English - SEBU8455
SEBU8455
March 2012
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1600 Series Industrial Engine
XGA (Engine)
XGB (Engine)
XGD (Engine)
XGE (Engine)
XGF (Engine)
XGH (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8455
Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Warranty Section
Warranty Information ............................................ 86
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 5
General Hazard Information ................................... 7
Burn Prevention .................................................... 10
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 13
Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 13
High Pressure Oil Lines ........................................ 13
Before Starting Engine .......................................... 14
Engine Starting ..................................................... 15
Engine Stopping ................................................... 15
Electrical System .................................................. 15
Engine Electronics ................................................ 16
Product Information Section
General Information .............................................. 17
Product Identification Information ........................ 22
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 26
Features and Controls .......................................... 27
Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 38
Engine Starting ..................................................... 39
Engine Operation .................................................. 42
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 43
Engine Stopping ................................................... 46
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 47
Maintenance Recommendations .......................... 60
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 63
Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 87
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
SEBU8455
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of
the original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual except
for the interval and the maintenance items in that
interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by
Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience
a major engine failure, there are also numerous
after failure overhaul options available. Consult with
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
SEBU8455
5
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i04257112
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can
provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
Illustration 1
Typical example
g01154807
6
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Illustration 2
(1) Universal warning
The universal warning labels (1) are located on the
rear left side of the valve mechanism cover and the
rear right side of the valve mechanism cover.
(2) Hand (High Pressure)
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
SEBU8455
g02428016
SEBU8455
7
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
g02835016
Illustration 3
(2) Hand (High Pressure)
The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure)
(2) is a wrap around label that is installed on the
high-pressure oil line.
i04257489
General Hazard Information
• Tampering with the engine installation or tampering
with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.
Personal injury, death and/or engine damage could
result.
• Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the
engine is operated in an enclosed area.
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Glass containers can break.
Illustration 4
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. Attach the warning tags to the engine and
to each operator control station. When appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform the
maintenance under the following conditions:
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• The protective locks or the controls are in the
applied position.
8
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
SEBU8455
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance
is performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Disconnect the connector for the unit injector that
is located on the valve cover base. This will help
prevent personal injury from the high voltage to the
unit injectors. Do not come in contact with the unit
injector terminals while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to
the engine while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.
Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that
is damaged or repair the equipment.
Illustration 5
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an
engine that has been serviced, make provisions to
stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply
and/or the air supply to the engine.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
• Start the engine from the operators station (cab).
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
Never short across the starting motor terminals or
the batteries. This could bypass the engine neutral
start system and/or the electrical system could be
damaged.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
• Filler caps
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
• Grease fittings
• Pressure taps
• Breathers
• Drain plugs
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two
bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of
the cover plate or the device. Before removing the
last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to
relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.
cannot be started.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance
is performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.
Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that
is damaged or repair the equipment.
Pressurized Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
SEBU8455
9
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Containing Fluid Spillage
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Asbestos Information
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Illustration 7
g00702022
Perkins replacement parts that are shipped from
Perkins are asbestos free. Perkins recommends
the use of only genuine Perkins replacement parts.
Use the following guidelines when you handle any
replacement parts that contain asbestos or when you
handle asbestos debris.
Illustration 6
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there
are several guidelines that should be followed:
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.
10
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
SEBU8455
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations
for the work place. In the United States, use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements
can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal
Relieve all pressure in the following systems,
hydraulic system, lubrication system, fuel system,
and the coolant system before the related items are
disconnected.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the pressure to be purged
from the high-pressure lines before any service or
repair is performed on the engine lines.
Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or
in the cooling system before any lines, fittings, or
related items are disconnected.
Induction System
of asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Dispose of Waste Properly
Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious personal injury or death.
The exhaust gas cooler may contain a small
amount of sulfuric acid. The use of fuel with sulfur levels greater than 15 ppm may increase the
amount of sulfuric acid formed. The sulfuric acid
may spill from the cooler during service of the
engine. The sulfuric acid will burn the eyes, skin
and clothing on contact. Always wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) that
is noted on a material safety data sheet (MSDS)
for sulfuric acid. Always follow the directions for
first aid that are noted on a material safety data
sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric acid.
Coolant
Illustration 8
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
i04259330
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine
system. Allow the engine system to cool before any
maintenance is performed.
Check that the coolant level after the engine has
stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
SEBU8455
11
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
i04259389
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Illustration 9
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within 15 minutes after an
emergency shutdown.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your
Perkins distributor for additional information about
suitable protection devices.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
deterioration. The hoses must be correctly routed.
The lines and hoses must have adequate support
and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque.
12
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
SEBU8455
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an
explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Illustration 10
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike
high-pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
bent or damaged. Do not clip any other items to the
high-pressure lines.
Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks
can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor for repair or for replacement parts.
Check lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do not use
your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or
cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections
to the recommended torque.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
Illustration 11
g00704135
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
• End fittings are displaced.
SEBU8455
13
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i04016709
Mounting and Dismounting
Do not climb on the engine or the engine
aftertreatment. The engine and aftertreatment have
not been designed with mounting or dismounting
locations.
Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand
holds for your specific application.
i04553464
High Pressure Oil Lines
Personal injury can result from oil under high
pressure.
DO NOT allow high pressure oil to contact skin.
Wear appropriate protective equipment while
working with high pressure oil systems.
High-pressure oil within the high-pressure oil line is
used in order to create high-pressure fuel in the unit
injectors.
14
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
SEBU8455
g02722895
Illustration 12
(1) High-pressure oil line
(2) High-pressure oil pump
The high-pressure oil line is the line that is between
the high-pressure oil pump and the high-pressure oil
manifold within the cylinder head. This high-pressure
line is different from fuel lines on other fuel systems.
• Do not operate the engine with a leak. Refer to
These differences are because of the following items:
and the high-pressure oil line is leaking the
high-pressure oil line must be replaced.
• The high-pressure oil line is constantly charged
with high pressure.
• The internal pressure of the high-pressure oil line
Disassembly and Assembly, “High-Pressure Oil
Line- Remove and Install”.
• If the high-pressure oil line is torqued correctly,
• Do not attach any other item to the high-pressure
oil line.
is higher than other types of fuel systems.
Do not step on the high-pressure oil line. Do not
deflect the high-pressure oil line. Do not bend or
strike the high-pressure oil line. Deformation or
damage of the high-pressure oil line may cause a
point of weakness and potential failure.
Do not check the high-pressure oil line with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. After the
engine has stopped, wait 10 minutes in order to allow
the pressure to be purged from the high-pressure oil
line, before any service or repair is performed.
Visually inspect the high-pressure oil line before the
engine is started. This inspection should be each day.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Inspect the high-pressure oil line for damage,
deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.
i02813489
Before Starting Engine
Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
SEBU8455
15
Safety Section
Engine Starting
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i02583384
Engine Starting
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
is working correctly, check the water temperature
gauge and/or the oil temperature gauge during the
heater operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine may be equipped with a device for
cold starting. If the engine will be operated in very
cold conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may
be required. Normally, the engine will be equipped
with the correct type of starting aid for your region
of operation.
i02234873
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply
to the engine.
i04259711
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from
the external power source to the primary position for
grounding.
16
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
SEBU8455
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that
are loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Grounding Practices
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
i04259752
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Engine Control
Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine
operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters
extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will
initiate an immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control: WARNING, ACTION ALERT, and
SHUTDOWN.
Illustration 13
g02430157
Typical example
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Ground to battery
Primary position for grounding
Ground to engine block
Ground to stating motor
Many of the parameters that are monitored by the
ECM can be programmed for the engine monitoring
functions. The following parameters can be monitored
as a part of the Engine Monitoring System:
• Intake Manifold Air Pressure
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
• Intake Manifold Temperature
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
• Engine Oil Temperature
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
• Camshaft Position
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
• System Voltage
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with
a wire that is adequate to handle the full charging
current of the alternator.
• Coolant Temperature
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Crankshaft Position
• Fuel Pressure
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
SEBU8455
17
Product Information Section
General Information
Product Information
Section
General Information
i04260031
Model View Illustrations
1600D Engine
g02757356
Illustration 14
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Rear lifting eye
Front lifting eye
Alternator
Drive belt
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Belt tensioner
Coolant pump
Coolant intake connection
Crankcase breather
(9) Oil cooler
(10) Oil filter
(11) Turbocharger
(12) NOx Reduction cooler
18
Product Information Section
General Information
SEBU8455
g02430477
Illustration 15
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
Valve mechanism cover
Air cleaner
Flywheel housing
Flywheel
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
Oil filler
Oil drain plug
Control module
High-pressure oil pump
(21) Secondary fuel filter
(22) Hand prime pump
(23) Primary fuel filter
SEBU8455
19
Product Information Section
General Information
Coolant System for 1600D Engine
g02430617
Illustration 16
(1) Radiator filler cap
(2) Air to air charge cooler connection
(3) Coolant inlet connection
(4) Front vent line
(5) Rear vent liner
(6) Coolant drain plug
(7) Coolant outlet connection
(8) Air to air charge cooler connection
(9) Fan guard
(10) Fan
(11) Fan guard
20
Product Information Section
General Information
SEBU8455
1600A Engine
g02794993
Illustration 17
Typical example
i04261592
Product Description
The Perkins 1600 Series Industrial Engines has the
following characteristics.
• In-line Six cylinder
• Four stroke cycle
• Turbocharged charge cooled
The 1600 series engines can be divided into
two different engine groups. The 1606A LBSFC
unregulated engine and the 1606D EU stage 3A
compliant engine.
The 1606D engines will have NOx Reduction System
(NRS) installed.
Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
SEBU8455
21
Product Information Section
General Information
The diesel fuel is drawn from the fuel tank into a
strainer and into a fuel pump. The fuel pump sends
the fuel into the main fuel filter. From the main fuel
filter the fuel is sent internally to the fuel injectors by
means of an internal fuel manifold. The fuel injectors
use engine lubricating oil from a high-pressure
pump in order to increase the injection pressure.
The injectors are controlled by the engine electronic
control module (ECM).
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines
g02433836
Illustration 18
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
Cylinder and valve location
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives, catalysts,) which are made by other
manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the
Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of
such use.
(A) Inlet valves
(B) Exhaust valves
Table 1
1600 Series Engine Specifications
Operating Range (rpm)
Number of Cylinders
Bore
1500 to 1800
(1)
6 In-Line
116.6 mm sleeve diameter
Stroke
146
Power
298 to 315 kW
(400 to 422 hp ) (2)
Aspiration
Compression Ratio
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
(1)
(2)
Turbocharged charge
cooled
17.2 to 1
9.3 L
1-5-3-6-2-4
Counterclockwise
Depending upon application.
Gross power
The crankshaft has a seven main bearing journals, a
fractured split connecting rods is connected to each
crankshaft journal. The pistons have an off set axis
and made from a one piece steel construction. The
cylinder block has wet liners with a single seal. Four
bushing support the camshaft, and the camshaft is
driven by a drive gear. The camshaft operates the
over head valves. Each cylinder has two inlet valves
and, two exhaust valves.
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gerotor oil
pump. The engine has an oil cooler and a spin on
oil filter.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices,
accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins
defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered
under the Perkins warranty.
22
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8455
Product Identification
Information
Table 4
Number of Cylinders
i04266129
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Perkins engines are identified by serial numbers.
These numbers are shown on the engine serial
number plate. Perkins distributors need these
numbers in order to determine the components that
were included with the engine. This information
permits accurate identification of replacement part
numbers.
Engine Identification
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
A typical example of an engine serial number is
XGE F**** U00001W.
X _________________________________________Made in Stafford
G ____________________________________Application (Table 2)
E ________________________________Type of engine (Table 3)
F _________________________Number of cylinders (Table 4)
***** __________________________________Fixed build number
N __________________________________________Built in the USA
00001 ____________________________________Engine Number
W ____________________________________Year of Manufacture
Table 2
Application
G
Genset
Table 3
Type of engine (Diesel)
A
TAG1
B
TAG2
D
TAG3
E
TAG4
F
TAG5
H
TAG6
F
6
H
8
M
12
R
16
Perkins dealers and Perkins distributors require all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included in the engine. This information
permits accurate identification of replacement part
numbers.
SEBU8455
23
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Serial Number Plate (1)
Illustration 19
g02435523
Typical example
The engine serial number plate is located on right
side of the cylinder block above the engine oil filter.
Illustration 20
Typical example
g02435519
24
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8455
i04266330
Emissions Certification Film
The emission label for the 1600D engine is installed
on rear of the valve mechanism cover.
Illustration 21
Typical example
The emission label for the 1600A engine is installed
on rear of the valve mechanism cover.
g02435679
SEBU8455
25
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Illustration 22
g02834955
i04266250
Reference Information
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model _______________________________________________
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
Engine rpm __________________________________________________
Fuel Strainer ________________________________________________
Fuel Filter Element ________________________________________
Lubrication Oil Filter _______________________________________
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
Drive Belt ____________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
26
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU8455
Operation Section
i04823376
Product Storage
Lifting and Storage
i04655490
Product Lifting
Refer to Perkins Engine Company limited, Stafford
for information on engine storage.
There are three different levels of engine storage.
Level “A, B and C”.
Level “A ”
Level “A” will give protection for 12 month for diesel
engines and 12 month protection for gas engines.
This level is for engines that are transported by a
container or a truck. Level “A” is for the transportation
of items that are within the United kingdom and within
Europe.
Level “B ”
Illustration 23
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins dealer for information regarding fixtures for
proper engine lifting.
This level is additional to level “A”. Level “B ” will
give protection under normal storage condition
from −15° to +55°C (5° to 99°F) and “90%” relative
humidity for 2 year. Level “B” is for the transportation
of items overseas.
Level “C ”
In order to protect the product to Level “C”, contact
Perkins Engines Company Limited Stafford.
SEBU8455
27
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Features and Controls
i04266369
Gauges and Indicators
i04266770
Alarms and Shutoffs
Engine Shutoffs
The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically
operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are
controlled by the ECM.
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items:
• Operating temperature
• Operating pressure
• Operating level
The particular shutoff may need to be reset before
the engine will start.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Be familiar with the following items:
• Types and locations of the shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Engine Alarms
The alarms are electrically operated. The operation
of the alarms is controlled by the ECM.
The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.
When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal
is sent to the ECM. An event code is created by
the ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order to
illuminate the lamp.
Your engine may be equipped with the following
sensors or switches:
• Engine oil temperature sensor
• Engine oil pressure sensor
• Engine coolant temperature sensor
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins
distributor for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The engine oil
pressure at idle is 103 kPa (15 psi).
• The 1600A oil pressure at full load can range
between 340 to 360 kPa (49 to 52 psi)
• The 1600D oil pressure at full load operates at
370 kPa (53 psi)
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical water temperature into the engine
is 88° to 109°C (190° to 228°F). Higher
temperatures may occur under certain conditions.
The water temperature reading may vary according
to load. The reading should never exceed 109° C
(228° F).
1. A high water temperature switch is installed in the
cooling system.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine
speed (rpm).
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “0” (zero).
28
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8455
Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates
operating hours of the engine.
i04266490
Monitoring System
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown may
take as little as 20 seconds from the time the warning indicator is activated. Depending on the application, special precautions should be taken to
avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted
following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if
necessary.
NOTICE
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the
engine.
The following parameters are monitored:
• Coolant temperature
• Intake manifold air temperature
• Intake manifold air pressure
• Oil pressure
• Oil temperature
• Fuel pressure
• Engine speed/timing
• Fuel temperature
Programmable Options and
Systems Operation
If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has been
selected and the warning indicator activates,
bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. Depending on the application, special precautions
should be taken to avoid personal injury.
The engine can be programmed to the following
modes:
“Warning”
The orange “Warning” lamp will turn “ON” and the
warning signal is activated continuously in order to
alert the operator that one or more of the engine
parameters is not within normal operating range.
“Derate”
The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds
preset operational limits. The engine derate is
achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is
available for each injection. The amount of this
reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the
fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up
to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a
predetermined reduction in engine power.
“Shutdown”
The orange warning will turn “ON” and the red
shutdown lamp will also turn “ON”.
A shutdown of the engine may occur in as little as
3 seconds. The engine can be restarted after a
shutdown for use in an emergency. However, the
cause of the initial shutdown may still exist. The
engine may shut down again in as little as 3 seconds.
For more information or assistance for repairs,
consult your Perkins distributor or your Perkins
dealer.
• Atmospheric pressure (Barometric pressure)
• Injection control pressure
• Water in fuel switch
i04266532
Sensors and Electrical
Components
The illustrations within the section show the typical
location of the sensors. Specific engines may appear
different from the illustration due to differences in
applications.
SEBU8455
29
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Illustration 24
g02435937
(1) Valve for the NOx Reduction System
(NRS)
(2) Manifold absolute pressure sensor
(3) Manifold air temperature sensor
(4) Water in fuel sensor
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
Engine oil temperature sensor
Injection pressure regulator
Engine fuel pressure sensor
Air inlet heater
Control Module
(10) Crankshaft position sensor
(11) Coolant jacket heater
(12) Engine oil pressure sensor
(13) Starting motor
30
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8455
g02731387
Illustration 25
(14) Injection control pressure sensor
(Internal)
(15) Exhaust back pressure sensor
(16) Engine coolant temperature sensor
Alternator has been shown separately for clarity.
(17) Camshaft position sensor
(18) Alternator
SEBU8455
31
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Illustration 26
g02740697
(19) Connector and seal
32
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8455
g02732035
Illustration 27
(1) Valve for the NOx Reduction System
(NRS)
(2) Manifold absolute pressure sensor
(3) Manifold air temperature sensor
(4) Water in fuel sensor
(5) Engine oil temperature sensor
(6) Injection pressure regulator
(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor
(8) Air inlet heater
SEBU8455
33
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Illustration 28
g02732036
(9) Control module
(A) Driver for the NRS valve
(B) Injection Drive Module (IDM)
(C) High current relay
(D) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
34
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8455
g02732039
Illustration 29
(10) Crankshaft position sensor
(11) Coolant jacket heater
(12) Engine oil pressure sensor
(13) Starting motor
(E) Solenoid
(F) Relay
SEBU8455
35
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Illustration 30
g02732040
(14) Injection control pressure sensor
(15) Exhaust back pressure sensor
(16) Coolant temperature sensor
(17) Camshaft position sensor
36
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8455
g02740857
Illustration 31
Item 18 alternator not shown.
(19) Connector and seal
(G) Injection control pressure connection
(H) Connector for injectors 1 and injector 2
(I) Connector for injectors 3 and injector 4
(J) Connector for injectors 5 and injector 6
SEBU8455
37
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Wiring Harness
Illustration 32
(1) Coolant temperature
(2) Exhaust back pressure
(3) NRS
(4) Injection control
(5) Injectors 1 and 2
(6) Water in fuel
(7) Inlet air temperature
(8) Manifold absolute pressure
(9) Inlet heater terminal
(10) Injectors 3 and 4
(11) Injectors 5 and 6
(12) Plug for inlet heater
(13) Relay
(14) Crankshaft position
(15) Injector drive connections
(16) ECM
(17) NRS drive
(18) Customer connection
(19) Low-pressure fuel
(20) Engine oil pressure
(21) Injection pressure regulator
(22) Oil temperature
(23) Camshaft position connection
g02740876
38
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU8455
Engine Diagnostics
i02651197
i02784187
Self-Diagnostics
The electronic control module has some
self-diagnostic ability. When an electronic problem
with an input or an output is detected, a diagnostic
code is generated. This indicates the specific problem
with the circuitry.
A diagnostic code which represents a problem that
currently exists is called an active code.
A diagnostic code that is stored in memory is called
a logged code. Always service active codes prior to
servicing logged codes. Logged codes may indicate
intermittent problems.
Logged codes may not indicate that a repair is
needed. The problems may have been repaired since
the logging of the code. Logged codes may be helpful
to troubleshoot intermittent problems.
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use the electronic service
tool to check the active diagnostic codes.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower and power outputs may
be automatically reduced. Refer to Troubleshooting
, “Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code” for more
information on the relationship between each active
diagnostic code and the possible effect on engine
performance.
i04801080
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will
be logged in the memory of the ECM. The Perkins
electronic service tool can retrieve codes that have
been logged. The codes that have been logged can
be cleared with the Perkins electronic service tool.
i02784585
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts OFF, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes
and the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the fault.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting guide for this
engine.
SEBU8455
39
Operation Section
Engine Starting
Engine Starting
i02815193
Cold Weather Starting
i04268175
Before Starting Engine
Before the engine is started, perform the required
daily maintenance and any other periodic
maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” for more information.
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if
equipped).
• Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the
engine has been disengaged from the engine.
Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical
loads.
• Ensure that the coolant level is correct.
• Ensure that the engine oil level is correct.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
The engine will start at a temperature of −10 °C
(14 °F). The ability to start at temperatures below
10 °C (50 °F) will improve by the use of a cylinder
block coolant heater or a device which heats the
crankcase oil. This will help to reduce white smoke
and misfires when the engine is started in cold
weather.
If the engine has not been run for several weeks, fuel
may have drained. Air may have moved into the filter
housing. Also, when fuel filters have been changed,
some air will be left in the filter housing. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Prime” in order to remove air from the fuel system.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait thirty seconds to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
1. If equipped, press the start button. If equipped,
turn the keyswitch to the START position in order
to engage the electric starting motor and crank
the engine.
2. Repeat step 1 three times if the engine fails to
start.
3. If the engine fails to start, investigate the problem.
Use the Perkins electronic service tool. A system
fault may be indicated after the engine is started. If
this occurs the ECM has detected a problem with
the system. Investigate the cause of the problem.
Use the Perkins electronic service tool.
Note: Oil pressure should rise within 15 seconds
after the engine starts. The electronic engine controls
monitor the oil pressure. The electronic controls will
stop the engine if the oil pressure is below normal.
40
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8455
4. Operate the engine at no load until all the coolant
temperature starts to rise. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
Starting the Engine
Note: The oil pressures and fuel pressures should
be in the normal range on the instrument panel. Do
not apply a load to the engine until the oil pressure
gauge indicates at least normal pressure. Inspect the
engine for leaks and/or unusual noises.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Note: After the ECM has completed the cold mode,
cold mode cannot be enabled again until the ECM is
switched OFF.
Note: Do not attempt to restart the engine until the
engine has completely stopped.
i04268176
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position and wait for
the wait to stat lamp to go off.
Note: The air inlet heat will be required in low
ambient temperatures. The ECM will decide if the air
heater element will be required to warn the intake air
in order to start the engine.
3. Turn the keyswitch to the START position.
Release the keyswitch when the engine starts.
The keyswitch will return to the ON position.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
4. With the engine in operation check the oil
pressure. Oil pressure should be 103 kPa (15 psi)
within seconds of engine operation, if oil pressure
is incorrect, stop the engine and investigate
immediately. If the engine cannot reach minimum
oil pressure 276 kPa (40 psi) or other warning
are activated, stop the engine and investigate
immediately.
5. If the engine fails to start, repeat steps 2 to step 3.
6. If the engine fails to start after three attempts,
determine the cause.
SEBU8455
41
Operation Section
Engine Starting
i02428473
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Do not use jump start cables in order to start the
engine. Charge the batteries or replace the batteries.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Battery - Replace”.
i01646248
After Starting Engine
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In
temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
Note: Ensure that the self test for the monitoring
system (if equipped) is completed before operating
the engine under load.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems
achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges
during the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and
the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
42
Operation Section
Engine Operation
SEBU8455
Engine Operation
i02583385
Fuel Conservation Practices
i02578030
Engine Operation
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary operation at no load.
Shut off the engine instead of operating the engine
at no load for long periods of time.
• Observe the service indicator for the air cleaner
frequently, if equipped. Keep the air cleaner
elements clean.
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One bad battery cell will overwork the alternator. This
will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Keep cooling
system components clean and keep cooling
system components in good repair. Never operate
the engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
SEBU8455
43
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i04564559
Cold Weather Operation
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on
the following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and
toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury
or property damage.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Battery condition
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex , because of the
following conditions:
• Weather conditions
• Engine applications
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed
to crank the engine. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for
the recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Recommendations from your Perkins distributor are
based on past proven practices. The information that
is contained in this section provides guidelines for
cold-weather operation.
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for the recommended coolant mixture.
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system
for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a time and the engine can still have the
ability to start readily.
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, drive belts,) weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Coolant Jacket Heaters
If installed, the coolant jacket heater heats the engine
jacket coolant that surrounds the cylinder block. This
added heat provides the following function:
• Startability is improved.
An electric heater can be activated once the engine
is stopped. An effective heater is typically a 1250
W at 120 V. If your engine is to operate in a cold
environment, consult your Perkins distributor for more
information. An oil pan heater may also be required.
44
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8455
i02576035
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following fuels can be used in this series of
engine.
• Group 1
• Group 2
• Group 3
• Special Fuels
Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for
use in this series of engines.
Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for
general use by Perkins. Group 1 fuels maximize
engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels
are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.
Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder
climates during the winter.
Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear
scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).
Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues
of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life
of the engine, the engine's maximum power, and the
engine's fuel efficiency.
When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
There are three major differences between Group
1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the
following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.
• A lower cloud point
• A lower pour point
• A lower energy per unit volume of fuel
Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The
use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins
warranty.
Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and
Aviation Kerosene Fuels.
Special fuels include Biofuel.
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel
will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant
to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
SEBU8455
45
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
i04268370
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,
and refueling of the fuel tank. This draining will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.
Fuel Filter
A strainer and fuel filter is installed between the
fuel tank and the electronic fuel injectors. After you
change the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system
in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel system.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in
the Maintenance Section for more information on
priming the fuel system.
46
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8455
Engine Stopping
i02583411
After Stopping Engine
i04268255
Stopping the Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Allow the
engine to run under no load conditions for 5
minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition keyswitch to the OFF position.
If necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “LOW” mark and the “HIGH” mark on
the oil level gauge.
Note: Only use oil that is recommended in
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended
oil may result in engine damage.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
• Note the service hour meter reading. Perform
the maintenance that is in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
Maintain the cooling system at 13 mm (0.5 inch)
from the bottom of the pipe for filling.
Note: Only use coolant that is recommended in
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended
oil may result in engine damage.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
the coolant for proper antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
The OEM may have equipped the application with
an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
SEBU8455
47
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
i04268521
Fluid Recommendations
Refill Capacities
• Glossary
i04268391
Refill Capacities
• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Section” for more information on
Lubricant Specifications.
Table 5
(1)
• CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research
• LSD Low Sulfur Diesel
• RME Rape Methyl Ester
• SME Soy Methyl Ester
United States
Maximum
Compartment or System
• FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
Engine
Refill Capacities
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
• ISO International Standards Organization
General Information
35.96 L (7.9Imp gal)
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will be
needed in order to determine the amount of coolant
that is required for the Total Cooling System.
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Table 6
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
1600A Engine Only
11.8 L
(2.6 Imp gal)
1600A Total System
30.9 L
(6.8 Imp gal)
1600D Engine Only
13.2 L
(2.9 Imp gal)
1600D Total System
32.3 L
(7.1 Imp gal)
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
Table 7 provides a known reliable baseline in order
to judge the expected performance of distillate diesel
fuels that are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on
the use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good
quality fuel will give the following results: long engine
life and acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The
fuel must meet the minimum requirements that are
stated in table 7.
48
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8455
NOTICE
The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
Table 7
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM”Test
“ISO”Test
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
“ISO”3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
“ISO”6245
Carbon Residue on
10% Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
“ISO”4262
Cetane Number (1)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
“ISO”5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must
not exceed the lowest
expected ambient
temperature.
D2500
“ISO”3015
Copper Strip
Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
“ISO”2160
Density at 15 °C
(59 °F) (2)
Kg / M
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675 ”“ISO 12185”
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C
(539.6 °F) maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
“ISO”3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
“ISO”2719
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80%
reflectance after aging
for 180 minutes at
150 °C (302 °F)
D6468
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum
below ambient
temperature
D97
“ISO”3016
Sulfur
%mass
1606A Engine
1% maximum
D5453/D26222
“ISO 20846 ”“ISO 20884”
(3)
3
1606D Engine
0.05% maximum
Kinematic Viscosity (4)
“MM”2“/S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the
fuel that is delivered to
the fuel injection pump.
“1.4 minimum/4.5
maximum”
D445
“ISO”3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
“ISO”3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D6304
No equivalent test
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
“ISO”3735
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
“ISO”6246
Sediment
Gums and Resins
(5)
(continued)
SEBU8455
49
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
(Table 7, contd)
Lubricity corrected
wear scar diameter at
60 °C (140 °F). (6)
mm
0.46 maximum
D6079
“ISO”12156-1
(1)
A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
“Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m 3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the
maximum density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
(3) Regional regulations, national regulations, or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable
regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. The 1606A engine models can operate with fuels sulphur >500 PPM
(0.05%) where legislation allows use of such a fuel. sulfur fuels. The 1606D engine models have been developed to operate with LSD fuel
≤500 (0.05%) sulphur. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels above 0.5%
may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to this manual, “Fluid recommendations (General
lubricant Information)”.
(4) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum
viscosity requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the “ASTM D445” test
method or the “ISO 3104” test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to 4.5
cSt at the fuel injection pump.
(5) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(6) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1
or ASTM D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements,
consult your fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives
can cause problems in the fuel system.
(2)
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are certified
with the fuel that is prescribed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with the fuel that
is prescribed by the European Certification and other regulatory agencies. Perkins does not certify diesel
engines on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed by
the EPA and other appropriate regulatory agencies.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Perkins Recommendations
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a
shorter ignition delay. A high cetane number will
produce a better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are
derived for fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to “ISO 5165” for the test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A higher cetane value may be required
for operations at high altitudes or in cold-weather
operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during cold start.
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
This is the quotient of the dynamic viscosity that is
divided by the density. The determination of kinematic
viscosity is normally by readings from gravity flow
viscometers at standard temperatures. Refer to “ISO
3104” for the test method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both cold temperatures
and hot temperatures. If the kinematic viscosity of the
fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump,
damage to the fuel injection pump can occur. This
damage can be excessive scuffing and seizure. Low
viscosity may lead to difficult hot restarting, stalling,
and loss of performance. High viscosity may result in
seizure of the pump.
50
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 cSt that is delivered to the fuel injection pump.
If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the
fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high
viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower
the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume
at a specific temperature. This parameter has a
direct influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines
the heat output from a given injected volume of fuel.
This parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at
15 °C (59 °F).
Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m3
in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter
fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce
the rated power.
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,
or international regulations can require a fuel with
a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel
and the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
NOTICE
The 1606A engine models can operate with higher
sulfur fuels above 500 PPM (mg/kg) or 0.05% mass.
The 1606D engine models have been developed to
operate with LSD. By using the test methods “ASTM
D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884”, the
content of sulfur in LSD fuel must be below 500 PPM
(mg/kg) or 0.05% mass.
In some parts of the world and for some applications,
high sulfur fuels above 0.5% by mass might only be
available. Fuel with a high sulfur content can cause
engine wear. High sulfur fuel will have a negative
impact on emissions of particulates. High sulfur
fuel can be used if the local emissions legislation
will allow the use. High sulfur fuel can be used in
countries that do not regulate emissions.
When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will be
necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is used, or
reduce the oil change interval. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations
(Lubricant Information)” for information on sulfur in
fuel.
SEBU8455
Lubricity
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The lubricity of the fluid describes the ability of
the fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that
are under load. This ability reduces the damage that
is caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on
the lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur
limits were mandated, the lubricity of the fuel was
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic
fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet
stringent exhaust emissions.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having lubricity up to 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) wear scar
diameter as tested by “ISO 12156-1 ”. Fuel with higher
wear scar diameter than 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) will
lead to reduced service life and premature failure of
the fuel system.
In case of the fuels which do not meet specified
lubricity requirement appropriate lubricity additive can
be used to enhance the lubricity of the fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
Distillation is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Classification of the Fuels
Diesel engines have the ability to burn wide variety
of fuels. Below is a list of typically encountered
fuel specifications that have been assessed as to
their acceptability and are divided into following
categories:
Group 1: Preferred Fuels
The following fuel specifications are considered
acceptable.
Fuels meeting the requirements that are listed in the
table 7.
SEBU8455
“EN590 - Grades A to F and class 0 to 4”
“ASTM D975 Grade No. 1-D and 2-D”
“JIS K2204 Grades 1, 2 & 3 & Special Grade 3”
acceptable provided lubricity ware scar diameter
does not exceed of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1”.
“BS2869 - Class A2 Off Highway Gas Oil, Red Diesel”
Note: The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed
wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1”. Refer to “Lubricity”.
Group 2: Aviation Kerosene Fuels
Following kerosene and jet fuel specifications are
acceptable alternative fuels and may be used on a
contingency bases, for emergency or continuous
use, where standard diesel fuel is not available and
where legislation allows their use:
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F34 (JP-8)”
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F35”
“MIL-DTL-5624 NATO F44 (JP-5)”
“MIL-DTL-38219 (USAF) (JP7)”
“NATO XF63”
“ASTM D1655 JET A”
“ASTM D1655 JET A1”
NOTICE
These fuels are only acceptable when used with appropriate lubricity additive and must meet minimum
requirements that are listed in table 7. The lubricity
of these fuels must not exceed wear scar diameter of
0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per “ISO 12156-1”. Refer
to “Lubricity”.
Note: Minimum cetane number of 40 is recommended
otherwise cold starting problems or light load misfire
might occur. Since jet fuel specifications do not
mention cetane requirements, Perkins recommends
that a fuel sample is taken to determine the cetane
number.
Note: Fuels must have minimum viscosity of 1.4
cSt delivered to the fuel injection pump. Cooling
of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Perkins
recommends that the actual viscosity of the fuel be
measured in order to determine if a fuel cooler is
needed. Refer to “Viscosity”.
51
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Note: Rated power loss of up to 10 percent is
possible due to lower density and lower viscosity of
jet fuels compared to diesel fuels.
Biodiesel Fuel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(REM). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed
oil. Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil
are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together
known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, oil will gel in the
crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not be
compatible with many of the elastomers that are used
in engines that are manufactured today. In original
forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a fuel
in compression engines. Alternate base stocks for
biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste cooking
oils, or various other feedstocks. In order to use any
of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil must
be esterified.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM
D975-09a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification
“EN590:2010” includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins
are certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility
of using the correct fuel that is recommended by
the manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
52
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to “EN14214” or
“ASTM D6751” (in the USA) and can only be blended
in mixture of up to 20% by volume in acceptable
mineral diesel fuel meeting requirements that are
listed in table 7 or the latest edition of “EN590” and
“ASTM D 975” commercial standards. This blend is
commonly known as B20.
Biodiesel blends are denoted as “BXX” with “XX”
representing the content of neat biodiesel contained
in the blend with mineral diesel fuel (for example B5,
B10, B20).
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends
must be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel
that is BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements with B20
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank
and fuel lines. This cleaning of the fuel system
can prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommends that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
SEBU8455
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using biodiesel
or biodiesel blends is related to the typically
lower volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder emissions
control strategies utilized in many of the industrial
latest engine designs may lead to a higher level
of biodiesel concentration in the engine oil pan.
The long-term effect of biodiesel concentration in
crankcase oil is currently unknown.
• Perkins recommends the use of oil analysis in order
to check the quality of the engine oil if biodiesel
fuel is used. Ensure that the level of biodiesel in
the fuel is noted when the oil sample is taken.
Performance Related Issues with B20
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order
of 2 to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power
may deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel
injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause
an increase in fuel system deposits, most significant
of which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Note: Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most
effective in cleaning and preventing the formation
of deposits. Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner helps
to limit deposit issues by improving the stability of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends. Refer to “Perkins
Diesel Fuel System Cleaner” for more information.
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, while accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
SEBU8455
Perkins strongly recommends that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate antimicrobial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate
fuels, water is naturally more likely to exist in the
biodiesel. Therefore essential to check frequently
and if necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, led, tin, and
zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the biodiesel
fuel. The oxidation process can cause deposits
formation therefore these materials must not be used
for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
53
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not review
all the requirements that are addressed in table 7. To
ensure optimum engine performance, a complete fuel
analysis should be obtained before engine operation.
The fuel analysis should include all of the properties
that are stated in the table 7.
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
NOTICE
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives) which are made by other manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices, accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins defects.
Therefore, the defects are NOT covered under the
Perkins warranty.
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not
recommended. This is due to potential damage to
the fuel system or the engine. Your fuel supplier
or the fuel manufacturer will add the appropriate
supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Fuel that complies with “EN590 ” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may
be required in some special circumstances. Fuel
additives need to be used with caution. Contact
your fuel supplier for those circumstances when
fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” used in the United
States of America may be used in cold temperatures
that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use
Aviation, kerosene fuels specified in the section
Group 2 Aviation Kerosene Fuels. These fuels are
intended to be used in temperatures that can be as
low as −54 °C (−65.2 °F). Refer to the section Group
2 Aviation Kerosene Fuels for detail and conditions
of use.
Mixing alcohol or gasoline with diesel fuel can produce an explosive mixture in the engine crankcase
or the fuel tank. Alcohol or gasoline must not be
used in order to dilute diesel fuel. Failure to follow
this instruction may result in death or personal injury.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 7.
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel cleaner
that is recommended by Perkins.
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be
used, Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner.
For more information on the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends refer to “Biodiesel Fuel”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss
of power and engine performance.
54
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8455
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel,
the deposits within the fuel system are removed
after 30 hours of engine operation. For maximum
results, continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to
80 hours. Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an
on-going basis with no adverse impact on engine or
fuel system durability.
Detailed instructions on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
i04268520
Fluid Recommendations
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found
in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine
Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oils
Commercial Oils
General Lubricant Information
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,
the lubricant recommendations must be followed.
• API_____________________American Petroleum Institute
• SAE___________________________________________Society Of
NOTICE
Perkins require the use of the following specification of engine oil. Failure to use the appropriate
specification of engine oil will reduce the life of
your engine.
Table 8
Classifications for the 1600 Series Industrial Engine
Oil Specification
Automotive Engineers Inc.
API CI-4
Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the “API publication
No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.
Maintenance intervals for engines that use
biodiesel – The oil change interval can be adversely
affected by the use of biodiesel. Use oil analysis in
order to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
oil analysis also in order to determine the oil change
interval that is optimum.
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to illustration 34 (minimum temperature) in
order to determine the required oil viscosity for
starting a cold engine.
Illustration 33
Typical API symbol
g02956479
Refer to illustration 34 (maximum temperature) in
order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at
the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
SEBU8455
55
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
Illustration 34
g02940936
Lubricant Viscosities
Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked starts below
the minimum ambient temperature. Supplemental heat may be
required for cold soaked starts that are above the minimum
temperature that is stated, depending on the parasitic load and
other factors. Cold soaked starts occur when the engine has not
been operated for a period of time. This interval will allow the oil to
become more viscous due to cooler ambient temperatures.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engines maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
not be compatible with the finished oils additive
package, which could lower the performance of the
finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to mix
with the finished oil. This failure could produce sludge
in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities”. Refer
to the illustration 34 in order to find the correct oil
viscosity grade for your engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i04268496
Fluid Recommendations
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
56
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Overheating of the engine
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
SEBU8455
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
Table 9
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life
(1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or
Three Years (2)
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze that meets
“ASTM D6210”
3000 Service Hours or
Two Year
(1)
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must
also be flushed out at this time.
(2) ELC can be extender to 12000 hours by using an approved
extender.
ELC
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
Coolant Recommendations
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• ELC____________________________Extended Life Coolant
• Automotive applications
• SCA___________________Supplement Coolant Additive
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC
has been formulated with the correct amount of
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
• ASTM__________________________________________American
Society for Testing and Materials
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
engines:
Preferred – Perkins ELC
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D6210 ” specifications
NOTICE
The 1600 series industrial engines must be operated with a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This
concentration allows the NOx reduction system to
operate correctly at high ambient temperatures.
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial
fill of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
SEBU8455
57
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system components life unless appropriate corrective action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between
the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain
the recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering
the proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion
of additive. This lowering will lower the ability of
the coolant to protect the system from pitting, from
cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at
the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
agents are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the hot position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After
the cooling system is drained and the cooling system
is refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and
until the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add
the coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are
contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use an approved Perkins cleaner to clean the
system. Follow the instruction on the label.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and repeat steps 7 until the
system is completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
58
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable
container according to local regulations. Then,
fill the cooling system with premixed ELC. This
procedure should lower the contamination to less
than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in
order to ensure adequate protection against boiling
or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.
A hydrometer should not be used.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
SEBU8455
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant
at the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D4985” specifications MAY require an addition of
SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions
that are provided by the OEM of the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 10 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
Table 10
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant At The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 11 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 10.
Table 11
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of
SCA that is
Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
test. The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 12 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:
SEBU8455
59
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Table 12
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 13 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 12.
Table 13
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of
SCA that is
Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed
to clean the cooling system of harmful scale
and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners
dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination, and sludge.
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
60
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
SEBU8455
Maintenance
Recommendations
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
i04268553
System Pressure Release
i04268569
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
Coolant System
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
The engine can have the ability to auto start. Ensure
that the power supply is isolated before any service
or repair is performed.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
High Pressure Line for Fuel Injectors
The high-pressure line is between the high-pressure
pump and the high-pressure manifold within the
cylinder head. The line is different from pressure
lines on other systems.
The high-pressure line is different for the following
reasons:
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding
onto a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the
equipment or your Perkins dealer regarding welding
on a chassis frame or rail.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order
to avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove
the component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld on a component. This
procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage
to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
• The high-pressure line is constantly charged with
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
• The internal pressures of the high-pressure lines
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
Before any service or repair is performed on the
engine lines, perform the following tasks:
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
1. Stop the engine.
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
high-pressure fluid.
are higher than other types of system.
2. Wait for 10 minutes.
Do not loosen the high-pressure line in order to
remove air from the system.
4. Disconnect all electronic components from
the wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
SEBU8455
61
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
• ECM
• Sensors
• Electronically controlled valves
• Relays
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to
the part that will be welded. Place the ground
cable as close as possible to the weld in order to
reduce the possibility of welding current damage
to the following components. Bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and ground
straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used
as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
and spatter.
7. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
i04150276
Severe Service Application
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
• Fuel quality
• Operational Altitude
• Maintenance intervals
• Oil selection and maintenance
Illustration 35
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the welder to
the ground clamp of the welder will not damage any associated
components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
62
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in cold environments
or hot environments. Valve components can be
damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently
started and stopped in cold temperatures. Hot intake
air reduces engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty
or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be difficult. The buildup can contain
corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
SEBU8455
SEBU8455
63
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i04268574
Maintenance Interval Schedule
Note: The oil and filter change period for the
1606A engine is different to the 1606D engine.
The 1606A engine is 500 hours and the 1606D
engine is 400 hours.
65
66
73
78
Daily
71
72
74
74
74
81
84
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 66
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 81
Every 400 Service Hours
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. 76
Every 500 Service Hours
67
73
75
77
78
79
80
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test ...................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add .................................................
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
64
65
67
72
85
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Coolant (ELC) - Change ....................................... 69
Commissioning
Fan Clearance - Check ......................................... 78
Every 250 Service Hours or 1 Year
Belt - Inspect .........................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace ........................................
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................
Engine Valve Lash - Check ...................................
Fan Clearance - Check .........................................
Fuel System Primary Filter - Clean/Inspect/
Replace ...............................................................
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ..............
Alternator - Inspect ...............................................
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace .......................
Belt Tensioner - Check ..........................................
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect .................
Water Pump - Inspect ...........................................
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change ....... 67
When Required
Coolant Level - Check ..........................................
Driven Equipment - Check ....................................
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect .....
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ...................
Engine Oil Level - Check ......................................
Fuel System Water Separator - Check/Drain ........
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 74
Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................ 83
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 83
Every 3000 Service Hours
Note: Ensure that table 1 is referred to in the
information in This Manual , “Engine Valve Lash Check” , in order to select the correct maintenance
interval schedule.
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Engine - Clean ......................................................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
Every 2000 Service Hours
64
71
82
83
64
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test
SEBU8455
i04272910
Aftercooler Core Inspect/Clean/Test
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the cooling air side of the aftercooler for these
items: damaged fins, corrosion, dirt, grease, insects,
leaves, oil, and other debris. Clean the cooling air
side of the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning the outside of radiators.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the air
nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This will remove debris that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Wash the core with detergent and hot water.
Thoroughly rinse the core with clean water.
After cleaning, start the engine. Run the engine
for 2 minutes. Operating the engine will help in the
removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
engine. Inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the
cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Inspect these items for good condition: welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
SEBU8455
65
Maintenance Section
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace
i04766049
Alternator and Fan Belts Replace
i01878164
Battery - Replace
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
Illustration 36
g02862817
Typical example
Ensure that the battery disconnect switch is in the off
position. Remove the fan guards, refer to OEM.
Install a suitable tool into the half inch square hole
(2). Rotate tensioner (1) clockwise in order to release
tension on the belt (3). With all the tension removed
from the belt, remove the belt from the engine.
Note: With the belt removed all the pulleys bearing
and the tensioner should be checked for wear or
damage.
Install the belt on to the pulleys. Install a suitable tool
into the tensioner. Rotate the tensioner in order to
allow installation of the belt. Install the belt over all
the pulleys and slowly release the tensioner. Check
that the belt is correctly installed on the pulleys.
Install the fan guards, refer to OEM.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starter motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Return used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
66
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check
SEBU8455
8. Connect the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starter motor to the NEGATIVE “-” battery
terminal.
i02857256
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
i02563861
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of washing soda or
baking soda and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water
• A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L
(1 qt) of clean water
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
petroleum jelly.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Turnoff any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. Disconnect the negative battery terminal at the
battery that goes to the start switch. Ensure that
the cable cannot contact the terminal. When four
12 volt batteries are involved, the negative side of
two batteries must be disconnected.
4. Tape the leads in order to help prevent accidental
starting.
5. Proceed with necessary system repairs. Reverse
the steps in order to reconnect all of the cables.
SEBU8455
67
Maintenance Section
Belt Tensioner - Check
i04633290
Belt Tensioner - Check
Illustration 38
g02865556
Typical example
Typical example
5. Install a suitable tool into the half inch square hole
(7). Rotate the tensioner between the point (A) and
point (B). Ensure that there is an even resistance
when rotating between the two travel points.
1. Remove belt, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Alternator and Fan BeltsReplace”.
Replace parts as necessary, for replacing the
tensioner. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Belt
Tensioner - Remove and Install”.
Illustration 37
g02778118
2. With the belt removed check the alternator pulley
(1), the fan pulley (6), and water pump pulley (4).
Ensure that all these pulleys rotated freely. Ensure
that all pulleys are clean and free from damage
including the crankshaft pulley (5).
Belt - Inspect
3. Check the pulley (3) on the tensioner. Ensure that
the pulley can rotate freely. Check the bearing for
lateral movement.
Inspect the belt for wear, cracks, spites, grease,
damage to the cord, or fluid contamination.
4. Check the securing bolt (2). The torque for the bolt
is 50 N·m (37 lb ft).
i04766012
i04269949
Coolant (Commercial
Heavy-Duty) - Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
68
Maintenance Section
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
SEBU8455
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. This will allow you to
accurately check the coolant level. This will also help
in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the
coolant system.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Illustration 39
g02439857
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1).
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain plug (1). Close the drain cock or
install the drain plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
SEBU8455
69
Maintenance Section
Coolant (ELC) - Change
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
Fill
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
1. Close the drain plug (1). Close the drain cock or
install the drain plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial
Heavy-Duty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant
Additive to the coolant. For the correct amount,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations” topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase
the engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine
in order to open the engine thermostat. This
procedure will allow any air in the system to be
purged. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
Stop the engine.
4. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
i04269950
Coolant (ELC) - Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Illustration 40
Filler cap
g00103639
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. The inspection is a good opportunity
to replace the water pump, the water temperature
regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
70
Maintenance Section
Coolant (ELC) - Change
Drain
SEBU8455
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on
the radiator.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on
the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine for 1 minute in order to
purge the air from the cavities of the engine block.
Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant
level within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom
of the pipe for filling. If necessary, repeat step 3.
Maintain the coolant level in the expansion bottle
(if equipped) at the correct level.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on
the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine until the water
temperature regulator opens and the fluid levels
decreases in the header tank.
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the water to
drain. Flush the cooling system with clean water.
Illustration 41
g00103639
Filler cap
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
SEBU8455
71
Maintenance Section
Coolant Level - Check
i04272912
Coolant Level - Check
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the
condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i03644948
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add
Illustration 42
g00285520
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
Cooling system filler cap
Test for SCA Concentration
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the proper level in the sight glass.
Illustration 43
Typical filler cap gaskets
g00103639
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
72
Maintenance Section
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect
SEBU8455
i04751069
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
Crankshaft Vibration Damper
- Inspect
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed
with the engine on level ground. This will allow you to
accurately check the coolant level. This will also help
in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the
coolant system.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in
order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to
local regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information on SCA requirements.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
Illustration 44
g02847558
Typical example
Damage to the crankshaft vibration damper or failure
of the crankshaft vibration damper can increase
torsional vibrations. The torsional vibration can result
in damage to the crankshaft and to other engine
components. A deteriorating damper can cause
excessive gear train noise at variable points in the
speed range.
Check the damper for damage and runout. For more
information refer to System Operation Testing and
Adjusting, “Vibration Damper - Check”.
i02151646
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
SEBU8455
73
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean
• Adjustment
i04633632
Engine Air Cleaner
Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i02568158
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO
NOT OPERATE”.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when you clean the engine. Avoid
electrical components such as the alternator, the
starter, and the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
Illustration 45
g02795542
Typical example
1. Rotate fastener (1) counter clockwise and remove
end cover (2). Remove inner fastener (4) and
remove old element (5).
2. Insure that all components are clean and free
from dirt. Do not allow dirt to enter the induction
system. Check all induction hoses.
3. Install new element and install fastener (4).
Tighten fastener securely.
4. Install end cover (2). Insure that valve (3) is
vertically down and tighten fastener (1) securely.
74
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
SEBU8455
i02568159
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
(If Equipped)
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner housing or in a remote location.
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i04760772
Engine Oil Level - Check
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 46
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when the following condition
occurs:
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
i04654709
Engine Air Precleaner Check/Clean
Illustration 47
g02854696
Typical example
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
If equipped, the precleaner should be check daily
and cleaned as required.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that
the engine is in the normal operating position in order
to obtain a true level indication.
SEBU8455
75
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF , wait
for 10 minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
1. Maintain the oil level between the FULL RANGE
marks on the engine oil dipstick. Refer to
illustration 47. Do not fill the crankcase above the
FULL RANGE marks.
i04272814
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
(1606A Engine )
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Illustration 48
g02854697
NOTICE
The procedure to change the engine oil and oil
filter for both types of engine are the same, but
the service interval for both engine are different.
Typical example
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
FULL RANGE marks could cause your crankshaft to
dip into the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft dipping into the oil reduces the oils lubricating
characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap (1), by rotating
counterclock wise, and add oil, if necessary. Clean
the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap. Tighten oil
fill cap clockwise, ensure that the oil filler cap is
secure.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of
the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil.
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine.
76
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU8455
Use a suitable container in order to catch the oil
that will drain from the filter. Ensure that the filter
assembly is clean and free from dirt.
1. Using a suitable tool remove the oil filter (2).
Note: Ensure that the sealing faces is clean.
2. Lubricate the O ring seal (1) on the new oil filter
with clean engine oil. Spin on the new oil filter until
the O ring seal contacts the sealing face, then turn
the oil filter ¾ of a turn.
Fill the Oil Pan
Illustration 49
g02725694
Typical example
1. Remove the drain plug (2) and allow the oil to
drain.
2. After the oil has drained, the drain plug should be
cleaned and installed. Install a new O ring seal
(1) onto the drain plug.
3. Install the drain plug and tighten to 68 N·m
(50 lb ft).
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct
amount of new engine lubricating oil. Refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities” for more information on refill
capacities.
2. Start the engine and operate the engine without
load for approximately 2 minutes, in order to allow
the oil to fill the oil filter. Check that the oil pressure
is correct and check for oil leaks. Stop the engine
and allow the oil to drain back to the oil pan for
10 minutes.
Note: Ensure that the crankcase is not over full.
3. Check the engine oil level and add oil as
necessary. Replace the filler cap and start the
engine.
Replace the Oil Filter
i04807924
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
(1606D Engine )
NOTICE
Changing the engine oil and oil filter for both types
of engine are the same, but the Maintenance interval for both engines are different.
The maintenance interval for the 1606D engine is
400 hours.
Illustration 50
g02725761
SEBU8455
77
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Lash - Check
i04272831
Engine Valve Lash - Check
Table 14
Table 1 Valve Lash Schedule
Hours
Schedule Type
Standby Power
Every 500
Prime Power
Initial 500
Every 1000
g02793297
Illustration 51
Typical example
Remove the valve mechanism cover. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Valve Mechanism
Cover-Remove and Install”
Rotate crankshaft in order to get number one piston at
top dead center position with both valves on number
six cylinder on overlap. Set the valve lash, use table
2 valve lash. The inlet valve lash and exhaust Valve
lash is set cold to 0.48 mm (0.019 inch).
Table 15
Table 2 Valve Lash
1 Inlet
2 Exhaust
3 Inlet
6 Exhaust
7 Inlet
10 Exhaust
Rotate crankshaft 360 degrees and set the valve
lash, use table 3 valve lash in order to set the
remaining valves.
Table 16
Table 3 Valve Lash
4 Exhaust
5 Inlet
8 Exhaust
9 Inlet
11 Inlet
12 Exhaust
78
Maintenance Section
Fan Clearance - Check
SEBU8455
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
Ensure that the cooling system is full. The clearance
between the cover (2) and the fan (1) will require
checking. The gap (A) between the cover and the
edge of the fan blade must be checked in five equally
spaced positions.
Adjustment of the cover will change the clearance
gap between the cover and the edge of the fan
blade. Ensure that the cover is centralized to
the fan. The clearance (A) must be 21 ± 2 mm
(0.82677 ± 0.07874 inch).
i04272833
Fuel System - Prime
Illustration 52
g02793699
Typical example
The adjuster screw (1) must be torque to 27 N·m
(20 lb ft). After tightening the adjuster screw the valve
lash must be checked again.
Install the valve mechanism cover. For more
information refer to System Operation Testing and
Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash -Inspect/Adjust”.
i04633518
Fan Clearance - Check
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are performed
by authorized personnel that have had the correct
training.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Illustration 53
Typical example
g02778616
SEBU8455
79
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter - Clean/Inspect/Replace
3. When fuel free from air comes from the schrader
valve, stop depressing the priming pump. Remove
the tool and install the dust cap.
4. Depress the priming pump for a short time in order
to pressurize the system. Check the low-pressure
system for leaks.
5. Priming the fuel filter from empty should take
approximately 3 minutes. The time will be
dependent on the location of the fuel tank.
6. Remove any container and clean any split fuel
from the engine. The system is now primed and
the engine ready to start. Operate the starting
motor and start the engine.
i04557295
Fuel System Primary Filter Clean/Inspect/Replace
Illustration 54
g02837626
Typical example
Priming with leak off Tool
In order to purge air from the fuel system a tool is
required. Use a PCL Air Technology Single Clip
on Connector CO2H03 or similar. Install a suitable
length of clear hose onto connector (A).
Illustration 56
g02791202
Typical example
Note: If the fuel system is gravity supplied, turn the
inline tap to the OFF position before servicing the
fuel system.
Illustration 55
g02948436
Typical example
1. Remove the dust cap (3) and install tool (B) onto
schrader valve (2). Put the clear hose into a
suitable container.
2. Depress the priming pump (1) in order to release
the air from the system.
1. Ensure that the outer body of the filter assembly
is clean and free from dirt. Remove cap (1) with
element from filter body (4).
2. Remove O ring seal (2). Use cutout (A) in order to
remove the O ring seal.
80
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
SEBU8455
3. Ensure that the assembly is clean and free from
dirt. Remove the element (6) from cap (2). Ensure
that the element housing is clean and free from
dirt. If dirt remains within the housing, the fuel line
(5) must be removed, in order to allow cleaning
of the housing.
Illustration 57
g02791860
i04654710
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Illustration 58
g02792418
Typical example
Typical example
4. Inspect the element, if the element is damaged,
replace the element.
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fluid that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fluid. Ensure that the
outer body of the filter assembly is clean and free
from dirt.
5. Align the element to the cap and push together.
Install cap and element assembly into filter body
and tighten to 18 N·m (13 lb ft). Turn the fuel inline
supply tap to the ON position
2. Install a suitable tube onto drain valve (4). Loosen
the cap (1) in order to allow atmospheric pressure
to act upon the fuel. Rotate the cap three and a
half turns in order to allow the vent hole to be
accessed. Open the drain valve (4) and allow the
fluid to drain.
3. After the fluid has drained, Close the drain valve
and remove the tube. Remove cap from filter body
(3). Removing the cap will also remove the filter
element (2). Remove filter element from the cap.
Remove the O ring seal (5) from the cap. Use
the cutout (A) in order to remove the O ring seal.
Discard the O ring seal and the filter element.
4. Ensure that the cap, and the inner of the filter
housing are clean and free from dirt.
5. Install new O ring seal to cap. Align new filter
element to cap and push together. Lubricate the O
ring seal and the threads on the cap with clean fuel
and install the cap assembly into the filter housing.
SEBU8455
81
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Water Separator - Check/Drain
6. Tighten the cap to 25 N·m (18 lb ft). Clean any
split fluid and remove the container. Depose of
all fluids in accordance with local regulations.
Operate engine and check for leaks.
i04557309
Fuel System Water Separator
- Check/Drain
2. Install a suitable tube onto drain (3). Loosen the
cap (1) in order to allow atmospheric pressure to
act upon the fuel. Rotate the cap 3 and a half turns
in order to allow the vent hole to be accessed.
Open the drain valve (2) and allow the fluid to
drain.
3. When fuel free of water comes from the drain
valve, close the drain valve and tighten the vent
cap to 30 N·m (22 lb ft)
4. Remove the drain tube and depose of the drain
fluid in accordance with local regulations.
i02568194
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Illustration 59
g02724758
Typical example
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fluid that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fluid. Ensure that the
outer body of the filter assembly is clean and free
from dirt.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
82
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
SEBU8455
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02568190
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
heat set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen.
This can result in leaks. A constant torque hose
clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
SEBU8455
83
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
of the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the
air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This will remove debris that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps.
8. Refill the cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's gaskets. Replace
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
for information regarding flushing the cooling system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. This will
help in the removal of debris and the drying of the
core. Run the engine for two minutes and then stop
the engine. Inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat
the cleaning, if necessary.
i02568202
i02857274
Radiator - Clean
The following text describes a typical cleaning
procedure for the radiator. For information on
equipment that is not supplied by Perkins, refer to
the OEM.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for proper operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Service Manual for more
information on the checking procedure and for
specifications or consult your Perkins distributors for
assistance.
i04762414
Turbocharger - Inspect
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Periodic inspection and cleaning are recommended
for the turbocharger compressor housing (inlet side).
Any fumes from the crankcase on the 1600D engine
are filtered through the air inlet system. Therefore,
by-products from oil and from combustion can collect
in the turbocharger compressor housing. Over time,
this buildup can contribute to loss of engine power,
increased black smoke and overall loss of engine
efficiency.
84
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
Note: An inspection is recommended for both
engines, 1600A and 1600D.
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occurred.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
replaced.
An inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. An inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Note: Turbocharger components require precision
clearances. The turbocharger cartridge must
be balanced due to high rpm. Severe Service
Applications can accelerate component wear.
Severe Service Applications require more frequent
inspections of the cartridge.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation, repair,
and replacement, consult your Perkins distributor.
Refer to the Service Manual for this engine for the
procedure and specifications.
Cleaning and Inspecting
1. Remove the exhaust outlet piping and remove
the air inlet piping from the turbocharger. Visually
inspect the piping for the presence of oil. Clean
the interior of the pipes in order to prevent dirt
from entering during reassembly.
SEBU8455
2. Turn the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel
by hand. The assembly should turn freely. Inspect
the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel for
contact with the turbocharger housing. There
should not be any visible signs of contact between
the turbine wheel or compressor wheel and the
turbocharger housing. If there is any indication of
contact between the rotating turbine wheel or the
compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing,
the turbocharger must be reconditioned.
3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness.
If only the blade side of the wheel is dirty, dirt
and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering
system. If oil is found only on the back side of the
wheel, there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger
oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the inlet air (plugged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
4. Use a dial indicator to check the end clearance
on the shaft. If the measured end play is greater
than the Service Manual specifications, the
turbocharger should be repaired or replaced.
An end play measurement that is less than the
minimum Service Manual specifications could
indicate carbon buildup on the turbine wheel. The
turbocharger should be disassembled for cleaning
and for inspection if the measured end play is less
than the minimum Service Manual specifications.
5. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for
corrosion.
6. Clean the turbocharger housing with standard
shop solvents and a soft bristle brush.
7. Fasten the air inlet piping and the exhaust outlet
piping to the turbocharger housing.
i02568213
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
SEBU8455
85
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
• The guards must be in the proper place. Repair
• Drain the water and the sediment from fuel tanks
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine or deck is
a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning
or high pressure water.
on a daily basis in order to ensure that only clean
fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Inspect the ECM to the cylinder head ground strap
for a good connection and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
• Ensure that the cooling lines are properly clamped
and that the cooling lines are tight. Check for leaks.
Check the condition of all pipes.
• Inspect the water pumps for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by coolant
in the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount
of leakage to occur as the engine cools down and
the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
water pumps and the installation of water pumps
and/or seals, refer to the Service Manual for the
engine or consult your Perkins distributor.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the valve cover.
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps or for loose fuel line tie-wraps.
• Inspect the piping for the air inlet system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Inspect the alternator belt and the accessory drive
belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i02568235
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump might cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. If any
leaking is observed, replace the water pump seal
or the water pump assembly. Refer to the Service
Manual for the disassembly and assembly procedure.
Note: Refer to the Service Manual or consult your
Perkins distributor if any repair is needed or any
replacement is needed.
86
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
SEBU8455
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
SEBU8455
87
Index Section
Index
E
A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test....................
Alarms and Shutoffs ..............................................
Engine Alarms....................................................
Engine Shutoffs..................................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace .......................
41
46
64
27
27
27
64
65
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 65
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 66
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 66
Before Starting Engine .................................... 14, 39
Belt - Inspect.......................................................... 67
Belt Tensioner - Check .......................................... 67
Burn Prevention..................................................... 10
Batteries.............................................................. 11
Coolant............................................................... 10
Induction System ............................................... 10
Oils...................................................................... 11
C
Cold Weather Operation........................................
Hints for Cold Weather Operation......................
Recommendations for the Coolant ....................
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil...............
Cold Weather Starting ...........................................
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change ........
Drain ..................................................................
Fill ......................................................................
Flush ..................................................................
Coolant (ELC) - Change ........................................
Drain ..................................................................
Fill ......................................................................
Flush ..................................................................
Coolant Level - Check ...........................................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add..................................................
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................
Test for SCA Concentration ...............................
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect .................
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........
43
43
43
43
39
67
68
69
68
69
70
70
70
71
71
71
71
72
13
D
Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 72
Electrical System ................................................... 15
Grounding Practices .......................................... 16
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 46
Emissions Certification Film .................................. 24
Emissions Warranty Information............................ 86
Engine - Clean....................................................... 73
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace......................................... 73
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect (If
Equipped) ............................................................ 74
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.................... 74
Engine Diagnostics................................................ 38
Engine Electronics................................................. 16
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 74
Engine Oil and Filter - Change (1606A Engine ) ... 75
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil ........................ 75
Fill the Oil Pan.................................................... 76
Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 76
Engine Oil and Filter - Change (1606D Engine ) ... 76
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 74
Engine Operation................................................... 42
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic Codes ... 38
Engine Operation with Intermittent Diagnostic
Codes .................................................................. 38
Engine Starting ................................................ 15, 39
Engine Stopping .............................................. 15, 46
Engine Valve Lash - Check ................................... 77
F
Fan Clearance - Check.......................................... 78
Fault Logging......................................................... 38
Features and Controls ........................................... 27
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 12
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ................................... 12
Fluid Recommendations............................ 47, 54–55
Diesel Fuel Characteristics ................................ 49
Diesel Fuel Requirements.................................. 47
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 57
Engine Oils......................................................... 54
General Coolant Information.............................. 55
General Information ........................................... 47
General Lubricant Information ........................... 54
Foreword ................................................................. 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 44
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 42
88
Index Section
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather ..........
Fuel Filter ...........................................................
Fuel Tanks..........................................................
Fuel System - Prime ..............................................
Priming with leak off Tool ...................................
Fuel System Primary Filter - Clean/Inspect/
Replace................................................................
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ...............
Fuel System Water Separator - Check/Drain ........
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain .................
Drain the Water and the Sediment.....................
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................
Fuel Tank ...........................................................
SEBU8455
45
45
45
78
79
79
80
81
81
81
82
81
G
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 27
General Hazard Information .................................... 7
Asbestos Information ........................................... 9
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 9
Dispose of Waste Properly ................................ 10
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 9
Pressurized Air and Water ................................... 8
General Information............................................... 17
H
High Pressure Oil Lines......................................... 13
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 82
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 82
Operation Section.................................................. 26
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations.......................
Engine Identification...........................................
Serial Number Plate (1) .....................................
Product Description ...............................................
Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines .......
Engine Specifications.........................................
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
Product Lifting........................................................
Product Storage.....................................................
Level “A ” ...........................................................
Level “B ” ...........................................................
Level “C ” ..........................................................
22
22
23
20
21
20
22
17
26
26
26
26
26
R
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Reference Information ...........................................
Record for Reference.........................................
Refill Capacities.....................................................
Cooling System..................................................
Lubrication System ............................................
83
25
25
47
47
47
S
63
60
47
17
20
17
19
28
Safety Messages ..................................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .......................................... 5
(2) Hand (High Pressure)..................................... 6
Safety Section ......................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics..................................................... 38
Sensors and Electrical Components ..................... 28
Wiring Harness .................................................. 37
Severe Service Application.................................... 61
Environmental Factors ....................................... 62
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................... 62
Incorrect Operating Procedures......................... 62
Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 83
Starting the Engine ................................................ 40
Starting the Engine ............................................ 40
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 41
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 46
System Pressure Release ..................................... 60
Coolant System.................................................. 60
Engine Oil .......................................................... 60
Fuel System ....................................................... 60
28
13
T
I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 26
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule .............................
Maintenance Recommendations ...........................
Maintenance Section .............................................
Model View Illustrations.........................................
1600A Engine ....................................................
1600D Engine ....................................................
Coolant System for 1600D Engine.....................
Monitoring System.................................................
Programmable Options and Systems
Operation .........................................................
Mounting and Dismounting....................................
O
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
SEBU8455
89
Index Section
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 83
Cleaning and Inspecting .................................... 84
Removal and Installation.................................... 84
W
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections .....................................................
Warranty Information .............................................
Warranty Section ...................................................
Water Pump - Inspect............................................
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........
84
84
86
86
85
60
90
Index Section
SEBU8455
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
©2012 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement