will continue to capture
the state of the art, continue work on simplified methods, and seek to improve the treatment of
non-building structures within the Provisions.
Finally, FEMA wishes to express its deepest gratitude for the yeoman efforts of a large number
of volunteer experts and the BSSC Board of Directors and staff who made possible the 2000
Provisions documents. It is truly their efforts that make the Provisions a reality. Americans
unfortunate enough to experience the earthquakes that will inevitably occur in this country in the
future will owe much, perhaps even their very lives, to the contributions and dedication of these
individuals to the seismic safety of buildings. Without the dedication and hard work of these
men and women, this document and all it represents with respect to earthquake risk mitigation
would not have been possible.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
iii
INTRODUCTION and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The 2000 Edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings
and Other Structures is the sixth edition of the document and, like the 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, and
1997 Editions that preceded it, has the consensus approval of the Building Seismic Safety Council
membership. It represents a major product of the Council's multiyear, multitask Program on Improved
Seismic Safety Provisions and is intended to continue to serve as a source document for use by any
interested members of the building community. (For readers unfamiliar with the program, a detailed
description of the BSSC’s purpose and activities concludes the Commentary volume.)
In September 1997, NIBS entered into a contract with FEMA for initiation of the BSSC 2000 Provisions update effort. Late in 1997, the BSSC member organization representatives and alternate
representatives and the BSSC Board of Direction were asked to identify individuals to serve on the
2000 Provisions Update Committee (PUC) and its Technical Subcommittees (TSs).
The 2000 PUC was constituted early in 1998, and 12 PUC Technical Subcommittees were established
to address design criteria and analysis, foundations and geotechnical considerations, cast-inplace/precast concrete structures, masonry structures, steel structures, wood structures, mechanicalelectrical systems and building equipment and architectural elements, quality assurance, composite
steel and concrete structures, energy dissipation and base isolation, and nonbuilding structures.
More than 200 individuals have participated in the 2000 update effort, and 169 substantive proposals
for change were developed. A series of editorial/organizational changes also have been made. All
draft TS and PUC proposals for change were finalized in late January 2000. The PUC Chairman
presented to the BSSC Board of Direction the PUC’s recommendations concerning proposals for
change to be submitted to the BSSC member organizations for balloting, and the Board accepted these
recommendations.
The first round of balloting concluded in early June 2000. There were 147 items on the official ballot,
and a large majority passed; however, many comments were submitted with “no” and “yes with
reservations” votes. These comments were compiled for distribution to the PUC, which met in midJuly to review the comments, receive TS responses to the comments and recommendations for change,
and formulate its recommendations concerning what items should be submitted to the BSSC member
organizations for a second ballot. The PUC directed several of the proposals from the first ballot to be
revised requiring them to be reballoted. The PUC deliberations resulted in the decision to recommend
to the BSSC Board that 17 items be included in the second ballot. The PUC Chairman subsequently
presented the PUC’s recommendations to the Board, which accepted those recommendations.
The second round of balloting was completed in early October 2000. Of the 17 proposals, all passed
except for one. This had to be revised because of a duplication error. There were also three other
proposals developed by the PUC to clarify last minute concerns. The PUC met on the last two days of
October to formulate its recommendations to the Board, and the Board subsequently accepted those
recommendations.
During the review of the first ballot, there was a request to table the proposals from TS 6 regarding
Chapter 8 on Steel. The American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) was in the process of
updating their supplement to AISC Seismic and the PUC expected publication of Supplement No. 2
iv
during the second ballot voting period. If the supplement was published in time for the TS and PUC to
review the changes and incorporate the most current information available, it would be beneficial to
all. AISC Seismic Supplement No. 2 was published in November 2000. Since the second ballot was
already on the street, this drove the necessity to have a third ballot. A fifth proposal for the third ballot
was prepared to allow AISC Seismic Supplement No. 2 to be incorporated.
The third ballot was developed to include 5 proposals and all ballots were received by early February
2001. The comments and responses were prepared in time for the PUC Executive Committee to
review and accept all proposals in early March 2001. One of the proposals accepted AISC Seismic
Supplement No. 2 as a reference document that overrode the necessity for several proposals initially
balloted for the Chapter 8 on Steel. The PUC Chair once again presented the recommendations to the
BSSC Board of Direction and they were approved. The final versions of the Provisions and
Commentary volumes were developed and the Provisions includes, as Appendix A, a summary of the
differences between the 1997 and 2000 Editions. Once the documents were edited and supporting
information was prepared they were transmitted to FEMA for publication.
In presenting this 2000 Edition of the Provisions, the BSSC wishes to acknowledge the accomplishments of the many individuals and organizations involved over the years. The BSSC program resulting
in the first four editions of the Provisions, the 2000 update effort, and the information
development/dissemination activities conducted to stimulate use of the Provisions has benefitted from
the expertise of hundreds of specialists, many of whom have given freely of their time over many
years.
With so many volunteers participating, it is difficult to single out a given number or group for special
recognition without inadvertently omitting others without whose assistance the BSSC program could
not have succeeded; nevertheless, the 2000 Edition of the Provisions would not be complete without at
least recognizing the following individuals to whom I, acting on behalf of the BSSC Board of
Direction, heartily express sincerest appreciation:
C The members of the BSSC Provisions Update Committee, especially Chairman William Holmes;
C The members of the 12 PUC Technical Subcommittees, the Simplified Design Task Group, and the
Anchorage Task Group; and
C Timothy Sheckler, the FEMA Project Officer.
Appreciation also is due to the BSSC staff members, all of whose talents and experience were crucial
to conduct of the program.
At this point I, as Chairman, would like to express my personal gratitude to the members of the BSSC
Board of Direction and to all those who provided advice, counsel, and encouragement during conduct
of the update effort or who otherwise participated in the BSSC program that resulted in the 2000
NEHRP Recommended Provisions.
William Stewart, Chairman, BSSC Board of Direction
v
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 SCOPE AND APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.2 Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.3 Change of Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.4 Alterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.5 Alternate Materials and Alternate Means and Methods of Construction . . . . . . 3
1.3 SEISMIC USE GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3.1 Seismic Use Group III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3.2 Seismic Use Group II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3.3 Seismic Use Group I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3.4 Multiple Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3.5 Seismic Use Group III Structure Access Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 OCCUPANCY IMPORTANCE FACTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Chapter 2 GLOSSARY AND NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1 GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Chapter 3 QUALITY ASSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2.1 Details of Quality Assurance Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.2 Contractor Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3 SPECIAL INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3.1 Piers, Piles, Caissons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3.2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3.3 Structural Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3.4 Prestressed Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3.5 Structural Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3.6 Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3.7 Structural Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3.8 Cold–Formed Steel Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4 TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.4.1 Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.4.2 Structural Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.4.3 Structural Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.4.4 Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.4.5 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.4.6 Seismically Isolated Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.5 STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.6 REPORTING AND COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Chapter 4 GROUND MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
vi
4.1 PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE
AND DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION ACCELERATIONS AND
RESPONSE SPECTRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1.1 Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1.2 General Procedure for Determining Maximum Considered Earthquake and
Design Spectral Response Accelerations: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1.3 Site-Specific Procedure for Determining Ground Motion Accelerations . . . . . 45
4.2 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2.1 Determination of Seismic Design Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2.2 Site Limitation for Seismic Design Categories E and F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Chapter 5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENT: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.2 DESIGN BASIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.2.2 Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.2.3 Structure Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.2.4 Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.2.5 Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.2.6 Design and Detailing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.2.7 Combination of Load Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.2.8 Deflection and Drift Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.3 INDEX FORCE ANALYSIS PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.4 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.4.1 Seismic Base Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.4.2 Period Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.4.3 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.4.4 Horizontal Shear Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.4.5 Overturning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.4.6 Drift Determination and P-Delta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5.5 MODAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
5.5.1 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.5.2 Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.5.3 Modal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.5.4 Modal Base Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.5.5 Modal Forces, Deflections, and Drifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
5.5.6 Modal Story Shears and Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.5.7 Design Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.5.8 Horizontal Shear Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.5.9 Foundation Overturning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.5.10 P-Delta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.6 LINEAR RESPONSE HISTORY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.6.1 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.6.2 Ground Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.6.3 Response Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.7 NONLINEAR RESPONSE HISTORY ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.7.1 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.7.2 Ground Motion and Other Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
vii
5.7.3 Response Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.7.4 Design Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.8 SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
5.8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
5.8.2 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Appendix to Chapter 5
NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Chapter 6 ARCHITECTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.1.1 References and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.1.2 Component Force Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6.1.3 Seismic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6.1.4 Seismic Relative Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6.1.5 Component Importance Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.1.6 Component Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.1.7 Construction Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.2 ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENT DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.2.2 Architectural Component Forces and Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.2.3 Architectural Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.2.4 Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.2.5 Out-of-Plane-Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.2.6 Suspended Ceilings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.2.7 Access Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
6.2.8 Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6.2.9 Steel Storage Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6.2.10 Glass in Glazed Curtain Walls, Glazed Storefronts, and Glazed
Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6.3 MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.3.2 Mechanical and Electrical Component Forces and Displacements . . . . . . . 113
6.3.3 Mechanical and Electrical Component Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
6.3.4 Mechanical and Electrical Component Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.3.5 Component Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.3.6 Component Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.3.7 Utility and Service Lines at Structure Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.3.8 Site-Specific Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.3.9 Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
6.3.10 HVAC Ductwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
6.3.11 Piping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
6.3.12 Boilers and Pressure Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
6.3.13 Mechanical Equipment Attachments and Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
6.3.14 Electrical Equipment Attachments and Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
6.3.15 Alternate Seismic Qualification Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
6.3.16 Elevator Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
viii
Chapter 7 FOUNDATION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.2 STRENGTH OF COMPONENTS AND FOUNDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.2.1 Structural Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.2.2 Soil Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.3 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A AND B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.4 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.4.1 Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.4.2 Pole-Type Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
7.4.3 Foundation Ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
7.4.4 Special Pile Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
7.5 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, AND F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
7.5.1 Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
7.5.2 Foundation Ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
7.5.3 Liquefaction Potential and Soil Strength Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
7.5.4 Special Pile and Grade Beam Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Chapter 8 STEEL STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.2 SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR STEEL STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.3 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.4 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, AND F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.4.1 Modifications to AISC Seismic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
8.5 COLD-FORMED STEEL SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.5.1 Modifications to AISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.5.2 Modifications to ANSI/ASCE 8-90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.6 LIGHT-FRAMED WALLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.6.1 Boundary Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.6.2 Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.6.3 Braced Bay Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.6.4 Diagonal Braces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.6.5 Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.7 SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR STEEL DECK DIAPHRAGMS . . . . . . . . . . 137
8.8 STEEL CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Chapter 9 CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
9.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
9.1.1 Modifications to ACI 318 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
9.2 ANCHORING TO CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.2.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.2.2 Notations and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
9.2.3 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
9.2.4 General Requirements for Strength of Structural Anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
9.2.5 Design Requirements for Tensile Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
9.2.6 Design Requirements for Shear Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
9.2.7 Interaction of Tensile and Shear Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
9.2.8 Required Edge Distances, Spacings, and Thicknesses to Preclude
ix
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
Splitting Failure
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
9.2.9 Installation of Anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
CLASSIFICATION OF SHEAR WALLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
9.3.1 Ordinary Plain Concrete Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
9.3.2 Detailed Plain Concrete Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
9.5.1 Ordinary Moment Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.6.1 Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.6.2 Discontinuous Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.6.3 Plain Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.6.4 Anchor Bolts in the Tops of Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, OR F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
9.7.1 Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
9.7.2 Frame Members Not Proportioned to Resist Forces Induced by Earthquake
Motions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Appendix to Chapter 9
REINFORCED CONCRETE DIAPHRAGMS CONSTRUCTED USING
UNTOPPED PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Chapter 10 COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIRE
MENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
10.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
10.2 REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Chapter 11 MASONRY STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.1.2 Reference Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.1.3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.1.4 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
11.2 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.2.2 Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.3.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.3.2 Empirical Masonry Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.3.3 Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11.3.4 Reinforced Masonry Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.3.5 Seismic Design Category A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.3.6 Seismic Design Category B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.3.7 Seismic Design Category C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.3.8 Seismic Design Category D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
11.3.9 Seismic Design Categories E and F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
11.3.10 Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
x
11.3.11 Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
11.3.12 Headed and Bent-Bar Anchor Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
11.4 DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
11.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
11.4.2 Size of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
11.4.3 Placement Limits for Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
11.4.4 Cover for Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
11.4.5 Development of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
11.5 STRENGTH AND DEFORMATION REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
11.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
11.5.2 Required Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
11.5.3 Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
11.5.4 Deformation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
11.6 FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
11.6.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
11.6.2 Design Requirements of Reinforced Masonry Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
11.6.3 Design of Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
11.7 SHEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
11.7.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
11.7.2 Shear Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
11.7.3 Design of Reinforced Masonry Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
11.7.4 Design of Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
11.8 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
11.9 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COLUMNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
11.10 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHEAR WALLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
11.10.1 Ordinary Plain Masonry Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
11.10.2 Detailed Plain Masonry Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
11.10.3 Ordinary Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
11.10.4 Intermediate Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
11.10.5 Special Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
11.10.6: Flanged Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
11.10.7 Coupled Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
11.11 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES OF MASONRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
11.11.1 Calculation of Required Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
11.11.2 Flexural Yielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
11.11.3 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
11.11.4 Wall Frame Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
11.11.5 Wall Frame Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
11.11.6 Wall Frame Beam-Column Intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
11.12 GLASS-UNIT MASONRY AND MASONRY VENEER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
11.12.1 Design Lateral Forces and Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
11.12.2 Glass-Unit Masonry Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
11.12.3 Masonry Veneer Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Chapter 12 WOOD STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
12.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
12.1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
12.1.2 Reference Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
xi
12.1.3 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
12.2 DESIGN METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
12.2.1 Engineered Wood Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
12.2.2 Conventional Light-Frame Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.3 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINEERED WOOD CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.3.2 Shear Resistance Based on Principles of Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.3.3 Deformation Compatibility Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.3.4 Framing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.3.5 Sheathing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
12.3.6 Wood Members Resisting Horizontal Seismic Forces Contributed by Masonry and Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
12.4 DIAPHRAGMS AND SHEAR WALLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
12.4.1 Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
12.4.2 Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
12.4.3 Perforated Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
12.5 CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
12.5.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
12.5.2 Braced Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
12.5.3 Detailing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
12.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
12.7 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES B, C, AND D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
12.7.1 Conventional Light-Frame Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
12.7.2 Engineered Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
12.8 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES E AND F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
12.8.1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Chapter 13 SEISMICALLY ISOLATED STRUCTURES DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . 241
13.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
13.2 CRITERIA SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
13.2.1 Basis for Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
13.2.2 Stability of the Isolation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
13.2.3 Seismic Use Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
13.2.4 Configuration Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
13.2.5 Selection of Lateral Response Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
13.3 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
13.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
13.3.2 Deformation Characteristics of the Isolation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
13.3.3 Minimum Lateral Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
13.3.4 Minimum Lateral Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
13.3.5 Vertical Distribution of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
13.3.6 Drift Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
13.4 DYNAMIC LATERAL RESPONSE PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
13.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
13.4.2 Isolation System and Structural Elements Below the Isolation System . . . 248
13.4.3 Structural Elements Above the Isolation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
13.4.4 Ground Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
xii
13.4.5 Mathematical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
13.4.6 Description of Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
13.4.7 Design Lateral Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
13.5 LATERAL LOAD ON ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURES AND
NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS SUPPORTED BY BUILDINGS . . . . . . 252
13.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
13.5.2 Forces and Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
13.6 DETAILED SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
13.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
13.6.2 Isolation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
13.6.3 Structural System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.7 FOUNDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.8 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.8.2 Isolation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.9 REQUIRED TESTS OF THE ISOLATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.9.2 Prototype Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
13.9.3 Determination of Force-Deflection Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
13.9.4 Test Specimen Adequacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
13.9.5 Design Properties of the Isolation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Appendix to Chapter 13
STRUCTURES WITH DAMPING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Chapter 14 NONBUILDING STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
14.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
14.1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
14.2 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
14.3 INDUSTRY DESIGN STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICE . . 293
14.4 NONBUILDING STRUCTURES SUPPORTED BY OTHER STRUCTURES . 294
14.4.1 Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
14.5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
14.5.1 Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
14.5.2 Rigid Nonbuilding Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
14.5.3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
14.5.4 Fundamental Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
14.5.5 Drift Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
14.5.6 Materials Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
14.5.7 Deflection Limits and Structure Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
14.5.8 Site-Specific Response Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
14.6 NONBUILDING STRUCTURES SIMILAR TO BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
14.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
14.6.2 Pipe Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
14.6.3 Steel Storage Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
14.6.4 Electrical Power Generating Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
14.6.5 Structural Towers for Tanks and Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
14.6.6 Piers and Wharves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
xiii
14.7 NONBUILDING STRUCTURES NOT SIMILAR TO BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . 301
14.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
14.7.2 Earth Retaining Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
14.7.3 Tanks and Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
14.7.4 Stacks and Chimneys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
14.7.5 Amusement Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
14.7.6 Special Hydraulic Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
14.7.7 Secondary Containment Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Appendix to Chapter 14
ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION, SUBSTATION, AND DISTRIBUTION STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Appendix A DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE 1997 AND THE 2000 EDITIONS OF THE
NEHRP RECOMMENDED PROVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Appendix B PARTICIPANTS IN THE BSSC 2000 PROVISIONS UPDATE PROGRAM
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
xiv
Errata
2000 Edition
NEHRP RECOMMENDED PROVISIONS
FOR SEISMIC REGULATIONS
FOR NEW BUILDINGS
AND OTHER STRUCTURES
Part 1: Provisions (FEMA 368)
March 1, 2002
Section
5.8.2.1.1
Page
88/89
Correction
Add the following to the legend at the top of page 89 after I0:
"2 = dynamic foundation stiffness modifier for rocking (see
Commentary)
5.8.2.1.2
90
Change legend for SDS in Figure 5.8.2.1.2 as shown below:
FIGURE 5.8.2.1.2 Foundation damping factor.
5.8.3.1
91
Change “ K ” to “ k ” in very last sentence.
6.2.10.1
112
Under Exception 1, delete the following:
“or 0.5 inch (13mm); whichever is greater,”
6.2.10.2
112
In the last sentence on the page replace the reference “SMACNA
Restraint” with “AAMA 501.4”
6.3.8
115
In the last sentence replace “...Ca is equal to or greater than 0.15.” with
“...SDS is equal to or greater than 0.33.”
6.3.15
122
In the last sentence, delete “CISCA Recs for Zones 3-4” and replace
with “IEE344”.
7.5.4.4
131
In equation 7.5.4.4-3, replace “0.12 shc” with “0.3 shc” .
8.4.1.1
134
Replace the entire existing Section 8.4.1.1 with the following:
8.4.1.1: Revise Sec. 7.3b of AISC Seismic to read as follows:
“All welds used in primary members and connections of the seismicforce-resisting system shall be made with filler metal capable of
producing welds that conform to the following:
1. For structures in which the steel frame is normally enclosed and
maintained at a temperature of 500 F or higher, minimum Charpy
V-notch toughness of 20 ft-lb at 00 F, using AWS A5
classification methods, and minimum Charpy V-notch toughness
of 40 ft-lb at 700 F, under a range of welding conditions in
accordance with FEMA 353, Recommended Specifications and
Quality Assurance Guidelines for Moment Resisting Steel Frames
for Seismic Applications.
2. For structures with service temperatures lower than 500 F,
minimum Charpy V-notch toughness of 20 ft-lb at 00 F, using
AWS A5 classification methods, and minimum Charpy V-notch
toughness of 40 ft-lb at 200 F above the lowest anticipated service
temperature, under a range of welding conditions in accordance
with FEMA 353, Recommended Specifications and Quality
Assurance Guidelines for Moment Resisting Steel Frames for
Seismic Applications.”
9.2.5.2.6
159
Replace “R3 = 0.4 for post installed anchors.” with “R3 = 1.4 for post
installed anchors.”
9.6.3.2
166
The first exception should read:
Exception: “In detached one- and two- family dwellings three stories
or less in height, the projection of the footing beyond the face of the
supported member shall be permitted to exceed the footing thickness.”
9.7.1.2
167
In the second line, change “spacial” to “special.”
11.1.2
175
Replace Sec. 11.1.2 to include the expanded reference titles of ACI
530 and 530.1 as follows:
“11.1.2 Reference Documents: The designation and title of
documents cited in this chapter are listed in this section.
ACI 318 American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Code
Requirements for Structural Concrete, excluding
Appendix A, 1999
ACI 530/ASCE 5/ American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building
TMS 402
Code Requirements for Masonry Structures, 1999
ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/American Concrete Institute (ACI), Specifications
TMS 602
for Masonry Structures, 1999
Compliance with specific provisions of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 is
mandatory where required by this chapter.”
11.2.1
180
Expand the reference titles in two places for ACI 530.1 to read:
“ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602”
11.3.2
180
Expand the reference title for ACI 530.1 to read:
“ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602”
11.3.7.5
182
Expand the reference title for ACI 530 in the last sentence to read:
“ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402”
11.3.10.5.2
185
Replace the second sentence, “For grouted stack bond masonry,
tension parallel to the bed joints for in-plane bending shall be assumed
to be resisted only by the continuous grout core section.” with “For
grouted stack bond masonry, in-plane flexural tension parallel to the
bed joints for in-plane bending shall be assumed to be resisted only by
the continuous horizontally grout cross section.”
11.6.3.5
196
Replace Equation (11.6.3.5-1) with the following:
ΦP
n
=
ΦA f ′
n

1 −
n

2
 h  

 
 1 4 0 r  
fo r
h
r
< 99
11.7.31
197
Replace “M/Vdv < 0.25:” with M/Vdv # 0.25:” and place it before
equation (11.7.3.1-2).
11.7.31
198
At the top of the page replace “M/Vdv < 1.00:” with M/Vdv $1.00:”
11.7.31
198
In the last sentence of the section replace “Vm (max) =” with “Vn (max)
=”.
11.9.3
200
In the last sentence of paragraph “c” replace “84 tie diameters.” with
“48 tie diameters.”
11.12.2.1
207
Expand the reference titles in two places for ACI 530 to read:
“ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402”
11.12.3.1
207
Expand the reference title for ACI 530 to read:
“ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402”
12.1.2.3
209210
Change “Natioanal” to “National” in the titles of PS 20 and PS2.
12.3.4
211
After the sentence reading, “Shear wall and diaphragm boundary
elements.... tension and compression forces,” add the following
sentences: “Continuity of wall top plates or provision for transfer of
induced axial load forces is required. When offsets occur in the wall
line, portions of the shear wall on each side of the offset shall be
considered as separate shear walls.”
12.4.1.1
213
In the first Exception replace the reference “12.4.3.5” with “12.4.1.5”
12.4.1.3
214
In the second paragraph add a period at the end of the second line.
12.4.1.5
215
In the second paragraph add a period after the last sentence.
12.4.2.4
216
Under Bolt size replace the “2” with “½” in the first row.
12.4.2.6
216
At the end of the first paragraph replace “ Tables 12.4.2-6a and 12.4.26b” with “Tables 12.4.3-2a and 12.4.3-2b”.
12.4.2.6
216
At the end of the second paragraph replace “ Tables 12.4.2-6a and b.”
with “Tables 12.4.3-2a and b.”
12.4.3.1
217
At the paragraph titled Unadjusted factored shear resistance replace
“Tables 12.4.2-6a and b” with “Tables 12.4.3-2a and b” in both the
first line and the last line.
12.4.3.2
217
In the first line replace “Sec. 12.4.4." with “Sec. 12.4.3.”
12.4.3.2
217
In paragraph b replace “ set fort in Tables 12.4.2-6a and 12.4.2-6b”
with “set forth in Tables 12.4.3-2a and 12.4.3-2b”.
12.4.3.3.3
218
Replace “Table 12.4.4-1” with “Table 12.4.3-1” in two locations.
12.4.3.4.1
218
At the end of the paragraph replace “ Tables 12.4.2-6a and 12.4.2-6b”
with “Tables 12.4.3-2a and 12.4.3-2b”.
12.4.3.4.2
218
In the legend below the equation delete “h = shear wall height (ft,
mm/1000),”.
12.4.3.4.2
219
In the legend for Co below the equation on page 218 replace “Table
12.4.4-1” with “Table 12.4.3-1”.
12.4.3.4.3
219
Replace “Sec. 12.4.4.4.1” with “Sec. 12.4.3.4.1”.
12.4.3.4.3
219
Replace “Sec. 12.4.4.4.2” with “Sec. 12.4.3.4.2”.
12.4.3.4.4
219
In the legend for Co below the equation replace “Table 12.4.4-1" with
“Table 12.4.3-1”.
12.4.3.4.4
219
In the legend for GLi below the equation add “perforated” before
“shear wall segments”.
Notes for
Table
12.4.3-2a
235
Replace footnote b with the following:
Notes for
Table
12.4.3-2b
237
13.9.2.3
256
At the beginning of item 4., replace “30SDIBD/SDS” with
“30SDI/BDSDS”.
13.9.4
258
In item 2. and 3. replace “30SDIBD/SDS” with “30SDI/BDSDS”.
All panel edges backed with 2-inch nominal or wider framing. Panels
installed either horizontally or vertically. Space nails at 6 in. on center
along intermediate framing members for 3/8-in. panels installed with
strong axis parallel to studs spaced 24 in. on center and 12 in. on
center for other conditions and panel thicknesses. For framing
members of other species set forth in Ref. 12-1, Table 12A, with the
range of specific gravity (SG) noted, allowable shear values shall be
calculated for all panel grades by multiplying the values from the table
above for nail size and actual panel grade by the following factor:
Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = (1-(0.5 - SG)), Where SG =
Specific Gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall
not be greater than 1.
Replace footnote b with the following:
All panel edges backed with 38 mm nominal or wider framing. Panels
installed either horizontally or vertically. Space nails at 150 mm on
center along intermediate framing members for 9 mm panels installed
with strong axis parallel to studs spaced 610 mm on center and 305
mm on center for other conditions and panel thicknesses. For framing
members of other species set forth in Ref. 12-1, Table 12A, with the
range of specific gravity (SG) noted, allowable shear values shall be
calculated for all panel grades by multiplying the values from the table
above for nail size and actual panel grade by the following factor:
Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = (1-(0.5 - SG)), Where SG =
Specific Gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall
not be greater than 1.
14.5.1
294
Replace item 2 with the following:
2. For nonbuilding systems that have an R value provided in Table
14.5.2.1, the minimum specified value in Eq. 5.4.1.1-3 shall be
replaced by:
CS = 0.14 SDS I
(14.5.1-1)
and the minimum value specified in Eq. 5.4.1.1-4 shall be
replaced by:
CS = 0.8 S1 I/R
(14.5.1-2)
14.5.3
298
In the first sentence, replace the first reference to “Sec. 5.4.3" with
“Sec. 5.3.”
14.7.3.2
302
Paragraph c. replace the sentence, “For tanks and vessels not covered
by an approved national standard, the vertical seismic force shall be
defined as 67 percent of the equivalent lateral force.” with “For tanks
and vessels not covered by an approved national standard, the vertical
seismic force shall be based on a vertical ground acceleration defined
as 67 percent of the design horizontal ground acceleration.”
14.7.3.6.1.5
308
In the last sentence of the first paragraph under a., replace “base
shear” with “base friction”.
14.7.3.6.1.5
308
In the first sentence of the second paragraph under a.., replace “V”
with “W”.
14.7.3.7.1
310
Replace the series of equations under Eq. 14.7.3.7.1 with the
following:
For Ti < Ts
V
i
=
S D S I
1 .4 R
W
i
(14.7.3.7.1)
For Ts < Ti < 4.0 sec.
Vi =
S DS I T s
Wi
1.4 R T i
For Ts < Tc < < 4.0 sec.
V c = 1.5
S DS I T s
Wc
1.4 R T c
For Tc of 4.0 sec. or greater,
Vc =
6 S DS I T s
Wc
1.4 R T c 2
14A.2.2
323
In the definition of CS , replace the reference to “Sec. 1.4.2.2" with
“Sec. 4.1.2.5.”
14A2.2
324
In the first paragraph of the last sentence, replace “Sec. 14.2.1" with
“Sec.5.4.3".
14A.2.2
324
In the second paragraph, delete the last phrase, “ and recommended
practices specified in Sec. 14.1.9".
14A.3.2
324
In the definition of CS , replace the reference to “Sec. 4.2.2" with “Sec.
4.1.2.5.”
14A.3.2
324
In the fist paragraph of the section, replace “....and analysis shall be
performed per Sec. 14.2.1 of the Provisions.” with “....and analysis
shall be performed per Sec. 5.4.3 of the Provisions.”
14A.3.2
324
In the last paragraph of the page, replace “(see Sec. 14.1.2 of the
Provisions)” with “(see Sec. 14.4 of the Provisions)”
14A.3.2
325
At the top of the page delete the last phrase of the first paragraph,
“recommended practices specified in Sec. 14.1.9.” and replace with
“the appropriate section of the recommended practices specified in
Chapter 3.
Appendix B
354
Under Technical Subcommittee 5, MASONRY STRUCTURES, add
“Vilas Mujumdar, Concrete Masonry Association of California and
Nevada, Citrus Heights, California”
Appendix B
358
Under Technical Subcommittee 9, QUALITY ASSURANCE Chair,
add “ Charles Spitz, Architect/Planner/Code Consultant, Wall, New
Jersey (January 1998 to January 1999)”
Chapter 1
GENERAL PROVISIONS
1.1 PURPOSE: The NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New
Buildings and Other Structures (referred to hereinafter as the Provisions) present criteria for the
design and construction of structures to resist earthquake ground motions. The purposes of the
Provisions are as follows:
1. To provide minimum design criteria for structures appropriate to their primary function and
use considering the need to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the general public by
minimizing the earthquake-related risk to life and
2. To improve the capability of essential facilities and structures containing substantial
quantities of hazardous materials to function during and after design earthquakes.
The design earthquake ground motion levels specified herein could result in both structural and
nonstructural damage. For most structures designed and constructed according to the Provisions,
structural damage from the design earthquake ground motion would be repairable although
perhaps not economically so. For essential facilities, it is expected that the damage from the
design earthquake ground motion would not be so severe as to preclude continued occupancy
and function of the facility. The actual ability to accomplish these goals depends upon a number
of factors including the structural framing type, configuration, materials, and as-built details of
construction. For ground motions larger than the design levels, the intent of the Provisions is
that there be a low likelihood of structural collapse.
1.2 SCOPE AND APPLICATION:
1.2.1 Scope: The Provisions shall apply to the design and construction of structures including
additions, change of use, and alterations to resist the effects of earthquake motions. Every
structure, and portion thereof, shall be designed and constructed to resist the effects of earthquake motions as prescribed by the Provisions.
Exceptions:
1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories A, B, and C
are exempt from all requirements of the Provisions.
2. Detached one- and two-family wood frame dwellings that are designed and constructed in accordance with the conventional light frame construction requirements
in Sec. 12.5 are exempt from all other requirements of the Provisions.
3. Agricultural storage structures intended only for incidental human occupancy are
exempt from all requirements of the Provisions.
4. Structures located where S1 is less than or equal to 0.04 and Ss is less than or equal to
0.15 shall only be required to comply with Sec. 5.2.5 and Sec. 5.2.6.1 and tanks in
1
2000 Provisions, Chapter 1
Seismic Use Group III according to Table 14.5.1.2 also shall comply with the
freeboard requirements of Sec. 14.7.3.6.1.2.
1.2.2 Additions: Additions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sec. 1.2.2.1
and 1.2.2.2:
1.2.2.1: An addition that is structurally independent from an existing structure shall be designed
and constructed as required for a new structure in accordance with Sec. 1.2.1.
1.2.2.2: An addition that is not structurally independent from an existing structure shall be
designed and constructed such that the entire structure conforms to the seismic-force-resistance
requirements for new structures unless all of the following conditions are satisfied:
1. The addition conforms with the requirements for new structures, and
2. The addition does not increase the seismic forces in any structural element of the existing
structure by more than 5 percent, unless the capacity of the element subject to the increased
forces is still in compliance with the Provisions, and
3. The addition does not decrease the seismic resistance of any structural element of the
existing structure to less than that required for a new structure.
1.2.3 Change of Use: When a change of use results in a structure being reclassified to a higher
Seismic Use Group, the structure shall conform to the requirements of Section 1.2.1 for a new
structure.
Exception: When a change of use results in a structure being reclassified from Seismic
Use Group I to Seismic Use Group II, compliance with the Provisions is not required if
the structure is located where SDS is less than 0.3.
1.2.4 Alterations: Alterations are permitted to be made to any structure without requiring the
structure to comply with the Provisions provided the alterations conform to the requirements for
a new structure. Alterations that increase the seismic force in any existing structural element by
more then 5 percent or decrease the design strength of any existing structural element to resist
seismic forces by more than 5 percent shall not be permitted unless the entire seismic-forceresisting system is determined to conform to the Provisions for a new structure. All alterations
shall conform to the Provisions for a new structure.
Exception: Alterations to existing structural elements or additions of new structural
elements that are not required by these Provisions and are initiated for the purpose of
increasing the strength or stiffness of the seismic-force-resisting system of an existing
structure need not be designed for forces conforming to these Provisions provided that
an engineering analysis is submitted indicating the following:
1. The design strengths of existing structural elements required to resist seismic forces
is not reduced,
2. The seismic force on existing structural elements is not increased beyond their
design strength,
2
General Provisions
3. New structural elements are detailed and connected to the existing structural
elements as required by the Provisions, and
4. New or relocated nonstructural elements are detailed and connected to existing or
new structural elements as required by the Provisions.
1.2.5 Alternate Materials and Alternate Means and Methods of Construction: Alternate
materials and alternate means and methods of construction to those prescribed in the Provisions
are permitted if approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Substantiating evidence shall be
submitted demonstrating that the proposed alternate, for the purpose intended, will be at least
equal in strength, durability, and seismic resistance.
1.3 SEISMIC USE GROUPS: All structures shall be assigned to one of the Seismic Use
Groups described in Sec 1.3.1 through 1.3.3.
1.3.1 Seismic Use Group III: Seismic Use Group III structures are those having essential
facilities that are required for post-earthquake recovery and those containing substantial
quantities of hazardous substances including:
1. Fire, rescue, and police stations
2. Hospitals
3. Designated medical facilities having emergency treatment facilities
4. Designated emergency preparedness centers
5. Designated emergency operation centers
6. Designated emergency shelters
7. Power generating stations or other utilities required as emergency back-up facilities for
Seismic Use Group III facilities
8. Emergency vehicle garages and emergency aircraft hangars
9. Designated communication centers
10. Aviation control towers and air traffic control centers
11. Structures containing sufficient quantities of toxic or explosive substances deemed to be
hazardous to the public
12. Water treatment facilities required to maintain water pressure for fire suppression.
1.3.2 Seismic Use Group II: Seismic Use Group II structures are those that have a substantial
public hazard due to occupancy or use including:
1. Covered structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly with a capacity greater than
300 persons
2. Educational structures through the 12th grade with a capacity greater than 250 persons
3. Day care centers with a capacity greater than 150 persons
3
2000 Provisions, Chapter 1
4. Medical facilities with greater than 50 resident incapacitated patients not otherwise designated a Seismic Use Group III structure
5. Jails and detention facilities
6. All structures with a capacity greater than 5,000 persons
7. Power generating stations and other public utility facilities not included in Seismic Use
Group III and required for continued operation
8. Water treatment facilities required for primary treatment and disinfection for potable water
9. Waste water treatment facilities required for primary treatment
1.3.3 Seismic Use Group I: Seismic Use Group I structures are those not assigned to Seismic
Use Groups III or II.
1.3.4 Multiple Use: Structures having multiple uses shall be assigned the classification of the
use having the highest Seismic Use Group except in structures having two or more portions that
are structurally separated in accordance with Sec. 5.2.8, each portion shall be separately
classified. Where a structurally separated portion of a structure provides access to, egress from,
or shares life safety components with another portion having a higher Seismic Use Group, the
lower portion shall be assigned the same rating as the higher.
1.3.5 Seismic Use Group III Structure Access Protection: Where operational access to a
Seismic Use Group III structure is required through an adjacent structure, the adjacent structure
shall conform to the requirements for Seismic Use Group III structures. Where operational
access is less than 10 ft (3 m) from an interior lot line or less than 10 ft (3 m) from another
structure, access protection from potential falling debris shall be provided by the owner of the
Seismic Use Group III structure.
1.4 OCCUPANCY IMPORTANCE FACTOR: An occupancy importance factor, I, shall be
assigned to each structure in accordance with Table 1.4.
TABLE 1.4 Occupancy Importance Factors
I
Seismic Use Group
I
1.0
II
1.25
III
1.5
4
Chapter 2
GLOSSARY AND NOTATIONS
2.1 GLOSSARY:
Active Fault: A fault for which there is an average historic slip rate of 1mm per year or more
and geographic evidence of seismic activity within Holocene times (past 11,000 years).
Addition: An increase in the building area, aggregate floor area, height, or number of stories of
a structure.
Adjusted Resistance (D’): The reference resistance adjusted to include the effects of all
applicable adjustment factors resulting from end use and other modifying factors. Time effect
factor (8) adjustments are not included.
Alteration: Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than an addition.
Appendage: An architectural component such as a canopy, marquee, ornamental balcony, or
statuary.
Approval: The written acceptance by the authority having jurisdiction of documentation that
establishes the qualification of a material, system, component, procedure, or person to fulfill the
requirements of the Provisions for the intended use.
Architectural Component Support: Those structural members or assemblies of members,
including braces, frames, struts and attachments, that transmit all loads and forces between
architectural systems, components, or elements and the structure.
Attachments: Means by which components and their supports are secured and connected to the
seismic-force-resisting system of the structure. Such attachments include anchor bolts, welded
connections, and mechanical fasteners.
Base: The level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted to
the structure.
Base Shear: Total design lateral force or shear at the base.
Basement: A basement is any story below the lowest story above grade.
Boundary Elements: Diaphragm and shear wall boundary members to which sheathing
transfers forces. Boundary members include chords and drag struts at diaphragm and shear wall
perimeters, interior openings, discontinuities, and re-entrant corners.
Braced Wall Line: A series of braced wall panels in a single story that meets the requirements
of Sec. 12.5.2.
Braced Wall Panel: A section of wall braced in accordance with Sec. 12.5.2.
5
2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
Building: Any structure whose use could include shelter of human occupants.
Boundary Members: Portions along wall and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal
and transverse reinforcement and/or structural steel members.
Cantilevered Column System: A seismic-force-resisting system in which lateral forces are
resisted entirely by columns acting as cantilevers from the foundation.
Component: A part or element of an architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural system.
Component, Equipment: A mechanical or electrical component or element that is part
of a mechanical and/or electrical system within or without a building system.
Component, Flexible: Component, including its attachments, having a fundamental
period greater than 0.06 sec.
Component, Rigid: Component, including its attachments, having a fundamental period
less than or equal to 0.06 sec.
Concrete:
Plain Concrete: Concrete that is either unreinforced or contains less reinforcement than
the minimum amount specified in ACI 318 for reinforced concrete.
Reinforced Concrete: Concrete reinforced with no less than the minimum amount
required by ACI 318, prestressed or non-prestressed, and designed on the assumption that
the two materials act together in resisting forces.
Confined Region: The portion of reinforced concrete component in which the concrete is
confined by closely spaced special transverse reinforcement restraining the concrete in directions
perpendicular to the applied stress.
Construction Documents: The written, graphic, electronic, and pictorial documents describing
the design, locations, and physical characteristics of the project required to verify compliance
with the Provisions.
Container: A large-scale independent component used as a receptacle or a vessel to
accommodate plants, refuse, or similar uses.
Coupling Beam: A beam that is used to connect adjacent concrete wall piers to make them act
together as a unit to resist lateral loads.
Damping Device: A flexible structural element of the damping system that dissipates energy
due to relative motion of each end of the device. Damping devices include all pins, bolts gusset
plates, brace extensions, and other components required to connect damping devices to the other
elements of the structure. Damping devices may be classified as either displacement-dependent
or velocity-dependent, or a combination thereof, and may be configured to act in either a linear or
nonlinear manner.
Damping System: The collection of structural elements that includes all the individual damping
devices, all structural elements or bracing required to transfer forces from damping devices to the
6
Glossary and Notations
base of the structure, and the structural elements required to transfer forces from damping
devices to the seismic-force-resisting system.
Deformability: The ratio of the ultimate deformation to the limit deformation.
High Deformability Element: An element whose deformability is not less than 3.5
when subjected to four fully reversed cycles at the limit deformation.
Limited Deformability Element: An element that is neither a low deformability nor a
high deformability element.
Low Deformability Element: An element whose deformability is 1.5 or less.
Deformation:
Limit Deformation: Two times the initial deformation that occurs at a load equal to 40
percent of the maximum strength.
Ultimate Deformation: The deformation at which failure occurs and which shall be
deemed to occur if sustainable load reduces to 80 percent or less of the maximum
strength.
Design Earthquake Ground Motion: The earthquake effects that buildings and structures are
specifically proportioned to resist as defined in Sec. 4.1.
Design Earthquake: Earthquake effects that are two-thirds of the corresponding maximum
considered earthquake.
Designated Seismic System: Those architectural, electrical, and mechanical systems and their
components that require design in accordance with Sec. 6.1 and that have a component
importance factor (Ip) greater than 1.
Diaphragm: A roof, floor, or other membrane system acting to transfer lateral forces to the
vertical resisting elements. Diaphragms are classified as either flexible or rigid according to the
requirements of Sec. 5.2.3.1 and 12.4.1.1.
Diaphragm, Blocked: A diaphragm in which all sheathing edges not occurring on a framing
member are supported on and fastened to blocking.
Diaphragm Boundary: A location where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm
sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to another free-resisting element.
Diaphragm Cord: A diaphragm boundary element perpendicular to the applied load that is
assumed to take axial stresses due to the diaphragm moment in a manner analogous to the
flanges of a beam. Also applies to shear walls.
Displacement:
Design Displacement: The design earthquake lateral displacement, excluding additional
displacement due to actual and accidental torsion, required for design of the isolation
system.
7
2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
Total Design Displacement: The design earthquake lateral displacement, including
additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion, required for design of the
isolation system or an element thereof.
Total Maximum Displacement: The maximum considered earthquake lateral
displacement, including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion,
required for verification of the stability of the isolation system or elements thereof, design
of structure separations, and vertical load testing of isolator unit prototypes.
Displacement-Dependent Damping Device: The force response of a displacement-dependent
damping device is primarily a function of the relative displacement between each end of the
device. The response is substantially independent of the relative velocity between each end of
the device and/or the excitation frequency.
Displacement Restraint System: A collection of structural elements that limits lateral
displacement of seismically isolated structures due to maximum considered earthquake ground
shaking.
Drag Strut (Collector, Tie, Diaphragm Strut): A diaphragm or shear wall boundary element
parallel to the applied load that collects the transfered diaphragm shear forces to the verticalforce-resisting elements or distributes forces within the diaphragm or shear wall. A drag strut
often is an extension of a boundary element that transfers forces into the diaphragm or shear
wall.
Effective Damping: The value of equivalent viscous damping corresponding to energy
dissipated during cyclic response of the isolation system.
Effective Stiffness: The value of lateral force in the isolation system, or an element thereof,
divided by the corresponding lateral displacement.
Enclosure: An interior space surrounded by walls.
Equipment Support: Those structural members or assemblies of members or manufactured
elements, including braces, frames, legs, lugs, snuggers, hangers or saddles, that transmit gravity
load and operating load between the equipment and the structure.
Essential Facility: A facility or structure required for post-earthquake recovery.
Factored Resistance (8N D): Reference resistance multiplied by the time effect and resistance
factors. This value must be adjusted for other factors such as size effects, moisture conditions,
and other end-use factors.
Flexible Equipment Connections: Those connections between equipment components that
permit rotational and/or transitional movement without degradation of performance. Examples
included universal joints, bellows expansion joints, and flexible metal hose.
Frame:
Braced Frame: An essentially vertical truss, or its equivalent, of the concentric or
eccentric type that is provided in a building frame system or dual frame system to resist
shear.
8
Glossary and Notations
Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF): A braced frame in which the members
are subjected primarily to axial forces.
Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF): A diagonally braced frame in which at
least one end of each brace frames into a beam a short distance from a beamcolumn joint or from another diagonal brace.
Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frame (OCBF): A steel concentrically
braced frame in which members and connections are designed in accordance with
the provisions of AISC Seismic without modification.
Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF): A steel or composite steel and
concrete concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are
designed for ductile behavior
Moment Frame: A frame provided with restrained connections between the beams and
columns to permit the frame to resist lateral forces through the flexural rigidity and
strength of its members.
Intermediate Moment Frame: A moment frame of reinforced concrete meeting
the detailing requirements of ACI 318, of structural steel meeting the detailing
requirements of AISC Seismic, or of composite construction meeting the
requirements of AISC Seismic.
Ordinary Moment Frame: A moment frame or reinforced concrete conforming
to the requirements of ACI 318 exclusive of Chapter 21, of structural steel
meeting the detailing requirements of AISC Seismic or of composite construction
meeting the requirements of AISC Seismic
Special Moment Frame: A moment frame of reinforced concrete meeting the
detailing requirements of ACI 318, of structural steel meeting the detailing
requirements of AISC Seismic, or of composite construction meeting the
requirements of AISC Seismic.
Frame System:
Building Frame System: A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic-force resistance is provided by shear
walls or braced frames.
Dual Frame System: A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by a
moment resisting frame and shear walls or braced frames as prescribed in Sec. 5.2.2.1
Space Frame System: A structural system composed of interconnected members, other
than bearing walls, that is capable of supporting vertical loads and that also may provide
resistance to shear.
Glazed Curtain Wall: A nonbearing wall that extends beyond the edges of the building floor
slabs and includes a glazing material installed in the curtain wall framing.
9
2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
Glazed Storefront: A nonbearing wall that is installed between floor slabs typically including
entrances and includes a glazing material installed in the storefront framing.
Grade Plane: A reference plane representing the average of the finished ground level adjoining
the structure at the exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior
walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the
buildings and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 ft (1829 mm) from the structure,
between the structure and a point 6 ft (1829 mm) from the structure.
Hazardous Contents: A material that is highly toxic or potentially explosive and in sufficient
quantity to pose a significant life-safety threat to the general public if an uncontrolled release
were to occur.
High Temperature Energy Source: A fluid, gas, or vapor whose temperature exceeds 220
degrees F (378 K).
Inspection, Special: The observation of the work by the special inspector to determine
compliance with the approved construction documents and the Provisions.
Continuous Special Inspection: A full-time observation of the work by an approved
special inspector who is present in the area where work is being performed.
Periodic Special Inspection: The part-time or intermittent observation of the work by
an approved special inspector who is present in the area where work has been or is being
performed.
Inspector, Special (who shall be identified as the Owner’s Inspector): A person approved by
the authority having jurisdiction as being qualified to perform special inspection required by the
approved quality assurance plan. The quality assurance personnel of a fabricator is permitted to
be approved by the authority having jurisdiction as a special inspector.
Inverted Pendulum Type Structures: Structures that have a large portion of their mass
concentrated near the top and, thus, have essentially one degree of freedom in horizontal
translation. The structures are usually T-shaped with a single column supporting the beams or
framing at the top.
Isolation Interface: The boundary between the upper portion of the structure, which is isolated,
and the lower portion of the structure, which moves rigidly with the ground.
Isolation System: The collection of structural elements that includes all individual isolator
units, all structural elements that transfer force between elements of the isolation system, and all
connections to other structural elements. The isolation system also includes the wind-restraint
system, energy-dissipation devices, and/or the displacement restraint system if such systems and
devices are used to meet the design the requirements of Chapter 13.
Isolator Unit: A horizontally flexible and vertically stiff structural element of the isolation
system that permits large lateral deformations under design seismic load. An isolator unit is
permitted to be used either as part of or in addition to the weight-supporting system of the
structure.
10
Glossary and Notations
Joint: The portion of a column bounded by the highest and lowest surfaces of the other members
framing into it.
Load:
Dead Load: The gravity load due to the weight of all permanent structural and
nonstructural components of a building such as walls, floors, roofs, and the operating
weight of fixed service equipment.
Gravity Load (W): The total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as defined
in Sec. 5.3.2.
Live Load: The load superimposed by the use and occupancy of the building not
including the wind load, earthquake load, or dead load; see Sec. 5.3.
Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion: The most severe earthquake effects
considered by the Provisions as defined in Sec. 4.1.
Nonbuilding Structure: A structure, other than a building, constructed of a type included in
Chapter 14 and within the limits of Sec. 14.1.1.
Occupancy Importance Factor: A factor assigned to each structure according to its Seismic
Use Group as prescribed in Sec. 1.4.
Owner: Any person, agent, firm, or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the
property.
Partition: A nonstructural interior wall that spans from floor to ceiling, to the floor or roof
structure immediately above, or to subsidiary structural members attached to the structure above.
P-Delta Effect: The secondary effect on shears and moments of structural members induced due
to displacement of the structure.
Quality Assurance Plan: A detailed written procedure that establishes the systems and
components subject to special inspection and testing.
Reference Resistence: The resistence (force or moment as appropriate) of a member or
connection computed at the reference end use conditions.
Registered Design Professional: An architect or engineer registered or licensed to practice
professional architecture or engineering as defined by statuary requirements of the professional
registrations laws of the state in which the project is to be constructed.
Roofing Unit: A unit of roofing material weighing more than 1 pound (0.5 kg).
Seismic Design Category: A classification assigned to a structure based on its Seismic Use
Group and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site.
Seismic-Force-Resisting System: That part of the structural system that has been considered in
the design to provide the required resistence to the shear wall prescribed herein.
Seismic Forces: The assumed forces prescribed herein, related to the response of the structure
to earthquake motions, to be used in the design of the structure and its components.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
Seismic Response Coefficient: Coefficient Cs as determined from Sec. 5.4.1.
Seismic Use Group: A classification assigned to the structure based on its use as defined in
Sec. 1.3.
Shallow Anchors: Anchors with embedment length-to-diameter ratios of less than 8.
Shear Panel: A floor, roof, or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.
Site Class: A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their
engineering as defined in Sec. 4.1.2.
Site Coefficients: The values of Fa and Fv indicated in Tables 4.1.2.4a and 4.1.2.4b,
respectively.
Special Transverse Reinforcement: Reinforcement composed of spirals, closed stirrups, or
hoops and supplementary cross-ties provided to restrain the concrete and qualify the portion of
the component, where used, as a confined region.
Storage Racks: Include industrial pallet racks, moveable shelf racks, and stacker racks made of
cold-formed and hot-rolled structural members. Does not include other types of racks such as
drive-in and drive-through racks, cantilever racks, portable racks, or racks made of materials
other than steel.
Story: The portion of a structure between the top to top of two successive finished floor
surfaces and, for the topmost story. From the top of the floor finish to the top of the roof
structural element.
Story Above Grade: Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade, except
that a story shall be considered as the story above grade where the finished floor surface of the
story immediately above is more
than 6 ft (1829 mm) above the
grade plane, more than 6 ft (1829
mm) above the finished ground
level for more than 40 percent of
the total structure perimeter, or
more than 12 ft (3658 mm) above
the finished ground level at any
point. This definition is
illustrated in Figure 2.1.
Story Drift Ratio: The story
drift, as determined in Sec. 5.4.6,
divided by the story height.
FIGURE 2.1 Definition of story above grade.
Story Shear: The summation of design lateral forces at levels above the story under
consideration.
12
Glossary and Notations
Strength:
Design Strength: Nominal strength multiplied by the strength reduction factor, N.
Nominal Strength: Strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with
the requirements and assumptions of the strength design methods of the Provisions (or
the reference standards) before application of any strength reduction factors.
Required Strength: Strength of a member, cross section, or connection required to
resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as
stipulated by the Provisions.
Structure: That which is built or constructed and limited to buildings and nonbuilding
structures as defined herein.
Structural Observations: The visual observations performed by the registered design
professional in responsible charge (or another registered design professional) to determine that
the seismic-force-resisting system is constructed in general conformance with the construction
documents.
Wood Structural Panel: A wood-based panel product that meets the requirements of PS 1 or
PS 2 and is bonded with a waterproof adhesive. Included under this designation is plywood,
oriented strand board, and composite panels.
Subdiaphragm: A portion of a diaphragm used to transfer wall anchorage forces to the
diaphragm cross ties.
Testing Agency: A company or corporation that provides testing and/or inspection services.
The person in responsible charge of the special inspector(s) and the testing services shall be a
registered design professional.
Tie-Down (Hold-Down): A device used to resist uplift of the chords of shear walls. These
devices are intended to resist load without significant slip between the device and the shear wall
chord or be shown with cyclic testing to not reduce the wall capacity and ductility.
Time Effect Factor: A factor applied to the adjusted resistence to account for effects of duration
load.
Torsional Force Distribution: The distribution of horizontal shear wall through the rigid
diaphragm when the center of the mass of the structure at the level under consideration does not
coincide with the center of the rigidity (sometimes referred to as diaphragm rotation).
Toughness: The ability of a material to absorb energy without losing significant strength.
Utility or Service Interface: The connection of the structure’s mechanical and electrical
distribution systems to the utility or service company’s distribution system.
Velocity-Dependent Damping Device: The force-displacement relation for a velocitydependent damping device is primarily a function of the relative velocity between each end of the
device and also may be a function of the relative displacement between each end of the device.
13
2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
Veneers: Facings or ornamentations of brick, concrete, stone, tile, or similar materials attached
to a backing.
Wall: A component that has a slope of 60 degrees or greater with the horizontal plane used to
enclose or divide space.
Bearing Wall: An exterior or interior wall providing support for vertical loads.
Cripple Wall: A framed stud wall, less than 8 ft (2400 mm) in height, extending from
the top of the foundation to the underside of the lowest floor framing. Cripple walls can
occur in both engineered structures and conventional construction.
Light-Framed Wall: A wall with wood or steel studs.
Light-Framed Wood Shear Wall: A wall constructed with wood studs and sheathed
with material rated for shear resistance.
Nonbearing Wall: An exterior or interior wall that does not provide support for vertical
loads other than its own weight or as permitted by the building code administered by the
authority having jurisdiction.
Nonstructural Wall: All walls other than bearing walls or shear walls.
Shear Wall (Vertical Diaphragm): A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to
the plane of the wall (sometimes referred to as a vertical diaphragm).
Wall System, Bearing: A structural system with bearing walls providing support for all or
major portions of the vertical loads. Shear walls or braced frames provide seismic-force
resistance.
Wind-Restraint System: The collection of structural elements that provides restraint of the
seismic-isolated structure for wind loads. The wind-restraint system may be either an integral
part of isolator units or a separate device.
2.2 NOTATIONS:
A, B, C, D, E, F
Site classes as defined in Sec. 4.1.2.
Ab
Area (in.2 or mm2) of anchor bolt or stud in Chapters 6 and 11.
Ach
Cross sectional-area (in.2 or mm2) of a component measured to the outside
of the special lateral reinforcement.
An
Net-cross sectional area of masonry (in.2 or mm2) in Chapter 11.
Ao
The area of the load-carrying foundation (ft2 or m2).
Ap
Projected area on the masonry surface of a right circular cone for anchor
bolt allowable shear and tension calculations (in.2 or mm2) in Chapter 11.
As
The area of an assumed failure surface taken as a pyramid in Eq. 2.4.1-3 or
in Chapter 9.
As
Cross-sectional area of reinforcement (in.2 or mm2) in Chapters 6 and 11.
14
Glossary and Notations
Ash
Total cross-sectional area of hoop reinforcement (in.2 or mm2), including
supplementary cross-ties, having spacing of sh and crossing a section with
a core dimension of hc.
Avd
Required area of leg (in.2 or mm2) of diagonal reinforcement.
Ax
The torsional amplification factor.
ab
Length of compressive stress block (in. or mm) in Chapter 11.
ad
The incremental factor related to P-delta effects in Sec. 5.4.5.
ap
The component amplification factor as defined in Sec. 6.1.3.
Ba
Nominal axial strength of an anchor bolt (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
BD
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 13.3.3.1 for effective damping
equal to $D.
BID
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table A13.3.1 for effective damping
equal to $ml (m=1) and period of structure equal to T11.
Bm
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 13.3.3.1 for effective damping
equal $M
BIM
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table A13.3.1 for effective damping
equal to $mM (m=1) and period of structure equal to TIM.
BmD
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table A13.3.1 for effective damping
equal to $ml and period of structure equal to Tm.
BmM
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table A13.3.1 for effective damping
equal to $mM and period of structure equal to Tm.
BR
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table A13.3.1 for effective damping
equal to $R and the period of structure equal to TR.
Bv
Nominal shear strength of an anchor bolt (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
BV-1
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table A13.3.1 for effective damping
equal to the sum of viscous damping in the fundamental mode of vibration
of the structure in the direction of interest, $Vm (m = 1), plus inherent
damping, $l, and period of structure equal to T1.
b
The shortest plan dimension of the structure, in ft (mm), measured
perpendicular to d.
ba
Factored axial force on an anchor bolt (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
bv
Factored shear force on an anchor bolt (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
bw
Web width (in.or mm) in Chapter 11.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
Cu
Coefficient for upper limit on calculated period; see Table 5.4.2.
Cd
The deflection amplification factor as given in Table 5.2.2.
CmFD
Force coefficient as set forth in Table A13.7.3.2.1.
CmFV
Force coefficient as set forth in Table A13.7.3.2.2.
Cs
The seismic response coefficient (dimension-less) determined in Sec.
5.4.1.1.
CS1
Seismic response coefficient (dimension-less) of the fundamental mode of
vibration of the structure in the direction of interest. Sec. A13.4.3.4 or
Sec. A13.5.3.4 (m = 1).
Csm
The modal seismic response coefficient (dimension-less) determined in
Sec. 5.5.4..
CSm
Seismic response coefficient (dimension-less) of the mth mode of vibration
of the structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.5.3.4 (m = 1) or Sec.
A13.5.3.6 (m > 1).
CSR
Seismic response coefficient (dimension-less) of the residual mode of
vibration of the structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.3.8.
Cvx
The vertical distribution factor as determined in Sec. 5.4.3.
c
Distance from the neutral axis of a flexural member to the fiber of
maximum compressive strain (in. or mm).
ceq
Effective energy dissipation device damping coefficient (Eq. 13.3.2.1).
D
Reference resistance in Chapter 12.
D
The effect of dead load in Sec. 5.2.7 and Chapter 13.
D
Adjusted resistance in Chapter 12.
DD
Design displacement (in. or mm) at the center of rigidity of the isolation
system in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.1.
DD!
Design displacement (in. or mm), at the center of rigidity of the isolation
system in the direction under consideration, as prescribed by Eq. 13.4.2-1.
D1D
Fundamental mode design displacement at the center rigidity of the roof
level of structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. A13.4.4.3 (in.
or mm).
D1M
Fundamental mode maximum displacement at the center of rigidity of the
roof level of the structure in the direction under consideration, Sec.
A13.4.4.6 (in. or mm).
16
Glossary and Notations
DmD
Design displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof level of the
structure due to the mth mode of vibration in the direction under
consideration, Sec. A13.5.4.3 (in. or mm).
DmM
Maximum displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof level of the
structure due to the mth mode of vibration in the direction under
consideration, Sec. A13.5.4.6 (in. or mm).
DM
Maximum displacement (in. or mm), at the center of rigidity of the
isolation system in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq.
13.3.3.3.
DM
Maximum displacement (in. or mm), at the center of rigidity of the
isolation system in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq.
13.4.2-2.
Dp
Relative seismic displacement that the component must be designed to
accommodate as defined in Sec. 6.1.4.
DRD
Residual mode design displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof
level of the structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. A13.4.4.3
(in. or mm).
DRM
Residual mode maximum displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof
level of the structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. A13.4.4.6
(in. or mm).
Ds
The total depth of the stratum in Eq. 5.8.2.1.2-4 (ft or m).
DY
Displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof level of the structure at
the effective yield point of the seismic-force-resisting system, Sec. A13.3.4
(in. or mm).
DTD
Total design displacement (in. or mm), of an element of the isolation
system including both translational displacement at the center of rigidity
and the component of torsional displacement in the direction under
consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.5-1.
DTM
Total maximum displacement (in. or mm), of an element of the isolation
system including both translational displacement at the center of rigidity
and the component of torsional displacement in the direction under
consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.5-2.
d
Overall depth of member (in.or mm) in Chapters 5 and 11.
d
The longest plan dimension of the structure (ft.or mm) in Chapter 13.
db
Diameter of reinforcement (in.or mm) in Chapter 11.
de
Distance from the anchor axis to the free edge (in.or mm) in Chapter 9.
dp
The longest plan dimension of the structure (ft or mm).
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
E
The effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces (Sec. 5.2.7
and Chapter 13).
Eloop
Energy dissipated (kip-inches or kN-mm), in an isolator unit during a full
cycle of reversible load over a test displacement range from )+ to )- as
measured by the area enclosed by the loop of the loop of the forcedeflation curve.
Em
Chord modulus of elasticity of masonry (psi or MPa) in Chapter 11.
Es
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement (psi or MPa) in Chapter 11.
Ev
Modulus of rigidity of masonry (psi or Mpa) in Chapter 11.
e
The actual eccentricity ( ft or mm), measured in plan between the center of
mass of the structure above the isolation interface and the center of
rigidity of the isolation system, plus accidental eccentricity (ft or mm),
taken as 5 percent the maximum building dimension perpendicular to the
direction of the force under consideration.
Fa
Acceleration-based site coefficient (at 0.3 sec period).
F-
Maximum negative force in an isolator unit during a single cycle of
prototype testing a displacement amplitude of )-.
F-
Positive force in kips (kN) in an isolator unit during a single cycle of
prototype testing at a displacement amplitude of )-.
Fi, Fn, Fx
The portion of the seismic base shear, V, induced at level i, n, or x,
respectively, as determined in Sec. 5.3.4 (kip or kN).
Fi1
Inertial force at Level i (or mass point i) in the fundamental mode of
vibration of the structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.3.9.
Fim
Inertial force at Level i (or mass point i) in the mth mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.5.3.7.
FiR
Inertial force at Level i (or mass point i) in the residual mode of vibration
of the structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.3.9.
Fp
The seismic design force center of gravity and distributed relative to the
component’s weight distribution as determined in Sec. 6.1.3.
Fp
The induced seismic force on connections of anchorages as determined in
Sec. 5.2.6.1.2
Fu
Specified ultimate tensile strength (psi or MPa) of an anchor (Sec. 9.2.4).
Fv
Velocity-based site coefficient (at 1.0 sec period).
Fx
Total force distributed over the height of the structure above the isolation
interface as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.5.
18
Glossary and Notations
Fxm
The portion of the seismic base shear, Vm, induced at a Level x as
determined in Sec. 5.5.5 (kip or kN).
fc !
Specified compressive strength of concrete used in design
fi
Lateral force at Level i of the structure distributed approximately in
accordance with Equation 5.3.4-2, Sec. A13.4.3.3.
fm!
Specified compressive strength of masonry (psi or MPa) at the age of 28
days unless a different age is specified, Chapter 11.
fr
Modulus of rupture of masonry (psi or MPa) in Chapter 11.
fs!
Ultimate tensile strength (psi or MPa) of the bolt, stud or insert leg wires.
For A307 bolts or A108 studs, is permitted to be assumed to be 60,000 psi
(415 Mpa).
fy
Specified yield strength of reinforcement (psi or kPa).
fyh
Specified yield stress of the special lateral reinforcement (psi or kPa).
G
yvs2/g = the average shear modulus for the soils beneath the foundation at
large strain levels (psf of Pa).
Go
yvso2/g = the average shear modulus for the soils beneath the foundation at
small strain levels (psf of Pa).
g
Acceleration of gravity in in./sec2 (mm/s2).
H
Thickness of soil.
h
The height of a shear wall measured as the maximum clear height from
the foundation to the bottom of the floor or roof framing above or the
maximum clear height from the top of the floor or roof framing to the
bottom of the floor or roof framing above.
h
The effective height of the building as determined in Sec. 5.8.2.1.1 (ft or
m).
h
Height of a wood shear panel or diaphragm (ft or mm) in Chapter 12.
h
The roof elevation of a structure in Chapter 6.
h
Height of the member between points of support (in. or mm) on Chapter
11.
hc
The core dimension of a component measured to outside of the special
lateral reinforcement (in. or mm).
hi, hn, hx
The height above the base Level I, n, or x, respectively (ft or m).
hr
Height of the structure above the base to the roof level (ft or m), Sec.
A13.4.3.3.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
hsx
The story height below Level x = hx - hx-1 (ft. Or m).
I
The occupancy importance factor in Sec. 1.4.
Icr
Moment of inertia of the cracked section (in.4 or mm) in Chapter 11.
In
Moment of inertia of the net cross-sectional area of a member (in.4 or
mm4) in Chapter 11.
Io
The static moment of inertia of the load-carrying foundation , see Sec.
5.5.2.1 (in.4 or mm4).
Ip
The component importance factor as prescribed in Sec. 6.1.5.
I
The building level referred to by the subscript I; I = 1 designates the first
level above the base.
Kp
The stiffness of component or attachment as defined in Sec. 6.3.3.
Ky
The lateral stiffness of the foundation as defined in Sec. 5.8.2.1.1 (lb/in. or
N/m).
K2
The rocking stiffness of the foundation as defined in Sec. 5.8.2.1.1
(ft.lb/degree or N m/rad).
KL/r
The lateral slenderness of a compression member measured in terms of its
effective buckling length, KL, and the least radius of gyration of the
member cross section, r.
k
The distribution exponent given in Sec. 5.4.3.
Kdmax
Maximum effective stiffness, in kips/inch (kN/mm) of the isolation system
at the design displacement in the horizontal direction under consideration
as prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.1-1.
KDmin
Minimum effective stiffness (kips/inch or kN/mm) of the isolation system
at the design displacement in the horizontal direction under consideration
as prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.1-2.
Kmax
Maximum effective stiffness (kips/inch or kN/mm) of the isolation system
at the maximum displacement in the horizontal direction under
consideration as prescribed by Eq 13.9.5.1-3.
KMin
Minimum effective stiffness (kips/inch or kN/mm) of the isolation system
at the maximum displacement in the horizontal direction under
consideration, as prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.1-4.
keff
Effective stiffness of an isolator unit as prescribed by Eq. 13.9.3-1.
k
The stiffness of the building as determined in Sec. 5.8.2.1.1 (lb/ft or N/m).
L
The overall length of the building (ft or m) at the base in the direction
being analyzed.
20
Glossary and Notations
L
Length of bracing member (in. or mm) in Chapter 8.
L
Length of coupling beam between coupled shear walls in Chapter 11 (in.
or mm).
L
The effect of live load in Chapter 13.
Lo
The overall length of the side of the foundation in the direction being
analyzed, Sec. 5.8.2.1.2 (ft or m).
l
The dimension of a diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of
application of force. For open-front structures, l is the length from the
edge of the diaphragm at the open front to the vertical resisting elements
parallel to the direction of the applied force. For a cantilevered
diaphragm, l is the length from the edge of the diaphragm at the open
front to the vertical resisting elements parallel to the direction of the
applied force.
Rb
Effective embedment length of anchor bolt (in. or mm) in Chapter 11.
Rbc
Anchor bolt edge distance (in. or mm) in Chapter 11.
Rd
Development length (in. or mm) in Chapter 11.
Rdh
Equivalent development length for a standard hook (in. or mm) in Chapter
11.
R1d
Minimum lap splice length (in. or mm) in Chapter 11.
M
Moment on a masonry section due to un-factored loads (in. lb or N @ mm)
in Chapter 11.
Ma
Maximum moment in a member at deflation is computed (in. @lb or N @
mm) in Chapter 11.
Mcr
Cracking moment strength of the masonry (in. @lb or N @mm) in Chapter
11.
Md
Design moment strength (in. @lb or N @mm) in Chapter 11.
Mf
The foundation overturning design moment as defined in Sec. 5.4.5 (ft @kip
or kN @m).
Mo, Mo1
The overturning moment at the foundation-soil interface as determined in
Sec. 5.5.6 and 5.8.3 (ft @lb or N @m)
Mnb
Un-factored ultimate moment capacity at balanced strain conditions.
Mt
The torsional moment resulting from the location of the building masses
(ft @kip or kN @m).
Mta
The accidental torsional moment as determined in Sec. 5.4.4.2 (ft @kip or
kN @m).
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
Mu
Required flexural strength due to factored loads ([email protected] or N @mm) in
Chapter 11.
M1, M2
Nominal moment strength at the ends of the coupling beam (in @lb or N
@mm) in Chapter 11.
Mx
The building overturning design moment at Level x as defined in Sec.
5.3.6 or Sec. 5.4.10 (ft @kip or kN @m).
m
A subscript denoting the mode of vibration under consideration; i.e., m=1
for the fundamental mode.
N
Number of stories, Sec. 5.4.2.1.
N
Standard penetration resistance, ASTM D1536-84.
N
Average field standard penetration test for the top 100 ft (30 m); see Sec.
4.1.
Nch
Average standard penetration of cohesion-less soil layers for the top 100 ft
(30 m); see Sec. 4.1.
Nv
Force acting normal to shear surface (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
n
Designates the level that is uppermost in the main portion of the building.
n
Number of anchors in Chapter 9.
P
Axial load on a masonry section due to unfactored loads (lb or N) in
Chapter 11.
Pc
Design tensile strength governed by concrete failure of anchor bolts in
Chapter 9.
PD
Required axial strength on a column resulting from the application of dead
load, D, in Chapter 5 (kip or kN).
PE
Required axial strength on a column resulting from the application of the
amplified earthquake load, E!, in Chapter 5 (kip or kN).
PL
Required axial strength on a column resulting from application of live
load, L, in Chapter 5(kip or kN).
Pn
Nominal axial load strength (lb or N) in Chapter 8.
Pn
The algebraic sum of the shear wall and the minimum gravity loads on the
joint surface acting simultaneously with the shear (lb or N).
Pn
Nominal axial load strength (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
Ps
Design tensile strength governed by steel of anchor bolts in Chapter 9.
Pu
Required axial load (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
Pu
Tensile strength required due to factored loads (lb or N) in Chapter 9.
22
Glossary and Notations
Pu’
Required axial strength on a brace (kip or kN) in Chapter 8.
Px
The total unfactored vertical design load at and above level x (kip or kN).
PI
Plasticity index, ASTM D4318-93.
QDSD
Force in an element of the damping system required to resist design
seismic forces of displacement-dependent damping devices, Sec.
A13.7.3.2.
QE
The effect of horizontal seismic forces (kip or kN) in Chapters 5 and 13.
QmDSV
Forces in an element of the damping system required to resist design
seismic forces of velocity-dependent damping devices due to the mth mode
of vibration of structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.7.3.2.
QmSFRS
Force in a element of the damping system equal to the design seismic force
of the mth mode of vibration of the seismic force resisting system in the
direction of interest, A13.7.3.2.
Qv
The load equivalent to the effect of the horizontal and vertical shear
strength of the vertical segment in the Appendix to Chapter 8.
qH
Hysteresis loop adjustment factor as determined in Sec. A13.3.3.
R
The response modification coefficient as given in Table 5.2.2.
R1
Numerical coefficient related to the type of lateral-force-resisting system
above the isolation system as set forth in Table 13.3.4.2 for seismically
isolated structures.
Rp
The component response modification system factor as defined in Chapter
6.
r
The characteristic length of the foundation as defined in Chapter 5 (ft or
m)
r
Radius of gyration (in. or mm) in Chapter 11.
r a, r m
The characteristic foundation length defined in Sec. 5.8.2.1.1 (ft or m).
rx
The ratio of the design story shear resisted by the most heavily loaded
single element in the story, in direction x, to the total story shear.
S
Section modules based on net cross sectional area of a wall (in.3 or mm3)
in Chapter 11.
S1
The maximum considered earthquake, 5 percent damped, spectral response
acceleration at a period of 1 second as defined in Chapter 4.
SD1
The design, 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration at a period of
1 second as defined in Chapter 4..
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
SDS
The design, 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration at short
periods as defined in Chapter 4.
SM1
The maximum considered earthquake, 5 percent damped, spectral response
acceleration at a period of one second adjusted for site class effects as
defined in Chapter 4.
SMS
The maximum considered earthquake, 5 percent damped, spectral response
acceleration at short periods adjusted for site class effects as defined in
Chapter 4.
Ss
The mapped maximum considered earthquake, 5 percent damped, spectral
response acceleration at short periods as defined in Chapter 4.
Spr
Probable strength of precast element connectors (Sec. 9.1.1.12).
su
Average undrained shear strength in top 100 ft (30.5 m); see Sec. 4.1.2.3,
ASTM D2166-91 or ASTM D2850-87.
sh
Spacing of special lateral reinforcement (in. or mm).
T
The period (sec) of the fundamental mode of vibration of the structure in
the direction of interest as determined in Chapter 5.
T, T1
The effective fundamental period (sec) of the building as determined in
Chapter 5.
T1
Period, in seconds, of the fundamental mode of vibration of the structure
in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.3.3.
Ta
The approximate fundamental period (sec) of the building as determined
in Chapter 5.
TD
Effective period, in seconds (sec), of the seismically isolated structure at
the design displacement in the direction under consideration as prescribed
by Eq. 13.3.3.2.
T1D
Effective period, in seconds, of the fundamental mode of vibration of the
structure at the design displacement in the direction under consideration,
as prescribed by Sec. A13.4.3.5 or Sec. A13.5.3.5.
T1M
Effective period, in seconds, of the fundamental mode of vibration of the
structure at the maximum displacement in the direction under
consideration, as prescribed by Sec. A13.4.3.5 or Sec. A13.5.3.5.
TM
Effective period, in seconds (sec), of the seismically isolated structure at
the maximum displacement in the direction under consideration as
prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.4.
Tm
The period (sec) of the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of interest determined in Chapter 5.
24
.
Glossary and Notations
Tm
Period, in seconds, of the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction under consideration, Sec. A13.5.3.6.
T0
0.2SD1/SDS
Tp
The fundamental period (sec) of the component and its attachment(s) as
defined in Sec. 6.3.3.
TR
Period, in seconds, of the residual mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction under consideration, Sec. A13.4.3.7.
TS
SDI/SDS.
T4
Net tension in steel cable due to dead load, prestress, live load, and
seismic load.
t
Specified wall thickness dimension or least lateral dimension of a column
(in. or mm) in Chapter 11.
tc
Thickness of masonry cover over reinforcing bars measured from the
surface of the masonry to the surface of the reinforcing bars (in. or mm) in
Chapter 11.
V
The total design shear at the base of the structure in the direction of
interest, as determined using the procedure of Sec. 5.3, including Sec.
5.4.1 (kip or kN).
V
Shear on a masonry section due to un-factored loads (lb or N) in Chapter
11.
Vb
The total lateral seismic design force or shear on elements of the isolation
system or elements below the isolation system as prescribed by Eq.
13.3.4.1.
Vm
Shear strength provided by masonry (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
Vm
Design value of the seismic base shear of the mth mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest, Sec. 5.4.5 or Sec. A13.5.3.2 (kip or
kN).
Vmm
Minimum allowable value of base shear permitted for design of the
seismic-force-resisting system of the structure in the direction of interest,
Sec. A13.2.4.1 (kip or kN).
Vn
Nominal shear strength (lb or N) in Chapter 11.
VR
Design value of the seismic base shear of the residual mode of vibration
of the structure in a given direction, as determined in Sec. A13.4.3.6 (kip
or kN).
Vs
The total lateral seismic design factor or shear on elements above the
isolation system as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.4.2.
25
2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
Vs
Shear strength provided by shear reinforcement (lb or N) in Chapters 6 and
11.
Vt
The design value of the seismic base shear as determined in Chapter 5
(kip or N).
Vu
Required shear strength (lb or N) due to factored loads in Chapters 6 and
11.
Vx
The seismic design shear in Story x as determined in Chapter 5 (kip or
kN).
V1
The portion of seismic base shear, V, contributed by the fundamental
mode as determined in Chapter 5 (kip or kN).
Vl
The design value of the seismic base shear of the fundamental mode in a
given direction as determined in Chapter 5 (kip or kN).
)V
The reduction in V as determined in Chapter 5 (kip or kN).
)V1
The reduction of V1 as determined in Chapter 5 (kp or kN).
vs
The average shear wave velocity for the soils beneath the foundation at
large strain levels as determined in chapter 5 (ft/s or m/s).
vs
Average shear wave velocity in top one 100 ft (30 m); see Chapter 4.
vso
The average shear wave velocity for the soils beneath the foundation at
small strain levels as determined in chapter 5 (ft/s or m/s).
W
The total gravity load of the structure defined in Chapter 5 (kip or kN).
For calculation of a seismically isolated building structure, the period, W,
is the total seismic dead load weight of the structure above the isolation
system (kip or kN).
W
The effective gravity load of the structure as defined in Chapter 5 and
5.5.3 (kip or kN).
W1
Effective fundamental mode gravity load of structure including portions
of the live load determined in accordance with Eq. 5.4.5-2 for m = 1 (kip
or kN).
WR
Effective residual mode gravity load of the structure determined in
accordance with Eq. A13.4.3.7-3 (kip or kN).
WD
The energy dissipated per cycle at the story displacement for the design
earthquake.
26
Glossary and Notations
Wm
The effective gravity load of mth mode of vibration of the structure
determined in Chapter 5 (kip or kN).
Wp
Component operating weight (lb or N).
w
Width of wood shear panel or diaphragm in Chapter 9 (ft or mm).
w
Moisture content (in percent), ASTM D2216-92.
w
The dimension of a diaphragm or shear wall in the direction of application
of force.
wi, wx
The portion of the total gravity load, W, located or assigned to Level I or x
(kip or kN).
z
The level under consideration; x = 1 designates the first level above the
base.
x
Elevation in structure of a component addressed by Chapter 6.
y
Elevation difference between points of attachment in Chapter 6.
y
The distance, in ft (mm), between the center of rigidity of the isolation
system rigidity and the element of interest measured perpendicular to the
direction of seismic loading under consideration.
"
The relative weight density of the structure and the soil as determined in
Chapter 5.
"
Angle between diagonal reinforcement and longitudinal axis of the
member (degree or rad).
"
Velocity power term relating damping device force to damping device
velocity.
$
Ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between Level x and
x-1.
$
The fraction of critical damping for the coupled structure-foundation
system determined in Chapter 5.
$D
Effective damping of the isolation system at the design displacement as
prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.2-1.
$eff
Effective damping of the isolation system as prescribed by Eq. 13.9.3-2.
$HD
Component of effective damping of the structure in the direction of
interest due to post-yield hysteric behavior of the seismic-force-resisting
system and elements of the damping system at effective ductility demand
µD, Sec. A13.3.2.2.
$HM
Component of effective damping of the structure in the direction of
interest due to post-yield hysteric behavior of the seismic-force-resisting
27
2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
system and elements of the damping system at effective ductility demand,
µM, Sec. A13.3.2.2.
$I
Component of effective damping of the structure due to the inherent
dissipation of energy by elements of the structure, at or just below the
effective yield displacement of the seismic-force-resisting system, Sec.
A13.3.2.1.
$M
Effective damping of the isolation system at the maximum displacement as
prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.2-2.
$mD
Total effective damping of the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of interest at the design displacement, Sec. A13.3.2.
$mM
Total effective damping of the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of interest at the maximum displacement , Sec. A13.3.2.
$o
The foundation damping factor as specified in Chapter 5.
$R
Total effective damping in the residual mode of vibration of the structure
in the direction of interest, calculated in accordance with Sec. A13.3.2
(µD =1.0 and µM = 1.0).
$Vm
Component of effective damping of the mth mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest due to viscous dissipation of energy by
the damping system, at or just below the effective yield displacement of
the seismic-force-resisting system, Sec. A13.3.2.3.
(
Lightweight concrete factor
(
The average unit weight of soil (lb/ft3 or kg/m3).
)
The design story drift as determined in Chapter 5 (in. or mm).
)
The displacement of the dissipation device and device supports across the
story.
)
Suspended ceiling lateral deflection (calculated) in Chapter 6 (in. or mm).
)a
The allowable story drift as specified in Chapter 5 (in. or mm).
)D
Total design earthquake story drift of the structure in the direction of
interest, Sec. A13.4.4.4 (in. or mm).
)ID
Design earthquake story drift due to the fundamental mode of vibration of
the structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.4.4 (in. or mm).
)M
Total maximum earthquake story drift of the structure in the direction of
interest, Sec. A13.4.4.6 (in. or mm).
)m
The design modal story drift determined in Chapter 5 (in. or mm).
)mD
Design earthquake story drift due to the mth mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.4.4 (in. or mm).
28
Glossary and Notations
)p
Relative displacement that the component must be designed to
accommodate as defined in Chapter 6.
)RD
Design earthquake story drift due to the residual mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.4.4 (in. or mm).
)-
Maximum positive displacement of an isolator unit during each cycle of
prototype testing.
)-
Maximum negative displacement of an isolator unit during each cycle of
prototype testing.
*avg
The average of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure at
Level x (in. or mm).
*cr
Deflation based on cracked section properties (in. or mm) in Chapter 11.
*i
Elastic deflection of Level i of the structure due to applied lateral force, fi,
Sec. A13.4.3.3 (in. or mm).
*iID
Fundamental mode design earthquake deflection of Level i at the center of
rigidity of the structure in the direction under consideration, Sec.
A13.4.4.2 (in. or mm).
*iD
Total design earthquake deflection of Level i at the center of rigidity of the
structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. A13.4.4.2 (in. or mm).
*iM
Total maximum earthquake deflection of Level i at the center of rigidity of
the structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. A13.4.4.2 (in. or
mm).
*iRD
Residual mode design earthquake deflection of Level i at the center of
rigidity of the structure in the direction under consideration, Sec.
A13.4.4.2 (in. or mm).
*im
Deflection of Level i in the mth mode of vibration at the center of rigidity
of the structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. A13.5 (in. or
mm).
*max
The maximum displacement at Level x (in. or mm).
*x
The deflection of Level x at the center of the mass at and above Level x as
determined in Chapter 5 (in. or mm).
*xe
The deflection of Level x at the center of the mass at and above Level x
determined by an elastic analysis as specified in Chapter 5 (in. or mm).
*xem
The modal deflection of Level x at the center of the mass at and above
Level x determined by an elastic analysis as specified in Chapter 5 (in. or
mm).
29
2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
*xmv *xm
The modal deflection of Level x at the center of the mass at and above
Level x as determined in Chapter 5 (in. or mm).
*x, *xl
The deflection of Level x at the center of the mass at and above Level x as
determined in Chapter 5 (in. or mm).
,mu
Maximum useable compressive strain of masonry (in./in. or mm/mm) in
Chapter 11.
µ
Effective ductility demand on the seismic-force-resisting system in the
direction of interest.
µD
Effective ductility demand on the seismic-force-resisting system in the
direction of interest due to the design earthquake, Sec. A13.4.
µM
Effective ductility demand on the seismic-force-resisting system in the
direction of interest due to the maximum considered earthquake, Sec.
A13.4.
µmax
Maximum allowable effective ductility demand on the seismic-forceresisting system due to design earthquake, Sec. A13.3.5.
2
The stability coefficient for P-delta effects as determined in Chapter 5.
J
The overturning moment reduction factor.
D
A reliability coefficient based on the extent of structural redundancy
present in a building as defined in Chapter 5.
D
Ratio of the area of reinforcement to the net cross-sectional area of
masonry in a plane perpendicular to the reinforcement in Chapter 11.
Db
Reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions in Chapter 11.
Dh
Ratio of the area of shear reinforcement to the cross sectional area of
masonry in a plane perpendicular to the reinforcement in Chapter 11.
Ds
Spiral reinforcement ratio for precast prestressed piles in Chapter 7.
Dv
Ratio of vertical or horizontal reinforcement in walls.
Dx
A reliability coefficient based on the extent of structural redundancy
present in the seismic-force-resisting system of a building in the x
direction.
8
Time effect factor.
N
The capacity reduction factor.
N
Strength reduction factor in Chapters 6 and 11.
N
Resistance factor for steel in Chapter 8 and wood in Chapter 12.
30
Glossary and Notations
Nil
Displacement amplitude at Level i of the fundamental mode of vibration
of the structure in the direction of interest, normalized to unity at the roof
level, Sec. A13.4.3.3.
Nim
The displacement amplitude at the ith level of the structure for the fixed
base condition in the mth mode of vibration in the direction of interest
normalized to unity at the roof level as determined in Chapter 5.
NiR
Displacement amplitude at Level i of the residual mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest normalized to unity at the roof level,
Sec. A13.4.3.7.
'1
Participation factor of fundamental mode of vibration of the structure in
the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.3.3 or Sec. A13.5.3.3 (m = 1).
'm
Participation factor on the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of interest, Sec. A13.5.3.3.
'R
Participation factor of the residual mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.3.7.
LlD
Design earthquake story velocity due to the fundamental mode of
vibration of the structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.4.5 (in/sec
or mm/sec).
LD
Total design earthquake story velocity of the structure in the direction of
interest, Sec. A13.4.4.5 (in/sec or mm/sec).
LM
Total maximum earthquake story velocity of the structure in the direction
of interest, Sec. A13.4.4.6 (in/sec or mm/sec).
LmD
Design earthquake story velocity due to the mth mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest, Sec. A13.4.4.5 (in/sec or mm/sec).
S0
Overstrength factor as defined in Table 5.2.2.
S
Factor of safety in Chapter 8.
3ED
Total energy dissipated, in kip-inches (kN-mm), in the isolation system
during a full cycle of response at the design displacement, DD.
3EM
Total energy dissipated, in kip-inches (kN-mm), on the isolation system
during a full cycle of response at the maximum displacement , DM.
3 *FD+*max
Sum, for all isolator units, of the maximum absolute value of force, in kips
(kN), at a positive displacement equal to DD.
3 *FD+*min
Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum absolute value of force, in kips
(kN), at a positive displacement equal to DD.
3 *FD-*max
Sum, for all isolator units, of the maximum absolute value of force, in kips
(kN), at a negative displacement equal to DD.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 2
3 *FD-*min
Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum absolute value force , in kips
(kN), at a negative displacement equal to DD.
3 *FM – *max
Sum, for all isolator units, of the maximum absolute value of force, in kips
(kN), at a positive displacement equal to DM.
3 *FM – *min
Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum absolute value of force, in kips
(kN), at a positive displacement equal to DM.
3 *FM – *max
Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum absolute value of force, in kips
(kN), at a negative displacement equal to DM.
3 *FM – *min
Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum absolute value of force, in kips
(kN), at a negative displacement equal to DM.
32
Chapter 3
QUALITY ASSURANCE
3.1 SCOPE: This chapter provides minimum requirements for quality assurance for seismicforce-resisting systems and designated seismic systems. These requirements supplement the
testing and inspection requirements contained in the reference standards given in Chapters 8
through 14.
3.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE: A quality assurance plan shall be submitted to the authority
having jurisdiction. A quality assurance plan, special inspection(s), and testing as set forth in
this chapter shall be provided for the following:
1. The seismic-force-resisting systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories C,
D, E, and F.
2. Designated seismic systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F
that are required in Table 6.1.7.
Exception: Structures that comply with the following criteria are exempt from the
preparation of a quality assurance plan but those structures are not exempt from special
inspection(s) or testing requirements:
1. The structure is constructed of light wood framing or light gauge cold-formed steel
framing, SDS does not exceed 0.50, the height of the structure does not exceed 35 ft
above grade, and the structure meets the requirements in Items 3 and 4 below
or
2. The structure is constructed using a reinforced masonry structural system or
reinforced concrete structural system, SDS does not exceed 0.50, the height of the
structure does not exceed 25 ft above grade, and the structure meets the requirements in Items 3 and 4 below.
3. The structure is classified as Seismic Use Group I.
4. The structure does not have any of the following plan irregularities as defined in
Table 5.2.3.2 or any of the following vertical irregularities as defined in Table
5.2.3.3:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Torsional irregularity,
Extreme torsional irregularity,
Nonparallel systems,
Stiffness irregularity -- soft story,
Stiffness irregularity -- extreme soft story,
Discontinuity in capacity -- weak story.
33
2000 Provisions, Chapter 3
3.2.1 Details of Quality Assurance Plan: The registered design professional in responsible
charge of the design of a seismic-force-resisting system and a designated seismic system shall be
responsible for the portion of the quality assurance plan applicable to that system. The quality
assurance plan shall include:
1. The seismic-force-resisting systems and designated seismic systems in accordance with this
chapter that are subject to quality assurance,
2. The special inspections and testing to be provided as required by the Provisions and the
reference standards in Chapters 4 through 14,
3. The type and frequency of testing,
4. The type and frequency of special inspections,
5. The frequency and distribution of testing and special inspection reports,
6. The structural observations to be performed, and
7. The frequency and distribution of structural observation reports.
3.2.2 Contractor Responsibility: Each contractor responsible for the construction of a seismicforce-resisting system, designated seismic system, or component listed in the quality assurance
plan shall submit a written contractor's statement of responsibility to the authority having
jurisdiction and to the owner prior to the commencement of work on the system or component.
The contractor's statement of responsibility shall contain the following:
1. Acknowledgment of awareness of the special requirements contained in the quality assurance plan;
2. Acknowledgment that control will be exercised to obtain conformance with the construction
documents approved by the authority having jurisdiction;
3. Procedures for exercising control within the contractor's organization, the method and
frequency of reporting, and the distribution of the reports; and
4. Identification and qualifications of the person(s) exercising such control and their position(s)
in the organization.
3.3 SPECIAL INSPECTION: The owner shall employ a special inspector(s) to observe the
construction for compliance with the requirements presented below.
3.3.1 Piers, Piles, Caissons: Continuous special inspection during driving of piles and
placement of concrete in piers, piles, and caissons. Periodic special inspection during construction of drilled piles, piers, and caissons including the placement of reinforcing steel.
3.3.2 Reinforcing Steel:
3.3.2.1: Periodic special inspection during and upon completion of the placement of reinforcing
steel in intermediate moment frames, in special moment frames, and in shear walls.
34
Quality Assurance
3.3.2.2: Continuous special inspection during the welding of reinforcing steel resisting flexural
and axial forces in intermediate moment frames and special moment frames, in boundary
members of concrete shear walls, and during welding of shear reinforcement.
3.3.3 Structural Concrete: Periodic special inspection during and upon completion of the
placement of concrete in intermediate moment frames, in special moment frames, and in
boundary members of shear walls.
3.3.4 Prestressed Concrete: Periodic special inspection during the placement and after
completion of placement of prestressing steel and continuous special inspection is required
during all stressing and grouting operations and during the placement of concrete.
3.3.5 Structural Masonry:
3.3.5.1: Periodic special inspection during the preparation of mortar, the laying of masonry
units, and the placement of reinforcement and prior to the placement of grout
3.3.5.2: Continuous special inspection during the welding of reinforcement, grouting, consolidation, reconsolidation, and placement of bent-bar anchors as required by Sec. 11.3.12.2.
3.3.6 Structural Steel:
3.3.6.1: Continuous special inspection for all structural welding.
Exception: Periodic special inspection is permitted for single-pass fillet or resistance
welds and welds loaded to less than 50 percent of their design strength provided the
qualifications of the welder and the welding electrodes are inspected at the beginning of
the work and all welds are inspected for compliance with the approved construction
documents at the completion of welding.
3.3.6.2: Periodic special inspection in accordance with AISC LRFD or AISC ASD for installation and tightening of fully tensioned high-strength bolts in slip-critical connections and in
connections subject to direct tension. Bolts in connections identified as not being slip-critical or
subject to direct tension need not be inspected for bolt tension other than to ensure that the plies
of the connected elements have been brought into snug contact.
3.3.7 Structural Wood:
3.3.7.1: Continuous special inspection during all field gluing operations of elements of the
seismic-force-resisting system.
3.3.7.2: Periodic special inspection for nailing, bolting, anchoring, and other fastening of
components within the seismic-force-resisting system including drag struts, braces, and tiedowns.
3.3.7.3: Periodic Special Inspections for wood shear walls, shear panels, and diaphragms, that
are included in the seismic force resisting system when the Provisions require the spacing of
nails, screws, or fasteners for wood sheathing to be 4 inches or less on center.
35
2000 Provisions, Chapter 3
3.3.8 Cold–Formed Steel Framing:
3.3.8.1: Periodic special inspection during all welding operations of elements of the seismicforce-resisting system.
3.3.8.2: Periodic special inspection for screw attachment, bolting, anchoring, and other
fastening of components within the seismic-force-resisting system, including struts, braces, and
hold-downs.
3.3.9 Architectural Components: Special inspection for architectural components shall be as
follows:
1. Periodic special inspection during the erection and fastening of exterior cladding, interior
and exterior nonbearing walls, and interior and exterior veneer in Seismic Design Categories
D, E, and F.
Exceptions:
a. Architectural components less than 30 ft (9 m) above grade or walking surface,
b. Cladding and veneer weighing 5 lb/ft2 (24.5 N/m2) or less, and
c. Interior nonbearing walls weighing 15 lb/ft2 (73.5 N/m2) or less.
2. Periodic special inspection during erection of glass 30 ft (9m) or more above an adjacent
grade or walking surface in glazed curtain walls, glazed storefronts, and interior glazed
partitions in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F.
3. Periodic special inspection during the anchorage of access floors, suspended ceilings, and
storage racks 8 ft (2.4 m) or greater in height in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F.
3.3.10 Mechanical and Electrical Components: Special inspection for mechanical and
electrical components shall be as follows:
1. Periodic special inspection during the anchorage of electrical equipment for emergency or
standby power systems in Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, and F;
2. Periodic special inspection during the installation of anchorage of all other electrical
equipment in Seismic Design Categories E and F;
3. Periodic special inspection during installation of flammable, combustible, or highly toxic
piping systems and their associated mechanical units in Seismic Design Categories C, D, E,
and F;
4. Periodic special inspection during the installation of HVAC ductwork that will contain
hazardous materials in Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, and F; and
5. Periodic special inspection during the installation of vibration isolation systems when the
construction documents indicate a maximum clearance (air gap) between the equipment
support frame and restraint of less than or equal to 1/4 inch.
3.3.11 Seismic Isolation System: Periodic special inspection during the fabrication and
installation of isolator units and energy dissipation devices if used as part of the seismic isolation
system.
36
Quality Assurance
3.4 TESTING: The special inspector(s) shall be responsible for verifying that the testing
requirements are performed by an approved testing agency for compliance with the requirements
below.
3.4.1 Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel: Special testing of reinforcing and prestressing steel
shall be as indicated in the requirements below.
3.4.1.1: Examine certified mill test reports for each shipment of reinforcing steel used to resist
flexural and axial forces in reinforced concrete intermediate frames, special moment frames, and
boundary members of reinforced concrete shear walls or reinforced masonry shear walls and
determine conformance with the construction documents.
3.4.1.2: Where ASTM A615 reinforcing steel is used to resist earthquake-induced flexural and
axial forces in special moment frames and in wall boundary elements of shear walls in structures
of Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F, verify that the requirements of Sec. 21.2.5.1 of ACI
318 have been satisfied.
3.4.1.3: Where ASTM A615 reinforcing steel is to be welded, verify that chemical tests have
been performed to determine weldability in accordance with Sec. 3.5.2 of ACI 318.
3.4.2 Structural Concrete: Samples of structural concrete shall be obtained at the project site
and tested in accordance with requirements of ACI 318.
3.4.3 Structural Masonry: Quality assurance testing of structural masonry shall be in
accordance with the requirements of ACI 350.
3.4.4 Structural Steel: The testing needed to establish that the construction is in conformance
with these Provisions shall be included in a quality assurance plan. The minimum testing
contained in the quality assurance plan shall be as required in AISC Seismic and the following
requirements:
3.4.4.1 Base Metal Testing: Base metal thicker than 1.5 in. (38 mm), when subject to throughthickness weld shrinkage strains, shall be ultrasonically tested for discontinuities behind and
adjacent to such welds after joint completion. Any material discontinuities shall be accepted or
rejected on the basis of ASTM A435, Specification for Straight Beam Ultrasound Examination
of Steel Plates, or ASTM A898, Specification for Straight Beam Ultrasound Examination for
Rolled Steel Shapes, (Level 1 Criteria), and criteria as established by the registered design
professional(s) in responsible charge and the construction documents.
3.4.5 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment: As required to ensure compliance with the
seismic design requirements herein, the registered design professional in responsible charge
shall clearly state the applicable requirements on the construction documents. Each manufacturer
of designated seismic system components shall test or analyze the component and its mounting
system or anchorage as required and shall submit evidence of compliance for review and
acceptance by the registered design professional in responsible charge of the designated seismic
system and for approval by the authority having jurisdiction. The evidence of compliance shall
be by actual test on a shake table, by three-dimensional shock tests, by an analytical method
using dynamic characteristics and forces, by the use of experience data (i.e., historical data
demonstrating acceptable seismic performance), or by more rigorous analysis providing for
37
2000 Provisions, Chapter 3
equivalent safety. The special inspector shall examine the designated seismic system and shall
determine whether the anchorages and label conform with the evidence of compliance.
3.4.6 Seismically Isolated Structures: For required system tests, see Sec. 13.9.
3.5 STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS: Structural observations shall be provided for those
structures included in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F when one or more of the following
conditions exist:
1. The structure is included in Seismic Use Group II or Seismic Use Group III or
2. The height of the structure is greater than 75 ft above the base or
3. The structure is in Seismic Design Category E or F and Seismic Use Group I and is greater
than two stories in height.
Observed deficiencies shall be reported in writing to the owner and the authority having
jurisdiction.
3.6 REPORTING AND COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES: Each special inspector shall
furnish copies of inspection reports, noting any work not in compliance with the approved
construction documents and corrections made to previously reported work to the authority having
jurisdiction, registered design professional in responsible charge, the owner, the registered
design professional preparing the quality assurance plan, and the contractor. All deficiencies
shall be brought to the immediate attention of the contractor for correction.
At completion of construction, each special inspector shall submit a report certifying that all
inspected work was completed substantially in compliance with the approved construction
documents. Work not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be
described in the report.
At completion of construction, the contractor shall submit a final report to the authority having
jurisdiction certifying that all construction work incorporated into the seismic-force-resisting
system and other designated seismic systems was constructed substantially in compliance with
the approved construction documents.
38
Chapter 4
GROUND MOTION
4.1 PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE
AND DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION ACCELERATIONS AND
RESPONSE SPECTRA: Ground motion accelerations, represented by response spectra and
coefficients derived from these spectra, shall be determined in accordance with the general
procedure of Sec. 4.1.2 or the site-specific procedure of Sec. 4.1.3. The general procedure in
which spectral response acceleration parameters for the maximum considered earthquake ground
motions are derived using Maps 1 through 24, modified by site coefficients to include local site
effects and scaled to design values, are permitted to be used for any structure except as
specifically indicated in the Provisions. The site-specific procedure also is permitted to be used
for any structure and shall be used where specifically required by the Provisions.
4.1.1 Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motions: The maximum considered
earthquake ground motions shall be as represented by the mapped spectral response acceleration
at short periods, SS, and at 1 second, S1, obtained from Maps 1 through 24 of the Provisions,
respectively, and adjusted for Site Class effects using the site coefficients of Sec. 4.1.2.4. When
a site-specific procedure is used, maximum considered earthquake ground motion shall be
determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.3.
4.1.2 General Procedure for Determining Maximum Considered Earthquake and Design
Spectral Response Accelerations: The mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral
response acceleration at short periods, SS ,and at 1 second ,S1, shall be determined from Maps 1
through 24.
For structures located within those regions of the maps having values of the short period spectral
response acceleration, SS, less than or equal to 0.15 and values of the 1 second period spectral
response acceleration, S1, less than or equal to 0.04, accelerations need not be determined. Such
structures are permitted to be directly categorized as Seismic Design Category A in accordance
with Sec. 4.2.1.
For all other structures, the Site Class shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.2.1. The
maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations adjusted for Site Class effects,
SMS and SM1, shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.2.4 and the design spectral response
accelerations, SDS and SD1, shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.2.5. The general
response spectrum, when required by the Provisions, shall be determined in accordance with Sec.
4.1.2.6.
4.1.2.1 Site Class Definitions: For all structures located within those regions of the maps
having values of the short period spectral response acceleration, SS, greater than 0.15 or values of
the 1 second period spectral response acceleration, S1, greater than 0.04, the site shall be
classified as one of the following classes:
39
2000 Provisions, Chapter 4
A Hard rock with measured shear wave velocity, v̄s > 5,000 ft/sec (1500 m/s)
B Rock with 2,500 ft/sec < v̄s # 5,000 ft/sec (760 m/s < v̄s # 1500 m/s)
C Very dense soil and soft rock with 1,200 ft/sec < v̄s # 2,500 ft/sec (360 m/s < v̄s # 760 m/s) or
with either N̄ > 50 or s̄ u > 2,000 psf (100 kPa)
D Stiff soil with 600 ft/sec # v̄s # 1,200 ft/sec (180 m/s # v̄s # 360 m/s) or with either 15 # N̄ #
50 or 1,000 psf # s̄ u # 2,000 psf (50 kPa # s̄ u # 100 kPa)
E A soil profile with v̄s < 600 ft/sec (180 m/s) or with either
N̄ < 15 s̄ u < 1,000 psf or any profile with more than 10 ft (3 m) of soft clay defined as soil
with PI > 20, w $ 40 percent, and su < 500 psf (25 kPa)
F Soils requiring site-specific evaluations:
1. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading such as liquefiable
soils, quick and highly sensitive clays, and collapsible weakly cemented soils.
Exception: For structures having fundamental periods of vibration equal to or
less than 0.5 second, site-specific evaluations are not required to determine
spectral accelerations for liquefiable soils. Rather, the Site Class may be
determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.2.2 and the corresponding values of Fa
and Fv determined from Tables 4.1.2.4a and 4.1.2.4b.
2. Peats and/or highly organic clays (H > 10 ft [3 m] of peat and/or highly organic clay
where H = thickness of soil)
3. Very high plasticity clays (H > 25 ft [8 m] with PI > 75)
4. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays (H > 120 ft [36 m])
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the Site Class, Site Class
D shall be used. Site Classes E or F need not be assumed unless the authority having jurisdiction
determines that Site Classes E or F could be present at the site or in the event that Site Classes E
or F are established by geotechnical data.
4.1.2.2 Steps for Classifying a Site (also see Table 4.1.2.2 below):
Step 1:
Check for the four categories of Site Class F requiring site-specific evaluation. If the
site corresponds to any of these categories, classify the site as Site Class F and
conduct a site-specific evaluation.
Step 2:
Check for the existence of a total thickness of soft clay > 10 ft (3 m) where a soft clay
layer is defined by: su < 500 psf (25 kPa), w $ 40 percent, and PI > 20. If these
criteria are satisfied, classify the site as Site Class E.
Step 3:
Categorize the site using one of the following three methods with v̄s, N̄, and s̄ u
computed in all cases as specified by the definitions in Sec. 4.1.2.2:
a. v̄s for the top 100 ft (30 m) (v̄s method)
b. N̄ for the top 100 ft (30 m) (N̄ method)
40
Ground Motion
c. N̄ch for cohesionless soil layers (PI < 20) in the top 100 ft (30 m) and average s̄ u
for cohesive soil layers (PI > 20) in the top 100 ft (30 m) (s̄ u method).
TABLE 4.1.2.2 Site Classification
Site Class
v̄s
N̄ or N̄ch
s̄ u
E
< 600 fps
( < 180 m/s)
< 15
< 1,000 psf
( < 50 kPa)
D
600 to 1,200 fps
(180 to 360 m/s)
15 to 50
1,000 to 2,000 psf
(50 to 100 kPa)
C
> 1,200 to 2,500 fps
(360 to 760 m/s)
> 50
> 2,000
( > 100 kPa)
NOTE: If the s̄ u method is used and the N̄ch and s̄ u criteria differ, select the category with the softer soils
(e.g., use Site Class E instead of D).
The shear wave velocity for rock, Site Class B, shall be either measured on site or estimated for
competent rock with moderate fracturing and weathering. Softer and more highly fractured and
weathered rock shall either be measured on site for shear wave velocity or classified as Site Class
C.
The hard rock category, Site Class A, shall be supported by shear wave velocity measurements
either on site or on profiles of the same rock type in the same formation with an equal or greater
degree of weathering and fracturing. Where hard rock conditions are known to be continuous to
a depth of 100 ft (30 m), surficial shear wave velocity measurements may be extrapolated to
assess v̄s.
The rock categories, Site Classes A and B, shall not be used if there is more than 10 ft (3 m) of
soil between the rock surface and the bottom of the spread footing or mat foundation.
4.1.2.3 Definitions of Site Class Parameters: The definitions presented below apply to the
upper 100 ft (30 m) of the site profile. Profiles containing distinctly different soil layers shall be
subdivided into those layers designated by a number that ranges from 1 to n at the bottom where
there are a total of n distinct layers in the upper 100 ft (30 m). The symbol i then refers to any
one of the layers between 1 and n.
vsi is the shear wave velocity in ft/sec (m/s).
di is the thickness of any layer between 0 and 100 ft (30 m),
v̄s is:
n
vs =
∑ di
i =1
(4.1.2.3-1)
di
i =1 v si
n
∑
41
2000 Provisions, Chapter 4
n
where ∑ d i is equal to 100 ft (30 m)
i =1
Ni is the Standard Penetration Resistance (ASTM D1586-84) not to exceed 100 blows/ft as
directly measured in the field without corrections.
N̄ is:
n
N=
∑ di
i =1
di
i =1 N i
n
∑
(4.1.2.3-2)
N̄ch is:
N ch =
ds
m d
i
∑
i =1 N i
(4.1.2.3-3)
m
where ∑ d i = d s .
i =1
(Use only di and Ni for cohesionless soils.)
ds is the total thickness of cohesionless soil layers in the top 100 ft (30 m).
sui is the undrained shear strength in psf (kPa), not to exceed 5,000 psf (250 kPa), ASTM D216691 or D2850-87.
42
Ground Motion
s̄ u is:
su =
dc
di
∑
i =1 sui
k
(4.1.2.3-4)
k
where ∑ d i = d c .
i =1
dc is the total thickness (100 - ds) of cohesive soil layers in the top 100 ft (30 m).
PI is the plasticity index, ASTM D4318-93.
w is the moisture content in percent, ASTM D2216-92.
4.1.2.4 Site Coefficients and Adjusted Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral
Response Acceleration Parameters: The maximum considered earthquake spectral response
acceleration for short periods, SMS, and at 1 second, SM1, adjusted for site class effects, shall be
determined by Eq. 4.1.2.4-1 and 4.1.2.4-2, respectively:
S MS = F a S s
(4.1.2.4-1)
S M 1 = F v S1
(4.1.2.4-2)
and
where site coefficients Fa and Fv are defined in Tables 4.1.2.4a and b, respectively.
TABLE 4.1.2.4a Values of Fa as a Function of Site Class and
Mapped Short-Period Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Acceleration
Site Class
Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response
Acceleration at Short Periods
SS = 0.50
SS = 0.75
SS = 1.00
SS # 0.25
SS $ 1.25
A
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
B
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
C
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
D
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.1
1.0
E
2.5
1.7
1.2
0.9
0.9
43
2000 Provisions, Chapter 4
Site Class
F
Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response
Acceleration at Short Periods
SS = 0.50
SS = 0.75
SS = 1.00
SS # 0.25
SS $ 1.25
a
a
a
a
a
NOTE: Use straight line interpolation for intermediate values of SS.
a
Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analyses shall be performed. Exception: For structures with periods of vibration equal to or less than 0.5 second,
values of Fa for liquefiable soils may be assumed equal to the values for the Site Class
determined without regard to liquefaction in Step 3 of Sec. 4.1.2.2.
TABLE 4.1.2.4b Values of Fv as a Function of Site Class and
Mapped 1 Second Period Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Acceleration
Site Class
Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response
Acceleration at 1 Second Periods
S1 = 0.2
S1 = 0.3
S1 = 0.4
S1 $ 0.5
S1 # 0.1
A
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
B
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
C
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
D
2.4
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.5
E
3.5
3.2
2.8
2.4
2.4
F
a
a
a
a
a
NOTE: Use straight line interpolation for intermediate values of S1.
a
Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analyses shall be performed.
Exception: For structures with periods of vibration equal to or less than 0.5 second, values of Fv
for liquefiable soils may be assumed equal to the values for the Site Class determined without
regard to liquefaction in Step 3 of Sec. 4.1.2.2.
4.1.2.5 Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters: Design earthquake spectral
response acceleration at short periods, SDS , and at 1 second period, SD1, shall be determined from
Eq. 4.1.2.5-1 and 4.1.2.5-2, respectively:
S DS =
2
S MS
3
(4.1.2.5-1)
S D1 =
2
S M1
3
(4.1.2.5-2)
and
4.1.2.6 General Procedure Response Spectrum: Where a design response spectrum is required
by the Provisions and site-specific procedures are not used, the design response spectrum curve
shall be developed as indicated in Figure 4.1.2.6 and as follows:
44
Ground Motion
FIGURE 4.1.2.6 Design response spectrum.
1. For periods less than or equal to T0, the design spectral response acceleration, Sa, shall be taken
as given by Eq. 4.1.2.6-1:
S a = 0.6
S DS
T + 0.4 S DS
To
(4.1.2.6-1)
2. For periods greater than or equal to T0 and less than or equal to TS, the design spectral response
acceleration, Sa, shall be taken as equal to SDS.
3. For periods greater than TS, the design spectral response acceleration, Sa, shall be taken as given
by Eq. 4.1.2.6-3:
Sa =
S D1
T
(4.1.2.6-3)
where:
SDS =
the design spectral response acceleration at short periods,
SD1 =
the design spectral response acceleration at 1 second period,
T
the fundamental period of the structure (sec),
=
T0 =
0.2SD1/SDS, and
TS =
SD1/SDS.
4.1.3 Site-Specific Procedure for Determining Ground Motion Accelerations: A site-specific
study shall account for the regional seismicity and geology, the expected recurrence rates and
maximum magnitudes of events on known faults and source zones, the location of the site with
respect to these, near source effects if any, and the characteristics of subsurface site conditions.
45
2000 Provisions, Chapter 4
4.1.3.1 Probabilistic Maximum Considered Earthquake: When site-specific procedures are
utilized, the maximum considered earthquake ground motion shall be taken as that motion
represented by a 5 percent damped acceleration response spectrum having a 2 percent probability of
exceedance within a 50 year period. The maximum considered earthquake spectral response
acceleration, SaM, at any period, T, shall be taken from that spectrum.
Exception: Where the spectral response ordinates for a 5 percent damped spectrum
having a 2 percent probability of exceedance within a 50 year period at periods of 0.2
second or 1 second exceed the corresponding ordinate of the deterministic limit of Sec.
4.1.3.2, the maximum considered earthquake ground motion shall be taken as the lesser of
the probabilistic maximum considered earthquake ground motion or the deterministic
maximum considered earthquake ground motion of Sec. 4.1.3.3 but shall not be taken less
than the deterministic limit ground motion of Sec. 4.1.3.2.
4.1.3.2 Deterministic Limit on Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion: The
deterministic limit on maximum considered earthquake ground motion shall be taken as the
response spectrum determined in accordance with Figure 4.1.3.2, where Fa and Fv are determined in
accordance with Sec. 4.1.2.4 with the value of SS taken as 1.5 and the value of S1 taken as 0.6.
FIGURE 4.1.3.2 Deterministic limit on maximum considered earthquake
response spectrum.
4.1.3.3 Deterministic Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion: The deterministic
maximum considered earthquake ground motion response spectrum shall be calculated as 150
percent of the median 5 percent damped spectral response accelerations, SaM, at all periods resulting
from a characteristic earthquake on any known active fault within the region.
46
Ground Motion
4.1.3.5 Site-Specific Design Ground Motion: Where site-specific procedures are used to
determine the maximum considered earthquake ground motion response spectrum, the design
spectral response acceleration at any period shall be determined from Eq. 4.1.3.5:
Sa =
2
S aM
3
(4.1.3.5)
and shall be greater than or equal to 80 percent of the Sa determined by the general response
spectrum in Sec. 4.1.2.6.
4.2 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY: Each structure shall be assigned a Seismic Design
Category in accordance with Sec. 4.2.1. Seismic Design Categories are used in the Provisions to
determine permissible structural systems, limitations on height and irregularity, those components
of the structure that must be designed for seismic resistance, and the types of lateral force analysis
that must be performed.
4.2.1 Determination of Seismic Design Category: All structures shall be assigned to a Seismic
Design Category based on their Seismic Use Group and the design spectral response acceleration
coefficients, SDS and SD1, determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.2.5. Each building and structure
shall be assigned to the most severe Seismic Design Category in accordance with Table 4.2.1a or
4.2.1b, irrespective of the fundamental period of vibration of the structure, T.
TABLE 4.2.1a Seismic Design Category Based on Short Period Response Accelerations
Value of SDS
Seismic Use Group
I
II
III
SDS < 0.167
A
A
A
0.167 # SDS < 0.33
B
B
C
0.33 # SDS < 0.50
C
C
D
0.50 # SDS
D
a
a
D
a
Da
Seismic Use Group I and II structures located on sites with mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral
response acceleration at 1 second period, S1, equal to or greater than 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design
Category E and Seismic Use Group III structures located on such sites shall be assigned to Seismic Design
Category F.
47
2000 Provisions, Chapter 4
TABLE 4.2.1b Seismic Design Category Based on 1 Second Period Response Accelerations
Seismic Use Group
Value of SD1
I
II
III
SD1 < 0.067
A
A
A
0.067 # SD1 < 0.133
B
B
C
0.133 # SD1 < 0.20
C
C
D
0.20 # SD1
D
a
D
a
Da
a
Seismic Use Group I and II structures located on sites with mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral
response acceleration at 1 second period, S1, equal to or greater than 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design
Category E and Seismic Use Group III structures located on such sites shall be assigned to Seismic Design
Category F.
4.2.2 Site Limitation for Seismic Design Categories E and F: A structure assigned to Seismic
Design Category E or F shall not be sited where there is the potential for an active fault to cause
rupture of the ground surface at the structure.
Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings of light-frame construction.
48
Chapter 5
STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA
5.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENT:
The following reference document shall be used for loads other than earthquake and for
combinations of loads as indicated in this chapter:
ASCE 7
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7, 1998
5.2 DESIGN BASIS:
5.2.1 General: The seismic analysis and design procedures to be used in the design of buildings
and other structures and their components shall be as prescribed in this chapter.
The structure shall include complete lateral- and vertical-force-resisting systems capable of
providing adequate strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation capacity to withstand the design
ground motions within the prescribed limits of deformation and strength demand. The design
ground motions shall be assumed to occur along any direction of the structure. The adequacy of
the structural systems shall be demonstrated through construction of a mathematical model and
evaluation of this model for the effects of the design ground motions. Unless otherwise required,
this evaluation shall consist of a linear elastic analysis in which design seismic forces are
distributed and applied throughout the height of the structure in accordance with the procedures
in Sec. 5.3 or Sec. 5.4. The corresponding structural deformations and internal forces in all
members of the structure shall be determined and evaluated against acceptance criteria contained
in the Provisions. Approved alternative procedure based on general principles of engineering
mechanics and dynamics are permitted to be used to establish the seismic forces and their
distribution. If an alternative procedure is used, the corresponding internal forces and deformations in the members shall be determined using a model consistent with the procedure
adopted.
Individual members shall be provided with adequate strength to resist the shears, axial forces,
and moments determined in accordance with the Provisions, and connections shall develop the
strength of the connected members or the forces indicated above. The deformation of the
structure shall not exceed the prescribed limits.
A continuous load path, or paths, with adequate strength and stiffness shall be provided to
transfer all forces from the point of application to the final point of resistance. The foundation
shall be designed to accommodate the forces developed or the movements imparted to the
structure by the design ground motions. In the determination of the foundation design criteria,
special recognition shall be given to the dynamic nature of the forces, the expected ground
motions, and the design basis for strength and energy dissipation capacity of the structure.
5.2.2 Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems: The basic lateral and vertical seismic-forceresisting system shall conform to one of the types indicated in Table 5.2.2 subject to the
49
2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
limitations on height based on Seismic Design Category indicated in the table. Each type is
subdivided by the types of vertical element used to resist lateral seismic forces. The appropriate
response modification coefficient, R, system overstrength factor, S0, and deflection amplification
factor, Cd, indicated in Table 5.2.2 shall be used in determining the base shear, element design
forces, and design story drift as indicated in the Provisions.
Seismic-force-resisting systems that are not contained in Table 5.2.2 shall be permitted if
analytical and test data are submitted that establish the dynamic characteristics and demonstrate
the lateral force resistance and energy dissipation capacity to be equivalent to the structural
systems listed in Table 5.2.2 for equivalent response modification coefficient, R, system overstrength coefficient, S0, and deflection amplification factor, Cd, values.
Special framing requirements are indicated in Sec. 5.2.6 and in Chapters 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 for
structures assigned to the various Seismic Design Categories.
5.2.2.1 Dual System: For a dual system, the moment frame shall be capable of resisting at least
25 percent of the design forces. The total seismic force resistance is to be provided by the
combination of the moment frame and the shear walls or braced frames in proportion to their
rigidities.
5.2.2.2 Combinations of Framing Systems: Different seismic-force-resisting systems are
permitted along the two orthogonal axes of the structure. Combinations of seismic-forceresisting systems shall comply with the requirements of this section.
5.2.2.2.1 R and S0 Factors: The response modification coefficient, R, in the direction under
consideration at any story shall not exceed the lowest response modification factor, R, for the
seismic-force-resisting system in the same direction considered above that story excluding
penthouses. For other than dual systems where a combination of different structural systems is
utilized to resist lateral forces in the same direction, the value of R used in that direction shall not
be greater than the least value of any of the systems utilized in the same direction. If a system
other than a dual system with a response modification coefficient, R, with a value of less than 5 is
used as part of the seismic-force-resisting system in any direction of the structure, the lowest
such value shall be used for the entire structure. The system overstrength factor, S0, in the
direction under consideration at any story shall not be less than the largest value of this factor for
the seismic-force-resisting system in the same direction considered above that story.
Exceptions:
1. Supported structural systems with a weight equal to or less than 10 percent of the
weight of the structure.
2. Detached one- and two-family dwellings of light-frame construction.
5.2.2.2.2 Combination Framing Detailing Requirements: The detailing requirements of Sec.
5.2.6 required by the higher response modification coefficient, R, shall be used for structural
components common to systems having different response modification coefficients.
5.2.2.3 Seismic Design Categories B and C: The structural framing system for structures
assigned to Seismic Design Categories B and C shall comply with the structure height and
structural limitations in Table 5.2.2.
50
Table 5.2.2 Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems
Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting System
Detailing
Reference
Section
Response
Modification Coefficient, Ra
System Overstrength Factor, S0 g
Deflection
Amplification
Factor, Cdb
System Limitations and Building Height Limitations (ft) by Seismic Design Categoryc
B
C
Dd
Ee
Fe
Bearing Wall Systems
Ordinary steel concentrically braced frames -- Light
framed wall
8.6
4
2
3½
NL
NL
65
65
65
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
9.3.2.4
5
2½
5
NL
NL
160
160
100
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
9.3.2.3
4
2½
4
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Detailed plain concrete shear walls
9.3.2.2
2½
2½
2
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary plain concrete shear walls
9.3.2.1
1½
2½
1½
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
Special reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.5
3½
2½
3½
NL
NL
160
160
100
Intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.4
2½
2½
2¼
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.3
2
2½
1¾
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
Detailed plain masonry shear walls
11.11.2
2
2½
1¾
NL
160
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary plain masonry shear walls
11.11.1
1½
2½
1¼
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
Light frame walls with shear panels
8.6, 12.3.4,
12.4
6½
3
4
NL
NL
65
65
65
Steel eccentrically braced frames, moment resisting,
connections at columns away from links
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 15
8
2
4
NL
NL
160
160
100
Steel eccentrically braced frames, nonmoment resisting, connections at columns away from links
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 15
7
2
4
NL
NL
160
160
100
Building Frame Systems
51
Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting System
Detailing
Reference
Section
Response
Modification Coefficient, Ra
System Overstrength Factor, S0 g
Deflection
Amplification
Factor, Cdb
System Limitations and Building Height Limitations (ft) by Seismic Design Categoryc
B
C
Dd
Ee
Fe
Special steel concentrically braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 13
6
2
5
NL
NL
160
160
100
Ordinary steel concentrically braced frames
8.4.4; AISC
Seismic
5
2
4½
NL
NL
35k
35k
NPk
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
9.3.2.4
6
2½
5
NL
NL
160
160
100
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
9.3.2.3
5
2½
4½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Detailed plain concrete shear walls
9.3.2.2
3
2½
2½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary plain concrete shear walls
9.3.2.1
2
2½
2
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
Composite eccentrically braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 14
8
2
4
NL
NL
160
160
100
Composite concentrically braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 13
5
2
4½
NL
NL
160
160
100
Ordinary composite braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 12
3
2
3
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Composite steel plate shear walls
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 17
6½
2½
5½
NL
NL
160
160
100
Special composite reinforced concrete shear walls
with steel elements
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 16
6
2½
5
NL
NL
160
160
100
Ordinary composite reinforced concrete shear walls
with steel elements
AISC Seismic.
Part II, Sec. 15
5
2½
4½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Special reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.5
4½
2½
4
NL
NL
160
160
100
Intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.4
3
2½
2½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.3
2½
2½
2¼
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
52
Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting System
Detailing
Reference
Section
Response
Modification Coefficient, Ra
System Overstrength Factor, S0 g
Deflection
Amplification
Factor, Cdb
System Limitations and Building Height Limitations (ft) by Seismic Design Categoryc
B
C
Dd
Ee
Fe
Detailed plain masonry shear walls
11.11.2
2½
2½
2¼
NL
160
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary plain masonry shear walls
11.11.1
1½
2½
1¼
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
Light frame walls with shear panels
8.6, 12.3.4,
12.4
7
2½
4½
NL
NL
160
160
160
Special steel moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 9
8
3
5½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Special steel truss moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 12
7
3
5½
NL
NL
160
100
NP
Intermediate steel moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 10
4½.
3
4
NL
NL
35i
NPi,j
NPi,j
Ordinary steel moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 11
3½
3
3
NL
NL
NPi,j
NP i,j
NP i,j
Special reinforced concrete moment frames
9.3.1.3
8
3
5½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Intermediate reinforced concrete moment frames
9.3.1.2
5
3
4½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames
9.3.1.1
3
3
2½
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
Special composite moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 9
8
3
5½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Intermediate composite moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 10
5
3
4½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Composite partially restrained moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 8
6
3
5½
160
160
100
NP
NP
Ordinary composite moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 11
3
3
2½
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
Moment Resisting Frame Systems
53
Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting System
Special masonry moment frames
Detailing
Reference
Section
11.2
Response
Modification Coefficient, Ra
System Overstrength Factor, S0 g
Deflection
Amplification
Factor, Cdb
System Limitations and Building Height Limitations (ft) by Seismic Design Categoryc
B
C
Dd
Ee
Fe
5½
3
5
NL
NL
160
160
100
Dual Systems with Special Moment Frames Capable of Resisting at Least 25% of Prescribed Seismic Forces
Steel eccentrically braced frames, moment resisting
connections, at columns away from links
AISC
Seismic,Part I,
Sec. 15
8
2½
4
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Steel eccentrically braced frames, non-moment
resisting connections, at columns away from links
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 15
7
2½
4
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Special steel concentrically braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 13
8
2½
6½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
9.3.2.4
8
2½
6½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
9.3.2.3
7
2½
6
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Composite eccentrically braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 14
8
2½
4
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Composite concentrically braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 13
6
2½
5
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Composite steel plate shear walls
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 17
8
2½
6½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Special composite reinforced concrete shear walls
with steel elements
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 16
8
2½
6½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Ordinary composite reinforced concrete shear walls
with steel elements
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 15
7
2½
6
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Special reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.5
7
3
6½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.4
6½
3
5½
NL
NL
NL
NP
NP
Dual Systems with Intermediate Moment Frames Capable of Resisting at Least 25% of Prescribed Seismic Forces
54
Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting System
Detailing
Reference
Section
Response
Modification Coefficient, Ra
System Overstrength Factor, S0 g
Deflection
Amplification
Factor, Cdb
System Limitations and Building Height Limitations (ft) by Seismic Design Categoryc
B
C
Dd
Ee
Fe
Special steel concentrically braced frames f
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 13
4½
2½
4
NL
NL
35i
NPi,j
NPi,j
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
9.3.2.4
6
2½
5
NL
NL
160
100
100
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
9.3.2.3
5½
2½
4½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.3
3
3
2½
NL
160
NP
NP
NP
Intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls
11.11.4
5
3
4½
NL
NL
160
NP
NP
Composite concentrically braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 13
5
2½
4½
NL
NL
160
100
NP
Ordinary composite braced frames
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 12
4
2½
3
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Ordinary composite reinforced concrete shear walls
with steel elements
AISC Seismic,
Part II, Sec. 15
5½
2½
4½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Inverted Pendulum Systems and Cantilevered Column Systems
Special steel moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 9
2½
2
2½
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Ordinary steel moment frames
AISC Seismic,
Part I, Sec. 11
1¼
2
2½
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
Special reinforced concrete moment frames
9.3.1.3
2½
2
1¼
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Structural Steel Systems Not Specifically Detailed
for Seismic Resistance
AISC-ASD,
AISC-LRFD,
AISI
3
3
3
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
55
NOTES FOR TABLE 5.2.2
a
Response modification coefficient, R, for use throughout the Provisions.
b
Deflection amplification factor, Cd, for use in Sec. 5.4.6.1 and 5.4.6.2.
c
NL = not limited and NP = not permitted. If using metric units, 100 ft approximately equals 30
m and 160 ft approximately equals 50 m. Heights are measured from the base of the structure as
defined in Sec. 2.1.
d
See Sec. 5.2.2.4.1 for a description of building systems limited to buildings with a height of 240
ft (70 m) or less.
e
See Sec. 5.2.2.5 for building systems limited to buildings with a height of 160 ft (50 m) or less.
f
An ordinary moment frame is permitted to be used in lieu of an Intermediate moment frame in
Seismic Design Categories B and C.
The tabulated value of the overstrength factor, S0, may be reduced by subtracting ½ for
structures with flexible diaphragms but shall not be taken as less than 2 for any structure.
g
i
Steel ordinary moment frames and intermediate moment frames are permitted in single-story
buildings up to a height of 60 ft when the moment joints of field connections are constructed of
bolted end plates and the dead load of the roof does not exceed 15 psf.
j
Steel ordinary moment frames are permitted in buildings up to a height of 35 ft where the dead
load of the walls, floors, and roofs does not exceed 15 psf.
k
Steel ordinary braced frames are permitted in single-story buildings up to a height of 60 ft when
the dead load of the roof does not exceed 15 psf and in penthouse structures.
56
Structural Design Criteria
5.2.2.4 Seismic Design Categories D and E: The structural framing system for a structure
assigned to Seismic Design Categories D and E shall comply with Sec. 5.2.2.3 and the additional
requirements of this section.
5.2.2.4.1 Limited Building Height: The height limit in Table 5.2.2 is permitted to be increased
to 240 ft (70 m) in buildings that have steel braced frames or concrete cast-in-place shear walls.
Such buildings shall be configured such that the braced frames or shear walls arranged in any
one plane conform to the following:
1. The braced frames or cast-in-place special reinforced concrete shear walls in any one plane
shall resist no more than 60 percent of the total seismic forces in each direction, neglecting
torsional effects, and
2. The seismic force in any braced frame or shear wall resulting from torsional effects shall not
exceed 20 percent of the total seismic force in that braced frame or shear wall.
5.2.2.4.2 Interaction Effects: Moment frames that are enclosed or adjoined by more rigid
elements not considered to be part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be designed so that
the action or failure of those elements will not impair the vertical load and seismic-force-resisting
capability of the frame. The design shall consider and provide for the effect of these rigid
elements on the structural system at structure deformations corresponding to the design story
drift, ), as determined in Sec. 5.4.6. In addition, the effects of these elements shall be considered
when determining whether a structure has one or more of the irregularities defined in Sec. 5.2.3.
5.2.2.4.3 Deformational Compatibility: Every structural component not included in the
seismic-force-resisting system in the direction under consideration shall be designed to be
adequate for the vertical load-carrying capacity and the induced moments and shears resulting
from the design story drift, ), as determined in accordance with Sec. 5.4.6 (also see Sec. 5.2.7).
Exception: Beams and columns and their connections not designed as part of the lateralforce-resisting system but meeting the detailing requirements for either intermediate
moment frames or special moment frames are permitted to be designed to be adequate for
the vertical load-carrying capacity and the induced moments and shears resulting from the
deformation of the building under the application of the design seismic forces.
When determining the moments and shears induced in components that are not included in the
seismic-force-resisting system in the direction under consideration, the stiffening effects of
adjoining rigid structural and nonstructural elements shall be considered and a rational value of
member and restraint stiffness shall be used.
5.2.2.4.4 Special Moment Frames: A special moment frame that is used but not required by
Table 5.2.2 is permitted to be discontinued and supported by a more rigid system with a lower
response modification coefficient, R, provided the requirements of Sec. 5.2.6.2.3 and 5.2.6.4.2
are met. Where a special moment frame is required by Table 5.2.2, the frame shall be continuous
to the foundation.
57
2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
5.2.2.5 Seismic Design Category F: The framing systems of buildings assigned to Seismic
Design Category F shall conform to the requirements of Sec. 5.2.2.4 for Seismic Design
Categories D and E and to the additional requirements and limitations of this section. The height
limitation of Sec. 5.2.2.4.1 shall be reduced from 240 ft to 160 ft (70 to 50 m).
5.2.3 Structure Configuration: Structures shall be classified as regular or irregular based upon
the criteria in this section. Such classification shall be based on the plan and vertical configuration.
5.2.3.1 Diaphragm Flexibility: Diaphragms constructed of untopped steel decking, wood
structural panels, or similar panelized construction shall be considered flexible in structures
having concrete or masonry shear walls. Diaphragms constructed of wood structural panels
shall be considered rigid in light-frame structures using structural panels for lateral load
resistance. Diaphragms of other types shall be considered flexible when the maximum lateral
deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the associated
story. The loadings used for this calculation shall be those prescribed by Sec. 5.4
5.2.3.2 Plan Irregularity: Structures having one or more of the features listed in Table 5.2.3.2
shall be designated as having plan structural irregularity and shall comply with the requirements
in the sections referenced in Table 5.2.3.2.
5.2.3.3 Vertical Irregularity: Structures having one or more of the features listed in Table
5.2.3.3 shall be designated as having vertical irregularity and shall comply with the requirements
in the sections referenced in Table 5.2.3.3.
Exceptions:
1. Structural irregularities of Types 1a, 1b, or 2 in Table 5.2.3.3 do not apply where no
story drift ratio under design lateral load is greater than 130 percent of the story drift
ratio of the story immediately above. Torsional effects need not be considered in the
calculation of story drifts for the purpose of this determination. The story drift ratio
relationship for the top two stories of the structure are not required to be evaluated.
2. Irregularities Types 1a, 1b, and 2 of Table 5.2.3.3 are not required to be considered
for one-story structures or for two-story structures in Seismic Design Categories A,
B, C, or D.
58
Structural Design Criteria
TABLE 5.2.3.2 Plan Structural Irregularities
Reference
Section
Seismic
Design
Category
Application
Torsional Irregularity – to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible
Torsional irregularity shall be considered to exist when
the maximum story drift, computed including accidental
torsion, at one end of the structure transverse to an axis is
more than 1.2 times the average of the story drifts at the
two ends of the structure.
5.2.6.4.2
D, E, and F
5.4.4
C, D, E, and F
Extreme Torsional Irregularity -- to be considered
when diaphragms are not flexible
Extreme torsional irregularity shall be considered to exist
when the maximum story drift, computed including
accidental torsion, at one end of the structure transverse
to an axis is more than 1.4 times the average of the story
drifts at the two ends of the structure.
5.2.6.4.2
D, E, and F
5.4.4
C, D, E, and F
5.2.6.5.1
E and F
2
Re-entrant Corners
Plan configurations of a structure and its lateral-force-resisting system contain re-entrant corners where both
projections of the structure beyond a re-entrant corner are
greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the
structure in the given direction.
5.2.6.4.2
D, E, and F
3
Diaphragm Discontinuity
Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variations in
stiffness including those having cutout or open areas
greater than 50 percent of the gross enclosed diaphragm
area or changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of more
than 50 percent from one story to the next.
5.2.6.4.2
D, E, and F
4
Out-of-Plane Offsets
Discontinuities in a lateral force resistance path such as
out-of-plane offsets of the vertical elements.
5.2.6.4.2
D, E, and F
5.2.6.2.10
B, C, D, E, and
F
5.2.5.2
C, D, E, and F
Irregularity Type and Description
1a
1b
5
Nonparallel Systems
The vertical lateral-force-resisting elements are not
parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes
of the lateral-force-resisting system.
59
2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
TABLE 5.2.3.3 Vertical Structural Irregularities
Irregularity Type and Description
Reference
Section
Seismic
Design
Category
Application
1a
Stiffness Irregularity – Soft Story
A soft story is one in which the lateral stiffness is less
than 70 percent of that in the story above or less than
80 percent of the average stiffness of the three stories
above.
5.2.5.1
D, E, and F
1b
Stiffness Irregularity--Extreme Soft Story
An extreme soft story is one in which the lateral
stiffness is less than 60 percent of that in the story
above or less than 70 percent of the average stiffness
of the three stories above.
5.2.5.1
D, E, and F
5.2.6.5.1
E and F
5.2.5.1
D, E, and F
5.2.5.1
D, E, and F
5.2.5.1
D, E, and F
5.2.6.2.10
B, C, D, E, and
F
5.2.6.4.2
D, E, and F
5.2.6.2.3
B, C, D, E, and
F
5.2.5.1
D, E, and F
5.2.6.5.1
E and F
2
3
4
5
Weight (Mass) Irregularity
Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist where the
effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of
the effective mass of an adjacent story. A roof that is
lighter than the floor below need not be considered.
Vertical Geometric Irregularity
Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to
exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateralforce-resisting system in any story is more than 130
percent of that in an adjacent story.
In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Lateral-Force
Resisting Elements
An in-plane offset of the lateral-force-resisting elements greater than the length of those elements or a
reduction in stiffness of the resisting element in the
story below.
Discontinuity in Capacity – Weak Story
A weak story is one in which the story lateral strength
is less than 80 percent of that in the story above. The
story strength is the total strength of all seismic-resisting elements sharing the story shear for the direction
under consideration.
60
Structural Design Criteria
5.2.4 Redundancy: A reliability factor, D, shall be assigned to all structures based on the extent
of structural redundancy inherent in the lateral-force-resisting system.
5.2.4.1 Seismic Design Categories A, B, and C: For structures in Seismic Design Categories
A, B and C, the value of D may be taken as 1.0.
5.2.4.2 Seismic Design Category D: For structures in Seismic Design Category D, D shall be
taken as the largest of the values of Dx calculated at each story of the structure “x” in accordance
with Eq. 5.2.4.2:
Dx ' 2 &
20
(5.2.4.2)
rmax Ax
x
where:
rmaxx
Ax =
= the ratio of the design story shear resisted by the single element carrying the most
shear force in the story to the total story shear for a given direction of loading.
For braced frames, the value of rmaxx is equal to the lateral force component in the
most heavily loaded brace element divided by the story shear. For moment
frames, rmaxx shall be taken as the maximum of the sum of the shears in any two
adjacent columns in the plane of a moment frame divided by the story shear. For
columns common to two bays with moment resisting connections on opposite
sides at the level under consideration, 70 percent of the shear in that column may
be used in the column shear summation. For shear walls, rmaxx shall be taken
equal to the maximum ratio, rix, calculated as the shear in each wall or wall pier
multiplied by 10/lw (the metric coefficient is 3.3/lw), where lw is the wall or wall
pier length in feet (m) divided by the story shear and where the ratio 10/lw need
not be taken greater than 1.0 for buildings of light frame construction. For dual
systems, rmaxx shall be taken as the maximum value as defined above considering
all lateral-load-resisting elements in the story. The lateral loads shall be distributed to elements based on relative rigidities considering the interaction of the
dual system. For dual systems, the value of D need not exceed 80 percent of the
value calculated above.
the floor area in square feet of the diaphragm level immediately above the story.
The value of D need not exceed 1.5, which is permitted to be used for any structure. The value of
D shall not be taken as less than 1.0.
Exception: For structures with lateral-force-resisting systems in any direction comprised
solely of special moment frames, the lateral-force-resisting system shall be configured
such that the value of D calculated in accordance with this section does not exceed 1.25.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 5.2.4.2 is:
61
2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
Dx ' 2 &
6.1
rmax Ax
x
where Ax is in square meters.
5.2.4.3 Seismic Design Categories E and F: For structures in Seismic Design Categories E
and F, the value of D shall be calculated as indicated in Section 5.2.4.2, above.
Exception: For structures with lateral-force-resisting systems in any direction comprised
solely of special moment frames, the lateral-force-resisting system shall be configured
such that the value of D calculated in accordance with Sec. 5.2.4.2 does not exceed 1.1.
5.2.5 Structural Analysis: A structural analysis conforming to one of the types permitted in
Section 5.2.5.1 shall be made for all structures. Application of loading shall be as indicated in
Sec. 5.2.5.2 and as required by the selected analysis procedure. All members of the structure’s
seismic-force-resisting system and their connections shall have adequate strength to resist the
forces, QE, predicted by the analysis in combination with other loads as required by Sec. 5.2.7.
Drifts predicted by the analysis shall be within the limits specified by Sec. 5.2.8. If a nonlinear
analysis is performed, component deformation demands shall not exceed limiting values as
indicated in Sec. 5.7.3.2.
Exception: For structures in Seismic Design Category A, drift need not be evaluated.
5.2.5.1 Analysis Procedures: The structural analysis required by Sec. 5.2.5 shall consist of one
of the types permitted in Table 5.2.5.1 based on the structure’s Seismic Design Category,
structural system, dynamic properties, and regularity or, with the approval of the authority having
jurisdiction, an alternative generally accepted procedure shall be permitted to be used.
5.2.5.2 Application of Loading: The directions of application of seismic forces used in the
design shall be those that will produce the most critical load effects. It shall be permitted to
satisfy this requirement using the procedures of Sec. 5.2.5.2.1 for Seismic Design Category A or
B, Sec. 5.2.5.2.2 for Seismic Design Category C, and Sec. 5.2.5.2.3 for Seismic Design Category
D, E, or F.
5.2.5.2.1 Seismic Design Category A or B: For structures assigned to Seismic Design
Category A or B, the design seismic forces are permitted to be applied separately in each of two
orthogonal directions and orthogonal interaction effects may be neglected.
62
TABLE 5.2.5.1 Permitted Analytical Procedures
Seismic
Design
Category
Structural Characteristics
Index Force
Analysis,
Sec. 5.3
Equivalent
Lateral
Force Analysis, Sec.
5.4
Modal Response
Spectrum
Analysis,
Sec. 5.5
Linear
Response
History
Analysis,
Sec. 5.6
Nonlinear
Response
History
Analysis,
Sec. 5.7
A
Regular or irregular
P
P
P
P
P
B, C
Regular or irregular
NP
P
P
P
P
D, E, F
Regular structures with T < 3.5Ts
and all structures of light frame
construction
NP
P
P
P
P
Irregular structures with T < 3.5Ts
and having only plan irregularities
Type 2, 3, 4, or 5 Table 5.2.3.2 or
vertical irregularities Type 4 or 5 of
Table 5.2.3.3.
NP
P
P
P
P
Irregular structures with T < 3.5Ts
and having either plan irregularities
Type 1a or 1b of Table 5.2.3.2 or
vertical irregularities Type 1a or
1b, 2, or 3 of Table 5.2.3.3.
NP
NP
P
P
P
All other structures
NP
NP
P
P
P
Notes: P indicates permitted; NP indicates not permitted.
63
2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
5.2.5.2.2 Seismic Design Category C: Loading applied to structures assigned to Seismic
Design Category C shall, as a minimum, conform to the requirements of Sec. 5.2.5.2.1 for
Seismic Design Categories A and B and the requirements of this section. Structures that have
plan structural irregularity Type 5 in Table 5.2.3.2 shall be analyzed for seismic forces using a
three-dimensional representation and either of the following procedures:
a. The structure shall be analyzed using the equivalent lateral force analysis procedure of Sec.
5.4, the modal response spectrum analysis procedure of Sec. 5.5, or the linear response
history analysis procedure of Sec. 5.6 as permitted under Sec. 5.2.5.1 with the loading
applied independently in any two orthogonal directions. The most critical load effect due to
direction of application of seismic forces on the structure may be assumed to be satisfied if
components and their foundations are designed for the following combination of prescribed
loads: 100 percent of the forces for one direction plus 30 percent of the forces for the
perpendicular direction; the combination requiring the maximum component strength shall be
used.
b. The structure shall be analyzed using the linear response history analysis procedure of Sec.
5.6 or the nonlinear response history analysis procedure of Sec. 5.7 as permitted by Sec.
5.2.5.1 with simultaneous application of ground motion in each of two orthogonal directions.
5.2.5.2.3 Seismic Design Category D, E, or F: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category
D, E, or F shall be designed for the most critical load effect due to application of seismic forces
in any direction. Either of the procedures of Sec. 5.2.5.2.2 shall be permitted to be used to satisfy
this requirement. Two-dimensional analysis shall be permitted to be used where diaphragms are
flexible and the structure does not have plan structural irregularity Type 5 of Table 5.2.3.2.
5.2.6 Design and Detailing Requirements: The design and detailing of the components of the
seismic-force-resisting system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Foundation
design shall conform to the applicable requirements of Chapter 7. The materials and the systems
composed of those materials shall conform to the requirements and limitations of Chapters 8
through 12 for the applicable category.
5.2.6.1 Seismic Design Category A: The design and detailing of structures assigned to Seismic
Design Category A shall comply with the requirements of this section.
5.2.6.1.1 Connections: All parts of the structure between separation joints shall be interconnected, and the connections shall be capable of transmitting the seismic force, Fp, induced by
the parts being connected. Any smaller portion of the structure shall be tied to the remainder of
the structure with elements having a strength of 0.133 times the short period design spectral
response acceleration coefficient, SDS, times the weight of the smaller portion or 5 percent of the
portion's weight, whichever is greater.
A positive connection for resisting a horizontal force acting parallel to the member shall be
provided for each beam, girder, or truss to its support. The connection shall have a minimum
strength of 5 percent of the dead load and live load reaction.
5.2.6.1.2 Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls: Concrete and masonry walls shall be
anchored to the roof and all floors and to members that provide lateral support for the wall or
which are supported by the wall. The anchorage shall provide a direct connection between the
64
Structural Design Criteria
walls and the roof or floor construction. The connections shall be capable of resisting a seismic
lateral force, Fp, induced by the wall of 400 times the short period design spectral response
acceleration coefficient, SDS, in pounds per lineal ft (5840 times SDS in N/m ) of wall multiplied
by the occupancy importance factor, I. Walls shall be designed to resist bending between
anchors where the anchor spacing exceeds 4 ft (1.2 m).
5.2.6.2 Seismic Design Category B: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B shall
conform to the requirements of Sec. 5.2.6.1 for Seismic Design Category A and the requirements
of this section.
5.2.6.2.1 P-Delta Effects: P-delta effects shall be included as required by Sec. 5.4.6.2
5.2.6.2.2 Openings: Where openings occur in shear walls, diaphragms or other plate-type
elements, reinforcement at the edges of the openings shall be designed to transfer the stresses
into the structure. The edge reinforcement shall extend into the body of the wall or diaphragm a
distance sufficient to develop the force in the reinforcement.
5.2.6.2.3 Discontinuities in Vertical System: Structures with a discontinuity in lateral
capacity, vertical irregularity Type 5 as defined in Table 5.2.3.3, shall not be over 2 stories or 30
ft (9 m) in height where the "weak" story has a calculated strength of less than 65 percent of the
strength of the story above.
Exception: The height limitation shall not apply when the "weak" story is capable of
resisting a total seismic force equal to 75 percent of the deflection amplification factor,
Cd, times the design force prescribed in Sec. 5.3.
5.2.6.2.4 Nonredundant Systems: The design of a structure shall consider the potentially
adverse effect that the failure of a single member, connection, or component of the seismic-forceresisting system would have on the stability of the structure.
5.2.6.2.5 Collector Elements: Collector elements shall be provided that are capable of transferring the seismic forces originating in other portions of the structure to the element providing the
resistance to those forces.
5.2.6.2.6 Diaphragms: The deflection in the plane of the diaphragm, as determined by engineering analysis, shall not exceed the permissible deflection of the attached elements.
Permissible deflection shall be a deflection that permits the attached element to maintain its
structural integrity under the individual loading and to continue to support the prescribed loads.
Floor and roof diaphragms shall be designed to resist the following seismic forces: A minimum
force equal to 20 percent of the short period design spectral response acceleration, SDS, times the
weight of the diaphragm and other elements of the structure attached thereto plus the portion of
the seismic shear force at that level, Vx, required to be transferred to the components of the vertical seismic-force-resisting system because of offsets or changes in stiffness of the vertical
components above and below the diaphragm.
Diaphragms shall provide for both the shear and bending stresses resulting from these forces.
Diaphragms shall have ties or struts to distribute the wall anchorage forces into the diaphragm.
Diaphragm connections shall be positive, mechanical, or welded type connections.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
5.2.6.2.7 Bearing Walls: Exterior and interior bearing walls and their anchorage shall be designed for a force equal to 40 percent of the short period design spectral response acceleration,
SDS, times the weight of wall, Wc, normal to the surface, with a minimum force of 10 percent of
the weight of the wall. Interconnection of wall elements and connections to supporting framing
systems shall have sufficient ductility, rotational capacity, or strength to resist shrinkage, thermal
changes, and differential foundation settlement when combined with seismic forces.
5.2.6.2.8 Inverted Pendulum-Type Structures: Supporting columns or piers of inverted
pendulum-type structures shall be designed for the bending moment calculated at the base determined using the procedures given in Sec. 5.3 and varying uniformly to a moment at the top equal
to one-half the calculated bending moment at the base.
5.2.6.2.9 Anchorage of Nonstructural Systems: When required by Chapter 6, all portions or
components of the structure shall be anchored for the seismic force, Fp, prescribed therein.
5.2.6.2.10 Columns Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames: Columns supporting
discontinuous walls or frames of structures having plan irregularity Type 4 of Table 5.2.3.2 or
vertical irregularity Type 4 of Table 5.2.3.3 shall have the design strength to resist the maximum
axial force that can develop in accordance with the special combination of loads of Sec. 5.2.7.1.
5.2.6.3 Seismic Design Category C: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall
conform to the requirements of Sec. 5.2.6.2 for Seismic Design Category B and to the requirements of this section.
5.2.6.3.1 Collector Elements: Collector elements shall be provided that are capable of
transferring the seismic forces originating in other portions of the structure to the element
providing the resistance to those forces. Collector elements, splices, and their connections to
resisting elements shall resist the of Sec. 5.2.7.1.
Exception: In structures or portions thereof braced entirely by light frame shear walls,
collector elements, splices, and connections to resisting elements are permitted to be
designed to resist forces in accordance with Eq. 5.2.6.4.4.
The quantity S0E in Eq. 5.2.7.1-1 need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to
the collector by the diaphragm and other elements of the lateral-force-resisting system.
5.2.6.3.2 Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls: Concrete or masonry walls shall be
anchored to all floors, roofs, and members that provide out-of-plane lateral support for the wall
or that are supported by the wall. The anchorage shall provide a positive direct connection
between the wall and the floor, roof, or supporting member capable of resisting the horizontal
forces specified in this section for structures with flexible diaphragms or of Sec. 6.1.3 for
structures with diaphragms that are not flexible.
Anchorage of walls to flexible diaphragms shall have the strength to develop the out-of-plane
force given by Eq. 5.2.6.3.2:
Fp ' 1.2 SDS I Wp
(5.2.6.3.2)
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Structural Design Criteria
where:
Fp
= the design force in the individual anchors,
SDS
= the design spectral response acceleration at short periods in accordance with Sec.
4.1.2.5,
I
= the occupancy importance factor in accordance with Sec. 1.4, and
Wp
= the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor.
Diaphragms shall be provided with continuous ties or struts between diaphragm chords to
distribute these anchorage forces into the diaphragms. Added chords are permitted to be used to
form subdiaphragms to transmit the anchorage forces to the main continuous cross-ties. The
maximum length to width ratio of the structural subdiaphragm shall be 2-1/2 to 1. Connections
and anchorages capable of resisting the prescribed forces shall be provided between the diaphragm and the attached components. Connections shall extend into the diaphragm a sufficient
distance to develop the force transferred into the diaphragm.
In wood diaphragms, the continuous ties shall be in addition to the diaphragm sheathing.
Anchorage shall not be accomplished by use of toe nails or nails subject to withdrawal nor shall
wood ledgers of framing be used in cross-grain bending or cross-grain tension. The diaphragm
sheathing shall not be considered as effectively providing the ties or struts required by this
section.
In metal deck diaphragms, the metal deck shall not be used as the continuous ties required by
this section in the direction perpendicular to the deck span.
Diaphragm-to-wall anchorage using embedded straps shall be attached to or hooked around the
reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated so as to effectively transfer forces to the reinforcing
steel.
5.2.6.4 Seismic Design Category D: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D shall
conform to the requirements of Sec. 5.2.6.3 for Seismic Design Category C and to the requirements of this section.
5.2.6.4.1 Collector Elements: Collector elements shall be provided that are capable of
transferring the seismic forces originating in other portions of the structure to the element
providing the resistance to those forces. Collector elements, splices, and their connections to
resisting elements shall resist the forces determined in accordance with Eq. 5.2.6.4.4. In
addition, collector elements, splices, and their connections to resisting elements shall have the
design strength to resist the earthquake loads defined in the special load combination of Sec.
5.2.7.1.
Exception: In structures or portions thereof braced entirely by light shear walls,
collector elements, splices, and connections to resisting elements are permitted to be
designed to resist forces in accordance with Eq. 5.2.5.4.
The quantity S0E in Eq. 5.2.7.1-1 need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to
the collector by the diaphragm and other elements of the lateral-force-resisting system.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
5.2.6.4.2 Plan or Vertical Irregularities: The design shall consider the potential for adverse
effects when the ratio of the strength provided in any story to the strength required is significantly less than that ratio for the story immediately above and the strengths shall be adjusted
to compensate for this effect.
For structures having a plan structural irregularity of Type 1a, 1b, 2, 3, or 4 in Table 5.2.3.2 or a
vertical structural irregularity of Type 4 in Table 5.2.3.3, the design forces determined from Sec.
5.4.1 shall be increased 25 percent for connections of diaphragms to vertical elements and to
collectors and for connections of collectors to the vertical elements. Collectors also shall be
designed for these increased forces unless subject to the requirements of Sec. 5.2.6.4.1 or Sec.
8.6.2.
5.2.6.4.3 Vertical Seismic Forces: The vertical component of earthquake ground motion shall
be considered in the design of horizontal cantilever and horizontal prestressed components. The
load combinations used in evaluating such components shall include E as defined by Eq. 5.2.7-1
and 5.2.7-2. Horizontal cantilever structural components shall be designed for a minimum net
upward force of 0.2 times the dead load in addition to the applicable load combinations of Sec.
5.2.7.
5.2.6.4.4 Diaphragms: Diaphragms shall be designed to resist design seismic forces determined in accordance with Eq. 5.2.6.4.4 as follows:
n
Fpx '
3 Fi
i ' x
n
w px
(5.2.6.4.4)
3 wi
i ' x
where:
Fpx
= the diaphragm design force,
Fi
= the design force applied to Level i,
wi
= the weight tributary to Level I, and
wpx
= the weight tributary to the diaphragm at Level x.
The force determined from Eq. 5.2.6.4.4 need not exceed 0.4SDSIwpx but shall not be less than
0.2SDSIwpx. When the diaphragm is required to transfer design seismic forces from the verticalresisting elements above the diaphragm to other vertical-resisting elements below the diaphragm
due to offsets in the placement of the elements or to changes in relative lateral stiffness in the
vertical elements, these forces shall be added to those determined from Eq. 5.2.6.4.4.
5.2.6.5 Seismic Design Categories E and F: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories
E and F shall conform to the requirements of Sec. 5.2.6.4 for Seismic Design Category D and to
the requirements of this section.
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Structural Design Criteria
5.2.6.5.1 Plan or Vertical Irregularities: Structures having plan irregularity Type 1b of Table
5.2.3.2 or vertical irregularities Type 1b or 5 of Table 5.2.3.3 shall not be permitted.
5.2.7 Combination of Load Effects: The effects on the structure and its components due to
gravity loads and seismic forces shall be combined in accordance with the factored load
combinations as presented in ASCE7- 98 except that the effect of seismic loads, E, shall be as
defined herein.
The effect of seismic load E shall be defined by Eq. 5.2.7-1 as follows for load combinations in
which the effects of gravity loads and seismic loads are additive:
E ' DQE % 0.2 SDS D
(5.2.7-1)
where:
E
= the effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces,
SDS
= the design spectral response acceleration at short periods obtained from Sec.
4.1.2.5.
D
= the effect of dead load,
D
= the reliability factor, and
QE
= the effect of horizontal seismic forces.
The effect of seismic load E shall be defined by Eq. 5.2.7-2 as follows for load combinations in
which the effects of gravity counteract seismic load:
E ' DQE & 0.2 SDS D
(5.2.7-2)
where E, D, QE, SDS, and D are as defined above.
5.2.7.1 Special Combination of Loads: When specifically required by the Provisions, the
design seismic force on components sensitive to the effects of structural overstrength shall be as
defined by Eq. 5.2.7.1-1 and 5.2.7.1-2 when seismic load is, respectively, additive or
counteractive to the gravity forces as follows:
E ' S0 QE % 0.2 SDS D
(5.2.7.1-1)
E ' S0 QE & 0.2 SDS D
(5.2.7.1-2)
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
where E, QE, SDS, and D are as defined above and S0 is the system overstrength factor as given in
Table 5.2.2. The term S0QE calculated in accordance with Eq. 5.2.7.1-1 and 5.2.7.1-2 need not
exceed the maximum force that can develop in the element as determined by a rational plastic
mechanism analysis or nonlinear response analysis utilizing realistic expected values of material
strengths.
Exception: The special load combination of Eq. 5.2.7.1-1 need not apply to the design of
components in structures in Seismic Design Category A.
5.2.8 Deflection and Drift Limits: The design story drift, ), as determined in Sec. 5.3.7 or
5.4.6 shall not exceed the allowable story drift, )a, as obtained from Table 5.2.8 for any story.
For structures with significant torsional deflections, the maximum drift shall include torsional
effects. All portions of the structure shall be designed and constructed to act as an integral unit
in resisting seismic forces unless separated structurally by a distance sufficient to avoid damaging
contact under total deflection, *x , as determined in Sec. 5.3.7.1.
TABLE 5.2.8 Allowable Story Drift, )a a (in. or mm)
Seismic Use Group
Structure
I
II
III
Structures, other than masonry shear wall or
masonry wall frame structures, four stories or
less in height with interior walls, partitions, ceilings, and exterior wall systems that have been
designed to accommodate the story drifts
0.025 hsx b
0.020 hsx
0.015 hsx
Masonry cantilever shear wall structures c
0.010 hsx
0.010 hsx
0.010 hsx
Other masonry shear wall structures
0.007 hsx
0.007 hsx
0.007 hsx
Masonry wall frame structures
0.013 hsx
0.013 hsx
0.010 hsx
All other structures
0.020 hsx
0.015 hsx
0.010 hsx
a
hsx is the story height below Level x.
b
There shall be no drift limit for single-story structures with interior walls, partitions, ceilings, and exterior
wall systems that have been designed to accommodate the story drifts.
c
Structures in which the basic structural system consists of masonry shear walls designed as vertical
elements cantilevered from their base or foundation support which are so constructed that moment transfer
between shear walls (coupling) is negligible.
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Structural Design Criteria
5.3 INDEX FORCE ANALYSIS PROCEDURE: An index force analysis shall consist of the
application of static lateral index forces to a linear mathematical model of the structure independently in each of two orthogonal directions. For purposes of analysis, the structure shall be
considered to be fixed at the base. The lateral index forces shall be as given by Eq. 5.3 and shall
be applied simultaneously at each floor level:
Fx ' 0.01 w x
(5.3)
where:
Fx =
the design lateral force applied at Story x,
wx =
the portion of the total gravity load of the structure, W, located or assigned to Level x,
and
W =
the total dead load and applicable portions of other loads listed below:
1. In areas used for storage, a minimum of 25 percent of the floor live load shall be
applicable. Floor live load in public garages and open parking structures is not
applicable.
2. Where an allowance for partition load is included in the floor load design, the
actual partition weight or a minimum weight of 10 psf (500 Pa/m2) of floor area,
whichever is greater, shall be applicable.
3. Total operating weight of permanent equipment.
4. In areas where the design flat roof snow load does not exceed 30 pounds per
square ft, the effective snow load is permitted to be taken as zero. In areas where
the design snow load is greater than 30 pounds per square ft and where siting and
load duration conditions warrant and when approved by the authority having
jurisdiction, the effective snow load is permitted to be reduced to not less than 20
percent of the design snow load.
5.4 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE: An equivalent lateral force analysis
shall consist of the application of equivalent static lateral forces to a linear mathematical model
of the structure. The directions of application of lateral forces shall be as indicated in Sec.
5.2.5.2. The lateral forces applied in each direction shall sum to a total seismic base shear given
by Sec. 5.4.1 and shall be distributed vertically in accordance with Sec. 5.4.3. For purposes of
analysis, the structure shall be considered fixed at the base.
5.4.1 Seismic Base Shear: The seismic base shear, V, in a given direction shall be determined
in accordance with the following equation:
V ' Cs W
(5.4.1)
where:
Cs =
the seismic response coefficient determined in accordance with Sec. 5.4.1.1 and
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
W =
the total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as defined in Sec. 5.3.
5.4.1.1 Calculation of Seismic Response Coefficient: The seismic response coefficient, Cs,
shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:
Cs '
SDS
(5.4.1.1-1)
R/I
where:
SDS
= the design spectral response acceleration in the short period range as determined
from Sec. 4.1.2.5,
R
= the response modification factor from Table 5.2.2, and
I
= the occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with Sec. 1.4.
The value of the seismic response coefficient computed in accordance with Eq. 5.4.1.1-1 need not
exceed the following:
Cs '
SD1
(5.4.1.1-2)
T(R/I)
where I and R are as defined above and
SD1
= the design spectral response acceleration at a period of 1.0 second as determined
from Sec. 4.1.2.5,
T
= the fundamental period of the structure (sec) determined in Sec. 5.4.2, and
S1
= the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration
determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.
Cs shall not be taken less than:
C s ' 0.044 I SDS
(5.4.1.1-3)
For structures in Seismic Design Categories E and F, the value of the seismic response coefficient, Cs, shall not be taken less than:
Cs '
0.5 S1
(5.4.1.1-4)
R/I
For regular structures 5 stories or less in height and having a period, T, of 0.5 seconds or less, the
seismic response coefficient, Cs, shall be permitted to be calculated using values of 1.5 and 0.6,
72
Structural Design Criteria
respectively, for the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations, SS
and S1.
A soil-structure interaction reduction is permitted when determined using Sec. 5.8 or other
generally accepted procedures approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
5.4.2 Period Determination: The fundamental period of the building, T, in the direction under
consideration shall be established using the structural properties and deformational characteristics of the resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis. The fundamental period, T, so
calculated, shall not exceed the product of the coefficient for the upper limit on calculated period,
Cu, from Table 5.4.2 and the approximate fundamental period, Ta, calculated in accordance with
Sec. 5.4.2.1. The approximate period formulae of Sec. 5.4.2.1 is permitted to be used directly as
an alternative to performing an analysis to determine the fundamental period of the building, T.
TABLE 5.4.2 Coefficient for Upper Limit on Calculated Period
Design Spectral
Response Acceleration at 1 Second, SD1
Coefficient Cu
Greater than or equal to 0.4
1.4
0.3
1.4
0.2
1.5
0.15
1.6
0.1
1.7
Less than or equal to 0.05
1.7
5.4.2.1 Approximate Fundamental Period: The approximate fundamental period, Ta, in
seconds, shall be determined from the following equation:
x
Ta ' C r hn
(5.4.2.1-1)
where hn is the height (ft or m) above the base to the highest level of the structure and the values
of Cr and x shall be determined from Table 5.4.2.1.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
TABLE 5.4.2.1 Values of Approximate Period Parameters Cr and x
Structure Type
COT
x
Moment resisting frame systems of steel in which the
frames resist 100 percent of the required seismic force
and are not enclosed or adjoined by more rigid components that will prevent the frames from deflecting when
subjected to seismic forces.
0.028
(metric 0.0724)
0.8
Moment resisting frame systems of reinforced concrete in
which the frames resist 100 percent of the required seismic force and are not enclosed or adjoined by more rigid
components that will prevent the frames from deflecting
when subjected to seismic forces.
0.016
(metric 0.0466)
0.9
Eccentrically braced steel frames
0.03
(metric 0.0731)
0.75
All other structural systems
0.02
(metric 0.0488)
0.75
Alternatively, the approximate fundamental period, Ta, in seconds, is permitted to be determined
from the following equation for concrete and steel moment resisting frame structures not
exceeding 12 stories in height and having a minimum story height of 10 ft (3 m):
Ta ' 0.1 N
(5.4.2.1-2)
where N = number of stories.
The approximate fundamental period, Ta, in seconds, for masonry or concrete shear wall
structures is permitted to be determined from the following equation:
Ta '
0.0019
Cw
hn Ta '
0.0062
CW
hn
(5.4.2.1-3)
where Cw is a coefficient related to the effective shear wall area and hn is as defined above. The
coefficient Cw shall be calculated from the following equation:
100
j
AB i ' 1
n
Cw '
hn
Ai
hi
1 % 0.83
hn
D
74
2
(5.4.2.1-4)
Structural Design Criteria
where:
AB =
the base area of the structure (ft2. or m2),
Ai =
the area of shear wall i (ft2. or m2),
Di =
the length of shear wall i (ft or m),
hi =
the height of shear wall i (ft or m), and
n =
the number of shear walls in the building effective in resisting lateral forces in the
direction under consideration.
5.4.3 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces: The lateral force, Fx (kip or kN), induced at any
level shall be determined from the following equations:
Fx ' Cvx V
(5.4.3-1)
and
k
Cvx '
w x hx
n
3 wi h i
(5.4.3-2)
k
i'1
where:
Cvx
=
vertical distribution factor,
V
=
total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure (kip or kN),
wi and wx =
the portion of the total gravity load of the structure, W, located or assigned to
Level i or x,
hi and hx
=
the height (ft or m) from the base to Level i or x, and
k
=
an exponent related to the structure period as follows:
For structures having a period of 0.5 seconds or less, k = 1
For structures having a period of 2.5 seconds or more, k = 2
For structures having a period between 0.5 and 2.5 seconds, k shall be 2 or
shall be determined by linear interpolation between 1 and 2
5.4.4 Horizontal Shear Distribution: The seismic design story shear in any story, Vx (kip or
kN), shall be determined from the following equation:
n
V x ' 3 Fi
(5.4.4)
i'x
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
where Fi = the portion of the seismic base shear, V (kip or kN), induced at Level i.
The seismic design story shear, Vx (kip or kN), shall be distributed to the various vertical
elements of the seismic-force-resisting system in the story under consideration based on the
relative lateral stiffnesses of the vertical-resisting elements and the diaphragm.
5.4.4.1 Inherent Torsion: The distribution of lateral forces at each level shall consider the
effect of the inherent torsional moment, Mt (kip"ft or kN"m), resulting from eccentric location of
the masses.
5.4.4.2. Accidental Torsion: In addition to the inherent torsional moment, the distribution of
lateral forces also shall include accidental torsional moments, Mta (kip"ft or kN"m), caused by an
assumed displacement of the mass each way from its actual location by a distance equal to 5
percent of the dimension of the structure perpendicular to the direction of the applied forces.
5.4.4.3 Dynamic Amplification of Torsion: For structures of Seismic Design Categories C, D,
E and F where Type 1a or 1b torsional irregularity exists as defined in Table 5.2.3.1, the effects
of torsional irregularity shall be accounted for by multiplying the sum of Mt plus Mta at each level
by a torsional amplification factor, Ax, determined from the following equation:
*max
Ax '
2
(5.4.4.3-1)
1.2 *avg
where:
*max
= the maximum displacement at Level x (in. or mm) and
*avg
= the average of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure at Level x
(in. or mm).
The torsional amplification factor, Ax, is not required to exceed 3.0. The more severe loading for
each element shall be considered for design.
5.4.5 Overturning: The structure shall be designed to resist overturning effects caused by the
seismic forces determined in Sec. 5.3.4. At any story, the increment of overturning moment in
the story under consideration shall be distributed to the various vertica- force-resisting elements
in the same proportion as the distribution of the horizontal shears to those elements.
The overturning moments at Level x, Mx (kip"ft or kN"m), shall be determined from the following
equation:
n
Mx ' 3 Fi (hi & hx )
(5.4.5)
i & x
where:
76
Structural Design Criteria
Fi
=
the portion of the seismic base shear, V, induced at Level i and
hi and hx
=
the height (ft or m) from the base to Level i or x,
The foundations of structures, except inverted pendulum-type structures, shall be permitted to be
designed for three-fourths of the foundation overturning design moment, Mf (kip"ft or kN"m),
determined using Eq. 5.4.5 at the foundation-soil interface.
5.4.6 Drift Determination and P-Delta Effects: Story drifts and, where required, member
forces and moments due to P-delta effects shall be determined in accordance with this section.
Determination of story drifts shall be based on the application of the design seismic forces to a
mathematical model of the physical structure. The model shall include the stiffness and strength
of all elements that are significant to the distribution of forces and deformations in the structure
and shall represent the spatial distribution of the mass and stiffness of the structure. In addition,
the model shall comply with the following:
1. Stiffness properties of reinforced concrete and masonry elements shall consider the effects of
cracked sections and
2. For steel moment resisting frame systems, the contribution of panel zone deformations to
overall story drift shall be included.
5.4.6.1 Story Drift Determination: The design story drift, ), shall be computed as the
difference of the deflections at the center of mass at the top and bottom of the story under
consideration.
Exception: For structures of Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F having plan
irregularity Type 1a or 1b of Table 5.4.3.2-2, the design story drift, ), shall be computed
as the largest difference of the deflections along any of the edges of the structure at the
top and bottom of the story under consideration.
The deflections of Level x, *x (in. or mm), shall be determined in accordance with following
equation:
*x '
C d *xe
(5.4.6.1)
I
where:
Cd
= the deflection amplification factor in Table 5.2.2,
*xe
= the deflections determined by an elastic analysis (in. or mm), and
I
= the occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with Sec. 1.4.
The elastic analysis of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be made using the prescribed
seismic design forces of Sec. 5.4.3. For the purpose of this section, the value of the base shear,
V, used in Eq. 5.3.2 need not be limited by the value obtained from Eq. 5.3.2.1-3.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
For determining compliance with the story drift limitation of Sec. 5.2.8, the deflections of Level
x, *x (in. or mm), shall be calculated as required in this section. For purposes of this drift
analysis only, it is permissible to use the computed fundamental period, T (secs), of the structure
without the upper bound limitation specified in Sec. 5.4.2 when determining drift level seismic
design forces.
Where applicable, the design story drift, ) (in. or mm), shall be increased by the incremental
factor relating to the P-delta effects as determined in Sec. 5.4.6.2.
5.4.6.2 P-Delta Effects: P-delta effects on story shears and moments, the resulting member
forces and moments, and the story drifts induced by these effects are not required to be considered when the stability coefficient, 2, as determined by the following equation is equal to or
less than 0.10:
2 '
Px )
(5.4.6.2-1)
Vx hsx C d
where:
Px
= the total vertical design load at and above Level x (kip or kN). When calculating
the vertical design load for purposes of determining P-delta, the individual load
factors need not exceed 1.0.
)
= the design story drift occurring simultaneously with Vx (in. or mm).
Vx
= the seismic shear force acting between Level x and x - 1 (kip or kN).
hsx
= the story height below Level x (in. or mm).
Cd
= the deflection amplification factor in Table 5.2.2.
The stability coefficient, 2, shall not exceed 2max determined as follows:
2max '
0.5
# 0.25
$ Cd
(5.4.6.2-2)
where $ is the ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between Levels x and x - 1.
This ratio is permitted to be conservatively taken as 1.0.
When the stability coefficient, 2, is greater than 0.10 but less than or equal to 2max, the incremental factor related to P-delta effects, ad, shall be determined by rational analysis (see Part 2,
Commentary). To obtain the story drift for including the P-delta effects, the design story drift
determined in Sec. 5.4.6.1 shall be permitted to be multiplied by 1.0/(1 - 2).
When 2 is greater than 2max, the structure is potentially unstable and shall be redesigned.
5.5 MODAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS PROCEDURE: A modal response
spectrum analysis shall consist of the analysis of a linear mathematical model of the structure to
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Structural Design Criteria
determine the maximum accelerations, forces, and displacements resulting from the dynamic
response to ground shaking represented by the design response spectrum. The analysis shall be
performed in accordance with the requirements of this section. For purposes of analysis, the
structure shall be permitted to be considered to be fixed at the base or, alternatively, it shall be
permitted to use realistic assumptions with regard to the stiffness of foundations. The symbols
used in this section have the same meaning as those for similar terms used in Sec. 5.4 but with
the subscript m denoting quantities relating to the mth mode.
5.5.1 Modeling: A mathematical model of the structure shall be constructed that represents the
spatial distribution of mass and stiffness throughout the structure. For regular structures with
independent orthogonal seismic-force-resisting systems, independent two-dimensional models
are permitted to be constructed to represent each system. For irregular structures or structures
without independent orthogonal systems, a three-dimensional model incorporating a minimum of
three dynamic degrees of freedom consisting of translation in two orthogonal plan directions and
torsional rotation about the vertical axis shall be included at each level of the structure. Where
the diaphragms are not rigid compared to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting
system, the model should include representation of the diaphragm’s flexibility and such
additional dynamic degrees of freedom as are required to account for the participation of the
diaphragm in the structure’s dynamic response. In addition, the model shall comply with the
following:
1. Stiffness properties of concrete and masonry elements shall consider the effects of cracked
sections and
2. The contribution of panel zone deformations to overall story drift shall be included for steel
moment frame resisting systems.
5.5.2 Modes: An analysis shall be conducted to determine the natural modes of vibration for the
structure including the period of each mode, the modal shape vector N, the modal participation
factor, and modal mass. The analysis shall include a sufficient number of modes to obtain a
combined modal mass participation of at least 90 percent of the actual mass in each of two
orthogonal directions.
5.5.3 Modal Properties: The required periods, mode shapes, and participation factors of the
structure shall be calculated by established methods of structural analysis for the fixed-base
condition using the masses and elastic stiffnesses of the seismic-force-resisting system.
5.5.4 Modal Base Shear: The portion of the base shear contributed by the mth mode, Vm, shall
be determined from the following equations:
Vm ' Csm Wm
2
n
Wm '
(5.5.4-1)
3 wi Nim
i'1
n
3
i'1
(5.5.4-2)
2
w i Nim
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
where:
Csm
= the modal seismic response coefficient as determined by Eq. 5.5.4-3,
Wm
= the effective modal gravity load including portions of the live load as defined in
Sec. 5.3,
wi
= the portion of the total gravity load of the structure at Level i, and
Nim
= the displacement amplitude at the ith level of the structure when vibrating in its
mth mode.
The modal seismic response coefficient, Csm, shall be determined in accordance with the
following equation:
C sm '
Sam
(5.5.4-3)
R/I
where:
Sam
= The design spectral response acceleration at period Tm determined from either the
general design response spectrum of Sec. 4.1.2.5 or a site-specific response
spectrum determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.3,
R
= the response modification factor determined from Table 5.2.2,
I
= the occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with Sec. 1.4, and
Tm
= the modal period of vibration (in seconds) of the mth mode of the structure.
Exceptions:
1. When the general design response spectrum of Sec. 4.1.2.6 is used for structures on
Site Class D, E or F soils, the modal seismic design coefficient, Csm, for modes other
than the fundamental mode that have periods less than 0.3 seconds is permitted to be
determined by the following equation:
where SDS is as defined in Sec. 4.1.2.5 and R, I, and Tm are as defined above.
Csm '
0.4 S DS
(R/I)
( 1.0 % 5.0 Tm)
(5.5.4-4)
2. When the general design response spectrum of Sec. 4.1.2.6 is used for structures
where any modal period of vibration, Tm, exceeds 4.0 seconds, the modal seismic
design coefficient, Csm, for that mode is permitted to be determined by the following
equation:
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Structural Design Criteria
C sm '
4 S D1
(5.5.4-5)
2
(R/I)Tm
where R, I, and Tm are as defined above and and SD1 is the design spectral response
acceleration at a period of 1 second as determined in Sec. 4.1.2.5.
The reduction due to soil-structure interaction as determined in Sec. 5.8.3 shall be permitted to
be used.
5.5.5 Modal Forces, Deflections, and Drifts: The modal force, Fxm, at each level shall be
determined by the following equations:
Fxm ' C vxm Vm
(5.5.5-1)
and
Cvxm '
w x Nxm
n
(5.5.5-2)
3 w i Nim
i'1
where:
Cvxm
=
the vertical distribution factor in the mth mode,
Vm
=
the total design lateral force or shear at the base in the mth mode,
wi, wx
=
the portion of the total gravity load, W, located or assigned to Level i or x,
Nxm
=
the displacement amplitude at the xth level of the structure when vibrating in
its mth mode, and
Nim
=
the displacement amplitude at the ith level of the structure when vibrating in
its mth mode.
The modal deflection at each level, *xm, shall be determined by the following equations:
*xm '
C d *xem
(5.5.5-3)
I
and
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
*xem '
2
g
T m Fxm
4B2
wx
(5.5.5-4)
where:
Cd
=
the deflection amplification factor determined from Table 5.2.2,
*xem
=
the deflection of Level x in the mth mode at the center of the mass at Level x
determined by an elastic analysis,
g
=
the acceleration due to gravity (ft/s2 or m/s2),
I
=
the occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with Sec. 1.4,
Tm
=
the modal period of vibration, in seconds, of the mth mode of the structure,
Fxm
=
the portion of the seismic base shear in the mth mode, induced at Level x, and
wx
=
the portion of the total gravity load of the structure, W, located or assigned to
Level x.
The modal drift in a story, )m, shall be computed as the difference of the deflections, *xm, at the
top and bottom of the story under consideration.
5.5.6 Modal Story Shears and Moments: The story shears, story overturning moments, and
the shear forces and overturning moments in vertical elements of the structural system at each
level due to the seismic forces determined from the appropriate equation in Sec. 5.5.5 shall be
computed for each mode by linear static methods.
5.5.7 Design Values: The design value for the modal base shear, Vt; each of the story shear,
moment, and drift quantities; and the deflection at each level shall be determined by combining
their modal values as obtained from Sec. 5.5.5 and 5.5.6. The combination shall be carried out
by taking the square root of the sum of the squares of each of the modal values or by the
complete quadratic combination technique. The complete quadratic combination shall be used
where closely spaced periods in the translational and torsional modes will result in crosscorrelation of the modes.
A base shear, V, shall be calculated using the equivalent lateral force procedure in Sec. 5.4. For
the purpose of this calculation, the fundamental period of the structure, T (sec), shall not exceed
the coefficient for upper limit on the calculated period, Cu, times the approximate fundamental
period of the structure, Ta. Where the design value for the modal base shear, Vt, is less than 85
percent of the calculated base shear, V, using the equivalent lateral force procedure, the design
story shears, moments, drifts, and floor deflections shall be multiplied by the following
modification factor:
0.85
V
Vt
(5.5.7.1)
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Structural Design Criteria
where:
V =
the equivalent lateral force procedure base shear calculated in accordance with Sec.
5.4 and
Vt =
the modal base shear calculated in accordance with this section.
Where soil-structure interaction in accordance with Sec. 5.8 is considered, the reduced value of V
calculated in accordance with that section may be used for V in Eq. 5.5.7.1.
5.5.8 Horizontal Shear Distribution: The horizontal distribution of shear shall be in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 5.4.4 except that amplification of torsion per Sec.
5.4.4.1.3 is not required for that portion of the torsion included in the dynamic analysis model.
5.5.9 Foundation Overturning: The foundation overturning moment at the foundation-soil
interface shall be permitted to be reduced by 10 percent.
5.5.10 P-Delta Effects: The P-delta effects shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 5.4.6.
The story drifts and story shears shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 5.4.6.1.
5.6 LINEAR RESPONSE HISTORY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE: A linear response history
analysis shall consist of an analysis of a linear mathematical model of the structure to determine
its response, through methods of numerical integration, to suites of ground motion acceleration
histories compatible with the design response spectrum for the site. The analysis shall be
performed in accordance with the provisions of this section. For the purposes of analysis, the
structure shall be permitted to be considered to be fixed at the base or, alternatively, it shall be
permitted to use realistic assumptions with regard to the stiffness of foundations.
5.6.1 Modeling: Mathematical models shall conform to the requirements of Sec. 5.5.1.
5.6.2 Ground Motion: A suite of not less than three appropriate ground motions shall be used
in the analysis. Ground motion shall conform to the requirements of this section.
5.6.2.1 Two-Dimensional Analysis: When two-dimensional analyses are performed, each
ground motion shall consist of a horizontal acceleration history selected from an actual recorded
event. Appropriate acceleration histories shall be obtained from records of events having
magnitudes, fault distances, and source mechanisms that are consistent with those that control the
maximum considered earthquake. Where the required number of appropriate recorded ground
motion records are not available, appropriate simulated ground motion records shall be used to
make up the total number required. The ground motions shall be scaled such that the average
value of the 5 percent damped response spectra for the suite of motions is not less than the design
response spectrum for the site determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.3 for periods ranging from
0.2T to 1.5T seconds where T is the natural period of the structure in the fundamental mode for
the direction of response being analyzed.
5.6.2.2 Three-Dimensional Analysis: When three-dimensional analysis is performed, ground
motions shall consist of pairs of appropriate horizontal ground motion acceleration components
that shall be selected and scaled from individual recorded events. Appropriate ground motions
shall be selected from events having magnitudes, fault distances, and source mechanisms that are
consistent with those that control the maximum considered earthquake. Where the required
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
number of recorded ground motion pairs are not available, appropriate simulated ground motion
pairs shall be used to make up the total number required. For each pair of horizontal ground
motion components, the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the 5 percent damped
response spectrum of the scaled horizontal components shall be constructed. Each pair of
motions shall be scaled such that the average value of the SRSS spectra from all horizontal
component pairs is not less than 1.3 times the 5 percent damped design response spectrum
determined in accordance with Sec. 4.1.3 for periods ranging from 0.2T to 1.5T seconds where T
is the natural period of the fundamental mode of the structure.
5.6.3 Response Parameters: For each ground motion analyzed, the individual response
parameters shall be scaled by the quantity I/R where I is the occupancy importance factor
determined in accordance with Sec. 1.4 and R is the response modification coefficient selected in
accordance with Sec. 5.2.2. The maximum value of the base shear, Vj, member forces, QEj, and
the interstory drifts, *ij, at each story scaled as indicated above shall be determined. When the
maximum scaled base shear predicted by the analysis, Vj, is less than given by Eq. 5.4.1.1-3 or, in
Seismic Design Categories E and F, Eq. 5.4.1.1-4, the scaled member forces, QEj, shall be
additionally scaled by the factor V/Vj where V is the minimum base shear determined in accordance with Eq. 5.4.1.1-3 or, for structures in Seismic Design Category E or F, Eq. 5.4.1.1-4.
If at least seven ground motions are analyzed, the design member forces, QE, used in the load
combinations of Sec. 5.2.7 and the design interstory drift, ), used in the evaluation of drift in
accordance with Sec. 5.2.8 shall be permitted to be taken, respectively, as the average of the
scaled QEj and *ij values determined from the analyses and scaled as indicated above. If less than
seven ground motions are analyzed, the design member forces, QE, and the design interstory drift,
), shall be taken as the maximum value of the scaled QEj and *ij values determined from the
analyses.
Where the Provisions require the consideration of the special load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.1,
the value of S0QE need not be taken larger than the maximum of the unscaled value, QEj,
obtained from the suite of analyses.
5.7 NONLINEAR RESPONSE HISTORY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE : A nonlinear
response history analysis shall consist of an analysis of a mathematical model of the structure
that directly accounts for the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the structure's components to
determine its response, through methods of numerical integration, to suites of ground motion
acceleration histories compatible with the design response spectrum for the site. The analysis
shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of this section.
5.7.1 Modeling: A mathematical model of the structure shall be constructed that represents the
spatial distribution of mass throughout the structure. The hysteretic behavior of elements shall
be modeled consistent with suitable laboratory test data and shall account for all significant
yielding, strength degradation, stiffness degradation, and hysteretic pinching indicated by such
test data. Strength of elements shall be based on expected values considering material overstrength, strain hardening, and hysteretic strength degradation. Linear properties consistent with
the provisions of Sec. 5.5.1 shall be permitted to be used for those elements demonstrated by the
analysis to remain within their linear range of response. The structure shall be assumed to have a
fixed base or, alternatively, it shall be permitted to use realistic assumptions with regard to the
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Structural Design Criteria
stiffness and load carrying characteristics of the foundations consistent with site-specific soils
data and rational principles of engineering mechanics.
For regular structures with independent orthogonal seismic-force-resisting systems, independent
two-dimensional models shall be permitted to be constructed to represent each system. For
structures having plan irregularity Type 1a, 1b, 4, or 5 of Table 5.2.3.2 or structures without
independent orthogonal systems, a three-dimensional model incorporating a minimum of three
dynamic degrees of freedom consisting of translation in two orthogonal plan directions and
torsional rotation about the vertical axis at each level of the structure shall be used. Where the
diaphragms are not rigid compared to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system,
the model shall include representation of the diaphragm's flexibility and such additional dynamic
degrees of freedom as are required to account for the participation of the diaphragm in the
structure's dynamic response.
5.7.2 Ground Motion and Other Loading: Ground motion shall conform to the requirements
of Sec. 5.6.2. The structure shall be analyzed for the effects of these ground motions simultaneously with the effects of dead load in combination with not less than 25 percent of the
required live loads.
5.7.3 Response Parameters: For each ground motion analyzed, individual response parameters
consisting of the maximum value of the individual member forces, QEj, member inelastic
deformations, (j, and interstory drifts, *ij, at each story shall be determined.
If at least seven ground motions are analyzed, the design values of member forces, QE, member
inelastic deformations, (i, and interstory drift, ) , shall be taken, respectively, as the average of
the scaled QEj, (i, and *i values determined from the analyses. If less than seven ground motions
are analyzed, the design member forces, QE, design member inelastic deformations, (i and the
design interstory drift, ), shall be taken as the maximum value of the scaled QEj, (j, and *ij values
determined from the analyses.
5.7.3.1 Member Strength: The adequacy of members to resist the load combinations of Sec
5.2.7 need not be evaluated.
Exception: Where the Provisions requires the consideration of the special load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.1, the maximum value of QEj obtained from the suite of analyses
shall be taken in place of the quantity S0QE.
5.7.3.2 Member Deformation:. The adequacy of individual members and their connections to
withstand the design deformation values, (i, predicted by the analyses shall be evaluated based
on laboratory test data for similar components. The effects of gravity and other loads on member
deformation capacity shall be considered in these evaluations. Member deformation shall not
exceed two thirds of the value that results in loss of ability to carry gravity loads or that results in
deterioration of member strength to less than the 67 percent of the peak value.
5.7.3.3 Interstory Drift: The design interstory drift obtained from the analyses shall not exceed
125 percent of the drift limit specified in Sec. 5.2.8.
5.7.4 Design Review: A design review of the seismic-force-resisting system and the structural
analysis shall be performed by an independent team of registered design professionals in the
85
2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
appropriate disciplines and others experienced in seismic analysis methods and the theory and
application of nonlinear seismic analysis and structural behavior under extreme cyclic loads. The
design review shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
1. Review of any site-specific seismic criteria employed in the analysis including the development of site-specific spectra and ground motion time histories,
2. Review of acceptance criteria used to demonstrate the adequacy of structural elements and
systems to withstand the calculated force and deformation demands, together with that
laboratory and other data used to substantiate these criteria,
3. Review of the preliminary design including the determination of the target displacement of
the structure and the margins remaining beyond these displacements, and
4. Review of the final design of the entire structural system and all supporting analyses.
5.8 SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION EFFECTS:
5.8.1 General: The requirements set forth in this section are permitted to be used to incorporate
the effects of soil-structure interaction in the determination of the design earthquake forces and
the corresponding displacements of the structure. The use of these requirements will decrease
the design values of the base shear, lateral forces, and overturning moments but may increase the
computed values of the lateral displacements and the secondary forces associated with the
P-delta effects.
The requirements for use with the equivalent lateral force procedure are given in Sec. 5.8.2 and
those for use with the modal analysis procedure are given in Sec. 5.8.3.
5.8.2 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure: The following requirements are supplementary to
those presented in Sec. 5.4.
5.8.2.1 Base Shear: To account for the effects of soil-structure interaction, the base shear, V,
determined from Eq. 5.4.1-1 may be reduced to:
Ṽ ' V & )V
(5.8.2.1-1)
The reduction, )V, shall be computed as follows:
)V ' Cs & C̃ s
0.05
$̃
0.4
W
(5.8.2.1-2)
where:
Cs =
the seismic response coefficient computed from Eq. 5.4.1.1-1 using the fundamental
natural period of the fixed-base structure (T or Ta) as specified in Sec.5.4.2,
C̃s =
the seismic response coefficient computed from Eq. 5.4.1.1-1 using the fundamental
natural period of the flexibly supported structure ( T̃ ) defined in Sec. 5.8.2.1.1,
86
Structural Design Criteria
B̃ =
the fraction of critical damping for the structure-foundation system determined in
Sec. 5.8.2.1.2, and
W =
the effective gravity load of the structure, which shall be taken as 0.7W, except that
for structures where the gravity load is concentrated at a single level, it shall be taken
equal to W.
The reduced base shear, Ṽ , shall in no case be taken less than 0.7V.
5.8.2.1.1 Effective Building Period: The effective period, T̃ , shall be determined as follows:
T̃'T
k
1 %
Ky
1 %
Ky h 2
(5.8.2.1.1-1)
K2
where:
T
= the fundamental period of the structure as determined in Sec. 5.4.2;
k
= the stiffness of the structure when fixed at the base, defined by the following:
k ' 4B2
W
(5.8.2.1.1-2)
gT 2
h
= the effective height of the structure, which shall be taken as 0.7 times the total
height, hn, except that for structures where the gravity load is effectively concentrated at a single level, it shall be taken as the height to that level;
Ky
= the lateral stiffness of the foundation defined as the horizontal force at the level of
the foundation necessary to produce a unit deflection at that level, the force and
the deflection being measured in the direction in which the structure is analyzed;
K2
= the rocking stiffness of the foundation defined as the moment necessary to
produce a unit average rotation of the foundation, the moment and rotation being
measured in the direction in which the structure is analyzed; and
g
= the acceleration of gravity.
The foundation stiffnesses, Ky and K2, shall be computed by established principles of foundation
mechanics (see the Commentary) using soil properties that are compatible with the soil strain
levels associated with the design earthquake motion. The average shear modulus, G, for the soils
beneath the foundation at large strain levels and the associated shear wave velocity, vs, needed in
these computations shall be determined from Table 5.8.2.1.1 where:
vso
= the average shear wave velocity for the soils beneath the foundation at small strain
levels (10-3 percent or less),
Go
= (v2so/g = the average shear modulus for the soils beneath the foundation at small
strain levels, and
87
2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
(
= the average unit weight of the soils.
TABLE 5.8.2.1.1 Values of G/Go and vs/vso
Peak Ground
Acceleration, (g)
# 0.10
# 0.15
0.20
$ 0.30
Value of G/Go
0.81
0.64
0.49
0.42
Value of vs/vso
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.65
Alternatively, for structures supported on mat foundations that rest at or near the ground surface
or that are embedded in such a way that the side wall contact with the soil cannot be considered
to remain effective during the design ground motion, the effective period of the structure may be
determined from:
T˜ ' T
1 %
25" r a h
1 %
2
vs T 2
1.12r ah 2
3
"2r m
(5.8.2.1.1-3)
where:
"
=
the relative weight density of the structure and the soil defined by:
" '
ra and rm
=
W
(5 8.2.1.1-4)
( Ao h
characteristic foundation lengths defined by:
Ao
ra '
(5.8.2.1.1-5)
B
and
4
rm '
4 Io
(5.8.2.1.1-6)
B
where:
Ao =
the area of the foundation,
88
Structural Design Criteria
Io =
the static moment of the foundation about a horizontal centroidal axis normal to the
direction in which the structure is analyzed, and
5.8.2.1.2 Effective Damping: The effective damping factor for the structure-foundation system,
$̃ , shall be computed as follows:
0.05
$̃ ' $o %
T̃
T
3
(5.8.2.1.2-1)
where $o = the foundation damping factor as specified in Figure 5.8.2.1.2.
The values of $o corresponding to SDS = 0.375 in Figure 5.8.2.1.2 shall be determined by
averaging the results obtained from the solid lines and the dashed lines.
The quantity r in Figure 5.8.2.1.2 is a characteristic foundation length that shall be determined as
follows:
For h /Lo # 0.5,
Ao
r ' ra '
(5.8.2.1.2-2)
B
For h /Lo $ 1,
4
r ' rm '
4 Io
(5.8.2.1.2-3)
B
where:
Lo =
the overall length of the side of the foundation in the direction being analyzed,
Ao =
the area of the load-carrying foundation, and
Io =
the static moment of inertia of the load-carrying foundation.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
FIGURE 5.8.2.1.2 Foundation damping factor.
For intermediate values of h / L0 , the value of r shall be determined by linear interpolation.
Exception: For structures supported on point bearing piles and in all other cases where
the foundation soil consists of a soft stratum of reasonably uniform properties underlain
by a much stiffer, rock-like deposit with an abrupt increase in stiffness, the factor $o in
Eq. 5.8.2.1.2-1 shall be replaced by:
)
$o
'
4 Ds
Vs T̃
2
$o
(5.8.2.1.2-4)
if 4 Ds /vs T̃ < 1 where Ds is the total depth of the stratum.
~
The value of β computed from Eq. 5.8.2.1.2-1, both with or without the adjustment represented
~
~
by Eq. 5.8.2.1.2-4, shall in no case be taken as less than β = 0.05 or greater than β = 0.20.
90
Structural Design Criteria
5.8.2.2 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces: The distribution over the height of the
structure of the reduced total seismic force, Ṽ , shall be considered to be the same as for the
structure without interaction.
5.8.2.3 Other Effects: The modified story shears, overturning moments, and torsional effects
about a vertical axis shall be determined as for structures without interaction using the reduced
lateral forces.
The modified deflections, *˜x , shall be determined as follows:
Ṽ Mo h x
*˜x '
% *x
V K2
(5.8.2.3)
where:
Mo =
the overturning moment at the base determined in accordance with Sec. 5.4.5 using
the unmodified seismic forces and not including the reduction permitted in the design
of the foundation,
hx =
the height above the base to the level under consideration, and
*x = the deflections of the fixed-base structure as determined in Sec. 5.4.6.1 using the unmodified seismic forces.
The modified story drifts and P-delta effects shall be evaluated in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 5.4.6.2 using the modified story shears and deflections determined in this
section.
5.8.3 Modal Analysis Procedure: The following requirements are supplementary to those
presented in Sec. 5.5.
5.8.3.1 Modal Base Shears: To account for the effects of soil-structure interaction, the base
shear corresponding to the fundamental mode of vibration, V1, is permitted to be reduced to:
Ṽ1 ' V1 & )V1
(5.8.3.1-1)
The reduction, )V1, shall be computed in accordance with Eq. 5.8.2.1-2 with W 1 taken as equal
to the gravity load W 1 defined by Eq. 5.5.4-2, Cs computed from Eq. 5.5.4-3 using the
fundamental period of the fixed-base structure, T1, and C̃s computed from Eq. 5.5.4-3 using the
fundamental period of the elastically supported structure, T̃1 .
The period T̃1 shall be determined from Eq. 5.8.2.1.1-1, or from Eq. 5.8.2.1.1-3 when applicable,
taking T = T̃1 , evaluating K from Eq. 5.8.2.1.1-2 with W = W 1 , and computing h as
follows:
91
2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
n
h '
3 w i Ni1 hi
i'1
(5.8.3.1-2)
n
3 wiNi1
i'1
The above designated values of W , h , T, and T̃ also shall be used to evaluate the factor " from
Eq. 5.8.2.1.1-4 and the factor $o from Figure 5.8.2.1.2. No reduction shall be made in the shear
components contributed by the higher modes of vibration. The reduced base shear, V~1 , shall in
no case be taken less than 0.7V1.
5.8.3.2 Other Modal Effects: The modified modal seismic forces, story shears, and overturning moments shall be determined as for structures without interaction using the modified
base shear, V~1 , instead of V1. The modified modal deflections, *˜xm , shall be determined as
follows:
~
~ = V 1  M o1 h x + 
δ xl 
δ xm
V 1  Kθ

(5.8.3.2-1)
and
~
δ xm = δ x
for m = 2, 3, ......
(5.8.3.2-2)
where:
Mo1
= the overturning base moment for the fundamental mode of the fixed-base structure, as determined in Sec. 5.5.6 using the unmodified modal base shear V1, and
*xm
= the modal deflections at Level x of the fixed-base structure as determined in
Sec. 5.5.5 using the unmodified modal shears, Vm.
The modified modal drift in a story, )˜ m , shall be computed as the difference of the deflections,
*˜ xm , at the top and bottom of the story under consideration.
5.8.3.3 Design Values: The design values of the modified shears, moments, deflections, and
story drifts shall be determined as for structures without interaction by taking the square root of
the sum of the squares of the respective modal contributions. In the design of the foundation, the
overturning moment at the foundation-soil interface determined in this manner may be reduced
by 10 percent as for structures without interaction.
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Structural Design Criteria
The effects of torsion about a vertical axis shall be evaluated in accordance with the requirements
of Sec. 5.5.8 and the P-delta effects shall be evaluated in accordance with the requirements of
Sec. 5.4.6.2, using the story shears and drifts determined in Sec. 5.8.3.2.
93
Appendix to Chapter 5
NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS
PREFACE: This appendix introduces nonlinear static analysis, a new seismic
analysis procedure sometimes known as pushover analysis, for review and
comment and for later adoption into the body of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions.
Although nonlinear static analysis has not previously been included in design
provisions for new building construction, the procedure itself is not new and has
been used for many years in both research and design applications. For example,
nonlinear static analysis has been used for many years as a standard methodology in
the design of offshore platform structures. It also has been adopted in several
standard methodologies for the seismic evaluation and retrofit of building
structures, including the NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings (FEMA 273) and Methodolgies for Post-earthquake Evaluation and Repair
of Concrete and Masonry Buildings (ATC 40). Nonlinear static analysis also forms
the basis for earthquake loss estimation procedures contained in HAZUS, FEMA’s
nationally applicable earthquake loss estimation model. Finally, although it does
not explicitly appear in the NEHRP Recommended Provisions, the nonlinear static
analysis methodology forms the basis for the equivalent lateral force procedures
contained in the Provisions for base-isolated structures and proposed for inclusion
for energy-dissipated structures.
One of the key controversies surrounding the introduction of this methodology into
the Provisions relates to the determination of the limit deformation, sometimes also
called a target displacement. Several methodologies for estimating the amount of
deformation induced in a structure by the design earthquake have been proposed and
are included in various adoptions of the procedure. The approach presented in this
appendix is based on statistical correlations of the displacements predicted by linear
and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures similar, but not identical, to the
approach contained in FEMA 273.
A second controversy relates to the lack of consensus-backed acceptance criteria to
be used to determine the adequacy of a design once the forces and deformations
produced by design earthquake ground shaking are estimated. It should be noted
that this same lack of acceptance criteria applies equally to the nonlinear response
history approach, which already has been adopted into building codes.
Nonlinear static analysis provides a simplified method of directly evaluating
nonlinear response of structures to strong earthquake ground shaking that can be
an attractive alternative to the more complex procedures of nonlinear response
history analysis. It is hoped that exposure of this approach through inclusion in this
94
Structural Design Criteria
appendix will allow the necessary consensus to be developed to permit later integration into the Provisions as such.
Users of this appendix also should consult the Commentary for guidance. Please
direct all feedback on this appendix and its commentary to the BSSC.
5A.1 NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS: A nonlinear static analysis shall consist of an
analysis of a mathematical model of the structure that directly accounts for the nonlinear
behavior of the structure’s components under an incrementally increased pattern of lateral forces.
In this procedure, a mathematical model of the structure is incrementally displaced to a target
displacement through application of a series of lateral forces or until the structure collapses and
the resulting internal forces, QEj, and member deformations, (I, at each increment of loading are
determined. At the target displacement for the structure, the resulting internal forces and
deflections should be less than the capacity of each element calculated according to the applicable acceptance criteria in Sec. 5A.1.3. The analysis shall be performed in accordance with
this section.
5A.1.1 Modeling: A mathematical model of the structure shall be constructed to represent the
spatial distribution of mass and stiffness of the structural system considering the effects of
component nonlinearity at deformation levels that exceed their elastic limit.
The nonlinear force-deformation characteristics of components shall be represented by suitable
multilinear models. Unless analysis indicates that a component remains elastic, as a minimum a
bilinear model shall be used for each component. The multilinear force-deformation characteristics for each component, termed a backbone, should include representation of the linear
stiffness of the component before onset of yield, the yield strength, and the stiffness properties of
the component after yield at various levels of deformation. These properties shall be consistent
with principles of mechanics or laboratory data. Linear properties representing component
behavior before yield shall be consistent with the provisions of Sec. 5.5.1. Strength of elements
shall be based on expected values considering material overstrength and strain hardening. The
properties of elements and components after yielding should account for strength and stiffness
degradation due to softening or fracture as indicated by principles of mechanics or test data. The
model for columns should reflect the influence of axial load when axial loads exceed 15 percent
of the buckling load. The structure shall be assumed to have a fixed base or, alternatively, it
shall be permitted to use realistic assumptions with regard to the stiffness and load-carrying characteristics of the foundations, consistent with site-specific soil data and rational principles of
engineering mechanics.
For regular structures with independent orthogonal seismic-force-resisting systems, independent
two-dimensional models shall be permitted to be constructed to represent each system. For
structures having plan irregularities Types 4 and 5 of Table 5.2.3.2 or structures without
independent orthogonal systems, a three-dimensional model incorporating a minimum of three
degrees of freedom, consisting of translation in two orthogonal plan directions and torsional
rotation about the vertical axis to each level of the structure, shall be used. Where the diaphragms are not rigid compared to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system, the
model should include representation of the diaphragm’s flexibility. A control point shall be
selected for each model. This control point normally shall be taken as the center of mass of the
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 5
highest level of the structure. For structures with penthouses, the control point shall be taken as
the center of mass of the level at the base of the penthouse. This level shall be termed the control
level.
5A.1.2 Lateral Loads: A pattern of lateral loads shall be applied incrementally at the mass
centroid of each level I. The pattern of lateral loads applied in each direction should follow the
distribution obtained from a modal analysis for the fundamental mode of response in the
direction under consideration as given by Sec. 5.5.5.
At each increment of lateral loading, k, the total force applied to the model shall be characterized
by the base shear, Vk. The base shear at the initial increment of load, V1, shall be taken as the
design base shear calculated in accordance with Sec. 5.4.1. The base shear, V, should be
incremented in steps that are sufficiently small to permit significant changes in individual
component behavior, such as yielding, buckling or failure, to be detected. The structure shall be
analyzed for these lateral forces simultaneously with the effects of dead load in combination with
not less than 25 percent of the required live loads, reduced as permitted for the area of a single
floor.
Loading shall be applied independently in each of two directions. At each load step, the total
applied force, Vk, the lateral displacement of the control point, )k, and the forces and deformations in each component shall be recorded.
5A.1.3 Limit Deformation: The incremental nonlinear analysis should be continued by
increasing the base shear until the deflection at the control point exceeds 150 percent of the
inelastic deflection. The expected inelastic deformation of the control panel shall be taken as the
deflection predicted for the control point from a modal response spectrum analysis using a 5
percent damped design level response spectrum, considering only the fundamental mode of
response in the direction under consideration, and factored by the coefficient Ci. When the ratio
for the period, Ts, as defined in Sec. 4.1.2.6, to the fundamental period of the structure in the
direction under consideration, T1, is less than or equal to a value of 1.0, the coefficient Ci shall be
taken as having a value of 1.0. Otherwise, the value of the coefficient Ci shall be calculated from
the following equation:
Ci '
(1 & T s /T1)
Rd
% (Ts /T1)
(5A.1.3-1)
where Ts and Ti are as defined above and Rd is given by the following equation:
Rd '
1.5R
S0
(5A.1.3-2)
where R and S0 are, respectively, the response modification and overstrength coefficients from
Table 5.2.2.
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Structural Design Criteria
5A.1.4 Design Response Parameters: For each lateral force analyzed, the design response
parameters including interstory drift and member force and deformation shall be taken as the
value obtained from the analysis at the expected inelastic displacement.
5A.1.4.1 Member Strength: The adequacy of members to resist the load combinations of Sec.
5.2.7 need not be evaluated.
Exception: Where the Provisions require the consideration of the special load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.1, the value of SEi obtained from the analysis at the expected
inelastic deformation, as calculated from Sec. 5A.1.3, shall be taken in place of the
quantity S0QE.
5A.1.4.2 Member Deformation: The adequacy of individual members and their connections to
withstand the design deformation values, (i, predicted by the analyses shall be evaluated based
on laboratory test data for similar components. The effects of gravity and other loads on member
deformation capacity shall be considered in these evaluations. Member deformation shall not
exceed two thirds of a value that results in loss of ability to carry gravity loads or that results in
deterioration of member strength to less than 67 percent of the peak value.
5A.1.4.3 Interstory Drift: The design interstory drift obtained from the analysis shall not
exceed 125 percent of the drift limit specified in Sec. 5.2.8.
5A.1.5 Design Review: When the nonlinear static analysis method is used to design the
structure, a design review of the seismic-force-resisting system and the structural analysis shall
be performed by an independent team of registered design professionals in the appropriate
disciplines and others experienced in seismic analysis methods and the theory and application of
nonlinear seismic analysis and structural behavior under extreme cyclic loads. The design review
shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
1. Review of any site-specific seismic criteria employed in the analysis including the development of site-specific spectra.,
2. Review of acceptance criteria used to demonstrate the adequacy of structural elements and
systems to withstand the calculated force and deformation demands togther with that
laboratory and other data used to substantiate these criteria,
3. Review the preliminary design including the determination of the expected inelastic displacement of the structure and the margins remaining beyond these displacements, and
4. Review of the final design of the entire structural system and all supporting analyses.
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Chapter 6
ARCHITECTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
6.1 GENERAL: This chapter establishes minimum design criteria for architectural,
mechanical, electrical, and nonstructural systems, components, and elements permanently
attached to structures, including supporting structures and attachments (hereinafter referred to as
"components"). The design criteria establish minimum equivalent static force levels and relative
displacement demands for the design of components and their attachments to the structure,
recognizing ground motion and structural amplification, component toughness and weight, and
performance expectations.
This chapter also establishes minimum seismic design force requirements for nonbuilding
structures that are supported by other structures. Seismic design requirements for nonbuilding
structures that are supported at grade are prescribed in Chapter 14. However, the minimum
seismic design forces for nonbuilding structures that are supported by another structure shall be
determined in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 6.1.3 with Rp equal to the value of R
specified in Chapter 14 and ap = 2.5 for nonbuilding structures with flexible dynamic
characteristics and ap = 1.0 for nonbuilding structures with rigid dynamic characteristics. The
distribution of lateral forces for the supported nonbuilding structure and all nonforce
requirements specified in Chapter 14 shall apply to supported nonbuilding structures.
Exception: For structures in Seismic Design Categories D, E and F if the combined
weight of the supported components and nonbuilding structures with flexible dynamic
characteristics exceeds 25 percent of the weight of the structure, the structure shall be
designed considering interaction effects between the structure and the supported items.
Seismic Design Categories for structures are defined in Sec. 4.2. For the purposes of this
chapter, components shall be considered to have the same Seismic Design Category as that of the
structure that they occupy or to which they are attached unless otherwise noted.
In addition, all components are assigned a component importance factor (Ip) in this chapter. The
default value for Ip is 1.00 for typical components in normal service. Higher values for Ip are
assigned for components that contain hazardous substances, must have a higher level of
assurance of function, or otherwise require additional attention because of their life-safety
characteristics. Component importance factors are prescribed in Sec. 6.1.5.
All architectural, mechanical, electrical, and other nonstructural components in structures shall
be designed and constructed to resist the equivalent static forces and displacements determined in
accordance with this chapter. The design and evaluation of support structures and architectural
components and equipment shall consider their flexibility as well as their strength.
Exception: The following components are exempt from the requirements of this chapter:
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
1. All components in Seismic Design Category A,
2. Architectural components in Seismic Design Category B other than parapets
supported by bearing walls or shear walls when the importance factor (Ip) is equal to
1.00,
3. Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic Design Category B,
4. Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic Design Category C when the
importance factor (Ip) is equal to 1.00,
5. Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F
where Ip= 1.0 and flexible connections between the components and associated
ductwork, piping, and conduit are provided or that are mounted at 4 ft (1.22 m) or less
above a floor level and weigh 400 lb (1780 N) or less, or
6. Mechanical and electrical components in Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, and F
where Ip= 1.0 and flexible connections between the components and associated
ductwork, piping, and conduit are provided that weigh 20 lb (95 N) or less or, for
distribution systems, weight 5 lb/ft (7 N/m) or less.
The functional and physical interrelationship of components and their effect on each other shall
be considered so that the failure of an essential or nonessential architectural, mechanical, or
electrical component shall not cause the failure of an essential architectural, mechanical, or
electrical component.
6.1.1 References and Standards:
6.1.1.1 Consensus Standards: The following references are consensus standards and are to be
considered part of these provisions to the extent referred to in this chapter:
ASME A17.1
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASME
A17.1, Safety Code For Elevators And Escalators, 1996.
ASTM C635
American Society For Testing And Materials (ASTM), ASTM
C635, Standard Specification for the Manufacture,
Performance, and Testing of Metal Suspension Systems for
Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panel Ceilings, 1997.
ASME/BPV
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME/BPV), Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, including addendums through 2000.
ASTM C636
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), ASTM
C636, Standard Practice for Installation of Metal Ceiling
Suspension Systems for Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels,
1996.
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
ANSI/ASME B31.1
American National Standards Institute/American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, ANSI/ASME B31.1-98, Power Piping
ANSI/ASME B31.3
American National Standards Institute/American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, ANSI/ASME B31.3-96, Process Piping
ANSI/ASME B31.4
American National Standards Institute/American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, ANSI/ASME B31.4-92, Liquid Transportation
Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous
Ammonia, and Alcohols
ANSI/ASME B31.5
American National Standards Institute/American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, ANSI/ASME B31.5-92, Refrigeration Piping
ANSI/ASME B31.8
American National Standards Institute/American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, ANSI/ASME B31.8-95, Gas Transmission and
Distribution Piping Systems
ANSI/ASME B31.9
American National Standards Institute/American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, ANSI/ASME B31.9-96, Building Services
Piping
ANSI/ASME B.31.11
American National Standards Institute/American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, ANSI/ASME B31.11-89 (Reaffirmed, 1998),
Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
NFPA-13
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), NFPA-13, Standard for
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 1999.
IEEE- 344
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Standard 344,
Recommended Practice for Seismic Qualification of Class I E
Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, 1987.
6.1.1.2 Accepted Standards: The following references are standards developed within the
industry and represent acceptable procedures for design and construction:
ASHRAE SRD
American Society of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
(ASHRAE), Handbook, “Seismic Restraint Design,”1999.
CISCA Recs./Zones 0-2 Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association (CISCA),
Recommendations for Direct-Hung Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panel
Ceilings, Seismic Zones 0-2, 1991.
CISCA Recs/ Zones 3-4 Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association (CISCA),
Recommendations for Direct-Hung Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panel
Ceilings, Seismic Zones 3-4, 1991.
SMACNA HVAC
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
(SMACNA), HVAC Duct Construction Standards, Metal and Flexible,
1995.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
SMACNA Rectangular
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
(SMACNA), Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards,
1980.
SMACNA Restraint
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
(SMACNA), Seismic Restraint Manual Guidelines for Mechanical
Systems, 1991, including Appendix B, 1998.
AAMA 501.4
American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA),
Recommended Static Test Method for Evaluating Curtain Wall and
Storefront Systems Subjected to Seismic and Wind Induced Interstory
Drifts. Publication No. AAMA 501.4-2000.
6.1.2 Component Force Transfer: Components shall be attached such that the component
forces are transferred to the structure. Component seismic attachments shall be bolted, welded,
or otherwise positively fastened without consideration of frictional resistance produced by the
effects of gravity. A continuous load path of sufficient strength and stiffness between the
component and the supporting structure shall be verified. Local elements of the supporting
structure shall be verified for the component forces where they control the design of the elements
or their connections. The component forces shall be those determined in Section 6.1.3, except
that modifications to Fp and Rp due to anchorage conditions need not be considered. The design
documents shall include sufficient information relating to the attachments to verify compliance
with the requirements of these provisions.
6.1.3 Seismic Forces: Seismic forces (Fp) shall be determined in accordance with Eq. 6.1.3-1:
Fp '
0.4 ap SDS Wp
Rp
1 % 2
z
h
(6.1.3-1)
Ip
Fp ' 1.6 SDS Ip Wp
(6.1.3-2)
Fp is not required to be taken as greater than:
and Fp shall not be taken as less than:
Fp ' 0.3 SDS Ip Wp
(6.1.3-3)
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
where:
Fp = Seismic design force centered at the component's center of gravity and distributed relative
to component's mass distribution.
SDS = Spectral acceleration, short period, as determined from Sec. 4.1.2.5.
ap = Component amplification factor that varies from 1.00 to 2.50 (select appropriate value
from Table 6.2.2 or Table 6.3.2).
Ip = Component importance factor that is either 1.00 or 1.50 (see Sec. ).
Wp = Component operating weight.
Rp = Component response modification factor that varies from 1.0 to 5.0 (select appropriate
value from Table 6.2.2 or Table 6.3.2).
z
= Height in structure of point of attachment of component. For items at or below the base,
z shall be taken as 0. The value of z/h need not exceed 1.0.
h
= Average roof height of structure relative to grade elevation.
The force, Fp, shall be applied independently longitudinally and laterally in combination with
service loads associated with the component. Combine horizontal and vertical load effects as
indicated in Sec. 5.2.7 substituting Fp for the term QE. The reliability/redundancy factor, D, is
permitted to be taken equal to 1.
When positive and negative wind loads exceed Fp for nonstructural exterior walls, these wind
loads shall govern the design. Similarly, when the building code horizontal loads exceed Fp for
interior partitions, these building code loads shall govern the design.
In lieu of the forces determined in accordance with Eq. 6.1.3-1, accelerations at any level may be
determined by the modal analysis procedures of Sec. 5.5 with R = 1.0. Seismic forces shall be in
accordance with Eq. 6.1.3-4:
Fp =
ai a pWp
Ax
Rp
Ip
(6.1.3-4)
Where ai is the acceleration at level I obtained from the modal analysis.
The upper and lower limits of Fp determined by Eq. 6.1.3-2 and 3 apply.
6.1.4 Seismic Relative Displacements: Seismic relative displacements (Dp) shall be determined
in accordance with the following equations:
Dp = δ xA − δ yA
103
(6.1.4-1)
2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
Dp is not required to be taken as greater than:
Dp = ( X − Y )
∆ aA
hsx
(6.1.4-2)
For two connection points on separate Structures A and B or separate structural systems, one at
level x and the other at level y, Dp shall be determined as:
Dp = δ xA + δ yB
(6.1.4-3)
Dp is not required to be taken as greater than:
Dp =
X∆ aA Y∆ aB
+
hsx
hsx
(6.1.4-4)
where:
Dp = Relative seismic displacement to the component must be designed to accommodate.
*xA = Deflection at building level x of Structure A, determined by an elastic analysis as
defined in Sec. 5.2.8 and multiplied by the Cd factor.
*yA = Deflection at building level y of Structure A, determined by an elastic analysis as
defined in Sec. 52.8 and multiplied by the Cd factor.
*yB = Deflection at building level y of Structure B, determined by an elastic analysis as
defined in Sec. 5.2.8 and multiplied by the Cd factor.
X = Height of upper support attachment at level x as measured from the base.
Y
= Height of lower support attachment at level y as measured from the base.
)aA = Allowable story drift for Structure A as defined in Table 5.2.8.
)aB = Allowable story drift for Structure B as defined in Table 5.2.8.
hsx = Story height used in the definition of the allowable drift, )a, in Table 5.2.8. Note that
)a/hsx = the allowable drift index.
The effects of seismic relative displacements shall be considered in combination with
displacement caused by other loads as appropriate.
6.1.5 Component Importance Factor: The component importance factor, Ip, shall be selected
as follows:
Ip = 1.5
Life safety component is required to function after an earthquake.
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
Ip = 1.5
Component contains hazardous contents.
Ip = 1.5
Storage racks in occupancies open to the general public (e.g., warehouse retails
stores).
Ip = 1.0
All other components.
In addition, for structures in Seismic Use Group III:
Ip = 1.5
All components needed for continued operation of the facility or whose failure could
impair the continued operation of the facility.
6.1.6 Component Anchorage: Components shall be anchored in accordance with the following
provisions.
6.1.6.1: The force in the connected part shall be determined based on the prescribed forces for
the component specified in Sec. 6.1.3. Where component anchorage is provided by shallow
expansion anchors, shallow chemical anchors or shallow (low deformability) cast-in-place
anchors, a value of Rp = 1.5 shall be used in Sec. 6.1.3 to determine the forces in the connected
part.
6.1.6.2: Anchors embedded in concrete or masonry shall be proportioned to carry the least of the
following:
a. The design strength of the connected part,
b. 1.3 times the force in the connected part due to the prescribed forces, and
c. The maximum force that can be transferred to the connected part by the component structural
system.
6.1.6.3: Determination of forces in anchors shall take into account the expected conditions of
installation including eccentricities and prying effects.
6.1.6.4: Determination of force distribution of multiple anchors at one location shall take into
account the stiffness of the connected system and its ability to redistribute loads to other anchors
in the group beyond yield.
6.1.6.5: Power driven fasteners shall not be used for tension load applications in Seismic Design
Categories D, E, and F unless approved for such loading.
6.1.6.6: The design strength of the anchors shall be determined in accordance with the
provisions in Chapter 9.
6.1.6.7: For additional requirements for anchors to steel, see Chapter 10.
6.1.6.8: For additional requirements for anchors in masonry, see Chapter 11.
6.1.6.9: For additional requirements for anchors in wood, see Chapter 12.
6.1.7 Construction Documents: Construction documents shall be prepared by a registered
design professional in a manner consistent with the requirements of the Provisions, as indicated
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
in Table 6.1.7, in sufficient detail for use by the owner, building officials, contractors, and
inspectors.
TABLE 6.1.7 Construction Documents
Provisions Reference
Component Description
Required Seismic
Design
Quality
Assurance
Design
Exterior nonstructural wall elements,
including anchorage
3.2.8 No. 1
6.2.4
D, E, F
Suspended ceiling system, including
anchorage
3.2.8 No. 3
6.2.6
D, E, F
Access Floors, including anchorage
3.8 No. 2
6.2.7
D, E, F
Steel storage racks, including anchorage
3.2.8 No. 2
6.2.9
D, E, F
Glass in glazed curtain walls, glazed
storefronts and interior glazed partitions,
including anchorage.
3.3.9 No. 3
6.2.10
D, E, F
HVAC ductwork containing hazardous
materials, including anchorage.
3.2.9 No. 4
6.3.10
C, D, E, F
Piping systems and mechanical units
containing flammable, combustible, or
highly toxic materials.
3.2.9 No. 3
6.3.11
C, D, E, F
Categories
6.3.12
6.3.13
Anchorage of electrical equipment for
emergency standby power systems
3.2.9 No. 1
6.3.14
C, D, E, F
Anchorage for all other electrical
equipment
3.2.9 No. 2
6.3.14
E, F
3.3.5
6.30
C, D, E, F
Project-specific requirements for
mechanical and electrical components and
their anchorage
6.2 ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENT DESIGN:
6.2.1 General: Architectural systems, components, or elements (hereinafter referred to as
“components”) listed in Table 6.2.2 and their attachments shall meet the requirements of Sec.
6.2.2 through Sec. 6.2.9.
6.2.2 Architectural Component Forces and Displacements: Architectural components shall
meet the force requirements of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.4 and Table 6.2.2.
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
Exception: Components supported by chains or otherwise suspended from the structural
system above are not required to meet the lateral seismic force requirements and seismic
relative displacement requirements of this section provided that they cannot be damaged or
cannot damage any other component when subject to seismic motion and they have ductile or
articulating connections to the structure at the point of attachment. The gravity design load
for these items shall be three times their operating load.
TABLE 6.2.2 Architectural Components Coefficients
Rpb
apa
Architectural Component or Element
Interior Nonstructural Walls and Partitions (See also Sec. 6.8)
Plain (unreinforced) masonry walls
1.0
1.5
All other walls and partitions
1.0
2.5
Parapets and cantilever interior nonstructural walls
2.5
2.5
Chimneys and stacks where laterally supported by structures.
2.5
2.5
Parapets
1.0
2.5
Chimneys and Stacks
1.0
Cantilever Elements (Unbraced or braced to structural frame below its center of mass)
Cantilever elements (Braced to structural fame above its center of mass)
Exterior Nonstructural Walls
1.0
2.5
b
2.5
Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements and Connections (see also Sec. 6.2.4)
Wall Element
1.0
2.5
Body of wall panel connections
1.0
2.5
Fasteners of the connecting system
1.25
1
High deformabiliy elements and attachments
1.0
2.5
Low deformability and attachments
1.0
1.5
2.5
3.5
1.0
2.5
1.0
2.5
Special access floors (designed in accordance with Sec. 6.2.7.2)
1
2.5
All other
1
1.5
Veneer
Penthouses (except when framed by an extension of the building frame)
Ceilings (see also Sec. 6.2.6)
All
Cabinets
Storage cabinets and laboratory equipment
Access floors (see also Sec. 6.2.7)
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
Appendages and Ornamentations
2.5
2.5
Signs and Billboards
2.5
2.5
High deformability elements and attachments
1.0
3.5
Limited deformability elements and attachments
1.0
2.5
Low deformability elements and attachments
1.0
1.5
High deformability elements and attachments
2.5
3.5
Limited deformability elements and attachments
2.5
2.5
Low deformability elements and attachments
2.5
1.5
Other Rigid Components
Other flexible components
a
A lower value for ap may be justified by detailed dynamic analysis. The value for ap shall not be
less than 1.00. The value of ap = 1 is for equipment generally regarded as rigid and rigidly attached.
The value of ap = 2.5 is for flexible components or flexibility attached components. See Chapter 2
for definitions of rigid flexible components including attachments.
b
Where flexible diaphragms provide lateral support for walls and partitions, the design forces for
anchorage to the diaphragm shall be specified in Sec. 5.2.5.
6.2.3 Architectural Component: Architectural components that could pose a life-safety hazard
shall be designed for the seismic relative displacement requirements of Sec. 6.1.4. Architectural
components shall be designed for vertical deflection due to joint rotation of cantilever structural
members.
6.2.4 Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements and Connections:
6.2.4.1 General: Exterior nonstructural wall panels or elements that are attached to or enclose
the structure shall be designed to resist the forces in accordance with Eq. 6.1.3-1 or 6.1.3-2 and
shall accommodate movements of the structure resulting from response to the design basis
ground motion, Dp, or temperature changes. Such elements shall be supported by means of
positive and direct structural supports or by mechanical connections and fasteners in accordance
with the following requirements:
a. Connections and panel joints shall allow for a relative movement between stories for not less
than the calculated story drift Dp or ½ in. (13 mm), whichever is greater..
b. Connections to permit movement in the plane of the panel for story drift shall be sliding
connections using slotted or oversize holes, connections that permit movements by bending
of steel, or other connections that provide equivalent sliding or ductile capacity.
c. Bodies of connectors shall have sufficient deformability and rotation capacity to preclude
fracture of the concrete of low deformation failures at or near welds.
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
d. All fasteners in the connecting system such as bolts, inserts, welds, and dowels and the body
of the connectors shall be designed for the force, Fp, determined in by Eq. 6.1.3-2 with
vallues of Rp and ap taken from Table 6.2.2 applied at the center of mass of the panel.
e. Anchorage using flat straps embedded in concrete or masonry shall be attached to or hooked
around reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated so as to effectively transfer forces to the
reinforcing steel.
6.2.4.2 Glass: Glass is a glazed curtain walls and storefronts shall be designed and installed in
accordance with sec. 6.2.10.
6.2.5 Out-of-Plane-Bending: Transverse or out-of-plane bending or deformation of a
component or system that is subjected to forces as determined in Sec. 6.1.3 shall not exceed the
deflection capacity of the component or system.
6.2.6 Suspended Ceilings: Suspended ceilings shall be designed to meet the seismic force
requirements of Sec. 6.2.6.1. In addition, suspended ceilings shall meet the requirements of
either Industry Standard Construction as modified in Sec. 6.2.6.2 or integral construction as
specified in Sec. 6.2.6.3.
6.2.6.1 Seismic Forces: Suspended ceilings shall be designed to meet the force requirements of
Sec. 6.1.3.
The weight of the ceiling, Wp, shall include the ceiling grid and panels; light fixtures if attached
to, clipped to, or laterally supported by the ceiling grid; and other components that are laterally
supported by the ceiling. Wp shall be taken as not less than 4 psf (19 N/m2).
The seismic force, Fp, shall be transmitted through the ceiling attachments to the building
structural elements or the ceiling-structure boundary.
Design of anchorage and connections shall be in accordance with these provisions.
6.2.6.2 Industry Standard Construction: Unless designed in accordance with Sec. 6.2.6.3,
suspended ceilings shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this section.
6.2.6.2.1 Seismic Design Category C: Suspended ceilings in Seismic Design Category C shall
be designed and installed in accordance with CISCA Rec for Zones 0-2, except that seismic
forces shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.2.6.1.
Sprinkler heads and other penetrations in Seismic Design Category C shall have a minimum of
1/4 inch (6 mm) clearance on all sides.
6.2.6.2.2 Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F: Suspended ceilings in Seismic Design
Categories D, E, and F be designed and installed in accordance with CISCA Rec for Zones 3-4
and the additional requirements listed in this subsection.
a. A heavy duty T-bar grid system shall be used.
b. The width of the perimeter supporting closure angle shall be not less than 2 in. (50 mm). In
each orthogonal horizontal direction, one end of the ceiling grid shall be attached to the
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
closure angle. The other end in each horizontal direction shall have a 3/4 in. (19 mm)
clearance from the wall and shall rest upon and be free to slide on a closure angle.
c. For ceiling areas exceeding 1000 ft2 (92.9 m2), horizontal restraint of the ceiling to the
structural system shall be provided. The tributary areas of the horizontal restraints shall be
approximately equal.
Exception: Rigid braces are permitted to be used instead of diagonal splay
wires. Braces the attachments to the structural system above shall be adequate
to limit relative lateral deflections at point of attachment of ceiling grid to less
than 1/4 in. (6 mm) for the loads prescribed in Sec. 6.1.3.
d. For ceiling areas exceeding 2500 ft2 (232 m2), a seismic separation joint or full height
partition that breaks the ceiling up into areas not exceeding 2500 ft2 shall be provided unless
structural analyses are performed of the ceiling bracing system for the prescribed seismic
forces which demonstrate ceiling system penetrations and closure angles provide sufficient
clearance to accommodate the additional movement. Each areas shall be provided with
closure angles in accordance with Item b and horizontal restraints or bracing in accordance
with Item c.
e. Except where rigid braces are used to limit lateral deflections, sprinkler heads and other
penetrations shall have a 2 in. (50 mm) oversize ring, sleeve, or adapter through the ceiling
tile to allow for free movement of at least 1 in. (25 mm) in all horizontal directions.
Alternatively, a swing joint can accommodate 1 in. (25 mm) of ceiling movements in all
horizontal directions are permitted to be provided at the top of the sprinkler head extension.
f. Changes in ceiling plan elevation shall be provided with positive bracing.
g. Cable trays and electrical conduits shall be supported independently of the ceiling.
h. Suspended ceilings shall be subject to the special inspection requirements of Sec. 3.3.9 of the
Provisions.
6.2.6.3 Integral Ceiling/Sprinkler Construction: As a alternative to providing large
clearances around sprinkler system penetrations through ceiling systems, the sprinkler system and
ceiling grid are permitted to be designed and tied together as an integral unit. Such a design shall
consider the mass and flexibility of all elements involved, including: ceiling system, sprinkler
system, light fixtures, and mechanical (HVAC) appurtenances. The design shall be performed by
a registered design professional.
6.2.7 Access Floors:
6.2.7.1 General: Access floors shall be designed to meet the force provisions of Sec. 6.1.3 and
the additional provisions of this section. The weight of the access floor, Wp, shall include the
weight of the floor system, 100 percent of the weight of all equipment fastened to the floor, and
25 percent of the weight of all equipment supported by but not fastened to the floor. The seismic
force, Fp, shall be transmitted from the top surface of the access floor to the supporting structure.
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
Overturning effects of equipment fastened to the access floor panels also shall be considered.
The ability of “slip on” heads for pedestals shall be evaluated for suitability to transfer
overturning effects of equipment.
When checking individual pedestals for overturning effects, the maximum concurrent axial load
shall not exceed the portion of Wp assigned to the pedestal under construction.
6.2.7.2 Special Access Floors: Access floors shall be considered to be “special access floors” if
they are designed to comply with the following considerations:
1. Connections transmitting seismic loads consist of mechanical fasteners, concrete anchors,
welding, or bearing. Design load capacities comply with recognized design codes and/or
certified test results.
2. Seismic loads are not transmitted by friction produced solely by the effects of gravity,
powder-actuated fasteners (shot pins), or adhesives.
3. The bracing system shall be designed considering the destabilizing effects of individual
members buckling in compression.
4. Bracing and pedestals are of structural or mechanical shape produced to ASTM specifications
that specify minimum mechanical properties. Electrical tubing shall be used.
5. Floor stingers that are designed to carry axial seismic loads that are mechanically fastened to
the supporting pedestals are used.
6.2.8 Partitions:
6.2.8.1 General: Partitions that are tied to the ceiling and all partitions greater than 6 ft (1.8 m)
in height shall be laterally braced to the building structure. Such bracing shall be independent o f
any ceiling splay bracing. Bracing shall be spaced to limit horizontal deflection at the partition
head to comparable with ceiling deflection requirements as determined in Sec. 6.2.6 for
suspended ceilings and Sec. 6.2.2 for other systems.
6.2.8.2 Glass: Glass in glazed partitions shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec.
6.2.10.
6.2.9 Steel Storage Racks: Steel storage racks shall be designed to meet the force requirements
of Chapter 14.
6.2.10 Glass in Glazed Curtain Walls, Glazed Storefronts, and Glazed Partitions:
6.2.10.1 General: Glass in glazed curtain walls, glazed storefronts and glazed partitions shall
meet the relative displacement requirement of Eq. 6.2.10.1-1:
. ID p
∆ fallout ≥ 125
(6.2.10.1-1)
or 0.5 inch (13 mm), whichever is greater, where:
)fallout
= the relative seismic displacement (drift) causing glass fallout from the
curtain wall, storefront wall or partition (Section 6.2.10.2).
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
Dp
= the relative seismic displacement that the component must be designed
to accommodate (Eq. 6.1.4-1). Dp shall be determined over the height
of the glass component under consideration.
I
= the occupancy importance factor (Table 1.4).
Exceptions:
1.
Glass with sufficient clearances from its frame such that physical
contact between the glass and frame will not occur at the design
drift, as demonstrated by Eq. 6.2.10.1-2, shall be exempt from the
provisions of Eq. 6.2.10.1-1:
Dclear ≥ 125
. Dp
(6.2.10.1-2)
or 0.5 inch (13 mm); whichever is greater, where:
Dclear
 hp c2 

2c1  1 +
b
c

p 1
=
hp =
the height of the rectangular glass,
bp =
the width of the rectangular glass,
c1 =
the clearance (gap) between the vertical glass edges
and the frame, and
c2 =
the clearance (gap) between the horizontal glass
edges and the frame.
2. Fully tempered monolithic glass in Seismic Use Groups I and II located no
more than 10 ft (3 m) above a walking surface shall be exempt from the
provisions of Eq. 6.2.10.1-1.
3. Annealed or heat-strengthened laminated glass in single thickness with
interlayer no less than 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) that is captured mechanically in a
wall system glazing pocket, and whose perimeter is secured to the frame by a
wet glazed gunable curing elastomeric sealant perimeter bead of ½ in. (13
mm) minimum glass contact width, or other approved anchorage system, shall
be exempt from the provisions of Eq. 6.2.10.1-1.
6.2.10.2 Seismic Drift Limits for Glass Components: )fallout, the drift causing glass fallout
from the curtain wall, storefront or partition, shall be determined in accordance with SMACNA
Restraint, or by engineering analysis.
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
6.3 MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT DESIGN:
6.3.1 General: Attachments and equipment supports for the mechanical and electrical systems,
components, or elements (hereinafter referred to as “components”) shall meet the requirements of
Sec. 6.3.2 through Sec. 6.3.16.
6.3.2 Mechanical and Electrical Component Forces and Displacements: Mechanical and
electrical components shall meet the force and seismic relative displacement requirements of Sec.
6.1.3, Sec. 6.1.4, and Table 6.3.2.
Some complex equipment such as valve operators, turbines and generators, and pumps and
motors are permitted to be functionally connected by mechanical links not capable of transferring
the seismic loads or accommodating seismic relative displacements and may require special
design considerations such as a common rigid support or skid.
Exception: Components supported by chains or similarly suspended from the structure
above or not required to meet the lateral seismic force requirements and seismic relative
displacement requirements of this section provided that they cannot be damaged or
cannot damage any other component when subject to seismic motion and they have high
deformation or articulating connections to the building at the point of attachment. The
gravity design load for these items shall be three times their operating load.
TABLE 6.3.2 Mechanical and Electrical Components Coefficients
Mechanical and Electrical Component or Elementb
apa
Rp
General Mechanical
Boilers and Furnaces
1.0
2.5
Pressure vessels on skirts and free-standing
2.5
2.5
Stacks
2.5
2.5
Cantilevered chimneys
2.5
2.5
Other
1.0
2.5
General
1.0
2.5
Conveyors (nonpersonnel)
2.5
2.5
High deformability elements and attachments
1.0
3.5
Limited deformability elements and attachments
1.0
2.5
Low deformability elements and attachments
1.0
1.5
Manufacturing and Process Machinery
Piping Systems
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
Mechanical and Electrical Component or Elementb
apa
Rp
HVAC System Equipment
Vibration isolated
2.5
2.5
Non-vibration isolated
1.0
2.5
Mounted in-line with ductwork
1.0
2.5
Other
1.0
2.5
Elevator Components
1.0
2.5
Escalator Components
1.0
2.5
Trussed Towers (free-standing or guyed)
2.5
2.5
Distributed systems (bus ducts, conduit, cable tray)
2.5
5
Equipment
1.0
2.5
1.0
1.5
General Electrical
Lighting Fixtures
a
A lower value for ap is permitted provided a detailed dynamic analysis is performed which
justifies a lower limit. The value for ap shall not be less than 1.00. The value of ap = 1 is for
equipment generally regarded as rigid or rigidly attached. The value of ap = 2.5 is for flexible
components or flexibly attached components. See Chapter 2 for definitions of rigid and flexible
components including attachments.
b
Components mounted on vibration isolation systems shall have a bumper restraint or snubber in
each horizontal direction. The design force shall be taken as 2Fp if the maximum clearance (air
gap) between the equipment support frame and restraint is greater than 1/4 inch. If the maximum
clearance is specified on the construction documents to be not greater than 1/4 inch, the design
force may be taken as Fp.
6.3.3 Mechanical and Electrical Component Period: The fundamental period of the
mechanical and electrical component (and its attachment to the building), Tp, may be determined
by the following equation provided that the component and attachment can be reasonably
represented analytically by a simple spring and mass single-degree-of-freedom system:
Wp
Tp = 2π
Kp g
where:
Tp
=
Component fundamental period,
Wp
=
Component operating weight,
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(6.3.3)
Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
g
=
Gravitational acceleration, and
Kp
=
Stiffness of resilient support system of the component and attachment, determined
in terms of load per unit deflection at the center of gravity of the component.
Note that consistent units must be used.
Alternatively, determine the fundamental period of the component in seconds, Tp, from
experimental test data or by a properly substantiated analysis.
6.3.4 Mechanical and Electrical Component Attachments: The stiffness of mechanical and
electrical component attachments shall be designed such that the load path for the component
performs its intended function.
6.3.5 Component Supports: Mechanical and electrical component supports and the means by
which they are attached to the component shall be designed for the forces determined in Sec.
6.1.3 and in conformance with Chapters 5 though 9, as appropriate, for the materials comprising
the means of attachment. Such supports include structural members, braces, frames, skirts, legs,
saddles, pedestals, cables, guys, stays, snubbers, ans tethers. Component supports may be forged
or cast as a part of the mechanical or electrical component. If standard or proprietary supports are
used, they shall be designed by either load rating (i.e., testing) or for the calculated seismic
forces. In addition, the stiffness of the support, when appropriate, shall be designed such that the
seismic load path for the component performs its intended function.
Component supports shall be designed to accommodate the seismic relative displacements
between points of support determined in accordance with Sec. 6.1.4.
In addition, the means by which supports are attached to the component, except when integral
(i.e., cast or forged), shall be designed to accommodate both the forces and displacements
determined in accordance with Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4. If the value of Ip = 1.5 for the component,
the local region of the support attachment point to the component shall be evaluated for the effect
of the load transfer on the component wall.
6.3.6 Component Certification: The manufacturer’s certificate of compliance with the force
requirements of the Provisions shall be submitted to the regulatory agency when required by the
contract documents or when required by the regulatory agency.
6.3.7 Utility and Service Lines at Structure Interfaces: At the interface of adjacent structures
or portions of the same structure that may move independently, utility lines shall be provided
with adequate flexibility to accommodate the anticipated differential movement between the
ground and the structure. Differential displacement calculations shall be determined in
accordance with Sec. 6.1.4.
6.3.8 Site-Specific Considerations: The possible interruption of utility service shall be
considered in relation to designated seismic systems in Seismic Use Group III as defined in Sec.
1.3.1. Specific attention shall be given to the vulnerability of underground utilities and utility
interfaces between the structure and the ground in all situations where Site Class E and F soil is
present and where the seismic coefficient Ca is equal to or greater than 0.15.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
6.3.9 Storage Tanks:
6.3.9.1 Above-Grade Storage Tanks: For storage tanks mounted above grade in structures,
attachments, supports, and the tank shall be designed to meet the force requirements of Chapter
14.
6.3.10 HVAC Ductwork: Attachments and supports for HVAC ductwork systems shall be
designed to meet the force and displacement requirements of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 and the
additional requirements of this section. In addition to their attachments and supports, ductwork
systems designated as having Ip greater than 1.0 shall be designed to meet the force and
displacement requirements of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 and the additional requirements of this section.
Where HVAC ductwork runs between structures that could displace relative to one another and
for isolated structures where the HVAC ductwork crosses the isolation interface, the HVAC
ductwork shall be designed to accommodate the seismic relative displacements specified in Sec.
6.1.4.
Seismic restraints are not required for HVAC ducts with Ip = 1.0 if either of the following
conditions are met for the full length of each duct run:
a. HVAC ducts are suspended from hangers, and all hangers are 12 in. (305 mm) or less in
length from the top of the duct to the supporting structure and the hangers are detailed to
avoid significant bending of the hangers and their attachments.
or
b. HVAC ducts have a cross-sectional area of less than 6 ft2 (0.557 m2).
HVAC duct systems fabricated and installed in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC,
SMACNA Rectangular, and SMACNA Restraint shall be deemed to meet the lateral bracing
requirements of this section.
Equipment items installed in-line with the duct system (e.g., fans, heat exchangers, and
humidifiers) with an operating weight greater than 75 lb (334 N) shall be supported and laterally
braced independently of the duct system and shall meet the force requirements of Sec. 6.1.3.
Appurtenances such as dampers, louvers, and diffusers shall be positively attached with
mechanical fasteners. Unbraced piping attached to in-line equipment shall be provided with
adequate flexibility to accommodate differential displacements.
6.3.11 Piping Systems: Attachments and supports for piping systems shall be designed to meet
the force and displacement requirements of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 and the additional requirements
of this section. In addition to their attachments and supports, piping systems designated as
having Ip greater than 1.0 shall be designed to meet the force and displacement provisions of Sec.
6.1.3 and 6.1.4 and the additional requirements of this section. When piping systems are
attached to structures that could displace relative to one another and for isolated structures,
including foundations, where the piping system crosses the isolation interface, the piping system
shall be designed to accommodate the seismic relative displacements specified in Sec. 6.1.4.
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
Seismic effects that shall be considered in the design of a piping system include the dynamic
effects of the piping system, its contents, and, when appropriate, its supports. The interaction
between the piping system and the supporting structures, including other mechanical and
electrical equipment, also shall be considered.
See Sec. 6.3.16 for elevator system piping requirements.
6.3.11.1 Fire Protection Sprinkler Systems: Fire protection sprinkler systems designed and
constructed in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be deemed to meet the force, displacement, and
other requirements of this section provided that the seismic design force and displacement
calculated in accordance with NFPA 13, multiplied by a factor of 1.4, is not less than that
determined using the Provisions.
6.3.11.2 Other Piping Systems. The following documents have been adopted as national
standards by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and are appropriate for use in the
seismic design of piping systems provided that the seismic design forces and displacements used
are comparable to those determined using the Provisions: ANSI/ASME B31.1, ANSI/ASME
B31.3, ANSI/ASME B31.4, ANSI/ASME B31.5, ANSI/ASME B31.9, ANSI/ASME B31.11, and
ANSI/ASME 31.8.
Exception: Piping systems designated as having an Ip greater than 1.0 shall not be
designed using the simplified analysis procedures of ANSI/ASME B31.9, Sec. 919.4.1
(a).
The following requirements shall also be met for piping systems designated as having an Ip
greater than 1.0.
a. Under design loads and displacements, piping shall not be permitted to impact other
components.
b. Piping shall accommodate the effects of relative displacements that may occur between
piping support points on the structure on the ground, other mechanical and/or electrical
equipment, and other piping
6.3.11.2.1 Supports and Attachments for Other Piping: In addition to meeting the force,
displacement, and other requirements of this section, attachments and supports for piping shall be
subject to the following other requirements and limitations.
a. Attachments shall be designed in accordance with Sec. 6.1.6.
b. Seismic supports are not required for:
1. Piping supported by rod hangers provided that all hangers in the pipe run are 12 in.
(305 mm) or less in length from the top of the pipe to the supporting structure and the
pipe can accommodate the expected deflections. Rod hangers shall not be
constructed in a manner that would subject the rod to bending moments.
2. High deformability piping in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F designated as
having Ip greater than 1.0 and a nominal pipe size of 1 in. (25 mm) or less when
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
provisions are made to protect the piping from impact or to avoid the impact of larger
piping or other mechanical equipment.
3. High deformability piping in Seismic Design Category C designated as having an Ip
greater than 1.0 and a nominal pipe size of 2 in. (51 mm) or less when provisions are
made to protect the piping from impact or to avoid the impact of larger piping or other
mechanical equipment.
4. High deformability piping in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F designated as
having an Ip equal to 1.0 and a nominal pipe size of 3 in. (76 mm) or less.
c. Seismic supports shall be constructed so that support engagement is maintained.
6.3.12 Boilers and Pressure Vessels: Attachments and supports for boilers and pressure
vessels shall be designed to meet the force and displacement provisions of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4
and the additional provisions of this section. In addition to their attachments and supports,
boilers and pressure vessels designated as having an Ip = 1.5 themselves shall be designed to
meet the force and displacement provisions of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4.
Seismic effects that shall be considered in the design of a boiler or pressure vessel include the
dynamic effects of the boiler or pressure vessel and it supports, sloshing of liquid contents, loads
from attached components such as piping, and the interaction between the boiler or pressure
vessel and its support.
6.3.12.1 ASME Boilers and Pressure Vessels: Boilers or pressure vessels designed in
accordance with ANSI/ASME B31.9 shall be deemed to meet the force, displacement, and other
requirements of this section. In lieu of the specific force and displacement provisions provided
in the ASME code, the force and displacement provisions of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 shall be used.
6.3.12.2 Other Boilers and Pressure Vessels: Boilers and pressure vessels designated as
having an Ip = 1.5 but not constructed in accordance with the provisions of ANSI/ASME B31.9
shall meet the following provisions:
a. The design strength for seismic loads of combination with other service loads and appropriate
environmental effects shall not exceed the following:
(1)
For boilers and pressure vessels constructed with ductile materials (e.g., steel
aluminum or copper), 90 percent of the material minimum specified yield strength .
(2)
For threaded connections in boilers or pressure vessels or their supports constructed
with ductile materials, 70 percent of the material minimum specified yield strength.
(3)
For boilers and pressure vessels constructed with nonductile materials (e.g., plastic,
cast iron, or ceramics), 25 percent of the material minimum specified tensile strength.
(4)
For threaded connections in boilers or pressures vessels or their supports constructed
with nonductile materials, 20 percent of the material minimum specified tensile
strength.
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
b. Provisions shall be made to mitigate seismic impact for boiler and pressure vessel
components constructed of nonductile materials or in cases where material ductility is
reduced (e.g., low temperature applications).
c. Boilers and pressure vessels shall be investigated to ensure that the interaction effects
between them and other constructions are acceptable.
6.3.12.3 Supports and Attachments for Boilers and Pressure Vessels: Attachments and
supports for boilers and pressure vessels shall meet the following provisions:
a. Attachments and supports transferring seismic loads shall be constructed of materials suitable
for the application and designed and constructed in accordance with nationally recognized
structural code such as, when constructed of steel, AISC LRFD and AISC ASD (see Chapter
8 for full references).
b. Attachments embedded in concrete shall be suitable for cyclic loads.
c. Seismic supports shall be constructed so that support engagement is maintained.
6.3.13 Mechanical Equipment Attachments and Supports: Attachments and supports for
mechanical equipment not covered in Sec. 6.3.8 through 6.3.12 or 6.3.16 shall be designed to
meet the force and displacement requirements of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 and the additional
requirements of this section. In addition, mechanical equipment designated as having an Ip
greater than 1.0 shall be designed to meet the force and displacement requirements of Sec. 6.1.3
and 6.1.4 and the additional requirements of this section.
When required, seismic effects that shall be considered in the design of mechanical equipment,
attachments and their supports include dynamic effects of the equipment, its contents, and when
appropriate its supports. The interaction between the equipment and the supporting structures,
including other mechanical and electrical equipment, also shall be considered.
6.3.13.1 Mechanical Equipment: Mechanical equipment having an Ip greater than 1.0 shall
meet the following requirements:
a. Provisions shall be made to eliminate seismic impact for equipment components vulnerable
to impact, equipment components constructed of nonductile materials, and in cases where
material ductility is reduced (e.g., low temperature applications).
b. The possibility for loadings imposed on the equipment by attached utility or service lines due
to differential motions of points of support from separate structures shall be evaluated.
In addition, components of mechanical equipment designated as having an Ip greater than 1.0 and
containing sufficient material that would be hazardous if released shall be designed for seismic
loads. The design strength for seismic loads in combination with other service loads and
appropriate environmental effects such as corrosion shall be based on the following:
a. For mechanical equipment constructed with ductile materials (e.g., steel, aluminum, or
copper), 90 percent of the equipment material minimum specified yield strength.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
b. For threaded connections in equipment constructed with ductile materials, 70 percent of the
material minimum specified yield strength.
c. For mechanical equipment constructed with nonductile materials (e.g., plastic, cast iron, or
ceramics), 25 percent of the equipment material minimum tensile strength.
d. For threaded connections in equipment constructed with nonductile, 20 percent of the
material minimum specified yield strength.
6.3.13.2 Attachments and Supports for Mechanical Equipment: Attachments and supports
for mechanical equipment shall meet the following requirements:
a. Attachments and supports transferring seismic loads shall be constructed of materials suitable
for the application and designated and constructed in accordance with a nationally recognized
standard specification such as, when constructed of steel, AISC LRFD and AISC ASD.
b. Friction clips shall not be used for anchorage attachment.
c. Expansion anchors shall not be used for non-vibration isolated mechanical equipment rated
over 10 hp (7.45 kW).
Exception: Undercut expansion anchors are permitted.
d. Supports shall be specifically evaluated if weak-axis bending of cold-formed support steel is
relied on for the seismic load path.
e. Components mounted on vibration isolation systems shall have a bumper restraint or snubber
in each horizontal direction, and vertical restraints shall be provided where required to resist
overturning. Isolator housings and restraints shall be constructed of ductile materials. (See
additional design force requirements in Table 6.3.2.) A viscoelastic pad or similar material
of appropriate thickness shall be used between the bumper and equipment item to limit the
impact load.
f. Seismic supports shall be constructed so that support engagement is maintained.
6.3.14 Electrical Equipment Attachments and Supports: Attachments and supports for
electrical equipment shall be designed to meet the force and displacement requirements of Sec.
6.1.3 and 6.1.4 and the additional requirements of this section. In addition, electrical equipment
designated as having IP greater than 1.0 shall be designed to meet the force displacement
requirements of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 and the additional requirements of this section.
Seismic effects that shall be considered in the design of other electrical equipment include the
dynamic effects of the equipment, its contents, and, when appropriate, its supports. The
interaction between the equipment and the supporting structures, including other mechanical and
electrical equipment, also shall be considered. When conduit, cable trays, or similar electrical
distribution components are attached to structures that could displace relative to one another and
for isolated structures where the conduit or cable trays cross the isolation interface, the conduit
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
or cable trays shall be designed to accommodate the seismic relative displacements specified in
Sec. 6.1.4.
6.3.14.1 Electrical Equipment: Electrical equipment designed as having an Ip greater than 1.0
shall meet the following requirements:
a. Provisions shall be made to eliminate seismic impact between the equipment and other
components.
b. The loading on the equipment imposed by attached utility or service lines that also are
attached to separate structures shall be evaluated.
c. Batteries on racks shall have wrap-around restraints to ensure that the batteries will not fall
off the rack. Spacers shall be used between restraints and cells to prevent damage to cases.
Racks shall be evaluated for sufficient lateral load capacity.
d. Internal coils of dry type transformers shall be positively attached to their supporting
substructure within the transformer enclosure
e. Slide out components in electrical control panels, computer equipment, etc., shall have a
latching mechanism to hold contents in place.
f. Electrical cabinet design shall conform to the applicable National Electrical Manufacturers
Association (NEMA) standards. Cut-outs in the lower shear panel that do not appear to have
been made by the manufacturer and are judged to significantly reduce the strength of the
cabinet shall be specifically evaluated.
g. The attachment of additional external items weighing more than 100 pounds (445 N) shall be
specifically evaluated if not provided by the manufacturer.
6.3.14.2 Attachments and Supports for Electrical Equipment: Attachments and supports for
electrical equipment shall meet the following requirements:
a. Attachments and supports transferring seismic loads shall be constructed of materials suitable
for the application and designed and constructed in accordance with a nationally recognized
structural standard specification such as, when constructed of steel, AISC LRFD and AISC
and ASD.
b. Friction clips shall not be used for anchorage attachment.
c. Oversized plate washers extending to the equipment wall shall be used at bolted connections
through the base sheet metal if the base is not reinforced with stiffeners or not judged capable
of transferring the required loads.
d. Supports shall be specifically evaluated if weak-axis bending of light gage support steel is
relied on for the seismic load path.
e. The supports for linear electrical equipment such as cable trays, conduit, and bus ducts shall
be designed to meet the force and displacement requirements of Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 if any of
the following situations apply:
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 6
(1)
Supports are cantilevered up from the floor;
(2)
Supports include bracing to limit deflection;
(3)
Supports are constructed as rigid welded frames;
(4)
Attachments into concrete utilize non-expanding insets, shot pins, or cast iron
embedments;
(5)
Attachments utilize spot welds, plug welds, or minimum size welds as defined by
AISC.
f. Components mounted on vibration isolation systems shall have a bumper restraint or snubber
in each horizontal direction, and vertical restraints shall be provided where required to resist
overturning. Isolator housings and restraints shall not be constructed of cast iron or other
materials with limited ductility. (See additional design force requirements in Table 6.3.2.) A
viscoelastic pad or similar material or appropriate thickness shall be used between the
bumper and equipment item to limit the impact load.
6.3.15 Alternate Seismic Qualification Methods: As an alternative to the analysis methods
implicit in the design methodology described above, equipment testing is an acceptable method
to determine seismic capacity. Thus, adaptation of a nationally recognized standard, such as
CISCA Recs for Zones 3-4, is acceptable so long as the equipment seismic capacity equals or
exceeds the demand expressed in Sec. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4.
6.3.16 Elevator Design Requirements: Elevators shall meet the force and displacement
provisions of Sec. 6.3.2 unless exempted by either Sec. 1.2 or Sec. 6.1. Elevators designed in
accordance with the seismic provisions of ASME A17.1 shall be deemed to meet the seismic
force requirements of this section, except they also shall meet the additional requirements
provided in Sec. 6.3.16.1 through 6.3.16.4.
6.3.16.1 Elevators and Hoistway Structural System: Elevators and hoistway structural
systems shall be designed to meet the force and displacement provisions of Sec. 6.3.2.
6.3.16.2 Elevator Machinery and Controller Supports and Attachments: Elevator
machinery and controller supports and attachments shall be designed to meet the force and
displacement provisions of Sec. 6.3.2.
6.3.16.3 Seismic Controls: Seismic switches shall be provided for all elevators addressed by
Sec. 6.3.16.1, including those meeting the requirements of ASME A17.1, provided they operate
with a speed of 150 ft/min (46 m/min) or greater. Seismic switched shall provide an electrical
signal indicating that structural motions are of such a magnitude that the operation of elevators
may be impaired. Upon activism of the seismic switch, elevator operations shall conform the
provisions of ASME A17.1 except as noted below. The seismic switch shall be located at or
above the highest floor serviced by the elevator. The seismic switch shall have two horizontal
perpendicular axes of sensitivity. Its trigger level shall be set to 30 percent of the acceleration of
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Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components Design Requirements
gravity in facilities where the loss of the use of an elevator is a life-safety issue, the elevator may
be used after the seismic switch has triggered provided that:
1. The elevator shall operate no faster than the service speed,
2. The elevator shall be operated remotely from top to bottom and back to top to verify that it is
operable, and
3. The individual putting the elevator back in service should ride the elevator from top to
bottom and back to top to verify acceptable performance.
6.3.16.4 Retainer Plates: Retainer plates are required at the top and bottom of the car and
counterweight.
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Chapter 7
FOUNDATION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
7.1 GENERAL: This chapter includes only those foundation requirements that are specifically
related to seismic resistant construction. It assumes compliance with all other basic
requirements. These requirements include, but are not limited to, requirements for the extent of
the foundation investigation, fills to be present or to be placed in the area of the structure, slope
stability, subsurface drainage, and settlement control. Also included are pile requirements and
capacities and bearing and lateral soil pressure recommendations. Except as specifically noted,
where the term “pile” is used in Sec. 7.4.4 and 7.5.4, it shall include all foundation piers,
caissons, and piles. The term “pile cap” shall include all elements to which piles are connected,
including grade beams and mats.
7.2 STRENGTH OF COMPONENTS AND FOUNDATIONS: The resisting capacities of
the foundations, subjected to the prescribed seismic forces of Chapters 1, 4 and 5, shall meet the
requirements of this chapter.
7.2.1 Structural Materials: The strength of foundation components subjected to seismic forces
alone or in combination with other prescribed loads and their detailing requirements shall
conform to the requirements of Chapter 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12. The strength of foundation components shall not be less than that required for forces acting without seismic forces.
7.2.2 Soil Capacities: The capacity of the foundation soil in bearing or the capacity of the soil
interface between pile, pier, or caisson and the soil shall be sufficient to support the structure
with all prescribed loads, without seismic forces, taking due account of the settlement that the
structure can withstand. For the load combination including earthquake as specified in Sec.
5.2.7, the soil capacities must be sufficient to resist loads at acceptable strains considering both
the short duration of loading and the dynamic properties of the soil.
7.3 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A AND B: Any construction meeting the requirements of Sec. 7.1 and 7.2 is permitted to be be used for structures assigned to Seismic Design
Category A or B.
7.4 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C: Foundations for structures assigned to Seismic
Design Category C shall conform to all of the requirements for Seismic Design Categories A and
B and to the additional requirements of this section.
7.4.1 Investigation: The authority having jurisdiction may require the submission of a written
report that shall include, in addition to the requirements of Sec. 7.1 and the evaluations required
in Sec. 7.2.2, the results of an investigation to determine the potential hazards due to slope
instability, liquefaction, and surface rupture due to faulting or lateral spreading, all as a result of
earthquake motions.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 7
7.4.2 Pole-Type Structures: Construction employing posts or poles as columns embedded in
earth or embedded in concrete footings in the earth are permitted to be used to resist both axial
and lateral loads. The depth of embedment required for posts or poles to resist seismic forces
shall be determined by means of the design criteria established in the foundation investigation
report.
7.4.3 Foundation Ties: Individual pile caps, drilled piers, or caissons shall be interconnected
by ties. All ties shall be capable of carrying, in tension or compression, a force equal to the
product of the larger pile cap or column load times SDS divided by 10 unless it can be
demonstrated that equivalent restraint can be provided by reinforced concrete beams within slabs
on grade or reinforced concrete slabs on grade or confinement by competent rock, hard cohesive
soils, very dense granular soils, or other approved means.
7.4.4 Special Pile Requirements: The following special requirements for piles, piers, or
caissons are in addition to all other requirements in the code administered by the authority having
jurisdiction.
All concrete piles and concrete filled pipe piles shall be connected to the pile cap by embedding
the pile reinforcement in the pile cap for a distance equal to the development length as specified
in ACI 318 as modified by Chapter 9 of the Provisions. The pile cap connection can be made by
the use of field-placed dowel(s) anchored in the concrete pile. For deformed bars, the
development length is the full development length for compression or tension, in the case of
uplift, without reduction in length for excess area.
Ends of rectangular hoops, spirals, and ties in piles shall be terminated with seismic hooks as
defined in Sec. 21.1 of ACI 318 turned into the confined concrete core. The ends of circular
spirals and hoops shall be terminated with 90-degree hooks turned into the confined concrete
core.
For resistance to uplift forces, anchorage of steel pipe (round HSS sections), concrete filled steel
pipe or H piles to the pile cap shall be made by means other than concrete bond to the bare steel
section.
Exception: Anchorage of concrete filled steel pipe piles is permitted to be accomplished
using deformed bars developed into the concrete portion of the pile.
Where a minimum length for reinforcement or the extent of closely spaced confinement
reinforcement is specified at the top of the pile, provisions shall be made so that those specified
lengths or extents are maintained after pile cut-off.
7.4.4.1 Uncased Concrete Piles: A minimum reinforcement ratio of 0.0025 shall be provided
for uncased cast-in-place concrete drilled or augured piles, piers, or caissons in the top one-third
of the pile length, a minimum length of 10 ft (3 m) below the ground, or throughout the flexural
length of the pile, whichever length is greatest. There shall be a minimum of four bars with
closed ties (or equivalent spirals) of a minimum of a 3/8 in. (9 mm) diameter provided at 16
longitudinal-bar-diameter maximum spacing. A maximum spacing of 6 in. (152mm) or eight
longitudinal-bar-diameters, whichever is less, shall be provided in the pile within three pile
diameters of the bottom of the pile cap.
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Foundation Design Requirements
7.4.4.2 Metal-Cased Concrete Piles: Reinforcement requirements are the same as for uncased
concrete piles.
Exception: Spiral welded metal-casing of a thickness not less than No. 14 gauge can be
considered as providing concrete confinement equivalent to the closed ties or equivalent
spirals required in an uncased concrete pile, provided that the metal casing is adequately
protected against possible deleterious action due to soil constituents, changing water
levels, or other factors indicated by boring records of site conditions.
7.4.4.3 Concrete-Filled Pipe: Minimum reinforcement 0.01 times the cross-sectional area of
the pile concrete shall be provided in the top of the pile with a length equal to two times the
required cap embedment anchorage into the pile cap.
7.4.4.4 Precast (non-prestressed) Concrete Piles: Longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided for precast concrete piles with a minimum steel ratio of 0.01. The longitudinal reinforcing
shall be confined with closed ties or equivalent spirals of a minimum 3/8 in. (10mm) diameter.
Transverse confinement reinforcing shall be provided at a maximum spacing of eight times the
diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar, but not to exceed 6 inches (152 mm), within three pile
diameters of the bottom of the pile cap. Outside of the confinement region, closed ties or
equivalent spirals shall be provided at a 16 longitudinal-bar-diameter maximum spacing, but not
greater than 8 in. (200 mm). Longitudinal reinforcement shall be full length.
7.4.4.5 Precast-Prestressed Piles: The minimum volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement shall
not be less than 0.007 or the amount required by the following formula for the upper 20 ft (6
m)of the pile:
ρs =
012
. f ′c
f yh
(7.4.4.5-1)
where:
Ds = spiral reinforcement index (vol. spiral/ vol. core)
fc! = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi (Mpa), and
fyh = yield strength of spiral reinforcement, which shall not be taken greater than 85,000 psi
(586 MPa).
Below the 20 ft (6 m) length, provide at least one-half the volumetric ratio provided by Eq,
7.4.4.5-1.
7.5 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, AND F: Foundations for structures assigned to
Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F shall conform to all of the requirements for Seismic
Design Category C construction and to the additional requirements of this section. Design and
construction of concrete foundation components shall conform with the requirements of ACI 318,
Sec. 21.8, except as modified by the requirements of this section.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 7
Exception: Detached one and two family dwellings of light frame construction not
exceeding two stories in height above grade need only comply with the requirements of
Sec.7.4 and Sec. 7.5.3.
7.5.1 Investigation: The owner shall submit to the authority having jurisdiction a written report
that includes an evaluation of potential site hazards such as slope instability, liquefaction, and
surface rupture due to faulting or lateral spreading and the determination of lateral pressures on
basement and retaining walls due to earthquake motions.
7.5.2 Foundation Ties: Individual spread footings founded on soil defined in Sec. 4.1.2 as Site
Class E or F shall be interconnected by ties. Ties shall conform to Sec. 7.4.3.
7.5.3 Liquefaction Potential and Soil Strength Loss: The geotechnical report shall assess
potential consequences of any liquefaction and soil strength loss, including estimation of
differential settlement, lateral movement or reduction in foundation soil-bearing capacity, and
shall discuss mitigation measures. Such measures shall be given consideration in the design of
the structure and can include, but are not limited to, ground stabilization, selection of appropriate
foundation type and depths, selection of appropriate structural systems to accommodate
anticipated displacements, or any combination of these measures.
The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss shall be evaluated for site peak ground
accelerations, magnitudes, and source characteristics consistent with the design earthquake
ground motions. Peak ground acceleration is permitted to be determined based on a site-specific
study taking into account soil amplification effects or, in the absence of such a study, peak
ground accelerations shall be assumed equal to SDS/2.5.
7.5.4 Special Pile and Grade Beam Requirements: Piling shall be designed and constructed
to withstand maximum imposed curvatures from earthquake ground motions and structure
response. Curvatures shall include free-field soil strains (without the structure) modified for
soil-pile interaction coupled with pile deformations induced by lateral pile resistance to structure
seismic forces. Concrete piles in Site Class E or F shall be designed and detailed in accordance
with Sec. 21.4.4.1, 21.4.4.2, and 21.4.4.3 of ACI 318 within seven pile diameters of the pile cap
and the interfaces of soft to medium stiff clay or liquefiable strata. For precast prestressed
concrete piles, detailing provisions as given in Sec. 7.5.4.4 shall apply.
Section 21.8.3.3 of ACI 318 need not apply when grade beams have the required strength to
resist the forces from the load combinations of Section 5.2.7.1. Section 21.8.4.4(a) of ACI 318
need not apply to concrete piles. Section 21.8.4.4(b) of ACI 318 need not apply to precast
prestressed concrete piles.
Design of anchorage of piles into the pile cap shall consider the combined effect of axial forces
due to uplift and bending moments due to fixity to the pile cap. For piles required to resist uplift
forces or provide rotational restraint, anchorage into the pile cap shall be capable of developing
the following:
1. In the case of uplift, the lesser of the nominal tensile strength of the longitudinal
reinforcement in a concrete pile, or the nominal tensile strength of a steel pile, or the pile
uplift soil nominal strength factored by 1.3, or the axial tension force resulting from the load
combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.1.
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Foundation Design Requirements
2. In the case of rotational restraint, the lesser of the axial and shear forces, and moments
resulting from the load combinations of Section 5.2.7.1 or development of the full axial,
bending, and shear nominal strength of the pile.
Splices of pile segments shall develop the nominal strength of the pile section, but the splice
need not develop the nominal strength of the pile in tension, shear, and bending when it has been
designed to resist axial and shear forces, and moments from the load combinations of Sec.
5.2.7.1.
Pile moments, shears, and lateral deflections used for design shall be established considering the
interaction of the shaft and soil. Where the ratio of the depth of embedment of the pile-to-thepile diameter or width is less than or equal to 6, the pile may be assumed to be rigid with respect
to the soil.
Pile group effects from soil on lateral pile nominal strength shall be included where pile centerto-center spacing in the direction of the lateral force is less than eight pile diameters. Pile group
effects on vertical nominal strength shall be included where pile center-to-center spacing is less
than three pile diameters. The pile uplift soil nominal strength shall be taken as the pile uplift
strength as limited by the frictional force developed between the soil and the pile.
The connection between batter piles and grade beams or pile caps shall be designed to resist the
full strength of the pile acting as a short column. Batter piles shall be capable of resisting forces
and moments from the load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.1.
7.5.4.1 Uncased Concrete Piles: A minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.005 shall be
provided for uncased cast-in-place drilled or augured concrete piles, piers, or caissons in the top
one-half of the pile length, a minimum length of 10 ft (3 m) below ground, or throughout the
flexural length of the pile, whichever length is greatest. The flexural length shall be taken as the
length of pile to a point where the concrete section cracking moment multiplied by the resistance
factor 0.4 exceeds the required factored moment at that point. There shall be a minimum of four
longitudinal bars with transverse confinement reinforcing provided in the pile in accordance with
Sec. 21.4.4.1, 21.4.4.2, and 21.4.4.3 of ACI 318 within three pile diameters of the bottom of the
pile cap.
It shall be permitted to use a transverse spiral reinforcing ratio of not less than one-half of that
required in Sec. 21.4.4.1(a) of ACI 318 for other than Class E, F, or liquefiable sites. Tie spacing
of longitudinal bars throughout the remainder of the pile length shall not exceed 12 longitudinal
bar diameters, one-half the diameter of the section, or 12 inches (305 mm). Ties shall be a
minimum of No. 3 bars for up to 20-in.-diameter (500 mm) piles and No. 4 bars for piles of
larger diameter.
7.5.4.2 Metal-Cased Concrete Piles: Reinforcement requirements are the same as for uncased
concrete piles.
Exception: Spiral welded metal-casing of a thickness not less than No. 14 gauge can be
considered as providing concrete confinement equivalent to the closed ties or equivalent
spirals required in an uncased concrete pile, provided that the metal casing is adequately
protected against possible deleterious action due to soil constituents, changing water
levels, or other factors indicated by boring records of site conditions.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 7
7.5.4.3 Precast (non-prestressed) Concrete Piles: Transverse confinement reinforcing of
closed ties or equivalent spirals shall be provided in accordance with Sec. 21.4.4.1, 21.4.4.2, and
21.4.4.3 of ACI 318 within three pile diameters of the bottom of the pile cap. It shall be
permitted to use a transverse spiral reinforcing ratio of not less than one-half of that required in
Sec. 21.4.4.1(a) of ACI 318 for other than Class E, F, or liquefiable sites.
7.5.4.4 Precast-Prestressed Piles: The requirements of ACI 318 need not apply unless
specifically referenced.
Where the total pile length in the soil is 35 ft (10.7 m) or less, transverse confinement
reinforcement shall be provided throughout the length of the pile. Where the pile length exceeds
35 ft (10.7 m), transverse confinement reinforcement shall be provided for the greater of 35 ft
(10.7 m) or the distance from the underside of the pile cap to the point of zero curvature plus
three times the least pile dimension.
The transverse confinement reinforcement shall be spiral or hoop reinforcement with a center-tocenter spacing not greater than one-fifth of the least pile dimension, six times the diameter of the
longitudinal tendons, or 8 in. (203mm), whichever is smaller.
Circular spiral reinforcement shall be spliced by lapping one full turn and bending the end of the
spiral to a 90-degree hook or by use of a mechanical or welded splice complying with Sec.
12.14.3 of ACI 318. Where the transverse confinement reinforcement consists of circular spirals,
the volumetric ratio of spiral transverse reinforcement shall comply with:
 f ′  A
14
. P 
 
g
ρ s = 0.25 c  
− 10
.  0.5 +
 f yh   Ach
 
f c ′ Ag 


(7.5.4.4-1)
but not less than
 f ′ 
14
. P 
ρ s = 012

.  c   0.5 +
f ′ c Ag 
 f yh  
(7.5.4.4-2)
and need not exceed Ds = 0.021 where:
Ds = spiral reinforcement index (vol. spiral/ vol. core),
fc! = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi (MPa),
fyh = yield strength of spiral reinforcement, which shall not be taken as greater than 85,000
psi (586 MPa),
Ag = pile cross-sectional area,
Ach = core area defined by spiral outside diameter, and
P = axial load on pile resulting from the load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7
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Foundation Design Requirements
The required amount of spiral reinforcement shall be permitted to be obtained by providing an
inner and outer spiral.
When transverse confinement reinforcement consists of rectangular hoops and cross ties, the total
cross-sectional area of lateral transverse reinforcement in the ductile region with spacing s and
perpendicular to dimension hc shall conform to:
 f ′   Ag
14
. P 

− 1  0.5 +

. shc  c  
Ash = 012
f ′ c Ag 
 f yh   Ach  
(7.5.4.4-3)
 f ′ 
14
. P 

. shc  c   0.5 +
Ash = 012
f ′ c Ag 
 f yh  
(7.5.4.4-4)
but not less than
where
s
= spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along length of pile,
hc = cross-sectional dimension of pile core measured center to center of hoop
reinforcement,
fc! = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi (Mpa), and
fyh = yield strength of transverse confinement reinforcement which shall not be taken as
greater than 70,000 psi (483 MPa).
The hoops and cross ties shall be equivalent to deformed bars not less than No.3 in size.
Rectangular hoop ends shall terminate at a corner with seismic hooks.
Outside of the length of the pile requiring transverse confinement reinforcing, the spiral or hoop
reinforcing with a volumetric ratio not less than one-half of that required for transverse
confinement reinforcing shall be provided.
7.5.4.5 Steel Piles: The connection between the pile cap and steel piles or unfilled steel pipe
piles shall be designed for a tensile force no less than 10 percent of the pile compression
capacity.
Exception: The pile connection need not meet this requirement where it can be
demonstrated that the pile connection has the strength to resist the axial forces and
moments resulting from the load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.1.
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Chapter 8
STEEL STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
8.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS: The design, construction, and quality of steel components
that resist seismic forces shall conform to the requirements of the references listed in this section
except as modified by the requirements of this chapter.
AISC LRFD
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Load and Resistance
Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (LRFD),
December 1993.
AISC ASD
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Allowable Stress Design
and Plastic Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ASD), June
1, 1989.
AISC Seismic
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)., Seismic Provisions for
Structural Steel Buildings (1997), Part I, including Supplement No. 2
(November 2000).
AISI
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Specification for the Design of
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members, 1996.
ANSI/ASCE 8-90 American Society of Civil Engineers, Specification for the Design of Cold-formed Stainless Steel Structural Members, ANSI/ASCE 8-90, 1990.
SJI
Steel Joist Institute, Standard Specification, Load Tables and Weight Tables
for Steel Joists and Joist Girders, 1994.
ASCE 19
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Structural Applications for
Steel Cables for Buildings, ASCE 19, 1995.
8.2 SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR STEEL STRUCTURES: The design of steel
structures to resist seismic forces shall be in accordance with Sec. 8.3 or 8.4 for the appropriate
Seismic Design Category.
8.3 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, and C: Steel structures assigned to Seismic
Design Categories A, B, and C shall be of any construction permitted by the references in Sec.
8.1. An R factor as set forth in Table 5.2.2 for the appropriate steel system is permitted when the
structure is designed and detailed in accordance with the requirements of AISC Seismic, Part I,
or Sec. 8.6 for light framed cold-formed steel wall systems. Systems not detailed in accordance
with the above shall use the R factor in Table 5.2.2 designated for “steel systems not detailed for
seismic.”
8.4 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, AND F: Steel structures assigned to Seismic
Design Categories D, E, and F shall be designed and detailed in accordance with AISC Seismic,
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 8
except as modified by other provisions in this section. Light framed cold-formed steel wall
systems shall be designed and detailed in accordance with Sec. 8.6.
8.4.1 Modifications to AISC Seismic:
8.4.1.1: Revise Sec. 7.3b as follows: After the words “Charpy V-Notch toughness of 20 ft-lbs at
0o F, as determined by AWS classification or manufacturer certification” add the following: “For
structures in which the steel frame is normally enclosed and maintained at a temperature of 50oF
or higher, critical welded joints in seismic-force-resisting systems, including CJP welds of beam
flanges to column flanges, CJP welds of shear tabs and beam webs to column flanges, column
splices, and similar joints shall be made with weld filler metal capable of producing welds with
minimum Charpy V-Notch toughness of 40 ft-lbs at 70oF and 20 ft-lbs at -20oF, under a range of
welding conditions in accordance with FEMA 353, Recommended Specifications and Quality
Assurance Guidelines for Moment Resisting Steel Frames for Seismic Applications. For
structures with service temperatures lower than 50oF, the Charpy V-notch toughness shall be a
minimum of 40 ft-lbs at 20o F above the lowest anticipated service temperature.”
8.4.1.2: Revise Sec. 9.2c and 10.2b.3 as follows: After the words “in the opposite sense on each
end of the beam” add the words “segment between the plastic hinge points.” Delete the words
“The required shear strength need not exceed the shear resulting from load combination 4-1.”
8.4.1.3: Revise Sec. 11.2a1 by adding the following exception:
Exception: Where weld access holes are provided, they shall conform to Figure X.
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Steel Structure Design Requirements
FIGURE X Legend: (1) bevel as required by AWS
D1.1for selected groove weld procedure; (2) larger tbf or 1/2
inch; (3) tbf to tbf with a 3/4 inch minimum; (4) 3/8 inch
minimum radius; (5) 3 tbf , (6) surfaces to 500 microinches
roughness.
8.5 COLD-FORMED STEEL SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS: The design of cold-formed
carbon or low-alloy steel members to resist seismic loads shall be in accordance with the
requirements of AISI and the design of cold-formed stainless steel structural l to resist seismic
loads shall be in accordance with the requirements of ANSI/ASCE 8-90, except as modified by
this section. The reference to section and paragraph numbers are to those of the particular
specification modified.
8.5.1 Modifications to AISI: Revise Sec. A5.1.3 of AISI as follows:
"A4.4 Wind or Earthquake Loads Where load combinations specified by the
applicable code include wind loads, the resulting forces are permitted to be
multiplied by 0.75. Seismic load combinations shall be as determined by these
provisions."
8.5.2 Modifications to ANSI/ASCE 8-90: Modify Sec. 1.5.2 of ANSI/ASCE 8-90 by
substituting a load factor of 1.0 in place of 1.5 for nominal earthquake load.
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2000 Provisions, Chapter 8
8.6 LIGHT-FRAMED WALLS: When required by the requirements in Sec. 8.3 or 8.4, coldformed steel stud walls designed in accordance with AISI and ANSI/ASCE 8-90 shall also
comply with the requirements of this section.
8.6.1 Boundary Members: All boundary members, chords, and collectors shall be designed to
transmit the specified induced axial forces.
8.6.2 Connections: Connections for diagonal bracing members, top chord splices, boundary
members, and collectors shall have a design strength equal to or greater than the nominal tensile
strength of the members being connected or S0 times the design seismic force. The pull-out
resistance of screws shall not be used to resist seismic forces.
8.6.3 Braced Bay Members: In stud systems where the lateral forces are resisted by braced
frames, the vertical and diagonal members in braced bays shall be anchored such that the bottom
tracks are not required to resist uplift forces by bending of the track or track web. Both flanges
of studs shall be braced to prevent lateral torsional buckling. In vertical diaphragm systems, the
vertical boundary members shall be anchored so the bottom track is not required to resist uplift
forces by bending of the track web.
8.6.4 Diagonal Braces: Provision shall be made for pretensioning or other methods of
installation of tension-only bracing to guard against loose diagonal straps.
8.6.5 Shear Walls: Nominal shear values for wall sheathing materials are given in Table 8.6.5.
Design shear values shall be determined by multiplying the nominal values therein by a N factor
of 0.55. In structures over one story in height, the assemblies in Table 8.6.5 shall not be used to
resist horizontal loads contributed by forces imposed by masonry or concrete construction.
Panel thicknesses shown in Table 8.6.5 shall be considered to be minimums. No panels less than
24 inches wide shall be used. Plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) structural panels shall be
of a type that is manufactured using exterior glue. Framing members, blocking, or strapping
shall be provided at the edges of all sheets. Fasteners along the edges in shear panels shall be
placed not less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) in from panel edges. Screws shall be of sufficient length to
ensure penetration into the steel stud by at least two full diameter threads.
The height to length ratio of wall systems listed in Table 8.6.5 shall not exceed 2:1.
Perimeter members at openings shall be provided and shall be detailed to distribute the shearing
stresses. Wood sheathing shall not be used to splice these members.
Wall studs and track shall have a minimum uncoated base thickness of not less than 0.033 in.
(0.84 mm) and shall not have an uncoated base metal thickness greater than 0.048 in. (1.22 mm).
Panel end studs and their uplift anchorage shall have the design strength to resist the forces
determined by the seismic loads determined by Eq. 2.2.6-3 and Eq. 2.2.6-4.
TABLE 8.6.5 Nominal Shear Values for Seismic Forces for Shear Walls
Framed with Cold-Formed Steel Studs (in pounds per foot)a, b
Assembly
Fastener Spacing at Panel
Framing
c
Description
Edges (inches)
Spacing
(inches o.c.)
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Steel Structure Design Requirements
15/32 rated Structural I sheathing
(4-ply) plywood one side d
7/16 in. oriented strand board one
side d
6
4
3
2
780
990
1465
1625
24
700
915
1275
1700
24
NOTE: For fastener and framing spacing, multiply inches by 25.4 to obtain metric mm.
a
Nominal shear values shall be multiplied by the appropriate strength reduction factor N to
determine design strength as set forth in Sec. 8.6.5.
b
Studs shall be a minimum 1-5/8 in. by 3-1/2 in. with a 3/8-in. return lip. Track shall be a
minimum 1-1/4 in. by 3-1/2 in. Both studs and track shall have a minimum uncoated base metal
thickness of 0.033 in. and shall be ASTM A446 Grade A (or ASTM A653 SQ Grade 33 [new
designation]). Framing screws shall be No. 8 x 5/8 in. wafer head self-drilling. Plywood and OSB
screws shall be a minimum No. 8 x 1 in. bugle head. Where horizontal straps are used to provide
blocking, they shall be a minimum 1-1/2 in. wide and of the same material and thickness as the stud
and track.
c
Screws in the field of the panel shall be installed 12 in. o.c. unless otherwise shown.
d
Both flanges of the studs shall be braced in accordance with Sec. 8.6.3.
8.7 SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR STEEL DECK DIAPHRAGMS: Steel deck
diaphragms shall be made from materials conforming to the requirements of AISI and
ANSI/ASCE 8-90. Nominal strengths shall be determined in accordance with approved
analytical procedures or with test procedures prepared by a registered design professional
experienced in testing of cold-formed steel assemblies and approved by the authority having
jurisdiction. Design strengths shall be determined by multiplying the nominal strength by a
resistance factor, N, equal to 0.60 for mechanically connected diaphragms and equal to 0.50 for
welded diaphragms. The steel deck installation for the structure, including fasteners, shall
comply with the test assembly arrangement. Quality standards established for the nominal
strength test shall be the minimum standards required for the steel deck installation, including
fasteners.
8.8 STEEL CABLES: The design strength of steel cables shall be determined by the
requirements of ASCE 19 except as modified by the Provisions. Sec. 5d of ASCE 19 shall be
modified by substituting 1.5(T4) where T4 is the net tension in cable due to dead load, prestress,
live load, and seismic load. A load factor of 1.1 shall be applied to the prestress force to be
added to the load combination of Sec. 3.1.2 of ASCE 19.
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Chapter 9
CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
9.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS: The quality and testing of concrete and steel materials and
the design and construction of concrete components that resist seismic forces shall conform to the
requirements of the reference listed in this section except as modified by the requirements of this
chapter.
ACI 318
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, excluding Appendix A, ACI 318, 1999.
ACI ITG/T1.1
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Acceptance Criteria for Moment
Frames Based on Structural Testing (An ACI Provisional Standard), 1999.
ASME B1.1
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Unified Inch Screw
Threads UN and UNR Thread Form, ASME B1.13, 1989.
ASME B18.2.1
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Square and Hex Bolts
and Screws, Inch Series, ASME B18.2.1, 1996
ASME B18.2.6.9
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
ATC-24
Applied Technology Council (ATC), Guidelines for Seismic Testing of
Components of Steel Structures, ATC-24, 1992
9.1.1 Modifications to ACI 318:
9.1.1.1: Insert the following notations in Sec. 21.0:
Ab
=
the area of the shank of the bolt or stud (in.2 or mm2)
bd
=
diaphragm width (ft)
cu!
=
neutral axis depth at Pu! and Mn!.
Rp
=
height of the plastic hinge above critical section; shall be established on the
basis of substantiated test data or may be alternatively taken at 0.5Rw.
Pu!
=
1.2D + 0.5L + E.
h
=
overall dimension of member in the direction of action considered.
hs
=
story height (ft)
Leff
=
length of diaphragm between inflection points (ft)
Sc Connection
=
nominal strength of connection cross section in flexural, shear, or axial load
per Sec. 21.2.7.3.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
Se Connection
=
moment, shear, or axial force at strong connection cross section corresponding to probable strength at the nonlinear action location, taking gravity load
effects into consideration per Sec. 21.2.8.3.
Sn Connection
=
nominal strength of connection cross section in flexural, shear, or axial load
per Sec. 21.2.7.3.
Spr
=
probable strength of connection cross section in flexural, shear, or axial
load. See Sec. 21.11.5.
Sy
=
yield strength of connection cross section in flexural, shear, or axial load
action as determined from physical experiments on the connection or the use
of analytical models for the response of the connection that are based on the
results of physical experiments on connections with characteristics similar
to those being modeled. See Sec. 21.11.5.
)E
=
elastic design displacement at the top of the wall using gross section properties and code-specified seismic forces.
)i
=
inelastic deflection at top of wall = )t - )y.
)m
=
Cd)s.
)s
=
design level response displacement, which is the total drift or total story
drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the design seismic forces.
)t
=
total deflection at the top of the wall equal to Cd times the elastic design
displacement using cracked section properties or may be taken as
(Ig/Ieff)Cd)E. Ig is the gross moment of inertia of the wall and Ieff is the
effective moment of inertia in the wall. Ieff may be taken as 0.5Ig.
)y
=
displacement at the top of the wall corresponding to yielding of the tension
reinforcement at critical section or may be taken as (Mn!/ME))E where ME
equals moment at critical section when top of wall is displaced )E. Mn! is
nominal flexural strength of critical section at Pu!.
Ny
=
yield curvature which may be estimated as 0.003/Rw.
R
=
dynamic amplification factor from Sec. 21.2.8.3 and 21.2.8.4.
9.1.1.2: Insert the following definitions in Sec. 21.1:
Anchorage – The means by which, for precast construction, the force in the connection is
transferred into the precast or cast-in-place member.
Connection – An element that joins two precast members or a precast member and a cast-inplace member.
Connection Region – The portion of the precast or cast-in-place member through which the
concentrated forces from the connection and anchorage are transferred to the concrete. Its extent
from the connection is the distance for the forces to be distributed over the cross section and shall
be permitted to not exceed the largest dimension of that cross section.
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Concrete Structure Design Requirements
Design Displacement – Design story drift as specified in Sec. 5.2.2.4.3 of the 2000 NEHRP
Recommended Provisions.
Design Load Combinations – Combinations of factored loads and forces specified in Sec. 5.2.7
of the the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions.
Dry Connection – Connection used between precast members which does not qualify as a wet
connection.
Joint – The geometric volume common to intersecting members.
Moment Frame
Special moment frame – A cast-in-place frame complying with the requirements of Sec.
21.2 through 21.5 in addition to the requirements for ordinary moment frames or a precast
concrete frame complying with the requirements for a cast-in-place frame and Sec. 21.11.
Nonlinear Action Location – Center of the region of yielding in flexure, shear, or axial
action.
Nonlinear Action Region – The member length over which nonlinear action takes place. It shall
be taken as extending a distance of no less than h/2 on either side of the nonlinear action
location.
Strong Connection – A connection that remains elastic while the designated nonlinear action
regions undergo inelastic response under the design basis ground motion.
Structural Walls
Ordinary precast concrete structural wall – A wall incorporating precast concrete
elements and complying with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 18 with the requirements of Chapter 16 superseding those of Chapter 14. Where connections between wall
panels are required or anchorage of wall panels to foundations is required for resistance to
overturning, Type Y or Type Z connections shall be provided as required by Sec. 21.11.6.
Special precast concrete structural wall – A wall complying with the requirements of Sec.
21.11 in addition to the requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls.
Wall Pier – A wall segment with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio of at least 2.5, but not
exceeding 6, whose clear height is at least two times its horizontal length.
Wet Connection – A connection that uses any of the splicing methods permitted by Sec. 21.3.2.3
or 21.3.2.4 to connect precast members and uses cast-in-place concrete or grout to fill the
splicing closure.
Wet Connection – A connection in precast construction that uses any of the splicing methods
permitted by Sec. 21.2.6, 21.2.7, or 21.3.2.3 to connect precast members and uses cast-in-place
concrete or grout to fill the splicing closure.
9.1.1.3: Revise Sec. 21.2.1.2, 21.2.1.3, and 21.2.1.4 as follows:
“21.2.1.2 For structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories A and B, provisions of
Chapters 1 through 18 and 22 shall apply except as modified by the requirements of
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
Chapter 9 of the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions. Where the seismic design
loads are computed using provisions for intermediate or special concrete systems, the
requirements of Chapter 21 for intermediate or special systems, as applicable, shall be
satisfied.
“21.2.1.3 For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, intermediate or special
moment frames or ordinary or special reinforced concrete structural walls shall be used
to resist seismic forces induced by earthquake motions. Where the design seismic loads
are computed using the provisions for special concrete systems, the requirements of
Chapter 21 for special systems, as applicable, shall be satisfied.
“21.2.1.4 For structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D, E and F, special
moment frames, special reinforced concrete structural walls, diaphragms and trusses, and
foundations complying with Sec. 21.2 through 21.8 and 21.11 shall be used to resist
forces induced by earthquake motions. Frame members not proportioned to resist
earthquake forces shall comply with Sec. 21.9.”
9.1.1.4: Insert the following new Sec. 21.2.1.6 and 21.2.1.7:
21.2.1.6 Precast concrete seismic-force-resisting systems used in regions of high seismic
risk or for structures assigned to high seismic performance or design categories shall
satisfy the requirements of Sec. 21.11 in addition to the requirements of Sec. 21.2
through 21.9.
“21.2.1.7 In structures having precast gravity load-carrying systems, the seismic-forceresisting system shall be one of the systems listed in Table 5.2.2 of the 2000 NEHRP
Recommended Provisions and shall be well distributed using one of the following
methods:
“1. The diaphragm or diaphragm segment between seismic-force-resisting systems shall
be designed to resist a force not less than S0 times the force determined in accordance with Sec. 5.2.5.4 of the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions. The chord
force determined in accordance with Sec. 21.7.8.1 of ACI 318 shall be increased by
a factor equal to:
2

 Leff  
 
1 + 0.4
 bd  

bd
12hs
but not less than unity where:
Leff =
length of diaphragm between inflection points, ft,
hs =
story height, ft, and
bd =
diaphragm width, ft
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Concrete Structure Design Requirements
“Where the seismic-force-resisting system consists of moment resisting frames, at
least (Nb/4) + 1 of the bays (rounded up to the nearest integer) along any frame line
at any story shall be part of the seismic-force-resisting system where Nb is the total
number of bays along that line at that story. This requirement applies to only the
lower two thirds of the stories of buildings three stories or taller.
“2. All beam-to-column connections that are not part of the seismic-force-resisting
system shall be designed in accordance with the following:
“Connection Design Force. The connection shall be designed to develop
strength M. M is the moment developed at the connection when the frame is
displaced by )s assuming fixity at the connection and a beam flexural stiffness
of no less than one half of the gross section of stiffness. M shall be sustained
through a deformation of )m.
“Connection Characteristics. The connection shall be permitted to resist moment in
one direction only, positive or negative. The connection at the opposite end of the
member shall resist moment with the same positive or negative sign. The connection
shall be permitted to have zero flexural stiffness up to a frame displacement of )m.
“In addition, complete calculations for the deformation compatibility of the gravity load
carrying system shall be made in accordance with Sec. 5.2.2.4.3 of the 2000 NEHRP
Recommended Provisions using cracked section stiffness in the seismic-force-resisting
system and the diaphragm.
“Where gravity columns are not provided with lateral support on all sides, a positive
connection shall be provided along each unsupported direction parallel to a principal
plan axis of the structure. The connection shall be designed for a horizontal force equal
to 4 percent of the axial load strength, Po, of the column.
“The bearing length shall be calculated to include end rotation, sliding, and other
movements of precast ends at supports due to earthquake motions in addition to other
movements and shall be at least 2 inches more than that required for bearing strength.”
9.1.1.5: Change Sec. 21.2.5.1 as follows and insert the following new Sec. 21.2.5.2 and 21.2.5.3.
“21.2.5.1 Except as permitted in 21.2.5.2 and 21.2.5.3, reinforcement resisting earthquakeinduced flexural and axial forces in the frame members and in wall boundary elements shall
comply with a ASTM A 706. ASTM A 615 Grades 40 and 60 reinforcement shall be
permitted if (a) the actual yield strength based on mill tests does not exceed the specified
yield strength by more than 18,000 psi (retests shall not exceed this value by more than an
additional 3000 psi) and (b) the ratio of the actual ultimate tensile strength to the actual
tensile yield strength is not less than 1.25.
“21.2.5.2 Prestressing tendons shall be permitted in the flexural members of frames
provided the average prestress, fpc, calculated for an area equal to the member’s shortest
cross-sectional dimension multiplied by the perpendicular dimension shall not exceed the
lesser of 700 psi or f c ′ 6 at locations of nonlinear action where prestressing tendons are
used in members of frames.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
“21.2.5.3 Unless the seismic-force-resisting frame is qualified for use through structural
testing as required by 21.8.3.1, for members in which prestressing tendons are used together
with mild steel reinforcement to resist earthquake-induced forces, prestressing tendons shall
not provide more than one quarter of the strength for either positive or negative moment at
the nonlinear action and be anchored at the exterior face of the joint or beyond.
“21.2.5.4 Anchorages for tendons shall be demonstrated to perform satisfactorily for seismic
loadings. Anchorage assemblies shall withstand, without failure, a minimum of 50 cycles of
loading between 40 and 85 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the prestressing steel.
9.1.1.6: Add the following new Sec. 21.4.5.3:
“21.4.5.3 At any section where the design strength, NPn, of the column is less than the sum
of the shear Ve computed in accordance with 21.4.5.1 for all the beams framing into the
column above the level under consideration, special transverse reinforcement shall be
provided. For beams framing into opposite sides of the column, the moment components
may be assumed to be of opposite sign. For determination of the nominal strength, Pn, of the
column, these moments may be assumed to result from the deformation of the frame in any
one principal axis.”
9.1.1.7: In Sec. 21.6.3, change “factored load combinations” to “design load combinations.”
9.1.1.8: Modify Sec. 21.6 by adding a new Sec. 21.6.10 to read as follows:
“21.6.10 Wall Piers and Wall Segments
“21.6.10.1 Wall piers not designed as part of a special moment frame shall have transverse
reinforcement designed to satisfy the requirements of Sec. 21.6.10.2
“Exceptions:
“1. Wall piers that satisfy Sec. 21.9.
“2. Wall piers along a wall line within a story where other shear wall segments provide
lateral support to the wall piers and such segments have a total stiffness of at least
six times the sum of the stiffness of all the wall piers.
“21.6.10.2 Transverse reinforcement shall be designed to resist the shear forces determined
from Sec. 21.4.5.1 and 21.3.4.2. Where the axial compressive force, including earthquake
effects , is less than As fc! /20, transverse reinforcement in wall piers is permitted to have
standard hooks at each free end and in lieu of hoops. Spacing of transverse reinforcement
shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Transverse reinforcement shall be extended beyond the
pier clear height for at least the development length of the largest longitudinal reinforcement
in the wall pier.”
9.1.1.9: Change Sec. 21.8.1.1 to read as follows:
“21.8.1.1 Foundations resisting earthquake-induced forces or transferring earthquakeinduced forces between structure and ground shall comply with requirements of Sec. 21.8
and other applicable code provisions unless modified by Chapter 7 of the 2000 NEHRP
Recommended Provisions.
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Concrete Structure Design Requirements
9.1.1.10: Revise Sec. 21.9.3.3 to read as follows:
“21.9.23.3 Members with factored gravity axial force exceeding Ag fc!/10 shall satisfy Sec.
21.4.3.1, 21.4.4, 21.4.5, and 21.5.2.1. The maximum longitudinal spacing of ties shall be so
for the full column height. The spacing, so, shall not be more than six diameters of the
smallest longitudinal bar enclosed or 6 in. (152 mm), whichever is smaller. Lap splices of
longitudinal reinforcement in such members need not satisfy Sec. 21.4.3.2 in structures
where the seismic-force-resisting system does not include special moment frames.”
9.1.1.11: Insert in Sec. 21.10 the following new Sec. 21.10.7:
“21.10.7 Precast concrete moment frames. For structure assigned to Seismic Design
Category C, precast concrete seismic-force-resisting frames shall be permitted provided the
frame conforms to 21.10.1 through 21.10.5 and Type Y or Type Z connections as defined in
21.11.5 are used.”
9.1.1.12: Insert new Sec. 21.11 as follows:
“21.11 Precast concrete special moment frames and special structural walls.
“21.11.1 Scope.
Requirements of 21.11 apply to special moment frames, and to special reinforced concrete
structural walls, resisting the earthquake induced forces and utilizing precast concrete
elements.”
“21.11.2 Seismic-force-resisting system requirements.
“21.11.2.1 A precast seismic-force-resisting system shall be permitted providing it satisfies
either of the following criteria:
“1. The behavior of the system for forces up to and including those at the design
displacement emulates the behavior of monolithic reinforced concrete construction and
the system satisfies 21.11.3 or
“2. The system relies on its unique properties as a structure composed of interconnected
precast elements and is demonstrated by experimental evidence and analysis to satisfy
Sec. 21.2 through 21.7 of Chapter 21. Substantiating experimental evidence of acceptable performance of those elements required to sustain inelastic deformations shall be
based upon cyclic testing of specimens representing those elements and shall satisfy
21.11.4.1 for special precast concrete moment frames and 21.11.4.2 for special precast
concrete structural walls.
“21.11.3 Emulation Design. Precast structural systems emulating the behavior of monolithic reinforced concrete construction shall satisfy 21.11.3.1 where ductile connections are
used and 21.11.3.2 where strong connections are used.
“21.11.3.1 Precast structural systems utilizing either wet or dry ductile connections at
nonlinear action locations shall comply with all the applicable requirements of monolithic
concrete construction for resisting seismic forces and satisfy the following:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
“1. Where the moment acting on the connection is assumed equal to Mpr, the co-existing
shear on the connection shall be no greater than 0.5Sn Connection and
“2. The nominal shear strength for the connection shall not be less than the shear strengths
of the members immediately adjacent to that connection.
“21.11.3.2 Precast structural systems not meeting the requirements of 21.11.2 shall utilize
strong connections resulting in nonlinear response away from connections. Design shall
satisfy the requirements of 21.11.5 in addition to the applicable requirements of monolithic
concrete construction for resisting seismic forces except that the provisions of 21.3.1.2 shall
apply to segments between nonlinear action locations.
“21.11.4 Interconnected element design.
“21.11.4.1 For special moment frames composed of interconnected precast elements,
substantiating experimental evidence and analysis shall satisfy the requirements of ACI
ITG/T1.1. It shall also be demonstrated by experimental evidence that the modules used for
the validation testing of ACI ITG/T1.1 have the ability to carry, at 5 percent or greater drift
ratios, the gravity loads that act on them in the generic frame.
“21.11.4.2 For special structural wall systems composed of precast elements substantiating
experimental evidence and analysis shall meet the requirements of Sec. 4.1, 4.2, 5.2, 5.3, 6.0,
7.0 and 8.0 of ACI ITG/T1.1 and:
2. The minimum stack module shall be a stack of wall panels at least two panels high.
2. For the third cycle at drift ratios equal to or exceeding the limiting drift ratio, the criteria
for acceptance shall be that:
a. Lateral load resisting capacity of the module shall be at least 80 percent of the peak
lateral load;
b. The relative energy dissipation ratio, as defined in ACI ITG/T1.1-99, shall equal or
exceed 15 percent for that third cycle; and
c. The stiffness at zero drift shall equal or exceed that required by ACI ITG/T1.1-99.
“3. The limiting drift ratio in percent shall satisfy the following criterion:
10
. ≤ 0.67[hw lw ] + 0.5 ≤ 3.0
“21.11.4.3 Unless there is substantial experimental evidence obtained during a prior
development program, the validation tests required in Sec. 21.11.4.1 and 21.11.4.2 shall:
1. Be conducted at full scale and
2. Be at least two in number for each characteristic configuration of intersecting beams and
columns or structural walls.
“21.11.4.4 The nonlinear response history analysis of Sec. 5.7 of the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions shall be used to design the special precast concrete moment frame and
146
Concrete Structure Design Requirements
structural wall systems using the force-deformation characteristics from the subassemblage
tests required by Sec. 21.11.4.1 or Sec. 21.11.4.2.
“21.11.5 Emulation design of frames using strong connections.
“21.11.5.1 Location. Nonlinear action location shall be selected so that there is a strong
column/weak beam deformation mechanism under seismic effects. The nonlinear action
location shall be no closer to the near face of strong connection than h/2. For column-tofooting connections where nonlinear action may occur at the column base to complete the
mechanism, the nonlinear action location shall be no closer to the near face of the connection
than h/2.
“21.11.5.2 Anchorage and splices. Reinforcement in nonlinear action region shall be fully
developed outside both the strong connection region and the nonlinear action region.
Noncontinuous anchorage reinforcement of strong connection shall be fully developed
between the connection and the beginning of nonlinear action region. Lap splices are
prohibited within connections adjacent to a joint.
“21.11.5.3 Design forces. Design strength of strong connections shall be based on :
φ S nConnection ≥ ψ S eConnection
“ The dynamic amplification factor, R, shall be taken as 1.0.
“21.11.5.4 Column-to-column connection. The strength of such connection shall comply
with 21.2.7.3 with the R taken as 1.4. Where the column-to-column connections occur, the
columns shall be provided with transverse reinforcement as specified in 21.4.4.1 through
21.4.4.3 over their full height in the factorial axial compressive force in these members,
including seismic effects, exceeds Agfc!/10.
“Exception: Where column-to-column connection is located within the middle third of
the column clear height, the following shall apply: (a) the design moment strength, NMn,
the connection shall not be less than 0.4 times the maximum Mpr for the column within
the story height and (b) the design shear strength, NVn, of the connection shall not be less
than that determined per 21.4.5.1.
“21.11.5.5 Column-face connection. Any strong connection located outside the middle
half of a beam span shall be a wet connection unless a dry connection can be substantiated by
approved cyclic test results. Any mechanical connector located within such a column-face
strong connection shall develop in tension or compression, as required, at least 40 percent of
the specified yield strength, fy, of the bar.
“21.11.6 Connections.
“21.11.6.1 At dry connections that are nonlinear action locations, displacements both in the
direction of the action of the connection and the transverse to it shall be controlled.
“21.11.6.2 Dry connections shall be mechanical splices that are Type 2 at nonlinear action
locations. Type 1 mechanical splices and welded splices shall be permitted elsewhere.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
“21.11.6.3 Based on the results of physical experiments and analytical modeling of connections, their anchorage and their connection regions, both dry and wet connections at nonlinear action locations shall be classified as either Type Y or Type Z connections, as follows:
1. Type Y connections shall conform to 21.11.6.4 and develop, for the specified loading,
ductility ratios greater than 4.0.
2. Type Z connections shall conform to 21.11.6.5 and develop, for the specified loading
ductility ratios greater than 8.0.
“Testing of connections and evaluation of results shall be made in accordance with the
principles specified in ACI ITG/T1.1 and ATC-24.
“21.11.6.4 Type Y connections shall develop under flexural, shear, and axial load actions, as
required, a probable strength, Spr, determined using a N value of unity, that is not less than
125 percent or more of the yield strength, Sy, of the connection. The anchorage on either side
of the connection shall be designed to develop 1.3Spr in tension and shall be connected
directly by mechanical splice, welded splice, or tension lap splice to the principal
reinforcement of the precast or cast-in-place element.
“21.11.6.5 Type Z connections shall develop under flexural, shear and axial load actions, as
required, a probable strength, Spr, determined using a N value of unity, that is not less than
140 percent of the yield strength, Sy of the connection. The anchorage on either side of the
connection shall be designed to satisfy the requirements for Type Y connections in tension
and in compression, and the connection region shall be able to develop 1.3Spr. Equilibriumbased plasticity models (strut-and-tie models) shall be permitted to be used for design of the
connection region. Confinement reinforcement in the form of closed hoops or spirals with a
yield force equal to not less than 5 percent of the compressive force and having a spacing not
greater than 3 in. shall be provided where the local compressive stress exceeds 0.7fc!.
“Exception: Connections in nonlinear action regions in test modules used to qualify
seismic-force resisting systems for use based on structural testing in accordance with
21.11.3 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this provision.
“21.11.6.6 Connections at nonlinear action locations shall be Type Z connections. Type Y
connections shall be permitted at cross sections other than nonlinear action locations.
“21.11.6.7 Connections and the structural components of which they are part shall have a
quality assurance plan satisfying the requirements of the 2000 NEHRP Recommended
Provisions Sec. 3.2.1 and 3.2.2.”
9.2 ANCHORING TO CONCRETE:
9.2.1 Scope:
9.2.1.1: These provisions provide design requirements for structural anchors in concrete used to
transmit structural loads from attachments into concrete members or from one connected member
to another by means of tension, shear, or a combination of tension and shear. Safety levels
specified are intended for in-service conditions rather than for short-term handling and
construction conditions.
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Concrete Structure Design Requirements
9.2.1.2: These provisions apply to both cast-in concrete anchors such as headed studs, headed
bolts or hooked bolts, and post-installed anchors, such as expansion anchors and undercut
anchors. Specialty inserts, through bolts, bolts anchored to embedded large steel plates, adhesive
or grouted bounded anchors, and direct anchors, such as powder or pneumatic actuated nails or
bolts are not included. Reinforcement used as a part of the embedment shall be designed in
accordance with ACI 318.
9.2.1.3: Headed studs and headed bolts that have a geometry consistent with ASME B1.1,
B18.2.1, and B18.2.6.9 shall be designed by Sec. 9.2.4. Hooked bolts that have a geometry that
has been demonstrated to result in pullout strength without the benefit of friction in uncracked
concrete equal to or exceeding 1.4 Np (where Np is given by Eq. 9.2.5.3.5) are included.
9.2.1.4: Post-installed anchors shall be tested before use to determine their nominal strength in
uncracked concrete, cracked concrete, or both and also to verify their compliance with the
requirements of these design provisions for reliability and performance under anticipated
conditions of service. Such tests shall be conducted by an independent testing agency and shall
be verified by a registered design professional with full description and details of the testing
program, procedures, results, and conclusions. The test program shall be comprehensive and
shall include tests, results, and analysis for the requirements of Sec. 9.2.1.4.1 and 9.2.1.4.3.
9.2.1.4.1 Reference Tests: Reference tests shall establish failure modes, technical data, and k
factors to use with these design provisions for uncracked or cracked concrete or both.
9.2.1.4.2 Reliability Tests: Reliability tests shall establish the appropriate category for the
fastener using tests of sensitivity to reduced installation effort, sensitivity to low strength
concrete with larger tolerance drill bit in cracked or uncracked concrete, and sensitivity to high
strength concrete with a lower tolerance drill bit in cracked or uncracked concrete. Tests shall
also be performed in uncracked concrete with repeated loading and in cracked concrete with an
opening and closing crack of at least 1,000 cycles to establish the fastener suitability.
9.2.1.4.3 Service-condition Tests: Service-condition tests shall establish requirements for edge
distance, spacing between fasteners, splitting near an edge, shear capacity and pryout. For
cracked concrete, simulated seismic qualification tests shall establish the ability of the fastener to
perform in tension and shear under seismic conditions.
9.2.1.5: Load applications that are predominantly high cycle fatigue or impact are not covered by
these provisions.
9.2.2 Notations and Definitions:
9.2.2.1 Notations:
Ab =
bearing area of the head of the stud or anchor bolt (in2).
ANo =
projected concrete failure area of one anchor, for calculation of strength in tension, when
not limited by edge distance or spacing, as defined in Sec. 9.2.5.2.1 (in2). (see Figure
C9.2.5.2.2-1).
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
AN =
projected concrete failure area of an anchor or group of anchors for calculation of
strength in tension as defined in Sec. 9.2.5.2.1, in2. AN shall not be taken greater than
nANo (see Figure C9.2.5.2.1-2).
Ase =
effective cross-sectional area of anchor (in2).
Asl =
effective cross-sectional area of expansion or undercut anchor sleeve, if sleeve is within
shear plane (in2).
AVo =
projected concrete failure area of one anchor, for calculation of strength in shear, when
not limited by corner influences, spacing, or member thickness, as defined in Sec.
9.2.6.2.1 ( in2) (See Figure C9.2.6.2.1-1).
AV =
projected concrete failure area of an anchor or group of anchors, for calculation of
strength in shear, as defined in Sec. 9.2.6.2.1 ( in2). AV shall not be taken greater than
nAVo. (see Figure C9.2.6.2.1-2).
c
distance from center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete (in.).
=
c1 =
distance from the center of an anchor shaft to the edge of the concrete in one direction
(in). Where shear force is applied to an anchor, c1 is in the direction of the shear force
(see Figure C9.2.6.2.1-2).
c2 =
distance from center of an anchor shaft to the edge of the concrete in the direction
orthogonal to c1 ( in.).
cmax = the largest of the edge distances that are less than or equal to 1.5 hef (in.) used only for
the case of 3 or 4 edges.
cmin =
the smallest of the edge distances that are less than or equal to 1.5 hef (in.)
do =
outside diameter of anchor or shaft diameter of headed stud, headed anchor bolt, or
hooked anchor (in.) (see also Sec. 9.2.8.4).
du =
diameter of head of stud or anchor bolt or equivalent diameter of effective perimeter of
an added plate or washer at the head of the anchor (in.).
eh =
distance from the inner surface of the shaft of a J-bolt to the outer tip of the J- or L-bolt
(in.).
eN! =
eccentricity of normal force on a group of anchors; the distance between the resultant
tension load on a group of anchors in tension and the centroid of the group of anchors
loaded in tension (in.) (see Figures C9.2.5.2.4-1 and -2).
ev! =
eccentricity of shear force on a group of anchors; the distance between the point of shear
force application and the centroid of the group of anchors resisting shear in the direction
of the applied shear (in.).
fc ! =
specified compressive strength of concrete (psi).
fct =
specified tensile strength of concrete (psi).
fr
modules of rapture of concrete (psi).
=
150
Concrete Structure Design Requirements
ft
=
calculated tensile stress in a region of a member (psi).
fy
=
specified yield strength of anchor steel (psi).
fut =
specified tensile strength of anchor steel (psi).
futsl =
specified tensile strength of anchor sleeve (psi).
h
thickness of member in which an anchor is anchored measured parallel to the anchor axis
(in.).
=
hef =
effective anchor embedment depth (in.) (see Sec. 9.2.8.5 and Figure C9.2.2.2).
k
coefficient for basic concrete breakout strength in tension.
=
kcp =
coefficient for pryout strength.
l
=
load bearing length of anchor for shear, not to exceed 8do (in.).
l
=
hef for anchors with a constant stiffness over the full length of the embedded section,
such as headed studs or post-installed anchors with one tubular shell over the full length
of the embedment depth.
l
=
2do for torque-controlled expansion anchors with a distance sleeve separated from the
expansion sleeve.
n
=
number of anchors in a group.
Nb =
basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete, as
defined in Sec. 9.2.5.2.2 (lb).
Ncb =
nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor, as defined in Sec.
9.2.5.2.1 (lb).
Ncbg = nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors, as defined in Sec.
9.2.5.2.1 (lb).
Nn =
nominal strength in tension (lb).
Np =
pullout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete, as defined in Sec.
9.2.5.3.4 or 9.2.5.3.5 (lb).
Npn =
nominal pullout strength in tension of a single anchor, as defined in Sec. 9.2.5.3.1 (lb).
Nsb =
side-face blowout strength of a single anchor (lb).
Nsbg = side-face blowout strength of a group of anchors (lb).
Ns =
nominal strength of a single anchor in tension as governed by the steel strength, as
defined in Sec. 9.2.5.1.2 (lb).
Nu =
factored tensile load (lb).
s
anchor center-to center spacing (in).
=
so =
spacing of the outer anchors along the edge in a group (in).
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
t
=
thickness of washer or plate (in).
Vb =
basic concrete breakout strength in shear of a single anchor in cracked concrete, as
defined in Sec. 9.2.6.2.2 or 9.2.6.2.3 (lb).
Vcb =
nominal concrete breakout strength in shear of a single anchor as defined in Sec.
9.2.6.2.1 (lb).
Vcbg = nominal concrete breakout strength in a shear group of anchors as defined in Sec.
9.2.6.2.1 (lb).
Vcp =
nominal concrete pryout strength, as defined in Sec. 9.2.6.3 (lb).
Vn =
nominal shear strength (lb).
Vs =
nominal strength in shear of a single anchor as governed by the steel strength as defined
in Sec. 9.2.6.1.1 (lb).
Vu =
factored shear load (lb).
N =
strength reduction factor (see Sec. 9.2.4.4 and 9.2.4.5).
Q1 = modification factor, for strength in tension, to account for anchor groups loaded
eccentrically as defined in Sec. 9.2.5.2.4.
Q2 = modification factor, for strength in tension, to account for edge distances smaller than
1.5hef as defined in Sec. 9.2.5.2.5
Q3 = modification factor, for strength in tension, to account for cracking as defined in Sec.
9.2.5.2.6 and 9.2.5.2.7.
Q4 = modification factor, for pullout strength, to account for cracking as defined in Sec.
9.2.5.3.1 and Sec. 9.2.5.3.6.
Q5 =
modification factor, for strength in shear, to account for the anchor groups loaded
eccentrically as defined in Sec. 9.2.6.2.5.
Q6 = modification factor, for strength in shear, to account for edge distances smaller than 1.5c1
as defined in Sec. 9.2.6.2.6.
Q- = modification factor, for strength in shear, to account for cracking, as defined in Sec.
9.2.6.2.7
9.2.2.2 Definitions:
Anchor: A metallic element either cast into concrete or post-installed into a hardened concrete
member and used to transmit applied loads including straight bolts, hooked bolts (J-or L-bolt),
headed studs, expansion anchors, undercut anchors, or inserts.
Anchor Group: A number of anchors of approximately equal effective embedment depth with
each anchor spaced as less than three times its embedment depth from one or more adjacent
anchors.
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Concrete Structure Design Requirements
Anchor Pullout Strength: The strength corresponding to the anchoring device or a major
component of the device sliding out from concrete without breaking out a substantial portion of
the surrounding concrete.
Attachment: The structural assemble, external to the surface of the concrete, that transmits
loads to the anchor.
Brittle Steel Element: An element with a tensile test elongation of less than 14 percent over a 2
in. gage length reduction in area of less than 40 percent, or both.
Concrete Breakout Strength: The strength corresponding to a volume of concrete surrounding
the anchor or group of anchors separating from the memeber.
Concrete Pryout Strength: The strength corresponding to formation of a concrete spall behind
a short, stiff anchor with an embedded base that is displaced in the direction opposite to the
applied shear force.
Distance Sleeve: A sleeve that encases the center part of an undercut anchor, a torque-controlled
expansion anchor, or a displacement-controlled expansion anchor but does not expand.
Ductile Steel Element: An element with a tensile test elongation of at least 14 percent over a 2
in. gage length and reduction in area of at least 40 percent.
Edge Distance: The distance from the edge of the concrete surface to the center of the nearest
anchor.
Effective Embedment Depth: The overall depth through which the anchor transfers force to the
surrounding concrete. The effective embedment depth normally will be the depth of the failure
surface in tension applications. For cast-in headed anchor bolts and headed studs, the effective
embedment depth is measured from the bearing contact surface of the head. (See Figure
C9.2.2.1.)
Expansion Anchor: A post-installed anchor inserted into hardened concrete that transfers loads
into the concrete by direct bearing and/or friction. Expansion anchors may be torque-controlled,
where the expansion is achieved by a torque acting on the screw or bolt, or displacementcontrolled, where the expansion is achieved by impact forces acting on a sleeve or a plug and the
anchorage is controlled by the length of travel of the sleeve or plug.
Expansion Sleeve: The outer part of an expansion anchor that is forced outward by the center
part, either by applied torque or impact, to bear against the sides of the pre-drilled hole.
5 Percent Fractile: A statistical term meaning 90 percent confidence that 95 percent of the
actual strengths will exceed the nominal strength. Determination shall include the number of
tests when evaluating data.
Hooked Bolt: A cast-in anchor anchored mainly by mechanical interlock from the 90-degree
bend (L-bolt) or 180-degree bend (J-bolt) at its lower end.
Insert (specialty insert): Predesigned and pre-fabricated cast-in anchors specifically designed
for attachment of bolted or slotted connections. Inserts often are used for handling,
transportation, and erection but are used also for anchoring structural elements.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
Post-Installed Anchor: An anchor installed in hardened concrete. Expansion anchors and
undercut anchors are examples of post-installed anchors.
Projected Area: The area on the free surface of the concrete member that is used to represent
the larger base of the assumed rectilinear failure surface.
Side-Face Blowout Strength: The strength of the anchors with deeper embedment but thinner
side cover corresponding to concrete spalling on the side face around the embedded head while
no major breakout occurs at the top concrete surface.
Undercut Anchor: A post-installed anchor anchored mainly by mechanical interlock provided
by an undercutting in the anchoring concrete. The undercutting is achieved with a special drill
before installing the anchor or, alternatively, by the anchor itself during its installation.
9.2.3 General Requirements:
9.2.3.1: Anchors and anchor groups shall be designed for critical effects of factored loads as
determined by elastic analysis. Plastic analysis approaches are permitted where nominal strength
is controlled by ductile steel elements provided that deformational compatibility is taken into
account.
9.2.3.2: Except for load combinations that include earthquake forces or effects, anchors shall be
designed for all load combinations outlined in Sec. 9.2 of ACI 318. Where resistance to
specified earthquake loads or forces, E, are included in the design, the load combinations Sec.
5.2.7 of this document shall apply.
9.2.3.3: When anchor design includes seismic loads, the following additional requirements shall
apply.
9.2.3.3.1: In structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, or F post-installed
structural anchors for use under Sec. 9.2.3.2 shall have passed the simulated seismic tests in
accordance with Sec. 9.2.1.4.
9.2.3.3.2: In structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories C, D, E or F, the design strength
of anchors shall be taken as 0.75 N Vn, where N is given in Sec. 9.2.4.4 or 9.2.4.5 and Nn and Vn
are determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.1.
9.2.3.3.3: In structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories C, D, E or F, anchors shall be
designed to be governed by tensile or sheer strength of a ductile steel element unless Sec.
9.2.3.3.4 is satisfied.
9.2.3.3.4: In lieu of Sec. 9.2.3.3.3, the attachment that the anchor is connecting to the structure
shall be designed so that the member being attached will undergo ductile yielding at a load level
no greater than 75 percent of the minimum anchor design strength or the minimum anchor design
strength is at least S0 times the attachment force determined from design loads of the attached
structure or 2.5 times the attachment force determined from the design loads of the attached
nonstructural component.
9.2.3.4: All provisions for anchor axial tension and shear strength apply to normal-weight
concrete. When lightweight aggregate concrete is used, provisions for Nn and Vn shall be
154
Concrete Structure Design Requirements
modified by multiplying all values of
f c′ affecting Nn and Vn by 0.75 for “all lightweight”
concrete and 0.85 for “sand-lightweight” concrete. Linear interpolation shall be permitted when
partial sand replacement is used.
9.2.3.5: The values of fc! used for calculations in these provisions shall not exceed 10,000 psi for
cast-in anchors and 8000 psi for post-installed anchors.
9.2.4 General Requirements for Strength of Structural Anchors:
9.2.4.1: Strength design of structural anchors shall be based on the computation or test evaluation of the following:
a. Steel strength of anchor in tension Sec. 9.2.5.1,
b. Steel strength of anchor is shear Sec. 9.2.6.1,
c. Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension Sec. 9.2.4.2 and 9.2.5.2
d. Concrete breakout strength of anchor in shear Sec. 9.2.4.2 and 9.2.6.2,
e. Pullout strength of anchor in tension Sec. 9.2.4.2 and 9.2.5.3,
f.
Concrete side-face blowout strength of anchor in tension Sec. 9.2.4.2 and 9.2.5.4,
g. Concrete pryout strength of anchor in shear Sec. 9.2.4.2 and 9.2.6.3,
h. Required edge distances, spacings and thickness to preclude splitting failure Sec. 9.2.4.2 and
9.2.8.
9.2.4.1.1: For the design of anchors, except as required in Sec. 9.2.3.3:
φN n ≥ N u
(9.2.4.1.1-1)
φ Vn ≥ Vu
(9.2.4.1.1-2)
9.2.4.1.2: When both Nu and Vu are present, interaction effects shall be considered in accordance
with 9.2.4.3.
9.2.4.1.3: In Eq. 9.2.4.1.1-1 and 9.2.4.1.1-2, NNn and NVn are the lowest design strengths
determined from all appropriate failure modes. NNn is the lowest design strength in tension of an
anchor or group of anchors as determined from consideration of NNs, NNpn, either NNsb or NNsbg,
and either NNcb or NNcbg. NVn is the lowest design strength in shear of an anchor or a group of
anchors as determined from consideration of NVs , either NVcb or NVcbg, and NVcp.
9.2.4.2: The nominal strength for any anchor and group of anchors shall be based on design
models that result in predictions of strength in substantial agreement with results of
comprehensive tests. The materials used in the tests shall be compatible with the materials used
in the structure. The nominal strength shall be based on the 5 percent fractile of the basic
individual anchor strength with the modifications made for the number of anchors, the effects of
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
close spacing of anchors, proximity to edges, depth of the concrete member, eccentric loadings of
anchor groups, and presence or absence of cracking. Limits on edge distances and anchor
spacing in the design models shall be consistent with the tests that verified the model.
9.2.4.2.1: The effect of supplementary reinforcement provided to confine or restrain the concrete
breakout, or both, shall be permitted to be included in the design models of Sec. 9.2.4.2.
9.2.4.2.2: For anchors with diameters not exceeding 2 in. and with tensile embedment not
exceeding 25 in. in depth, the concrete breakout strength requirements of Sec. 9.2.4.2 shall be
considered satisfied by the design procedure of Sec. 9.2.5.2 and 9.2.6.2.
9.2.4.3: Resistance to combined tensile and shear loads shall be considered in design using an
interaction expression that results in computation of strength in substantial agreement with
results of comprehensive tests. This requirement shall be considered satisfied by Sec. 9.2.7.
9.2.4.4: Strength reduction factor N for anchoring to concrete shall be as follows when the load
combinations of Sec. 9.2 of ACI 318 and Sec. 5.2.7 of this document are used:
Anchor governed by tensile or shear strength of a ductile steel element
0.90
Anchor governed by tensile or shear strength of a brittle steel element
0.75
Anchor governed by concrete breakout, blowout, pullout, or pryout
Condition A
i.
Shear loads
Condition B
0.85
0.75
0.85
0.75
Category 1 (low sensitivity to
installation and high reliability)
0.85
0.75
Category 2 (medium sensitivity to
installation and medium reliability)
0.75
0.65
Category 3 (high sensitivity to
installation and lower reliability)
0.65
0.55
ii. Tension loads
Cast-in headed studs, headed bolts, or hooked bolts
Post-installed anchors with category as determined
from anchor pre-qualification tests of Sec. 9.2.1.4
Condition A applies where the potential concrete failure surfaces are crossed by supplementary
reinforcement proportional to tie the potential concrete failure prism into the structural member.
Condition B applies where such supplementary reinforcement is not provided to where pullout or
pryout strength governs.
9.2.4.5: Strength reduction factor N for fastening to concrete shall be as follows when the load
combinations referenced in ASCE 7 are used:
Anchor governed by tensile or shear strength of a ductile steel element
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0.80
Concrete Structure Design Requirements
Anchor governed by tensile or shear strength of a brittle steel element
0.70
Anchor governed by concrete breakout, blowout, pullout, or pryout
Condition A
i.
Shear loads
Condition B
0.75
0.70
0.75
0.70
Category 1 (low sensitivity to
installation and high reliability)
0.75
0.65
Category 2 (medium sensitivity to
installation and medium reliability)
0.65
0.55
Category 3 (high sensitivity to
installation and lower reliability)
0.55
0.45
ii. Tension loads
Cast-in headed studs, headed bolts
or hooked bolts
Post-installed anchors with category as determined
from anchor prequalification tests of Sec. 9.2.1.4
Condition A applies where the potential concrete failure surfaces are crossed by supplementary
reinforcement proportioned to tie the potential concrete failure prism into the structural member.
Condition B applies where such supplementary reinforcement is not provided where pullout or
pryout strength governs.
9.2.5 Design Requirements for Tensile Loading:
9.2.5.1 Steel Strength of Anchor in Tension:
9.2.5.1.1: The nominal strength of an anchor in tension as governed by the steel, Ns, shall be
evaluated by calculations based on the properties of the anchor material and the physical
dimensions of the anchor. Alternatively, it shall be permitted to use values based on the 5
percent fractile of the test results to establish values of Ns
9.2.5.1.2: Unless determined by the 5 percent fractile of test results, nominal strength of an
anchor or group of anchors in tension shall not exceed the following:
For anchor material with a well-defined yield point
N s = nAse f y
For anchor material without a well-defined yield point where fut shall not be taken greater than
125,000 psi
N s = nAse ( 0.8 f ut )
9.2.5.2 Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchor in Tension:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
9.2.5.2.1: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, nominal concrete breakout
strength of an anchor or group of anchors in tension shall not exceed the following:
For a single anchor
AN
ψψ N
ANo 2 3 b
N cb =
(9.2.5.2.1-1)
For a group of anchors
N cbg =
An
ψψ ψ N
ANo 1 2 3 b
(9.2.5.2.1-2)
Nb is the basic concrete breakout strength value for a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete.
An is the projected area of the failure surface for the anchor or group of anchors that shall be
approximated as the base of the rectilinear geometrical figure that results from projecting the
failure surface outward 1.5hef from the center lines of the anchor or, in the case of a group of
anchors, from a line through a row of adjacent anchors. An shall not exceed nANo, where n is the
number of tensioned anchors in the group. ANo is the projected area of the failure surface of the
single anchor in remote from edges:
ANo = 9hef 2
9.2.5.2.2: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, the basic concrete breakout
strength of a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete shall not exceed:
Nb =
k
f c′hef 1.5
(9.2.5.2.2-1)
where
k
=
24 for cast-in headed studs, headed bolts and hooked bolts and
k
=
17 for post-installed anchors.
Alternatively, for cast-in headed studs and headed bolts with 11 in. < hef < 25 in., the basic
concrete breakout strength of a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete shall not exceed:
Nb =
k
f c ′ hef 5/ 3
(9.2.5.2.2-2)
where k = 16.
9.2.5.2.3: For the special case of anchors in an application with three or four edges and the
largest edg e distance cmax < 1.5 hef, the embedment depth hef used in Eq. 9.2.5.2.1-3, 9.2.5.2.2-1,
9.2.5.2.4 and 9.2.5.2.5-1 and -2 shall be limited to cmax/1.5.
9.2.5.2.4: The modification factor for eccentrically loaded anchor groups is:
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Concrete Structure Design Requirements
ψ1 =
1
 2e ′ 
1 + N 

3hef 

≤1
(9.2.5.2.4)
Eq. 9.2.5.2.4 is valid for en! # s/2.
If the loading of an anchor group is such that only some anchors are in tension, only those
anchors that are in tension shall be considered when determining the eccentricity, en!, for use in
Eq. 9.2.5.2.4.
Where eccentric loading exists about two axes, the modification factor, yl, shall be computed for
each axis individually and the product of these factors used as yl in Eq. 9.2.5.2.4
9.2.5.2.5: The modification factor for edge effects is:
ψ 2 = 1if
c
min
ψ 2 = 0.7 + 0.3
. hef
≥ 15
c
min
15
. hef
if
c
(9.2.5.2.5-1)
min
. hef
< 15
(9.2.5.2.5-1)
9.2.5.2.6: When an anchor is located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates
no cracking (ft < fr) at service load levels, the following modification factor shall be permitted:
R3 =
1.25 for cast-in headed studs, headed bolts, and hooked bolts and
R3 =
0.4 for post-installed anchors.
9.2.5.2.7: When analysis indicates cracking at service load levels, y3 shall be taken as 1.0 for
both cast-in anchors and post-installed anchors. Post-installed anchors shall be qualified for use
in cracked concrete in accordance with Sec. 9.2.1.4. The cracking in the concrete shall be
controlled by flexural reinforcement distributed in accordance with Sec. 10.6.4 of ACI 318 or
equivalent crack control shall be provided by confining reinforcement.
9.2.5.2.8: When an additional plate or washer is added at the head of the anchor, it shall be
permitted to calculate the projected area of the failure surface by projecting the failure surface
outward 1.5hef from the effective perimeter of the plate or washer. The effective perimeter shall
not exceed the value at a section projected outward more than t from the outer edge of the head
of the anchor where t is the thickness of the washer or plate.
9.2.5.3 Pullout Strength of Anchor in Tension:
9.2.5.3.1: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2 the nominal pullout strength of an
anchor in tension shall not exceed:
N
pn
=ψ 4 N p
159
(9.2.5.3.1)
2000 Provisions Chapter 9
9.2.5.3.2: For post-installed expansion and undercut anchors, it is not permissible to calculate
the pullout strength of tension. Values of Np shall be based on 5 percent fractile of tests
performed and evaluated according to Sec. 9.2.1.4.
9.2.5.3.3: For single cast-in headed studs and headed bolts, it shall be permitted to evaluate the
pullout strength in tension using Sec. 9.2.5.3.4. For single J-bolts and L-bolts, it shall be
permitted to evaluate the pullout strength in tension using Sec. 9.2.5.3.5. Alternatively, it shall
be permitted to use values of Np based on the 5 percent fractile of tests performed and evaluated
in the same manner as the test procedures of Sec. 9.2.1.4 but without the benefit of friction.
9.2.5.3.4: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, the pullout strength in tension of a
single headed stud or headed bolt, Np for use in Eq. 9.2.5.3.1 shall not exceed:
N p = Ab 8
′
f
(9.2.5.3.4)
c
9.2.5.3.5: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2 the pullout strength in tension of a
single J-bolt or L-bolt, Np for use in Eq. 9.2.5.3.1 shall not exceed:
N p = 0.9
f
′
c
eh do
(9.2.5.3.5)
where 3do < eh < 4.5do.
9.2.5.3.6: For an anchor located in a region of concrete member where analysis indicates no
cracking (ft < fr) at service load levels, the following modification factor shall be permitted:
ψ 4 = 14
.
Otherwise, Q, shall be taken as 1.0.
9.2.5.4 Concrete Side-Face Blowout Strength of a Headed Anchor in Tension:
9.2.5.4.1: For a single headed anchor with deep embedment close to an edge c < 0.4hef), unless
determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, the nominal side-face blowout strength Nsb shall not
exceed:
N sb = 160c
A f
b
′
c
If the single anchor is located at a perpendicular distance, c2, less than 3c from an edge, the value
of Nsb shall be modified by multiplying it by the factor (1 + c2/c)/4 where 1 < c2/c < 3.
9.2.5.4.2: For multiple headed anchors with deep embedment close to an edge c < 0.4 hef) and
spacing between anchors less than 6c, unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, the
nominal strength of the group of anchors for a side-face blowout failure, Nsbg, shall not exceed:
S 

N sbg =  1 + o  N sb

6c 
160
(9.2.5.4.2)
Concrete Structure Design Requirements
where so is the spacing of the outer anchors along the edge in the group and Nsb is obtained from
Eq. 9.2.5.4.1 without the modification for a perpendicular edge distance.
9.2.6 Design Requirements for Shear Loading:
9.2.6.1 Steel Strength of Anchor in Shear:
9.2.6.1.1: The nominal strength of anchor in shear as governed by steel, Vs, shall be evaluated by
calculations based on the properties of the anchor material and the physical dimensions of the
anchor. Alternatively, it shall be permitted to use values based on the 5 percent fractile of test
results to establish values of Vs.
9.2.6.1.2: Unless determined by the 5 percent fractile of test results, nominal strength of an
anchor or group of anchors in shear shall not exceed the following:
a. For anchor material with a well-defined yield point:
Vs = nAse f y
(9.2.6.1.2-1)
b. For cast-in anchors without a well defined yield point:
Vs = n0.6 Ase f ut
(9.2.6.1.2-2)
where fut shall not be taken greater than 125,000 psi.
c. For post-installed anchors without a well-defined yield point:
Vs = n(0.6 Ase f ut + 0.4 Asl f utsl )
(9.2.6.1.2-3)
where fut shall be taken greater than 125,000 psi.
9.2.6.1.3: Where anchors are used with built-up grout pads, the nominal strengths of Sec.
9.2.6.1.2 shall be reduced by 20 percent.
9.2.6.2: Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear:
9.2.6.2.1: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, nominal concrete breakout
strength in shear of an anchor or group of anchors shall not exceed the following:
For shear force perpendicular to the edge on a single anchor:
Vb =
AV
ψψV
AVo 6 7 b
(9.2.6.2.1-1)
For shear force perpendicular to the edge on a group of anchors:
Vcbg =
Av
ψψψV
Avo 5 6 7 b
(9.2.6.2.1-2)
For shear force parallel to an edge, Vch or Vcbg shall be permitted to be twice the value for the
force determined from Eq. 9.2.6.2.1-1 or 9.2.6.2.1-2- respectively, with R6 taken equal to 1.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
For anchors located at a corner, the limiting nominal concrete breakout strength shall be
determined for each edge and the minimum value shall be used.
Vb is the basic concrete breakout strength value for a single anchor. Av is the projected area of the
failure surface on the side of the concrete member at its edge for a single anchor or a group of
anchors. It shall be permitted to evaluate this area as the base of a truncated half pyramid
projected on the side face of the member where the top of the half pyramid is given by the axis of
the anchor row selected as critical. The value of c1 shall be taken as the distance from the edge to
this axis, Ay, and shall not exceed nAvo where n is the number of anchors in the group
Avo is the projected area for a single anchor in a deep member and remote from edges in the
direction perpendicular to the shear force. It shall be permitted to evaluate this area as the base
of a half pyramid with a side length parallel to the edge of 3c1 and the depth of 1.5 c1.
Avo = 4.5c12
(9.2.6.2.1-3)
Where anchors are located at varying distances from the edge and the anchors are welded to the
attachment so as to distribute the force to all anchors, it shall be permitted to evaluate the
strength based on the distance to the farthest row of anchors from the edge. In this case, it shall
be permitted to base the value of c1 on the distance from the edge to the axis of the farthest
anchor row that is selected as critical, and all of the shear shall be assumed to be carried by this
critical anchor row alone.
9.2.6.2.2: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, the basic concrete breakout
strength in shear of a single anchor in cracked concrete shall not exceed:
 l 
Vb = 7 
 do 
0.2
do
′
f
c
c11.5
(9.2.6.2.2)
9.2.6.2.3: For cast-in headed studs, headed bolts, or hooked bolts that are rigidly welded to steel
attachments having a minimum thickness equal to the greater of 3/8 in. or half of the anchor
diameter, unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, the basic concrete breakout strength
in shear of a single anchor in cracked concrete shall not exceed:
 1
Vb = 8 
 do 
0.2
do
f
′
c
c11.5
(9.2.6.2.3)
provided that:
a. For groups of anchors, the strength is determined based on the strength of the row of anchors
farthest from the edge,
b. The center-to-center spacing of the anchors is not less than 2.5 in., and
c. Supplementary reinforcement is provided at the corners if c2 # 1.5hef.
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Concrete Structure Design Requirements
9.2.6.2.4: For the special case of anchors in a thin member influenced by three or more edges,
the edge distance c1 used in Eq. 9.2.6.2.1-3, 9.2.6.2.2, 9.2.6.2.3, 9.2.6.2.5, 9.2.6.2.6-1 or -2 shall
be limited to h/1.5.
9.2.6.2.5: The modification factor for eccentrically loaded anchor groups is:
ψ
=
5
1
′
2 ev
1+
3 c1
≤1
(9.2.6.2.5)
Eq. 9.2.6.2.5 is valid for ev! # s/2.
9.2.6.2.6: The modification factor edge effects is:
ψ
6
= 1if
ψ
6
c
2
≥ 15
. c1
= 0.7 + 0.3
(9.2.6.2.6-1)
c
2
15
. c1
if
c
2
< 15
. c1
(9.2.6.2.6-2)
9.2.6.2.7: For anchors located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates no
cracking (ft < fr) at the service loads, the following modification factor shall be permitted:
ψ
7
.
= 14
For anchors located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates cracking at service
load levels, the following modification factors shall be permitted. In order to be considered as
edge reinforcement, the reinforcement shall be designed to resist the concrete breakout:
R =
1.0 for anchors in cracked concrete with no edge reinforcement or edge reinforcement
smaller that a No. 4 bar
R =
1.2 for anchors in cracked concrete with edge reinforcement of a No. 4 bar or greater
between the anchor and the edge
R =
1.4 for anchors in cracked concrete with edge reinforcement of a No. 4 bar or greater
between the anchor and the edge and with the edge reinforcement enclosed within
stirrups spaced at not more than 4 in.
9.2.6.3 Concrete Pryout Strength of Anchor in Shear:
9.2.6.3.1: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.4.2, the nominal pryout strength, Vcp,
shall not exceed:
Vcp = k cp N cb
(9.2.6.3.1)
where
kcp = 1.0 for hef < 2.5 in.,
kcp = 2.0 for hef > 2.5 in., and Ncb shall be determined from Eq. 9.2.5.2-1 (lb).
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
9.2.7 Interaction of Tensile and Shear Forces: Unless determined in accordance with Sec.
9.2.4.3, anchors or groups of anchors that are subjugated to both shear and axial loads shall be
designed to satisfy the requirements of Sec. 9.2.7.1 through 9.2.7.3. The value of NNn shall be
the smallest of shear strength of the anchor in tension, concrete breakout strength of anchor in
tension, pullout strength of anchor in tension, and side-face blowout strength. The value of NVn
shall be the smallest of the steel strength of an anchor and shear, the concrete breakout strength
of anchor in shear, and the pryout strength.
9.2.7.1: If Vu # 0.2 NVn, then full strength in tension shall be permitted: NNn > Nu
9.2.7.2: If Nu # 0.2 NNn, then full strength in shear shall be permitted: NVn > Vu
9.2.7.3: If Vu > 0.2 NVn and Nu > 0.2 NNn, then:
φ
N
N
+
u
n
V
u
φV n
.
≤ 12
(9.2.7.3)
9.2.8 Required Edge Distances, Spacings, and Thicknesses to Preclude Splitting Failure:
Minimum spacings and edge distances for anchors and minimum thickness of members shall
conform to Sec. 9.2.8.1 through Sec. 9.2.8.5, unless reinforcement is provided to control
splitting. Lesser values from product-specific tests performed in accordance with
prequalification test in accordance with Sec. 9.2.1.4 shall be permitted.
9.2.8.1: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.8.4, minimum center-to-center spacing
of anchors will be 4do for untorqued cast-in anchors that will not be torqued or otherwise
pretensioned and 6do for torqued or otherwise pretensioned cast-in anchors and all post-installed
anchors.
9.2.8.2: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.8.4, minimum edge distances for cast-in
headed anchors that will not be torqued or otherwise pre-tensioned shall be based on minimum
cover requirements for reinforcement in Sec. 7.7 of ACI 318. For cast-in headed anchors that
will be torqued or otherwise pretensioned, the minimum edge distances shall be 6do.
9.2.8.3: Unless determined in accordance with Sec. 9.2.8.4, minimum edge distances for postinstalled anchors shall be based on the greater of the minimum cover requirements for
reinforcement in Sec. 7.7 of ACI 318 or the minimum edge distance requirements for the
products as determined by tests in accordance with Sec. 9.2.1.4 and shall not be less than 2.0
times the maximum aggregate size. In the absence of such product-specific test information, the
minimum edge distance shall be taken as not less than:
6do for undercut anchors
8do for torque-controlled anchors
10do for displacement-controlled anchors
9.2.8.4: For anchors where installation does not produce a splitting force and the anchors will
remain untorqued, if the edge distance or spacing is less than that specified in Sec. 9.2.8.1 to
9.2.8.3, calculations shall be performed using a fictitious value of do that meets the requirements
164
Concrete Structure Design Requirements
of Sec.9.2.8.1 to 9.2.8.3. Calculated forces applied to the anchor shall be limited to values
corresponding to an anchor having the fictitious diameter.
9.2.8.5: The value of hef for an expansion or undercut post-installed anchor shall not exceed the
greater of either two thirds of the member thickness or the member thickness less than 4 in.
9.2.8.6: Project drawings and project specifications shall specify use of anchors with a minimum
edge distance as assumed in design.
9.2.9 Installation of Anchors: Anchors shall be installed in accordance with the project
drawings and specifications.
9.3 CLASSIFICATION OF SHEAR WALLS: Structural concrete shear walls that resist
seismic forces shall be classified in accordance with Sec. 9.3.1 through 9.3.4.
9.3.1 Ordinary Plain Concrete Shear Walls: Ordinary plain concrete shear walls are walls
conforming to the requirements of Chapter 22 of ACI 318.
9.3.2 Detailed Plain Concrete Shear Walls: Detailed plain concrete shear walls are walls
above the base conforming to the requirements of Chapter 22 of ACI 318 and containing
reinforcement as follows:
Vertical reinforcement of at least 0.20 in.2 (129 mm2) in cross-sectional area shall be provided
continuously from support to support at each corner, at each side of each opening, and at the ends
of walls. The continuous vertical bar required by Sec. 22.6.6.5 of ACI 318 shall be provided.
Horizontal reinforcement at least 0.20 in.2 (129 mm2) in cross-sectional area shall be provided:
a. Continuously at structurally connected roof and floor levels and at the top of walls,
b. At the bottom of load-bearing walls or in the top of foundations when doweled to the wall,
and
c. At a maximum spacing of 120 inches (3050 mm).
Reinforcement at the top and bottom of openings, when used in determining the maximum
spacing specified in Item c above, shall be continuous in the wall.
Basement, foundation, or other walls below the base shall be reinforced as required by Sec.
22.6.6.5 of ACI 318.
9.3.2.1 Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls: Ordinary reinforced concrete shear
walls are walls conforming to the requirements of ACI 318 exclusive of Chapters 21 and 22.
9.3.2.2 Special Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls: Special reinforced concrete shear walls
are walls conforming to the requirements of ACI 318 in addition to the requirements for ordinary
reinforced concrete shear walls.
9.4 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A
may be of any construction permitted in ACI 318 and the Provisions.
9.5 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY B: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B
shall conform to all the requirements for Seismic Design Category A and the additional
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
requirements for Seismic Design Category B of this section and in other chapters of the Provisions.
9.5.1 Ordinary Moment Frames: Flexural members of ordinary moment frames forming part
of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be designed in accordance with Sec. 7.13.2 of ACI 318
and at least two main flexural reinforcing bars shall be provided continuously top and bottom
throughout the beams, through or developed within exterior columns or boundary elements.
Columns of ordinary moment frames having a clear height to maximum plan dimension ratio of
5 or less shall be designed for shear in accordance with Sec. 21.10.3 of ACI 318.
9.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C: Buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C
shall conform to all requirements for Seismic Design Category B and to the additional
requirements for Seismic Design Category C of this section an in other chapters of the Provisions.
9.6.1 Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems: Seismic-force-resisting systems shall conform to Sec.
9.6.1.1 and Sec. 9.6.1.2.
9.6.1.1 Moment Frames: All moment frames that are part of the seismic-force-resisting system
shall be intermediate moment frames or special moment frames.
9.6.1.2 Shear Walls: All shear walls that are part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be
ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls conforming to Sec. 9.3.3 or special reinforced concrete
shear walls conforming to Sec. 9.3.4.
9.6.2 Discontinuous Members: Columns supporting reactions from discontinuous stiff
members such as walls shall be designed for special load combinations in Sec. 5.2.7.1 and shall
be provided with transverse reinforcement at the spacing so as defined in Sec. 21.10.5.1 of ACI
318 over their full height beneath the level at which the discontinuity occurs. This transverse
reinforcement shall be extended above and below the column as required in Sec. 21.4.4.5 of ACI
318.
9.6.3 Plain Concrete: Structural plain concrete members in buildings assigned to Seismic
Design Category C shall conform to ACI 318 and the additional requirements and limitations of
this section.
9.6.3.1 Walls: Structural plain concrete walls are not permitted in structures assigned to Seismic
Design Category C.
Exception: Structural plain concrete basement, foundation, or other walls below the
base are permitted in detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in
height constructed with stud bearing walls. Such walls shall have reinforcement in
accordance with Sec. 22.6.6.5 of ACI 318.
9.6.3.2 Footings: Isolated footings of plain concrete supporting pedestals or columns are
permitted provided the projection of the footing beyond the face of the supported member does
not exceed the footing thickness.
Exception: In detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in height of
light-frame construction, structural plain concrete basement walls, foundation, or other
166
Concrete Structure Design Requirements
walls below the basement shall be permitted. Such concrete walls shall have reinforcement in accordance with Sec. 22.6.6.5 of ACI 318.
Plain concrete footings supporting walls shall be provided with no less than two continuous
longitudinal reinforcing bars. Bars shall not be smaller than No. 4 (#13) and shall have a total
area of not less than 0.002 times the gross cross-sectional area of the footing. For footings that
exceed 8 in. in thickness, a minimum of one bar shall be provided at the top and bottom of the
footing. For foundation systems consisting of plain concrete footing and plain concrete
stemwall, a minimum of one bar shall be provided at the top of the stemwall and at the bottom
the footing. Continuity of reinforcement shall be provided at corners and intersections.
Exceptions:
1. In detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in height and
constructed with stud bearing walls, plain concrete footings supporting walls shall
be permitted without longitudinal reinforcement.
2. Where a slab-on-ground is cast monolithically with the footing, one No. 5 (#16) bar
is permitted to be located at either the top or bottom of the footing.
9.6.3.3 Pedestals: Plain concrete pedestals shall not be used to resist lateral seismic forces.
9.6.4 Anchor Bolts in the Tops of Columns: Anchor bolts that are set in the top of a column
shall be provided with ties that completely enclose at least four longitudinal column bars. There
shall be at least two No. 4 (#13) or three No. 3 (#10) ties within 5 inches of the top of the
column. The ties shall have hooks on each free end that comply with Sec. 7.1.3 of ACI 318.
9.7 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, OR F: Structures assigned to Seismic Design
Category D, E, or F shall conform to all of the requirements for Seismic Design Category C and
to the additional requirements in this section.
9.7.1 Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems: Seismic-force-resisting systems shall conform to Sec.
9.7.1.1 and Sec. 9.7.1.2.
9.7.1.1 Moment Frames: All moment frames that are part of the seismic-force-resisting system,
regardless of height, shall be special moment frames.
9.7.1.2 Shear Walls: All shear walls that are part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be
spacial reinforced concrete shear walls conforming to Sec. 9.3.4.
9.7.2 Frame Members Not Proportioned to Resist Forces Induced by Earthquake Motions:
All frame members assumed not to contribute to lateral forces resistance shall conform to Sec.
21.9 of ACI 318 is modified by Sec. 9.1.1.11 of this chapter.
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Appendix to Chapter 9
REINFORCED CONCRETE DIAPHRAGMS CONSTRUCTED USING
UNTOPPED PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS
Preface: Reinforced concrete diaphragms constructed using untopped precast concrete
elements are permitted in the body of the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for
Seismic Design Categories A, B, and C but not for Categories D, E, and F. For the
latter the precast elements must be topped and the topping designed as the diaphragm.
For resisting seismic forces, a composite-topping slab cast in place on precast concrete
elements must have a thickness no less than 2 in. and a topping slab not relying on
composite action with the precast elements must have a thickness not less than 2-1/2 in.
There are two principal reasons why a framework for the design of untopped diaphragms for Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F may be desirable. One relates to
the performance of topping slab diaphragms in recent earthquakes and the other to
durability considerations. The 1997 Provisions incorporated ACI 318-95 for which the
provisions for topping slab diaphragms on precast elements were essentially the same
as those in ACI 318-89. In the 1994 Northridge earthquake, performance was poor for
structures where demands on the topping slab diaphragms on precast elements were
maximized and the structures had been designed using ACI 318-89. The topping
cracked along the edges of the precast elements and the welded wire reinforcement
crossing those cracks fractured. The diaphragms became the equivalent of an
untopped diaphragm with the connections between precast concrete elements, the
connectors, and the chords not detailed for that condition. Another problem found
with topping slab diaphragms was that the chords often took the large diameter bars,
grouped closely together at the topping slab edge. Under severe loading, these unconfined chord bars lost bond with the concrete and with it, ability to transfer seismic
forces.
The 2000 NEHRP incorporates ACI 318-99 which recognizes that for topping slab
diaphragms a controlling condition is the in-plane shear in concrete along the edges of
the precast elements. Ductility is provided by requiring that the topping slab reinforcement crossing the edges be spaced at not less than 10 in. on center. While those
requirements are based on best available engineering judgement and evidence, they
have not yet been proven to provide adequate safety either by laboratory testing or
field performance. Due to the dimensions of the precast element relative to the
thickness of the topping slab, it may well be prudent to have seismic provisions for
diaphragms incorporating precast elements controlled by untopped diaphragm
considerations and to have those provisions modified for topped diaphragms. Further,
in geographic areas where corrosive environments are a significant concern, the
construction of un-topped diaphragms using “pretopped” precast elements rather than
topped elements is desirable.
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Concrete Structure Design Requirements
This appendix provides a compilation of current engineering judgment on a framework
for seismic provisions for untopped diaphragms. That framework does not, however,
adequately address all the concerns needed for its incorporation into the body of the
Provisions. This appendix proposes that a diaphragm composed of untopped elements
be designed to remain elastic, and that the connectors be designed for limited ductility
in the event that design forces are exceeded during earthquake response and some
inelastic action occurs when the demands on the diaphragm are maximized. By
contrast, for all other systems for Seismic Design Categories D, E and F, the philosophy
of the 2000 NEHRP is to require significant ductility. For the approach of this appendix, critical issues are how best to define:
1. The design forces for the diaphragm so that they are large enough to result in
essentially elastic behavior when the demands on the diaphragm are maximized or
whether that criterion is even achievable;
2. The relation between the response of the diaphragm, its dimensions, and the
ductility demands on the connectors;
3. The ductility changes that occur for connectors under various combinations of inplane and out-of-plane shear forces and tensile and compressive forces;
4. The boundary conditions necessary for testing and for application of the loading
for the validation testing of connectors; and
5. The constraints on connector performance imposed by their size relative to the size
of the diaphragm elements.
The use of this appendix as a framework for laboratory testing, analyses of the
performance of diaphragms in past earthquakes, analytical studies, and trial designs, is
encouraged. Users should also consult the Commentary for guidance and references.
Please direct all feedback on this appendix and its commentary to the BSSC.
9A.1 Background: ACI 318-99 was significantly revised for structural diaphragms to add new
detailing provisions in response to the poor performance of some cast-in-place composite topping
slab diaphragms during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. New code and commentary Sec. 21.7
and R21.7 were inserted into Chapter 21. In those provisions, cast-in-place composite topping
slabs and cast-in-place topping slab diaphragms are permitted but no mention is made of
untopped precast diaphragms. The evidence from the recently completed PRESS 5-story
building test (PCI Journal, November-December 1999), from Italian and English tests (M. J.
NM. Priestley, D. Sritharan, J. R. Connley, and S. Pampanin, “Preliminary Results and Conclusions from the PRESSS Five-Story Precast Concrete Test Building,” PCI Journal, Vol. 44, No.
6, November-December 1999; K. S. Elliott, G. Davies, and W. Omar, “Experimental Hollowcored Slabs Used as Horizontal Floor Diaphragms,” The Structural Engineer, Vol. 70, No. 10,
May 1922, pp. 175-187; M. Menegotto, Seismic Diaphragm Behavior of Untopped Hollow-Core
Floors, Proceedings, FIP Congress, Washington, D. C., May 1994), and from the 1999 Turkey
earthquake is that such diaphragms can perform satisfactorily if they are properly detailed and if
they and their connections remain elastic under the force levels the diaphragms experience.
However, further additions are needed to the ACI 318 requirements to make that possible both in
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2000 Provisions Chapter 9
terms of the forces for which diaphragms should be designed and the ductilities that should be
inherent in connections as a second line of defense.
In this appendix, the untopped precast diaphragm is designed to remain elastic by requiring that
its design forces be based on Eq. 5.2.5.4 and be not less than a minimum value dependent upon
the seismic response coefficient, with both values multiplied by the overstrength and redundancy
factors associated with the seismic-force-resisting system. In addition, the connections are
required to be able to perform in a ductile manner in the unlikely event that the diaphragm is
forced to deform inelastically.
9A.2 References: The following references are to be considered part of this appendix to the
extent referred to in this document:
ACI 318-99/
ACI 318-99R
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete, 1999
ACI ITG/T1.1
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Acceptance Criteria For Moment
Frames, Based on Structural Testing ( An ACI Provisional Standard),
ITG/T1.1, 1999
ATC-24
Applied Technology Council (ATC), Guidelines for Seismic Testing of
Components of Steel Structures, ATC-24, 1992.
9A.3 Untopped Precast Diaphragms:
9A.3.1: An untopped precast floor or roof shall be permitted as a structural diaphragm provided
Sec. 9A.3.2 through 9A.3.3 are satisfied. Untopped diaphragms shall not be permitted in
structures having plan irregularity Type 4 as defined in Provisions Table 5.2.3.2.
9A.3.2: Rational elastic models shall be used to determine the in-plane shear and
tension/compression forces acting on connections that cross joints. For any given joint, the
connections shall resist the total shear and total moment acting on the joint according to an
elastic distribution of stresses
9A.3.3: The diaphragm design force shall be not less than the force calculated from either of the
following two criteria:
1. Deo times the Fpx value calculated from Eq. 5.2.5.4 but not less than DeoCswpx.
2. A shear force corresponding to 1.25 times that for yielding of the seismic-force-resisting
system calculated using a M value of unity.
The overstrength factor, eo, shall be that for the seismic-force-resisting system specified in
Provisions Table 5.2.2 unless derived by analysis of the probable strength of the seismic-forceresisting system and shall not be taken as less than 1.25 times the yield strength of that system.
The redundancy factor, D, shall be as specified in Sec. 5.2.4 and the seismic response coefficient
,Cs, shall be that determined in accordance with Provisions Sec. 5.3.2.1.
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9A.3.4: For diaphragms in buildings having plan irregularities Type 1a, 1b, 2 or 5 as defined in
Provisions Table 5.2.3.2, the analysis required by Sec. 9A.3.3 shall explicitly include the effect
of such irregularities as required by Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.
9A.3.5: Mechanical connections shall have design strength for the body of the connector greater
than the factored forces determined in accordance with Sec. 9A.3.3 and 9A.3.4.
9A.3.6: Mechanical connections used at joints shall be shown by analysis and test results to
develop, under reversed cyclic loading, the capacity in shear, tension, compression, or a
combination as required by the analysis specified in Sec. 9A.3.2. Testing of connections and
evaluation of results shall be made in accordance with the principles specified in ACI ITG/T1.1
and ATC-24. Connections shall develop for the specified loading ductility ratios equal to or
grater than 2.0. Embedments for connections shall be governed by steel yielding and not by
fracture of concrete or welds.
9A.3.7: Connections shall be designed using the strength reduction factors N specified in ACI
318-99 and ACI 318-99R. When the N factor is modified by Sec. 9.3.4 of ACI 318-99 and ACI
318-99R, the modified value shall be used for the diaphragm connections.
9A.3.8: Where the design relies on friction in grouted joints for shear transfer across the joints,
shear friction resistance shall be provided by mechanical connectors or reinforcement.
9A.3.9: Cast-in place strips shall be permitted in the end or edge regions of precast components
as chords or collectors. These strips shall meet the requirements for topping slab diaphragms.
The reinforcement in the strips shall conform to 21.7.8.2 and 21.7.8.3 of ACI 318-99 and ACI
318-99R.
9A.3.10: In satisfying the compatibility requirement of Provisions Sec. 5.2.2.4.3, the additional
deformation that results from the diaphragm flexibility shall be considered. The assumed
flexural and shear stiffness properties of the elements that are part of the seismic-force-resisting
system shall not exceed one-half of the gross-section properties, unless a rational cracked-section
analysis is performed.
9A.3.11: Diaphragms shall have a quality assurance plan satisfying the requirements of
Provisions Sec. 3.2.1.
9A.3.12: Ties to supporting members and bearing lengths shall satisfy the requirements for
design force and geometry characteristics specified for the connections in ACI 318, Sec. 21.2.1.7
as modified by Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.4.
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Chapter 10
COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE
STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
10.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS: The design, construction, and quality of composite steel and
concrete components that resist seismic forces shall conform to the relevant requirements of the
following references except as modified by the provisions of this chapter.
ACI 318
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete, 1999, excluding Appendix A (Alternate Design Method) and Chapter
22 (Structural Plain Concrete) and making Appendix C (Alternative Load and
Strength Reduction Factors) mandatory
AISC/LRFD
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Load and Resistance Factor
Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (LRFD), 1999
AISC Seismic
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Seismic Provisions for
Structural Steel Buildings, including Supplement No. 1, July 1997, Parts I and II
AISI
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Specification for the Design of ColdFormed Steel Structural Members, 1996, including Supplement 2000, excluding
ASD provisions
10.1.1: When using ACI 318, Appendix A and Chapter 22 are excluded and Appendix C is
mandatory.
10.2 REQUIREMENTS: An R factor as set forth in Table 5.2.2 for the appropriate composite steel
and concrete system is permitted when the structure is designed and detailed in accordance with the
provisions of AISC Seismic, Part II.
In Seismic Design Categories B and above, the design of such systems shall conform to the
requirements of AISC Seismic, Part II. Composite structures are permitted in Seismic Design
Categories D and above, subject to the limitations in Table 5.2.2, when substantiating evidence is
provided to demonstrate that the proposed system will perform as intended by AISC Seismic Part II..
The substantiating evidence shall be subject to the approval of the authority having jurisdiction. Where
composite elements or connections are required to sustain inelastic deformations, the substantiating
evidence shall be based upon cyclic testing.
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Chapter 11
MASONRY STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
11.1 GENERAL:
11.1.1 Scope: The design and construction of reinforced and plain (unreinforced) masonry
components and systems and the materials used therein shall comply with the requirements of this
chapter.
11.1.2 Reference Documents: The designation and title of documents cited in this chapter are listed
in this section.
ACI 318
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete, excluding Appendix A, 1999
ACI 530
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures,
ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, 1999
ACI 530.1 American Concrete Institute (ACI), Specifications for Masonry Structures, ACI
530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602, 1999
Compliance with specific provisions of ACI 530 is mandatory where required by this chapter.
11.1.3 Definitions:
Anchor: Metal rod, wire, bolt, or strap that secures masonry to its structural support.
Area:
Gross Cross-Sectional Area: The area delineated by the out-to-out specified dimensions of
masonry in the plane under consideration.
Net Cross-Sectional Area: The area of masonry units, grout, and mortar crossed by the plane
under consideration based on out-to-out specified dimensions.
Bed Joint: The horizontal layer of mortar on which a masonry unit is laid.
Backing: The wall surface to which veneer is secured. The backing can be concrete, masonry, steel
framing, or wood framing.
Cleanout: An opening to the bottom of a grout space of sufficient size and spacing to allow removal of
debris.
Collar Joint: Vertical longitudinal joint between wythes of masonry or between masonry wythe and
back-up construction which is permitted to be filled with mortar or grout.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
Column: An isolated vertical member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to the
thickness does not exceed three times its thickness and whose height is at least three times its thickness.
Composite Masonry: Multiwythe masonry members acting with composite action.
Connector: A mechanical device (including anchors, wall ties, and fasteners) for joining two or more
pieces, parts, or members.
Cover: Distance between surface of reinforcing bar and edge of member.
Detailed Plain Masonry Shear Wall: A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces
neglecting stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance with Sec. 11.10.2.
Dimension:
Actual Dimension: The measured dimension of a designated item (e.g., a designated masonry unit
or wall).
Nominal Dimension: The specified dimension plus an allowance for the joints with which the units
are to be laid. Nominal dimensions are usually given in whole numbers. Thickness is given first,
followed by height and then length.
Specified Dimension: The dimension specified for the manufacture or construction of masonry,
masonry units, joints, or any other component of a structure.
Effective Height: For braced members, the effective height is the clear height between lateral
supports and is used for calculating the slenderness ratio. The effective height for unbraced members is
calculated in accordance with engineering mechanics.
Effective Period: Fundamental period of the structure based on cracked stiffness.
Glass Unit Masonry: Nonload-bearing masonry composed of glass units bonded by mortar.
Head Joint: Vertical mortar joint between masonry units within the wythe at the time the masonry
units are laid.
Intermediate Reinforced Masonry Shear Wall: A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral
forces considering stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance with Sec. 11.10.4.
Masonry Unit:
Hollow Masonry Unit: A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to
the bearing surface is less than 75 percent of the gross cross-sectional area in the same plane.
Solid Masonry Unit: A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the
bearing surface is 75 percent or more of the gross cross-sectional area in the same plane.
Ordinary Plain Masonry Shear Wall: A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces
neglecting stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance with Sec. 11.10.1.
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
Ordinary Reinforced Masonry Shear Wall: A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces
considering stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance with Sec. 11.10.3.
Plain Masonry: Masonry in which the tensile resistance of the masonry is taken into consideration
and the effects of stresses in reinforcement are neglected.
Plastic Hinge: The zone in a structural member in which the yield moment is anticipated to be
exceeded under loading combinations that include earthquake.
Reinforced Masonry: Masonry construction in which reinforcement acts in conjunction with the
masonry to resist forces.
Running Bond: The placement of masonry units such that head joints in successive courses are
horizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length.
Special Reinforced Masonry Shear Wall: A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces
considering stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance with Sec. 11.10.5.
Specified: Required by construction documents.
Specified Compressive Strength of Masonry, f m) : Required compressive strength (expressed as
)
force per unit of net cross-sectional area) of the masonry. Whenever the quantity f m is under the
radical sign, the square root of numerical value only is intended and the result has units of pounds per
square inch (MPa).
Stack Bond: Stack bond is other than running bond. Usually, the placement of units is such that the
head joints in successive courses are aligned vertically.
Stirrup: Shear reinforcement in a beam or flexural member.
Strength:
Design Strength: Nominal strength multiplied by a strength reduction factor.
Nominal Strength: Strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with these
provisions before application of any strength reduction factors.
Required Strength: Strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads.
Tie:
Lateral Tie: Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement.
Wall Tie: A connector that joins wythes of masonry walls together.
Veneer:
Masonry Veneer: A masonry wythe that provides the exterior finish of a wall system and
transfers out-of-plane load directly to a backing but that is not considered to add load-resisting
capacity to the wall system.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
Anchored Veneer: Masonry veneer secured to and supported laterally by the backing through
anchors and supported vertically by the foundation or other structural support.
Adhered Veneer: Masonry veneer secured to and supported by the backing through adhesion.
Wall: A vertical element with a horizontal length at least three times its thickness.
Wall Frame: A moment resisting frame of masonry beams and masonry columns within a plane with
special reinforcement details and connections that provides resistance to lateral and gravity loads.
Wythe: A continuous vertical section of a wall, one masonry unit in thickness.
11.1.4 Notations:
Ab
= cross-sectional area of an anchor bolt, in. 2 (mm2).
An
= net cross-sectional area of masonry, in. 2 (mm2).
Ap
= projected area on the masonry surface of a right circular cone for anchor bolt allowable
shear and tension calculations, in.2 (mm2).
As
= cross-sectional area of reinforcement, in. 2 (mm2).
Av
= cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement, in. 2 (mm)2
a
= length of compressive stress block, in. (mm).
Ba
= design axial strength of an anchor bolt, lb (N).
Bv
= design shear strength of an anchor bolt, lb (N).
ba
= factored axial force on an anchor bolt, lb (N).
bv
= factored shear force on an anchor bolt, lb (N).
bw
= web width, in. (mm).
Cd
= deflection amplification factor as given in Table 5.2.2.
c
= distance from the fiber of maximum compressive strain to the neutral axis, in. (mm).
db
= diameter of reinforcement, in. (mm).
dbb
= diameter of the largest beam longitudinal reinforcing bar passing through, or anchored in,
the wall frame beam-column intersection, in. (mm).
dbp
= diameter of the largest column (pier) longitudinal reinforcing bar passing through, or
anchored in, the wall frame beam-column intersection, in. (mm).
dv
= length of member in direction of shear force, in. (mm).
Em
= modulus of elasticity of masonry, psi (MPa).
Es
= modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi (MPa).
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Ev
= modulus of rigidity of masonry, psi (MPa).
fg
= specified compressive strength of grout, psi (MPa).
f m)
= specified compressive strength of masonry at the age of 28 days, unless a different age is
specified, psi (MPa).
fr
= modulus of rupture of masonry, psi (MPa).
fy
= specified yield strength of the reinforcement or the anchor bolt as applicable, psi (MPa).
h
= effective height of a column, pilaster or wall, in. (mm).
hn
= height of structure above the base level to level n, ft. (m).
hb
= beam depth in the plane of the wall frame, in. (mm).
hc
= cross-sectional dimension of grouted core of wall frame member measured center to center
of confining reinforcement, in. (mm).
hp
= pier depth in the plane of the wall frame, in. (mm).
Icr
= moment of inertia of the cracked section, in.4 (mm4).
Ieff
= effective moment of inertia, in.4 (mm4).
In
= moment of inertia of the net cross-sectional area of a member, in.4 (mm4).
Lc
= length of coupling beam between coupled shear walls, in. (mm).
lb
= effective embedment length of anchor bolt, in. (mm).
lbe
= anchor bolt edge distance, in. (mm).
ld
= development length, in. (mm).
ldh
= equivalent development length for a standard hook, in. (mm).
lld
= minimum lap splice length, in. (mm).
M
= moment on a masonry section due to unfactored load, in.-lb (N-mm).
Ma
= maximum moment in member due to the applied loading for which deflection is computed,
in.-lb (N-mm).
Mcr
= cracking moment strength of the masonry, in.-lb (N-mm).
Md
= design moment strength, in.-lb (N-mm).
Mu
= required flexural strength due to factored loads, in.-lb (N-mm).
M1,M2 = nominal moment strength at the ends of the coupling beam, in.-lb (N-mm).
Nv
= force acting normal to shear surface, lb (N).
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
P
= axial force on a masonry section due to unfactored loads, lb (N).
Pn
= nominal axial load strength, lb (N).
Pu
= required axial strength due to factored loads, lb (N).
r
= radius of gyration, in. (mm).
S
= section modulus based on net cross-sectional area of a wall, in.3 (mm3).
s
= spacing of lateral reinforcement in wall frame members, in. (mm).
t
= specified wall thickness dimension or least lateral dimension of a column, in. (mm).
V
= shear on a masonry section due to unfactored loads, lb (N).
Vg
= unfactored shear force due to gravity loads, lb (N).
Vm
= shear strength provided by masonry, lb (N).
Vn
= nominal shear strength, lb (N).
Vs
= shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, lb (N).
Vu
= required shear strength due to factored loads, lb (N).
)
= design story drift as determined in Sec. 5.3.7.1, in. (mm).
)a
= allowable story drift as specified in Sec. 5.2.8, in. (mm).
* max
= the maximum displacement at level x, in. (mm).
D
= ratio of the area of reinforcement to the net cross-sectional area of masonry in a plane
perpendicular to the reinforcement.
Db
= reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions.
,mu
= maximum usable compressive strain of masonry, in./in. (mm/mm).
N
= strength reduction factor.
11.2 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS:
11.2.1 General: Masonry shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of ACI 530.1.
Materials shall conform to the requirements of the standards referenced in ACI 530.1.
11.2.2 Quality Assurance: Inspection and testing of masonry materials and construction shall
comply with the requirements of Chapter 3.
11.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:
11.3.1 Scope: Masonry structures and components of masonry structures shall be designed in
accordance with the requirements of reinforced masonry design, plain (unreinforced) masonry design,
empirical design or design for architectural components of masonry subject to the limitations of this
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
section. All masonry walls, unless isolated on three sides from in-plane motion from the basic structural
system, shall be designed as shear walls. For design of glass-unit masonry and masonry veneer, see
Sec. 11.12
11.3.2 Empirical Masonry Design: The requirements of Chapter 5 of ACI 530.1 shall apply to the
empirical design of masonry.
11.3.3 Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Design:
11.3.3.1: In the design of plain (unreinforced) masonry members, the flexural tensile strength of
masonry units, mortar and grout in resisting design loads shall be permitted.
11.3.3.2: In the design of plain masonry members, stresses in reinforcement shall not be considered
effective in resisting design loads.
11.3.3.3: Plain masonry members shall be designed to remain uncracked.
11.3.4 Reinforced Masonry Design: In the design of reinforced masonry members, stresses in
reinforcement shall be considered effective in resisting design loads.
11.3.5 Seismic Design Category A: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A shall
comply with either the requirements of Sec. 11.3.2 (empirical masonry design), Sec. 11.3.3 (plain
masonry design), or Sec. 11.3.4 (reinforced masonry design).
11.3.6 Seismic Design Category B: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B shall
conform to all the requirements for Seismic Design Category A and the lateral-force-resisting system
shall be designed in accordance with Sec. 11.3.3 or Sec. 11.3.4.
11.3.7 Seismic Design Category C: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall
conform to the requirements for Seismic Design Category B and to the additional requirements of this
section.
11.3.7.1 Material Requirements: Structural clay load-bearing wall tile shall not be used as part of
the basic structural system.
11.3.7.2 Masonry Shear Walls: Masonry shear walls shall comply with the requirements for
detailed plain masonry shear walls (Sec. 11.10.2), intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls
(Sec. 11.10.4), or special reinforced masonry shear walls (Sec. 11.10.5).
11.3.7.3 Minimum Wall Reinforcement: Vertical reinforcement of at least 0.20 in.2 (129 mm2) in
cross-sectional area shall be provided continuously from support to support at each corner, at each
side of each opening, at the ends of walls, and at a maximum spacing of 4 feet (1219 mm) apart
horizontally throughout the walls. Horizontal reinforcement not less than 0.20 in.2 (129 mm2) in cross
section shall be provided as follows:
a. At the bottom and top of wall openings extending not less than 24 in. (610 mm) nor less than 40
bar diameters past the opening,
b. Continuously at structurally connected roof and floor levels and at the top of walls,
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
c. At the bottom of load-bearing walls or in the top of foundations when doweled to the wall, and
d. At maximum spacing of 120 in. (3048 mm) unless uniformly distributed joint reinforcement is
provided.
Reinforcement at the top and bottom of openings, when used in determining the maximum spacing
specified in Item d above, shall be continuous in the wall.
11.3.7.4 Stack Bond Construction: Where stack bond is used, the minimum horizontal
reinforcement shall be 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. This requirement shall
be satisfied with uniformly distributed joint reinforcement or with horizontal reinforcement spaced not
over 48 in. (1219 mm) and fully embedded in grout or mortar.
11.3.7.5 Multiple Wythe Walls Not Acting Compositely: At least one wythe of a cavity wall shall
be reinforced masonry designed in accordance with Sec. 11.3.4. The other wythe shall be reinforced
with a minimum of one W1.7 wire per 4-in. (102 mm) nominal wythe thickness and spaced at intervals
not exceeding 16 in. (406 mm). The wythes shall be tied in accordance with ACI 530, Sec. 5.8.3.2.
11.3.7.6 Walls Separated from the Basic Structural System: Masonry walls, laterally supported
perpendicular to their own plane but otherwise structurally isolated on three sides from the basic
structural system, shall have minimum horizontal reinforcement of 0.0007 times the gross crosssectional area of the wall. This requirement shall be satisfied with uniformly distributed joint
reinforcement or with horizontal reinforcement spaced not over 48 in. (1219 mm) and fully embedded
in grout or mortar. Architectural components of masonry shall be exempt from this reinforcement
requirement.
11.3.7.7 Connections to Masonry Columns: Structural members framing into or supported by
masonry columns shall be anchored thereto. Anchor bolts located in the tops of columns shall be set
entirely within the reinforcing cage composed of column bars and lateral ties. A minimum of two No. 4
(13 mm) lateral ties shall be provided in the top 5 inches (127 mm) of the column.
11.3.8 Seismic Design Category D: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D shall
conform to all of the requirements for Seismic Design Category C and the additional requirements of
this section.
11.3.8.1 Material Requirements: Neither Type N mortar nor masonry cement shall be used as part
of the basic structural system.
11.3.8.2 Masonry Shear Walls: Masonry shear walls shall comply with the requirements for
special reinforced masonry shear walls (Sec. 11.10.5)
11.3.8.3 Minimum Wall Reinforcement: All walls shall be reinforced with both vertical and
horizontal reinforcement. The sum of the areas of horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be at least
0.002 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall and the minimum area of reinforcement in each
direction shall not be less than 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. The spacing of
reinforcement shall not exceed 48 in. (1219 mm). Except for joint reinforcement, the bar size shall not
be less than a No. 3 (10-mm diameter). Reinforcement shall be continuous around wall corners and
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
through intersections, unless the intersecting walls are separated. Only horizontal reinforcement that is
continuous in the wall or element shall be included in computing the area of horizontal reinforcement.
Reinforcement spliced in accordance with Sec. 11.4.5.6 shall be considered as continuous reinforcement. Architectural components of masonry shall be exempt from this reinforcement requirement.
11.3.8.4 Stack Bond Construction: Where masonry is laid in stack bond, the minimum amount of
horizontal reinforcement shall be 0.0015 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. If open-end
units are used and grouted solid, the minimum amount of horizontal reinforcement shall be 0.0007 times
the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. The maximum spacing of horizontal reinforcement shall not
exceed 24 in. (610 mm). Architectural components of masonry shall be exempt from these
requirements.
11.3.8.5 Minimum Wall Thickness: The nominal thickness of masonry bearing walls shall not be
less than 6 in. (152 mm). Nominal 4-in. (102 mm) thick load-bearing reinforced hollow clay unit
masonry walls with a maximum unsupported height or length to thickness ratio of 27 are permitted to
be used provided the net area unit strength exceeds 8,000 psi (55 MPa), units are laid in running
bond, bar sizes do not exceed No. 4 (13 mm) with not more than two bars or one splice in a cell, and
joints are not raked.
11.3.8.6 Minimum Column Reinforcement: Lateral ties in columns shall be spaced not more than
8 in. (203 mm) on center for the full height of the column. Lateral ties shall be embedded in grout and
shall be No. 3 (10 mm) or larger.
11.3.8.7 Minimum Column Dimension: The nominal dimensions of a masonry column shall not be
less than 12 in. (305 mm).
11.3.8.8: Separation Joints: Where concrete abuts structural masonry and the joint between the
materials is not designed as a separation joint, the concrete shall be roughened so that the average
height of aggregate exposure is 1/8 in. (3 mm) and shall be bonded to the masonry in accordance with
these requirements as if it were masonry. Vertical joints not intended to act as separation joints shall be
crossed by horizontal reinforcement as required by Sec. 11.3.8.3.
11.3.9 Seismic Design Categories E and F: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories E
and F shall conform to the requirements of Seismic Design Category D and to the additional
requirements and limitations of this section.
11.3.9.1 Material Requirements: Construction procedures or admixtures shall be used to minimize
shrinkage of grout and to maximize bond between reinforcement, grout, and units.
11.3.9.2 Masonry Shear Walls: Masonry shear walls shall comply with the requirements for special
reinforced masonry shear walls (Sec. 11.10.5).
11.3.9.3 Stack Bond Construction: Masonry laid in stack bond shall conform to the following
requirements:
11.3.9.3.1: For masonry that is not part of the basic structural system, the minimum ratio of horizontal
reinforcement shall be 0.0015 and the maximum spacing of horizontal reinforcement shall be 24 in. (610
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
mm). For masonry that is part of the basic structural system, the minimum ratio of horizontal
reinforcement shall be 0.0025 and the maximum spacing of horizontal reinforcement shall be 16 in. (406
mm). For the purpose of calculating this ratio, joint reinforcement shall not be considered.
11.3.9.3.2: Reinforced hollow unit construction shall be grouted solid and all head joints shall be
made solid by the use of open end units.
11.3.10 Properties of Materials:
11.3.10.1 Steel Reinforcement Modulus of Elasticity: Unless otherwise determined by test, steel
reinforcement modulus of elasticity, Es, shall be taken to be 29,000,000 psi (200,000 MPa).
11.3.10.2 Masonry Modulus of Elasticity: The modulus of elasticity of masonry. Em, shall be
determined in accordance with Eq. 11.3.10.2 or shall be based on the modulus of elasticity determined
by prism test and taken between 0.05 and 0.33 times the masonry prism strength:
E m ' 750f m)
(11.3.10.2)
where Em = modulus of elasticity of masonry (psi) and f m) = specified compressive strength of
)
masonry, psi. The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.3.10.2 is the same except that Em and f m are in MPa.
11.3.10.3: The modulus of rigidity of masonry, Ev, shall be taken equal to 0.4 times the modulus of
elasticity of masonry, Em.
11.3.10.4 Masonry Compressive Strength:
11.3.10.4.1: The specified compressive strength of masonry, f m) , shall equal or exceed 1,500 psi (10
MPa).
)
11.3.10.4.2: The value of f m used to determine nominal strength values in this chapter shall not
exceed 4,000 psi (28 MPa) for concrete masonry and shall not exceed 6,000 psi (41 MPa) for clay
masonry.
11.3.10.5 Modulus of Rupture:
11.3.10.5.1 Out-of-Plane Bending: The modulus of rupture, f r, for masonry elements subjected to
out-of-plane bending shall be taken from Table 11.3.10.5.1.
TABLE 11.3.10.5.1 Modulus of Rupture for Out-of-Plane Bending (fr)
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
Mortar types, psi (MPa)
Masonry type
Normal to bed joints
Solid units
Hollow unitsa
Ungrouted
Fully grouted
Parallel to bed joints in running bond
Solid units
Hollow units
Ungrouted and partially grouted
Fully grouted (running bond masonry)
Parallel to bed joints in stack bond:
Portland cement/lime
Masonry cement and
air-entrained Portland
cement/lime
M or S
N
M or S
N
80 (0.55)
60 (0.41)
48 (0.33)
30 (0.21)
50 (0.34)
136 (0.94)
38 (0.26)
116 (0.80)
30 (0.21)
82 (0.57)
18 (0.12)
52 (0.36)
160 (1.10)
120 (0.83)
96 (0.66)
60 (0.41)
100 (0.69)
160 (1.10)
76 (0.52)
120 (0.83)
60 (0.41)
96 (0.66)
38 (0.26)
60 (0.41)
0
0
0
0
a
For partially grouted masonry, modulus of rupture values shall be determined on the basis of linear interpolation between
hollow units that are fully grouted and hollow units that are ungrouted based on amount (percentage) of grouting.
11.3.10.5.2 In-Plane Bending: The modulus of rupture, f r, for masonry elements subjected to inplane forces shall be taken as 250 psi (1.7MPa). For grouted stack bond masonry, tension parallel to
the bed joints for in-plane bending shall be assumed to be resisted only by the continuous grout core
section.
11.3.10.6 Reinforcement Strength: Masonry design shall be based on a reinforcement strength
equal to the specified yield strength of reinforcement, f y, that shall not exceed 60,000 psi (400 MPa).
11.3.11 Section Properties:
11.3.11.1: Member strength shall be computed using section properties based on the minimum net
bedded and grouted cores cross-sectional area of the member under consideration.
11.3.11.2: Section properties shall be based on specified dimensions.
11.3.12 Headed and Bent-Bar Anchor Bolts: All bolts shall be grouted in place with at least 1 in.
(25 mm) grout between the bolt and masonry, except that 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) bolts may be placed in
bed joints that are at least 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) in thickness.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
11.3.12.1: The design axial strength, Ba, for headed anchor bolts embedded in masonry shall be the
lesser of Eq. 11.3.12.1-1 (strength governed by masonry breakout) or Eq. 11.3.12.1-2 (strength
governed by steel):
Ba '
Ab f y
(11.3.12.1-2)
Ba ' 4 A p f m)
(11.3.12.1-1)
where:
Ba = design axial strength of the headed anchor bolt, lb;
N = strength reduction factor where N = 0.5 for Eq. 11.3.12.1-1 and N = 0.9 for Eq.
11.3.12.1-2;
Ap = projected area on the masonry surface of a right circular cone, in. 2;
Ab = effective tensile stress area of the headed anchor bolt, in. 2;
f m) = specified compressive strength of the masonry, psi; and
f y = specified yield strength of the headed anchor bolt, psi.
( 0.33 Ap f m) ) where Ba is in N, Ap is in mm2,
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.3.12.1-1 is Ba '
and f m) is in MPa. The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.3.12.1-2 is the same except that Ba is in N, Ab is in
mm2, and f y is in MPa.
11.3.12.1.1: The area Ap in Eq. 11.3.12.1-1 shall be the lesser of Eq. 11.3.12.1.1-1 or Eq.
11.3.12.1.1-2:
Ap '
R2b
(11.3.12.1.1-1)
Ap '
R2be
(11.3.12.1.1-2)
where:
Ap = projected area on the masonry surface of a right circular cone, in. 2;
186
Masonry Structure Design Requirements
lb = effective embedment length of the headed anchor bolt, in.; and
lbe = anchor bolt edge distance, in..
The metric equivalents of Eq. 11.3.12.1.1-1 and Eq. 11.3.12.1.1-2 are the same except that Ap is in
mm2 and lb and lbe are in mm.
Where the projected areas, Ap, of adjacent headed anchor bolts overlap, the projected area, Ap, of
each bolt shall be reduced by one-half of the overlapping area. That portion of the projected area
falling in an open cell or core shall be deducted from the value of Ap calculated using Eq. 11.3.12.1.1-1
or Eq. 11.3.12.1.1-2, whichever is less.
11.3.12.1.2: The effective embedment length of a headed bolt, lb , shall be the length of embedment
measured perpendicular from the surface of the masonry to the head of the anchor bolt.
11.3.12.1.3: The minimum effective embedment length of headed anchor bolts resisting axial forces
shall be 4 bolt diameters or 2 in. (51 mm), whichever is greater.
11.3.12.2: The design axial strength, Ba,,for bent-bar anchor bolts (J- or L-bolts) embedded in
masonry shall be the least of Eq. 11.3.12.2-1 (strength governed by masonry breakout), Eq.
11.3.12.2-2 (strength governed by steel), or Eq. 11.3.12.2-3 (strength governed by anchor pullout):
Ba ' 4 Ap f m)
Ba '
Ab f y
(11.3.12.2-1)
(11.3.12.2-2)
Ba ' 1.5 f m) e d b % 200 l b % e % db d b
(11.3.12.2-3)
where:
Ba = design axial strength of the bent-bar anchor bolt, lb;
N = strength reduction factor where N = 0.5 for Eq. 11.3.12.2-1, N = 0.9 for Eq. 11.3.12.2-2,
and N = 0.65 for Eq. 11.3.12.2-3;
Ap = projected area on the masonry surface of a right circular cone, in. 2;
Ab = effective tensile stress area of the bent-bar anchor bolt, in. 2;
e
= projected leg extension of bent-bar anchor bolt, measured from inside edge of anchor at
bend to farthest point of anchor in the plane of the hook, in.; shall not be taken larger than
2db for use in Eq. 11.3.12.2-3.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
db = nominal diameter of bent-bar anchor bolt, in.
lb = effective embedment length of bent-bar anchor bolt, in.
f m) = specified compressive strength of the masonry, psi;
f y = specified yield strength of the bent-bar anchor bolt, psi.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.3.12.2-1 is:
Ba ' 0.33 A p f m)
)
where Ba is in N, Ap is in mm2, and f m is in MPa. The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.3.12.2-2 is the same
except that Ba is in N, Ab is in mm2, and f y is in MPa. The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.3.12.2-3 is:
Ba ' 1.5 f m) ed b % 2.05 (lb % e % d b ) db
where Ba is in N, e and db are in mm, and f m) is in MPa.
The second term in Eq. 11.3.12.2-3 shall be included only if continuous special inspection is provided
during placement per Sec. 11.3.5.2.
11.3.12.2.1: The area Ap in Eq. 11.3.12.2-1 shall be the lesser of Eq.11.3.12.2.1-1 or Eq.
11.3.12.2.1-2:
Ap '
l b2
(11.3.12.2.1-1)
Ap '
2
lbe
(11.3.12.2.1-2)
where:
Ap = projected area on the masonry surface of a right circular cone, in. 2;
lb = effective embedment length of the bent-bar anchor bolt, in.; and
lbe = anchor bolt edge distance, in..
188
Masonry Structure Design Requirements
The metric equivalents of Eq. 11.3.12.2.1-1 and Eq. 11.3.12.2.1-2 are the same except that Ap is in
mm2 and lb and lbe are in mm.
Where the projected areas, Ap, of adjacent bent-bar anchor bolts overlap, the projected area, Ap, of
each bolt shall be reduced by one-half of the overlapping area. That portion of the projected area
falling in an open cell or core shall be deducted from the value of Ap calculated using Eq. 11.3.12.2.1-1
or Eq. 11.3.12.2.1-2, whichever is less.
11.3.12.2.2: The effective embedment of a bent-bar anchor bolt, lb , shall be the length of embedment
measured perpendicular from the surface of the masonry to the bearing surface of the bent end, minus
one anchor bolt diameter.
11.3.12.2.3: The minimum effective embedment length of bent-bar anchor bolts resisting axial forces
shall be 4 bolt diameters or 2 in. (51 mm), whichever is greater.
11.3.12.3: Where the anchor bolt edge distance, lbe, equals or exceeds 12 bolt diameters, the design
shear strength, Bv, shall be the lesser of the values given by Eq. 11.3.12.3-1 (strength governed by
masonry) or Eq. 11.3.12.3-2 (strength governed by steel):
Bv ' 1750
4
)
fm Ab
Bv ' 0.6 Ab f y
(11.3.12.3-1)
(11.3.12.3-2)
where:
N = strength reduction factor where N = 0.5 for Eq. 11.3.12.3-1 and N = 0.9 for Eq.
11.3.12.3-2;
Ab = effective tensile stress area of the anchor bolt, in.2;
f m) = specified compressive strength of the masonry, psi, and
f y = specified yield strength of anchor bolt as applicable, psi.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.3.12.3-1 is B ' 5350
v
4
)
2
)
f m Ab where Ab is in mm and f m and f y
are in MPa. The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.3.12.3-2 is the same as that above except that Ab is in
mm2 and f y is in MPa.
Where the anchor bolt edge distance, lbe, is less than 12 bolt diameters, the value of Bv in Eq.
11.3.12.3-1 shall be reduced by linear interpolation to zero at an lbe distance of 1 in. (25 mm).
189
2000 Provisions Chapter 11
11.3.12.4: Anchor bolts subjected to combined shear and tension shall be designed to satisfy Eq.
11.3.12.4:
ba
Ba
%
bv
Bv
# 1
(11.3.12.4)
where:
ba = design axial force on the anchor bolt, lb (N);
Ba = design axial strength of the anchor bolt, lb (N);
bv = design shear force on the anchor bolt, lb (N); and
Bv = design shear strength of the anchor bolt, lb (N).
11.4 DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT:
11.4.1 General:
11.4.1.1: Details of reinforcement shall be shown on the contract documents.
11.4.1.2: Reinforcing bars shall be embedded in grout.
11.4.2 Size of Reinforcement:
11.4.2.1: Reinforcing bars used in masonry shall not be larger than a No. 9 bar (29 mm diameter).
The bar diameter shall not exceed one-eighth of the nominal wall thickness and shall not exceed onequarter of the least clear dimension of the cell, course, or collar joint in which it is placed. The area of
reinforcing bars placed in a cell, or in a course, of hollow unit construction shall not exceed 4 percent
of the cell area.
11.4.2.2: Longitudinal and cross wire joint reinforcement shall be a minimum W1.1 (0.011 mm2) and
shall not exceed one-half the joint thickness.
11.4.3 Placement Limits for Reinforcement:
11.4.3.1: The clear distance between parallel reinforcing bars shall not be less than the nominal
diameter of the bars nor less than 1 in. (25 mm).
11.4.3.2: In columns and pilasters, the clear distance between vertical reinforcing bars shall not be less
than one and one-half times the nominal bar diameter, nor less than 1-1/2 in. (38 mm).
11.4.3.3: The clear distance limitations between reinforcing bars also shall apply to the clear distance
between a contact lap splice and adjacent splices or bars.
11.4.3.4: Reinforcing bars shall not be bundled.
11.4.4 Cover for Reinforcement:
190
Masonry Structure Design Requirements
11.4.4.1: Reinforcing bars shall have a minimum thickness of masonry and grout cover not less than 21/2 db nor less than the following:
a. Where the masonry face is exposed to earth or weather, 2 in. (51 mm) for bars larger than No. 5
(16 mm) and 1-1/2 in. (38 mm) for No. 5 (16 mm) bar or smaller.
b. Where the masonry is not exposed to earth or weather, 1-1/2 in. (38 mm).
11.4.4.2: The minimum grout thickness between reinforcing bars and masonry units shall be 1/4 in. (6
mm) for fine grout or 1/2 in. (12 mm) for coarse grout.
11.4.4.3: Longitudinal wires of joint reinforcement shall be fully embedded in mortar or grout with a
minimum cover of 1/2 in. (13 mm) when exposed to earth or weather and 3/8 in. (10 mm) when not
exposed to earth or weather. Joint reinforcement in masonry exposed to earth or weather shall be
corrosion resistant or protected from corrosion by coating.
11.4.4.4: Wall ties, anchors, and inserts, except anchor bolts not exposed to the weather or moisture,
shall be protected from corrosion.
11.4.5 Development of Reinforcement:
11.4.5.1 General: The calculated tension or compression in the reinforcement where masonry
reinforcement is anchored in concrete shall be developed in the concrete by embedment length, hook or
mechanical device, or a combination thereof. Hooks shall be used only to develop bars in tension.
11.4.5.2 Development of Reinforcing Bars and Wires in Tension: The development length, ld, of
reinforcing bars and wire shall be determined by Eq. 11.4.5.2 but shall not be less than 12 in. (305 mm)
for bars and 6 in. (152 mm) for wire:
. d 2b f y γ
 1   013
=
ld   
 φ   K f m'




(11.4.5.2)
where:
ld = development length, in.;
φ = strength reduction factor as given in Table 11.5.3;
db = diameter of the reinforcement, in.;
K = the least of the clear spacing between adjacent reinforcement, the cover of masonry and
grout to the reinforcement, or 5 times db, in.;
f ′ m = specified compressive strength of masonry, psi;
f y = specified yield strength of the reinforcement, psi; and
191
2000 Provisions Chapter 11
= 1.0 for No. 3 through No. 5 reinforcing bars,
1.4 for No. 6 through No. 7 reinforcing bars, or
1.5 for No. 8 through No. 9 reinforcing bars.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.4.5.2 is
. db2 f y γ
 1   157
ld =   
 φ   K f m'




(11.4.5.2-1)
where ld , K, and db are in mm and f y and f’m are in MPa.
11.4.5.3 Standard Hooks:
11.4.5.3.1: The term standard hook as used in the Provisions shall mean one of the following:
11.4.5.3.1.1: A 180-degree turn plus extension of at least 4 bar diameters but not less than 2-1/2 in.
(64 mm) at free end of bar.
11.4.5.3.1.2: A 90-degree turn plus extension of at least 12 bar diameters at free end of bar.
11.4.5.3.1.3: For stirrup and tie anchorage only, either a 135-degree or a 180-degree turn plus an
extension of at least 6 bar diameters at the free end of the bar.
11.4.5.3.2: The equivalent embedment length for standard hooks in tension, ldh, shall be as follows:
ldh ' 13 d b
(11.4.5.3.2)
where db = diameter of the reinforcement, in. The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.4.5.3.2 is the same
except that db is in mm.
11.4.5.3.3: The effect of hooks for bars in compression shall be neglected in design computations.
11.4.5.4 Minimum Bend Diameter for Reinforcing Bars:
11.4.5.4.1: The diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar, other than for stirrups and ties,
shall not be less than values specified in Table 11.4.5.4.1.
TABLE 11.4.5.4.1 Minimum Diameters of Bend
Bar Size
No. 3 (10 mm) through No. 7 (22 mm)
No. 3 (10 mm) through No. 8 (25 mm)
No. 9 (29 mm)
Grade
40
50 or 60
50 or 60
192
Minimum Bend
5 bar diameters
6 bar diameters
8 bar diameters
Masonry Structure Design Requirements
11.4.5.5 Development of Shear Reinforcement:
11.4.5.5.1: Shear reinforcement shall extend the depth of the member less cover distances.
11.4.5.5.2: The ends of single leg or U-stirrups shall be anchored by one of the following means:
a. A standard hook plus an effective embedment of 0.5 times the development length, ld. The
effective embedment of a stirrup leg shall be taken as the distance between the mid-depth of the
member and the start of the hook (point of tangency).
b. For No. 5 (16 mm) bar and D31 wire and smaller, bending around longitudinal reinforcement
through at least 135 degrees plus an embedment of ld/3 . The ld/3 embedment of a stirrup leg shall
be taken as the distance between mid-depth of the member and the start of the hook (point of
tangency).
c. Between the anchored ends, each bend in the continuous portion of a transverse U-stirrup shall
enclose a longitudinal bar.
11.4.5.5.3: Except at wall intersections, the end of a reinforcing bar needed to satisfy shear strength
requirements in accordance with Sec. 11.7.3.3 shall be bent around the edge vertical reinforcing bar
with a 180-degree hook. At wall intersections, reinforcing bars used as shear reinforcement shall be
bent around the edge vertical bar with a 90-degree standard hook and shall extend horizontally into the
intersecting wall.
11.4.5.6 Splices of Reinforcement: Lap splices, welded splices, or mechanical connections shall be
in accordance with the provisions of this section.
11.4.5.6.1 Lap Splices: Lap splices shall not be used in plastic hinge zones. The length of the plastic
hinge zone shall be taken as at least 0.15 times the distance between the point of zero moment and the
point of maximum moment.
11.4.5.6.1.1: The minimum length of lap, lld, for bars in tension or compression shall be equal to the
development length, ld, as determined by Eq. 11.4.5.2 but shall not be less than 12 in. (305 mm) for
bars and 6 in (152 mm) for wire.
11.4.5.6.1.2: Bars spliced by non-contact lap splices shall not be spaced transversely farther apart
than one-fifth the required length of lap or more than 8 in. (203 mm).
11.4.5.6.2 Welded Splices: A welded splice shall be capable of developing in tension 125 percent of
the specified yield strength, f y, of the bar. Welded splices shall only be permitted for ASTM A706 steel
reinforcement. Welded splices shall not be permitted in plastic hinge zones of intermediate or special
reinforced walls or special moment frames of masonry.
11.4.5.6.3 Mechanical Splices: Mechanical splices shall be classified as Type 1 or Type 2 according
to Sec. 21.2.6.1 of ACI 318.
193
2000 Provisions Chapter 11
Type 1 mechanical splices shall not be used within a plastic hinge zone or within a beam-column joint of
intermediate or special reinforced masonry shear walls or special moment frames. Type 2 mechanical
splices shall be permitted in any location within a member.
11.5 STRENGTH AND DEFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:
11.5.1 General: Masonry structures and masonry members shall be designed to have strength at all
sections at least equal to the required strength calculated for the factored loads in such combinations
as are stipulated in these provisions.
11.5.2 Required Strength: The required strength shall be determined in accordance with Chapters
5 and 6.
11.5.3 Design Strength: Design strength provided by a member and its connections to other
members and its cross sections in terms of flexure, axial load, and shear shall be taken as the nominal
strength multiplied by a strength reduction factor, N, as specified in Table 11.5.3.
TABLE 11.5.3 Strength Reduction Factor N
Axial load, flexure, and
Reinforced masonry
N = 0.85
combinations of axial load Plain masonry
N = 0.60
and flexure
Shear
Shear
Reinforced masonry
Plain masonry
N = 0.80
N = 0.80
Reinforcement development length and splices
Anchor bolt strength as governed by steel
N = 0.80
N = 0.90
Anchor bolt strength as governed by masonry
Bearing
N = 0.50
N = 0.60
11.5.4 Deformation Requirements:
11.5.4.1: Masonry structures shall be designed so the design story drift, ), does not exceed the
allowable story drift, )a, obtained from Table 5.2.8.
11.5.4.1.1: Cantilever shear walls shall be proportioned such that the maximum displacement, * max, at
Level n does not exceed 0.01hn.
11.5.4.2: Deflection calculations for plain masonry members shall be based on uncracked section
properties.
11.5.4.3: Deflection calculations for reinforced masonry members shall be based on an effective
moment of inertia in accordance with the following:
194
Masonry Structure Design Requirements
Ieff ' In
Mcr
3
% I cr 1&
Ma
M cr
3
Ma
< In
(11.5.4.3)
where:
Mcr
= Sf r ,
Mcr
= cracking moment strength of the masonry, in.-lb;
Ma
= maximum moment in the member at the stage deflection is computed, in.-lb;
Icr
= moment of inertia of the cracked section, in.4;
In
= moment of inertia of the net cross-sectional area of the member, in.4;
S
= uncracked section modulus of the wall, in.3; and
fr
= modulus of rupture of masonry, psi.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.5.4.3 is the same except that Mcr and Ma are in (N-mm), Icr and In are
in mm4, S is in mm3, and f r is in MPa.
11.5.4.4: The calculated deflection shall be multiplied by Cd for determining drift.
11.6 FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS:
11.6.1 Scope: This section shall apply to the design of masonry members subject to flexure or axial
loads or to combined flexure and axial loads.
11.6.2 Design Requirements of Reinforced Masonry Members:
11.6.2.1: Strength design of members for flexure and axial loads shall be in accordance with principles
of engineering mechanics and in accordance with the following design assumptions:
a. Strain in reinforcement and masonry shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance from the
neutral axis, except for deep flexural members with overall depth to clear span ratio greater than
2/5 for continuous span members and 4/5 for simple span members where a nonlinear distribution
of strain shall be considered.
b. Maximum usable strain, ,µυ, at the extreme masonry compression fiber shall be assumed equal to
0.0025 in./in. for concrete masonry and 0.0035 in./in. for clay-unit masonry.
c. Stress in reinforcement below the specified yield strength, f y, shall be taken as the modulus of
elasticity, Es, times the steel strain. For strains greater than those corresponding to the specified
yield strength, f y, the stress in the reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal
to the specified yield strength, f y,
195
2000 Provisions Chapter 11
d. Tensile strength of masonry shall be neglected in calculating the flexural strength of a reinforced
masonry cross section.
e. Flexural compression in masonry shall be assumed to be an equivalent rectangular stress block.
Masonry stress of 0.80 times the specified compressive strength, f m) shall be assumed to be
uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section
and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at a distance a = 0.80c from the fiber of
maximum compressive strain. For out of plane bending, the width of the equivalent stress block
shall not be taken greater than 6 times the nominal thickness of the masonry wall or the spacing
between reinforcement, whichever is less. For in-plane bending of flanged walls, the same
dimension shall apply.
11.6.2.2: For structures designed using an R value greater than 1.5, the ratio of reinforcement, D, shall
not exceed the lesser ratio as calculated with either of the following two critical strain conditions:
a. For walls subjected to in-plane forces, for columns, and for beams, the critical strain
condition corresponds to a strain in the extreme tension reinforcement equal to 5 times the
strain associated with the reinforcement yield stress, f y.
b. For walls subjected to out-of-plane forces, the critical strain condition corresponds to a
strain in the extreme tension reinforcement equal to 1.3 times the strain associated with the
reinforcement yield stress, f y.
For both cases, the strain in the extreme compression fiber shall be assumed to be either 0.0035 for
clay masonry or 0.0025 for concrete masonry.
The calculation of the maximum reinforcement ratio shall include unfactored gravity axial loads. The
stress in the tension reinforcement shall be assumed to be 1.25 f y. Tension in the masonry shall be
neglected. The strength of the compressive zone shall be calculated as 80 percent of f!m times 80
percent of the area of the compressive zone. Stress in reinforcement in the compression zone shall be
based on a linear strain distribution.
For structures designed using an R value less than or equal to 1.5, the ratio of reinforcement, D, shall
not exceed the ratio as calculated with the following critical strain condition:
The critical strain condition corresponds to a strain in the extreme tension reinforcement equal to 2
times the strain associated with the reinforcement yield stress, f y. The strain in the extreme compression
fiber shall be assumed to be either 0.0035 for clay masonry or 0.0025 for concrete masonry.
The calculation of the maximum reinforcement ratio shall include unfactored gravity axial loads. The
stress in the tension reinforcement shall be calculated by multiplying the strain by the modulus of
elasticity of the reinforcement, but need not be taken greater than 1.25 f y. Tension in the masonry shall
be neglected. The strength of the compressive zone shall be calculated using an triangular stress block
whose maximum value is the strain in the extreme compression fiber of the masonry, times the modulus
of elasticity of the masonry. Stress in reinforcement in the compression zone shall be based on a linear
strain distribution.
196
Masonry Structure Design Requirements
11.6.2.3: Members subject to compressive axial load shall be designed for the maximum moment that
can accompany the axial load. The required moment, Mu, shall include the moment induced by relative
lateral displacements.
11.6.3 Design of Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Members:
11.6.3.1: Strength design of members for flexure and axial load shall be in accordance with principles
of engineering mechanics .
11.6.3.2: Strain in masonry shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.
11.6.3.3: Flexural tension in masonry shall be assumed directly proportional to strain.
11.6.3.4: Flexural compressive stress in combination with axial compressive stress in masonry shall be
assumed directly proportional to strain. Maximum compressive stress shall not exceed 0.85 f m) .
11.6.3.5: Design axial load strength shall be in accordance with Eq. 11.6.3.5-1 or Eq. 11.6.3.5-2:
Pn '
)
An f m 1 &
Pn '
)
A n fm
h
140r
2
70r
h
2
for h/r <
(11.6.3.5-1)
for h/r $ 99
(11.6.3.5-2)
where:
N
=
strength reduction factor per Table 11.5.3;
An
=
net cross-sectional area of the masonry, in.2;
)
fm
=
specified compressive strength of the masonry, psi;
h
=
effective height of the wall between points of support, in. and
r
=
radius of gyration, inches.
The metric equivalents for Eq. 11.6.3.5-1 and Eq. 11.6.3.5-2 are the same except that An is in mm2,
f m) is in MPa, and h and r are in mm..
11.7 SHEAR:
11.7.1 Scope: Provisions of this section shall apply for design of members subject to shear.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
11.7.2 Shear Strength:
11.7.2.1: Design of cross sections subjected to shear shall be based on:
Vu #
Vn
(11.7.2.1)
where:
Vu
=
required shear strength due to factored loads, lb;
N
=
strength reduction factor per Table 11.5.3; and
Vn
=
nominal shear strength, lb.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.7.2.1 is the same except that Vu and Vn are in N.
11.7.2.2: The design shear strength, NVn , shall exceed the shear corresponding to the development of
1.25 times the nominal flexural strength of the member, except that the nominal shear strength need not
exceed 2.5 times Vu.
11.7.3 Design of Reinforced Masonry Members:
11.7.3.1: Nominal shear strength, Vn, shall be computed as follows:
Vn ' V m % Vs
(11.7.3.1-1)
where:
Vn
=
nominal shear strength, lb;
Vm
=
nominal shear strength provided by masonry, lb; and
Vs
=
shear strength provided by reinforcement, lb.
The metric equivalent for Eq. 11.7.3.1-1 is the same except that Vn, Vm, and Vs are in N.
Vn (max) ' 6 f m) A n
(11.7.3.1-2)
For M/Vdv < 0.25:
For M/Vdv < 1.00:
Vn (max) ' 4 f m) An
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(11.7.3.1-3)
Masonry Structure Design Requirements
where:
Vn(max)
=
maximum nominal shear strength, lb;
An
=
net cross-sectional area of the masonry, in. 2;
f!m
=
specified compressive strength of the masonry, psi;
M
=
moment on the masonry section due to unfactored design loads, in.-lb;
V
=
shear on the masonry section due to unfactored loads, lb; and
dv
=
length of member in direction of shear force, inches.
Values of M/Vdv between 0.25 and 1.0 may be interpolated.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.7.3.1-2 is Vm(max) ' 0.5 f m) A n and the metric equivalent of Eq.
)
11.7.3.1-3 is Vm (max) ' 0.33 f m A n where Vn (max) is in N, An is in mm2, fNm is in MPa, M is in N-
mm, and d is in mm.
11.7.3.2: Shear strength, Vm, provided by masonry shall be as follows:
M
Vd
Vm ' 4.0 & 1.75
An
f m) % 0.25P
(11.7.3.2)
where M/Vdv need not be taken greater than 1.0 and
Vm
=
shear strength provided by masonry, lb;
M
=
moment on the masonry section due to unfactored design loads, in.-lb;
V
=
shear on the masonry section due to unfactored loads, psi;
dv
=
length of member in direction of shear force , in.;
An
=
net cross-sectional area of the masonry, in. 2;
f m)
=
specified compressive strength of the masonry, psi; and
P
=
axial load on the masonry section due to unfactored design loads, lb.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.7.3.2 is Vm ' 0.083 4.0 & 1.75
M
Vd
An f m) % 0.25 P where
Vm and P are in N, M is in N-mm, fNm is in MPa, d is in mm, and An is in mm2.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
11.7.3.3: Nominal shear strength, Vs, provided by reinforcement shall be as follows:
Vs ' 0.5
Av
s
f y dv
(11.7.3.3)
where:
Av
=
area of shear reinforcement, in.2 (mm2);
dv
=
length of member in direction of shear force, in. (mm);
s
=
spacing of shear reinforcement, in. (mm); and
fy
=
specified yield strength of the reinforcement or the anchor bolt as applicable, psi
(MPa).
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.7.3.3 is the same.
11.7.4 Design of Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Members:
11.7.4.1: Nominal shear strength, Vn, shall be the least of the following:
a.
1.50 f m) An, lb (the metric equivalent is 0.375 f m) An, where f m) is in MPa and An is in mm2);
b.
120An, lb (the metric equivalent is 0.83An, N, where An is in mm2);
c.
37 An + 0.3 Nv for running bond masonry not grouted solid, lb (the metric equivalent is 0.26An
+ 0.3Nv where An is in mm2 and Nv is in N);
37 An + 0.3 Nv for stack bond masonry with open end units grouted solid, lb (the metric
equivalent is 0.26An + 0.3Nv when An is in mm2 and Nv is in N);
60 An + 0.3 Nv for running bond masonry grouted solid, lb (the metric equivalent is 0.414An +
0.3Nv when An is in mm2 and Nv is in N); and
15 An for stack bond masonry with other than open end units grouted solid, lb (the metric
equivalent is 0.103An when An is in mm2
where:
)
fm
= specified compressive strength of the masonry, psi;
An = net cross-sectional area of the masonry, in.2; and
Nv = force acting normal to shear surface, lb.
11.8 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BEAMS:
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
11.8.1: The spacing between lateral supports shall be determined by the requirements for out of-plane
loading but shall not exceed 32 times the least width of beam.
11.8.2: The effects of lateral eccentricity of load shall be taken into account in determining spacing of
lateral supports.
11.8.3: The minimum positive reinforcement ratio ρ in a beam shall not be less than 120/f y (the metric
equivalent is 0.83/f y where f y is in MPa) except that this minimum positive steel reinforcement ratio need
not be satisfied if the area of reinforcement provided is one third greater than that required by analysis
for gravity loads and the Seismic Design Category is A, B, or C.
Where a concrete floor provides a flange and where the beam web is in tension, the ratio, D, shall be
computed using the web width.
11.8.4 Deep Flexural Members:
11.8.4.1: Flexural members with overall depth to clear span ratios greater than 2/5 for continuous
spans or 4/5 for simple spans shall be designed as deep flexural members taking into account nonlinear
distribution of strain and lateral buckling.
11.8.4.2: Minimum flexural tension reinforcement shall conform to Sec. 11.8.3.
11.8.4.3: Uniformly distributed horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be provided throughout the
length and depth of deep flexural members such that the reinforcement ratios in both directions are at
least 0.001. Distributed flexural reinforcement is to be included in the determination of the actual
reinforcement ratios.
11.9 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COLUMNS:
11.9.1: Area of longitudinal reinforcement for columns shall be not less than 0.005 or more than 0.04
times cross-sectional area of the column.
11.9.2: There shall be a minimum of four longitudinal bars in columns.
11.9.3: Lateral ties shall be provided to resist shear and shall comply with the following:
a.
Lateral ties shall be at least 1/4 in. (6 mm) in diameter.
b.
Vertical spacing of lateral ties shall not exceed 16 longitudinal bar diameters, 48 lateral tie
diameters, nor the least cross sectional dimension of the column.
c.
Lateral ties shall be arranged such that every corner and alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral
support provided by the corner of a lateral tie with an included angle of not more than 135 degrees
and no bar shall be farther than 6 in. (152 mm) clear on each side along the lateral tie from such a
laterally supported bar. Lateral ties shall be placed in either a mortar joint or grout. Where
longitudinal bars are located around the perimeter of a circle, a complete circular lateral tie is
permitted. Minimum lap length for circular ties shall be 84 tie diameters.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
d.
Lateral ties shall be located vertically not more than one-half lateral tie spacing above the top of
footing or slab in any story and shall be spaced as provided herein to not more than one-half a
lateral tie spacing below the lowest horizontal reinforcement in beam, girder, slab or drop panel
above.
e.
Where beams or brackets frame into a column from four directions, lateral ties may be terminated
not more than 3 in. (76 mm) below lowest reinforcement in the shallowest of such beams or
brackets.
11.10 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHEAR WALLS:
11.10.1 Ordinary Plain Masonry Shear Walls: The design of ordinary plain masonry shear
walls shall be in accordance with Sec. 11.3.2 or Sec. 11.3.3. No reinforcement is required to resist
seismic forces.
11.10.2 Detailed Plain Masonry Shear Walls: The design of detailed plain masonry shear
walls shall be in accordance with Sec. 11.3.3. Detailed plain masonry shear walls shall have
minimum amounts of reinforcement as prescribed in Sec. 11.3.7.3 and 11.3.7.4.
11.10.3 Ordinary Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls: The design of ordinary reinforced
masonry shear walls shall be in accordance with Sec. 11.3.4. No prescriptive seismic reinforcement
is required for ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls
11.10.4 Intermediate Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls: The design of intermediate reinforced
masonry shear walls shall be in accordance with Sec. 11.3.4. Intermediate reinforced masonry
shear walls shall have minimum amounts of reinforcement as prescribed in Sec. 11.3.7.3 and 11.3.7.4.
11.10.5 Special Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls: Special reinforced masonry shear walls
shall meet the requirements for intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls (Sec. 11.10.4) in
addition to the requirements of this section.
The design of special reinforced masonry shear walls shall be in accordance with Sec. 11.3.4.
Special reinforced masonry shear walls shall comply with material requirements of Sec. 11.3.8,
minimum reinforcement requirements of Sec. 11.3.8.3 and 11.3.8.4, and minimum thickness
requirements of Sec. 11.3.8.5. In addition, special reinforced masonry shear walls shall be
reinforced and constructed as required in this section.
11.10.5.1 Vertical Reinforcement: The maximum spacing of vertical reinforcement in an special
reinforced masonry shear wall shall be the smaller of::
a.
One-third the length of the wall,
b.
One-third the height of the wall, or
c.
48 in. (1219 mm).
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
11.10.5.2 Horizontal Reinforcement: Reinforcement required to resist in-plane shear in a special
reinforced masonry shear wall shall be placed horizontally, shall be uniformly distributed, and shall be
embedded in grout. The maximum spacing of horizontal reinforcement shall be the smaller of:
a.
One-third the length of the wall,
b.
One-third the height of the wall,
c.
48 in. (1219 mm), or
d.
24 in. (610 mm) for stack bond masonry.
11.10.5.3 Shear Keys: The surface of concrete upon which a special reinforced masonry shear
wall is constructed shall have a minimum surface roughness of 1/8 in. (3.0 mm). Keys with the
following minimum requirements shall be placed at the base of special reinforced masonry shear
walls when the calculated strain in vertical reinforcement exceeds the yield strain under load
combinations that include seismic forces based on a R factor equal to 1.5:
a.
The width of the keys shall be at least equal to the width of the grout space
b.
The depth of the keys shall be at least 1.5 in. (40 mm),
c.
The length of the key shall be at least 6 in. (152 mm),
d.
The spacing between keys shall be at least equal to the length of the key,
e.
The cumulative length of all keys shall be at least 20 percent of the length of the shear wall,
f.
A minimum of one key shall be placed within 16 in. (406 mm) of each end of a shear wall, and
g.
Each key and the grout space above each key in the first course of masonry shall be grouted solid.
11.10.6: Flanged Shear Walls:
11.10.6.1: Wall intersections shall be considered effective in transferring shear when either
conditions (a) or (b) and condition (c) as noted below are met:
a. The face shells of hollow masonry units are removed and the intersection is fully grouted.
b. Solid units are laid in running bond and 50 percent of the masonry units at the intersection are
interlocked.
c. Reinforcement from one intersecting wall continues past the intersection a distance not less than 40
bar diameters or 24 in. (600 mm).
11.10.6.2: The width of flange considered effective in compression on each side of the web shall be
taken equal to 6 times the thickness of the web or shall be equal to the actual flange on either side of the
web wall, whichever is less.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
11.10.6.3: The width of flange considered effective in tension on each side of the web shall be taken
equal to 3/4 of the wall height or shall be equal to the actual flange on either side of the web wall,
whichever is less.
11.10.7 Coupled Shear Walls:
11.10.7.1 Design of Coupled Shear Walls: Structural members that provide coupling between
shear walls shall be designed to reach their moment or shear nominal strength before either shear
wall reaches its moment or shear nominal strength. Analysis of coupled shear walls shall conform to
accepted principles of mechanics.
11.10.7.2 Shear Strength of Coupling Beams: The design shear strength,N Vn, of the coupling
beams shall exceed the shear calculated as follows:
φV n ≥
1.25( M 1 + M 2 )
+ 14
. Vg
Lc
(
11.10.7.2)
where:
NVn
=
shear strength, lb (N);
M1 and M2
=
nominal moment strength at the ends of the beam, lb-in. (N-mm);
Lc
=
length of the beam between the shear walls, in. (mm); and
Vg
=
unfactored shear force due to gravity loads, lb (N).
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.10.7.2 is the same except that Vn and Vg are in N, M1 and M2 are in
N-mm, and L is in mm.
The calculation of the nominal flexural moment shall include the reinforcement in reinforced concrete
roof and floor system. The width of the reinforced concrete used for calculations of reinforcement shall
be six times the floor or roof slab thickness.
11.11 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES OF MASONRY:
11.11.1 Calculation of Required Strength: The calculation of required strength of the members
shall be in accordance with principles of engineering mechanics and shall consider the effects of the
relative stiffness degradation of the beams and columns.
11.11.2 Flexural Yielding: Flexural yielding shall be limited to the beams at the face of the columns
and to the bottom of the columns at the base of the structure.
11.11.3 Reinforcement:
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
11.11.3.1: The nominal moment strength at any section along a member shall not be less than one-half
of the higher moment strength provided at the two ends of the member.
11.11.3.2: Lap splices are permitted only within the center half of the member length.
11.11.3.3: Welded splices and mechanical connections may be used for splicing the reinforcement at
any section provided not more than alternate longitudinal bars are spliced at a section and the distance
between splices on alternate bars is at least 24 in. (610 mm) along the longitudinal axis.
11.11.3.4: Reinforcement shall have a specified yield strength of 60,000 psi (414 MPa). The actual
yield strength shall not exceed 1.5 times the specified yield strength.
11.11.4 Wall Frame Beams:
11.11.4.1: Factored axial compression force on the beam shall not exceed 0.10 times the net crosssectional area of the beam, An , times the specified compressive strength, f m) .
11.11.4.2: Beams interconnecting vertical elements of the lateral-load-resisting system shall be limited
to a reinforcement ratio of 0.15f!m/f y or that determined in accordance with Sec. 11.6.2.2. All
reinforcement in the beam and adjacent to the beam in a reinforced concrete roof or floor system shall
be used to calculate the reinforcement ratio.
11.11.4.3: Clear span for the beam shall not be less than 4 times its depth.
11.11.4.4: Nominal depth of the beam shall not be less than 4 units or 32 in. (813 mm), whichever is
greater. The nominal depth to nominal width ratio shall not exceed 4.
11.11.4.5: Nominal width of the beams shall equal or exceed all of the following criteria:
a. 8 in. (203 mm),
b. Width required by Sec. 11.8.1, and
c. 1/26 of the clear span between column faces.
11.11.4.6: Longitudinal Reinforcement:
11.11.4.6.1: Longitudinal reinforcement shall not be spaced more than 8 in. (203 mm) on center.
11.11.4.6.2: Longitudinal reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed along the depth of the beam.
11.11.4.6.3: In lieu of the limitations of Sec. 11.8.3, the minimum reinforcement ratio shall be 130/f y
(the metric equivalent is 0.90/f y where f y is in MPa).
11.11.4.6.4: At any section of a beam, each masonry unit through the beam depth shall contain
longitudinal reinforcement.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
11.11.4.7 Transverse Reinforcement:
11.11.4.7.1: Transverse reinforcement shall be hooked around top and bottom longitudinal bars and
shall be terminated with a standard 180-degree hook.
11.11.4.7.2: Within an end region extending one beam depth from wall frame column faces and at
any region at which beam plastic hinges may form during seismic or wind loading, maximum spacing of
transverse reinforcement shall not exceed one-fourth the nominal depth of the beam.
11.11.4.7.3: The maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed one-half the nominal
depth of the beam or that required for shear strength.
11.11.4.7.4: Minimum transverse reinforcement ratio shall be 0.0015.
11.11.4.7.5: The first transverse bar shall not be more than 4 in. (102 mm) from the face of the pier.
11.11.5 Wall Frame Columns:
11.11.5.1: Factored axial compression force on the wall frame column shall not exceed 0.15 times
the net cross-sectional area of the column, An, times the specified compressive strength, f m) . The
compressive stress shall also be limited by the maximum reinforcement ratio.
11.11.5.2: Nominal dimension of the column parallel to the plane of the wall frame shall not be less
than two full units or 32 in. (810 mm), whichever is greater.
11.11.5.3: Nominal dimension of the column perpendicular to the plane of the wall frame shall not
be less than 8 in. (203 mm) or 1/14 of the clear height between beam faces.
11.11.5.4: The clear height-to-depth ratio of column members shall not exceed 5.
11.11.5.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement:
11.11.5.5.1: A minimum of 4 longitudinal bars shall be provided at all sections of every wall frame
column member.
11.11.5.5.2: The flexural reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed across the member depth.
11.11.5.5.3: The nominal moment strength at any section along a member shall be not less than 1.6
times the cracking moment strength and the minimum reinforcement ratio shall be 130/f y (the metric
equivalent is 0.90/f y where f y is in MPa).
11.11.5.5.4: Vertical reinforcement in wall-frame columns shall be limited to a maximum
reinforcement ratio equal to the lesser of 0.15f!m / f y or that determined in accordance with Sec.
11.6.2.2.
11.11.5.6 Transverse Reinforcement:
11.11.5.6.1: Transverse reinforcement shall be hooked around the extreme longitudinal bars and shall
be terminated with a standard 180-degree hook.
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
11.11.5.6.2: The spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed one-fourth the nominal
dimension of the column parallel to the plane of the wall frame.
11.11.5.6.3: Minimum transverse reinforcement ratio shall be 0.0015.
11.11.6 Wall Frame Beam-Column Intersection:
11.11.6.1: Beam-column intersection dimensions in masonry wall frames shall be proportioned such
that the wall frame column depth in the plane of the frame satisfies Eq. 11.11.6.1-1:
hp >
4,800 dbb
(11.12.6.1-1)
)
fg
where:
hp = pier depth in the plane of the wall frame, in.;
dbb = diameter of the largest beam longitudinal reinforcing bar passing through, or anchored in,
the wall frame beam-column intersection, in.; and
f!g = specified compressive strength of grout, psi (shall not exceed 5,000 psi (34.5 MPa) for use
in Eq. 11.11.7.1-1).
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.11.6.1-1 is h p >
400d bb
)
)
where hp and dbb are in mm and f g is in
fg
MPa.
Beam depth in the plane of the frame shall satisfy Eq. 11.11.6.1-2:
hb >
1800d bp
(11.11.6.1-2)
)
fg
where:
hb = beam depth in the plane of the wall frame, in.;
dbp = diameter of the largest column (pier) longitudinal reinforcing bar passing through, or
anchored in, the wall frame beam-column intersection, in.; and
f!g = specified compressive strength of grout, psi (shall not exceed 5,000 psi (34.2MPa) for use
in Eq. 11.11.6.1-1).
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2000 Provisions Chapter 11
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.11.6.1-2 is h b >
150d bp
)
)
where hb and dbp are in mm and f g is in
fg
MPa.
Nominal shear strength of beam-column intersections shall exceed the shear occurring when wall frame
beams develop their nominal flexural strength.
11.11.6.2: Beam longitudinal reinforcement terminating in a wall frame column shall be extended to
the far face of the column and shall be anchored by a standard hook bent back into the wall frame
column.
Special horizontal shear reinforcement crossing a potential diagonal beam column shear crack shall be
provided such that:
As $
0.5V n
fy
(11.11.6.2)
where:
As = cross-sectional area of reinforcement in. 2;
Vn = nominal shear strength, lb; and
f y = specified yield strength of the reinforcement or the anchor bolt as applicable, psi.
The metric equivalent of Eq. 11.11.6.2 is the same except that As is in mm2, Vn is in N, and f y is in
MPa.
Special horizontal shear reinforcement shall be anchored by a standard hook around the extreme wall
frame column reinforcing bars.
Vertical shear forces may be considered to be carried by a combination of masonry shear-resisting
mechanisms and truss mechanisms involving intermediate column reinforcing bars.
The nominal horizontal shear stress at the beam-column intersection shall not exceed the lesser of 350
psi (2.5 MPa) or 7 f m) (the metric equivalent is 0.58 f m) MPa).
11.12 GLASS-UNIT MASONRY AND MASONRY VENEER:
11.12.1 Design Lateral Forces and Displacements: Glass-unit masonry and masonry veneer shall
be designed and detailed to resist the design lateral forces as described in Sec. 6.1 and 6.2.
11.12.2 Glass-Unit Masonry Design:
11.12.2.1: The requirements of Chapter 7 of ACI 530 shall apply to the design of glass unit
masonry. The out-of-plane seismic strength shall be considered as the same as the strength to resist
wind pressure as specified in Sec. 7.3 of ACI 530 .
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Masonry Structure Design Requirements
11.12.3 Masonry Veneer Design:
11.12.3.1: The requirements of Chapter 6 of ACI 530 shall apply to the design of masonry veneer.
11.12.3.2: For structures in Seismic Design Category E, corrugated sheet metal anchors shall not
be used.
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Chapter 12
WOOD STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
12.1 GENERAL:
12.1.1 Scope: The design and construction of wood structures to resist seismic forces and the
material used therein shall comply with the requirements of this chapter.
12.1.2 Reference Documents: The quality, testing, design, and construction of members and
their fastenings in wood systems that resist seismic forces shall conform to the requirements of
the reference documents listed in this section except as modified by the provisions of this chapter.
12.1.2.1 Engineered Wood Construction:
ASCE 16
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Load and Resistance
Factor Standard for Engineered Wood Construction, including
supplements, ASCE 16, 1995.
APA Y510T
American Plywood Association (APA), Plywood Design
Specifications 1998
APA N375B
American Plywood Association (APA), Design Capacities of APA
Performance-Rated Structural-Use Panels, N375B, 1995
APA E315H
American Plywood Association (APA), Diaphragms, Research Report
138, 1991
12.1.2.2 Conventional Light-Frame Construction:
CABO Code
Council of American Building Officials (CABO), One- and TwoFamily Dwelling Code, 1995
NFoPA T903
National Forest and Paper Association (NFoPA), Span Tables for
Joists and Rafters, T903, 1992
12.1.2.3 Materials Standards:
PS 20
U.S. Department of Commerce, Natioanal Institute of Standards and
Technology, American Softwood Lumber Standard, PS 20, 1999
ANSI/AITC A190.1
American National Standards Institute/American Institute of Timber
Construction (ANSI/AITC), American National Standard for Wood
Products Structural Glues Laminated Timber, A190.1, 1992
ASTM D5055-95A
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), Standard
Specification for Establishing and Monitoring Structural Capacities of
Prefabricated Wood I-Joists, D5055-95A, 1995
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2000 Provisions Chapter 12
PS 1
U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and
Technology, Construction and Industrial Plywood American, PS 1,
1995
PS 2
U.S. Department of Commerce, Natioanal Institute of Standards and
Technology, Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-use
Panels, PS 2, 1992
ANSI 05.1
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Wood Poles, ANSI
05.1, 1992
ANSI A208.1
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Wood Particleboard,
ANSI A208.1, 1992
AWPA C1, 2, 3, 9, 28
American Wood Preservers Association (AWPA), Preservative
Treatment by Pressure Process, AWPA C1, 1991; C2 and C3, 1991;
C9, 1990; and C28, 1991
12.1.3 Notations:
D
= Reference resistance.
D’
= Adjusted resistance.
h
= The height of a shear wall measured as:
1. The maximum clear height from top of foundation to bottom of diaphragm
framing above or
2. The maximum clear height from top of diaphragm to bottom of diaphragm
framing above.
l
= The dimension of a diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of application of force.
For open-front structures, l is the length from the edge of the diaphragm at the open
front to the vertical resisting elements parallel to the direction of the applied force.
For a cantilevered diaphragm, l is the length of the cantilever.
w
= The width of a diaphragm or shear wall in the direction of application of force
measured as the sheathed dimension of the shear wall or diaphragm.
8
= Time effect factor.
N
= Resistance factor.
8ND
= Factored resistance.
12.2 DESIGN METHODS: Design of wood structures to resist seismic forces shall be by one
of the methods described in Sec. 12.2.1 and 12.2.2.
12.2.1 Engineered Wood Design: Engineered design of wood structures shall use load and
resistance factor design (LRFD) and shall be in accordance with this chapter and the reference
documents specified in Sec. 12.1.2.1.
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Wood Structure Design Requirements
12.2.2 Conventional Light-Frame Construction: Where permitted by Sec.12.7 and 12.8,
wood structures shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Sec.
12.5.
12.2.2.1 When a structure of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements
not conforming to Sec.12.5, those elements shall be designed in accordance with Sec. 12.2.1 and
force resistance and stiffness shall be maintained.
12.3 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINEERED WOOD CONSTRUCTION:
12.3.1 General: The proportioning, design, and detailing of engineered wood systems,
members, and connections shall be in accordance with the reference documents except as
modified by this section.
12.3.2 Shear Resistance Based on Principles of Mechanics: Shear resistance of diaphragms
and shear walls shall be permitted to be calculated by principles of mechanics using values of
fastener strength and sheathing shear resistance provided consideration is given to the combined
fastener and sheathing performance under cyclic loading.
12.3.3 Deformation Compatibility Requirements: Deformation compatibility of connections
within and between structural elements shall be considered in design such that the deformation of
each element and connection comprising the seismic-force-resisting system is compatible with
the deformations of the other seismic-force-resisting elements and connections and with the
overall system. See Sec. 5.2.8 for story drift limitations.
12.3.4 Framing Requirements: All wood columns and posts shall be framed to provide full
end bearing. Alternatively, column and post end connections shall be designed to resist the full
compressive loads, neglecting all end bearing capacity. Column and post end connections shall
be fastened to resist lateral and net induced uplift forces.
Shear wall and diaphragm boundary elements shall be provided to transmit the design tension
and compression forces. Diaphragm and shear wall sheathing shall not be used to splice
boundary elements. Diaphragm chords and drag struts shall be placed in, or tangent to, the
plane of the diaphragm framing unless it can be demonstrated that the moments, shears, and
deflections and deformations, considering eccentricities resulting from other configurations, can
be tolerated without exceeding the adjusted resistance and drift limits.
12.3.5 Sheathing Requirements: Wood structural panel sheathing shall have nominal sheet
sizes of 4 ft by 8 ft (1200 mm by 2400 mm) or larger except where reduced widths are permitted
per Sec. 12.4.1.3 and 12.4.2.6. Sheathing fasteners shall be placed at least 3/8 in. (10 mm) from
ends and edges of boards and sheets. It is advised that the edge distance be increased where
possible to reduce the potential for splitting of the framing and nail pull through in the sheathing.
Sheathing nails or other approved sheathing connectors shall be driven flush with the surface of
the sheathing.
Where wood structural panel sheathing is used as the exposed finish on the exterior of outside
walls, it shall have an exterior exposure durability classification. Where wood structural panel
sheathing is used on the exterior of outside walls but not as the exposed finish, it shall be of a
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2000 Provisions Chapter 12
type manufactured with exterior glue. Where wood structural panel sheathing is used elsewhere,
it shall be of a type manufactured with intermediate or exterior glue.
Panel materials other than wood structural panel sheathing have no recognized capacity for
seismic-force resistance and are not permitted as part of the seismic-force-resisting system except
in conventional light-frame construction, Sec.12.5.
12.3.6 Wood Members Resisting Horizontal Seismic Forces Contributed by Masonry and
Concrete: Wood shear walls, diaphragms, horizontal trusses, and other members shall not be
used to resist horizontal seismic forces contributed by masonry or concrete construction in
structures over one story in height.
Exceptions:
1. Wood floor and roof members shall be permitted to be used in horizontal trusses and
diaphragms to resist horizontal seismic forces (including those due to masonry
veneer, fireplaces, and chimneys) provided such forces do not result in torsional force
distribution through the truss or diaphragm.
2. Vertical wood structural panel sheathed shear walls shall be permitted to be used to
provide resistance to seismic forces in two-story structures of masonry or concrete
construction provided the following requirements are met:
a. Story-to-story wall heights shall not exceed 12 ft (3660 mm).
b. Diaphragms shall not be considered to transmit lateral forces by torsional force
distribution or cantilever past the outermost supporting shear wall.
c. Combined deflections of diaphragms and shear walls shall not permit per story
drift of supported masonry or concrete walls to exceed the limits of Table 5.2.8.
d. Wood structural panel sheathing in diaphragms shall have all unsupported edges
blocked. Wood structural panel sheathing for both stories of shear walls shall
have all unsupported edges blocked and, for the lower story, shall have a
minimum thickness of 15/32 inch (12 mm).
e. There shall be no out-of-plane horizontal offsets between the first and second
stories of wood structural panel shear walls.
12.4 DIAPHRAGMS AND SHEAR WALLS:
12.4.1 Diaphragms:
12.4.1.1 Horizontal Distribution of Shear: Diaphragms shall be defined as flexible for the
purposes of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the maximum lateral
deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the associated
story determined by comparing the computed maximum in-plane deflection of the diaphragm
itself under lateral load with the story drift of adjoining vertical-resisting elements under
equivalent tributary lateral load. Other diaphragms shall be defined as rigid. Design of
structures with rigid diaphragms shall include the structure configuration requirements of Sec.
5.2.3.1 and the horizontal shear distribution requirements of Sec. 5.4.4.
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Wood Structure Design Requirements
Open-front structures with rigid wood diaphragms resulting in torsional force distribution shall
be permitted provided the length, l, of the diaphragm normal to the open side does not exceed 25
ft (7620 mm), the diaphragm sheathing conforms to Sec.12.4.1.3 through 12.4.1.5, and the l/w
ratio (as shown in Figure 12.4.1.1-1) is less than 1/1 for one-story structures or 1/1.5 for
structures over one story in height.
Exception: Where calculations show that diaphragm deflections can be tolerated, the
length, l, normal to the open end shall be permitted to be increased to a l/w ratio not
greater than 1.5/1 when sheathed in conformance with Sec. 12.4.1.3 or 12.4.3.5 or to 1/1
when sheathed in conformance with Sec. 12.4.1.4.
Rigid wood diaphragms shall be permitted to cantilever past the outermost supporting shear wall
(or other vertical resisting element) a length, l, of not more than 25 ft (7620 mm) or two thirds of
the diaphragm width, w, whichever is the smaller. Figure 12.4.1.1-2 illustrates the dimensions of
l and w for a cantilevered diaphragm.
FIGURE 12.4.1.1-1 Diaphragm length and width for plan view of open front building.
Structures with rigid wood diaphragms having a torsional irregularity in accordance with Table
5.2.3.2, Item 1, shall meet the following requirements: The l/w ratio shall not exceed 1/1 for onestory structures or 1/1.5 for structures greater than one story in height where l is the dimension
parallel to the load direction for which the irregularity exists.
Exception: Where calculations demonstrate that the diaphragm deflections can be tolerated,
the width is permitted to be increased and the l/w ratio may be increased to 1.5/1 when
sheathed in conformance with Sec. 12.4.1.3 or to 1/1 when sheathed in conformance with Sec
12.4.1.4 or 12.4.1.5.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 12
FIGURE 12.4.1.1-2 Diaphragm length and width for plan view of cantilevered diaphragm.
12.4.1.2 Aspect Ratio: The aspect ratio l/w of a diaphragm shall not be more than 4/1 for
blocked wood structural panel diaphragms or 3/1 for unblocked wood structural panel
diaphragms, single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms, and double diagonally sheathed
lumber diaphragms.
12.4.1.3 Wood Structural Panel Sheathing: Diaphragms and shear walls sheathed with wood
structural panel sheathing shall be permitted to be used to resist seismic forces based on the
factored shear resistance, 8ND, set forth in Tables 12.4.3-1a and b. Where diaphragms are
designated as blocked in Tables 12.4.3-1a and b, all joints in sheathing shall occur over framing
members of the width prescribed in the tables.
The size and spacing of fasteners at wood structure panel sheathing boundaries, wood structural
panel sheet edges, and intermediate supports shall be as given in Tables 12.4.3-1a and b
Sheathing shall be arranged so that the width shall not be less than 2 ft (600 mm).
12.4.1.4 Single Diagonally Sheathed Lumber Diaphragms: The factored shear resistance,
8ND, of 0.22 Klf (3.2 kN/m) is permitted for single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms.
Single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall consist of 1-by (actual ¾ in., 19 mm)
sheathing boards laid at an angle of approximately 45 degrees (0.8 rad) to supports. Common
nails at each intermediate support shall be two 8d (0.131 x 2½ in., 3 x 64 mm) for 1 by 6 (actual
¾ in by 5½ in., 19 mm by 140 mm) and three 8d (0.131 x 2½ in., 3 x 64 mm) for 1 by 8 (actual ¾
in. by 7½ in., 19 mm by 190 mm) boards. One additional nail shall be provided in each board at
diaphragm boundaries. For box nails of the same penny weight, one additional nail shall be
provided in each board at each intermediate support and two additional nails shall be provided in
each board at diaphragm wall boundaries. End joints in adjacent boards shall be separated by at
least one framing space between supports. Single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall
be permitted to consist of 2-by (actual 1½ in., 38 mm) sheathing boards where 16d (0.131 by 2½
in., 3 by 64 mm) nails are substituted for 8d (0.131 by 2½ in., 3 x 64 mm) nails, end joints are
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Wood Structure Design Requirements
located as above, and the support is not less than 3 in. (actual 2½ in., 64 mm) width or 4 in.
(actual 3½ in., 89 mm) depth.
12.4.1.5 Double Diagonally Sheathed Lumber Diaphragms: Double diagonally sheathed
lumber diaphragms conform to the requirements for single diagonally sheathed lumber
diaphragms in Sec. 12.4.1.4 and the requirements of this section, and shall be permitted to be
used to resist seismic forces based on the factored shear resistance, 8ND, of 0.66 Klf (9.6 kN/m).
Double diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be sheathed with two layers of diagonal
boards placed perpendicular to each other on the same face of the supports. Each chord shall be
designed for the axial force induced and for flexure between supports due to a uniform load equal
to 50 percent of the shear per foot in the diaphragm
12.4.2 Shear Walls:
12.4.2.1 Summing Shear Capacities: The shear values for shear panels of different capacities
applied to the same side of the wall are not cumulative except as allowed in Tables 12.4.3-2a and
12.4.3.2b. The shear values for material of the same capacity applied to both faces of the same
wall are cumulative. Where the material capacities are not equal, the allowable shear shall be
either two times the smaller shear capacity or the capacity of the stronger side, whichever is
greater. Summing shear capacities of dissimilar materials applied to opposite faces or to the
same wall line is not allowed.
12.4.2.2 Adhesives: Adhesive attachment of shear wall sheathing is not permitted.
Exception: Approved adhesive attachment systems shall be permitted in Seismic Design
Category B where R = 1.5 and S0 = 2.5 unless other values are approved.
12.4.2.3 Aspect Ratio: The shear wall aspect ratio, h/w, shall not exceed 2/1. See Sec. 12.1.3
for definitions of w and h.
Exception: Shear wall aspect ratios greater than 2/1, but not exceeding 3.5/1, shall be
permitted provided the factored shear resistance values in Tables 12.4.3-2a and 12.4.3-2b are
multiplied by 2w/h.
12.4.2.4 Shear Wall Anchorage: Where net uplift is induced, tie-down (hold-down) devices
shall be used. Tie-down (hold-down) devices shall be attached to the end posts with nails,
screws, or other fasteners. All tie-down devices shall be used only where the uplift resistance
values are based on cyclic testing of wall assemblies and the test results indicate that the tiedown device does not reduce the stiffness, ductility, or capacity of the shear wall when compared
to nailed-on devices. Nominal strength of the tie-down assemblies shall be equal to or greater
than the forces resulting from factored resistance values of Tables 12.4.3-2a and 12.4.3-2b times
So/1.3. The nominal strength of the tie-down device shall be defined as the average maximum
test load the device can resist under cyclic testing without connection failure by either metal or
wood failure. The stiffness of the tie-down assemblies shall be such as to prevent premature
failure of the sheathing fasteners, and the effect of the tie-down displacement shall be included in
drift calculations. End posts shall be selected such that failure across the net section of the post
is not a limit state for the connection of the tie-down.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 12
Foundation anchor bolts shall have a plate washer under each nut. The minimum plate washer
sizes are as follows:
Bolt size
Plate washer size
for shear walls
2 and 5/8 in.
(13 and 16 mm)
1/4x3x3 in.
(6x75x75 mm)
3/4, 7/8, and 1 in.
3/8x3x3 in.
(19, 22, and 25 mm) (10x75x75 mm)
Hole diameters in the plate washer 3/16 in. (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter are permitted
provided that a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut. Foundation
anchor bolt embedment shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 6 and 8.
Bolts shall be placed a maximum of 2 in. (50 mm) from the sheathed side of wall sheathed on
one face. Walls sheathed on both faces shall have the bolts staggered with the bolt a maximum
of 2 in. (50 mm) from either side of the wall. Alternatively, for wall sheathed on both faces, the
bolts shall be placed at the center of the foundation sill with the edge of the plate washer within 2
in. (13 mm) of each face of the wall. The plate washer width shall be a minimum of 3 in. (75
mm) and the plate thickness shall be determined by analysis using the upward force on the plate
equal to the tension capacity of the bolt.
Anchor bolt and tie-down nuts shall be tightened without crushing the wood, and provision for
preventing nuts from loosening shall be made just prior to covering the framing.
12.4.2.5 Framing: All framing used for shear wall construction shall conform to PS 20 for 2-by
(1.5 in., 38 mm) or larger members.
12.4.2.6 Wood Structural Panel Sheathing: Shear walls sheathed with wood structural panel
sheathing shall be permitted to be used to resist seismic forces based on the factored shear
resistance, 8ND, set forth in Tables 12.4.2-6a and 12.4.2-6b.
The size and spacing of fasteners at wood structural panel sheathing boundaries, wood structural
panel sheet edges, and intermediate supports shall be as given in Tables 12.4.2-6a and b.
All panel sheathing joints shall occur over studs or blocking. Sheathing shall be arranged so that
the width shall not be less than 2 ft (600mm).
Exception: For sheathing attached with the long direction of the panels perpendicular to
the studs, a single sheathing panel with a minimum vertical dimension of 1 ft (300 mm)
and a minimum horizontal dimension of 4 ft (1200 mm) is permitted to be used if it is
located at mid-height of the wall, and is fully blocked and nailed.
12.4.2.7 Single Diagonally Sheathed Lumber Shear Walls: Single diagonally sheathed
lumber diaphragms are permitted using the construction and resistance provisions of Sec.
12.4.1.4.
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Wood Structure Design Requirements
12.4.2.8 Double Diagonally Sheathed Lumber Shear Walls: Double diagonally sheathed
lumber diaphragms are permitted using the construction and resistance provisions of Sec.
12.4.1.5.
12.4.2.9 Shear Walls With Openings Designed for Force Transfer Around Openings:
Where structural-use panel shear walls with openings are designed for force transfer around the
openings, the aspect ratio, h/w, limitations of Sec. 12.4.2.3 shall apply to the overall shear wall
including openings and to each wall pier at the side of an opening. The height of a wall pier shall
be defined as the clear height of the pier at the side of an opening. The width of a wall pier shall
be defined as the sheathed width of the pier. Design and detailing of boundary elements around
the opening shall be provided in accordance with Sec. 12.2.1 or ASCE 16. The width of a wall
pier shall not be less than 2 ft (610mm).
12.4.3 Perforated Shear Walls: The provisions of Sec. 12.4.3 shall be permitted to be used for
the design of perforated shear walls.
12.4.3.1 Definitions:
Adjusted shear resistance: The unadjusted factored shear resistance multiplied by the shear
resistance adjustment factors of Table 12.4.3-1.
Perforated shear wall: A wood structural panel sheathed wall with openings but not
specifically designed and detailed for force transfer around wall openings.
Perforated shear wall segment: A section of shear wall with full height sheathing that meets
the aspect ratio limits of Sec. 12.4.2.3.
Unadjusted factored shear resistance: The factored shear resistance set forth in Tables 12.4.26a and 12.4.2-6b when the aspect ratio of any perforated shear wall segment used in calculation
of perforated shear wall resistance does not exceed 2/1. When the aspect ratio of any perforated
shear wall segment used in calculation of perforated shear wall resistance is greater than 2/1, but
not exceeding 3.5/1, the unadjusted factored shear resistance shall be the factored shear
resistance set forth in Tables 12.4.2-6a and 12.4.2-6b multiplied by 2w/h.
12.4.3.2 Limitations: The following limitations shall apply to the use of Sec. 12.4.4:
a. A perforated shear wall segment shall be located at each end of a perforated shear wall.
Openings shall be permitted to occur beyond the ends of the perforated shear wall, however
the width of such openings shall not be included in the width of the perforated shear wall.
b. The factored shear resistance set fort in Tables 12.4.2-6a and 12.4.2-6b shall not exceed 0.64
klf (9.4 kN/m).
c. A perforated shear wall shall not have out of plane (horizontal) offsets. Where out of plane
offsets occur, portions of the wall on each side of the offset shall be considered as separate
perforated shear walls.
d. Collectors for shear transfer shall be provided through the full length of the perforated shear
wall.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 12
e. A perforated shear wall shall have uniform top of wall and bottom of wall elevations.
Perforated shear walls not having uniform elevations shall be designed by other methods.
f. Perforated shear wall height, h, shall not exceed 20 ft.
12.4.3.3 Perforated Shear Wall Resistance: The resistance of a perforated shear wall shall be
calculated in accordance with the following:
12.4.3.3.1 Percent full height sheathing: The percent of full height sheathing shall be
calculated as the sum of widths of perforated shear wall segments divided by the total width of
the perforated shear wall including openings.
12.4.3.3.2 Maximum opening height ratio: The maximum opening height ratio shall be
calculated by dividing the maximum opening clear height by the shear wall height, h.
12.4.3.3.3 Adjusted shear resistance: The adjusted shear resistance shall be calculated by
multiplying the unadjusted factored shear resistance by the shear resistance adjustment factors of
Table 12.4.4-1. For intermediate percentages of full height sheathing the values in Table 12.4.41 are permitted to be interpolated.
12.4.3.3.4 Perforated shear wall resistance: The perforated shear wall resistance shall be
equal to the adjusted shear resistance times the sum of the widths of the perforated shear wall
segments.
12.4.3.4 Anchorage and Load Path: Design of perforated shear wall anchorage and load path
shall conform to the requirements of this section or shall be calculated using principles of
mechanics. Except as modified by this section, wall framing, sheathing, sheathing attachment,
and fastener schedules shall conform to the requirements of 12.4.2.6 and Tables 12.4.3-2a and
12.4.3-2b.
12.4.3.4.1 Uplift anchorage at perforated shear wall ends: Anchorage for uplift forces due to
overturning shall be provided at each end of the perforated shear wall. The uplift anchorage shall
conform to the requirements of Sec. 12.4.2.4 using the factored resistance values set forth in
Tables 12.4.2-6a and 12.4.2-6b times S0/1.3.
12.4.3.4.2 Anchorage for in-plane shear: The unit shear force ,v, transmitted into the top of a
perforated shear wall, out of the base of the perforated shear wall at full height sheathing, and
into collectors (drag struts) connecting shear wall segments, shall be calculated in accordance
with the following:
v=
V
Co ∑ Li
where:
v
= unit shear force (klf, kN/m),
V = shear force in perforated shear wall (kips, kN),
h
= shear wall height (ft, mm/1000),
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Wood Structure Design Requirements
Co = shear resistance adjustment factor from Table 12.4.4-1, and
ELi
= sum of widths of perforated shear wall segments (ft, mm/1000).
12.4.3.4.3 Uplift anchorage between perforated shear wall ends: In addition to the
requirements of Sec. 12.4.4.4.1, perforated shear wall bottom plates at full height sheathing shall
be anchored for a uniform uplift force, t, equal to the unit shear force, v, determined in Sec.
12.4.4.4.2.
12.4.3.4.4. Compression chords: Each end of each perforated shear wall segment shall be
designed for a compression force, C, from each story calculated in accordance with the
following:
C = V h / (Co 3 Li)
where:
C
= compression chord force (kips, kN),
V
= shear force in perforated shear wall (kips, kN),
h
= shear wall height (ft, mm/1000),
Co
= shear resistance adjustment factor from Table 12.4.4-1, and
3Li
= sum of widths of shear wall segments (ft, mm/1000).
12.4.3.4.5. Load path: A load path to the foundation shall be provided for each uplift force, T
and t, for each shear force, v, and for each compression force, C. Elements resisting shear wall
forces contributed by multiple stories shall be designed for the sum of forces contributed by each
story.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 12
TABLE 12.4.3-1 Shear Resistance Adjustment Factor, Co
Maximum Opening Height Ratioa and Height
Wall Height (h)
h/3
h/2
2h/3
5h/6
h
8'-0”
(2440 mm)
2'-8"
(810 mm)
4'-0"
(1220 mm)
5'-4"
(1630 mm)
6'-8"
(2030 mm)
8'-0"
(2440 mm)
10'-0”
(3050 mm)
3'-4"
(1020 mm)
5'-0"
(1530 mm)
6'-8"
(2030 mm)
8'-4"
(2540 mm)
10'-0"
(3050 mm)
Percent Full-Height Sheathing b
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
a
See Sec. 12.4.3.3.2.
b
See Sec. 12.4.3.3.1.
Shear Resistance Adjustment Factor
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.69
0.71
0.74
0.77
0.80
0.83
0.87
0.91
0.95
1.00
0.53
0.56
0.59
0.63
0.67
0.71
0.77
0.83
0.91
1.00
0.43
0.45
0.49
0.53
0.57
0.63
0.69
0.77
0.87
1.00
0.36
0.38
0.42
0.45
0.50
0.56
0.63
0.71
0.83
1.00
12.5 CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION:
12.5.1 Scope: Conventional light-frame construction is a system constructed entirely of
repetitive horizontal and vertical wood light-framing members selected from tables in NFoPA
T903 and conforming to the framing and bracing requirements of the CABO Code except as
modified by the provisions in this section. Structures with concrete or masonry walls above the
basement story shall not be considered to be conventional light-frame construction. Construction
with concrete and masonry basement walls shall be in accordance with the CABO Code or
equivalent. Conventional light-frame construction is limited to structures with bearing wall
heights not exceeding 10 ft (3 m) and the number of stories prescribed in Table 12.5.1-1. The
gravity dead load of the construction is limited to 15 psf (720 Pa) for roofs and exterior walls and
10 psf (480 Pa) for floors and partitions and the gravity live load is limited to 40 psf (1915 Pa).
Exceptions: Masonry veneer is acceptable for:
1. The first story above grade or the first two stories above grade when the lowest story
has concrete or masonry walls of Seismic Design Category B and C structures.
2. The first two stories above grade or the first three stories above grade when the lowest
story has concrete or masonry walls of Seismic Design Category B structures,
provided structural use panel wall bracing is used and the length of bracing provided
is 1.5 times the length required by Table 12.5.2-1.
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Wood Structure Design Requirements
The requirements of this section are based on platform construction. Other framing systems must
have equivalent detailing to ensure force transfer, continuity, and compatible deformation.
When a structure of otherwise conventional light-frame construction contains structural elements
not conforming to Sec. 12.5, those elements shall have an engineered design to resist the forces
specified in Chapter 5 in accordance with Sec. 12.2.2.1.
12.5.1.1 Irregular Structures: Irregular structures in Seismic Design Categories C and D of
conventional light-frame construction shall have an engineered lateral-force-resisting system
designed to resist the forces specified in Chapter 5 in accordance with Sec. 12.2.1. A structure
shall be considered to have an irregularity when one or more of the conditions described in Sec.
12.5.1.1.1 to 12.5.1.1.7 are present.
12.5.1.1.1: A structure shall be considered to have an irregularity when exterior braced wall
panels are not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story in which they
are required. See Figure 12.5.1.1.1-1.
Exceptions: Floors with cantilevers or setbacks not exceeding four times the nominal
depth of the floor joists (see Figure 12.5.1.1.1-2) are permitted to support braced wall
panels provided:
1. Floor joists are 2 in. by 10 in. (actual 1½ by 9¼ in., 38 by 235 mm) or larger and
spaced not more than 16 inches (405 mm) on center.
2. The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is at least 2 to 1.
3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are doubled.
4. A continuous rim joist is connected to the ends of all cantilevered joists. The rim
joist shall be permitted to be spliced using a metal tie not less than 0.058 in. (2 mm)
(16 galvanized gage) and 1½ in. (38 mm) wide fastened with six 16d (0.162 by 3½ in,
4 by 89 mm) common nails on each side. Steel used shall have a minimum yield of
33,000 psi (228 MPa) such as ASTM 653 Grade 330 structural quality or ASTM
A446 Grade A galvanized steel.
5. Gravity loads carried by joists at setbacks or the end of cantilevered joists are limited
to single story uniform wall and roof loads and the reactions from headers having a
span of 8 ft (2440 mm) or less.
FIGURE 12.5.1.1.1-1 Out-of-plane exterior walls irregularity.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 12
FIGURE 12.5.1.1.1-2 Cantilever/setback irregularity for exterior walls.
12.5.1.1.2: A structure shall be considered to have an irregularity when a section of floor or
roof is not laterally supported by braced wall lines on all edges. See Figure 12.5.1.1.2-1.
Exception: Portions of roofs or floors that do not support braced wall panels above shall
be permitted to extend up to 6 ft (1830 mm) beyond a braced wall line. See Figure
12.5.1.1.2-2.
FIGURE 12.5.1.1.2-1 Unsupported diaphragm irregularity.
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Wood Structure Design Requirements
FIGURE 12.5.1.1.2-2 Allowable cantilevered diaphragm.
12.5.1.1.3: A structure shall be considered to have an irregularity when the end of a required
braced wall panel extends more than 1 ft (305 mm) over an opening in the wall below. This
requirement is applicable to braced wall panels offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset
out of plane as permitted by the exception to Sec. 12.5.1.1.1. See Figure 12.5.1.1.3.
Exception: Braced wall panels shall be permitted to extend over an opening not more
than 8 ft (2440 mm) in width when the header is a 4-in. by 12-in. (actual 3½ by 11¼ in.,
89 by 286 mm) or larger member.
FIGURE 12.5.1.1.3 Opening in wall below irregularity.
12.5.1.1.4: A structure shall be considered to have an irregularity when portions of a floor level
are vertically offset such that the framing members on either side of the offset cannot be lapped
or tied together in an approved manner. See Figure 12.5.1.1.4.
Exception: Framing supported directly by foundations.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 12
FIGURE 12.5.1.1.4 Vertical offset irregularity.
12.5.1.1.5: A structure shall be considered to have an irregularity when braced wall lines are not
perpendicular to each other. See Figure 12.5.1.1.5
FIGURE 12.5.1.1.5 Nonperpendicular wall irregularity.
12.5.1.1.6 Diaphragm Openings: A structure shall be considered to have an irregularity when
openings in floor and roof diaphragms having a maximum dimension greater than 50 percent of
the distance between lines of bracing or an area greater than 25 percent of the area between
orthogonal pairs of braced wall lines are present. See Figure 12.5.1.1.6.
FIGURE 12.5.1.1.6 Diaphragm opening irregularity.
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Wood Structure Design Requirements
12.5.1.1.7 Stepped Foundation: A structure shall be considered to have an irregularity when
the shear walls of a single story vary in height more than 6 ft (1800 mm).
12.5.2 Braced Walls: The following are the minimum braced wall requirements.
12.5.2.1 Spacing Between Braced Wall Lines: Interior and exterior braced wall lines shall be
located at the spacing indicated in Table 12.5.1-1.
12.5.2.2 Braced Wall Line Sheathing Requirements: All braced wall lines shall be braced by
one of the types of sheathing prescribed in Table 12.5.2-1. The required sum of lengths of braced wall panels at each braced wall line is prescribed in Table 12.5.2-1. Braced wall panels
shall be distributed along the length of the braced wall line with sheathing placed at each end of
the wall or partition or as near thereto as possible. To be considered effective as bracing, each
braced wall panel shall conform to Sec. 602.9 of the CABO Code. All panel sheathing joints
shall occur over studs or blocking. Sheathing shall be fastened to all studs and top and bottom
plates and at panel edges occurring over blocking. All wall framing to which sheathing used for
bracing is applied shall be 2-by (actual 1½ in., 38 mm) or larger members.
Cripple walls shall be braced as required for braced wall lines and shall be considered an
additional story. Where interior post and girder framing is used, the capacity of the braced wall
panels at exterior cripple walls shall be increased to compensate for length of interior braced
wall eliminated by increasing the length of the sheathing or increasing the number of fasteners.
12.5.2.3 Attachment:
12.5.2.3.1: Nailing of braced wall panel sheathing shall be not less than the minimum included
in Tables 12.4.2-6a and 12.4.2-6b or as prescribed in Table 12.5.2-1.
12.5.2.3.2: Nailing for diagonal boards shall be as prescribed in Sec. 12.4.3.3 and 12.4.3.4.
12.5.2.3.3 : Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing is not permitted.
12.5.3 Detailing Requirements: The following requirements for framing and connection
details shall apply as a minimum.
12.5.3.1 Wall Anchorage: Anchorage of braced wall line sills to concrete or masonry
foundations shall be provided. Such anchorage shall conform to the requirements in Figure
403.1a of Sec. 403 of the CABO code except that such anchors shall be spaced at not more than
4 ft (1220 mm) on center for structures over two stories in height. For Seismic Design
Categories C, D and E, plate washers, a minimum of ¼ in. by 3 in. by 3 in. in size, shall be
provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut. Other anchorage devices having
equivalent capacity shall be permitted.
12.5.3.2 Top Plates: Stud walls shall be capped with double-top plates installed to provide
overlapping at corners and intersections. End joints in double-top plates shall be offset at least 4
ft (1220 mm). Single top plates shall be permitted to be used when they are spliced by framing
devices providing capacity equivalent to the lapped splice prescribed for double top plates.
12.5.3.3 Bottom Plates: Studs shall have full bearing on a 2-by (actual 1½ in., 38 mm) or larger
plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
225
2000 Provisions Chapter 12
12.5.3.4 Braced Wall Panel Connections: Accommodations shall be made to transfer forces
from roofs and floors to braced wall panels and from the braced wall panels in upper stories to
the braced wall panels in the story below. Where platform framing is used, such transfer at
braced wall panels shall be accomplished in accordance with the following:
1. All braced wall panel top and bottom plates shall be fastened to joists, rafters, or full
depth blocking. Braced wall panels shall be extended and fastened to roof framing at
intervals not to exceed 50 ft (15.2 m).
Exception: Where roof trusses are used, provisions shall be made to transfer
lateral forces from the roof diaphragm to the braced wall
2. Bottom plate fastening to joist or blocking below shall be with not less than 3-16d (0.162
by 3½ in., 4 by 89 mm) nails at sixteen inches on center.
3. Blocking shall be nailed to the top plate below with not less than 3-8d (0.131 by 2½ in., 3
by 64 mm) toenails per block.
4. Joists parallel to the top plates shall be nailed to the top plate with not less than 8d (0.131
by 2½ in., 3 by 64 mm) toenails at 6 in. (150 mm) on center.
In addition, top plate laps shall be nailed with not less than 8-16d (0.162 by 3½ in., 4 by 89 mm)
face nails on each side.
12.5.3.5 Foundations Supporting Braced Wall Panels: For structures with maximum plan
dimensions not over 50 ft (15250 mm) foundations supporting braced wall panels are required at
exterior walls only. Structures with plan dimensions greater than 50 ft (15250 mm) shall, in
addition, have foundations supporting all required interior braced wall panels. Foundation to
braced wall connections shall be made at every foundation supporting a braced wall panel. The
connections shall be distributed along the length of the braced wall line. Where all-wood
foundations are used, the force transfer shall be determined based on calculation and shall have
capacity greater than or equal to the connections required by Sec. 12.5.3.1.
12.5.3.6 Stepped Footings: Where the height of a required braced wall panel extending from
foundation to floor above varies more than 4 ft. (1220 mm) (see Figure 12.5.3.6), the following
construction shall be used:
a. Where only the bottom of the footing is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests
directly on a sill bolted to the footings, the requirements of Sec. 12.5.3.1 shall apply.
b. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a footing not less than 8 ft
(2440 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered to be braced.
The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing extending to the
lowest framed floor shall be spliced to the sill plate with metal ties, one on each side of
the sill and plate not less than 0.058 in. (16 gage, 2mm) by 1.5 in. (38 mm) wide by 4.8
in. (122 mm) with eight 16d (0.162 by 3.5 in., 4 by 89 mm) common nails on each side of
the splice location (see Figure 12.5.3.6). Steel used shall have a minimum yield of
33,000 psi (228 MPa) such as ASTM 653 Grade 330 structural quality or ASTM A446
Grade A galvanized steel.
226
Wood Structure Design Requirements
c. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the footing and the lowest floor framing,
the bracing requirements for a story shall apply.
12.5.3.7 Detailing for Openings in Diaphragms: For openings with a dimension greater than
4 ft (1220 mm) or openings in structures in Seismic Design Categories D and E, the following
minimum detail shall be provided. Blocking shall be provided beyond headers and metal ties not
less than 0.058 in. (16 gage, 2 mm) by 1.5 in. (38 mm) wide by 4.8 in. (122 mm) with eight 16d
(0.162 by 3.5 in., 4 by 89 mm) common nails on each side of the header-joist intersection (see
Figure 12.5.3.7). Steel used shall have a minimum yield of 33,000 psi (228 MPa) such as ASTM
653 Grade 330 structural quality or ASTM A446 Grade A galvanized steel.
FIGURE 12.5.3.6 Stepped footing detail.
227
2000 Provisions Chapter 12
FIGURE 12.5.3.7 Detail for diaphragm opening.
12.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A: Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A
are permitted to be designed and constructed using any applicable materials and procedures
permitted in the reference documents and, in addition, shall conform to the requirements of Sec.
5.2.6.1.2. Structures constructed in compliance with Sec. 12.5 are deemed to comply with
Sec. 5.2.6.1.2.
Exceptions:
1. Where Sec. 1.2.1, Exception 1, is applicable, one- and two-family detached dwellings
are exempt from the requirements of the Provisions.
2. Where Sec. 1.2.1, Exception 2, is applicable, one- and two-family dwellings that are
designed and constructed in accordance with the conventional construction
requirements of Sec. 12.5 are exempt from other requirements of the Provisions.
12.7 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES B, C, AND D: Structures assigned to Seismic
Design Categories B, C, and D shall conform to the requirements of this section, and Sec.
5.2.6.1.2.
Exceptions:
1. Where Sec. 1.2.1, Exception 1, is applicable, one- and two-family detached dwellings
are exempt from the requirements of the Provisions.
2. Where Sec. 1.2.1, Exception 2, is applicable, one- and two-family dwellings that are
designed and constructed in accordance with the conventional construction
requirements of Sec. 12.5 are exempt from other requirements of the Provisions.
228
Wood Structure Design Requirements
12.7.1 Conventional Light-Frame Construction: Conventional light-frame construction shall
meet the requirements of Sec. 12.5. Alternatively, such structures shall meet the requirements of
Sec. 12.7.2. See Sec. 12.2.2.1 for design of nonconventional elements.
12.7.2 Engineered Construction: All engineered wood construction shall meet the
requirements of Sec. 12.3 and 12.4.
12.8 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES E AND F: Structures assigned to Seismic Design
Categories E and F shall conform to all of the requirements for engineered construction in
accordance with Sec. 12.3 and 12.4 and to the additional requirements of this section.
Exception: Structures assigned to Seismic Use Group I that are designed and constructed
in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 12.5 are permitted.
12.8.1 Limitations: Structures shall comply with the requirements given below.
12.8.1.1 Unblocked structural-use panel sheathing diaphragms shall not be considered to be
part of the seismic-force-resisting system. Structural-use panel sheathing used for diaphragms
and shear walls that are part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be applied directly to the
framing members.
Exception: Structural-use panel sheathing may be used as a diaphragm when fastened
over solid lumber planking or laminated decking provided the panel joints and lumber
planking or laminated decking joints do not coincide.
12.8.1.2 In addition to the requirements of Sec. 12.3.4.1, the factored shear resistance, 8ND, for
structural-use panel sheathed shear walls used to resist seismic forces in structures with concrete
or masonry walls shall be one-half the values set forth in Tables 12.4.3-2a and 12.4.3-2b.
229
TABLE 12.4.3-1a Factored Shear Resistance in Kips per Foot for Horizontal Wood Diaphragms
with Framing Members of Douglas Fir-Larch or Southern Pine for Seismic Loadinga,b
Fastenerc
Panel Grade
Type
Blocked Diaphragms
Minimum
penetration
in framing
(in.)
Minimum
nominal
panel thickness (in.)
Minimum
nominal
width of
framing
(in.)
Lines of
fasteners
Fastener spacing at diaphragm boundaries (all cases), at continuous panel
edges parallel to load (Cases 3 and 4) and at all panel edges (Cases 5 and 6)e
6
2-1/2f
4
2f
Unblocked
Diaphragmsd
Fastener spacing at
6 in. centers
at
supported edges
Spacing per line at other panel edges (in.)
Case
1
Structural I
6d
common
8d
common
10dg
common
10dg
common
1-1/4
3/8
1-3/8
3/8
1-1/2
15/32
1-1/2
23/32
14 gauge
staples
6d common
2
23/32
1-1/4
3/8
8d common
1-3/8
3/8
Sheathing,
single floor
7/16
and other
15/32
grades
covered
10dg
common
1-1/2
15/32
19/32
in Ref.
23/32
9-10 and 9-11
14 gauge
staples
2
23/32
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
4
4
3
4
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
4
4
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
2
3
6
0.24
0.27
0.35
0.39
0.42
0.47
----------0.24
0.27
0.31
0.35
0.33
0.37
0.35
0.39
0.38
0.42
.042
0.47
-----------
6
0.33
0.36
0.47
0.52
0.55
0.62
0.85
0.98
1.22
0.78
1.09
0.33
0.36
0.42
0.47
0.44
0.49
0.47
0.52
0.50
0.56
0.55
0.62
0.84
0.98
1.22
0.78
1.07
4
------------1.13
1.27
1.70
0.78
1.17
------------------------1.13
1.27
1.70
0.78
1.17
4
0.49
0.55
0.69
0.78
0.83
0.94
1.22
1.40
1.79
1.09
1.48
0.49
0.55
0.62
0.70
0.66
0.74
0.69
0.78
0.75
0.85
0.83
0.94
1.22
1.40
1.78
1.07
1.46
3
------------1.60
1.83
2.35
1.17
1.76
------------------------1.59
1.81
1.96
1.17
1.76
3
0.55
0.62
0.78
0.88
0.95
1.07
------1.35
1.87
0.55
0.62
0.71
0.79
0.75
0.84
0.78
0.88
0.85
0.96
0.95
1.07
------1.33
1.82
2
------------------1.56
2.34
------------------------------1.56
1.96
0.21
0.24
0.31
0.34
0.37
0.42
----------0.21
0.24
0.28
0.31
0.30
0.33
0.31
0.34
0.33
0.38
0.37
0.42
-----------
Cases
2, 3
4, 5,
and 6
0.16
0.18
0.23
0.26
0.28
0.31
----------0.16
0.18
0.21
0.23
0.22
0.25
0.23
0.26
0.25
0.28
0.28
0.31
-----------
Wood Structure Design Requirements
NOTES for TABLE 12.4.3-1a
a
8 = 1.0
n = 0.65
b
l/w shall not be more than 4/1 for blocked diaphragms or more than 3/1 for unblocked diaphragms. For framing
members of other species set forth in Ref. 12-1, Table 12A, with the range of specific gravity (SG) noted, allowable
shear values shall be calculated for all panel grades by multiplying the values from the table above for nail size and
actual panel grade by the following factor: Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = (1-(0.5 - SG)), Where SG =
Specific Gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall not be greater than 1.
c
Space nails along intermediate framing members at 12 in. centers except where spans are
greater than 32 in..; space nails at 6 in. centers.
d
Blocked values are permitted to be used for 1-1/8 in. panels with tongue-and-groove edges where 1 in. by 3/8 in..
crown by No. 16 gauge staples are driven through the tongue-and-groove edges 3/8 in. from the panel edge so as to
penetrate the tongue. Staples shall be spaced at one half the boundary nail spacing for Cases 1 and 2 and at one
third the boundary nail spacing for Cases 3 through 6.
e
Maximum shear for Cases 3 through 6 is limited to 1500 pounds per foot.
f
For values listed for 2 in. nominal framing member width, the framing members at adjoining panel edges shall be 3
in. nominal width. Nails at panel edges shall be placed in two lines at these locations.
g
Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 in. nominal or wider and nails shall be staggered where 10d nails
having penetration into framing of more than 1-5/8 in. are spaced 3 in. or less on center.
231
TABLE 12.4.3-1b Factored Shear Resistance in kiloNewtons per Meter for Horizontal Wood Diaphragms
with Framing Members of Douglas Fir-Larch or Southern Pine for Seismic Loadinga,b
Fastenerc
Panel Grade
Type
Blocked Diaphragms
Minimum
penetration
in framing
(mm.)
Minimum
nominal
panel thickness (mm.)
Minimum
nominal
width of
framing
(mm.)
Lines of
fasteners
Fastener spacing at diaphragm boundaries (all cases), at continuous panel
edges parallel to load (Cases 3 and 4) and at all panel edges (Cases 5 and 6)
(mm)e
50f
150
100
65f
Unblocked
Diaphragmsd
Fastener spacing at
150 mm centers
at
supported edges
Spacing per line at other panel edges (mm.)
Case
1
Structural I
6d
common
8d
common
10dg
common
10dg
common
32
9.5
35
9.5
38
12
38
18
14 gauge
staples
6d common
50
18
32
9.5
8d common
35
9.5
Sheathing,
single floor
11
and other
12
grades
covered
10dg
common
38
12
15
in Ref.
18
9-10 and 9-11
14 gauge
staples
50
18
50
75
50
75
50
75
75
100
100
75
100
50
75
50
75
50
75
50
75
50
75
50
75
75
100
100
75
100
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
2
3
150
3.5
4.0
5.1
5.7
6.1
6.8
----------3.5
4.0
4.6
5.1
4.8
5.4
5.1
5.7
5.5
6.2
6.1
6.8
-----------
150
4.7
5.3
6.8
7.6
8.1
9.1
12.3
14.3
17.8
11.4
15.9
4.7
5.3
6.1
6.8
6.5
7.2
6.9
7.6
7.3
8.2
8.1
9.1
12.2
14.2
17.7
11.4
15.6
100
------------16.5
18.6
24.8
11.4
17.1
------------------------16.5
18.6
24.8
11.4
17.1
100
7.1
8.0
10.1
11.4
12.1
13.7
17.8
20.5
26.1
15.9
21.6
7.1
8.0
9.1
10.2
10.9
12.2
10.1
11.4
10.9
12.3
12.1
13.7
17.7
20.4
26.4
15.6
21.2
75
------------23.3
26.8
34.1
17.1
25.6
------------------------23.2
26.5
28.6
17.1
25.6
75
8.0
9.0
11.4
12.8
13.8
15.6
------19.7
27.3
8.0
9.0
10.3
11.6
10.9
12.2
11.4
12.8
12.4
13.9
13.8
15.6
------19.4
26.6
50
------------------22.8
34.1
------------------------------22.8
28.6
3.1
3.5
4.6
5.0
5.4
6.1
----------3.3
3.5
4.1
4.6
4.4
4.8
4.5
5.0
4.8
5.5
5.4
6.1
-----------
Cases
2, 3
4, 5,
and 6
2.4
2.7
3.4
3.8
4.1
4.6
----------2.4
2.7
3.0
3.4
3.2
3.6
3.4
3.8
3.6
4.1
4.1
4.6
-----------
Wood Structure Design Requirements
NOTES for TABLE 12.4.3-1b
a
8 = 1.0
n = 0.65
b
l/w shall not be more than 4/1 for blocked diaphragms or more than 3/1 for unblocked diaphragms. For framing
members of other species set forth in ASCE 16, Table 12A, with the range of specific gravity (SG) noted, allowable
shear values shall be calculated for all panel grades by multiplying the values from the table above for nail size and
actual panel grade by the following factor:
Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = (1-(0.5 - SG)), Where SG = Specific Gravity of the framing lumber. This
adjustment factor shall not be greater than 1.
c
Space nails along intermediate framing members at 300 mm centers except where spans are greater than 810 mm;
space nails at 150 mm centers.
d
Blocked values are permitted to be used for 28.5 mm panels with tongue-and-groove edges where 25 mm by 9 mm
crown by No. 16 gauge staples are driven through the tongue-and-groove edges 9 mm. from the panel edge so as to
penetrate the tongue. Staples shall be spaced at one half the boundary nail spacing for Cases 1 and 2 and at one
third the boundary nail spacing for Cases 3 through 6.
e
Maximum shear for Cases 3 through 6 is limited to 22.8 kiloNewtons per meter.
f
For values listed for 50 mm nominal framing member width, the framing members at adjoining panel edges shall
be 75 mm nominal width. Nails at panel edges shall be placed in two lines at these locations.
g
Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 75 mm nominal or wider and nails shall be staggered where 10d nails
having penetration into framing of more than 41 mm are spaced 75 mm or less on center.
233
TABLE 12.4.3-2a Factored Shear Resistance in Kips per Foot (KLF) for Seismic Forces on Structural Use Panel
Shear Walls with Framing Members of Douglas Fir-Larch or Southern Pinea,b,c
Panel Grade
Nail Size
(Common or
Hot-Dipped
Galvanized
Box)
Minimum
Penetration
in Framing
(in.)
Panel
Thickne
ss
(in.)
Panel Applied Direct to Framing Nail Spacing
at Panel Edges (in.)
6
Structural I
Sheathing,
Panel Siding
and
Other
Grades
Covered in
References
9.10
and
9.11
6d
1-1/4
4
2d
3
Panel Applied Over 1/2 in. or 5/8 in. Gypsum Sheathing
Nail Spacing at Panel Edges (in.)
6
3/8
0.26
0.39
0.51
0.66
f
0.47
f
0.60
f
0.79
f
8d
4
2d
3
0.26
0.39
0.51
0.66
f
0.47
f
0.60
f
0.79f
e
0.30
8d
1-3/8
3/8
0.30
8d
1-3/8
7/16
0.33f
0.51f
0.66f
0.87f
10de
0.33f
0.51f
0.66f
0.87f
8d
1-3/8
15/32
0.36
0.56
0.72
0.95
10de
0.36f
0.56f
0.72f
0.95f
10de
1-1/2
15/32
0.44
0.66
0.86
1.13
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
2
3/8
0.19
0.29
0.39
0.58
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
2
7/16
0.27
0.40
0.53
0.80
-
-
-
-
6d
1-1/4
3/8
0.26
0.39
0.51
0.66
f
0.42
f
0.53
f
0.69
f
10d
8d
10d
0.26
0.39
0.51
0.66
f
0.42
f
0.53
f
0.69f
e
0.29
8d
1-3/8
3/8
0.29
8d
1-3/8
7/16
0.31f
0.46f
0.59f
0.76f
10de
0.31f
0.46f
0.59f
0.76f
8d
1-3/8
15/32
0.34
0.49
0.64
0.83
10de
0.34f
0.49f
0.64f
0.83f
10de
1-1/2
15/32
0.40
0.60
0.78
1.00
-
-
-
-
e
1-1/2
19/32
0.44
0.66
0.86
1.13
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
2
3/8
0.17
0.25
0.33
0.50
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
2
7/16
0.23
0.36
0.47
0.70
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
2
15/32
0.27
0.40
0.53
0.80
-
-
-
-
10d
(Hot- Dipped
Galvanized
Casing Nail)
Panel Siding
as Covered in
Reference 9.10
Nail Size
(Common or
Hot-Dipped
Galvanized
Box)
(Hot-Dipped
Galvanized
Casing Nail)
6d
1-1/4
3/8
0.18
0.27
0.36
0.47
8d
0.18
0.27
0.36
0.47
8d
1-3/8
3/8
0.21
0.31
0.40
0.53
10de
0.21
0.31
0.40
0.53
Wood Structure Design Requirements
NOTES for TABLE 12.4.3-2a
a
8 = 1.0
N = 0.65
b
All panel edges backed with 2-inch nominal or wider framing. Panels installed either
horizontally or vertically. Space nails at 6 in. on center along intermediate framing members for
3/8-in. panels installed with strong axis parallel to studs spaced 24 in. on center and 12 in. on
center for other conditions and panel thicknesses. Allowable shear values for fasteners in
framing members of other species set forth in Table 12A of ASCE 16 shall be calculated for all
grades by multiplying the values by the following factors: 0.82 for species with a specific gravity
greater than or equal to 0.42 but less than 0.49 (0.42 # G < 0.49) and 0.65 for species with a
specific gravity less than 0.42 (G < 0.42). For panel siding using hot-dipped galvanized casing
nails, the shear values shall be the values in the table multiplied by the same factors.
c
Where panels are applied on both faces of a wall and nail spacing is less than 6 inches on center
on either side, panel joints shall be offset to fall on different framing members or framing shall
be 3-inch nominal or wider and nails on each side of joint shall be staggered.
d
Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3-in. nominal or wider and nails shall be staggered
where nails are spaced 2 in. on center.
e
Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3-in. nominal or wider and nails shall be staggered
where 10d nails having penetration into framing of more than 1-5/8 in. are spaced 3 in. or less on
center.
f
The values for 3/8-in. and 7/16-in. panels applied directly to framing are permitted to be
increased to the values shown for 15/32-in. panels provided studs are spaced a maximum of 16
in. on center or panel is applied with strong axis across studs.
235
TABLE 12.4.3-2b Factored Shear Resistance in kiloNewtons per Meter (kN/m) for Seismic Forces on Structural Use Panel
Shear Walls with Framing Members of Douglas Fir-Larch or Southern Pinea,b,c
Panel Grade
Structural I
Sheathing,
Panel Siding
and
Other
Grades
Covered in
References
9.10
and
9.11
Panel Siding
as Covered in
Reference 9.10
Nail Size
(Common or
Hot-Dipped
Galvanized
Box)
Minimum
Penetration
in Framing
(mm)
Panel
Thickness
(mm)
Panel Applied Direct
to Framing
Nail Spacing at Panel Edges (mm)
150
100
75
50
Panel Applied Over 12.7 mm or 15.9 mm
Gypsum Sheathing
Nail Spacing at Panel Edges (mm)
Nail Size
(Hot-Dipped
Common or
Galvanized Box)
150
100
75
50d
6d
32
9.5
3.8
5.7
7.4
9.7
8d
3.8
5.7
7.4
9.7
8d
35
9.5
4.4f
6.8f
8.7f
11.6f
10de
4.4
6.8
8.7
11.6
8d
35
11
4.8f
7.5f
9.6f
12.7f
10de
4.8
7.5
9.6
12.7
8d
35
12
5.3
8.2
10.4
13.8
10de
5.3
8.2
10.4
13.8
10de
38
12
6.5
9.7
12.6
16.5
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
50
9.5
2.8
4.3
5.7
8.4
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
50
11
3.9
5.8
7.8
11.7
-
-
-
-
6d
32
10
3.8
5.7
7.4
9.7
8d
35
8d
35
8d
10
11
4.2f
4.6f
6.1f
6.6f
7.8f
8.5f
10.1f
11.1f
8d
3.8
5.7
7.4
9.7
10d
e
4.2
6.1
7.8
10.1
10d
e
4.6
6.6
8.5
11.1
10d
e
4.9
7.2
9.3
12.1
35
12
4.9
7.2
9.3
12.1
10d
e
38
12
5.9
8.7
11.4
14.6
-
-
-
-
10d
e
38
15
6.5
9.7
12.6
16.5
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
50
9.5
2.5
3.7
4.8
7.3
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
50
11
3.4
5.2
6.8
10.2
-
-
-
-
14 ga staple
50
12
3.9
5.8
7.8
11.7
-
-
-
-
(Hot-Dipped
Galvanized
Casing Nail)
(Hot-Dipped
Galvanized
Casing Nail)
6d
32
9.5
2.7
4.0
5.2
6.8
8d
2.7
4.0
5.2
6.8
8d
35
9.5
3.0
4.6
5.9
7.8
10de
3.0
4.6
5.9
7.8
Wood Structure Design Requirements
NOTES for TABLE 12.4.3-2b
a
8 = 1.0
n = 0.65
b
All panel edges backed with 38 mm nominal or wider framing. Panels installed either
horizontally or vertically. Space nails at 150 mm on center along intermediate framing members
for 9 mm panels installed with strong axis parallel to studs spaced 610 mm on center and 305
mm on center for other conditions and panel thicknesses. Allowable shear values for fasteners in
framing members of other species set forth in Table 12A of ASCE 16 shall be calculated for all
grades by multiplying the values by the following factors: 0.82 for species with a specific gravity
greater than or equal to 0.42 but less than 0.49 (0.42 # G < 0.49) and 0.65 for species with a
specific gravity less than 0.42 (G < 0.42). For panel siding using hot-dipped galvanized casing
nails, the shear values shall be the values in the table multiplied by the same factors.
c
Where panels are applied on both faces of a wall and nail spacing is less than 610 mm on center
on either side, panel joints shall be offset to fall on different framing members or framing shall
be 64 mm or wider and nails on each side of joint shall be staggered.
d
Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 64 mm or wider and nails shall be staggered where
nails are spaced 50 mm on center.
e
Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 64 mm or wider and nails shall be staggered where
10d nails having penetration into framing of more than 41 mm are spaced 76 mm or less on
center.
f
The values for 9 mm and 11 mm panels applied directly to framing are permitted to be
increased to the values shown for 12 mm panels provided studs are spaced a maximum of 406
mm on center or panel is applied with strong axis across studs.
237
2000 Provisions Chapter 12
TABLE 12.5.1-1 Conventional Light-Frame Construction Braced Wall Requirements
Seismic Performance
Category
Maximum Distance
Between Braced Walls
Maximum Number of Stories
Above Grade Permitted a
Ab
35 ft (10675 mm)
3
B
35 ft (10675 mm)
3
C
25 ft (7625 mm)
2
D and
E (Seismic Use Group I)
25 ft (7625 mm)
1c
E (Seismic Use Group
II) and F
Conventional construction not permitted; conformance
with Sec. 12.3 required.
a
A cripple stud wall is considered to be a story above grade. Maximum bearing wall height shall not exceed
10 ft (3050 mm)
b
See exceptions to Sec. 1.2.1.
c
Detached one- and two-family dwellings are permitted to be two stories above grade.
238
Wood Structure Design Requirements
TABLE 12.5.2-1 Conventional Light-Frame Construction Braced Wall Requirements
in Minimum Length of Wall Bracing per Each 25 Lineal Feet (7625 mm) of Braced Wall
Linea
Sheathing
Typeb
0.125 #
SDS < 0.25
0.25 # SDS
< 0.375
0.375 # SDS
< 0.50
0.50 # SDS
< 0.75
0.75 # SDS
< 1.0e
Top or
only
story
above
grade
G-Pd
8 ft 0 in.
(2440 mm)
8 ft 0 in.
(2440 mm)
10 ft 8 in.
(3250 mm)
14 ft 8 in.
(4470 mm)
18 ft 8 in.c
(5690 mm)
S-W
4 ft 0 in.
(1220 mm)
4 ft 0 in.
(1220 mm)
5 ft 4 in.
(1625 mm)
8 ft 0 in.
(2440 mm)
9 ft 4 in.c
(2845 mm)
Story below top
story
above
grade
G-Pd
10 ft 8 in
(3250 mm)
14 ft 8 in.
(4470 mm)
18 ft 8 in.c
(6590 mm)
NP
NP
S-W
5 ft 4 in.
(1625 mm)
6 ft 8 in.
(2030 mm)
10 ft 8 in.c
(3250 mm)
13 ft 4 in.c
(4065 mm)
17 ft 4 in.c
(5280 mm)
G-Pd
14 ft 8 in.
(4470 mm)
Conventional construction not permitted;
conformance with Sec. 12.3 required.
S-W
8 ft 0 in.
(2440 mm)
Story
Location
Bottom
story of
3 stories
above
grade
a
Minimum length of panel bracing of one face of wall for S-W sheathing or both faces of wall for G-P
sheathing; h/w ratio shall not exceed 2/1, except structures in Seismic Design Category B need only meet the
requirements of Sec. 602.9 of the CABO Code. For S-W panel bracing of the same material on two faces of the
wall, the minimum length is permitted to be one half the tabulated value but the h/w ratio shall not exceed 2/1 and
design for uplift is required.
b
G-P = gypsumboard, fiberboard, particleboard, lath and plaster, or gypsum sheathing boards; S-W =
structural-use panels and diagonal wood sheathing. NP = not permitted.
c
Applies to one- and two-family detached dwellings only.
d
Nailing shall be as follows:
For ½ in. (13 mm) gypsum board, 5d ( 0.086 in., 2.2 mm diameter) coolers at 7 in. (178 mm) centers;
For e in. (16mm) gypsum board, 6d ( 0.092 in. ( 2.3 mm) diameter) at 7 in (178 mm) centers;
For gypsum sheathing board, 1¾ in. long by 7/16 in. (44 by 11 mm) head, diamond point galvanized at 4 in.
(100mm) centers;
For gypsum lath, No. 13 gauge (0.092 in., 2.3 mm) by 1c in. long, 19/64 in. (29 by 7.5 mm) head, plasterboard
at 5 in. (125 mm) centers;
For Portland cement plaster, No. 11 gauge (0.120 in., 3 mm) by 1½ in. long, 7/16 in. head (89 by 11 mm) at 6 in.
(150 mm) centers;
For fiberboard and particleboard, No. 11 gauge (0.120 in., 3 mm) by 1½ in. (38 mm) long, 7/16 in. ( 11 mm)
head, galvanized at 3 in. (76 mm) centers.
For structural wood sheathing, the minimum nail size and maximum spacing shall be in accordance with the
minimum nails size and maximum spacing allowed for each thickness sheathing in Tables 12.4.3-2a and b.
Nailing as specified above shall occur at all panel edges at studs, at top and bottom plates, and, where
occurring, at blocking.
e
Where SDS > 1.0, conventional construction is not permitted.
239
Chapter 13
SEISMICALLY ISOLATED STRUCTURES DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
13.1 GENERAL: Every seismically isolated structure and every portion thereof shall be
designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this section and the applicable
requirements of Chapter 1. The lateral-force-resisting system and the isolation system shall be
designed to resist the deformations and stresses produced by the effects of seismic ground
motions as provided in this section.
13.2 CRITERIA SELECTION:
13.2.1 Basis for Design: The procedures and limitations for the design of seismically isolated
structures shall be determined considering zoning, site characteristics, vertical acceleration,
cracked section properties of concrete and masonry members, Seismic Use Group, configuration,
structural system, and height in accordance with Sec. 5.2 except as noted below.
13.2.2 Stability of the Isolation System: The stability of the vertical load-carrying elements of
the isolation system shall be verified by analysis and test, as required, for lateral seismic
displacement equal to the total maximum displacement.
13.2.3 Seismic Use Group: All portions of the structure, including the structure above the
isolation system, shall be assigned a Seismic Use Group in accordance with the requirements of
Sec. 1.3. The Occupancy Importance Factor shall be taken as 1.0 for a seismically isolated
structure, regardless of its Seismic Use Group categorization. The Component Importance Factor
shall be selected in accordance with Sec. 6.1.5.
13.2.4 Configuration Requirements: Each structure shall be designated as being regular or
irregular on the basis of the structural configuration above the isolation system in accordance
with the requirements of Sec. 5.2.
13.2.5 Selection of Lateral Response Procedure:
13.2.5.1 General: Any seismically isolated structure is permitted to be and certain seismically
isolated structures defined below shall be designed using the dynamic lateral response procedure
of Sec. 13.4.
13.2.5.2 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure: The equivalent-lateral-response procedure of
Sec. 13.3 is permitted to be used for design of a seismically isolated structure provided that:
1. The structure is located at a site with S1 less than or equal to 0.60 ;
2. The structure is located on a Class A, B, C, or D site;
3. The structure above the isolation interface is not more than four stories or 65 ft (20 m) in
height;
4. The effective period of the isolated structure, TM, is less than or equal to 3.0 sec.
241
2000 Provisions Chapter 13
5. The effective period of the isolated structure, TD, is greater than three times the elastic, fixedbase period of the structure above the isolation system as determined by Eq. 5.4.2.1-1 or
5.4.2.1-2;
6. The structure above the isolation system is of regular configuration; and
7. The isolation system meets all of the following criteria:
a. The effective stiffness of the isolation system at the design displacement is greater than
one third of the effective stiffness at 20 percent of the design displacement,
b. The isolation system is capable of producing a restoring force as specified in Sec.
13.6.2.4,
c. The isolation system has force-deflection properties that are independent of the rate of
loading,
d. The isolation system has force-deflection properties that are independent of vertical load
and bilateral load, and
e. The isolation system does not limit maximum capable earthquake displacement to less
than SM1/SD1 times the total design displacement.
13.2.5.3 Dynamic Analysis: A dynamic analysis is permitted to be used for the design of any
structure but shall be used for the design of all isolated structures not satisfying Sec. 13.2.5.2.
The dynamic lateral response procedure of Sec. 13.4 shall be used for design of seismically
isolated structures as specified below.
13.2.5.3.1 Response-Spectrum Analysis: Response-spectrum analysis is permitted to be used
for design of a seismically isolated structure provided that:
1. The structure is located on a Class A, B, C, or D site and
2. The isolation system meets the criteria of Item 7 of Sec. 13.2.5.2.
13.2.5.3.2 Time-History Analysis: Time-history analysis is permitted to be used for design of
any seismically isolated structure and shall be used for design of all seismically isolated
structures not meeting the criteria of Sec. 13.2.5.3.1.
13.2.5.3.3 Site-Specific Design Spectra: Site-specific ground-motion spectra of the design
earthquake and the maximum considered earthquake developed in accordance with Sec. 13.4.4.1
shall be used for design and analysis of all seismically isolated structures if any one of the
following conditions apply:
1. The structure is located on a Class F site or
2. The structure is located at a site with S1 greater than 0.60 .
242
Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
13.3 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE:
13.3.1 General: Except as provided in Sec. 13.4, every seismically isolated structure or portion
thereof shall be designed and constructed to resist minimum earthquake displacements and forces
as specified by this section and the applicable requirements of Sec. 5.4.
13.3.2 Deformation Characteristics of the Isolation System: Minimum lateral earthquake
design displacement and forces on seismically isolated structures shall be based on the
deformation characteristics of the isolation system. The deformation characteristics of the
isolation system shall explicitly include the effects of the wind-restraint system if such a system
is used to meet the design requirements of these Provisions. The deformation characteristics of
the isolation system shall be based on properly substantiated tests performed in accordance with
Sec. 13.9.
13.3.3 Minimum Lateral Displacements:
13.3.3.1 Design Displacement: The isolation system shall be designed and constructed to
withstand minimum lateral earthquake displacements that act in the direction of each of the main
horizontal axes of the structure in accordance with the following:
DD '
g
SD1 T D
4B2
BD
(13.3.3.1)
where:
g
=
acceleration of gravity. The units of the acceleration of gravity, g, are in./sec2
(mm/sec2) if the units of the design displacement, DD, are inches (mm);
SD1 =
design 5 percent damped spectral acceleration at 1 sec period as determined in Sec.
4.1.1;
TD =
effective period, in seconds (sec), of seismically isolated structure at the design
displacement in the direction under consideration, as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.2; and
BD =
numerical coefficient related to the effective damping of the isolation system at the
design displacement, $D, as set forth in Table 13.3.3.1.
TABLE 13.3.3.1 Damping Coefficient, BD or BM
Effective Damping, $D or $M
(Percentage of Critical)a,b
# 2%
5%
10%
20%
30%
40%
$ 50%
243
BD or BM
Factor
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.0
2000 Provisions Chapter 13
NOTES for Table 13.3.3.1
a
The damping coefficient shall be based on the effective damping of the
isolation system determined in accordance with the requirements of Sec.
13.9.5.2.
b
The damping coefficient shall be based on linear interpolation for effective
damping values other than those given.
13.3.3.2 Effective Period: The effective period of the isolated structure, TD, shall be determined
using the deformational characteristics of the isolation system in accordance with the following
equation:
TD ' 2 B
W
kDmin g
(13.3.3.2)
where:
W
=
total seismic dead load weight of the structure above the isolation interface as
defined in Sec. 5.4.1 and 5.5.3 (kip or kN);
kDmin
=
minimum effective stiffness, in kips/inch (kN/mm), of the isolation system at the
design displacement in the horizontal direction under consideration as
prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.1-2; and
g
=
acceleration of gravity. The units of the acceleration of gravity, g, are in./sec2
(mm/sec2) if the units of the design displacement, DD, are inches (mm).
13.3.3.3 Maximum Displacement: The maximum displacement of the isolation system, DM, in
the most critical direction of horizontal response shall be calculated in accordance with the
formula:
g
DM '
SM 1 TM
4B2
(13.3.3.3)
B
where:
g
=
acceleration of gravity. The units of the acceleration of gravity, g, are in./sec2
(mm/sec2) if the units of the design displacement, DD, are inches (mm);
SM1
=
maximum considered 5 percent damped spectral acceleration at 1 sec period as
determined in Sec. 4.1.1;
244
Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
TM
=
effective period, in seconds (sec), of seismic-isolated structure at the maximum
displacement in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.4;
and
BM
=
numerical coefficient related to the effective damping of the isolation system at
the maximum displacement, $D, as set forth in Table 13.3.3.1.
13.3.3.4 Effective Period at Maximum Displacement: The effective period of the isolated
structure at maximum displacement, TM, shall be determined using the deformational
characteristics of the isolation system in accordance with the equation:
TM ' 2B
W
(13.3.3.4)
kMming
where:
W
=
total seismic dead load weight of the structure above the isolation interface as
defined in Sec. 5.3.2 and 5.5.3 (kip or kN);
kMmin
=
minimum effective stiffness, in kips/inch (kN/mm), of the isolation system at the
maximum displacement in the horizontal direction under consideration as
prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.1-4; and
g
=
the acceleration due to gravity. The units of the acceleration of gravity, g, are
in./sec2 (mm/sec2) if the units of the design displacement, DD, are inches (mm).
13.3.3.5 Total Displacement: The total design displacement, DTD, and the total maximum
displacement, DTM, of elements of the isolation system shall include additional displacement due
to actual and accidental torsion calculated considering the spatial distribution of the lateral
stiffness of the isolation system and the most disadvantageous location of mass eccentricity.
The total design displacement, DTD, and the total maximum displacement, DTM, of elements of an
isolation system with uniform spatial distribution of lateral stiffness shall not be taken as less
than that prescribed by the following equations:
DTD ' DD 1 % y
DTM ' DM 1 % y
12e
(13.3.3.5-1)
b % d2
2
12e
(13.3.3.5-2)
b % d2
2
where:
DD =
design displacement, in inches (mm), at the center of rigidity of the isolation system
in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.1;
245
2000 Provisions Chapter 13
DM =
maximum displacement, in inches (mm), at the center of rigidity of the isolation
system in the direction under consideration as prescribed in Eq. 13.3.3.3;
y
=
the distance, in feet (mm), between the center of rigidity of the isolation system
rigidity and the element of interest measured perpendicular to the direction of
seismic loading under consideration;
e
=
the actual eccentricity, in feet (mm), measured in plan between the center of mass of
the structure above the isolation interface and the center of rigidity of the isolation
system, plus accidental eccentricity, in feet (mm), taken as 5 percent of the longest
plan dimension of the structure perpendicular to the direction of force under
consideration,
b
=
the shortest plan dimension of the structure, in feet (mm), measured perpendicular to
d, and
d
=
the longest plan dimension of the structure, in feet (mm).
The total design displacement, DTD, and the total maximum displacement, DTM, is permitted to be
taken as less than the value prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.5-1 and Eq. 13.3.3.5-2, respectively, but not
less than 1.1 times DD and DM, respectively, provided the isolation system is shown by
calculation to be configured to resist torsion accordingly.
13.3.4 Minimum Lateral Forces:
13.3.4.1 Isolation System and Structural Elements At or Below the Isolation System: The
isolation system, the foundation, and all structural elements below the isolation system shall be
designed and constructed to withstand a minimum lateral seismic force, Vb, using all of the
appropriate provisions for a nonisolated structure where:
Vb ' kDmax DD
(13.3.4.1)
where:
kDmax
=
maximum effective stiffness, in kips/inch (kN/mm), of the isolation system at
the design displacement in the horizontal direction under consideration as
prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.1-1, and
DD
=
design displacement, in inches (mm), at the center of rigidity of the isolation
system in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.1.
In all cases, Vb shall not be taken as less than the maximum force in the isolation system at any
displacement up to and including the design displacement.
246
Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
13.3.4.2 Structural Elements Above the Isolation System: The structure above the isolation
system shall be designed and constructed to withstand a minimum shear force, Vs, using all of the
appropriate provisions for a nonisolated structure where:
Vs '
kDmax DD
(13.3.4.2)
RI
where:
kDmax
=
maximum effective stiffness, in kips/inch (kN/mm), of the isolation system at
the design displacement in the horizontal direction under consideration as
prescribed by Eq. 13.9.5.1-1;
DD
=
design displacement, in inches (mm), at the center of rigidity of the isolation
system in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.1; and
RI
=
numerical coefficient related to the type of lateral-force-resisting system above
the isolation system.
The RI factor shall be based on the type of lateral-force-resisting system used for the structure
above the isolation system and shall be 3/8 of the R value given in Table 5.2.2 with an upper
bound value not to exceed 2.0 and a lower bound value not to be less than 1.0.
13.3.4.3 Limits on Vs: The value of Vs shall be taken as not less than the following:
1. The lateral seismic force required by Sec. 5.3 for a fixed-base structure of the same weight,
W, and a period equal to the isolated period, TD;
2. The base shear corresponding to the factored design wind load; and
3. The lateral seismic force required to fully activate the isolation system (e.g., the yield level of
a softening system, the ultimate capacity of a sacrificial wind-restraint system, or the breakaway friction level of a sliding system) factored by 1.5.
13.3.5 Vertical Distribution of Force: The total force shall be distributed over the height of
the structure above the isolation interface in accordance with the following equation:
Fx '
Vs w x hx
j w i hi
n
(13.3.5)
i'1
where:
Vs
=
total lateral seismic design force or shear on elements above the isolation system
as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.4.2;
Wx
=
portion of W that is located at or assigned to Level x;.
247
2000 Provisions Chapter 13
hx
=
height above the base Level x;
wi
=
portion of W that is located at or assigned to Level I , respectively; and
hi
=
height above the base Level I .
At each level designated as x, the force, Fx, shall be applied over the area of the structure in
accordance with the mass distribution at the level. Stresses in each structural element shall be
calculated as the effect of force, Fx, applied at the appropriate levels above the base.
13.3.6 Drift Limits: The maximum interstory drift of the structure above the isolation system
shall not exceed 0.015hsx. The drift shall be calculated by Eq. 5.4.6-1 with the Cd factor of the
isolated structure equal to the RI factor defined in Sec. 13.3.4.2.
13.4 DYNAMIC LATERAL RESPONSE PROCEDURE:
13.4.1 General: As required by Sec. 13.2, every seismically isolated structure or portion
thereof shall be designed and constructed to resist earthquake displacements and forces as
specified in this section and the applicable requirements of Sec. 5.5.
13.4.2 Isolation System and Structural Elements Below the Isolation System: The total
design displacement of the isolation system shall be taken as not less than 90 percent of DTD as
specified by Sec. 13.3.3.5.
The total maximum displacement of the isolation system shall be taken as not less than 80
percent of DTM as specified by Sec. 13.3.3.5 .
The design lateral shear force on the isolation system and structural elements below the isolation
system shall be taken as not less than 90 percent of Vb as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.4.1.
The limits of the first and second paragraphs of Sec. 13.4.2 shall be evaluated using values of
)
DTD and DTM determined in accordance with Sec. 13.3.3 except that DD is permitted to be used in
)
)
lieu of DD and DM is permitted to be used in lieu of DM where DD and D!M are prescribed by the
following equations:
)
DD '
DD
1 %
)
DM '
T
TD
2
(13.4.2-1)
T
TM
2
(13.4.2-2)
DM
1 %
248
Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
where:
DD =
design displacement, in inches (mm), at the center of rigidity of the isolation system
in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.1;
DM =
maximum displacement in inches (mm), at the center of rigidity of the isolation
system in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.3;
T
elastic, fixed-base period of the structure above the isolation system as determined
by Sec. 5.3.3;
=
TD =
effective period, in seconds (sec), of the seismically isolated structure at the design
displacement in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.3.2; and
TM =
effective period, in seconds (sec), of the seismically isolated structure at the
maximum displacement in the direction under consideration as prescribed by Eq.
13.3.3.4.
13.4.3 Structural Elements Above the Isolation System: The design lateral shear force on the
structure above the isolation system, if regular in configuration, shall be taken as not less than 80
percent of Vs, as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.4.2 and the limits specified by Sec. 13.3.4.3.
Exception: The design lateral shear force on the structure above the isolation system, if
regular in configuration, is permitted to be taken as less than 80 percent, but not less than
60 percent of Vs, provided time-history analysis is used for design of the structure.
The design lateral shear force on the structure above the isolation system, if irregular in
configuration, shall be taken as not less than Vs, as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.4.2 and the limits
specified by Sec. 13.3.4.3.
Exception: The design lateral shear force on the structure above the isolation system, if
irregular in configuration, is permitted to be taken as less than 100 percent, but not less
than 80 percent of Vs, provided time-history analysis is used for design of the structure.
13.4.4 Ground Motion:
13.4.4.1 Design Spectra: Properly substantiated site-specific spectra are required for the design
of all structures located on a Class F site or located at a site with S1 greater than 0.60 . Structures
that do not require site-specific spectra and for which site specific spectra have not been
calculated shall be designed using the response spectrum shape given in Figure 4.1.2.6.
A design spectrum shall be constructed for the design earthquake. This design spectrum shall be
taken as not less than the design earthquake response spectrum given in Figure 4.1.2.6.
Exception: If a site-specific spectrum is calculated for the design earthquake, the design
spectrum is permitted to be taken as less than 100 percent but not less than 80 percent of the
design earthquake response spectrum given in Figure 4.1.2.6.
A design spectrum shall be constructed for the maximum considered earthquake. This design
spectrum shall be taken as not less than 1.5 times the design earthquake response spectrum given
in Figure 4.1.2.6. This design spectrum shall be used to determine the total maximum
displacement and overturning forces for design and testing of the isolation system.
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Exception: If a site-specific spectrum is calculated for the maximum considered
earthquake, the design spectrum is permitted to be taken as less than 100 percent but not
less than 80 percent of 1.5 times the design earthquake response spectrum given in
Figure 4.1.2.6.
13.4.4.2 Time Histories: Pairs of appropriate horizontal ground motion time history
components shall be selected and scaled from not less than three recorded events. Appropriate
time histories shall be based on recorded events with magnitudes, fault distances and source
mechanisms that are consistent with those that control the design earthquake (or maximum
considered earthquake). Where three appropriate recorded ground motion time history pairs are
not available, appropriate simulated ground motion time history pairs are permitted to be used to
make up the total number required. For each pair of horizontal ground-motion components, the
square root sum of the squares of the 5 percent damped spectrum of the scaled, horizontal
components shall be constructed. The motions shall be scaled such that the average value of the
square-root-sum-of-the-squares spectra does not fall below 1.3 times the 5 percent damped
spectrum of the design earthquake (or maximum considered earthquake) by more than 10 percent
for periods from 0.5TD seconds to 1.25TM seconds.
13.4.5 Mathematical Model:
13.4.5.1 General: The mathematical models of the isolated structure including the isolation
system, the lateral-force-resisting system, and other structural elements shall conform to Sec.
5.5.2 and to the requirements of Sec. 13.4.5.2 and 13.4.5.3, below.
13.4.5.2 Isolation System: The isolation system shall be modeled using deformational
characteristics developed and verified by test in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 13.3.2.
The isolation system shall be modeled with sufficient detail to:
1. Account for the spatial distribution of isolator units;
2. Calculate translation, in both horizontal directions, and torsion of the structure above the
isolation interface considering the most disadvantageous location of mass eccentricity;
3.
Assess overturning/uplift forces on individual isolator units; and
4. Account for the effects of vertical load, bilateral load, and/or the rate of loading if the force
deflection properties of the isolation system are dependent on one or more of these attributes.
13.4.5.3 Isolated Building:
13.4.5.3.1 Displacement: The maximum displacement of each floor and the total design
displacement and total maximum displacement across the isolation system shall be calculated
using a model of the isolated structure that incorporates the force-deflection characteristics of
nonlinear elements of the isolation system and the lateral-force-resisting system.
Lateral-force-resisting systems with nonlinear elements include, but are not limited to, irregular
structural systems designed for a lateral force less than 100 percent and regular structural systems
designed for a lateral force less than 80 percent of Vs as prescribed by Eq. 13.3.4.2 and the limits
specified by Sec. 13.3.4.3.
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13.4.5.3.2 Forces and Displacements in Elements of the Lateral-Force-Resisting System:
Design forces and displacements in elements of the lateral-force-resisting system are permitted
to be calculated using a linear elastic model of the isolated structure provided that:
1. Stiffness properties assumed for nonlinear isolation-system components are based on the
maximum effective stiffness of the isolation system and
2. No elements of the lateral-force-resisting system of the structure above the isolation system
are nonlinear.
13.4.6 Description of Analysis Procedures:
13.4.6.1 General: Response-spectrum and time-history analyses shall be performed in
accordance with Sec. 5.4 and the requirements of this section.
13.4.6.2 Input Earthquake: The design earthquake shall be used to calculate the total design
displacement of the isolation system and the lateral forces and displacements of the isolated
structure. The maximum considered earthquake shall be used to calculate the total maximum
displacement of the isolation system.
13.4.6.3 Response-Spectrum Analysis: Response-spectrum analysis shall be performed using
a modal damping value for the fundamental mode in the direction of interest not greater than the
effective damping of the isolation system or 30 percent of critical, whichever is less. Modal
damping values for higher modes shall be selected consistent with those appropriate for response
spectrum analysis of the structure above the isolation system with a fixed base.
Response-spectrum analysis used to determine the total design displacement and the total
maximum displacement shall include simultaneous excitation of the model by 100 percent of the
most critical direction of ground motion and 30 percent of the ground motion on the orthogonal
axis. The maximum displacement of the isolation system shall be calculated as the vectorial sum
of the two orthogonal displacements.
The design shear at any story shall not be less than the story shear obtained using Eq. 13.3.5 and
a value of Vs taken as that equal to the base shear obtained from the response-spectrum analysis
in the direction of interest.
13.4.6.4 Time-History Analysis: Time-history analysis shall be performed with at least three
appropriate pairs of horizontal time-history components as defined in Sec. 13.4.4.2.
Each pair of time histories shall be applied simultaneously to the model considering the most
disadvantageous location of mass eccentricity. The maximum displacement of the isolation
system shall be calculated from the vectorial sum of the two orthogonal components at each time
step.
The parameter of interest shall be calculated for each time-history analysis. If three time-history
analyses are performed, the maximum response of the parameter of interest shall be used for
design. If seven or more time-history analyses are performed, the average value of the response
parameter of interest shall be used for design.
13.4.7 Design Lateral Force:
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13.4.7.1 Isolation System and Structural Elements At or Below the Isolation System: The
isolation system, foundation, and all structural elements below the isolation system shall be
designed using all of the appropriate requirements for a nonisolated structure and the forces
obtained from the dynamic analysis without reduction.
13.4.7.2 Structural Elements Above the Isolation System: Structural elements above the
isolation system shall be designed using the appropriate provisions for a nonisolated structure
and the forces obtained from the dynamic analysis divided by a factor of RI. The RI factor shall be
based on the type of lateral-force-resisting system used for the structure above the isolation
system.
13.4.7.3 Scaling of Results: When the factored lateral shear force on structural elements,
determined using either response spectrum or time-history analysis, is less than the minimum
level prescribed by Sec. 13.4.2 and 13.4.3, all response parameters, including member forces and
moments, shall be adjusted proportionally upward.
13.4.7.4 Drift Limits: Maximum interstory drift corresponding to the design lateral force
including displacement due to vertical deformation of the isolation system shall not exceed the
following limits:
1. The maximum interstory drift of the structure above the isolation system calculated by
response spectrum analysis shall not exceed 0.015hsx and
2. The maximum interstory drift of the structure above the isolation system calculated by timehistory analysis considering the force-deflection characteristics of nonlinear elements of the
lateral-force-resisting system shall not exceed 0.020hsx.
Drift shall be calculated using Eq. 5.3.8.1 with the Cd factor of the isolated structure equal to the
RI factor defined in Sec. 13.3.4.2.
The secondary effects of the maximum considered earthquake lateral displacement ) of the
structure above the isolation system combined with gravity forces shall be investigated if the
inter story drift ratio exceeds 0.010/RI.
13.5 LATERAL LOAD ON ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURES AND NONSTRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS SUPPORTED BY BUILDINGS:
13.5.1 General: Parts or portions of an isolated structure, permanent nonstructural components
and the attachments to them, and the attachments for permanent equipment supported by a
structure shall be designed to resist seismic forces and displacements as prescribed by this
section and the applicable requirements of Chapter 6.
13.5.2 Forces and Displacements:
13.5.2.1 Components At or Above the Isolation Interface: Elements of seismically isolated
structures and nonstructural components, or portions thereof, that are at or above the isolation
interface shall be designed to resist a total lateral seismic force equal to the maximum dynamic
response of the element or component under consideration.
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Exception: Elements of seismically isolated structures and nonstructural components or
portions thereof are permitted to be designed to resist total lateral seismic force as
prescribed in Sec. 5.2.6 and 6.1.3 as appropriate.
13.5.2.2 Components Crossing the Isolation Interface: Elements of seismically isolated
structures and nonstructural components, or portions thereof, that cross the isolation interface
shall be designed to withstand the total maximum displacement.
13.5.2.3 Components Below the Isolation Interface: Elements of seismically isolated
structures and nonstructural components, or portions thereof, that are below the isolation
interface shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 5.2.
13.6 DETAILED SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:
13.6.1 General: The isolation system and the structural system shall comply with the material
requirements of these Provisions. In addition, the isolation system shall comply with the detailed
system requirements of this section and the structural system shall comply with the detailed
system requirements of this section and the applicable portions of Sec. 5.2.
13.6.2 Isolation System:
13.6.2.1 Environmental Conditions: In addition to the requirements for vertical and lateral
loads induced by wind and earthquake, the isolation system shall be designed with consideration
given to other environmental conditions including aging effects, creep, fatigue, operating
temperature, and exposure to moisture or damaging substances.
13.6.2.2 Wind Forces: Isolated structures shall resist design wind loads at all levels above the
isolation interface. At the isolation interface, a wind restraint system shall be provided to limit
lateral displacement in the isolation system to a value equal to that required between floors of the
structure above the isolation interface.
13.6.2.3 Fire Resistance: Fire resistance rating for the isolation system shall be consistent with
the requirements of columns, walls, or other such elements in the same area of the structure.
13.6.2.4 Lateral-Restoring Force: The isolation system shall be configured to produce a
restoring force such that the lateral force at the total design displacement is at least 0.025W
greater than the lateral force at 50 percent of the total design displacement.
Exception: The isolation system need not be configured to produce a restoring force, as
required above, provided the isolation system is capable of remaining stable under full
vertical load and accommodating a total maximum displacement equal to the greater of
either 3.0 times the total design displacement or 36SM1 in. (or 915 SM1 mm).
13.6.2.5 Displacement Restraint: The isolation system is permitted to be configured to include
a displacement restraint that limits lateral displacement due to the maximum considered
earthquake to less than SM1/SD1 times the total design displacement provided that the seismically
isolated structure is designed in accordance with the following criteria when more stringent than
the requirements of Sec. 13.2:
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1. Maximum considered earthquake response is calculated in accordance with the dynamic
analysis requirements of Sec. 13.4 explicitly considering the nonlinear characteristics of the
isolation system and the structure above the isolation system.
2. The ultimate capacity of the isolation system and structural elements below the isolation
system shall exceed the strength and displacement demands of the maximum considered
earthquake.
3. The structure above the isolation system is checked for stability and ductility demand of the
maximum considered earthquake, and
4. The displacement restraint does not become effective at a displacement less than 0.75 times
the total design displacement unless it is demonstrated by analysis that earlier engagement
does not result in unsatisfactory performance.
13.6.2.6 Vertical-Load Stability: Each element of the isolation system shall be designed to be
stable under the maximum vertical load (1.2D + 1.0L + *E*) and the minimum vertical load
(0.8D - *E*) at a horizontal displacement equal to the total maximum displacement. The dead
load, D, and the live load, L, are specified in Sec. 5.2.7. The seismic load, E, is given by Eq.
5.2.7-1 and 5.2.7-2 where SDS in these equations is replaced by SMS and the vertical load due to
earthquake, QE, shall be based on peak response due to the maximum considered earthquake.
13.6.2.7 Overturning: The factor of safety against global structural overturning at the isolation
interface shall not be less than 1.0 for required load combinations. All gravity and seismic
loading conditions shall be investigated. Seismic forces for overturning calculations shall be
based on the maximum considered earthquake and W shall be used for the vertical restoring
force.
Local uplift of individual elements is permitted provided the resulting deflections do not cause
overstress or instability of the isolator units or other structure elements.
13.6.2.8 Inspection and Replacement:
1. Access for inspection and replacement of all components of the isolation system shall be
provided.
2. A registered design professional shall complete a final series of inspections or observations
of structure separation areas and components that cross the isolation interface prior to the
issuance of the certificate of occupancy for the seismically isolated structure. Such
inspections and observations shall indicate that the conditions allow free and unhindered
displacement of the structure to maximum design levels and that all components that cross
the isolation interface as installed are able to accommodate the stipulated displacements.
3. Seismically isolated structures shall have a periodic monitoring, inspection and maintenance
program for the isolation system established by the registered design professional
responsible for the design of the system.
4. Remodeling, repair or retrofitting at the isolation system interface, including that of
components that cross the isolation interface, shall be performed under the direction of a
registered design professional.
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
13.6.2.9 Quality Control: A quality control testing program for isolator units shall be
established by the registered design professional responsible for the structural design in
accordance with Sec. 3.2.1.
13.6.3 Structural System:
13.6.3.1 Horizontal Distribution of Force: A horizontal diaphragm or other structural
elements shall provide continuity above the isolation interface and shall have adequate strength
and ductility to transmit forces (due to nonuniform ground motion) from one part of the structure
to another.
13.6.3.2 Building Separations: Minimum separations between the isolated structure and
surrounding retaining walls or other fixed obstructions shall not be less than the total maximum
displacement.
13.6.3.3 Nonbuilding Structures: These shall be designed and constructed in accordance with
the requirements of Chapter 14 using design displacements and forces calculated in accordance
with Sec. 13.3 or 13.4.
13.7 FOUNDATIONS: Foundations shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the
requirements of Chapter 7 using design forces calculated in accordance with Sec. 13.3 or 13.4, as
appropriate.
13.8 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REVIEW:
13.8.1 General: A design review of the isolation system and related test programs shall be
performed by an independent team of registered design professionals in the appropriate
disciplines and others experienced in seismic analysis methods and the theory and application of
seismic isolation.
13.8.2 Isolation System: Isolation system design review shall include, but not be limited to, the
following:
1. Review of site-specific seismic criteria including the development of site-specific spectra
and ground motion time histories and all other design criteria developed specifically for the
project;
2. Review of the preliminary design including the determination of the total design
displacement of the isolation system design displacement and the lateral force design level;
3. Overview and observation of prototype testing (Sec. 13.9);
4. Review of the final design of the entire structural system and all supporting analyses; and
5. Review of the isolation system quality control testing program (Sec. 13.6.2.9).
13.9 REQUIRED TESTS OF THE ISOLATION SYSTEM:
13.9.1 General: The deformation characteristics and damping values of the isolation system
used in the design and analysis of seismically isolated structures shall be based on tests of a
selected sample of the components prior to construction as described in this section.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
The isolation system components to be tested shall include the wind-restraint system if such a
system is used in the design.
The tests specified in this section are for establishing and validating the design properties of the
isolation system and shall not be considered as satisfying the manufacturing quality control tests
of Sec. 13.6.2.9.
13.9.2 Prototype Tests:
13.9.2.1 General: Prototype tests shall be performed separately on two full-size specimens (or
sets of specimens, as appropriate) of each predominant type and size of isolator unit of the
isolation system. The test specimens shall include the wind restraint system as well as individual
isolator units if such systems are used in the design. Specimens tested shall not be used for
construction unless accepted by the registered design professional.
13.9.2.2 Record: For each cycle of tests, the force-deflection behavior of the test specimen shall
be recorded.
13.9.2.3 Sequence and Cycles: The following sequence of tests shall be performed for the
prescribed number of cycles at a vertical load equal to the average dead load plus one-half the
effects due to live load on all isolator units of a common type and size:
1. Twenty fully reversed cycles of loading at a lateral force corresponding to the wind design
force;
2. Three fully reversed cycles of loading at each of the following increments of the total design
displacement -- 0.25DD, 0.5DD, 1.0DD, and 1.0DM;
3. Three fully reversed cycles of loading at the total maximum displacement, 1.0DTM; and
4. 30SD1BD/SDS, but not less than ten, fully reversed cycles of loading at 1 total design
displacement, 1.0DTD.
If an isolator unit is also a vertical-load-carrying element, then Item 2 of the sequence of cyclic
tests specified above shall be performed for two additional vertical load cases: 1.1.2D + 0.5L +
|E| and 2.0.8D - |E| where dead load, D, and live load, L, are specified in Sec. 5.2.7. The seismic
load, E, is given by Eq. 5.2.7-1 and 5.2.7-2 and the load increment due to earthquake overturning,
QE, shall be equal to or greater than the peak earthquake vertical force response corresponding to
the test displacement being evaluated. In these tests, the combined vertical load shall be taken as
the typical or average downward force on all isolator units of a common type and size.
13.9.2.4 Units Dependent on Loading Rates: If the force-deflection properties of the isolator
units are dependent on the rate of loading, then each set of tests specified in Sec. 13.9.2.3 shall be
performed dynamically at a frequency equal to the inverse of the effective period, TD.
If reduced-scale prototype specimens are used to quantify rate-dependent properties of isolators,
the reduced-scale prototype specimens shall be of the same type and material and be
manufactured with the same processes and quality as full-scale prototypes and shall be tested at a
frequency that represents full-scale prototype loading rates.
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
The force-deflection properties of an isolator unit shall be considered to be dependent on the rate
of loading if there is greater than a plus or minus 15 percent difference in the effective stiffness
and the effective damping at the design displacement when tested at a frequency equal to the
inverse of the effective period, TD, of the isolated structure and when tested at any frequency in
the range of 0.1 to 2.0 times the inverse of the effective period, TD, of the isolated structure.
13.9.2.5 Units Dependent on Bilateral Load: If the force-deflection properties of the isolator
units are dependent on bilateral load, the tests specified in Sec. 13.9.2.3 and 13.9.2.4 shall be
augmented to include bilateral load at the following increments of the total design displacement:
0.25 and 1.0, 0.50 and 1.0, 0.75 and 1.0, and 1.0 and 1.0.
Exception: If reduced-scale prototype specimens are used to quantify bilateral-loaddependent properties, then such specimens shall be of the same type and material and
manufactured with the same processes and quality as full-scale prototypes.
The force-deflection properties of an isolator unit shall be considered to be dependent on
bilateral load if the bilateral and unilateral force-deflection properties have greater than a plus or
minus 15 percent difference in effective stiffness at the design displacement.
13.9.2.6 Maximum and Minimum Vertical Load: Isolator units that carry vertical load shall
be statically tested for the maximum and minimum vertical load at the total maximum
displacement. In these tests, the combined vertical load, 1.2D + 1.0L + |E|, shall be taken as the
maximum vertical force, and the combined vertical load, 0.8D - |E|, shall be taken as the
minimum vertical force, on any one isolator of a common type and size. The dead load, D, and
live load, L, are specified in Sec. 5.2.7. The seismic load, E, is given by Eq. 5.2.7-1 and 5.2.7-2,
where SDS in these equations is replaced by SMS, and the load increment due to earthquake
overturning, QE, shall be equal to or greater than the peak earthquake vertical force response
corresponding to the maximum considered earthquake.
13.9.2.7 Sacrificial-Wind-Restraint Systems: If a sacrificial-wind-restraint system is to be
utilized, the ultimate capacity shall be established by test.
13.9.2.8 Testing Similar Units: The prototype tests are not required if an isolator unit is of
similar dimensional characteristics and of the same type and material as a prototype isolator unit
that has been previously tested using the specified sequence of tests.
13.9.3 Determination of Force-Deflection Characteristics: The force-deflection
characteristics of the isolation system shall be based on the cyclic load tests of isolator prototypes
specified in Sec. 13.9.2.
As required, the effective stiffness of an isolator unit, keff, shall be calculated for each cycle of
keff '
*F %* % *F &*
(13.9.3-1)
*)%* % *)&*
loading by the equation:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
where F+ and F- are the positive and negative forces at )+ and )-, respectively.
As required, the effective damping, $eff, of an isolator unit shall be calculated for each cycle of
loading by the equation:
$eff '
Eloop
2
B k *)%* % *)&*
eff
(13.9.3-2)
2
where the energy dissipated per cycle of loading, Eloop, and the effective stiffness, keff, shall be
based on peak test displacements of )+ and )-.
13.9.4 Test Specimen Adequacy: The performance of the test specimens shall be assessed as
adequate if the following conditions are satisfied:
1. The force-deflection plots of all tests specified in Sec. 13.9.2 have a positive incremental
force carrying capacity.
1.1. For each increment of test displacement specified in Item 2 of Sec. 13.9.2.3 and for
each vertical load case specified in Sec. 13.9.2.3:
There is no greater than a plus or minus 15 percent difference between the effective
stiffness at each of the three cycles of test and the average value of effective stiffness
for each test specimen;
1.2. For each increment of test displacement specified in Item 2 of Sec. 13.9.2.3 and for
each vertical load case specified in Sec. 13.9.2.3;
There is no greater than a 15 percent difference in the average value of effective
stiffness of the two test specimens of a common type and size of the isolator unit over
the required three cycles of test;
2. For each specimen there is no greater than a plus or minus 20 percent change in the initial
effective stiffness of each test specimen over the 30SD1BD/SDS, but not less than 10, cycles of
test specified in Item 3 of Sec. 13.9.2.3;
3. For each specimen there is no greater than a 20 percent decrease in the initial effective
damping over for the 30SD1BD/SDS, but not less than 10, cycles of test specified in Item 3 of
Sec. 13.9.2.3; and
4. All specimens of vertical-load-carrying elements of the isolation system remain stable up to
the total maximum displacement for static load as prescribed in Sec. 13.9.2.6 .
13.9.5 Design Properties of the Isolation System:
13.9.5.1 Maximum and Minimum Effective Stiffness: At the design displacement, the
maximum and minimum effective stiffness of the isolated system, kDmax and kDmin, shall be based
on the cyclic tests of Item 2 of Sec. 13.9.2.3 and calculated by the equations:
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
' * FD *max % ' * FD *max
%
kDmax '
&
2 DD
' * FD *min % ' * FD *min
%
kDmin '
(13.9.5.1-1)
&
2 DD
(13.9.5.1-2)
At the maximum displacement, the maximum and minimum effective stiffness of the isolation
system, kMmax and kMmin, shall be based on the cyclic tests of Item 2 of Sec. 13.9.3 and calculated
by the equations:
' * FM*max % ' * FM *max
%
kMmax '
&
2 DM
' * FM*min % ' * FM *min
%
kMmin '
(13.9.5.1-3)
&
2 DM
(13.9.5.1-4)
The maximum effective stiffness of the isolation system, kDmax (or kMmax), shall be based on forces
from the cycle of prototype testing at a test displacement equal to DD (or DM) that produces the
largest value of effective stiffness. Minimum effective stiffness of the isolation system, kDmin (or
kMmin), shall be based on forces from the cycle of prototype testing at a test displacement equal to
DD (or DM) that produces the smallest value of effective stiffness.
For isolator units that are found by the tests of Sec. 13.9.3, 13.9.4 and 13.9.5 to have forcedeflection characteristics that vary with vertical load, rate of loading or bilateral load,
respectively, the values of kDmax and kMmax shall be increased and the values of kDmin and kMmin shall
be decreased, as necessary, to bound the effects of measured variation in effective stiffness.
13.9.5.2 Effective Damping: At the design displacement, the effective damping of the isolation
system, $D, shall be based on the cyclic tests of Item 2 of Sec. 13.9.3 and calculated by the
equation:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
$D '
' ED
1
2
2B k
Dmax DD
(13.9.5.2-1)
In Eq. 13.9.5.2-1, the total energy dissipated per cycle of design displacement response, GED,
shall be taken as the sum of the energy dissipated per cycle in all isolator units measured at a test
displacement equal to DD. The total energy dissipated per cycle of design displacement response,
GED, shall be based on forces and deflections from the cycle of prototype testing at test
displacement DD that produces the smallest value of effective damping.
At the maximum displacement, the effective damping of the isolation system, $M, shall be based
on the cyclic tests of Item 2 of Sec. 13.9.3 and calculated by the equation:
$M '
' EM
1
2
2B k
Mmax DM
(13.9.5.2-2)
In Eq. 13.9.5.2-2, the total energy dissipated per cycle of design displacement response, GEM,
shall be taken as the sum of the energy dissipated per cycle in all isolator units measured at a test
displacement equal to DM. The total energy dissipated per cycle of maximum displacement
response, GEM, shall be based on forces and deflections from the cycle of prototype testing at test
displacement DM that produces the smallest value of effective damping.
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Appendix to Chapter 13
STRUCTURES WITH DAMPING SYSTEMS
PREFACE: Appendix A13 is an entirely new addition to the 2000 Provisions and
contains design criteria, analysis methods, and testing recommendations that have
no or only limited history of use.
The appendix is intended for the trial use by design professionals, code groups, and
regulatory agencies. Design (peer) review is recommended for all structures with a
damping system and should be considered essential when this appendix is used as a
basis for regulating or approving the design of actual construction.
13A.1 GENERAL: Every structure with a damping system and every portion thereof shall be
designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this appendix and the applicable
requirements of Chapter 1.
Exception: Motion and accelerations of seismically isolated structures which contain
damping devices across the plane of isolation shall be determined in accordance with the
provisions of Chapter 13. Testing and strength requirements of damping devices and
other elements of the damping system shall be determined in accordance with the
applicable provisions of this Appendix.
13A.2 CRITERIA SELECTION:
13A.2.1 Basis for Design: The procedure and limitations for the design of structures with a
damping system shall be determined considering zoning, site characteristics, vertical acceleration,
cracked section properties of concrete and masonry members, Seismic Use Group, configuration,
structural system, and height in accordance with Sec. 5.2, except as noted below.
13A.2.2 Seismic Use Group: All portions of the structure shall be assigned a Seismic Use
Group in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 1.3.
13A.2.3 Seismic Design Category: Each structure shall be assigned to a Seismic Design
Category based on the Seismic Use Group and the design spectral response acceleration in
accordance with Sec. 4.2.
Exception: Seismic Design Category A structures with a damping system shall be
designed using the design spectral response acceleration determined in accordance with
Sec. 4.1.2.5 and the analysis methods and design provisions required for Seismic Design
Category B structures.
13A.2.4 Configuration Requirements: Structure design shall consider the combination of
forces that occur in the basic seismic-force-resisting system and the damping system, as defined
in the following sections.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
13A.2.4.1 Seismic-Force-Resisting System: Structures that contain a damping system are
required to have a basic seismic-force-resisting system that, in each lateral direction, shall
conform to one of the types indicated in Table 5.2.2.
The design of the seismic-force-resisting system in each direction shall comply with the
requirements of Sec.13A.7.1 and the following:
1. The materials, detailing, construction and inspection of the seismic-force-resisting system
shall meet all applicable requirements defined by the Seismic Design Category.
2. The lateral stiffness of the seismic-force-resisting system used to determine elastic periods
and displacements shall include the modeling requirements of Sec. 5.3.7 and 5.4.2.
3. The seismic base shear used for design of the seismic-force-resisting system shall not be less
than Vmin, where Vmin is determined as the greater of the following values:
V min =
V
BV +1
(13A.2.4.1-1)
Vmin = 0.75V
(13A.2.4.1-2)
where:
V
= total design shear at the base of the structure in the direction of interest, as
determined using the procedure of Sec. 5.4, including Sec.5.4.2 (kip or kN), and
BV+I
= numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 13A.3.1 for effective damping equal to
the sum of viscous damping in the fundamental mode of vibration of the structure
in the direction of interest, $Vm (m = 1), plus inherent damping, $I, and period of
structure equal to T1.
Exception: Seismic base shear used for design of the seismic-force-resisting system
shall not be taken as less than 1.0V, if either of the following conditions apply:
1. In the direction of interest, the damping system has less than two damping devices on
each floor level, configured to resist torsion.
2. The seismic-force-resisting system has a vertical irregularity of Type 1b (Table 5.2.3.3)
or a plan irregularity of Type 1b (Table 5.2.3.2).
4. Minimum strength requirements for elements of the seismic-force-resisting-system that are
also elements of the damping system or are otherwise required to resist forces from damping
devices shall meet the additional requirements of Sec. 13A.7.3.
13A.2.4.2 Damping System: Elements of the damping system shall be designed to remain
elastic for design loads including unreduced seismic forces of damping devices as required in
Sec. 13A.7.3, unless it is shown by analysis or test that inelastic response of elements would not
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
adversely affect damping system function and inelastic response is limited in accordance with the
requirements of Sec. 13A.7.3.4.
13A.2.5 Seismic Criteria:
13A.2.5.1 Design Spectra: Spectra of the design earthquake and the maximum considered
earthquake developed in accordance with Sec. 13.4.4.1 shall be used for the design and analysis
of all structures with a damping system. Site-specific design spectra shall be developed and used
for design of structures with a damping system if any one of the following conditions apply:
1. The structure is located on a Class F site or
2. The structure is located at a site with S1 greater than 0.60.
13A.2.5.2 Time Histories: Ground-motion time histories of the design earthquake and the
maximum considered earthquake developed in accordance with Sec. 13.4.4.2 shall be used for
design and analysis of all structures with a damping system if either of the following conditions
apply:
1. The structure is located at a site with S1 greater than 0.60.
2. The damping system is explicitly modeled and analyzed using the time history analysis
method.
13A.2.6 Selection of Analysis Procedure:
13A.2.6.1 General: A structural analysis shall be made for all structures with a damping system
in accordance with the requirements of this section. The structural analysis shall use linear
procedures, nonlinear procedures, or a combination of linear and nonlinear procedures as
described below.
The seismic-force-resisting system shall be designed using the procedures of either Sec.
13A.2.6.2 or Sec. 13A.2.6.3.
The damping system may be designed using the procedures of either Sec. 13A.2.6.2 or 13A.2.6.3,
subject to the limitations set forth in these sections. Damping systems not meeting these
limitations shall be designed using the nonlinear analysis methods as required in Sec. 13A.6.
13A.2.6.2 Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis Procedure: Structures with a damping system
designed using the equivalent lateral force analysis procedure of Sec. 13A.4 shall be subject to
the following limitations:
1. In the direction of interest, the damping system has at least two damping devices in each
story, configured to resist torsion.
2. The total effective damping of the fundamental mode, βmD (m = 1), of the structure in the
direction of interest is not greater than 35 percent of critical.
3. The seismic-force-resisting system does not have a vertical irregularity of Type 1a, 1b, 2, or 3
(Table 5.2.3.3) or a plan irregularity of Type 1a or 1b (Table 5.2.3.2).
4. Floor diaphragms are rigid (Sec. 5.2.31).
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
5. The height of the structure above the base does not exceed 100 ft (30 m).
6. Peak dynamic response of the structure and elements of the damping system are confirmed
by nonlinear time history analysis, when required by Sec. 13A.2.6.4.3.
13A.2.6.3 Response Spectrum Analysis: Structures with a damping system meeting the
limitations of Sec. 13A.2.6.2 may be designed using the response spectrum analysis procedure of
Sec. 13A.5 and structures not meeting the limitations of Sec. 13A.2.6.2 shall be designed using
the response spectrum analysis procedure of Sec. 13A.5, subject to the following limitations:
1. In the direction of interest, the damping system has at least two damping devices in each
story, configured to resist torsion,
2. The total effective damping of the fundamental mode, βmD (m = 1), of the structure in the
direction of interest is not greater than 35 percent of critical, and
3. Peak dynamic response of the structure and elements of the damping system are confirmed
by nonlinear time history analysis, when required by Sec. 13A.2.6.4.3.
13A.2.6.4 Nonlinear Analysis:
13A.2.6.4.1 General: Nonlinear analysis procedures of Sec.13A.6 are permitted for design of
all structures with damping systems and shall be used for design of structures with damping
systems not meeting linear analysis criteria of Sec. 13A.2.6.3.
Nonlinear time history analysis shall be used to confirm peak dynamic response of the structure
and elements of the damping system if the structure is located at a site with S1 greater than 0.60g.
The nonlinear force-deflection characteristics of elements of the seismic-force-resisting system
shall be modeled as required by Sec. 5.7.1 and 5.8.1. The nonlinear force-deflection
characteristics of damping devices shall be modeled, as required, to explicitly account for device
dependence on frequency, amplitude and duration of seismic loading.
13A.2.6.4.2 Nonlinear Static Analysis: Structures with a damping system designed using the
nonlinear static analysis procedure of Sec. 13A.6 shall be subject to the following limitations:
1. Peak dynamic response of the structure and elements of the damping system is confirmed by
nonlinear time history analysis, when required by Sec. 13A.2.6.4.3.
13A.2.6.4.3 Nonlinear Time History Analysis: Structures with a damping system may be
designed using the nonlinear time history analysis procedure of Sec. 13A.6 without limitation.
Nonlinear time history analysis shall be used to confirm peak dynamic response of the structure
and elements of the damping system for structures with a damping system if the following
conditions applies:
1. The structure is located at site with S1 greater than 0.60.
13A.3 DAMPED RESPONSE MODIFICATION:
13A.3.1 General: As required in Sec. 13A.4 and 13A.5, response of the structure shall be
modified for the effects of the damping system using coefficients prescribed in Table 13A.3.1.
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
Table 13A.3.1 Damping Coefficient, BV+I, B1D, BR, B1M, BmD or BmM
Effective Damping, β
Period of the Structure
$TS/5
# 2%
5%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
$ 100%
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3.0
3.3
3.6
4.0
1The damping coefficient is equal to 1.0 at a period of the structure
equal to 0 second for all values of effective damping. Interpolation
may be used for intermediate values of effective damping at periods of
the structure between 0 second and TS/5 seconds.
13A.3.2 Effective Damping: The effective damping at the design displacement, $mD, and at the
maximum displacement, $mM, of the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the direction under
consideration shall be calculated as follows:
βmD = β I + βVm µ D + β HD
(13A.3.2-1)
βmM = β I + βVm µ M + β HM
(13A.3.2-2)
where:
$HD =
component of effective damping of the structure in the direction of interest due to
post-yield hysteretic behavior of the seismic-force-resisting system and elements of
the damping system at effective ductility demand, µD;
$HM = component of effective damping of the structure in the direction of interest due to
post-yield hysteretic behavior of the seismic-force-resisting system and elements of
the damping system at effective ductility demand, µM;
$I
= component of effective damping of the structure due to the inherent dissipation of
energy by elements of the structure, at or just below the effective yield displacement
of the seismic-force-resisting system;
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
$Vm = component of effective damping of the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of interest due to viscous dissipation of energy by the damping system, at
or just below the effective yield displacement of the seismic-force-resisting system;
µD
= effective ductility demand on the seismic-force-resisting system in the direction of
interest due to the design earthquake; and
µM
= effective ductility demand on the seismic-force-resisting system in the direction of
interest due to the maximum considered earthquake.
Unless analysis or test data supports other values, the effective ductility demand of higher modes
of vibration in the direction of interest shall be taken as 1.0.
13A.3.2.1 Inherent Damping: Inherent damping, $I, shall be based on the material type,
configuration and behavior of the structure and nonstructural components responding
dynamically at or just below yield of the seismic-force-resisting system. Unless analysis or test
data supports other values, inherent damping shall be taken as not greater than 5 percent of
critical for all modes of vibration.
13A.3.2.2 Hysteretic Damping: Hysteretic damping of the seismic-force-resisting system and
elements of the damping system shall be based either on test or analysis, or in accordance with
the following equations:

1 
β HD = q H (0.64 − β I )1 −

 µD 
(13A.3.2.2-1)

1 
β HM = q H (0.64 − β I )1 −

 µM 
(13A.3.2.2-2)
where:
qH
= hysteresis loop adjustment factor, as defined in Sec. 13A.3.3;
µD
= effective ductility demand on the seismic-force-resisting system in the direction of
interest due to the design earthquake, as defined in Sec. A.13.3.4; and
µM
= effective ductility demand on the seismic-force-resisting system in the direction of
interest due to the maximum considered earthquake, as defined in Sec. 13A.3.4.
Unless analysis or test data supports other values, the hysteretic damping of higher modes of
vibration in the direction of interest shall be taken as zero.
13A.3.2.3 Viscous Damping: Viscous damping of the mth mode of vibration of the structure,
$Vm, shall be calculated as follows:
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
∑W
mj
βVm =
Wm =
j
(13A.3.2.3-1)
4πWm
1
∑ Fimδ im
2 i
(13A.3.2.3-2)
where:
Wmj =
work done by jth damping device in one complete cycle of dynamic response
corresponding to the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the direction of
interest at modal displacements, *im;
Wm
= maximum strain energy in the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the direction
of interest at modal displacements, *im;
Fim
= mth mode inertial force at Level i (or mass point); and
*im
= deflection of Level i (or mass point) in the mth mode of vibration at the center of
rigidity of the structure in the direction under consideration.
Viscous modal damping of displacement-dependent damping devices shall be based on a
response amplitude equal to the effective yield displacement of the structure.
The calculation of the work done by individual damping devices shall consider orientation and
participation of each device with respect to the mode of vibration of interest. The work done by
individual damping devices shall be reduced as required to account for the flexibility of elements,
including pins, bolts, gusset plates, brace extensions, and other components that connect
damping devices to other elements of the structure.
13A.3.3 Hysteresis Loop Adjustment Factor: Hysteretic damping of the seismic-forceresisting system and elements of the damping system shall consider pinching and other effects
that reduce the area of the hysteresis loop during repeated cycles of earthquake demand. Unless
analysis or test data support other values, the fraction of full hysteretic loop area of the seismicforce-resisting system used for design shall be taken as equal to the factor, qH, as defined below:
q H = 0.67
TS
T1
(13A.3.3-1)
where:
Ts
= period, in seconds, defined by the ratio, SD1/SDS, and
T1
= period, in seconds of the fundamental mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of the interest.
The value of qH shall not be taken as greater than 1.0, and need not be taken as less than 0.5.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
13A.3.4 Effective Ductility Demand: The effective ductility demand of seismic-force-resisting
system due to the design earthquake, µD, and due to the maximum considered earthquake, µM,
shall be calculated as the ratio of the fundamental mode displacement, D1D or D1M, to effective
yield displacement, DY:
µD =
D1 D
≥ 1.0
DY
(13A.3.4-1)
µM =
D1 M
≥ 1.0
DY
(13A.3.4-2)
 g  Ω C 
DY =  2   o d  Γ1 CS 1 T12
 4π   R 
(13A.3.4-3)
where:
D1D = fundamental mode design displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof level of
the structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. 13A.4.4.3 (in. or mm),
D1M = fundamental mode maximum displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof level
of structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. 13A.4.4.6 (in. or mm),
DY
= displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof level of the structure at the
effective yield point of the seismic-force-resisting system, Sec. 13A.3.4 (in. or mm),
R
= response modification factor from Table 5.2.2,
Cd
= deflection amplification factor from Table 5.2.2,
So
= system overstrength factor from Table 5.2.2,
'1
= participation factor of the fundamental mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of interest, Sec. 13A.4.3.3 or Sec. 13A.5.3.3 (m =1),
CS1
= seismic response coefficient (dimensionless) of the fundamental mode of vibration
of the structure in the direction of interest, Sec. 13A.4.3.4 or Sec. 13A.5.3.4 (m =1),
and
T1
= period, in seconds, of the fundamental mode of vibration of the structure in the
direction of interest.
Design earthquake ductility demand, µD, shall not exceed the maximum value of effective
ductility demand, µmax, given in Sec. 13A.3.5.
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
13A.3.5 Maximum Effective Ductility Demand: For determination of the hysteresis loop
adjustment factor, hysteretic damping and other parameters, ductility demand used for design of
the structure shall not exceed the maximum value of effective ductility demand, µmax, as defined
below:
2

1   R 

= 
+
1


2   Ωo I 

For T1D < TS :
µmax
For T1 $ TS :
µ max =
R
Ωo I
(13A.3.5-1)
(13A.3.5-2)
where:
I
= the occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with Sec. 1.4.
T1D
= effective period, in seconds, of the fundamental mode of vibration of the structure
at the design displacement in the direction under consideration.
For periods: T1 # TS # T1D, interpolation shall be used to determine µmax.
13A.4 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE ANALYSIS PROCEDURE:
13A.4.1 General: This section provides required minimum standards for equivalent lateral
force analysis of structures with a damping system. For purposes of analysis, the structure is
considered to be fixed at the base. See Sec. 13A.2.6 for limitations on the use of this procedure.
Seismic base shear and lateral forces at floors used for design of the seismic-force-resisting
system shall be based on the procedures of Sec. 13A.4.3. Seismic forces, displacements and
velocities used for design of the damping system shall be based on the procedures of Sec.
13A.4.4.
The load combinations and acceptance criteria of Sec. 13A.7 shall be used to check design
responses of seismic-force-resisting and damping systems, respectively.
13A.4.2 Modeling Requirements: Elements of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be
modeled in a manner consistent with the requirements of Sec. 5.4.
Elements of the damping system shall be modeled as required to determine design forces
transferred from damping devices to both the ground and the seismic-force-resisting system. The
effective stiffness of velocity-dependent damping devices shall be modeled.
Damping devices need not be explicitly modeled provided effective damping is calculated in
accordance with the procedures of Sec. 13A.3 and used to modify response as required in Sec.
13A.4.3 and 13A.4.4.
The stiffness and damping properties of the damping devices used in the models shall be based
on or verified by testing of the damping devices as specified in Sec. 13A.10.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
13A.4.3 Seismic-Force-Resisting-System Design Response:
13A.4.3.1 Seismic Base Shear: The seismic base shear, V, of the seismic-force-resisting
system in a given direction shall be determined as the combination of the two modal components,
V1 and VR, in accordance with the following equation:
V = V12 + V R2 ≥ Vmin
(13A.4.3.1-1)
where:
V1
= design value of the seismic base shear of the fundamental mode in a given direction
of response (kip or kN),
VR
= design value of the seismic base shear of the residual mode in a given direction (kip
or kN), and
Vmin = minimum allowable value of base shear permitted for design of the seismic-forceresisting-system of the structure in direction of the interest (kip or kN).
13A.4.3.2 Fundamental Mode Base Shear: Fundamental mode base shear, V1, shall be
determined in accordance with the following equation:
V1 = CS 1 W1
(13A.4.3.2-1)
where:
W1
= the effective fundamental mode gravity load including portions of the live load as
defined by Eq. 5.5.5-2 for m = 1 (kip or kN).
13A.4.3.3 Fundamental Mode Properties: Fundamental mode shape, Ni1, and participation
factor, '1, shall be determined by either dynamic analysis of elastic structural properties and
deformational characteristics of the resisting elements or in accordance with the following
equations:
φi 1 =
Γ1 =
hi
hr
(13A.4.3.3-1)
W1
(13A.4.3.3-2)
n
∑w φ
i
i1
i=1
where:
hi
= the height of the structure above the base to Level i (ft or m),
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
hr
= the height of the structure above the base to the roof level (ft or m), and
wi
= the portion of the total gravity load, W, located or assigned to Level i.
The fundamental period, T1, shall be determined either by dynamic analysis of elastic structural
properties and deformational characteristics of the resisting elements, or in accordance with the
following equation:
n
T1 = 2π
∑w δ
i =1
n
2
i i
g ∑ f iδ i
(13A.4.3.3-3)
i =1
where:
fi
= lateral force at Level i of the structure distributed in accordance with Eq. 5.4.3-2,
and
*i
= elastic deflection at Level i of the structure due to applied lateral forces fi.
13A.4.3.4 Fundamental Mode Seismic Response Coefficient: The fundamental mode seismic
response coefficient, CS1, shall be determined in accordance with the following equations:
For T1D < TS:
 R S
CS 1 =   DS
 Cd  Ωo B1 D
(13A.4.3.4-1)
 R
S D1
CS 1 =  
 Cd  T1D (Ωo B1 D )
(13A.4.3.4-2)
For T1D $ TS :
where:
SDS
= the design spectral response acceleration in the short period range as determined
from Sec. 4.1.2.5,
SD1
= the design spectral response acceleration at a period of 1 second as determined from
Sec. 4.1.2.5,
B1D =
numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 13A.3.1 for effective damping equal to
$mD (m = 1) and period of the structure equal to T1D,
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
13A.4.3.5 Effective Fundamental Mode Period Determination: The effective fundamental
mode period at the design earthquake, T1D, and at the maximum considered earthquake, T1M, shall
be based either on explicit consideration of the post-yield force deflection characteristics of the
structure or in accordance with the following equations:
T1 D = T1 µ D
(13A.4.3.5-1)
T1 M = T1 µ M
(13A.4.3.5-2)
where:
T1M =
effective period, in seconds, of the fundamental mode of vibration of the structure
at the maximum displacement in the direction under consideration.
13A.4.3.6 Residual Mode Base Shear: Residual mode base shear, VR, shall be determined in
accordance with the following equation:
V R = CSR WR
(13A.4.3.6-1)
where:
CSR =
the residual mode seismic response coefficient as determined in Sec. 13A.4.3.8, and
WR = the effective residual mode gravity load of the structure determined in accordance
with Eq. 13A.4.3.7-3 (kip or kN).
13A.4.3.7 Residual Mode Properties: Residual mode shape, NiR, participation factor, ΓR,
effective gravity load of the structure, WR , and effective period, TR, shall be determined in
accordance with the following equations:
φiR =
1 − Γ1φi 1
1 − Γ1
(13A.4.3.7-1)
ΓR = 1 − Γ1
(13A.4.3.7-2)
WR = W − W1
(13A.4.3.7-3)
TR = 0.4T1
(13A.4.3.7-4)
13A.4.3.8 Residual Mode Seismic Response Coefficient: The residual mode seismic response
coefficient, CSR, shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
 R S
CSR =   DS
 Cd  Ωo BR
(A13.4.3.8-1)
where:
BR
= Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 13A.3.1 for effective damping equal to
$R, and period of the structure equal to TR.
13A.4.3.9 Design Lateral Force: Design lateral force in elements of the seismic-forceresisting system at Level i due to fundamental mode response, Fi1, and residual mode response,
FiR, of the structure in the direction of interest shall be determined in accordance with the
following equations:
Fil = wiφi1
Γ1
V1
W1
(13A.4.3.9-1)
FiR = wi φiR
ΓR
VR
WR
(13A.4.3.9-2)
Design forces in elements of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be determined as the squareroot-sum-of-squares of the forces due to fundamental and residual modes.
13A.4.4 Damping System Design Response:
13A.4.4.1 General: Design forces in damping devices and other elements of the damping
system shall be determined on the basis of the floor deflection, story drift and story velocity
response parameters described in the following sections.
Displacements and velocities used to determine maximum forces in damping devices at each
story shall account for the angle of orientation from horizontal and consider the effects of
increased response due to torsion required for design of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Floor deflections at Level i, *iD and *iM, design story drifts, )D and )M, and design story
velocities, «D and «M, shall be calculated for both the design earthquake and the maximum
considered earthquake, respectively, in accordance with the following sections.
13A.4.4.2 Design Earthquake Floor Deflection: Fundamental and residual mode deflections
due to the design earthquake, *i1D and *iRD (in. or mm), at the center of rigidity of Level i of the
structure in the direction of interest shall be determined in accordance with the following
equations:
δ i1 D = D1 D φi1
(13A.4.4.2-1)
δ iRD = D RD φiR
(13A.4.4.2-2)
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
where:
DRD
=
Residual mode design displacement at the center of rigidity of the roof level of the
structure in the direction under consideration, Sec. 13A.4.4.3 (in. or mm).
The total design earthquake deflection at each floor of the structure in the direction of interest
shall be calculated as the square-root-sum-of-squares of fundamental and residual mode floor
deflections.
13A.4.4.3 Design Earthquake Roof Displacement: Fundamental and residual mode
displacements due to the design earthquake, D1D and D1R (in.or mm) at the center of rigidity of
the roof level of the structure in the direction of interest shall be determined in accordance with
the following equations:
D1 D
2
 g  S D1T1 D  g  S DS T1 D
=  2  Γ1
≤  2  Γ1
 4π 
 4π 
B1D
B1 D
(13A.4.4.3-1)
D RD
2
 g  S D1TR  g  S DS TR
=  2  ΓR
≤  2  ΓR
 4π 
 4π 
BR
BR
(13A.4.4.3-2)
13A.4.4.4 Design Earthquake Story Drift: Design earthquake story drift, )D, of the structure
in the direction of interest shall be calculated in accordance with the following equation:
∆D = ∆12 D + ∆2RD
(13A.4.4.4-1)
where:
)1D =
design earthquake story drift due to the fundamental mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest (in. or mm) and
)RD = design earthquake story drift due to the residual mode of vibration of the structure
in the direction of interest (in. or mm).
Modal design earthquake story drifts, ∆1D and ∆1R, shall be determined in accordance with Sec.
5.3.7.1 using the floor deflections of Sec. 13A.4.4.2.
13A.4.4.5 Design Earthquake Story Velocity: Design earthquake story velocity, VD, of the
structure in the direction of interest shall be calculated in accordance with the following
equations:
2
∇ D = ∇ 12D +∇ RD
∇ 1 D = 2π
(13A.4.4.5-1)
∆1 D
T1 D
(13A.4.4.5-2)
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
∇ RD = 2π
∆RD
TR
(13A.4.4.5-3)
where:
∇1 D = design earthquake story velocity due to the fundamental mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest (in./sec or mm/sec), and
∇ RD = design earthquake story velocity due to the residual mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest (in./sec or mm/sec).
13A.4.4.6 Maximum Earthquake Response: Total and modal maximum earthquake floor
deflections at Level i, design story drift values and design story velocity values shall be based on
the formulas of Sec. 13A.4.2, 13A.4.4 and 13A.4.5, respectively, except design earthquake roof
displacements shall be replaced by maximum earthquake roof displacements. Maximum
earthquake roof displacements shall be calculated in accordance with the following equations:
D1 M
2
 g  S M 1T1 M  g  S MS T1 M
=  2  Γ1
≤  2  Γ1
 4π 
 4π 
B1M
B1M
(13A.4.4.6-1)
D RM
2
 g  S M 1TR  g  S MS TR
=  2  ΓR
≤  2  ΓR
 4π 
 4π 
BR
BR
(13A.4.4.6-2)
where:
SM1 =
the maximum considered earthquake, 5 percent damped, spectral response
acceleration at a period of 1 second adjusted for site class effects as defined in
Sec.4.1.2.
SMS =
the maximum considered earthquake, 5 percent damped, spectral response
acceleration at short periods adjusted for site class effects as defined in Sec. 4.1.2.
B1M =
Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 13A.3.1 for effective damping equal to
$mM (m = 1) and period of structure equal to T1M.
13A.5 RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
13A.5.1 General: This section provides required standards for response spectrum analysis of
structures with a damping system. See Sec. 13A.2.6 for limitations on the use of this procedure.
Seismic base shear and lateral forces at floors used for design of the seismic-force-resisting
system shall be based on the procedures of Sec. 13A.3.2. Seismic forces, displacements and
velocities used for design of the damping system shall be based on the procedures of Sec. 13A.3.
The load combinations and acceptance criteria of Sec. 13A.7 shall be used to check design
responses of seismic-force-resisting system and the damping system.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
13A.5.2 Modeling and Analysis Requirements:
13A.5.2.1 General: A mathematical model of the seismic-force-resisting system and damping
system shall be constructed that represents the spatial distribution of mass, stiffness and damping
throughout the structure. The model and analysis shall conform to the requirements of Sec.
5.5.1, 5.5.2, and 5.5.3 for the seismic-force-resisting system and to the requirements of Sec.
13A.5.2.2 for the damping system. The stiffness and damping properties of the damping devices
used in the models shall be based on or verified by testing of the damping devices as specified in
Sec. 13A.10.
13A.5.2.2 Damping System: The elastic stiffness of elements of the damping system other than
damping devices shall be explicitly modeled. Stiffness of damping devices shall be modeled
depending on damping device type:
1. Displacement-Dependent Damping Devices: Displacement-dependent damping devices
shall be modeled with an effective stiffness that represents damping device force at the
response displacement of interest (e.g., design story drift). Alternatively, the stiffness of
hysteretic and friction damping devices may be excluded from response spectrum analysis
provided design forces in displacement-dependent damping devices, QDSD, are applied to the
model as external loads (Sec. 13A.7.3.2).
2. Velocity-Dependent Damping Devices: Velocity-dependent damping devices that have a
stiffness component (e.g., visco-elastic damping devices) shall be modeled with an effective
stiffness corresponding to the amplitude and frequency of interest.
13A.5.3 Seismic-Force-Resisting-System Design Response:
13A.5.3.1 Seismic Base Shear: The seismic base shear, V, of the structure in a given direction
shall be determined as the combination of modal components, Vm, subject to the limits of the
following equation:
V ≥ V min
(13A.5.3.1-1)
The seismic base shear, V, of the structure shall be determined by the square root sum of the
squares or complete quadratic combination of modal base shear components, Vm.
13A.5.3.2 Modal Base Shear: Modal base shear of the mth mode of vibration, Vm, of the
structure in the direction of interest shall be determined in accordance with the following
equation:
Vm = CSm Wm
(13A.5.3.2-1)
where:
CSm =
seismic response coefficient (dimensionless) of the mth mode of vibration of the
structure in the direction of interest, Sec. 13A.5.3.4 (m = 1) or Sec. 13A.5.3.6 (m >
1) and
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Wm = the effective gravity load of the mth mode of vibration of the structure determined in
accordance with Eq. 5.4.4-2 (kip or kN).
13A.5.3.3 Modal Participation Factor: The modal participation factor of the mth mode of
vibration, 'm, of the structure in the direction of interest shall be determined in accordance with
the following equation:
Γm =
Wm
(13A.5.3.3-1)
n
∑w φ
i =1
i
im
where:
φim = displacement amplitude at the ith level of the structure for the fixed base condition
in the mth mode of vibration in the direction of interest, normalized to unity at the
roof level.
13A.5.3.4 Fundamental Mode Seismic Response Coefficient: The fundamental mode (m = 1)
seismic response coefficient, CS1, in the direction of interest shall be determined in accordance
with the following equations:
For T1D < TS :
 R S
CS 1 =   DS
 Cd  Ωo B1 D
(13A.5.3.4-1)
For T1D $ TS :
 R
S D1
CS 1 =  
 Cd  T1D (Ωo B1 D )
(13A.5.3.4-2)
13A.5.3.5 Effective Fundamental Mode Period Determination: The effective fundamental
mode (m = 1) period at the design earthquake, T1D, and at the maximum considered earthquake,
T1M, shall be based either on explicit consideration of the post-yield nonlinear force deflection
characteristics of the structure or determined in accordance with the following equations:
T1 D = T1 µ D
(13A.4.3.5-1)
T1 M = T1 µ M
(13A.4.3.5-2)
13A.5.3.6 Higher Mode Seismic Response Coefficient: Higher mode (m > 1) seismic
response coefficient, CSm, of the mth mode of vibration (m > 1) of the structure in the direction of
interest shall be determined in accordance with the following equations:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
For Tm < TS :
 R  S DS
CSm =  
 Cd  Ωo BmD
(13A.5.3.6-1)
For Tm $ TS :
 R
S D1
CSm =  
 Cd  Tm (Ωo BmD )
(13A.5.3.6-2)
where:
Tm =
period, in seconds, of the mth mode of vibration of the structure in the direction
under consideration and
BmD = numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 13A.3.1 for effective damping equal to
$mD and period of the structure equal to Tm.
13A.5.3.7 Design Lateral Force: Design lateral force at Level i due to mth mode of vibration,
Fim, of the structure in the direction of interest shall be determined in accordance with the
following equation:
Fim = wiφim
Γm
Vm
Wm
(13A.5.3.7-1)
Design forces in elements of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be determined by the square
root sum of squares or complete quadratic combination of modal design forces.
13A.5.4 Damping System Design Response:
13A.5.4.1 General: Design forces in damping devices and other elements of the damping
system shall be determined on the basis of the floor deflection, story drift and story velocity
response parameters described in the following sections.
Displacements and velocities used to determine maximum forces in damping devices at each
story shall account for the angle of orientation from horizontal and consider the effects of
increased response due to torsion required for design of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Floor deflections at Level i, *iD and *iM, design story drifts, )D and )M, and design story
velocities, LD and LM, shall be calculated for both the design earthquake and the maximum
considered earthquake, respectively, in accordance with the following sections.
13A.5.4.2 Design Earthquake Floor Deflection: The deflection of structure due to the design
earthquake at Level i in the mth mode of vibration, *imD (in. or mm), of the structure in the
direction of interest shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:
δ imD = DmD φim
(13A.5.4.2-1)
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
The total design earthquake deflection at each floor of the structure shall be calculated by the
square root sum of squares or complete quadratic combination of modal design earthquake
deflections.
13A.5.4.3 Design Earthquake Roof Displacement: Fundamental (m = 1) and higher mode (m
> 1) roof displacements due to the design earthquake, D1D and DmD (in. or mm), of the structure
in the direction of interest shall be determined in accordance with the following equations:
For m = 1:
D1 D
2
 g  S D1T1 D  g  S DS T1D
=  2  Γ1
≤  2  Γ1
 4π 
 4π 
B1D
B1 D
(13A.5.4.3-1)
For m > 1:
2
 g  S T
 g  S T
DmD =  2  Γm D1 m ≤  2  Γm DS m
 4π 
 4π 
BmD
BmD
(13A.5.4.3-2)
13A.5.4.4 Design Earthquake Story Drift: Design earthquake story drift of the fundamental
mode, )1D, and higher modes, )mD (m > 1), of the structure in the direction of interest shall be
calculated in accordance with Sec. 5.3.7.1 using modal roof displacements of Sec. 13A.5.4.3.
Total design earthquake story drift, )D (in. or mm), shall be determined by the square root of the
sum of squares or complete quadratic combination of modal design earthquake drifts.
13A.5.4.5 Design Earthquake Story Velocity: Design earthquake story velocity of the
fundamental mode, L1D, and higher modes, LmD (m > 1), of the structure in the direction of
interest shall be calculated in accordance with the following equations:
For m = 1:
∇1 D = 2π
∆1 D
T1 D
(13A.5.4.5-1)
For m > 1:
∇ mD = 2π
∆mD
Tm
(13A.5.4.5-1)
Total design earthquake story velocity, LD (in/sec or mm/sec), shall be determined by the square
root of the sum of squares or complete quadratic combination of modal design earthquake
velocities.
13A.5.4.6 Maximum Earthquake Response: Total modal floor deflection at Level i, design
story drift values and design story velocity values shall be based on the formulas of Sec.
13A.5.4.2, 13A.5.4.4 and 13A.5.4.5, respectively, except design earthquake roof displacement
shall be replaced by maximum earthquake roof displacement. Maximum earthquake roof
displacement of the structure in the direction of interest shall be calculated in accordance with
the following equations:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
2
 g  S M 1T1 M  g  S MS T1 M
=  2  Γ1
≤  2  Γ1
 4π 
 4π 
B1M
B1M
For m = 1:
D1 M
For m > 1:
2
 g  S T
 g  S T
DmM =  2  Γm M 1 m ≤  2  Γm MS m
 4π 
 4π 
BmM
BmM
(13A.5.4.6-1)
(13A.5.4.6-2)
where:
BmM = numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 13A.3.1 for effective damping equal to
$mM and period of the structure equal to Tm.
13A.6 NONLINEAR ANALYSIS PROCEDURES:
13A.6.1 General: The nonlinear procedures provided in Sec. 13A.6 supplement the nonlinear
procedures of Sec. 5.7 and 5.8 to accommodate the use of damping systems.
The stiffness and damping properties of the damping devices used in the models shall be based
on or verified by testing of the damping devices as specified in Sec. 13A.10.
13A.6.2. Nonlinear Static Analysis: The nonlinear modeling described in Sec. 5.7.1 and the
lateral loads described in Sec. 5.7.2 shall be applied to the seismic-force-resisting system. The
resulting force-displacement curve shall be used in lieu of the assumed effective yield
displacement, DY, of Equation 13A.3.4-3 to calculate the effective ductility demand due to the
design earthquake, µD, and due to the maximum considered earthquake, µM, in Eq. 13A.3.4-1 and
13A.3.4-2. The value of (R/Cd) shall be taken as 1.0 in Equations 13A.4.3.4-1, 13A.4.3.4-2 and
13A.4.3.8-1 for the equivalent lateral force analysis procedure, and in Eq. 13A.5.3.4-1,
13A.5.3.4-2, 13A.5.3.6-1, and 13A.5.3.6-2 of the response spectrum analysis procedure.
13A.6.3 Nonlinear Response History Analysis: A nonlinear response history (time history)
analysis shall utilize a mathematical model of the structure and the damping system as provided
in Sec. 5.8 and this section. The model shall directly account for the nonlinear hysteretic
behavior of elements of the structure and the damping devices to determine its response, through
methods of numerical integration, to suites of ground motions compatible with the design
response spectrum for the site.
The analysis shall be performed in accordance with Sec. 5.8 together with the requirements of
this section.
13A.6.3.1 Damping Device Modeling: Mathematical models of displacement-dependent
damping devices shall include the hysteretic behavior of the devices consistent with test data and
accounting for all significant changes in strength, stiffness, and hysteretic loop shape.
Mathematical models of velocity-dependent damping devices shall include the velocity
coefficient consistent with test data. If this coefficient changes with time and/or temperature,
such behavior shall be modeled explicitly. The elements of damping devices connecting damper
units to the structure shall be included in the model.
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
Exception: If the properties of the damping devices are expected to change during the
duration of the time history analysis, the dynamic response may be enveloped by the
upper and lower limits of device properties. All these limit cases for variable device
properties must satisfy the same conditions as if the time dependent behavior of the
devices were explicitly modeled.
13A.6.3.2 Response Parameters: In addition to the response parameters given in Sec. 5.8.3,
the design earthquake and maximum considered earthquake displacements, velocities, and forces
of the damping devices shall be determined.
13A.7 SEISMIC LOAD CONDITIONS AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA:
13A.7.1 General: Design forces and displacements determined in accordance with the
equivalent lateral force analysis procedures of Sec. 13A.4 or the response spectrum analysis
procedure of Sec. 13.5 shall be checked using the strength design criteria of these Provisions and
the seismic loading conditions of the following sections.
13A.7.2 Seismic-Force-Resisting System: The seismic-force-resisting system shall meet the
design provisions of Sec. 5.2.2 using seismic base shear and design forces determined in
accordance with Sec. 13A.4.3 or Sec 13A.5.3.
The design earthquake story drift, ∆D, as determined in either Sec. 13A.4.4.4 or 13A.5.4.4 shall
not exceed (R/Cd) times the allowable story drift, as obtained from Table 5.2.8, considering the
effects of torsion as required in Sec. 5.2.8.
13A.7.3 Damping System: The damping system shall meet the provisions of Sec. 5.2.2 for
seismic design forces determined in accordance with Sec. 13A.7.3.1 and the seismic loading
conditions of Sec. 13A.7.3.2 and Sec. 13A.5.4.
13A.7.3.1 Modal Damping System Design Forces: Modal damping system design forces shall
be calculated on the basis of the type of damping devices, and the modal design story
displacements and modal design story velocities determined in accordance with either Sec.
13A.4.4 or Sec. 13A.5.4.
Exception: Modal design story displacements and velocities determined in accordance
with either Sec. 13A.4.4 or Sec. 13A.5.4 shall be increased as required to envelop total
design story displacements and velocities determined in accordance with Sec. 13A.6,
when Sec. 13A.2.6.4.3 requires peak response to be confirmed by time history analysis.
1. Displacement-Dependent Damping Devices: Design seismic force in displacementdependent damping devices shall be based on the maximum force in the device at
displacements up to and including the design earthquake story drift, )D.
2. Velocity-Dependent Damping Devices: Design seismic force in each mode of vibration
of velocity-dependent damping devices shall be based on the maximum force in the
device at velocities up to and including the design earthquake story velocity of the mode
of interest.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
Displacements and velocities used to determine design forces in damping devices at each story
shall account for the angle of orientation from horizontal and consider the effects of increased
floor response due to torsional motions.
13A.7.3.2 Seismic Load Conditions and Combination of Modal Responses: Seismic design
force, QE, in each element of the damping system due to horizontal earthquake load shall be taken
as the maximum force of the following three loading conditions:
1. Stage of Maximum Displacement: Seismic design force at the stage of maximum
displacement shall be calculated in accordance with the following equation:
Q E = Ωo
∑(Q
mSFRS
m
)
2
± QDSD
(13A.7.3.2-1)
where:
QmSFRS
=
Force in an element of the damping system equal to the design seismic force
of the mth mode of vibration of the seismic-force-resisting system in the
direction of interest.
QDSD
=
Force in an element of the damping system required to resist design seismic
forces of displacement-dependent damping devices.
Seismic forces in elements of the damping system, QDSD, shall be calculated by imposing
design forces of displacement-dependent damping devices on the damping system as pseudostatic forces. Design seismic forces of displacement-dependent damping devices shall be
applied in both positive and negative directions at peak displacement of the structure.
2. Stage of Maximum Velocity: Seismic design force at the stage of maximum velocity shall
be calculated in accordance with the following equation:
QE =
∑(Q
m
mDSV
)
2
(13A.7.3.2-2)
where:
QmDSV
=
Force in an element of the damping system required to resist design seismic
forces of velocity-dependent damping devices due to the mth mode of
vibration of structure in the direction of interest.
Modal seismic design forces in elements of the damping system, QmDSV, shall be calculated by
imposing modal design forces of velocity-dependent devices on the non-deformed damping
system as pseudo-static forces. Modal seismic design forces shall be applied in directions
consistent with the deformed shape of the mode of interest. Horizontal restraint forces shall
be applied at each floor Level i of the non-deformed damping system concurrent with the
design forces in velocity-dependent damping devices such that the horizontal displacement at
each level of the structure is zero. At each floor Level i, restraint forces shall be proportional
to and applied at the location of each mass point.
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3. Stage of Maximum Acceleration: Seismic design force at the stage of maximum
acceleration shall be calculated in accordance with the following equation:
QE =
∑(C
mFD
m
Ωo QmSFRS + CmFV QmDSV ) ± QDSD
2
(13A.7.3.2-3)
The force coefficients, CmFD and CmFV, shall be determined from Tables 13A.7.3.2.1 and
13A.7.3.2.2, respectively, using values of effective damping determined in accordance with
the following requirements:
a. For fundamental-mode response (m = 1) in the direction of interest, the coefficients, C1FD
and C1FV, shall be based on the velocity power term, ", that relates device force to
damping device velocity. The effective fundamental-mode damping, shall be taken as
equal to the total effective damping of the fundamental mode less the hysteretic
component of damping (e.g., $1D - $HD) at the response level of interest (i.e., µ = µD or µ
= µM).
b. For higher-mode (m > 1) or residual-mode response in the direction of interest, the
coefficients, CmFD and CmFV, shall be based on a value of " equal to 1.0. The effective
modal damping shall be taken as equal to the total effective damping of the mode of
interest (e.g., $mD). For determination of the coefficient CmFD, the ductility demand shall
be taken as equal to that of the fundamental mode (e.g., µ = µD).
Table 13A.7.3.2.1 Force Coefficient, CmFDa, b
Effective
Damping
µ # 1.0
CmFD =1.0c
" # 0.25
" = 0.5
" = 0.75
" $ 1.0
# 0.05
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
µ $1.0
0.1
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
µ $1.0
0.2
1.00
0.95
0.94
0.93
µ $1.1
0.3
1.00
0.92
0.88
0.86
µ $1.2
0.4
1.00
0.88
0.81
0.78
µ $1.3
0.5
1.00
0.84
0.73
0.71
µ $1.4
0.6
1.00
0.79
0.64
0.64
µ $1.6
0.7
1.00
0.75
0.55
0.58
µ $1.7
0.8
1.00
0.70
0.50
0.53
µ $1.9
0.9
1.00
0.66
0.50
0.50
µ $2.1
$ 1.0
1.00
0.62
0.50
0.50
µ $2.2
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
Effective
Damping
µ # 1.0
" # 0.25
" = 0.5
" = 0.75
" $ 1.0
CmFD =1.0c
a
Unless analysis or test data support other values, the force coefficient CmFD for visco-elastic
systems shall be taken as 1.0.
b
Interpolation shall be used for intermediate values of effective damping, ", and µ.
c
CmFD shall be taken as equal to 1.0 for values of µ greater than or equal to the values shown.
Table 13A.7.3.2.2 Force Coefficient, CmFV a, b
Effective
Damping
" # 0.25
" = 0.5
" = 0.75
" $ 1.0
# 0.05
1.00
0.35
0.20
0.10
0.1
1.00
0.44
0.31
0.20
0.2
1.00
0.56
0.46
0.37
0.3
1.00
0.64
0.58
0.51
0.4
1.00
0.70
0.69
0.62
0.5
1.00
0.75
0.77
0.71
0.6
1.00
0.80
0.84
0.77
0.7
1.00
0.83
0.90
0.81
0.8
1.00
0.90
0.94
0.90
0.9
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
$ 1.0
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
a
Unless analysis or test data support other values, the force coefficient CmFD for visco-elastic
systems shall be taken as 1.0.
b
Interpolation shall be used for intermediate values of effective damping, ", and µ.
13A.7.3.3 Combination of Load Effects: The effects on the damping system and its
components due to gravity loads and seismic forces shall be combined in accordance with Sec.
5.2.7 using the effect of horizontal seismic forces, QE, determined in accordance with Sec.
13A.7.3.2.
Exception: The reliability factor, D, shall be taken as equal to 1.0 in all cases and the
special load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.1 need not apply to the design of the damping
system.
13A.7.3.4 Inelastic Response Limits: Elements of the damping system may exceed strength
limits for design loads provided it is shown by analysis or test that:
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
1. Inelastic response does not adversely affect damping system function.
2. Element forces calculated in accordance with Sec. 13A.7.3.2, using a value of So, taken as
equal to 1.0, do not exceed the strength required to meet the load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.
13A.8 DETAILED SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:
13A.8.1 Damping Device Design: The design, construction and installation of damping devices
shall be based on maximum earthquake response and the following load conditions:
1. Low-cycle, large displacement degradation due to seismic loads;
2. High-cycle, small-displacement degradation due to wind, thermal or other cyclic loads;
3. Forces or displacements due to gravity loads;
4. Adhesion of device parts due to corrosion or abrasion, biodegradation, moisture or chemical
exposure; and
5. Exposure to environmental conditions, including but not limited to temperature, humidity,
moisture, radiation (e.g., ultraviolet light) and reactive or corrosive substances (e.g., salt
water).
Damping devices subject to failure by low-cycle fatigue shall resist wind forces without slip,
movement, or inelastic cycling.
The design of damping device shall incorporate the range of thermal conditions, device wear,
manufacturing tolerances, and other effects that cause device properties to vary during the
lifetime of the device.
13A.8.2 Multi-Axis Movement: Connection points of damping devices shall provide sufficient
articulation to accommodate simultaneous longitudinal, lateral, and vertical displacements of the
damping system.
13A.8.3 Inspection and Periodic Testing: Means of access for inspection and removal of all
damping devices shall be provided.
The registered design professional responsible for design of the structure shall establish an
appropriate inspection and testing schedule for each type of damping device to ensure that the
devices respond in a dependable manner throughout device design life. The degree of inspection
and testing shall reflect the established in-service history of the damping devices, and the
likelihood of change in properties over the design life of devices.
13A.8.4 Manufacturing Quality Control: The registered design professional responsible for
design of the structure shall establish a quality control plan for the manufacture of damping
devices. As a minimum, this plan shall include the testing requirements of Sec. 13A.10.3.
13A.9 DESIGN REVIEW:
13A.9.1 General: Review of the design of the damping system and related test programs shall
be performed by an independent engineering panel including persons licensed in the appropriate
disciplines and experienced in seismic analysis including the theory and application of energy
dissipation methods.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 13
13A.9.2 Review Scope: The design review shall include the following:
1. Review of the earthquake ground motions used for design.
2. Review of design parameters of damping devices, including device test requirements, device
manufacturing quality control and assurance, and scheduled maintenance and inspection
requirements.
3. Review of nonlinear analysis methods incorporating the requirements of Sec. 5.8.4.
4. Review of the preliminary design of the seismic-force-resisting system and the damping
system.
5. Review of the final design of the seismic-force-resisting system and the damping system and
all supporting analyses.
13A.10 REQUIRED TESTS OF DAMPING DEVICES:
13A.10.1 General: The force-velocity-displacement and damping properties used for the design
of the damping system shall be based on the prototype tests of a selected number of damping
devices, as specified in Sec. 13A.10.2.1.
The fabrication and quality control procedures used for all prototype and production damping
devices shall be identical.
13A.10.2 Prototype Tests:
13A.10.2.1 General: The following tests shall be performed separately on two full-size
damping devices of each type and size used in the design, in the order listed below.
Representative sizes of each type of device may be used for prototype testing, provided both of
the following conditions are met:
(1) Fabrication and quality control procedures are identical for each type and size of devices
used in the structure.
(2) Prototype testing of representative sizes is accepted by the registered design professional
responsible for design of the structure.
Test specimens shall not be used for construction, unless they are accepted by the registered
design professional responsible for design of the structure and meet the requirements of Sec.
13A.10.2 and Sec. 13A.10.3.
13A.10.2.2 Data Recording: The force-deflection relationship for each cycle of each test shall
be recorded.
13A.10.2.3 Sequence and Cycles of Testing: For the following test sequences, each damping
device shall be subjected to gravity load effects and thermal environments representative of the
installed condition. For seismic testing, the displacement in the devices calculated for the
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Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
maximum considered earthquake, termed herein as the maximum earthquake device
displacement, shall be used.
1. Each damping device shall be subjected to the number of cycles expected in the design
windstorm, but not less than 2000 continuous fully reversed cycles of wind load. Wind load
shall be at amplitudes expected in the design wind storm, and applied at a frequency equal to
the inverse of the fundamental period of the building (f1 = 1/T1).
Exception: Damping devices need not be subjected to these tests if they are not
subject to wind-induced forces or displacements, or if the design wind force is less
than the device yield or slip force.
2. Each damping device shall be loaded with 5 fully reversed, sinusoidal cycles at the maximum
earthquake device displacement at a frequency equal to 1/T1M as calculated in Sec. 13A.4.3.5.
Where the damping device characteristics vary with operating temperature, these tests shall
be conducted at a minimum of 3 temperatures (minimum, ambient, and maximum) that
bracket the range of operating temperatures.
Exceptions: Damping devices may be tested by alternative methods provided each
of the following conditions is met:
a.
Alternative methods of testing are equivalent to the cyclic testing requirements of
this section.
b.
Alternative methods capture the dependence of the damping device response on
ambient temperature, frequency of loading, and temperature rise during testing.
c.
Alternative methods are accepted by the registered design professional
responsible for the design of the structure.
3. If the force-deformation properties of the damping device at any displacement less than or
equal the maximum earthquake device displacement change by more than 15 percent for
changes in testing frequency from 1/T1M to 2.5/T1, then the preceding tests shall also be
performed at frequencies equal to 1/T1 and 2.5/T1.
If reduced-scale prototypes are used to qualify the rate dependent properties of damping
devices, the reduced-scale prototypes should be of the same type and materials, and
manufactured with the same processes and quality control procedures, as full-scale
prototypes, and tested at a similitude-scaled frequency that represents the full-scale loading
rates.
13A.10.2.4 Testing Similar Devices: Damping devices need not be prototype tested provided
that both of the following conditions are met:
1. The damping device manufacturer substantiates the similarity of previously tested devices.
2. All pertinent testing and other damping device data are made available to, and accepted by
the registered design professional responsible for the design of the structure.
287
2000 Provisions Chapter 13
13A.10.2.5 Determination of Force-Velocity-Displacement Characteristics: The forcevelocity displacement characteristics of a damping device shall be based on the cyclic load and
displacement tests of prototype devices specified above. Effective stiffness of a damping device
shall be calculated for each cycle of deformation using Eq. 13.9.3-1.
13A.10.2.6 Device Adequacy: The performance of a prototype damping device shall be
assessed as adequate if all of the conditions listed below are satisfied. The 15-percent limits
specified below may be increased by the registered design professional responsible for the
design of the structure provided that the increased limit has been demonstrated by analysis to not
have a deleterious effect on the response of the structure.
13A.10.2.6.1 Displacement-Dependent Devices:
1. For Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Test 1, no signs of damage including leakage, yielding, or breakage.
2. For Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Tests 2 and 3, the maximum force and minimum force at zero
displacement for a damping device for any one cycle does not differ by more than plus or
minus 15 percent from the average maximum and minimum forces at zero displacement as
calculated from all cycles in that test at a specific frequency and temperature.
3. For Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Tests 2 and 3, the maximum force and minimum force at maximum
earthquake device displacement for a damping device for any one cycle does not differ by
more than plus or minus 15 percent from the average maximum and minimum forces at the
maximum earthquake device displacement as calculated from all cycles in that test at a
specific frequency and temperature.
4. For Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Tests 2 and 3, the area of hysteresis loop (Eloop) of a damping device for
any one cycle does not differ by more than plus or minus 15 percent from the average area of
the hysteresis loop as calculated from all cycles in that test at a specific frequency and
temperature.
5. The average maximum and minimum forces at zero displacement and maximum earthquake
displacement, and the average area of the hysteresis loop (Eloop), calculated for each test in
the sequence of Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Tests 2 and 3, shall not differ by more than plus or minus 15
percent from the target values specified by the registered design professional responsible for
the design of the structure.
13A.10.2.6.2 Velocity-Dependent Devices:
1. For Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Test 1, no signs of damage including leakage, yielding, or breakage.
2. For velocity-dependent damping devices with stiffness, the effective stiffness of a damping
device in any one cycle of Tests 2 and 3 of Sec. 13A.10.2.3 does not differ by more than plus
or minus 15 percent from the average effective stiffness as calculated from all cycles in that
test at a specific frequency and temperature.
288
Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
3. For Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Tests 2 and 3, the maximum force and minimum force at zero
displacement for a damping device for any one cycle does not differ by more than plus or
minus 15 percent from the average maximum and minimum forces at zero displacement as
calculated from all cycles in that test at a specific frequency and temperature.
4. For Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Tests 2 and 3, the area of hysteresis loop (Eloop) of a damping device for
any one cycle does not differ by more than plus or minus 15 percent from the average area of
the hysteresis loop as calculated from all cycles in that test at a specific frequency and
temperature.
5. The average maximum and minimum forces at zero displacement, effective stiffness (for
damping devices with stiffness only), and average area of the hysteresis loop (Eloop)
calculated for each test in the sequence of Sec. 13A.10.2.3 Tests 2 and 3, shall not differ by
more than plus or minus 15 percent from the target values specified by the registered design
professional responsible for the design of the structure.
13A.10.3 Production Testing: Prior to installation in a building, damping devices shall be
tested to ensure that their force-velocity-displacement characteristics fall within the limits set by
the registered design professional responsible for the design of the structure. The scope and
frequency of the production-testing program shall be determined by the registered design
professional responsible for the design of the structure.
289
Chapter 14
NONBUILDING STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
14.1 GENERAL:
14.1.1 Scope: Nonbuilding structures considered by the Provisions include all self-supporting
structures which carry gravity loads, with the exception of: buildings, vehicular and railroad
bridges, nuclear power generation plants, offshore platforms, and dams. Nonbuilding structures
are supported by the earth or supported by other structures, and shall be designed and detailed
to resist the minimum lateral forces specified in this chapter . Design shall conform to the
applicable requirements of the Provisions as modified by this chapter. Nonbuilding structures
that are beyond the scope of this section shall be designed in accordance with approved
standards. Approved standards as referenced herein shall consist of standards approved by the
authority having jurisdiction and shall be applicable to the specific type of nonbuilding structure.
The design of nonbuilding structures shall provide sufficient stiffness, strength, and ductility,
consistent with the requirements specified herein for buildings, to resist the effects of seismic
ground motions as represented by the following:
a. Applicable strength and other design criteria shall be obtained from other sections of the
Provisions or its referenced codes and standards.
b. When applicable strength and other design criteria are not contained in or referenced by the
Provisions, such criteria shall be obtained from approved standards. Where approved
standards define acceptance criteria in terms of allowable stresses as opposed to strength, the
design seismic forces shall be obtained from the Provisions and reduced by a factor of 1.4 for
use with allowable stresses. Allowable stress increases used in approved standards are
permitted. Detailing shall be in accordance with the approved standards.
14.2 REFERENCES:
ACI 313
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Standard Practice for the Design and
Construction of Concrete Silos and Stacking Tubes for Storing Granular
Materials, ACI 313, 1997
ACI 350.3
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Standard Practice for the Seismic
Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures, ACI 350.3/350.3R,
2001
ACI 371R-98
American Concrete Institute (ACI), Guide to the Analysis, Design, and
Construction of Concrete-Pedestal Water Towers, ACI 371R, 1995
ANSI K61.1
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Safety Requirements for
the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, ANSI K61.1
291
2000 Provisions Chapter 14
ANSI/API 620
American Petroleum Institute (API), Design and Construction of Large,
Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks, API 620, 1992
ANSI/API 650
American Petroleum Institute (API), Welded Steel Tanks For Oil Storage,
API 650, 10th Edition, November 1998.
ANSI/API 653
American Petroleum Institute (API), Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration,
and Reconstruction, API 653, 2nd edition, December 1995
ANSI/API 2510
American Petroleum Institute (API), Design and Construction of Liquefied
Petroleum Gas Installation, ANSI/API 2510, 7th Edition, May 1995
API Spec 12B
American Petroleum Institute (API), Bolted Tanks for Storage of
Production Liquids, Specification 12B, 14th edition, February 1995
ASCE Task Rpt
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Petrochemical Energy
Committee Task Report, Design of Secondary Containment in
Petrochemical Facilities, 1997
ASCE 7
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7, 1998
ASME BVP
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Boiler And Pressure
Vessel Code, including addenda through 1998
ANSI/ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), STS-1Steel Stacks,
ASME STS, 1992
ASME B31.8
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Gas Transmission
and Distribution Piping Systems, ASTM B31.8, 1995
ASME B96.1
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Welded AluminumAlloy Storage Tanks, ASME B96.1, 1993
ASTM F1159
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Standard Practice
for the Design and Manufacture of Amusement Rides and Devices, ASTM
F1159, 1992
ASTM C 1298
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), Standard Guide for
Design and Construction of Brick Liners for Industrial Chimneys. (ASTM
C1298)
ANSI/AWWA D100 American Water Works Association (AWWA), Welded Steel Tanks AWS
D5.2
forWater Storage, 1996
ANSI/AWWA D103 American Water Works Association (AWWA), Factory-Coated Bolted
Steel Tanks for Water Storage, 1997
ANSI/AWWA D110 American Water Works Association AWWA), Wire- and Strand-Wound
Circular for Water Storage, 1995
ANSI/AWWA D115 American Water Works Association (AWWA), Circular Prestressed
Concrete Tanks with Circumferential Tendons, 1995
292
Nonbuilding Structures
ANSI/NFPA 30
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1996
ANSI/NFPA 58
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Storage and Handling of
Liquefied Petroleum Gas, 1995
ANSI/NFPA 59
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Storage and Handling of
Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants, 1998
ANSI/NFPA 59A
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Production, Storage and
Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), 1996
RMI Specification
Rack Manufacturers Institute (RMI), Specification for the Design, Testing,
and Utilization of Industrial Steel Storage Racks, 1997
Troitsky 1990
Troitsky, M. S., Tubular Steel Structures, 1990
49CFR, Part 193
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Pipeline Safety Regulations,
Title 49 CFR Part 193
NAVFAC R-939
U.S. Naval Facilities Command (NAVFAC), The Seismic Design of
Waterfront Retaining Structures, NAVFAC R-939
NAVFAC DM-25.1 U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Piers and
Wharves. NAVFAC DM-25.1
Army TM 5-809-10/ U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seismic Design for Buildings
NAVFAC P-355/
Chapter 13, 1992
Air Force AFM 88-3
14.3 INDUSTRY DESIGN STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICE: The
following standards and references form a part of the Provisions as referenced herein.
TABLE 14.3 Standards, Industry Standards, and References
Application
Standard or Reference
Steel Storage Racks
Piers and Wharves
Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage
Welded Steel Tanks for Petroleum and Petrochemical
Storage
Bolted Steel Tanks for Water Storage
Concrete Tanks for Water Storage
Pressure Vessels
Refrigerated Liquids Storage:
Liquid Oxygen, Nitrogen and Argon
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
LPG (Propane, Butane, etc.)
Ammonia
Concrete silos and stacking tubes
Petrochemical structures
293
RMI Specification
NAVFAC R-939, NAVFAC DM-25.1
AWWA D100
API 650, API 620
AWWA D103
AWWA D115, AWWA D110, ACI 350.3
ASME
NFPA 50
NFPA 59A, DOT 49CFR
NFPA 59, API 2510
ANSI K61.1
ACI 313
ASCE Design of Secondary Containment
2000 Provisions Chapter 14
Application
Standard or Reference
in Petrochemical Facilities
Impoundment dikes and walls:
Hazardous Materials
Flammable Materials
Liquefied Natural Gas
Cast-in-place concrete stacks and chimneys
Steel stacks and chimneys
Guyed steel stacks and chimneys
Brick masonry liners for stacks and chimneys
Amusement structures
ANSI K61.1
NFPA 30
NFPA 59A, DOT 49CFR
ACI 307
ASME STS
ASME STS, Troitsky 1990
ASTM C1298
ASTM F1159
14.4 NONBUILDING STRUCTURES SUPPORTED BY OTHER STRUCTURES: If a
nonbuilding structure is supported above the base by another structure and the weight of the
nonbuilding structure is less than 25 percent of the combined weight of the nonbuilding structure
and the supporting structure, the design seismic forces of the supported nonbuilding structure
shall be determined in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 6.1.3.
If the weight of a nonbuilding structure is 25 percent or more of the combined weight of the
nonbuilding structure and the supporting structure, the design seismic forces of the nonbuilding
structure shall be determined based on the combined nonbuilding structure and supporting
structural system. For supported nonbuilding structures that have non-rigid component dynamic
characteristics, the combined system R factor shall be a maximum of 3. For supported
nonbuilding structures that have rigid component dynamic characteristics (as defined in Sec.
14.2.2), the combined system R factor shall be the value of the supporting structural system. The
supported nonbuilding structure and attachments shall be designed for the forces determined for
the nonbuilding structure in a combined systems analysis.
14.4.1 Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components: Architectural, mechanical,
and electrical components supported by nonbuilding structures shall be designed in accordance
with Chapter 6 of the Provisions.
14.5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS:
14.5.1 Design Basis: Nonbuilding structures having specific seismic design criteria established
in approved standards shall be designed using the standards as amended herein. In addition,
nonbuilding structures shall be designed in compliance with Sec. 14.3 and 14.4 to resist
minimum seismic lateral forces that are not less than the requirements of Sec. 5.4.1 with the
following additions and exceptions:
1. The response modification coefficient, R, shall be the lesser of the values given in Table
14.5.1.1 or the values in Table 5.2.2.
2. For nonbuilding systems that have an R value provided in Table 14.5.2.1, the minimum
specified value in Eq. 5.4.1.1-1 shall be replaced by:
294
Nonbuilding Structures
Cs = 0.14SDSI
(14.2.1-1)
and the minimum value specified in Eq. 5.3.2.1-4 shall be replaced by:
Cs = 0.8S1I/R
(14.2.1-2)
3. The overstrength factor, S0, shall be as given in Table 14.5.1.1 or Table 5.2.2..
4. The importance factor, I, shall be as given in Table 14.5.1.2 .
5. The height limitations shall be as given in Table 14.5.1.1 or Table 5.2.2.
6. The vertical distribution of the lateral seismic forces in nonbuilding structures covered by
this section shall be determined:
a. In accordance with the requirements of Sec. 5.4.3 or
b. In accordance with the procedures of Sec. 5.5 or
c. In accordance with an approved standard applicable to the specific nonbuilding
structure.
7. For nonbuilding structural systems containing liquids, gases, and granular solids supported at
the base as defined in Sec. 14.7.3.1, the minimum seismic design force shall not be less than
that required by the approved standard for the specific system.
8. Irregular structures per Sec. 5.2.3 at sites where the seismic coefficient SDS is greater than or
equal to 0.50 that cannot be modeled as a single mass shall use the procedures of Sec. 5.5.
9. Where an approved standard provides a basis for the earthquake resistant design of a
particular type of nonbuilding structure such a standard may be used subject to the following
limitations:
a. The seismic ground acceleration and seismic coefficient shall be in conformance with
the requirements of Sec. 4.1 and 4.2, respectively.
b. The values for total lateral force and total base overturning moment used in design
shall not be less than 80 percent of the base shear value and overturning moment,
each adjusted for the effects of soil-structure interaction that would be obtained using
the Provisions.
10. The base shear is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Sec. 5.5.7 to account for the
effects of soil-structure interaction. In no case shall the reduced base shear, Ṽ, be less than
0.7V.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
14.5.1.1 Seismic Factors:
TABLE 14.5.1.1 Seismic Coefficients for Nonbuilding Structures
Nonbuilding Structure Type
S0
R
Cd
Structural System and Height
Limits (ft)c
Seismic Design Category
Nonbuilding frame systems:
Concentric Braced Frames of Steel
Special Concentric Braced Frames of Steel
See Table
5.2.2
Moment Resisting Frame Systems:
Special Moment Frames of Steel
Ordinary Moment Frames of Steel
Special Moment Frames of Concrete
Intermediate Moment Frames of Concrete
Ordinary Moment Frames of Concrete
See Table
5.2.2
Steel Storage Racks
A&B
C
D
E&F
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
50
NL
50
NL
50
NP
NL
50
NL
50
NP
4
2
3-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
3
3
2
2
2
2
2-1/2
2-1/2
2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
2
2
2
2
2
2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Horizontal, saddle supported welded steel vessels
3
2
2-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
Tanks or vessels supported on structural towers
similar to buildings
3
2
2
NL
NL
NL
NL
3
2-1/2
2
2
2-1/2
2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
2
3
2
2
2
2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
1-1/2
1 -/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
3
1-3/4
3
NL
NL
NL
NL
Elevated tanks, vessels, bins, or hoppersa:
On braced legs
On unbraced legs
Irregular braced legs single pedestal or skirt supported
Welded steel
Concrete
Flat bottom, ground supported tanks, or vessels:
Anchored (welded or bolted steel)
Unanchored (welded or bolted steel)
Reinforced or prestressed concrete:
Tanks with reinforced nonsliding base
Tanks with anchored flexible base
Tanks with unanchored and unconstrained:
Flexible base
Other material
Cast-in-place concrete silos, stacks, and chimneys
having walls continuous to the foundation
296
Nonbuilding Structures
Nonbuilding Structure Type
R
S0
Cd
Structural System and Height
Limits (ft)c
Seismic Design Category
Reinforced masonry structuresnot similar to
buildings
A&B
C
D
E&F
3
2
2-1/2
NL
NL
50
50
1-1/4
2
1-1/2
NL
50
50
50
Steel and reinforced concrete distributed mass
cantilever structures not covered herein including
stacks, chimneys, silos, and skirt-supported vertical
vessels that are not similar to buildings
3
2
2-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
Trussed towers (freestanding or guyed), guyed stacks
and chimneys
3
2
2-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
3-1/2
3-1/2
1-3/4
3
3
3
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
50
NL
50
Amusement structures and monuments
2
2
2
NL
NL
NL
NL
Inverted pendulum type structures (except elevated
tanks, vessels, bins and hoppers)b
2
2
2
NL
NL
NL
NL
Signs and billboards
3-1/2
1-3/4
3
NL
NL
NL
NL
Self-supporting structures, tanks or vessels not
covered above or by approved standards that are not
similar to buildings
1-1/4
2
2-1/2
NL
50
50
50
Nonreinforced masonry structures not similar to
buildings
Cooling towers:
Concrete or steel
Wood frame
a
Support towers similar to building type structures, including those with irregularities (see Sec. 5.2.3 of the
Provisions for definition of irregular structures) shall comply with the requirements of Sec. 5.2.6.
b
Height shall be measured from the base.
NL = No limit.
14.5.1.2 Importance Factors and Seismic Use Group Classifications: The importance factor
(I) and seismic use group for nonbuilding structures are based on the relative hazard of the
contents, and the function. The value of I shall be the largest value determined by the approved
standards, or the largest value as selected from Table 14.5.1.2 or as specified elsewhere in
Chapter 14.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
TABLE 14.5.1.2
Importance Factor (I) and Seismic Use Group Classification for Nonbuilding Structures
Importance Factor
I = 1.0
I = 1.25
I = 1.5
Seismic Use Group
I
II
III
Hazard
H-I
H - II
H - III
Function
F-I
F - II
F - III
H-I
The nonbuilding structures that are not assigned to H-II or H-III.
H - II
The nonbuilding structures that have a substantial public hazard due to contents or use as
determined by the authority having jurisdiction.
H - III
The nonbuilding structures containing sufficient quantities of toxic or explosive substance
deemed to be hazardous to the public as determined by the authority having jurisdiction.
F-I
Nonbuilding structures not classified as F - III.
F - II
Not applicable for nonbuilding structures.
F - III
The nonbuilding structures or designated ancillary nonbuilding structures that are required
for post-earthquake recovery or as emergency back-up facilities for Seismic Use Group III
structures.
14.5.2 Rigid Nonbuilding Structures: Nonbuilding structures that have a fundamental period,
T, less than 0.06 sec, including their anchorages, shall be designed for the lateral force obtained
from the following:
V ' 0.30 S DS WI
(14.2.2)
where:
V
= the total design lateral seismic base shear force applied to a nonbuilding
structure,
SDS
= the site design response acceleration as determined from Sec. 4.2.2,
W
= nonbuilding structure operating weight.
I
= the importance factor as determined from Table 14.2.1.2.
The force shall be distributed with height in accordance with Sec. 5.4.3.
14.5.3 Loads: The weight, W, for nonbuilding structures shall include all dead loads as defined
for structures in Sec. 5.4.3. For purposes of calculating design seismic forces in nonbuilding
structures, W also shall include all normal operating contents for items such as tanks, vessels,
bins, and hoppers and the contents of piping. W shall include snow and ice loads when these
loads constitute 25 percent or more of W or when required by the authority having jurisdiction
based on local environmental characteristics.
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Nonbuilding Structures
14.5.4 Fundamental Period: The fundamental period of the nonbuilding structure shall be
determined by methods as prescribed in Sec. 5.4.2 or by other rational methods.
14.5.5 Drift Limitations: The drift limitations of Sec. 5.2.8 need not apply to nonbuilding
structures if a rational analysis indicates they can be exceeded without adversely effecting
structural stability or attached or interconnected components and elements such as walkways and
piping. P-delta effects shall be considered when critical to the function or stability of the
structure.
14.5.6 Materials Requirements: The requirements regarding specific materials in Chapters 8,
9, 10, 11, and 12 shall be applicable unless specifically exempted in this chapter.
14.5.7 Deflection Limits and Structure Separation: Deflection limits and structure separation
shall be determined in accordance with the Provisions unless specifically amended in this
chapter.
14.5.8 Site-Specific Response Spectra: Where required by an approved standard or the
authority having jurisdiction, specific types of nonbuilding structures shall be designed for sitespecific criteria that accounts for local seismicity and geology, expected recurrence intervals and
magnitudes of events from known seismic hazards as provided for in Sec. 4.1.3 of the
Provisions. If a longer recurrence interval is defined in the approval standard for the nonbuilding
structure such as LNG tanks, the recurrence interval required in the standard shall be used
14.6 NONBUILDING STRUCTURES SIMILAR TO BUILDINGS:
14.6.1 General: Nonbuilding structures that have structural systems that are designed and
constructed in a manner similar to buildings and have a dynamic response similar to building
structures shall be designed similar to building structures and in compliance with the Provisions
with exceptions as contained in this section.
This general category of nonbuilding structures shall be designed in accordance with Sec. 14.5.
The lateral force design procedure for nonbuilding structures with structural systems similar to
building structures (those with structural systems listed in Table 5.2.2) shall be selected in
accordance with the force and detailing requirements of Sec. 5.2.1.
The combination of load effects, E, shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 5.2.7.
14.6.2 Pipe Racks:
14.6.2.1 Design Basis: Pipe racks supported at the base shall be designed to meet the force
requirements of Sec. 5.4 or 5.5.
Displacements of the pipe rack and potential for interaction effects (pounding of the piping
system) shall be considered using the amplified deflections obtained from the following formula:
*x'
Cd*xe
(14.6.2.1)
I
where:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
Cd
= the deflection amplification factor in Table 14.5.1.1,
*xe
= the deflections determined using the prescribed seismic design forces of the
Provisions, and
I
= the importance factor determined from Table 14.5.1.2.
Exception: The importance factor, I, shall be determined from Table 14.5.1.2 for the
calculation of *xe.
See Sec. 3.3.11 for the design of piping systems and their attachments. Friction resulting from
gravity loads shall not be considered to provide resistance to seismic forces.
14.6.3 Steel Storage Racks: Steel storage racks supported at or below grade shall be designed
in accordance with Sec. 14.6.3 and the following or, alternatively, with the method detailed in
Section 2.7 of the RMI Specification provided that when determining the value of Ca in Sec.
2.7.3 of the RMI Specification, the value of Cs is taken as equal to SDS/2.5, the value of Cv is
taken as equal to SD1, and the value of Ip shall not be taken as less than that required in Sec. 6.1.5
of the Provisions. In addition, the value of Cs in the RMI Specification shall not be less than
0.14SDS. For storage racks supported above grade, the value of Cs in the RMI Specification shall
not be less than the value determined for Fp in accordance with Sec. 6.2 of the Provisions with Rp
taken as equal to R and ap taken as equal to 2.5.
14.6.3.1 General Requirements: Steel storage racks shall satisfy the force requirements of
this section.
Exception: Steel storage racks supported at the base are permitted to be designed as
structures with an R of 4 provided that the requirements of Chapter 2 are met. Higher
values of R are permitted to be used when justified by test data approved in accordance
with Sec. 1.2.6 or when the detailing requirements of Chapter 5 and 10 are met. The
importance factor I shall be taken equal to the Ip values in accordance with Sec. 6.1.5
14.6.3.2 Operating Weight: Steel storage racks shall be designed for each of the following
conditions of operating weight, W or Wp.
a. Weight of the rack plus every storage level loaded to 67 percent of its rated load capacity.
b.
Weight of the rack plus the highest storage level only loaded to 100 percent of its rated load
capacity.
The design shall consider the actual height of the center of mass of each storage load component.
14.6.3.3 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces: For all steel storage racks, the vertical
distribution of seismic forces shall be as specified in Sec. 5.4.3 and in accordance with the
following:
a. The base shear, V, of the typical structure shall be the base shear of the steel storage rack
when loaded in accordance with Sec. 14.6.3.2.
b.
The base of the structure shall be the floor supporting the steel storage rack. Each steel
storage level of the rack shall be treated as a level of the structure, with heights hi, and hx
measured from the base of the structure.
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Nonbuilding Structures
c.
The factor k may be taken as 1.0.
d. The factor I shall be in accordance with Sec. 6.1.5.
14.6.3.4 Seismic Displacements: Steel storage rack installations shall accommodate the
seismic displacement of the storage racks and their contents relative to all adjacent or attached
components and elements. The assumed total relative displacement for storage racks shall be
not less than 5 percent of the height above the base unless a smaller value is justified by test data
or analysis approved in accordance with Sec. 1.5.
14.6.4 Electrical Power Generating Facilities:
14.6.4.1 General: Electrical power generating facilities are power plants that generate
electricity by steam turbines, combustion turbines, diesel generators or similar turbo machinery.
14.6.4.2 Design Basis: Electrical power generating facilities shall be designed using the
Provisions and the appropriate factors contained in Sec. 14.5.
14.6.5 Structural Towers for Tanks and Vessels:
14.6.5.1 General: Structural towers which support tanks and vessels shall be designed to meet
the provisions of Sec 14.4. In addition, the following special considerations shall be included:
a. The distribution of the lateral base shear from the tank or vessel onto the supporting
structure shall consider the relative stiffness of the tank and resisting structural elements.
b. The distribution of the vertical reactions from the tank or vessel onto the supporting structure
shall consider the relative stiffness of the tank and resisting structural elements. When the
tank or vessel is supported on grillage beams, the calculated vertical reaction due to weight
and overturning shall be increased at least 20 percent to account for nonuniform support. The
grillage beam and vessel attachment shall be designed for this increased design value.
c. Seismic displacements of the tank and vessel shall consider the deformation of the support
structure when determining P-delta effects or evaluating required clearances to prevent
pounding of the tank on the structure.
14.6.6 Piers and Wharves:
14.6.6.1 General: Piers and wharves are structures located in waterfront areas that project into
a body of water or parallel the shore line.
14.6.6.2 Design Basis: Piers and wharves shall be designed to comply with the Provisions and
approved standards. Seismic forces on elements below the water level shall include the inertial
force of the mass of the displaced water. The additional seismic mass equal to the mass of the
displaced water shall be included as a lumped mass on the submerged element, and shall be
added to the calculated seismic forces of the pier or wharf structure. Seismic dynamic forces
from the soil shall be determined by the registered design professional.
The design shall account for the effects of liquefaction on piers and wharfs as required.
14.7 NONBUILDING STRUCTURES NOT SIMILAR TO BUILDINGS:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
14.7.1 General: Nonbuilding structures that have structural systems that are designed and
constructed in a manner such that the dynamic response is not similar to buildings shall be
designed in compliance with the Provisions with exceptions as contained in this section.
This general category of nonbuilding structures shall be designed in accordance with the
Provisions and the specific applicable approved standards. Loads and load distributions shall not
be less than those determined in the Provisions.
The combination of load effects, E, shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 5.2.6.2.
Exception: The redundancy/reliability factor, D, per Sec. 5.2.4 shall be taken as 1.
14.7.2 Earth Retaining Structures:
14.7.2.1 General: This section applies to all earth retaining walls. The applied seismic forces
shall be determined in accordance with Sec. 7.5.1 with a geotechnical analysis prepared by a
registered design professional.
14.7.3 Tanks and Vessels:
14.7.3.1 General: This section applies to all tanks, vessels, bins, and silos and similar
containers storing liquids, gases, and granular solids supported at the base (hereafter referred to
generically as tanks and vessels). Tanks and vessels covered herein include reinforced concrete,
prestressed concrete, steel, and fiber-reinforced plastic materials.
14.7.3.2 Design Basis: Tanks and vessels storing liquids, gases, and granular solids shall be
designed in accordance with the Provisions and shall be designed to meet the requirements of the
applicable approved standards shown in Table 14.3 and Chapter 4 of the Provisions as defined in
this section. Resistance to seismic forces shall be determined from a substantiated analysis based
on the approved standards shown in Table 14.3.
h. Damping for the convective (sloshing) force component shall be taken as 0.5 percent
i. Impulsive and convective components may be combined by the direct sum or the square root
of the sum of the square (SRSS) method when the modal periods are separated. If modal
coupling may occur, the complete quadratic combination (CQC) method shall be used.
j. Vertical component of ground acceleration shall be considered in accordance with the
appropriate national standard. If the approved national standard permits the user the option
of including or excluding the vertical component of ground acceleration to comply with the
Provisions, it shall be included. For tanks and vessels not covered by an approved national
standard, the vertical seismic force shall be defined as 67 percent of the equivalent lateral
force.
14.7.3.3 Strength and Ductility: Structural components and members that are part of the lateral
support system shall be designed to provide the following:
a. Connections and attachments for anchorage and other lateral force resisting components shall
be designed to develop the strength of the anchor (e.g., minimum published yield strength, Fy
in direct tension, plastic bending moment) or So times the calculated element design load.
302
Nonbuilding Structures
b. Penetrations, manholes, and openings in shell components shall be designed to maintain the
strength and stability of the shell to carry tensile and compressive membrane shell forces.
c. Support towers for tanks and vessels with irregular bracing, unbraced panels, asymmetric
bracing, or concentrated masses shall be designed using the provisions of Sec. 5.2.3 for
irregular structures. Support towers using chevron or eccentric braced framing shall comply
with the requirements of Sec. 5. Support towers using tension only bracing shall be designed
such that the full cross section of the tension element can yield during overload conditions.
d. Compression struts that resist the reaction forces from tension braces shall be designed to
resist the lesser of the yield strength of the brace (Ag Fy), or So times the calculated tension
load in the brace.
e. The vessel stiffness relative to the support system (e.g., foundation, support tower, skirt) shall
be considered in determining forces in the vessel, the resisting components and the
connections.
f. For concrete liquid-containing structures, system ductility and energy dissipation under
unfactored loads shall not be allowed to be achieved by inelastic deformations to such a
degree as to jeopardize the serviceability of the structure. Stiffness degradation and energy
dissipation shall be allowed to be obtained either through limited microcracking, or by means
of lateral-force resistance mechanisms that dissipate energy without damaging the structure.
14.7.3.4 Flexibility of Piping Attachments: Piping systems connected to tanks and vessels
shall consider the potential movement of the connection points during earthquakes and provide
sufficient flexibility to avoid release of the product by failure of the piping system. The piping
system and supports shall be designed so as to not impart significant mechanical loading on the
attachment to the tank or vessel shell. Local loads at piping connections shall be considered in
the design of the tank or vessel shell. Mechanical devices which add flexibility such as bellows,
expansion joints, and other flexible apparatus may be used when they are designed for seismic
loads and displacements.
Unless otherwise calculated, the minimum displacements in Table 14.7.3.4 shall be assumed.
For attachment points located above the support or foundation elevation, the displacements in
Table 14.7.3.4 shall be increased to account for drift of the tank or vessel.
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
TABLE 14.7.3.4 Minimum Displacements for Piping Attachments
Anchored Tanks or Vessels
Vertical displacement relative to support or foundation
Horizontal ( radial and tangential ) relative to support or foundation
Displacements
(inches)
2
0.5
Unanchored Tanks or Vessels (at grade)
Vertical displacement relative to support or foundation
If designed to meet approved standard.
If designed for seismic loads per the provisions but not covered by an approved standard
For tanks and vessels with a diameter <40 ft, horizontal (radial and tangential) relative to
support or foundation
6
12
8
When the elastic deformations are calculated, the minimum design displacements for piping
attachments shall be the calculated displacements at the point of attachment increased by the
amplification factor Cd.
The values given in Table 14.7.3.4 do not include the influence of relative movements of the
foundation and piping anchorage points due to foundation movements (e.g., settlement, seismic
displacements). The effects of the foundation movements shall be included in the piping system
design including the determination of the mechanical loading on the tank or vessel, and the total
displacement capacity of the mechanical devices intended to add flexibility.
14.7.3.5 Anchorage: Tanks and vessels at grade are permitted to be designed without
anchorage when they meet the requirements for unanchored tanks in approved standards. Tanks
and vessels supported above grade on structural towers or building structures shall be anchored
to the supporting structure.
The following special detailing requirements shall apply to steel tank anchor bolts in seismic
regions where SDS > 0.5 or where the structure is classified as Seismic Use Group III.
a. Hooked anchor bolts (L or J shaped embedded bolts) or other anchorage systems based solely
on bond or mechanical friction shall not be used when SDS $ 0.33. Post-installed anchors may
be used provided that testing validates their ability to develop yield load in the anchor under
cyclic loads in cracked concrete.
b. When anchorage is required, the anchor embedment into the foundation shall be designed to
develop the minimum specified yield strength of the anchor.
14.7.3.6 Ground-Supported Storage Tanks for Liquids:
14.7.3.6.1 General: Ground-supported, flat bottom tanks storing liquids shall be designed to
resist the seismic forces calculated using one of the following procedures:
a. The base shear and overturning moment calculated as if tank and the entire contents are a
rigid mass system per Sec. 14.5.2 of the Provisions or
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Nonbuilding Structures
b. Tanks or vessels storing liquids in Seismic Use Group III or with a diameter greater than 20
ft shall be designed to consider the hydrodynamic pressures of the liquid in determining the
equivalent lateral forces and lateral force distribution per the approved standards listed in
Table 14.3 and Sec. 14.7.3 of the Provisions.
c. The force and displacement provisions of Sec. 14.5.4 of the Provisions.
The design of tanks storing liquids shall consider the impulsive and convective (sloshing) effects
and consequences on the tank, foundation, and attached elements. The impulsive component
corresponds to the high frequency amplified response to the lateral ground motion of the tank
roof, shell and portion of the contents that moves in unison with the shell. The convective
component corresponds to the low frequency amplified response of the contents in the
fundamental sloshing mode. Damping for the convective component shall be 0.5 percent for the
sloshing liquid unless otherwise defined by the approved national standard. The following
definitions shall apply:
Tc =
natural period of the first (convective) mode of sloshing,
Ti =
fundamental period of the tank structure and impulsive component of the content,
Tv =
natural period of vertical vibration of the liquid and tank structural system,
Vi =
base shear due to impulsive component from weight of tank and contents,
Vc =
base shear due to the convective component of the effective sloshing mass,
The seismic base shear is the combination of the impulsive and convective components:
V = Vi + Vc
( 14.7.3.6.1)
where:
Vi =
Vc =
S ai W i
R
S ac W c
R
Sai = the spectral acceleration as a multiplier of gravity including the site impulsive
components at period Ti and 5 percent damping.
For Ti < Ts, Sai = SDS.
For Ti > Ts, S ai =
S D1
.
Ti
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
Note: When an approved national standard is used in which the spectral acceleration
for the tank shell, and the impulsive component of the liquid is independent of Ti, then
Sai = SDS for all cases.
Sac = the spectral acceleration of the sloshing liquid based on the sloshing period Tc and 0.5
percent damping.
For Tc < 4.0 sec, S ac =
15
. S D1
Tc
For Tc of 4.0 sec or greater, S ac =
and
T c = 2π
6S D1
T c2
D
 3.68 H 
3.68g tanh

 D 
where D = the tank diameter in feet, H = liquid height (feet or meters) and g =
acceleration due to gravity in consistent units.
Wi = impulsive weight (impulsive component of liquid, roof and equipment, shell, bottom, and
internal components,
Wc = the portion of the liquid weight sloshing.
The general design response spectra for ground-supported liquid storage tanks is shown in Figure
14.7.3.6-1.
306
Nonbuilding Structures
Design Response Spectra for Ground-Supported Liquid Storage Tanks
Spectral Response Acceleration, Sa
SDS
Sai =
SD1
(β = 5%)
T
Sac=
1.5SD1
(β = 0.5%)
T
SD1
T0
T=4 sec
T=1 sec
6SD1
Sac= 2 (β =0.5%)
T
TS
Period, T
Figure 14.7.3.6-1
14.7.3.6.1.1 Distribution of Hydrodynamic and Inertia Forces: Unless otherwise required by
the appropriate approved standard in Table 14.3, the method given in ACI 350.3 may be used to
determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of the hydrodynamic and inertia forces on the
walls of circular and rectangular tanks.
14.7.3.6.1.2 Freeboard: Sloshing of the liquid within the tank or vessel shall be considered in
determining the freeboard required above the top capacity liquid level. A minimum freeboard
shall be provided per Table 14.7.3.6.1.2. The height of the sloshing wave can be estimated by:
*s ' 0.5DISac
(14.7.3.6.1.2)
TABLE 14.7.3.6.1.2 Minimum Required Freeboard
Value of SDS
Seismic Use Group
I
II
III
SDS < 0.167g
a
a
*sc
0.167g # SDS < 0.33g
a
a
*sc
0.33g # SDS < 0.50g
a
0.7*sb
*sc
0.50g # SDS
a
0.7*sb
*sc
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
a
No minimum freeboard is required.
A freeboard equal to 0.7*s is required unless one of the following alternatives is provided:
1. Secondary containment is provided to control the product spill.
2. The roof and supporting structure are designed to contain the sloshing liquid.
c
Freeboard equal to the calculated wave height, *s, is required unless one of the following alternatives is
provided:
1. Secondary containment is provided to control the product spill.
2. The roof and supporting structure are designed to contain the sloshing liquid.
b
14.7.3.6.1.3 Equipment and Attached Piping: Equipment, piping, and walkways or other
appurtenances attached to the structure shall be designed to accommodate the displacements
imposed by seismic forces. For piping attachments, see Sec. 14.7.3.4.
14.7.3.6.1.4 Internal Components: The attachments of internal equipment and accessories
which are attached to the primary liquid or pressure retaining shell or bottom, or provide
structural support for major components (e.g., a column supporting the roof rafters) shall be
designed for the lateral loads due to the sloshing liquid in addition to the inertial forces. (See
Wozniak and Mitchell, 1978).
14.7.3.6.1.5 Sliding Resistance: The transfer of the total lateral shear force between the tank or
vessel and the subgrade shall be considered as follows:
a. For unanchored flat bottom steel tanks, the overall horizontal seismic shear force shall be
resisted by friction, Vs, between the tank bottom and the foundation or subgrade. Unanchored
storage tanks must be designed such that sliding will not occur when the tank is full of stored
product. The maximum calculated seismic base shear, Vs, shall not exceed W tan 30o (Vs < W
tan 30o).
V shall be determined using the effective weight of the tank, roof and contents after reduction
for coincident vertical earthquake. Lower values of the friction factor should be used if the
design of bottom to supporting foundation does not justify the friction value above (e.g., leak
detection membrane beneath the bottom with a lower friction factor, smooth bottoms, etc).
b. No additional lateral anchorage is required for anchored steel tanks designed in accordance
with approved standards.
c. The lateral shear transfer behavior for special tank configurations (e.g., shovel bottoms,
highly crowned tank bottoms, tanks on grillage) can be unique and are beyond the scope of
the provisions.
14.7.3.6.1.6 Local Shear Transfer: Local transfer of the shear from the roof to the wall and the
wall of the tank into the base shall be considered. For cylindrical tanks and vessels, the peak
local tangential shear per unit length shall be calculated by:
V max =
2V
πD
308
(14.7.3.6.1.6)
Nonbuilding Structures
a. Tangential shear in flat bottom steel tanks shall be transferred through the welded connection
to the steel bottom. This transfer mechanism is deemed acceptable for steel tanks designed in
accordance with the approved standards and Sas < 1.0.
b. For concrete tanks with a sliding base where the lateral shear is resisted by friction between
the tank wall and the base, the friction coefficient shall not exceed tan 30o.
c. In fixed-base or hinged-base concrete tanks, the total horizontal seismic base shear is shared
by membrane (tangential) shear and radial shear into the foundation. For anchored flexiblebase concrete tanks, the majority of the base shear is resisted by membrane (tangential) shear
through the anchoring system with only insignificant vertical bending in the wall. The
connection between the wall and floor shall be designed to resist the maximum tangential
shear.
14.7.3.6.1.7 Pressure Stability: For steel tanks, the internal pressure from the stored product
stiffens thin cylindrical shell structural elements subjected to membrane compression forces.
This stiffening effect may be considered in resisting seismically induced compressive forces if
permitted by the approved standard or the building official having jurisdiction.
14.7.3.6.1.8 Shell Support: Steel tanks resting on concrete ring walls or slabs shall have a
uniformly supported annulus under the shell. Uniform support shall be provided by one of the
following methods:
a. Shimming and grouting the annulus,
b. Using fiberboard or other suitable padding
c. Using butt-welded bottom or annular plates resting directly on the foundation,
d. Using closely spaced shims (without structural grout) provided that the localized bearing
loads are considered in the tank wall and foundation to prevent local crippling and spalling.
Anchored tanks shall be shimmed and grouted. Local buckling of the steel shell for the peak
compressive force due to operating loads and seismic overturning shall be considered.
14.7.3.6.1.9 Repair, Alteration ,or Reconstruction: Repairs, modifications or reconstruction
(i.e., cut down and re-erect) of a tank or vessel shall conform to industry standard practice and
the Provisions. For welded steel tanks storing liquids, see API 653 and the approved national
standard in Table 14.3. Tanks that are relocated shall be re-evaluated for the seismic loads for
the new site and the requirements of new construction in accordance with the appropriate
approved national standard and the Provisions.
14.7.3.7 Water and Water Treatment Tanks and Vessels:
14.7.3.7.1 Welded Steel: Welded steel water storage tanks and vessels shall be designed in
accordance with the seismic requirements of AWWA D100 except that the design input forces
shall be modified as follows:
The impulsive and convective components of the base shear are defined by the following
equations for allowable stress design procedures:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
Vi =
For Ts < Tc < 4.0 sec., V c =
S DS I
Wi
14
. R
(14.7.3.7.1)
S DS I
Wc .
14
. RT c
For Tc of 4.0 sec or greater, V c =
6S DS I T s
Wc .
14
. R Tc2
a. Substitute the above parameters into AWWA D100Eq. 13-4 and 13-8. Substitute the
ZI
S DS I
expression
and substitute the term “B” for the term “S” in these
... for...
2.5(14
. R)
Rw
equations in AWWA D100, where SDS and TS, are defined in Sec. 4.1.2.5, R is defined in
Table 14.2.1.1, B = 1.25Ts when Tc is in the range Ts < Tc # 4.0 sec, B = 1.11TS when Tc is >
4.0 sec.
Thus, AWWA D100 Eq. 13-4 for base shear at the bottom of the tank shell becomes:
V ACT =
[
18S DS I
. (W s + W r + W f + W 1) + BC1W 2
014
. R)
2.5(14
]
Alternatively,
For Ts < Tc < 4.0 sec, V ACT =
For Tc > 4.0 sec,
V ACT =
S DS I 
Ts 
.
W s + W r + W f + W 1 + 15
W2 .

14
. R 
T c 
(
)

S DS I 
Ts
W s + W r + W f + W 1 + 6 2 W 2 .

14
. R 
Tc

(
)
Similarly, AWWA D100 Eq. 13-8 for overturning moment applied to the bottom of the tank
shell in AWWA D100 becomes:
 18S DS I 
M=
. (W s X s + W r H t + W1 X 1) + BC1W 2 X 2]
[014
. R) 
 2.5(14
310
Nonbuilding Structures
b. The hydrodynamic seismic hoop tensile stress is defined in AWWA D100 Eq. 13-20 through
13-25. When using these equations, make the following substitution directly into the
equations:
SDSI
 ZI 
..... for ..... 
2.5(1.4 R )
 Rw 
c. Sloshing height shall be calculated per Sec 14.7.3.7.1.2 instead of (Eq 13-26) of AWWA
D100.
14.7.3.7.2 Bolted Steel: Bolted steel water storage structures shall be designed in accordance
with the seismic requirements of AWWA D103 except that the design input forces shall be
modified in the same manner shown in Sec 14.7.3.8.1 of the Provisions.
14.7.3.7.3 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete: Reinforced and prestressed concrete tanks
shall be designed in accordance with the seismic requirements of ACI 350.3 except that the
design input forces shall be modified as follows:
Sa I
where Sa is defined in Sec. 4.1.2.6,
14
. R
Subsections 1, 2, or 3 or Eq. 4.1.2.6-3, for the terms in the appropriate equations as shown
below:
a. For TI < To, and TI > Ts, substitute the term
b.
For
ZIC1
shear and overturning moment equations of AWWA D110 and AWWA D115.
R1
For
ZISC1
in the base shear and overturning moment equations of ACI 350.3.
Ri
For To # TI # Ts, substitute the term
c. For all values of Tc (or Tw),
S DS I
14
. R
for terms
ZICi
ZISCi
and
.
Ri
R1
ZICc
ZISC c
and
are replaced by
Rc
Rc
6 S D1 I
 6S DS I 
TS
2 .. or .. 
2
Tc
 Tc

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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
Thus, for To # TI # Ts, AWWA D110 Eq. 4-1 becomes
4-2 becomes V c =
VI =
S DS I
(W s + W R + W I ) and Eq.
14
. R
6S DS I  T s 

 W C where Sa, SD1, SDS, T0, and Ts are defined in Sec. 4.1.2.6
14
. R  T c2 
of the Provisions.
14.7.3.8 Petrochemical and Industrial Tanks and Vessels Storing Liquids:
14.7.3.8.1 Welded Steel: Welded steel petrochemical and industrial tanks and vessels storing
liquids shall be designed in accordance with the seismic requirements of API 650 and API 620
except that the design input forces shall be modified as follows:
a. When using the equations in API 650 Sec. E.3, substitute the following into the equation for
overturning moment M (where SDS and Ts are defined in Sec. 4.1.2.5 of the Provisions).
Thus,
In the range Ts < Tc # 4.0 sec,
C2 =
0.75S
... and ... S = 10
.
Tc
M = S DS I [ 0.24(W s X s + W t H t + W 1 X 1) + 0.80 C 2 T 2 W 2 X 2]
In the range Tw > 4.0 sec,
M = S DS I [0.24(W s X s + W t H t + W 1 X 1) + 0.71C2 T s W 2 X 2] and
C2 =
3.375S
... and ... S = 10
.
T c2
14.7.3.8.2 Bolted Steel: For bolted steel tanks used for storage of production liquids, API 12B
covers the material, design, and erection requirements for vertical, cylindrical, and aboveground
bolted tanks in nominal capacities of 100 to 10,000 barrels for production service. Unless
required by the authority having jurisdiction, these temporary structures need not be designed for
seismic loads. If design for seismic load is required, the loads may be adjusted for the temporary
nature of the anticipated service life.
14.7.3.8.3 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete: Reinforced concrete tanks for the storage
of petrochemical and industrial liquids shall be designed in accordance with the force
requirements of Sec. 14.7.3.8.3.
14.7.3.9 Ground-Supported Storage Tanks for Granular Materials
14.7.3.9.1 General: The intergranular behavior of the material shall be considered in
determining effective mass and load paths, including the following behaviors:
a. Increased lateral pressure (and the resulting hoop stress) due to loss of the intergranular
friction of the material during the seismic shaking.
312
Nonbuilding Structures
b. Increased hoop stresses generated from temperature changes in the shell after the material
has been compacted.
c. Intergranular friction which can transfer seismic shear directly to the foundation.
14.7.3.9.2 Lateral Force Determination: The lateral forces for tanks and vessels storing
granular materials at grade shall be determined by the requirements and accelerations for short
period structures (i.e., Sas).
14.7.3.9.3 Force Distribution to Shell and Foundation:
14.7.3.9.3.1 Increased Lateral Pressure: The increase in lateral pressure on the tank wall shall
be added to the static design lateral pressure but shall not be used in the determination of
pressure stability effects on the axial buckling strength of the tank shell.
14.7.3.9.3.2 Effective Mass: A portion of a stored granular mass will acts with the shell (the
effective mass). The effective mass is related to the physical characteristics of the product, the
height-to-diameter (H/D) ratio of the tank and the intensity of the seismic event. The effective
mass shall be used to determine the shear and overturning loads resisted by the tank.
14.7.3.9.3.3 Effective Density: The effective density factor (that part of the total stored mass
of product which is accelerated by the seismic event) shall be determined in accordance ACI 313.
14.7.3.9.3.4 Lateral Sliding: For granular storage tanks that have a steel bottom and are
supported such that friction at the bottom to foundation interface can resist lateral shear loads, no
additional anchorage to prevent sliding is required. For tanks without steel bottoms (i.e., the
material rests directly on the foundation), shear anchorage shall be provided to prevent sliding.
14.7.3.9.3.5 Combined Anchorage Systems: If separate anchorage systems are used to prevent
overturning and sliding, the relative stiffness of the systems shall be considered in determining
the load distribution.
14.7.3.9.4 Welded Steel Structures: Welded steel granular storage structures shall be designed
for Chapter 4 of the Provisions. Component allowable stresses and materials shall be per
AWWA D100 except the allowable circumferential membrane stresses and material
requirements in API 650 shall apply.
14.7.3.9.5 Bolted Steel Structures: Bolted steel granular storage structures shall be designed in
compliance with Chapter 4 of the Provisions. Component allowable stresses and materials shall
be per AWWA D103.
14.7.3.9.6 Reinforced Concrete Structures: Reinforced concrete structures for the storage of
granular materials shall be designed in accordance with the force requirements of Chapter 4 of
the Provisions and the requirements of ACI 313.
14.7.3.9.7 Prestressed Concrete Structures: Prestressed concrete structures for the storage of
granular materials shall be designed in accordance with the force provisions of Chapter 4 of the
Provisions and the requirements of ACI 313.
14.7.3.10 Elevated Tanks and Vessels for Liquids and Granular Materials:
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2000 Provisions Chapter 14
14.7.3.10.1 General: This section applies to tanks, vessels, bins, and hoppers that are elevated
above grade where the supporting tower is an integral part of the structure or where the primary
function of the tower is to support the tank or vessel. Tanks and vessels that are supported within
buildings, or are incidental to the primary function of the tower are considered mechanical
equipment and shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 6 of the Provisions.
Elevated tanks shall be designed for the force and displacement requirements of the applicable
approved standard, or Sec 14.5.
14.7.3.10.2 Effective mass: The design of the supporting tower or pedestal, anchorage, and
foundation for seismic overturning shall assume the material stored is a rigid mass acting at the
volumetric center of gravity. The effects of fluid-structure interaction may be considered in
determining the forces, effective period, and mass centroids of the system if the following
requirements are met:
a. The sloshing period, Tc is greater than 3T where T = natural period of the tank with confined
liquid (rigid mass) and supporting structure.
b. The sloshing mechanism (i.e., the percentage of convective mass and centroid) is determined
for the specific configuration of the container by detailed fluid structure interaction analysis
or testing.
Soil-structure interaction may be included in determining T providing the provisions of Sec 2.5
are met.
14.7.3.10.3 P-Delta effects: The lateral drift of the elevated tank shall be considered as follows:
a. The design drift, the elastic lateral displacement of the stored mass center of gravity shall be
increased by the factor Cd for evaluating the additional load in the support structure.
b. The base of the tank shall be assumed to be fixed rotationally and laterally
c. Deflections due to bending, axial tension or compression shall be considered. For pedestal
tanks with a height to diameter ratio less than 5, shear deformations of the pedestal shall be
considered.
d. The dead load effects of roof mounted equipment or platforms shall be included in the
analysis.
e. If constructed within the plumbness tolerances specified by the approved standard, initial tilt
need not be considered in the P-delta analysis.
14.7.3.10.4 Transfer of Lateral Forces into Support Tower: For post supported tanks and
vessels that are cross braced:
a. The bracing shall be installed in such a manner as to provide uniform resistance to the lateral
load (e.g., pretensioning or tuning to attain equal sag).
b. The additional load in the brace due to the eccentricity between the post to tank attachment
and the line of action of the bracing shall be included.
314
Nonbuilding Structures
c. Eccentricity of compression strut line of action (elements that resist the tensile pull from the
bracing rods in the lateral force resisting systems) with their attachment points shall be
considered.
d. The connection of the post or leg with the foundation shall be designed to resist both the
vertical and lateral resultant from the yield load in the bracing assuming the direction of the
lateral load is oriented to produce the maximum lateral shear at the post to foundation
interface. Where multiple rods are connected to the same location, the anchorage shall be
designed to resist the concurrent tensile loads in the braces.
14.7.3.10.5 Evaluation of Structures Sensitive to Buckling Failure: Shell structures that
support substantial loads may exhibit a primary mode of failure from localized or general
buckling of the support pedestal or skirt during seismic loads. Such structures may include
single pedestal water towers, skirt supported process vessels, and similar single member towers.
Where the structural assessment concludes that buckling of the support is the governing primary
mode of failure, structures and components in Seismic Use Group III shall be designed to resist
the seismic forces as follows:
a. The seismic response coefficient for this evaluation shall be per Sec 5.3.2.1 of the Provisions
with I/R set equal to 1.0. Soil-structure and fluid-structure interaction may be utilized in
determining the structural response. Vertical or orthogonal combinations need not be
considered.
b. The resistance of the structure or component shall be defined as the critical buckling
resistance of the element (i.e. a factor of safety set equal to 1.0).
c. The anchorage and foundation shall be designed to resist the load determined in item a. The
foundation shall be proportioned to provide a stability ratio of 1.2 for the overturning
moment. The maximum toe pressure under the foundation shall not exceed the ultimate
bearing capacity or the lesser of 3 times the allowable bearing capacity. All structural
components and elements of the foundation shall be designed to resist the combined loads
with a load factor of 1.0 on all loads, including dead load, live load and earthquake load.
Anchors shall be permitted to yield.
14.7.3.10.6 Welded Steel Water Storage Structures: Welded steel elevated water storage
structures shall be designed and detailed in accordance with the seismic requirements of AWWA
D100 and the Provisions except that the design input forces shall be modified by substituting the
following terms for
ZIC
Rw
in AWWA D100 Eq.13-1 and 13-3 of and set the value for S = 1.0.
For T < Ts, substitute the term
S DS I
.
14
. R
For Ts < T < 4.0 sec, substitute the term
S D1 I
.
T (14
. R)
315
2000 Provisions Chapter 14
For T > 4.0 sec, substitute the term
S D1 I
.
. R)
T (14
2
14.7.3.10.6.1 Analysis Procedures: The equivalent lateral force procedure may be used. A
more rigorous analysis shall be permitted. Analysis of single pedestal structures shall be based
on a fixed-base, single-degree-of-freedom model. All mass, including the liquid, shall be
considered rigid unless the sloshing mechanism (i.e., the percentage of convective mass and
centroid) is determined for the specific configuration of the container by detailed fluid structure
interaction analysis or testing. Soil-structure interaction may be included.
14.7.3.10.6.2 Structure Period: The fundamental period of vibration of the structure shall be
established using the structural properties and deformational characteristics of the resisting
elements in a substantiated analysis. The period used to calculate the seismic response
coefficient shall not exceed 4.0 sec. See AWWA D100 for guidance on computing the
fundamental period of cross braced structures.
14.7.3.10.7 Concrete Pedestal (Composite) Tanks: Concrete pedestal (composite) elevated
water storage structures shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of ACI 371
except that the design input forces shall be modified as follows:
In ACI 371 Eq. 4-8a:
For Ts < T < 4.0 sec, substitute the term
For T > 4.0 sec, substitute the term
S D1 I
12
. Cv
for
RT 2 3
TR
12
4 S D1 I
. Cv
for
2
R T2 3
T R
In ACI 371 Eq. 4-8b, substitute the term
2.5Ca
S DS I
for
R
R
In ACI 371 Eq. 4-9, substitute the term 0.2SDS for 0.5Ca.
14.7.3.10.7.1 Analysis Procedures: The equivalent lateral force procedure may be used for all
structures and shall be based on a fixed-base, single-degree-of-freedom model. All mass,
including the liquid, shall be considered rigid unless the sloshing mechanism (i.e., the percentage
of convective mass and centroid) is determined for the specific configuration of the container by
detailed fluid structure interaction analysis or testing. Soil-structure interaction may be included.
A more rigorous analysis is permitted.
14.7.3.10.7.2 Structure Period: The fundamental period of vibration of the structure shall be
established using the uncracked structural properties and deformational characteristics of the
resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis. The period used to calculate the seismic
response coefficient shall not exceed 2.5 sec.
14.7.3.11 Boilers and Pressure Vessels:
316
Nonbuilding Structures
14.7.3.11.1 General: Attachments to the pressure boundary, supports, and lateral force resisting
anchorage systems for boilers and pressure vessels shall be designed to meet the force and
displacement requirements of Sec 3.1.3 and 3.1.4 and the additional requirements of this section.
Boilers and pressure vessels categorized as Seismic Use Group II or III shall be designed to meet
the force and displacement requirements of Sec 3.1.3 and 3.1.4.
14.7.3.11.2 ASME Boilers and Pressure Vessels: Boilers or pressure vessels designed and
constructed in accordance with ASME shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section
provided that the displacement requirements of Sec 3.1.3 and 3.1.4 are used with appropriate
scaling of the force and displacement requirements to the working stress design basis.
14.7.3.11.3 Attachments of Internal Equipment and Refractory: Attachments to the pressure
boundary for internal and external ancillary components (e.g., refractory, cyclones, trays) shall be
designed to resist the seismic forces in the Provisions to safeguard against rupture of the pressure
boundary. Alternatively, the element attached may be designed to fail prior to damaging the
pressure boundary provided that the consequences of the failure does not place the pressure
boundary in jeopardy. For boilers or vessels containing liquids, the effect of sloshing on the
internal equipment shall be considered if the equipment can damage the integrity of the pressure
boundary.
14.7.3.11.4 Coupling of Vessel and Support Structure: Where the mass of the operating
vessel or vessels supported is greater than 25 percent of the total mass of the combined structure,
the coupling of the masses shall be considered. Coupling with adjacent, connected structures
such as multiple towers shall be considered if the structures are interconnected with elements
that will transfer loads from one structure to the other.
14.7.3.11.5 Effective Mass: Fluid-structure interaction (sloshing) shall be considered in
determining the effective mass of the stored material providing sufficient liquid surface exists for
sloshing to occur and the Tc is greater than 3T. Changes to or variations in material density with
pressure and temperature shall be considered.
14.7.3.11.6 Other Boilers and Pressure Vessels: Boilers and pressure vessels that are
designated Seismic Use Group III but are not designed and constructed in accordance with the
requirements of ASME shall meet the following requirements:
The seismic loads in combination with other service loads and appropriate environmental effects
shall not exceed the material strength shown in Table 14.7.3.11.6.
TABLE 14.7.3.11.6 Maximum Material Strength
Material
Minimum
Ratio
Fu/Fy
Max Material
Strength
Vessel Material
Ductile (e.g., steel, aluminum,
90%
copper)
1.33 b
Semi-ductile
1.2 c
70%
Nonductile (e.g., cast iron, ceramics,
fiberglass)
NA
25%
a
Threaded connection to vessel or support system.
b
Minimum 20% elongation per the ASTM material specification.
317
Max Material
Strength
Threaded Materiala
70%
50%
20%
2000 Provisions Chapter 14
c
Minimum 15% elongation per the ASTM material specification.
Consideration shall be made to mitigate seismic impact loads for boiler or vessel components
constructed of nonductile materials or vessels operated in such a way that material ductility is
reduced (e.g., low temperature applications).
14.7.3.11.7 Supports and Attachments for Boilers and Pressure Vessels: Attachments to the
pressure boundary and support for boilers and pressure vessels shall meet the following
requirements:
a. Attachments and supports transferring seismic loads shall be constructed of ductile materials
suitable for the intended application and environmental conditions.
b. Seismic anchorages embedded in concrete shall be ductile and detailed for cyclic loads.
c. Seismic supports and attachments to structures shall be designed and constructed so that the
support or attachment remains ductile throughout the range of reversing seismic lateral loads
and displacements.
d. Vessel attachments shall consider the potential effect on the vessel and the support for
uneven vertical reactions based on variations in relative stiffness of the support members,
dissimilar details, non-uniform shimming or irregular supports. Uneven distribution of
lateral forces shall consider the relative distribution of the resisting elements, the behavior of
the connection details, and vessel shear distribution.
The requirements of Sec.14.5 and 14.7.3.10.5 shall also be applicable to this section.
14.7.3.12 Liquid and Gas Spheres:
14.7.3.12.1 General: Attachments to the pressure or liquid boundary, supports, and lateral force
resisting anchorage systems for liquid and gas spheres shall be designed to meet the force and
displacement requirements of Sec 3.1.3 and 3.1.4 and the additional requirements of this section.
Spheres categorized as Seismic Use Group II or III shall themselves be designed to meet the force
and displacement requirements of Sec 3.1.3 and 3.1.4.
14.7.3.12.2 ASME Spheres: Spheres designed and constructed in accordance with Division
VIII of ASME shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section providing the
displacement requirements of Sec 3.1.3 and 3.1.4 are used with appropriate scaling of the force
and displacement requirements to the working stress design basis.
14.7.3.12.3 Attachments of Internal Equipment and Refractory: Attachments to the pressure
or liquid boundary for internal and external ancillary components (e.g., refractory, cyclones,
trays) shall be designed to resist the seismic forces in the Provisions to safeguard against rupture
of the pressure boundary. Alternatively, the element attached to the sphere could be designed to
fail prior to damaging the pressure or liquid boundary providing the consequences of the failure
do not place the pressure boundary in jeopardy. For spheres containing liquids, the effect of
sloshing on the internal equipment shall be considered if the equipment can damage the pressure
boundary.
318
Nonbuilding Structures
14.7.3.12.4 Effective Mass: Fluid-structure interaction (sloshing) shall be considered in
determining the effective mass of the stored material providing sufficient liquid surface exists for
sloshing to occur and the Tc is greater than 3T. Changes to or variations in fluid density shall be
considered.
14.7.3.12.5 Post- and Rod- Supported: For post-supported spheres that are cross braced:
a. The requirements of Sec. 14.7.3.10.4 shall also be applicable to this section.
b. The stiffening effect of (reduction in lateral drift) from pretensioning of the bracing shall be
considered in determining the natural period.
c. The slenderness and local buckling of the posts shall be considered.
d. Local buckling of the sphere shell at the post attachment shall be considered.
e. For spheres storing liquids, bracing connections shall be designed and constructed to develop
the minimum published yield strength of the brace. For spheres storing gas vapors only,
bracing connection shall be designed for Wo times the maximum design load in the brace.
Lateral bracing connections directly attached to the pressure or liquid boundary are
prohibited.
14.7.3.12.6 Skirt Supported: For skirt-supported spheres, the following requirements shall
apply:
a. The provisions of Sec. 14.7.3.10.5 also shall apply.
b. The local buckling of the skirt under compressive membrane forces due to axial load and
bending moments shall be considered.
c. Penetration of the skirt support (e.g., manholes, piping) shall be designed and constructed to
maintain the strength of the skirt without penetrations.
14.7.3.13 Refrigerated Gas Liquid Storage Tanks and Vessels:
14.7.3.13.1 General: The seismic design of the tanks and facilities for the storage of liquefied
hydrocarbons and refrigerated liquids is beyond the scope of this section. The design of such
tanks is addressed in part by various approved standards as listed in Table 14.3.
Exception: Low pressure, welded steel storage tanks for liquefied hydrocarbon gas
(e.g., LPG, butane) and refrigerated liquids (e.g., ammonia) could be designed in
accordance with the requirements of Sec. 14.7.3.8 and API 620.
14.7.3.14 Horizontal, Saddle-Supported Vessels for Liquid or Vapor Storage:
14.7.3.14.1 General: Horizontal vessels supported on saddles (sometimes referred to as
blimps) shall be designed to meet the force and displacement requirements of Sec 3.1.3 and
3.1.4.
14.7.3.14.2 Effective mass: Changes to or variations in material density shall be considered.
The design of the supports, saddles, anchorage, and foundation for seismic overturning shall
assume the material stored is a rigid mass acting at the volumetric center of gravity.
319
2000 Provisions Chapter 14
14.7.3.14.3 Vessel Design: Unless a more rigorous analysis is performed, vessels shall be
designed as follows:
a. Horizontal vessels with a length to diameter ratio of 6 or more may be assumed to be a
simply supported beam spanning between the saddles for determining the natural period of
vibration and global bending moment.
b. Horizontal vessels with a length to diameter ratio of less than 6, the effects of “deep beam
shear” shall be considered when determining the fundamental period and stress
distribution.
c. Local bending and buckling of the vessel shell at the saddle supports due to seismic load
shall be considered. The stabilizing effects of internal pressure shall not be considered to
increase the buckling resistance of the vessel shell.
d. If the vessel is a combination of liquid and gas storage, the vessel and supports shall be
designed both with and without gas pressure acting (assume piping has ruptured and
pressure does not exist).
14.7.4 Stacks and Chimneys:
14.7.4.1 General: Stacks and chimneys are permitted to be either lined or unlined, and shall
constructed from concrete, steel, or masonry.
14.7.4.2 Design Basis: Steel stacks, concrete stacks, steel chimneys, concrete chimneys, and
liners shall be designed to resist seismic lateral forces determined from a substantiated
analysis using approved standards. Interaction of the stack or chimney with the liners shall be
considered. A minimum separation shall be provided between the liner and chimney equal to
Cd times the calculated differential lateral drift.
14.7.5 Amusement Structures:
14.7.5.1 General: Amusement structures are permanently fixed structures constructed
primarily for the conveyance and entertainment of people.
14.7.5.2 Design Basis: Amusement structures shall be designed to resist seismic lateral
forces determined from a substantiated analysis using approved standards.
14.7.6 Special Hydraulic Structures:
14.7.6.1 General: Special hydraulic structures are structures that are contained inside liquid
containing structures. These structures are exposed to liquids on both wall surfaces at the
same head elevation under normal operating conditions. Special hydraulic structures are
subjected to out of plane forces only during an earthquake when the structure is subjected to
differential hydrodynamic fluid forces. Examples of special hydraulic structures include
separation walls, baffle walls, weirs, and other similar structures.
14.7.6.2 Design Basis: Special hydraulic structures shall be designed for out-of-phase
movement of the fluid. Unbalanced forces from the motion of the liquid must be applied
simultaneously "in front of" and "behind" these elements.
320
Nonbuilding Structures
Structures subject to hydrodynamic pressures induced by earthquakes shall be designed for
rigid body and sloshing liquid forces and their own inertia force. The height of sloshing shall
be determined and compared to the freeboard height of the structure.
Interior elements, such as baffles or roof supports, also shall be designed for the effects of
unbalanced forces and sloshing.
14.7.7 Secondary Containment Systems:
14.7.7.1 General: Secondary containment systems such as impoundment dikes and walls
shall meet the requirements of the applicable standards for tanks and vessels and the authority
having jurisdiction.
Secondary containment systems shall be designed to withstand the effects of a maximum
considered earthquake when empty and a maximum considered earthquake when full
including all hydrodynamic forces.
14.7.7.2 Freeboard: Sloshing of the liquid within the secondary containment area shall be
considered in determining the height of the impound. A minimum freeboard Sec 14.7.3.6.1.2,
*s, shall be provided when:
δ s = 0.50 DS ac
(14.7.7.2)
where Sac is determined per Sec. 14.7.3.6.1. For circular impoundment dikes, D shall be the
diameter of the impoundment. For rectangular impoundment dikes, D shall be the longer
longitudinal plan dimension.
321
Appendix to Chapter 14
ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION, SUBSTATION, AND
DISTRIBUTION STRUCTURES
PREFACE: This appendix is a resource document for future voluntary
standards and model code development. The BSSC’s Technical Subcommittee
13, Nonbuilding Structures has determined that this appendix material
represents the current industry design practice for these types of nonbuilding
structures.
These sections are included here so that the design community can gain
familiarity with the concepts, update standards, and send comments on this
appendix to the BSSC. It is hoped that the various consensus design standards
will be updated to include the design and construction methodology presented in
this appendix.
14A.1 REFERENCES:
IEEE 693
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Recommended
Practices for Seismic Design of Substations, Power Engineering Society,
Piscataway, New Jersey, 1997
14A.2 ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION, SUBSTATION, AND DISTRIBUTION
STRUCTURES:
14A.2.1 General: This section applies to electrical transmission, substation, and distribution
structures.
Table 14A.2.1 Seismic Coefficients for Nonbuilding Structures
R
Nonbuilding Structure Type
S0
Cd
Structural System and Height
Limits (ft)c
Seismic Design Category
A&
B
Electrical transmission towers,
substation wire support
structures, distribution
structures
Truss: Steel and aluminum
3
1-1/2
3
322
NL
C
D
NL
NL
E&F
NL
Nonbuilding Structures
Nonbuilding Structure Type
S0
R
Cd
Structural System and Height
Limits (ft)c
Seismic Design Category
A&
B
Pole:
C
D
E&F
Steel
Wood
Concrete
Frame: Steel
Wood
Concrete
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
3
2-1/2
2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Telecommunication towers
Truss: Steel
Pole:
Steel
Wood
Concrete
Frame: Steel
Wood
Concrete
3
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
3
2-1/2
2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
3
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
14A.2.2 Design Basis: Electrical transmission, substation, wire support, and distribution
structures shall be designed to resist a minimum seismic lateral load determined from the
following formula:
V'
Cs
R
I
W
where:
V =
seismic base shear;
I
importance factor, I = 1.0;
=
W =
total dead load (does not include the supported wire or ice and snow loads applied
to the tower);
R =
response modification factor, Table 14A.2.1.1;
Cs =
seismic response coefficient – SDS but not greater then SD1/T where SDS and SD1 are
as defined in Sec.1.4.2.2; and
T =
The fundamental period of the tower.
323
1997 Provision Appendix to Chapter 14
A simplified static analysis and applying the seismic base shear (times a load factor of 1.0) at
the center of mass of the structure can be used to determine if seismic load controls the
design. The lateral force shall be evaluated in both the longitudinal and transverse directions
to the support wire. When it is determined that seismic loads are significant (control the
design of main load carrying members), a more detailed lateral force distribution shall be
performed per Sec. 14.2.1 (with k = 1) of the Provisions and/or a modal analysis as specified
by Sec. A.1.5 of IEEE 693.
Seismic lateral loads and design criteria for substation equipment support structures shall be
in accordance with the requirements of IEEE 693. The design, manufacture, and inspection
shall be in accordance with the quality control and quality assurance requirements of the
industry design standards and recommended practices specified in Sec. 14.1.9.
14A.3 TELECOMMUNICATION TOWERS:
14A.3.1 General: This section applies to telecommunication towers.
14A.3.2 Design Basis: Self-supporting telecommunication towers shall be designed to resist
a minimum seismic lateral force determined from the following formula:
V =
Cs
W
 R
 
 I
(14A.5.2)
where:
V =
seismic base shear;
I
importance factor, Table 14.2.1.2;
=
W =
total dead load (including all attachments);
R =
response modification factor, Table 14A.2.1.1; and
Cs =
seismic response coefficient – SDS but not greater then SD1/T where SD1 and SDS, are
as defined in Sec. 4.2.2 and T is the fundamental period of the tower
A simplified static analysis applying the lateral load (times a load factor of 1.0) at the center of
mass of the tower can be used to determine if seismic load controls the design of selfsupporting towers. When it is determined that seismic loads are significant (control the design
of main load carrying members), a more detailed lateral force distribution (with k = 1) and
analysis shall be performed per Sec. 14.2.1 of the Provisions.
The lateral force applied to a telecommunication tower supported on a structure should
account for the base motion input amplification as a result of the building earthquake response
(see Sec. 14.1.2 of the Provisions). Guyed towers require a more detailed computer analysis
including nonlinear analysis and guy-tower interaction effects. An industry accepted modal
analysis procedure should be used for guyed towers.
324
Nonbuilding Structures
The design, manufacture, and inspection shall be in accordance with the quality control and
quality assurance requirements of the industry design standards and recommended practices
specified in Sec. 14.1.9.
14A.4 BURIED STRUCTURES:
14A.4.1 General: Buried structures are subgrade structures such as tanks, tunnels, and
pipes. Buried structures that are designated as Seismic Use Group II or III or are of such a
size or length to warrant special seismic design as determined by the registered design
professional shall be identified in the geotechnical report.
14A.4.2 Design Basis: Buried structures shall be designed to resist minimum seismic lateral
forces determined from a substantiated analysis using approved procedures. Flexible
couplings shall be provided for buried structures requiring special seismic considerations
where changes in the support system, configuration, or soil condition occur.
14A.5 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR TANKS AND VESSELS: Tanks and vessels
shall be designed to meet the following minimum post-earthquake performance criteria.
These criteria depend on the Seismic Use Group (category) classification and content-related
hazards of the tanks and vessels being considered:
TABLE 14A.5 Performance Criteria for Tanks and Vessels
Performance
Categorya
Ib
II
III
IV
Minimum Post-Earthquake Performance
The structure shall be permitted to fail provided the resulting spill does not
pose a threat to the public or to adjoining Category I, II or III structures.
The structure shall be permitted to sustain localized damage, including
minor leaks, provided (a) such damage remains localized and does not
propagate; and (b) the resulting leakage does not pose a threat to the
public or to adjoining Category I, II or III structures.
The structure shall be permitted to sustain minor damage, and its
operational systems or components (valves and controls) shall be permitted
to become inoperative, provided that (a) the structure retains its ability to
contain 100% of its contents; and (b) the structure’s minor damage, and the
failure of its operational systems or components, are not accompanied by,
or lead to, leakage.
The structure shall be permitted to sustain minor damage provided that (a)
it shall retain its ability to contain 100% of its contents without leakage;
and (b) its operational systems or components shall remain fully
operational.
a
Performance Categories I, II, and III correspond to the Seismic Use Groups defined in Sec.
1.3 and tabulated in Tables 14.2.1.2 and 14.7.3.7.1.2.
b
For tanks and vessels in Performance Category IV, an Importance Factor I = 1.0 shall be
used.
325
Appendix A
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE 1997 AND THE 2000 EDITIONS OF
THE NEHRP RECOMMENDED PROVISIONS
EDITORIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES
For the 2000 Provisions, an editorial change has been made to the format used to cite reference
documents. In the past, reference documents generally were listed at the beginning of a chapter
and identified as Ref. X-1, Ref. X-2, etc., with the “X” being the chapter number. The references
then were cited in the chapter using the “Ref. X-1” format. In the 2000 Provisions, the reference
documents continue to be listed at the beginning of a chapter with an indication of the edition to
be used but are presented with an abbreviated designation that is used to cite the reference in the
text of the chapter (e.g., ACI 318).
2000 CHAPTER 1, GENERAL PROVISIONS
In the 1997 Provisions, one-and two-story wood frame dwellings were exempted from the
seismic requirements if the design spectral response acceleration at short periods was less than
0.4g. For the 2000 Provisions, these dwellings are exempted from all Provisions requirements if
they are in Seismic Design Categories A, B, or C. They also are exempted from the remaining
requirements in the Provisions if they are designed and constructed in accordance with the
conventional light frame construction requirements in Sec. 12.5.
In Sec.1.2.4, alterations that increase the seismic force in any existing structural element by more
then 5 percent or decrease the design strength of any existing structural element to resist seismic
forces by more than 5 percent are not permitted unless the entire seismic-force-resisting system is
determined to conform to the Provisions for a new structure. All alterations are required to
conform to the Provisions for a new structure. Excepted from these requirements are alterations
to existing structural elements or additions of new structural elements that are not required by the
Provisions but are initiated to increase the strength or stiffness of the seismic-force-resisting
system of an existing structure provided an engineering analysis meeting several specifically
stated requirements is submitted.
2000 CHAPTER 2, GLOSSARY AND NOTATIONS
Additions and deletions have been made to reflect changes made in the text of the Provisions.
2000 CHAPTER 3, QUALITY ASSURANCE
For the 2000 Provisions, several inspection-related changes have been made. One is a
requirement for periodic inspection of shear walls with structural wood and the second requires
327
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
periodic special inspection of architectural components (glass). The special inspection
requirements also have been modified to exempt nonbearing metal stud and gypsum board
partitions from periodic special inspection; however, interior and exterior veneers are now
covered with exceptions pertaining to lightweight partitions.
Sec. 3.6, Reporting and Compliance Procedures, also has been modified to more clearly state
who is to receive reports.
2000 CHAPTER 4, GROUND MOTION
The only substantive changes made for the 2000 Provisions relate to the exception in Sec. 4.1.2.1
indicating that, under certain conditions, no site-specific evaluation is required for structures
having a fundamental period of less than 0.5 second. This is further clarified in exceptions
presented in the footnotes to Tables 4.1.2.4a and 4.1.2b.
2000 CHAPTER 5, STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA
For the 2000 Provisions, the requirements regulating the types of analysis that may be used in
determining design seismic forces and drifts have been reformatted so that they all appear in a
single table. In addition, two new analysis methods – linear time history analysis and nonlinear
time history analysis – are introduced into the text of Chapter 5 and a third analysis method –
nonlinear static analysis (pushover analysis) – is introduced as an appendix.
The approximate period formulae used to obtain Ta has been revised to reflect the expanded data
base of the measured period of buildings obtained from strong ground motion recordings.
Equation 5.2.1-3 for determining the equivalent lateral force base shear also has been revised to
change the equation’s dependence on SD1 to dependence on SDS. This was done to maintain
consistency with parallel provisions in the 2000 International Building Code, 1997 Uniform
Building Code, and ASCE 7-98. The requirements also were modified to clarify that the base
shear need not be limited by Eq. 5.2.1-3 when used to evaluate drift. This was the intent when
Eq. 5.2.1-3 was originally introduced in the 1997 Provisions but was not properly specified.
A change has been made to clarify that collectors in certain irregular buildings need not be
designed for 125 percent of the forces otherwise required if other provisions require design of
these elements for the special load combinations of Sec. 5.2.7.1.
Another change clarifies that when calculating the redundancy coefficient, D, for structures of
light frame construction, the quantity 10/lw need not be taken as having a value greater than 1.
This was the original intent of the requirement when it was introduced in the 1997 Provisions but
was not adequately presented in the text.
328
Differences Between the 1997 and 2000 Editions of the Provisions
2000 CHAPTER 6, ARCHITECTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND ELECTRICAL
COMPONENTS
For the 2000 Provisions, it was determined that additional conservatism was needed and a
number of the component modification factor values in Tables 6.2.2 and 6.3.2 have been
modified.
Simplified formulae are provided for use with the equivalent lateral force procedure of Sec. 5.4
and exceptions concerning mechanical and electrical components in Seismic Design Categories
D, E, and F are clarified.
The relationship between the component transfer of forces and the basic design of the structure
also has been clarified so that the design engineer must take into account the forces on the
structure generated by the components fixed to the structure.
One of the most significant changes for the 2000 edition of the Provisions is the addition of a
new section on glass in glazed curtain walls, glazed storefronts, and glazed partitions. The
Provisions text provides basic requirements concerning drift limits and the Commentary contains
a detailed study and review of research performed on racking tests.
Commentary Sec. 6.1.6 has been revised to ensure that the user understands what is required
concerning chemical anchors.
2000 CHAPTER 7, FOUNDATION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Several changes to the sections on soil-structure interaction (SSI) have been made for the 2000
Provisions. Recent studies dictated that these changes be made because they significantly affect
the period lengthening and foundation damping for a given structure and, hence, a change in base
shear.
Both Sec. 7.4 and 7.5 have been modified either to meet the requirements of ACI 318-99 or to
highlight exceptions to ACI 318-99.
The steel pile cap tensile force requirement has been adjusted with an exception, and widththickness ratios have been added to ensure that the formation of plastic hinges in the piles will
result without premature local buckling and fracture.
The Commentary has been expanded to provide additional guidance on the subject of seismic
earth pressures on retaining walls including the addition of more formulations for estimating the
seismic earth pressure for dry (nonsubmerged) backfills behind yielding and nonyielding
retaining walls. The approach of designing yielding walls based on tolerable displacements also
is discussed and key references are provided. Soil-structure interaction implications for seismic
earth pressures on nonyielding retaining walls also are discussed and references given for
detailed analysis methods. Further, the effects of backfill submergence on seismic earth
pressures are discussed and key references cited.
329
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
2000 CHAPTER 8, STEEL STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
The most significant change for the 2000 Provisions is the reference to AISC Seismic including
Supplement No. 2. Completion of the 2000 Provisions update was deliberately delayed so that
the results of the SAC Joint Venture program could be integrated via reference to this document.
However, some modifications to AISC Seismic are included to, among other things, modify the
Charpy V-notch toughness at two temperatures in order to ensure adequate toughness over the
range of expected use and to reflect the SAC results indicating that, in reducing seismic hazards
in moment resisting steel frames, the shape and size of the weld access hole are critical to the
performance moment connections with direct welds of beam flanges to columns. The access
hole configuration provided in the 2000 Provisions was developed to minimize strain
concentrations and has been successfully tested. It is anticipated that this configuration will be
adopted into later editions of the AISC specifications.
2000 CHAPTER 9, CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
The primary modifications for the 2000 Provisions reflect the changes made in the 1999 edition
of the ACI 318 reference document.
The seismic strength design load combination of the International Building Code (adopted from
ASCE 7-95) in which the gravity and earthquake effects are counteractive – the load combination
that governs the seismic design of reinforced concrete columns and shear walls – is essentially
identical to the corresponding design load combination of ACI 318. Thus, there is no basis for
the use of N factors with this load combination and this requirement has been eliminated.
ACI 318-99 has revised its terminology for moment frames to be consistent with the Provisions;
therefore, the provisions describing types of moment frames have been eliminated and references
to these requirements have been deleted as well.
A new section on anchoring to concrete is included to reflect work done by ACI on the design of
anchoring with cast-in-place headed bolts, J- and L- bolts headed studs, hooked bolts, and postinstalled mechanical anchors. Although these requirements are not included in ACI-318-99
because the anchor prequalification standard, ACI 355.2, was not completed in time, the
inclusion of comprehensive anchoring design methods in the 2000 Provisions was deemed
important and it is anticipated that these requirements will eventually be included in ACI 318.
The requirements concerning foundations, gravity columns, and transverse reinforcement have
all been modified to comply with ACI 318-99.
Finally, there has been a major expansion of the requirements found in Sec.9.1.1. Recent
advances in understanding of the seismic behavior of precast/prestressed concrete frame and wall
structures resulting from various research programs and the codification of test procedures have
made possible the elimination of 1997 Provisions appendix and the inclusion in the 2000
Provisions of precast/prestressed concrete requirements based entirely on amendments to ACI
318-99. These are now sequentially listed to conform with Chapter 21 of ACI 318-99.
330
Differences Between the 1997 and 2000 Editions of the Provisions
A new appendix to the Provisions and Commentary presenting requirements for untopped
diaphragms is included.
2000 CHAPTER 10, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURE
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
The only change for the 2000 Provisions is the updating of the reference list to reflect the most
current documents.
2000 CHAPTER 11, MASONRY STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
The 2000 Provisions reflects several editorial changes. The scope section now requires that
masonry walls be designed as shear walls with one exception. New requirements regarding
reinforcing bars are included: lab splices are detailed to reflect new research that eliminates the
confusion between splices found in masonry versus concrete, more rational and reliable design
requirements for large and small reinforcement diameters are presented, the requirement for 135
degree hooks have been eliminated in masonry construction, and the requirement for end bearing
splices has been eliminated since they are seldom used.
The translation from stress design to strength design found in the 1997 Provisions for plain
(unreinforced) masonry members was not correct and modifications have been made. In
addition, the 1997 Appendix to Chapter 11 has been eliminated to achieve parity with other
material chapters that base their design on strength versus stress design.
A limitation on the width of the stress block in out-of-plane and in-plane bending has been
included. Welded splices are specified to use ASTM A706 reinforcement to ensure the proper
chemistry in the weld (i.e., the amount of carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements must be
controlled).
The requirements for mechanical connections have been modified to reflect in fact that their
specified yield strength is usually higher than the 125 percent specified in the 1997 Provisions.
Consequently, the 125 percent requirement has been eliminated and Type 1 or 2 mechanical
splices are required.
2000 CHAPTER 12, WOOD STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
A major change for the 2000 Provisions is the elimination in Tables 12.4.3-2a and 12.4.3-2b of
the 10 percent reduction of design values imposed on shear walls in the 1997 Provisions. This
essentially brings these values back to the levels found in the 1994 Provisions. These tables also
feature changes regarding minimum penetration of nailing. Earlier, thinner side panel members
required the same penetration as thicker members, but testing has shown that less penetration is
necessary for the conventional siding thickness used in construction. The footnote regarding the
specific gravity adjustment factor also now requires that it not be greater than 1.0.
331
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
The definition of diaphragm has been changed to include sloping roofs; therefore, they now are
considered to be diaphragms rather than shear walls and the requirement for edge blocking is
eliminated.
A major reformatting of Sec. 12.3 and 12.4 clarifies the requirements for engineered wood
construction and diaphragms and shear walls. Once this was completed, it permitted additional
changes to be incorporated to improve clarity.
Another major change is the inclusion of new requirements for perforated shear walls. The
perforated shear wall design presented in the 2000 Provisions is a recently developed empirical
method that recognizes the strength and stiffness provided to framed walls by sheathing above
and below wall openings. The Chapter 12 Commentary provides background on development
and verification.
2000 CHAPTER 13, SEISMICALLY ISOLATED STRUCTURES DESIGN
REQUIREMENTS
Sec. 13.2.3 has been revised for the 2000 Provisions to correct an oversight concerning the
importance factor, which is intended to reduce ductility demand for conventional structures but
does not apply in the case of seismically isolated structures that are designed to remain
“essentially elastic.”
Sec. 13.4.4.1 has been revised to reflect that Site Class E is now covered by the seismic maps and
appropriate changes are included in the Commentary as well. Sec. 13.6.2.3 has been revised to
provide additional wording to clarify the intent of the Provisions. Further, Sec.13.9.2.1 has been
revised to allow the prototype bearings used for testing to be used in the construction of the
structure if the registered design professional will permit their use; this may have a significant
impact on smaller projects where the number of test isolators represents a significant number of
the total to be used.
The most significant change is the replacement of the brief 1997 Appendix to Chapter 13 with an
extensive appendix with a complete set of design provisions for structures with damping systems.
Since this information contains design criteria, analysis methods, and testing recommendations
that have limited history of use, considerable information on this evolving technology is included
to guide the building professional.
2000 CHAPTER 14, NONBUILDING STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Since Chapter 14 is intended to provide a bridge from the basic seismic design methodologies
contained in the Provisions to nonbuilding structure design practices, the reference documents
have been updated.
Given the evolving nature of Chapter 14, the 2000 Provisions requirements for tanks and vessels
have been moved from the Appendix to Chapter 14 into the chapter itself as a result of changes
in voluntary standards and other research.
332
Differences Between the 1997 and 2000 Editions of the Provisions
Sections on electrical transmission, substation, and distribution structures that were included in
the 1997 Provisions text have been moved to the appendix since these lifelines systems generally
do not fall under the jurisdiction of the code official. Other sections on telecommunication
towers and buried structures also have been moved to the appendix because additional time is
needed by the respective industries to evaluate the requirements presented. The Commentary
sections on buried structures, pipe racks, earth retaining structures, and steel storage racks have
been expanded as has the Provisions section on steel storage racks.
The importance factors and Seismic Use Group classifications in Chapter 14 have been revised to
be consistent with Provisions Sec. 1.3; consequently, there are similar changes in the
Commentary where the four examples in Table 14.2.1.2 have been modified to clarify the use of
these factors.
CHANGES IN SECTION NUMBERS BETWEEN THE
1997 AND 2000 EDITIONS PROVISIONS
Chapter 1, GENERAL PROVISIONS
1.1 PURPOSE
1.2 SCOPE AND APPLICATION
1.2.1 Scope
1.2.2 Additions
1.2.3 Change of Use
1.2.4 Alterations
1.2.5 Alternate Materials and Alternate Means and Methods of Construction
1.3 SEISMIC USE GROUPS
1.3.1 Seismic Use Group III
1.3.2 Seismic Use Group II
1.3.3 Seismic Use Group I
1.3.4 Multiple Use
1.3.5 Seismic Use Group III Structure Access Protection
1.4 OCCUPANCY IMPORTANCE FACTOR
Chapter 2, GLOSSARY AND NOTATIONS
2.1 GLOSSARY
2.2 NOTATIONS
Chapter 3 , QUALITY ASSURANCE
3.1 SCOPE
3.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE
3.2.1 Details of Quality Assurance Plan
3.2.2 Contractor Responsibility
333
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
3.3 SPECIAL INSPECTION
3.3.1 Piers, Piles, Caissons
3.3.2 Reinforcing Steel
3.3.3 Structural Concrete
3.3.4 Prestressed Concrete
3.3.5 Structural Masonry
3.3.6 Structural Steel
3.3.7 Structural Wood
3.3.8 Cold–Formed Steel Framing
3.3.9 Architectural Components
3.3.10 Mechanical and Electrical Components
3.3.11 Seismic Isolation System
3.4 TESTING
3.4.1 Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel
3.4.2 Structural Concrete
3.4.3 Structural Masonry
3.4.4 Structural Steel
3.4.5 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment
3.4.6 Seismically Isolated Structures
3.5 STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS
3.6 REPORTING AND COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES
Chapter 4, GROUND MOTION
4.1 PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE
AND DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION ACCELERATIONS AND RESPONSE
SPECTRA
4.1.1 Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motions
4.1.2 General Procedure for Determining Maximum Considered Earthquake and Design Spectral
Response Accelerations
4.1.3 Site-Specific Procedure for Determining Ground Motion Accelerations
4.2 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY
4.2.1 Determination of Seismic Design Category
4.2.2 Site Limitation for Seismic Design Categories E and F
Chapter 5, STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA
5.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENT
ASCE 7
5.2 DESIGN BASIS
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems
5.2.3 Structure Configuration
5.2.4 Redundancy
5.2.5 Analysis Procedures
334
Differences Between the 1997 and 2000 Editions of the Provisions
5.2.6 Design and Detailing Requirements, and Structural Component Load Effects
5.2.7 Combination of Load Effects
5.2.8 Deflection and Drift Limits
5.3 INDEX FORCE ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
5.3 4 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE64
5.3.1 General
5.4.1 5.3.2 Seismic Base Shear
5.4.2 5.3.3 Period Determination
5.4.3 5.3.4 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces
5.4.4 5.3.5 Horizontal Shear Distribution
5.4.5 5.3.6 Overturning
5.4.6 5.3.7 Drift Determination and P-Delta Effects
5.5 5.4 MODAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
5.4.1 General
5.5.1 5.4.2 Modeling
5.5.2 5.4.3 Modes
5.5.3 5.4.4 Modal Properties
5.5.4 5.4.5 Modal Base Shear
5.5.5 5.4.6 Modal Forces, Deflections, and Drifts
5.5.6 5.4.7 Modal Story Shears and Moments
5.5.7 5.4.8 Design Values
5.5.8 5.4.9 Horizontal Shear Distribution
5.5.9 5.4.10 Foundation Overturning
5.5.10 5.4.11 P-Delta Effects
5.6 LINEAR RESPONSE HISTORY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
5.6.1 Modeling
5.6.2 Ground Motion
5.6.3 Response Parameters
5.7 NONLINEAR RESPONSE HISTORY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
5.7.1 Modeling
5.7.2 Ground Motion and Other Loading
5.7.3 Response Parameters
5.7.4 Design Review
5.8 5.4 SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION EFFECTS
5.8 5.4.1 General
5.8 5.4.2 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure
5.8 5.4.3 Modal Analysis Procedure
Appendix to Chapter 5, NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS
Chapter 6, ARCHITECTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
6.1 GENERAL
6.1.1 References and Standards
335
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
ASME A17.1
ASTM C635
ASME/BPV
ASTM C636
ANSI/ASME B31.1
ANSI/ASME B31.3
ANSI/ASME B31.4
ANSI/ASME B31.5
ANSI/ASME B31.9
ANSI/ASME B31.11
ANSI/ASME B31.8
NFPA 13
IEEE 344
ASHRAE SRD
CISCA Recs for Zones 0-2
CISCA Recs for Zones 3-4
SMACNA HVAC
SMACNA Rectangular
SMACNA Restraint
AAMA 501.4
6.1.2 Component Force Transfer
6.1.3 Seismic Forces
6.1.4 Seismic Relative Displacements
6.1.5 Component Importance Factor
6.1.6 Component Anchorage
6.1.7 Construction Documents
6.2 ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENT DESIGN
6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Architectural Component Forces and Displacements
6.2.3 Architectural Component Deformation
6.2.4 Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements and Connections
6.2.5 Out-of-Plane Bending
6.2.6 Suspended Ceilings
6.2.7 Access Floors
6.2.8 Partitions
6.2.9 Steel Storage Racks
6.2.10 Glass in Glazed Curtain Walls, Glazed Storefronts, and Glazed Partitions
6.3 MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT DESIGN
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Mechanical and Electrical Component Forces and Displacements
6.3.3 Mechanical and Electrical Component Period
6.3.4 Mechanical and Electrical Component Attachments
6.3.5 Component Supports
6.3.6 Component Certification
6.3.7 Utility and Service Lines at Structure Interfaces
336
Differences Between the 1997 and 2000 Editions of the Provisions
6.3.8 Site-Specific Considerations
6.3.9 Storage Tanks
6.3.10 HVAC Ductwork
6.3.11 Piping Systems
6.3.12 Boilers and Pressure Vessels
6.3.13 Mechanical Equipment Attachments, and Supports
6.3.14 Electrical Equipment Attachments, and Supports
6.3.15 Alternative Seismic Qualification Methods
6.3.16 Elevator Design Requirements
Chapter 7, FOUNDATION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
7.1 GENERAL
7.2 STRENGTH OF COMPONENTS AND FOUNDATIONS
7.2.1 Structural Materials
7.2.2 Soil Capacities
7.3 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A AND B
7.4 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C
7.4.1 Investigation
7.4.2 Pole-Type Structures
7.4.3 Foundation Ties
7.4.4 Special Pile Requirements
7.5 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, AND F
7.5.1 Investigation
7.5.2 Foundation Ties
7.5.3 Liquefaction Potential and Soil Strength Loss
7.5.4 Special Pile and Grade Beam Requirements
Chapter 8, STEEL STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
8.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
AISC LRFD
AISC ASD
AISC Seismic
AISI
ANSI/ASCE 8-90
SJI
ASCE 19
8.2 SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR STEEL STRUCTURES
8.3 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, AND C
8.4 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, AND F
8.4.1 Modifications to AISC Seismic
8.5 COLD-FORMED STEEL SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS
8.5.1 Modifications to AISI Ref. 8.4
8.5.2 Modifications to ANSI/ASCE 8-90 Ref. 8.5
337
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
8.6 LIGHT-FRAMED WALLS
8.6.1 Boundary Members
8.6.2 Connections
8.6.3 Braced Bay Members
8.6.4 Diagonal Braces
8.6.5 Shear Walls
8.7 SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR STEEL DECK DIAPHRAGMS
8.8 STEEL CABLES
Chapter 9, CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
9.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
ACI 318
ACI ITG/T1.1
ASME B1.1
ASME B18.2.1
ASME B18.2.6.9
ATC 24
9.1.1 Modifications to ACI 318 Ref. 9-1
9.2 ANCHORING TO CONCRETE
9.2.1 Scope
9.2.2 Notations and Definitions
9.2.3 General Requirements
9.2.4 General Requirements for Strength of Structural Anchors
9.2.5 Design Requirements for Tensile Loading
9.2.6 Design Requirements for Shear Loading
9.2.7 Interaction of Tensile and Shear Forces
9.2.8 Required Edge Distances, Spacings, and Thicknesses to Preclude Splitting Failure
9.2.9 Installation of Anchors
9.2 BOLTS AND HEADED STUD ANCHORS IN CONCRETE
9.2.1 Load Factor Multipliers
9.2.2 Strength of Anchors
9.2.3 Strength Based on Tests
9.2.4 Strength Based on Calculations
9.3 CLASSIFICATION OF SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEMS
9.3.1 Classification of Moment Frames
9.3.2 Classification of Shear Walls
9.3 CLASSIFICATION OF SHEAR WALLS
9.3.1 Ordinary Plain Concrete Shear Walls
9.3.2 Detailed Plain Concrete Shear Walls
9.4 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A
9.5 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY B
9.5.1 Ordinary Moment Frames
9.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C
9.6.1 Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems
338
Differences Between the 1997 and 2000 Editions of the Provisions
9.6.2 Discontinuous Members
9.6.3 Plain Concrete
9.6.4 Anchor Bolts in the Tops of Columns
9.7 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D, E, OR F
9.7.1 Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems
9.7.2 Frame Members Not Proportioned to Resist Forces Induced by Earthquake Motions
9.7.3 Plain Concrete
Appendix to Chapter 9, REINFORCED CONCRETE DIAPHRAGMS CONSTRUCTED
USING UNTOPPED PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS REINFORCED CONCRETE
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS COMPOSED FROM INTERCONNECTED PRECAST
ELEMENTS
Chapter 10, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
10.1 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
ACI 318
AISC/LRFD
AISC Seismic
AISI
10.2 REQUIREMENTS
Chapter 11, MASONRY STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
11.1 GENERAL
11.1.1 Scope
11.1.2 Reference Documents
ACI 318
ACI 530
ACI 530.1
11.1.3 Definitions
11.1.4 Notations
11.2 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
11.2.1 General
11.2.2 Quality Assurance
11.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
11.3.1 Scope
11.3.2 Empirical Masonry Design
11.3.3 Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Design
11.3.4 Reinforced Masonry Design
11.3.5 Seismic Design Category A
11.3.6 Seismic Design Category B
11.3.7 Seismic Design Category C
11.3.8 Seismic Design Category D
11.3.9 Seismic Design Categories E and F
339
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
11.3.10 Properties of Materials
11.3.11 Section Properties
11.3.12 Headed and Bent-Bar Anchor Bolts
11.4 DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT
11.4.1 General
11.4.2 Size of Reinforcement
11.4.3 Placement Limits for Reinforcement
11.4.4 Cover for Reinforcement
11.4.5 Development of Reinforcement
11.5 STRENGTH AND DEFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
11.5.1 General
11.5.2 Required Strength
11.5.3 Design Strength
11.5.4 Deformation Requirements
11.6 FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS
11.6.1 Scope
11.6.2 Design Requirements of Reinforced Masonry Members
11.6.3 Design of Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Members
11.7 SHEAR
11.7.1 Scope
11.7.2 Shear Strength
11.7.3 Design of Reinforced Masonry Members
11.7.4 Design of Plain (Unreinforced) Masonry Members
11.8 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BEAMS
11.9 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COLUMNS
11.10 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WALLS
11.11 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHEAR WALLS
11.10 11.1 Ordinary Plain Masonry Shear Walls
11.10 11.2 Detailed Plain Masonry Shear Walls
11.10 11.3 Ordinary Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls
11.10 11.4 Intermediate Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls
11.10 11.5 Special Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls
11.10 11.6 Flanged Shear Walls
11.10 11.7 Coupled Shear Walls
11.11 12 SPECIAL MOMENT FRAMES OF MASONRY
11.11 12.1 Calculation of Required Strength
11.11 12.2 Flexural Yielding
11.11 12.3 Reinforcement
11.11 12.4 Wall Frame Beams
11.11 12.5 Wall Frame Columns
11.11 12.6 Wall Frame Beam-Column Intersection
11.12 13 GLASS-UNIT MASONRY AND MASONRY VENEER
11.12 13.1 Design Lateral Forces and Displacements
11.12 13.2 Glass-Unit Masonry Design
11.12 13.3 Masonry Veneer Design
340
Differences Between the 1997 and 2000 Editions of the Provisions
Appendix to Chapter 11, ALTERNATIVE PROVISIONS FOR THE DESIGN
OF MASONRY STRUCTURES
Chapter 12, WOOD STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
12.1 GENERAL
12.1.1 Scope
12.1.2 Reference Documents
ASCE 16
APA Y510T
APA N375B
APA E315H
CABO Code
NFoPA T903
PS20
ANSI/AITC A190.1
ASTM D5055-95A
PS 1
PS 2
ANSI 05.1
ANSI A208.1
AWPA C1, 2, 2, 3, 9, 28
12.1.3 Notations
12.2 DESIGN METHODS
12.2.1 Engineered Wood Design
12.2.2 Conventional Light-Frame Construction
12.3 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINEERED WOOD CONSTRUCTION
12.3.1 General
12.3.2 Shear Resistance Based on Principles of Mechanics Framing Requirements
12.3.3 Deformation Compatibility Requirements
12.3.4 Framing Requirements
12.3.5 Sheathing Requirements
12.3.6 Wood Members Resisting Horizontal Seismic Forces Contributed by Masonry and
Concrete
12.3.4 Design Limitations
12.4 DIAPHRAGMS AND SHEAR WALLS
12.4.1 Diaphragms and Shear Wall Aspect Ratios
12.4.2 Shear Walls
12.4.3 Perforated Shear Walls
12.4.2 Shear Resistance Based on Principles of Mechanics
12.4.3 Sheathing Requirements
12.5 CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION
12.5.1 Scope
12.5.2 Braced Walls
341
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
12.5.3 Detailing Requirements
12.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A
12.7 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES B, C, AND D
12.7.1 Conventional Light-Frame Construction
12.7.2 Engineered Construction
12.8 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES E AND F
12.8.1 Limitations
Chapter 13, SEISMICALLY ISOLATED STRUCTURES DESIGN
REQUIREMENTS
13.1 GENERAL
13.2 CRITERIA SELECTION
13.2.1 Basis for Design
13.2.2 Stability of the Isolation System
13.2.3 Seismic Use Group
13.2.4 Configuration Requirements
13.2.5 Selection of Lateral Response Procedure
13.3 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE
13.3.1 General
13.3.2 Deformation Characteristics of the Isolation System
13.3.3 Minimum Lateral Displacements
13.3.4 Minimum Lateral Forces
13.3.5 Vertical Distribution of Force
13.3.6 Drift Limits
13.4 DYNAMIC LATERAL RESPONSE PROCEDURE
13.4.1 General
13.4.2 Isolation System and Structural Elements Below the Isolation System
13.4.3 Structural Elements Above the Isolation System
13.4.4 Ground Motion
13.4.5 Mathematical Model
13.4.6 Description of Analysis Procedures
13.4.7 Design Lateral Force
13.5 LATERAL LOAD ON ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURES AND NONSTRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS SUPPORTED BY BUILDINGS
13.5.1 General
13.5.2 Forces and Displacements
13.6 DETAILED SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
13.6.1 General
13.6.2 Isolation System
13.6.3 Structural System
13.7 FOUNDATIONS
13.8 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REVIEW
13.8.1 General
13.8.2 Isolation System
342
Differences Between the 1997 and 2000 Editions of the Provisions
13.9 REQUIRED TESTS OF THE ISOLATION SYSTEM
13.9.1 General
13.9.2 Prototype Tests
13.9.3 Determination of Force-Deflection Characteristics
13.9.4 Test Specimen Adequacy
13.9.5 Design Properties of the Isolation System
Appendix to Chapter 13, STRUCTURES WITH DAMPING SYSTEMS PASSIVE ENERGY
DISSIPATION
Chapter 14, NONBUILDING STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
14.1 GENERAL
14.1.1 Scope
14.2 REFERENCES
14.3 INDUSTRY DESIGN STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
14.4 14.1.2 Nonbuilding Structures Supported by Other Structures
14.4.1 14.1.3 Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components
14.1.4 Loads
14.1.5 Fundamental Period
14.1.6 Drift Limitations
14.1.7 Materials Requirements
14.5 14.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
14.5.1 14.2.1 Design Basis
14.5.2 14.2.2 Rigid Nonbuilding Structures
14.5.3 Loads
14.5.4 Fundamental Period
14.5.5 Drift Limitations
14.5.6 Materials Requirements
14.5.7 14.2.3 Deflection Limits and Structure Separation
14.5.8 Site-Specific Response Spectra
14.6 14.3 NONBUILDING STRUCTURES SIMILAR TO BUILDINGS
14.6 14.3.1 General
14.6 14.3.2 Pipe Racks
14.6 14.3.3 Steel Storage Racks
14.6 14.3.4 Electrical Power Generating Facilities
14.6 14.3.5 Structural Towers for Tanks and Vessels
14.6 14.3.6 Piers and Wharves
14.7 14.4 NONBUILDING STRUCTURES NOT SIMILAR TO BUILDINGS
14.7 14.4.1 General
14.7 14.4.2 Earth Retaining Structures
14.7 14.4.3 Tanks and Vessels
14.4.4 Electrical Transmission, Substation, and Distribution Structures
14.4.5 Telecommunication Towers
14.7.4 14.4.6 Stacks and Chimneys
343
2000 Provisions, Appendix A
14.7.5 14.4.7 Amusement Structures
14.7.6 14.4.8 Special Hydraulic Structures
14.7.7 Secondary Containment Systems
14.4.9 Buried Structures
14.4.10 Inverted Pendulums
344
Appendix B
PARTICIPANTS IN THE BSSC 2000 PROVISIONS UPDATE PROGRAM
1998 BSSC BOARD OF DIRECTION
Chairman
Eugene Zeller, City of Long Beach, California
Vice Chairman
William W. Stewart, Stewart-Schaberg Architects, Clayton, Missouri (representing the American
Institute of Architects)
Secretary
David P. Tyree, American Forest and Paper Association, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Ex-Officio
James E. Beavers, Beavers and Associates, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Members
J. Gregg Borchelt, Brick Industry Association, Reston, Virginia
Eugene Cole, Carmichael, California (representing the Structural Engineers Association of
California)
S. K. Ghosh, S.K. Ghosh Associates, Skokie, Illinois (representing the Portland Cement
Association)
Nestor Iwankiw, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois
Gerald H. Jones, Kansas City, Missouri (representing the National Institute of Building Sciences)
Joseph Nicoletti, URS/John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, California (representing
the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute)
Jack Prosek, Turner Construction Company, San Francisco, California, (representing the
Associated General Contractors of America)
W. Lee Shoemaker, Metal Building Manufacturers Association, Cleveland, Ohio
John C. Theiss, Theiss Engineers, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri (representing the American Society of
Civil Engineers)
Charles Thornton, Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers, New York, New York (representing the
Applied Technology Council)
345
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
David Wismer, Department of Licenses and Inspections, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
(representing the Building Officials and Code Administrators International)
Richard Wright, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland
(representing the Interagency Committee for Seismic Safety in Construction)
1999 BSSC BOARD OF DIRECTION
Chairman
William W. Stewart, Stewart-Schaberg Architects, Clayton, Missouri
Vice Chairman
David P. Tyree, American Forest and Paper Association, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Secretary
Jack Prosek, Turner Construction Company, San Francisco, California (representing the
Associated Contractors of America)
Ex-Officio
Eugene Zeller, City of Long Beach, California
Members
J. Gregg Borchelt, Brick Industry Association, Reston, Virginia
Bradford K. Douglas, American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, D.C.
Do Y. Kim, Institute for Business and Home Safety, Boston, Massachusetts
Howard Simpson, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Arlington, Massachusetts (representing National
Council of Structural Engineers Associations)
Charles Carter, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois
S. K. Ghosh, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois
Gerald H. Jones, Kansas City, Missouri (representing the National Institute of Building Sciences)
H. S. Lew, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (representing
the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction)
Joseph Nicoletti, URS Consultants, San Francisco, California (representing the Earthquake
Engineering Research Institute)
Lee Shoemaker, Metal Building Manufacturers Association, Cleveland, Ohio
Charles Spitz, Architect/Planner/Code Consultant, Wall, New Jersey (representing the American
Institute of Architects)
John Theiss, St, Albans, Missouri (representing the American Society of Civil Engineers)
346
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
Charles Thornton, Thornton-Tomasetti Group, New York, New York (representing the Applied
Technology Council)
David Wismer, Department of Licenses and Inspections, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
(representing Building Officials and Code Administrators International)
2000 BSSC BOARD OF DIRECTION
Chairman
William W. Stewart, Stewart-Schaberg Architects, Clayton, Missouri (representing the American
Institute of Architects)
Vice Chairman
Charles Thornton, Chairman/Principal, Thornton-Tomasetti Group, Inc., New York, New York
Secretary
John “Jack” Prosek, Jr., Project Manager, Turner Construction Company, Oakland, California
(representing Associated General Contractors of America)
Ex-Officio
Eugene Zeller, Director of Planning and Building, City of Long Beach, California
Members
J. Gregg Borchelt, Vice President, Brick Industry Association, Reston, Virginia
Charles J. Carter, Director of Manuals, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago,
Illinois
Bradford K. Douglas, Director of Engineering, American Forest and Paper Association,
Washington, D.C.
S. K. Ghosh, S.K. Ghosh Associates, Skokie, Illinois (representing the Portland Cement
Association)
Gerald H. Jones, Kansas City, Missouri (representing the National Institute of Building Sciences)
H.S. Lew, Senior Research Engineer, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, Maryland (representing Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction)
Joseph Nicoletti, Senior Consultant, URS/John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco,
California (representing the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute)
W. Lee Shoemaker, Director, Engineering and Research, Metal Building Manufacturers
Association, Cleveland, Ohio
Howard Simpson, Simpson Gumpertz and Heger, Arlington, Massachusetts (representing
National Council of Structural Engineers Associations)
347
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Charles A. Spitz, Architect/Planner/Code Consultant, Wall New Jersey (representing the
American Institute of Architects)
John C. Theiss, Consultant, St. Albans, Missouri (representing the American Society of Civil
Engineers)
David Wismer, Department of Licenses and Inspections, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
(representing the Building Officials and Code Administrators International)
BSSC STAFF
Thomas R. Hollenbach, Executive Director (through April 2000)
Claret M. Heider, Vice President, BSSC
Bernard F. Murphy, Director, Special Projects
Carita Tanner, Communications/Public Relations Manager
Patricia Blasi, Administrative Assistant
Kelly Harris, Summer Intern
348
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
2000 PROVISIONS UPDATE COMMITTEE
Chair
William T. Holmes, Rutherford and Chekene, San Francisco, California
Representing Technical Subcommittee 1, Design Mapping
R. Joe Hunt, BWXT Y-12, LLC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
C. B. Crouse, URS Corporation, Seattle, Washington
E. V. Leyendecker, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado
Representing Technical Subcommittee 2, Design Criteria and Analysis
Ronald O. Hamburger, EQE International, San Francisco, California
James R. Harris, J. R. Harris and Company, Denver, Colorado
Richard J. Phillips, Hillman, Biddison and Loevenguth, Los Angeles, California
Representing Technical Subcommittee 3, Foundations and Geotechnical Considerations
Maurice S. Power, Geomatrix Consultants, Oakland, California
Cetin Soydemir, Haley and Aldrich, Boston, Massachusetts
Representing Technical Subcommittee 4, Concrete Structures
W. Gene Corley, Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, Illinois
Joseph J. Messersmith, Regional Code Services, Portland Cement Association, Rockville,
Virginia (since February 1997)
Neil Hawkins, Newmark CE Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
Representing Technical Subcommittee 5, Masonry Structures
Daniel Shapiro, SOHA Engineers, San Francisco, California
Daniel P. Abrams, MAE Center, University of Illinois, Urbana
Jason J. Thompson, National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, Virginia
Representing Technical Subcommittee 6, Steel Structures
C. Mark Saunders, Rutherford and Chekene, San Francisco, California
Harry W. Martin, American Iron and Steel Institute, Auburn, California
Subhash C. Goel, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Representing Technical Subcommittee 7, Wood Structures
J. Daniel Dolan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg
Kelly Cobeen, GFDS Engineers, San Francisco, California
349
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Philip Line, American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, D.C.
Representing Technical Subcommittee 8, Mechanical/Electrical Systems and Building
Equipment and Architectural Elements
John D. Gillengerten, Office of Statewide Health and Planning and Development, Sacramento,
California
Robert E. Bachman, Consulting Structural Engineer, Westlake Village, California
Pat Lama, Mason Industries, Hauppage, New York
Representing Technical Subcommittee 9, Quality Assurance
Douglas M. Smits, Division of Building Inspections, City of Charleston, South Carolina
Jim W. Sealy, Jim W. Sealy/Architect/Consultant, Dallas, Texas
Representing Technical Subcommittee 11, Composite Steel and Concrete Structures
Roberto T. Leon, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
Clarkson W. Pinkham, S. B. Barnes Associates, Los Angeles, California
Representing Technical Subcommittee 12, Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation
Charles Kircher, Charles Kircher and Associates, Consulting Engineers, Palo Alto, California
Michael Constantinou, State University of New York, Buffalo
Representing Technical Subcommittee 13, Nonbuilding Structures
Harold Sprague, Structural Engineer, Black and Veatch, Overland Park, Kansas
Stephen W. Meier, Tank Industry Consultants, Indianapolis, Indiana
At-Large Member
Ed Sutton, National Association of Home Builders, Washington, D.C. (since June 1997)
Robert McCluer, Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Country Club Hills,
Illinois
Alan Carr, International Council of Building Officials, Bellevue, Washington
Ex-officio Voting Member
Loring Wyllie, Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco, California
350
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
PUC TECHNICAL SUBCOMMITTEES
Technical Subcommittee 1, DESIGN MAPPING
Chair
R. Joe Hunt, BWXT Y-12, LLC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Members
C.B. Crouse, Dames and Moore, Inc., Seattle, Washington
John D. Hooper, Skilling Ward Magnusson Barkshire, Seattle, Washington
William B. Joyner, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California
Jeffrey K. Kimball, Engineering and Operations Support, U.S. Department of Energy,
Germantown, Maryland
E.V. Leyendecker, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado
Guy J. P. Nordenson, Nordenson & Associates, New York, New York
Chris D. Poland, Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco, California
Paul G. Somerville, Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Pasadena, California
Corresponding Members
Roger D. Borcherdt, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California
S.K. Ghosh, S.K. Ghosh Associates, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois
Rene W. Luft, Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger, San Francisco, California
Perry M. McKimmey, City of Fayetteville, Arkansas
Jeffrey Munsey, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee
R. Hayne Palmer, Jr., United Consulting Group, Ltd., Norcross, Georgia
John C. Theiss, St. Albans, Missouri
Eugene L. Trahern, Coughlin Porter Lundeen, Seattle, Washington
Technical Subcommittee 2, DESIGN CRITERIA AND ANALYSIS
Chair
Ronald O. Hamburger, EQE International, Inc., Oakland, California
351
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Members
Anil K. Chopra, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley
Anthony Brooks Court, Travis, Verdugo, Curry and Associates, San Diego, California
Mohammed M. Ettourney, Weidlinger Associates, Inc., New York, New York
S.K. Ghosh, S.K. Ghosh Associates, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois
James R. Harris, J. R. Harris and Company, Denver, Colorado
John D. Hooper, Skilling Ward Magnusson, Seattle, Washington
Richard J. Phillips, Hillman, Biddison and Loevenguth, Los Angeles, California
Andrei M. Reinhorn, State University of New York, Buffalo
Corresponding Members
David R. Bonneville, Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco, California
Antonio Braga, Factory Mutual, Orange, California
Walter B. Grossman, Department of Advanced Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory,
Upton, New York
Husein Hasan, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee
Leonard Joseph, Thornton-Tomasetti Group, New York, New York
John P. Kiland, DASSE Design, Inc., San Francisco, California
Uno Kula, Uno Kula, P.E., Phoenix, Arizona
Colin Kumabe, Department of Building and Safety, Los Angeles, California
Mark Pierepiekarz, EQE International, Seattle, Washington
Steven E. Pryor, Simpson Strong-Tie, Dublin, California
John G. Shipp, EQE International, Irvine, California
Richard Silva, National Park Service, Lakewood, Colorado
Chia-Ming Uang, University of California, San Diego
Howard Zee, Monte Stott and Associates, San Fracisco, California
Technical Subcommittee 3, FOUNDATIONS AND GEOTECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
Chair
Maurice S. Power, Geomatrix Consultants, San Francisco, California
352
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
Members
C. B. Crouse, URS Corporation, Seattle, Washington
Ricardo Dobry, Renssalaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
Tom H. Hale, California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Sacramento,
California
Edward E. Rinne, Kleinfelder, Inc., Oakland, California
Cetin Soydemir, Haley and Aldrich, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts
Corresponding Members
Roger D. Borcherdt, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California
Paul L. Cloke, Science Applications International Corporation, Las Vegas, Nevada
Richard B. Fallgren, Myers, Nelson, Houghton & Partners, Inc., Lawndale, California
Husein Hasan, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee
Neil M. Hawkins, University of Illinois, Urbana
Klaus H. Jacob, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New
York
William B. Joyner, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California
Farhang Ostadan, Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, California
Jonathan P. Stewart, University of California, Los Angeles
Steven A. Wendland, GeoSystems Engineering, Inc., Lenexa, Kansas
T. Leslie Youd, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah
Technical Subcommittee 4, CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Chair
W. Gene Corley, Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, Illinois
Members:
David E. Arndt, KPFF Consulting Engineers, Seattle, Washington
Ned M. Cleland, Blue Ridge Design, Inc., Winchester, Virginia
S. K. Ghosh, S.K. Ghosh Associates, Northbrook, Illinois
353
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
David P. Gustafson, Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute, Schaumburg, Illinois
Neil M. Hawkins, University of Illinois, Urbana
H. S. Lew, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland
Rene W. Luft, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, San Francisco, California
Joe Maffei, Rutherford & Chekene Consulting Engineers, Oakland, California
Joseph J. Messersmith, Jr., Portland Cement Association, Rockville, Virginia
James K. Wight, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor
Richard Wollmershauser, Hilti, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma
Corresponding Members:
Max A. Gregersen, Centry Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah
Jacob S. Grossman, Rosenwasser-Grossman and Associates, New York, New York
Jack P. Moehle, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Richmond, California
Antonio Nanni, Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Michael G. Oliva, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Frank K.H. Park, Guilford County Planning and Development, Greensboro, North Carolina
Paul C. Perrin, Black and Veatch Special Projects Corporation, Overland Park, Kansas
David A. Sheppard, Consulting Structural Engineer, Inc., Sonora, California
Itzhak Tepper, American Structural Engineers, Falls Church, Virginia
Jack Walker, Jack Walker, Inc., Calabasas, California
Technical Subcommittee 5, MASONRY STRUCTURES
Chair
Daniel Shapiro, SOH and Associates, Structural Engineers, San Francisco, California
Members
Daniel P. Abrams, University of Illinois MAE Center, Urbana
J. Gregg Borchelt, Brick Institute of America, Reston, Virginia
John C. Kariotis, Kariotis and Associates, Structural Engineers, Inc., South Pasadena, California
H. Kit Miyamoto, Structural Engineers Association of Central California, Fair Oaks, California
Max L. Porter, Department of Civil Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames
354
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
Jason J. Thompson, National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, Virginia
Terence A. Weigel, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Louisville, Kentucky
Corresponding Members
David T. Biggs, Ryan-Biggs Associates, P.C., Troy, New York
Thomas A. Gangel, Wallace Engineering Structural Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma
Ramon Gilsanz, Gilsanz Murray Steficek, LLP, New York, New York
Jon P. Kiland, DASSE Design, Inc., San Francisco, California
Richard E. Kligner, University of Texas, Austin
Antonio Nanni, University of Missouri, Rolla
Frank K. H. Park, Guilford County Planning and Development, Greensboro, North Carolina
Arturo E. Schultz, Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Richard Silva, National Park Service, Lakewood, Colorado
John Tawresey, KPFF Consulting Engineers, Seattle, Washington
Diane Throop, International Masonry Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Technical Subcommittee 6, STEEL STRUCTURES
Chair
C. Mark Saunders, Rutherford and Chekene, San Francisco, California
Members
Subhash C. Goel, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Larry G. Griffis, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Houston, Texas
John L. Gross, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland
Nestor R. Iwankiw, Technology and Research, American Institute of Steel Construction,
Chicago, Illinois
Helmut Krawinkler, Stanford University, Stanford, California
James O. Malley, Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco, California
355
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Harry W. Martin, Construction Codes and Standards, American Iron and Steel Institute, Auburn,
California
Clarkson W. Pinkham, S. B. Barnes Associates, Los Angeles, California
W. Lee Shoemaker, Metal Building Manufacturers Association, Cleveland, Ohio
Kurt D. Swensson, Stanley D. Lindsey and Associates, Ltd., Atlanta, Georgia
Corresponding Members:
Michel Bruneau, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Buffalo, New
York
Richard M. Drake, Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, California
Maury Golovin, Ceco Building Systems, Columbus, Mississippi
Max A. Gregersen, Centry, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah
Y. Henry Huang, Los Angeles County Department of Public Works, Alhambra, California
Terry R. Lundeen, Coughlin Porter Lundeen, Inc., Seattle, Washington
Paul C. Perrin, Black and Veatch Special Projects Corporation, Overland Park, Kansas
Walter Schultz, Nucor Research and Development, Norfolk, Nebraska
Steven Thomas, Butler Manufacturing Company, Kansas City, Missouri
Chia-Ming Uang, University of California, San Diego
Howard Zee, Monte Stott and Associates, San Francisco, California
Technical Subcommittee 7, WOOD STRUCTURES
Chair
J. Daniel Dolan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia
Members
Joseph G. Burns, Thornton-Tomasetti Group, Chicago, Illinois
Kelly Cobeen, GFDS Engineers, San Francisco, California
Jay Crandell, National Association of Home Builders Research Center, Upper Marlboro,
Maryland
Larry D. Franks, Southern Building Code Congress International, Birmingham, Alabama
Robert S. George, Robert S. George Architect, San Bruno, California
Cynthia A. Hoover, City of Seattle, Washington
356
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
Philip Line, American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, D.C.
Frank K. H. Park, Guilford County Planning and Development, Greensboro, North Carolina
Thomas D. Skaggs, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma, Washington
Edwin Zacher, H. J. Brunnier Associates, San Francisco, California
Corresponding Members
Kevin C. K. Cheung, Engineering Support, Western Wood Products Association, Portland,
Oregon
Ted Christensen, Wheeler and Gray Inc., Los Angeles, California
Andre Filiatrault, University of California, San Diego
C. Robert Fuller, National Association of Home Builders Research Division
Erol Karacabeyl, Forintek Canada Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Edward L. Keith, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma, Washington
Mark Oakford, RSE Consulting, Federal Way, Washington
Steven E. Pryor, Simpson Strong-Tie, Dublin California
Victor L. Taugher, Taugher and Associates, Castro Valley, California
David P. Tyree, American Forest and Paper Association, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Technical Subcommittee 8, MECHANICAL/ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND BUILDING
EQUIPMENT AND ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS
Chair
John D. Gillengerten, Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Sacramento,
California
Members
Leo Argiris, Ove Arup and Partners, New York, New York
Christopher Arnold, Building Systems Development, Inc., Palo Alto, California
Victor Azzi, Rack Manufacturers Institute, Rye, New Hampshire
Robert E. Bachman, Consulting Structural Engineer, Westlake Village, California
Leo Bragagnolo, Port of San Francisco, California
Russell Fleming, National Fire Sprinkler Association, Patterson, New York
Husein Hasan, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee
David B. Hattis, Building Technology, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland
357
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Pat Lama, Mason Industries, Hauppage, New York
John V. Loscheider, Loscheider Engineering Company, Renton, Washington
Richard J. Phillips, Hillman, Biddison and Loevenguth, Los Angeles, California
Harold Sprague, Black and Veatch Special Projects Corporation, Overland Park, Kansas
William Staehlin, Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Sacramento, California
William W. Stewart, Stewart–Schaberg/Architects, Clayton, Missouri
Richard Wollmershauser, Hilti, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma
Corresponding Members
Richard A. Behr, Department of Architectural Engineering, Pennsylvania State University,
University Park
Antonio Braga, Factory Mutual, Orange, California
Philip Caldwell, Square D Company, Seneca, South Carolina
Paul Meisel, Kinetics Noise Control, Dublin, Ohio
Antonio Nanni, University of Missouri, Rolla
Todd Noce, Mason Industries, Anaheim, California
John “Jack” Prosek, Turner Construction Company, Oakland, California
John F. Silva, Hilti, Inc., San Rafael, California
Tsu T. Soong, Department of Civil Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo
Jack Walker, Jack Walker, Inc., Calabasas, California
Technical Subcommittee 9, QUALITY ASSURANCE
Chair
Douglas M. Smits, City of Charleston, South Carolina
Members
Warner Howe, Consulting Structural Engineer, Germantown, Tennessee
Robert C. Jacobson, City of Bartlett, Tennessee
Mark Kluver, Regional Code Services, San Ramon, California
Raymond W. McNealy, McNealy Bumberry, Des Peres, Missouri
Tom Schlafly, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois
358
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
Jim W. Sealy, Jim W. Sealy/Architect/Consultant, Dallas, Texas
Charles A. Spitz, Architect/Planner/Code Consultant, Wall, New Jersey
Scott Stedman, Professional Engineers, Arroyo Grande, California
Ed Sutton, Construction, National Association of Home Builders, Washington, D.C. (since June
1997)
Corresponding Members
John V. Loscheider, Loscheider Engineering Company, Renton, Washington
Richard J. Phillips, Hillman, Biddison and Loevenguth, Los Angeles, California
William A. Stewart, Stewart-Schaberg Architects, Clayton, Missouri
James R. Thomas, Delich, Roth and Goodwillie, P.A., Kansas City, Missouri
Technical Subcommittee 11, COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Chair
Roberto T. Leon, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of
Technology, Atlanta
Members
Gregory Deierlein, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca,
New York
Subhash C. Goel, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Lawrence G. Griffis, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Houston, Texas
Jerome F. Hajjar, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Neil M. Hawkins, University of Illinois, Urbana
Kevin LeSmith, Skilling Ward Magnusson Barkshire, Inc., Seattle, Washington
Clarkson W. Pinkham, S. B. Barnes Associates, Los Angeles, California
Bahram M. Sharooz, University of Cincinnati, Ohio
Corresponding Members
Scott A. Civjan, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Nestor R. Inwankiw, Technology and Research, American Institute of Steel Construction,
Chicago, Illinois
James O. Malley, Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco, California
Ivan M. Viest, Hellertown, Pennsylvania
359
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
James K. Wight, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Technical Subcommittee 12, BASE ISOLATION AND ENERGY DISSIPATION
Chair
Charles Kircher, Charles Kircher and Associates, Consulting Engineers, Palo Alto, California
Members
Ian Aiken, Seismic Isolation Engineering, Inc., Oakland, California
Michael Constantinou, Department of Civil Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo
Robert D. Hanson, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Pasadena, California
Douglas Hochbach, Hochbach-Lewin, Inc., Palo Alto, California
Andrew W. Taylor, KPFF Consulting Engineers, Seattle, Washington
Andrew Whittaker, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California,
Richmond
Corresponding Members
Finley A. Charney, Schnabel Engineering Associates, Denver Colorado
Husein Hasan, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee
Ronald L. Mayes, Dynamic Isolation Systems, Lafayette, California
Tsu T. Soong, State University of New York, Buffalo
Technical Subcommittee 13, NONBUILDING STRUCTURES
Chair
Harold Sprague, Black and Veatch Special Projects Corporation, Overland Park, Kansas
Members
Victor Azzi, Rack Manufacturers Institute, Rye, New Hampshire
Clayton L. Clem, Structural and Foundation Engineering Department, Tennessee Valley
Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee
Ralph T. Eberts, Black and Veatch, Los Angeles, California
John D. Gillengerten, Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Sacramento,
California
Frank J. Hsiu, Chevron Research and Technology Company, Richmond, California
Leon Kempner, Jr., Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon
360
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
Nicholas A. Legatos, Vice President, Preload Inc., Hauppage, New York
Stephen W. Meier, Engineering and Technology, Tank Industry Consultants, Inc., Indianapolis,
Indiana
Corresponding Members
Mark Anderson, Consulting Engineer, Anchorage, Alaska
Douglas G. Honegger, Consultant, Arroyo Grande, California
Praveen K. Malhotra, Factory Mutual Research, Norwood, Massachusetts
Dennis Niehoff, Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., Grovetown, Georgia
Michael R. Simac, Earth Improvement Technologies, Cramerton, North Carolina
BSSC SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURES TASK GROUP
Chair
Glenn Bell, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Inc., Arlington, Massachusetts
Members
Gary Y.K. Chock, Martin and Chock, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii
William T. Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene, Oakland, California
Edwin T. Huston, Smith and Huston, Inc., Seattle, Washington
Paul A. Murray, Structural Design Group, Inc., Nashville, Tennessee
Richard J. Phillips, Hillman Biddison and Loevenguth, Los Angeles, California
Douglas, M. Smits, City of Charleston, South Carolina
Corresponding Members
Ramon Gilsanz, Gilsanz Murray Steficek, LLP, New York, New York
Robert I. Johnson, R.I. Johnson & Associates Consulting Engineers, Wheaton, Illinois
Jacob M. Kramer, Sargent & Lundy, LLP, Chicago, Illinois
Philip Line, American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, D.C.
Robert McCluer, Codes, Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Country Club
Hills, Illinois
Guy J.P. Nordenson, Nordenson & Associates, LLP, New York, New York
Michael G. Oliva, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Cetin Soydemir, Haley and Aldrich, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts
Philip C. Terry, Burns & McDowell, Kansas City, Missouri
361
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
John C. Theiss, St. Albans, Missouri
BSSC ANCHORAGE TASK GROUP
Chair
Daniel Shapiro, SOHA Engineers, San Francisco, California
Members
Robert E. Bachman, Consulting Structural Engineer, Westlake Village, California
David E. Bonneville, Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco, California
J. Gregg Borchelt, Brick Industry Association, Reston, Virginia
W. Gene Corley, Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, Illinois
J. Daniel Dolan, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia
John D. Gillengerten, Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Sacramento
,California
James R. Harris, J. R. Harris & Company, Denver, Colorado
Philip J. Iverson, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, Illinois
Richard E. Klingner, University of Texas, Austin
Stephen W. Meier, Tank Industry Consultants, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
A. Fattah Shaikh, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Douglas M. Smits, City of Charleston, South Carolina
James R. Tauby, Mason Industries, Hauppage, New York
Jason J. Thompson, National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, Virginia
David L. Wismer, City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Richard Wollmershauser, Technical Services, Hilti, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma
Roger Becker, Computerized Structural Design, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin
William T. Holmes, Rutherford and Chekene, Oakland, California
362
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
REPRESENTATIVES OF BSSC MEMBER ORGANIZATIONS
AND THEIR ALTERNATES
AFL-CIO Building and Construction Trades Department
Representative
Pete Stafford, Center to Protect Workers’ Rights, Washington, D.C.
American Concrete Institute
Representative
Shuaib H. Ahmed, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan
Alternate
Daniel W. Falconer, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan
American Consulting Engineers Council
Representative
Roy G. Johnston, Brandow and Johnston Associates, Los Angeles, California
Alternate
Edward Bajer, American Consulting Engineers Council, Washington, D.C.
American Forest and Paper Association
Representative
David P. Tyree, American Forest and Paper Association, Colorado Springs,
Colorado
Alternate
Bradford K. Douglas, American Forest and Paper Association, Washington,
D.C.
American Institute of Architects
Representative
Charles A. Spitz, Architect/Planner/Code Consultant, Wall, New Jersey
Alternate
Gabor Lorant, Lorant Group, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona
American Institute of Steel Construction
Representative
Charles J. Carter, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois
Alternate
Nestor R. Iwankiw, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois
363
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
American Insurance Services Group, Inc.
Representative
John A. Mineo, American Insurance Services Group, Inc., New York, New
York
Alternate
James G. Borchardt, Bituminous Insurance Company, Rock Island, Illinois
American Iron and Steel Institute
Representative
Harry W. Martin, American Iron and Steel Institute, Auburn, California
American Society of Civil Engineers
Representative
James A. Rossberg, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia
Alternate
Douglas E. Honegger, Consultant, Arroyo Grande, California
American Society of Civil Engineers – Kansas City Chapter
Representative
F. Alan Wiley, Black and Veatch, Overland Park, Kansas
Alternate
Thomas Heausler, Heausler Structural Engineers, Foster City, California
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers
Representative
William Staehlin, Office of State Health Planning and Development,
Sacramento, California
Alternate
Bruce D. Hunn, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and AirConditioning Engineers
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Representative
Ronald W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc., Foster City,
California
American Welding Society
Representative
Hardy H. Campbell III, American Welding Society, Miami, Florida
Alternate
William R. Oates, American Welding Society, Miami, Florida
364
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
APA - The Engineered Wood Association
Representative
Thomas D. Skaggs, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma,
Washington
Alternate
Edward L. Keith, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma,
Washington
Applied Technology Council
Representative
Christopher Rojahn, Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, California
Alternate
Charles Thornton, Thornton-Tomasetti Group, Inc., New York, New York
Associated General Contractors of America
Representative
John “Jack” Prosek, Turner Construction Company, Oakland, California
Alternate
Dirk Haire, Associated General Contractors of America, Alexandria, Virginia
Association of Engineering Geologists
Representative
Ellis Krinitzsky, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi
Alternate
Patrick J. Barosh, Patrick J. Barosh and Associates, Bristol, Rhode Island
Association of Major City Building Officials
Representative
Andrew A. Adelman, City of Los Angeles, California
Alternate
Walter R. Krukow, City of Los Angeles, California
Brick Industry Association
Representative
J. Gregg Borchelt, Brick Industry Association, Reston, Virginia
Alternate
Charles Clark, Jr., Brick Industry Association, Reston, Virginia
Building Officials and Code Administrators International
Representative
David L .Wismer, City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Alternate
Paul K. Heilstedt, Building Officials and Code Administrators International,
Country Club Hills, Illinois
365
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Building Owners and Managers Association International
Representative
Michael Jawer, Building Owners and Managers Association International,
Washington, D.C.
California Geotechnical Engineers Association
Representative
Alan Kropp, Alan Kropp and Associates, Berkeley, California
Alternate
John A. Baker, Kleinfelder, Inc., Sacramento, California
California Seismic Safety Commission
Representative
Fred Turner, Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento, California
Canadian National Committee on Earthquake Engineering
Representative
R.H. Devall, Canadian National Committee on Earthquake Engineering,
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Alternate
Cathleen Taraschuk, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario,
Canada
Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada
Representative
Vilas Mujumdar, Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada,
Citrus Heights, California
Alternate
Daniel Shapiro, SOHA Engineers, San Francisco, California
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
Representative
David P. Gustafson, Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute, Schaumburg,
Illinois
Alternate
Anthony Felder, Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute, Schaumburg, Illinois
California Division of the State Architect
Representative
Dennis Bellet, Division of State Architect, Sacramento, California
Alternate
Richard T. Conrad, Division of State Architect, Sacramento, California
366
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
Earthquake Engineering Research Institute
Representative
Joseph Nicoletti, URS Consultants, San Francisco, California
Alternate
F. Robert Preece, San Francisco, California
General Services Administration (9PCT)
Representative
Bela I. Palfalvi, General Services Administration 9PCT, San Francisco,
California
Alternate
Catherine K. Lee, General Services Administration 9 PCT, San Francisco,
California
Hawaii State Earthquake Advisory Board
Representative
Gary Y. K. Chock, Martin and Chock, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii
Alternate
Paul Okubo, Hawaii State Earthquake Advisory Board, Honolulu, Hawaii
Institute for Business and Home Safety
Representative
Jeffrey Sciaudone, Institute for Business and Home Safety, Tampa Florida
Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction
Representative
H. S. Lew, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg,
Maryland
Alternate
Shyam Sunder, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg,
Maryland
International Conference of Building Officials
Representative
Paul Armstrong, International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier,
California
Alternate
Alan Carr, International Conference of Building Officials, Bellevue,
Washington
International Masonry Institute
Representative
Diane Throop, International Masonry Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Alternate
Richard Filloramo, International Masonry Institute, Glastonbury, Connecticut
367
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Masonry Institute of America
Representative
John Chrysler, Masonry Institute of America, Los Angeles, California
Metal Building Manufacturers Association
Representative
W. Lee Shoemaker, Metal Building Manufacturers Association, Cleveland,
Ohio
Alternate
Joe N. Nunnery, VP Buildings, Memphis, Tennessee
Mid-America Earthquake Center
Representative
Daniel P. Abrams, Mid-America Earthquake Center, University of Illinois,
Urbana
Alternate
James E. Beavers, Mid-America Earthquake Center, University of Illinois,
Urbana
National Association of Home Builders
Representative
Ed Sutton, National Association of Home Builders, Washington, D.C.
National Concrete Masonry Association
Representative
Jason J. Thompson, National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon,
Virginia
Alternate
Robert Zobel, National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, Virginia
National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards
Representative
Richard T. Conrad, Division of State Architect, Sacramento, California
Alternate
Robert C. Wible, National Conference of States on Building Codes and
Standards, Herndon, Virginia
National Council of Structural Engineers Associations
Representative
Howard Simpson, Simpson, Gumpertz and Heger, Arlington, Massachusetts
Alternate
W. Gene Corley, Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, Illinois
368
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
National Elevator Industry, Inc.
Representative
George A. Kappenhagen, Schindler Elevator Company, Morristown, New
Jersey
National Fire Sprinkler Association
Representative
Russell P. Fleming, National Fire Sprinkler Association, Patterson, New York
Alternate
Victoria Valentine, National Fire Sprinkler Association, Patterson, New York
National Institute of Building Sciences
Representative
Henry L. Green, State of Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry
Services, Okemos, Michigan
Alternate
Gerald H. Jones, Kansas City, Missouri
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association
Representative
George Muste, National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, Silver Spring,
Maryland
Alternate
Colin L. Lobo, National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, Silver Spring,
Maryland
Portland Cement Association
Representative
Joseph J. Messersmith, Jr., Portland Cement Association, Rockville, Virginia
Alternate
S. K. Ghosh, S. K. Ghosh Associates, Inc., Skokie, Illinois
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute
Representative
Philip J. Iverson, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, Illinois
Alternate
David A, Sheppard, Consulting Structural Engineer, Sonora, California
Rack Manufacturers Institute
Representative
Victor Azzi, Rack Manufacturers Institute, Rye, New Hampshire
Alternate
John Nofsinger, Rack Manufacturers Institute, Charlotte, North Carolina
369
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Southern Building Code Congress International
Representative
John Battles, Souther Building Code Congress International, Birmingham,
Alabama
Alternate
T. Eric Stafford, Southern Building Code Congress International,
Birmingham, Alabama
Steel Deck Institute, Inc.
Representative
Steven A. Roehrig, Steel Deck Institute, Fox River Grove, Illinois
Alternate
Donald W. Ball, Consolidated Systems, Inc., Columbia, South Carolina
Structural Engineers Association of California
Representative
Bob Hendershot, Structural Engineers Association of California, San Diego,
California
Alternate
Dough Hochbach, Hochbach-Lewin, Inc., Palo Alto, California
Structural Engineers Association of Central California
Representative
H. Kit Miyamoto, Structural Engineers Association of Central California, Fair
Oaks, California
Alternate
Tom H. Hale, Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development,
Sacramento, California
Structural Engineers Association of Colorado
Representative
James R. Harris, J. R. Harris and Company, Denver, Colorado
Alternate
Robert B. Hunnes, JVA, Inc., Boulder, Colorado
Structural Engineers Association of Illinois
Representative
W. Gene Corley, Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, Illinois
Structural Engineers Association of Northern California
Representative
James O. Malley, Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco, California
Alternate
Edwin G. Zacher, H. J. Brunnier Associates, San Francisco, California
370
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
Structural Engineers Association of Oregon
Representative
Joseph P. Gehlen, Kramer Gehlen Associates, Vancouver, Washington
Alternate
Grant L. Davis, SE Consulting, Cornelius, Oregon
Structural Engineers Association of San Diego
Representative
H. John Khadivi, Precision Structural Engineering, San Diego, California
Structural Engineers Association of Southern California
Representative
Brian L. Cochran, Brian L. Cochran Associates, Inc. Los Angeles, California
Alternate
Saiful Islam, Saiful/Bouquet, Inc., Pasadena, California
Structural Engineers Association of Texas
Representative
Joseph Kallaby, OSI, Houston, Texas
Alternate
Michael D. Engelhardt, University of Texas – Austin
Structural Engineers Association of Utah
Representative
A. Parry Brown, Reaveley Engineers and Associates, Salt Lake City, Utah
Alternate
David L. Pierson, ARW Engineers, Ogden, Utah
Structural Engineers Association of Washington
Representative
James Carpenter, Structural Engineers Association of Washington,
Southworth, Washington
Alternate
Michael Valley, Skilling Ward Magnusson Barkshire, Seattle, Washington
The Masonry Society
Representative
Arturo E. Schultz, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Western States Clay Products Association
Representative
Jeff I. Elder, Western State Clay Products Association, West Jordan, Utah
371
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Western States Structural Engineers Association
Representative
Greg Shea, Moffat, Nichol and Bonney, Inc., Portland, Oregon
Alternate
William T. Rafferty, Structural Design North, Spokane, Washington
Wire Reinforcement Institute, Inc.
Representative
Roy H. Reiterman, Wire Reinforcement Institute, Findlay, Ohio
Alternate
Robert C. Richardson, Consultant, Sun Lakes, Arizona
372
Participants in the BSSC 2000 Provisions Update Program
REPRESENTATIVES OF BSSC AFFILIATE MEMBERS
AND THEIR ALTERNATES
Bay Area Structural, Inc.
Representative
David Benaroya Helfant, Bay Area Structural, Inc., Oakland, California
Building Technology, Incorporated
Representative
David B. Hattis, Building Technology, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland
Eagle Point Software
Representative
Ed Graham, Eagle Point Software, Dubuque, Iowa
Alternate
Joe Deppe, Eagle Point Software, Dubuque, Iowa
H & H Group, Inc.
Representative
Les. L. Hegyi, H&H Group, Inc., McLean, Virginia
LaPay Consulting, Inc.
Representative
William S. LaPay, LaPay Consulting, Inc., Export, Pennsylvania
Northroad Builders
Representative
Paul O. Johnson, Northroad Builders, Brisbane, California
Alternate
Clara A. Johnson, Northroad Builders, Brisbane, California
Southern California Gas Company
Representative
Don Dockray, Southern California Gas Company, Los Angeles, California
Square D Company
Representative
Philip J. Caldwell, Square D Company, Seneca, South Carolina
Alternate
Jeffrey Gatscher, Square D Company, Nashville, Tennessee
373
2000 Provisions, Appendix B
Steel Joist Institute
Representative
R. Donald Murphy, Steel Joist Institute, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
Vibration Mountings and Controls
Representative
John P. Giuliano, Vibration Mountings and Controls, Bloomingdale, New
Jersey
Alternate
Rajendra Prasad, Vibration Mountings and Controls, Bloomingdale, New
Jersey
374
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