Accelerate the Journey to Enterprise Cloud with Oracle Database 12c

Accelerate the Journey to Enterprise Cloud with Oracle Database 12c
Accelerate the Journey to Enterprise Cloud with
Oracle Database 12c
APRIL 2015
Table of Contents
The Journey to Enterprise Cloud
Service Delivery
Enterprise Cloud
Oracle Database 12c Accelerates the Journey to Enterprise Cloud
Multitenant architecture: the most efficient workload consolidation
Rapid Home Provisioning: centralized, standardized software management
SQL Translation Framework: easier migration
QoS Management: automated, policy-driven monitoring
Application Continuity: resilient database services
Automatic Data Optimization: automated ILM
Active Data Guard Far Sync: zero data loss at any distance
Global Data Services: extend services across data centers
Navigate the Journey with Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
Further Reading
The promise of cloud computing—greater agility, less risk, and lower costs—is real, but realizing that
promise depends on the approach you adopt. Oracle offers choice and flexibility with the most
comprehensive, modern, and secure portfolio of cloud products and services to meet all your business
needs and deliver the full benefits of cloud computing.
To meet all your business requirements, you need a cloud strategy that leverages leading hardware
and software solutions with a range of enterprise and industry applications. You need technology that
will complement—and enhance—your existing IT environments. And you need a vendor with
experienced professionals who can support you no matter where you are in the cloud lifecycle. With
these resources you can design and build a flexible, secure and unified cloud that can host all of your
enterprise workloads: an enterprise cloud. An enterprise cloud goes beyond the capabilities of
specialized offerings to address all your business needs in a single architecture. Only Oracle offers
the full portfolio of services and products required to build an enterprise cloud.
Making the full transformation to an enterprise cloud may take several years, and will affect many
aspects of organizations and roles, processes, policies and service delivery. We’ve seen many
enterprises organize their transformation into a phased approach—a journey to enterprise cloud. The
journey implements discrete steps that are each achievable and provide significant benefits. So
however fast or far each organization chooses to go, they derive immediate value from even their initial
Oracle Database 12c is designed to enable enterprise clouds and delivers new capabilities and
benefits at each phase of the journey:
Efficient and Secure Consolidation for Mixed Workloads
Resilient, Location-independent Database Services
Agile, Automated Resource and Data Management
Centralized, Standardized Management of Software Images
This paper examines the new features in Oracle Database 12c that will accelerate your journey to
enterprise cloud.
The Journey to Enterprise Cloud
Figure 1: The Journey to Enterprise Cloud
The journey begins with simplifying the legacy IT estate and the processes that manage it by standardizing at every
level. Deployments are provisioned in a modular, assembly-line model rather than the traditional custom-built,
artisan manner. The resulting environments and services are simpler and more uniform, so they can be deployed
faster and managed more easily, reducing operating costs and business risk while delivering services more quickly.
To simplify the IT estate, the inventory of vendors, hardware, software, service offerings and processes is
rationalized to the smallest set that is needed. Servers, storage and software infrastructure are deployed in
standardized “building blocks” that can be quickly and reliably provisioned. Database deployment options are
defined in a service catalog from which users choose attributes such as availability level, performance objectives
and security options.
There are usually some exceptional cases, such as legacy platforms or special security needs, and planning for
these is part of this process. To minimize such cases, IT should collaborate with the database service consumers to
define infrastructure building blocks and service catalogs that will address the large majority of an enterprise’s
requirements and simplify the estate as much as possible.
One of the marquee options of Oracle Database 12c is Oracle Multitenant. As we will see in more detail, collections
of pluggable databases (PDBs) can be easily managed as a single entity, which greatly simplifies and speeds
administration. This also enforces standardization since each PDB is controlled by a single framework. We’ll see
many more reasons why standardizing on Oracle Database 12c should be a key component of your enterprise cloud
Lowering expenses – both CapEx and OpEx – is the key benefit of consolidating workloads onto shared
infrastructure. The same amount of work can be done with a smaller footprint, so capital expenses are reduced.
The number of distinct environments is reduced, so operating expenses are also lowered. Finally, provisioning a
new service onto a pre-deployed shared environment is faster than provisioning a dedicated environment for the
service from scratch. Consolidation therefore enables rapid provisioning of new services.
In all consolidation architectures, the consolidated workloads share the same physical infrastructure. One approach
to consolidation is to place each workload in its own virtual machine, and consolidate those VMs onto shared
servers. But this approach does not reduce the operating environments to be provisioned and managed, and is
therefore the least efficient consolidation model. Instead, consolidation should be as high in the stack as possible to
deliver the highest efficiency.
Rather than placing each workload in a dedicated VM, the workloads can be consolidated on a shared operating
system. This reduces the environments to maintain, which increases administrative efficiency. Higher densities are
possible, enabling greater reduction in hardware footprint and associated costs. For the Oracle Database, this
approach can be easily implemented by consolidating multiple databases on a shared collection of servers. Oracle
Database has several features which make this approach very effective, such as Database Resource Manager.
Consolidation density and efficiency can be further increased by hosting multiple database workloads in a single
database management framework.
New in Oracle Database 12c, the multitenant architecture provides exactly this
environment, enabling highly efficient consolidation of standardized database services represented by pluggable
databases (PDBs). Integrated with key database capabilities, this provides a highly efficient, secure and easy-tomanage consolidation.
Custom workloads may require very strong isolation. Encapsulating these workloads with virtualization may be
required to allow consolidation onto a shared server infrastructure. A highly specialized workload may even require a
dedicated platform and cannot be consolidated.
These non-standard situations must be addressed, but they can
be minimized by standardizing on a database that provides isolation capabilities that will handle most consolidation
Oracle Database 12c for Efficient Consolidation
Multitenant architecture: the most efficient consolidation of standardized workloads
SQL Translation Framework: easier migration from non-Oracle SQL databases into standardized,
consolidated Oracle Database 12c environments
To plan, build and operate a consolidation environment it is essential to leverage a full-featured management suite.
Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c provides these capabilities and more. This paper will outline EM12c’s features for
enterprise clouds in a later section.
Service Delivery
The service delivery phase increases speed and agility by leveraging automation and dynamic, online operations.
Services are provisioned faster, and operate at higher levels, with less manual attention. A self-service portal allows
users to provision and manage database services without IT engagement. End users benefit from faster access to
services, and better availability of those services. IT benefits by spending less time on manual operations, and can
focus on higher-value initiatives.
Automated, dynamic management of resources is a key characteristic of a service delivery environment. In an
environment managed with manual processes, adjusting a database’s footprint requires human intervention. By
contrast, a service delivery environment uses tools to monitor and dynamically adjust both resource allocations and
footprint without impact to running workloads. Adjustments are faster and less error-prone, enabling higher resource
utilization and higher service levels.
Because the environment is dynamic, metering and analyzing system operations becomes more important than in a
more static environment. The key is choosing what to meter and when to look at the data, both periodically and
event-driven. Triggers should be defined which result in audits and adjustments. For example, all system outages
should be analyzed to address root causes and improve recovery policies. Missed SLAs or sustained operation at
near-capacity are other examples of situations that should cause alerts and be investigated.
Metrics are also critical for measuring each tenant’s resource usage. Tenants might be charged for usage, or
perhaps only shown their usage. In either case, collecting usage metrics provides hard data that charts usage
patterns, enabling better planning and budgeting, and identifying underutilized assets.
Self-service is made available to authorized users, so they can provision database services (from a menu of options
defined in a service catalog) on their own. This removes another IT touch point, freeing IT for more valuable tasks,
and speeding the provisioning process for end users. Users may also be granted various management capabilities
for the entire database lifecycle.
Oracle Database 12c for Service Delivery
Multitenant architecture: rapid creation, movement and cloning of application backends
Rapid Home Provisioning for centralized management of standardized software images
Quality of Service Management: Automated, policy-driven monitoring for an entire system
Application Continuity: resilient database services
Automatic Data Optimization: automated Information Lifecycle Management
With Enterprise Manager 12c these capabilities are available in a single management pane that orchestrates every
aspect of Service Delivery.
Enterprise Cloud
The goal of the journey is to provide an enterprise cloud – a single architecture that can host all of the workloads of
the enterprise and provide the highest possible levels of service availability. To achieve these requirements, the
enterprise cloud extends the standard cloud model in several dimensions:
Host all workloads in a single architecture, including those which require dedicated resources and
Provide a single management pane for handling the entire estate and its lifecycle
Single view of every type of deployment (public, private, community and hybrid)
Various service provisioning models to meet required SLAs
Support for different cloud deployment models as needed to meet business needs
Services stay online during maintenance
In-flight client work is not impacted by planned or unplanned outages
Quality of Service-driven dynamic load balancing to ensure SLAs are met
Differentiated security policies based on business criticality and data classification
Enterprise-grade preventive, detective and administrative security
Logical and physical isolation are applied as needed for sensitive workloads
Users can obtain compute capacity on-demand. Critical workloads are always available and responsive. An
enterprise cloud achieves this by decoupling services from the environments that host them, creating service
location independence, which allows services to leverage the entire capacity of the cloud.
Workloads are not bound to a specific pool, so if changes in workload patterns indicate that moving a given
workload to a different pool is the best choice, the workload will be moved there without service interruption. Some
workloads may be distributed across geographically separated pools for load balancing and resiliency.
Oracle Database 12c for Enterprise Clouds
Flexible provisioning that supports all deployment options
Active Data Guard Far Sync: Zero data loss at any distance
Global Data Services: Extend database services across datacenters
An enterprise cloud will host all tiers, from applications to disk. Oracle can provide an enterprise cloud solution that
supports all enterprise workloads and use cases. Starting from the foundation of the industry-leading Oracle
Database, Oracle’s portfolio includes unique capabilities that no competitor can offer.
Oracle Database 12c Accelerates the Journey to Enterprise Cloud
Oracle Database 12c brings key features that deliver benefits at each step of this journey, making the journey faster
and easier, with higher value at each step.
Multitenant architecture: the most efficient workload consolidation
Oracle Database 12c introduces a multitenant architecture that simplifies the process of consolidating databases
onto a cloud. It delivers all the benefits of managing many databases as one, yet retains the data isolation and
resource prioritization of separate databases. The multitenant architecture enables the creation of one or more
pluggable databases (PDBs) in a multitenant container database (CDB). Applications use PDBs exactly as they
would use a dedicated database, so applications will be able to leverage PDBs with no code changes.
Most management operations are at the CDB level, so administrators can manage many PDBs with a single
operation on the CDB. This supports standardization, because a single operation or configuration change is applied
consistently to every PDB in the CDB, preventing configuration drift.
Figure 2: PDBs consolidated in a CDB
The multitenant architecture provides a very efficient consolidation model, since much of the overhead which every
database required in the past is now handled just once in the CDB. Strong isolation for PDBs is available in several
Database Resource Manager provides resource isolation
Each PDB may have its own encryption, providing security isolation
Restricted administration privileges may be delegated to a PDB for administrative isolation
Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall are PDB-aware, providing
access control and consolidation of audit logs
The consolidated environment can be efficiently managed since many operations are at the CDB level and apply to
all the PDBs within that CDB. Administrative and operational time are lowered, and applied with reduced risk. The
Oracle database software version, initialization parameters and database properties are all CDB-level. Oracle Data
Guard and scheduled RMAN tasks are managed at the CDB level.
PDBs can be provisioned very quickly. In many scenarios, a single command will complete the provisioning in a
matter of seconds:
Create a new PDB from a seed or cloned PDB
Unplug from one CDB and plug into another CDB (which can be at a different version level)
Clone on a file system that supports thin provisioning
Migrating an Oracle Database 11g database into a PDB is a straightforward task with a few simple steps.
For workloads that require high availability, the CDB should be deployed with Oracle Real Application Clusters
(RAC). Each PDB can be made available on either every instance of the Oracle RAC CDB or on a subset of
instances. In any case, access to and management of the PDBs are regulated using Dynamic Database Services,
which will also be used by applications to connect to the respective PDB.
Note that while most workloads will be well suited for consolidation into a CDB, some workloads will require higher
degrees of isolation. Deployment options supporting stronger isolation are supported with CDBs. At the other end
of the spectrum, in environments that support higher levels of sharing, multiple CDBs can be consolidated together
on a shared operating environment. In short, Oracle Database 12c supports all of the deployment models that an
enterprise cloud may need.
Rapid Home Provisioning: centralized, standardized software management
Patching large software deployments can be time consuming and error-prone. Automation can help, but does not
sufficiently reduce the complexity of supporting large software deployments. The existing processes were designed
to enable customized deployments, where each home could be tailored to a different level and configuration.
As customers are starting to standardize their environments, new approaches to patching and upgrades become
possible. In fact, customers often buy additional software to enforce standardisation in their current envrionment, to
prevent level and configuration drift.
With Rapid Home Provisioning, customers can now create a gold image for each standardized software image they
want to support, and easily provision and update homes using these gold images. In this way, they need only apply
a new set of patches once, to the gold image, and then make this new binary level available throughout their
enterprise for new, as well as existing deployments.
Rapid Home Provisioning supports multiple ways of distributing and updating software homes.
For deployment and test environments, often the most convenient approach is to use NFS-mounted homes. For
production environments it is preferable to use local homes. Rapid Home Provisioning supports both deployment
Rapid Home Provisioning supports the following capabilities through the use of simple commands:
Provision a new home, with or without a database
Switch an existing database to a new gold image level
Import existing homes into the environment
Promote local homes to a gold image
Mass upgrade all instantiations of a gold image to a new gold image level
SQL Translation Framework: easier migration
While migrating non-Oracle database objects and data is non-trivial, migrating the actual database applications is no
less critical. Each of the relational database management systems has its own implementation of the SQL standard .
The amount of custom SQL present in an application can largely define the amount of time required to fully migrate
a database and its applications. This time consuming and error-prone process has been greatly enhanced with the
introduction of the SQL Translation Framework in Oracle Database 12c.
The framework allows for the translators in Oracle SQL Developer to be loaded directly into the database as a
collection of Java-stored classes and procedures. Once installed from SQL Developer to the database, the translator
can be activated at the session or service level. Statements sent to the database will be parsed as non-Oracle SQL,
translated, and executed. A collection of these translations are stored in a SQL Translation Profile. The contents of
the profile can be reviewed, modified, and approved by the migration team to ensure the translations are accurate.
Profiles can be created for each application to be migrated and can then be transferred between databases since
the translations are portable.
This new capability eases and speeds the transition to Oracle Database 12c. By migrating data from various
vendors to a single standardized platform, the variety and complexity of the IT estate will be lowered. Opportunities
to consolidate into multitenant container databases (CDBs) will enable further efficiencies and associated savings.
QoS Management: automated, policy-driven monitoring
With Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database Quality of Service Management (QoS) is part of the Oracle Real
Application Clusters (RAC) license. It is an automated, policy-based mechanism that monitors workloads across an
entire system, giving administrators a holistic view of the workloads and the resources handling them.
Oracle Database QoS Management monitors the performance of each work request on a target system. It starts to
track a work request from the time it requests a connection to the database using a database service. The amount of
time required to complete a work request, or the response time (also known as the end-to-end response time, or
round-trip time), is the time from when the request for data was initiated and when the data request is completed. By
accurately measuring the two components of response time - the time spent using resources and the time spent
waiting to use resources - QoS Management can quickly detect bottlenecks in the system. QoS Management then
makes suggestions to reallocate resources to relieve a bottleneck, thus preserving or restoring service levels.
Application Continuity: resilient database services
Clients connect to the database via database services. Maintaining database service availability during planned and
unplanned outages enables more work to be completed by clients, since the outages will briefly interrupt work, but
do not stop work indefinitely. The Oracle Database enables two increased levels of availability for database
High Availability
In a single instance environment, if the lone instance running the database services is stopped due to an
unplanned event, the database instance and its services can be quickly restarted on another node. The
client must reconnect and restart the work. Oracle RAC One Node and Data Guard provide this level of
avaialability for single instance deployments.
For planned outages, Data Guard provides switchover capabilities similar to the failover behavior. Oracle
RAC One Node addresses planned outages with Online Database Relocation, providing improved
Continuous Availability
In an Oracle RAC environment, a uniform database service runs on all nodes of a server pool. If a node is
stopped due to a planned or unplanned event, clients can immediately reconnect to an instance of the
service running on a surviving node.
Let us examine this last scenario. Although the outage time may be imperceptible, clients connected to the node
that is stopped will need to reconnect to the service on a different node. The status of the in-flight work between the
client and database is often not known.
For end users, this translates to experiences such as this: while shopping online, the user clicked “purchase” for an
airline ticket. The browser began its wait cycle. Seconds passed. The user clicked “purchase” again. The cycle
was repeated several times until finally the website responded: sorry, no more tickets available. The user was
disappointed (and found a ticket on a different website with a different airline) but the user was even more upset
when they learned the flight was sold out because they had accidently purchased the last dozen empty seats.
Application Continuity addresses this problem and helps meet the requirements of continuous availability for
database services by maintaining transaction state under most conditions, even when moved among nodes of an
Oracle RAC deployment during planned maintenance or due to a node failure. This is provided by the ability to
safely replay many transactions that were interrupted in-flight.
Application Continuity enables replay, in a non-disruptive and rapid manner, of a database request when a
recoverable error makes the database session unavailable. The request can contain transactional and nontransactional calls to the database and calls that are executed locally at the client or middle tier. After a successful
replay, the application can continue where that database session left off instead of leaving users in doubt not
knowing what happened to their funds transfers, flight bookings, and so on, and for administrators’ avoiding the
need to reboot mid-tier machines to recover from logon storms. With Application Continuity, the end user experience
is improved by masking many outages, planned and unplanned, without requiring the application developer to
attempt to recover the request.
Automatic Data Optimization: automated ILM
Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) is the practice of applying policies for the effective management of
information throughout its useful life. ILM includes every phase of a “row” from its beginning to its end, and consists
of the policies, processes, practices, and tools used to align the business value of information with the most
appropriate and cost effective IT infrastructure from the time information is conceived through its final disposition.
Automatic Data Optimization (ADO), new in Oracle Database 12c, can be used to create policies, and automate
actions based on those policies, to implement your ILM strategy with techniques such as automated compression,
movement of least-accessed data to lower cost infrastructure, and in-database archiving. This relieves
administrators of the burdens of manually tracking and implementing your ILM strategy. This is increasingly
business-critical as the volume and importance of data and the laws that govern its management grow. ADO
leverages the new Heat Map feature. Heat Map automatically tracks data modification times at the row and
segment level, and access times at the segment level, providing unprecedented insights into how data is being
accessed. ADO and Heat Map are part of Oracle Advanced Compression and enable a more automated, servicesdriven deployment.
Active Data Guard Far Sync: zero data loss at any distance
Active Data Guard Far Sync is a new capability for Oracle Database 12c that provides zero data loss protection for a
production database by maintaining a synchronized standby database located at any distance from the primary
location, without impacting database performance and with minimal cost or complexity. A far sync instance receives
changes synchronously from a primary database and forwards them asynchronously to a remote standby.
Production can be quickly failed over, manually or automatically, to the remote standby database with zero data
A far sync instance is a light-weight entity that manages only a control file and log files. It requires a fraction of the
CPU, memory, and I/O resources of a standby database. It does not keep user data files, nor does it run recovery. A
far sync instance can save network bandwidth by performing transport compression using the Oracle Advanced
Compression option.
Consider an asynchronous Data Guard configuration with a primary in New York, and a standby in London. Upgrade
to zero data loss simply by using Active Data Guard to deploy a far sync instance within synchronous replication
distance of New York (less than 150 miles). There is no disruption to the existing environment nor is there any
requirement for proprietary storage, specialized networking, more database licenses, or complex management.
With this enhancement, database services are more resilient, enabling higher service levels to database users.
Figure 3: Active Data Guard Far Sync – Zero Data Loss Protection at any Distance
Global Data Services: extend services across data centers
Global Data Services (GDS) extends database services to span multiple database instances (which can belong to
different, synchronized databases) in near and far locations. GDS extends Oracle RAC-like failover, service
management, and service load balancing to database configurations using Active Data Guard and GoldenGate for
replication. GDS benefits include:
Higher Availability with service failover across local and global databases.
Better Scalability by providing load balancing across multiple databases.
Better Manageability via centralized administration of global resources.
GDS provides inter- and intra-region load balancing across replicated databases. For example, it can distribute load
across a reader farm composed of standby instances, and even direct some read traffic to the primary if conditions
warrant it. This enables true location independence for database services, which is a key characteristic of the
enterprise cloud.
Navigate the Journey with Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c
Oracle Enterprise Manager is Oracle’s integrated enterprise IT management product line, which provides the
industry’s only complete, integrated and business-driven enterprise cloud management solution. Oracle Enterprise
Manager creates business value for IT by leveraging the built-in management capabilities of the Oracle stack for
traditional and cloud environments, allowing customers to achieve unprecedented efficiency gains while dramatically
increasing service levels.
A complete cloud lifecycle solution allowing you to quickly set up, manage and support both
enterprise clouds and traditional Oracle IT environments from applications to disk
Maximum return on IT management investment through the best solutions for intelligent management
of the Oracle stack with real-time integration of Oracle’s knowledge base with each customer
Best service levels through business-driven application management
Enterprise Manager supports every phase of the journey to enterprise cloud:
Standardization and Consolidation
Database Lifecycle Pack - discovery, initial provisioning, patching, configuration management and ongoing
change management; compliance frameworks for reporting and management of industry and regulatory
compliance standards.
Diagnostics Pack – real-time and automatic performance diagnostics and monitoring functionality built into
the core database engine and EM 12c
Tuning Pack (requires Diagnostics Pack) - add-on pack for management of Oracle Database, offers an
extremely cost effective and easy-to-use solution that automates the entire application tuning process
Real Application Testing - assess the effect of system changes on real-world applications in test
environments before deploying the change in production.
Consolidation Planner - part of EM Cloud Control; determines the optimum consolidation scenarios that
also reflect business and technical constraints in the consolidation process
Data Masking Pack - replace sensitive data with fictitious data so that production data can be shared
safely with IT developers or offshore business partners.
Test Data Management Pack - creates reduced size copies of production data for application
development, training and testing while maintaining the referential integrity of the data set
Service Delivery and Enterprise Cloud
Oracle Cloud Management Pack for Oracle Database delivers capabilities spanning the entire database
cloud lifecycle. It lets cloud administrators identify pooled resources, configure role-based access, define
the service catalog, and the related chargeback plans. Users can request database services, and
consume them on-demand. Users can scale-up and down to adapt to changes in workload. Finally, it lets
both providers and consumers understand the costs of the services delivered, and establish accountability
for consumption of resources.
With deep support for Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c gives you a complete, out-of-the-box
management solution for your enterprise cloud.
Oracle Database 12c delivers significant innovations to Oracle’s industry-leading database technologies. The depth
and breadth of the feature set is unique in the industry and enables a wide range of deployments. Customers
designing and building enterprise clouds with Oracle Database 12c have a powerful and comprehensive portfolio to
leverage: Oracle Multitenant, Oracle Database Quality of Service Management, Application Continuity, Automatic
Data Optimization, Global Data Services and Active Data Guard Far Sync deliver key benefits of cloud computing.
With the powerful combination of Oracle Database 12c and Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c‘s out-of-the-box cloud
management solution, customers can immediately realize significant benefits, including higher standardization, more
efficient consolidation, better speed and agility, and resiliency and location independence for database services.
Orchestrated by Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c, Oracle Database 12c delivers the promise of the enterprise cloud.
Further Reading
Plug in to the Cloud with Oracle Database 12c
Oracle Multitenant
Database Consolidation onto Private Clouds
Service Catalog for Private Database as a Service
Rapid Home Provisioning
Migration to Oracle Database 12c
Oracle Database 12c - Oracle Real Application
Oracle Quality of Service Management
Application Continuity
Active Data Guard
Global Data Services
Automatic Data Optimization
Oracle Cloud
Oracle Private Database Cloud
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