Compaq | DS10 | Linux Installation and Configuration Guide for AlphaServer DS10

Linux Installation and Configuration Guide for AlphaServer DS10
Installation Guide
July 2000
ECG513/1099, revision 3.0
Compaq Computer Corporation
Brief Contents:
EXTENDED CONTENTS.................... III
PREFACE............................................ V
Linux Installation and
Configuration Guide
for AlphaServer DS10,
DS20, DS20E, ES40,
and AlphaStation
XP1000 Computers
SRM OVERVIEW.............................. 1-2
INSTALLING THE RED HAT V6.2
DISTRIBUTION ................................ 2-2
INSTALLING THE SUSE V6.4
DISTRIBUTION ................................ 3-2
INSTALLING THE TURBOLINUX V6.0
DISTRIBUTION ................................ 4-2
Abstract: The purpose of this guide is to
provide basic installation and configuration
guidelines for the Linux operating system on
AlphaServer DS10, DS20, DS20E, ES40 and
AlphaStation XP1000 computers.
Instructions are provided for the following
distributions: Red Hat V6.2, SuSE V6.4, and
TurboLinux V6.0. The information in this
document should be applicable to most other
Linux distributions for AlphaServer and
AlphaStation computers.
Previous versions of this document provide
information on installing Red Hat V6.0 and V6.1
and SuSE V6.1 and V6.3. These documents, and
future Alpha Linux documents, can be found at:
www.compaq.com/alphaserver/linux
Under Technical Information, click on
Installation Guides.
First Printing, July 2000
© 2000 Compaq Computer Corporation.
COMPAQ, the Compaq logo, and AlphaServer registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linux Torvalds.
All other product names mentioned herein may be the trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective companies.
Compaq shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. The
information in this publication is subject to change without notice.
Contents
Preface
Chapter 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
Determining the Firmware Version.........................................................2-2
Sources of Firmware Updates............................................................2-3
Examining the System Configuration .....................................................2-4
Displaying the Boot Device ................................................................2-4
Device Naming Conventions ..............................................................2-5
Setting Boot Environment Variables.......................................................2-6
bootdef_dev..........................................................................................2-7
boot_file ...............................................................................................2-8
boot_osflags .........................................................................................2-8
Preparing the System Disks.....................................................................2-9
Installing the Red Hat Distribution.......................................................2-10
Creating and Editing the BSD Disklabels.............................................2-11
Disk Druid Example .........................................................................2-12
Making Final Configuration Changes ...................................................2-16
Chapter 3
3.1
3.1.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.3
SRM Overview
Using the SRM Console ............................................................................1-2
Boot Environment Variables ....................................................................1-3
How Does SRM Boot an OS? ....................................................................1-4
Chapter 2
2.1
2.1.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6.1
2.7
v
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
Determining the Firmware Version.........................................................3-2
Sources of Firmware Updates............................................................3-3
Examining the System Configuration .....................................................3-4
Displaying the Boot Device ................................................................3-4
Device Naming Conventions ..............................................................3-5
Setting Boot Environment Variables.......................................................3-6
iii
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.6.1
3.7
3.8
bootdef_dev..........................................................................................3-7
boot_file ...............................................................................................3-8
boot_osflags .........................................................................................3-8
Preparing the System Disks.....................................................................3-9
Installing the SuSE Distribution ...........................................................3-10
Creating and Editing the BSD Disklabels.............................................3-12
SuSE Auto Disk Partitioning Procedure.........................................3-13
Making Final Configuration Changes ...................................................3-15
Configuring the X Window System ........................................................3-18
Chapter 4
4.1
4.1.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.7
iv
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
Determining the Firmware Version.........................................................4-2
Sources of Firmware Updates............................................................4-3
Examining the System Configuration .....................................................4-4
Displaying the Boot Device ................................................................4-4
Device Naming Conventions ..............................................................4-5
Setting Boot Environment Variables.......................................................4-6
bootdef_dev..........................................................................................4-7
boot_file ...............................................................................................4-8
boot_osflags .........................................................................................4-8
Preparing the System Disks.....................................................................4-9
Installing the TurboLinux Distribution.................................................4-10
Creating and Editing the BSD Disklabels.............................................4-11
Partitioning Guidelines ....................................................................4-12
Partitioning Procedure .....................................................................4-13
Making Final Configuration Changes ...................................................4-14
Preface
Intended Audience
This manual is for system managers and others who want to install the Linux
operating system on a Compaq AlphaServer or AlphaStation computer.
The instructions in this manual apply to the following Linux distributions:
•
Red Hat V6.2
•
SuSE V6.4
•
TurboLinux V6.0
Document Structure
This manual has four chapters.
•
Chapter 1, SRM Overview
•
Chapter 2, Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
•
Chapter 3, Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
•
Chapter 4, Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
Documentation
In addition to using this manual, see the installation manual for the Linux
distribution you are installing.
v
Information on the Internet
The following Web sites contain information about AlphaServer and
AlphaStation systems and Linux:
http://www.compaq.com/alphaserver/Linux
Compaq Alpha Linux information
site
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/LinuxAlpha/Images
Compaq Alpha kernel images site
http://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/Alpha/firmware
Compaq Alpha SRM firmware site
http://www.alphalinux.org
Web site that provides information
about Linux and Alpha-based
computer systems.
http://www.linux.org
Web site of Linux Online.
http://www.redhat.com
Red Hat site
http://www.suse.com
SuSE site
http://www.turbolinux.com
TurboLinux site
vi
Chapter 1
SRM Overview
This chapter describes the SRM console, which is the console firmware used to
boot the Linux operating system on Alpha platforms.
SRM Overview
1-1
1.1
Using the SRM Console
The SRM console works much like a UNIX shell. It views your NVRAM and
devices as a pseudo file system. You can see this by using the ls command. The
SRM console contains a fairly large set of diagnostic, setup, and debugging
utilities, the details of which are beyond the scope of this document. As in the
UNIX shell, you can pipe the output of one command to the input of another.
You can also use a more command that works like the UNIX more command.
For a full listing of available commands, enter:
P00>>> help | more
Console Prompt
The SRM console prompt is some variant of >>> (three right angle-brackets).
Typically, the prompt is Pnn>>>, where n indicates the primary processor. In a
multiprocessor system, the prompt could be P00>>>, P01>>>, and so on.
Environment Variables
SRM has environment variables, a number of which are predefined and
correspond to locations in NVRAM. You can view the entire list of environment
variables and their values with the show command (there are quite a few of
them, so you will probably want to pipe its output to more). You can also use
the * (asterisk) wildcard to show variables matching a pattern. For example,
show boot* displays all the variables starting with "boot".
1-2
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
1.2
Boot Environment Variables
The most useful predefined environment variables for booting Linux are
bootdef_dev, boot_file, and boot_osflags, and auto_action, all of which are
cold non-volatile (they are saved across reboots). To set environment variables,
use the set command, like this:
>>> set bootdef_dev dka0
The boot environment variables have the following functions:
Environment Variable
Function
bootdef_dev
Specifies the device that will be booted from if no
device is specified on the boot command line or in an
automatic boot.
boot_file
Specifies a default file name to be used for booting
when no file name is specified by the boot command.
boot_osflags
Defines parameters to enable specific functions
during the boot process.
auto_action
Specifies the action the console should take on
power-up. By default, it is set to halt, meaning that
the machine will start up in the SRM console. Once
you have configured your bootloader and the bootrelated variables, you can set it to boot in order to
boot automatically on power-up.
SRM Overview
1-3
1.3
How Does SRM Boot an OS?
SRM can boot from SCSI disks, floppy disks, and IDE devices.
Booting Linux with SRM is a two step process:
1. SRM loads and transfers control to the secondary bootstrap loader.
2. The secondary bootstrap loader sets up the environment for Linux, reads
the kernel image from a disk file system, and transfers control to Linux.
The secondary bootstrap loader for used for booting Linux with the SRM
firmware is aboot, which is shipped with the distributions documented in this
book.
Loading the Secondary Bootstrap Loader
SRM knows nothing about file systems or disk partitions. It expects that the
secondary bootstrap loader occupies a consecutive range of physical disk sector,
starting from a given offset. The information on the size of the secondary
bootstrap loader and the offset of its first disk sector is stored in the first 512byte sector. Specifically, the long integer at offset 480 stores the size of the
secondary bootstrap loader (in 512-byte blocks), and the long integer at offset
488 gives the sector number at which the secondary bootstrap loader starts. The
first sector also stores a flag-word at offset 496, which is always 0, and a
checksum at offset 504. The checksum is the sum of the first 63 long integers in
the first sector.
If the checksum in the first sector is correct, SRM reads the size sectors starting
from the sector given in the sector number field and places them in virtual
memory at address 0x20000000. If the reading completes successfully, SRM
performs a jump to address 0x20000000.
For More Information
For more information on the SRM console, see the documentation for your
Alpha system.
1-4
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
Chapter 2
Installing the
Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
This chapter explains how to install the Red Hat V6.2 distribution on Alpha
systems. The following general steps are required:
•
Determining the SRM firmware version
•
Examining the system configuration
•
Configuring SRM boot environment variables
•
Preparing the system disks
•
Installing the Red Hat distribution
•
Creating and editing the BSD Disklabels (with Disk Druid)
•
Disk Druid example
•
Making final configuration changes
NOTE: The SRM console examples in this chapter are based on the
AlphaServer DS10 system. Console output will vary depending on the
Alpha model.
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-1
2.1
Determining the Firmware Version
The minimum supported version of SRM firmware for booting Linux is V5.7. To
determine the firmware version on your system, power up the system to the
SRM console prompt:
1024 Meg of system memory
probing hose 0, PCI
probing PCI-to-ISA bridge, bus 1
probing PCI-to-PCI bridge, bus 2
bus 0, slot 9 -- ewa -- DE500-BA Network Controller
bus 0, slot 11 -- ewb -- DE500-BA Network Controller
bus 0, slot 13 -- dqa -- Acer Labs M1543C IDE
bus 0, slot 13 -- dqb -- Acer Labs M1543C IDE
bus 0, slot 14 -- vga -- ELSA GLoria Synergy
bus 0, slot 15, function 1 -- dra -- Mylex DAC960
bus 0, slot 17 -- pka -- QLogic ISP10x0
System Temperature is 36 degrees C
initializing GCT/FRU at 3ff60000
COMPAQ AlphaServer DS10 466 MHz Console V5.7-8, Apr 12 2000 11:20:07
>>>
At the SRM console prompt, enter the following command to check the firmware
version:
>>> show version
Version
V5.7-8 Apr 12 2000 11:20:07
If your system is running an earlier version, you will need to update the
firmware.
2-2
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
2.1.1
Sources of Firmware Updates
The system firmware resides in the flash ROM located on the system board.
The Alpha Systems Firmware Update Kit comes on a CD-ROM, which is
updated quarterly. You can also obtain Alpha firmware updates from the
Internet.
Quarterly Update Service
The Alpha Systems Firmware Update Kit CD-ROM is available by subscription
from Compaq.
Alpha Firmware Internet Access
You can also obtain Alpha firmware update files from the Internet:
http://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/
If you do not have a Web browser, you can access files using anonymous ftp:
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/
Click down the following directories: Alpha/firmware/readme.html
The README file explains how to download firmware updates.
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-3
2.2
Examining the System Configuration
Before installing the Red Hat distribution, you need to make note of your
installation device (a floppy and/or CD-ROM) and your target disk drive.
2.2.1
Displaying the Boot Device
To display the devices and controllers on the system, enter the show device
command at the SRM console prompt and make note of the installation device
and target disk drive:
>>>show dev
dka0.0.0.17.0
dqa0.0.0.13.0
dra0.0.0.115.0
dva0.0.0.0.0
ewa0.0.0.9.0
ewb0.0.0.11.0
pka0.7.0.17.0
DKA0
DQA0
DRA0
DVA0
EWA0
EWB0
PKA0
COMPAQ BB00921B91 3B05
COMPAQ CDR-8435
0013
3 Member RAID 5
08-00-2B-86-75-9C
08-00-2B-86-75-9F
SCSI Bus ID 7 5.57
In this example, DKA0 is a SCSI disk, DQA0 is a CD-ROM, DRA0 is a hard disk
in a RAID set, and DVA0 is a floppy drive. The device naming conventions are
described in the next section.
2-4
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
2.2.2
Device Naming Conventions
The following table shows examples of boot device naming under SRM and
corresponding Linux device names. Under SRM the first two letters (dv, dq, dk,
and so on) designate a port or class driver, and the third letter (a, b, c, and so
on) is an ID for a storage adapter. The number (0, 1, and so on) is the device
unit number.
NOTE: Under SRM, the partition number on a disk device is not given as part
of the device name. As noted in Chapter 1, SRM knows nothing about
partitions or disklabels. Extra numbers displayed in the show device
output correspond to things like PCI bus and device numbers.
SRM Device Names and Corresponding Linux Device Names
SRM
Linux
Meaning
dva0
/dev/fd0
First floppy drive
dqa0
/dev/hda
Primary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk as
Master
dqa1
/dev/hdb
Primary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk as
slave
dqb0
/dev/hdc
Secondary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk
as slave
dqb1
/dev/hdd
Secondary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk
as slave
dka0
/dev/sda
SCSI disk on first bus, Device 0
dka500
/dev/scd0
First CD-ROM or hard disk on a DS20
system
dra0 (see note)
/dev/ rd/c0d0
First hard disk on a Mylex disk
controller. Not supported on RH6.2
distribution.
dwa0 or eia0
/dev/eth0
First Ethernet device
Note: The kernel that supports the Mylex RAID controller (SN-KZPBC-AA) can
be found at the following ftp site:
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Linux-Alpha/mylex/
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-5
2.3
Setting Boot Environment Variables
After examining the system configuration, you need to set SRM boot
environment variables. The following example shows how to configure boot
environment variables for the Linux Red Hat installation. Use the show boot*
command to verify the settings. Details on these environment variables follow
the example.
Example 2–1 Boot Settings
P00>>> set bootdef_dev dka0
P00>>> set boot_file
P00>>> set boot_osflags 0
P00>>> show boot*
boot_dev
dka0.0.0.17.0
boot_file
boot_osflags
0
boot_reset
OFF
bootdef_dev
dka0.0.0.17.0
booted_dev
booted_file
booted_osflags
➊
➋
➌
➊
The device from which Linux will be booted (dka0)
➋
The default file name to be used for booting when no file name is
specified by the boot command
➌
The device to be selected as the root-file system (dev/sda).
2-6
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
2.3.1
bootdef_dev
The bootdef_dev environment variable specifies one or more devices
from which to boot the operating system. When more than one device is
specified, the system searches in the order listed and boots from the
first device.
Enter the show bootdef_dev command to display the current default boot
device. Enter the show device command for a list of all devices in the system.
The syntax is:
set bootdef_dev boot_device
boot_device
The name of the device on which the system software has been
loaded. To specify more than one device, separate the names with
commas.
NOTE: When you set the bootdef_dev environment variable, it is
recommended that you set the operating system boot parameters as well,
using the set boot_osflags command.
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-7
2.3.2
boot_file
The boot_file environment variable specifies the default file name to be
used for booting when no file name is specified by the boot command.
The syntax is:
set boot_file filename
The filename is specific to the distribution of Linux.
2.3.3
boot_osflags
The boot_osflags environment variable sets the default boot flags.
Boot flags contain information used by the operating system to determine some
aspects of a system bootstrap. Under normal circumstances, you can use the
default boot flag settings.
To change the boot flags for the current boot only, use the flags_value argument
with the boot command.
The syntax is:
set boot_osflags flags_value
The flags_value argument is specific to the operating system.
For Linux, the boot_osflags value is set to zero.
2-8
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
2.4
Preparing the System Disks
Before installing Linux, it is recommended that you erase the system disks. At
the SRM prompt, enter the following commands:
>>>chmod +w dka*
>>>chmod +w dra*
>>>exer -a w dka0 &
>>>exer -a w dra0 &
Use the show_status command to determine the number of bytes written.
Wait until the Bytes Written counter reaches 8 MB and then initialize the
system.
P00>>> show_status
ID
Program
Device
Pass Hard/Soft Bytes Written Bytes Read
-------- ------------ ------------ ------ --------- ------------- ----------00000001 idle system
0
0
0
0
0
000003c exer_kid
dka0.0.0.17.0
0
0
0
8087040
0
00000040 exer_kid
dra0.0.0.115.0 0
0
0
8779776
0
.
.
.
>>>init
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-9
2.5
Installing the Red Hat Distribution
Install the Red Hat distribution as follows:
1. Insert the Red Hat V6.2 CD into the drive.
2.
For IDE CD-ROM, enter the following boot command to boot the Red Hat
installation program:
>>>boot dqa0 –file kernels/generic.gz –flags “root=/dev/hda”
For SCSI CD-ROM, enter the following boot command (assuming DKA500
is the CD-ROM):
>>>boot dka500 –file kernels/generic.gz –flags “root=/dev/scd0”
The Red Hat distribution has a simple installation program. Most of the
devices available with the Alpha systems can be correctly autodetected by Red
Hat.
NOTES: If you have trouble booting, for example, because of a typing error in
setting the SRM environment variables, the system will display an
aboot> prompt. Reset the system with the Reset button on the front
panel. Then correct the error and reenter the boot command.
During the boot process, messages about IDE STO errors may be
displayed. You can ignore them.
When configuring "Timezones," select EST or the appropriate value for
your location.
2-10
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
2.6
Creating and Editing the BSD Disklabels
To boot Linux from a disk using SRM, a disklabel is required. A disklabel is a
partition table. The standard disklabels used by Linux are DOS partition
tables. However, the SRM console’s boot sector format overlaps with parts of
the DOS partition table on disk, and therefore DOS partition tables cannot be
used with SRM.
To boot Linux from a disk using SRM, a BSD disklabel is required. The SRM’s
boot block does not conflict with the BSD disklabel. In fact, the BSD disklabel
resides entirely within reserved areas of the first sector.
The Red Hat V6.2 installation can create and edit the BSD disklabels through
the Disk Druid utility. The distribution automatically installs and configures
aboot, the boot program for installing Linux when using SRM. The
distribution also adds a configuration file, aboot.conf, for aboot that simplifies
the installation process. Section 2.6.1 gives an example of how to use Disk
Druid.
After booting, the installation program displays the language screen. Click on
the next button and follow the menus on the GUI to complete the installation.
NOTE: If you wish to install the X Window System, the Elsa Gloria card has 8
MB of video RAM available. See the Red Hat installation guide for
details.
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-11
2.6.1
Disk Druid Example
Step 1 Disk Setup – Select "Disk Druid." Do not use fdisk
Red Hat Linux (C) 2000 Red Hat, Inc.
Partition
+--------------------+ Disk Setup +--------------------+
|
|
| Disk Druid is a tool for partitioning and setting
|
| up mount points. It is designed to be easier to use |
| than Linux’s traditional disk partitioning software,
| fdisk, as well as more powerful. However, there are |
| some cases where fdisk may be preferred.
|
|
|
| Which tool would you like to use?
|
|
|
|
+------------+
+-------+
+------+
|
|
| Disk Druid |
| fdisk |
| Back |
|
|
+------------+
+-------+
+------+
|
|
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------+
Step 2 Current Disk Partitions – Select "Add"
Red Hat Linux (C) 2000 Red Hat, Inc.
Partition
+-------------------------+ Current Disk Partitions +--------------------------+
|
Mount Point
Device
Requested
Actual
Type
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| Drive Summaries
|
|
Drive
Geom [C/H/S]
Total
Used
Free
|
|
sda
[ 1106/255/63]
8675M
0M
8675M
[
]
#|
|
:|
|
:|
|
|
|
+-----+
+------+
+--------+
+----+
+------+
|
|
| Add |
| Edit |
| Delete |
| Ok |
| Back |
|
|
+-----+
+------+
+--------+
+----+
+------+
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
F1-Add
F3-Edit
F4-Delete
F5-Reset
F12-Ok
v 1.00
2-12
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
Step3 Current Disk Partitions – Select "Size (Megs): 1000 – Type: Linux swap"
and press OK
Red Hat Linux (C) 2000 Red Hat, Inc.
Partition
+-------------------------+ Current Disk Partitions +--------------------------+
|
Mount Point
Device
Requested
Actual
Type
|
|
+------------------------+ Edit New Partition +------------------------+
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Mount Point:
Swap Partition________________
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Size (Megs):
1000____
Type:Linux swap
#
|
|
|
|
Grow to fill disk?:[ ]
Linux native
:
|
|
|
|
Linux RAID
:
|
|
|
|
DOS 16-bit <32M
:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Allowable Drives: [*] sda
|
|
|
|
| :|
|
|
+----+
+--------+
| :|
|
|
| Ok |
| Cancel |
| :|
|
|
+----+
+--------+
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
|
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
F1-Add
F3-Edit
F4-Delete
F5-Reset
F12-Ok
v 1.00
Step 4 Current Disk Partitions – Select "Add"
Red Hat Linux (C) 2000 Red Hat, Inc.
Partition
+-------------------------+ Current Disk Partitions +--------------------------+
|
Mount Point
Device
Requested
Actual
Type
|
|
sda1
1000M
1004M
Linux swap
: |
|
: |
|
: |
|
: |
|
: |
|
: |
|
: |
|
# |
| Drive Summaries
|
|
Drive
Geom [C/H/S]
Total
Used
Free
|
|
sda
[ 1106/255/63]
8675M
1004M
7671M
[#
]
#|
|
:|
|
:|
|
|
|
+-----+
+------+
+--------+
+----+
+------+
|
|
| Add |
| Edit |
| Delete |
| Ok |
| Back |
|
|
+-----+
+------+
+--------+
+----+
+------+
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
F1-Add
F3-Edit
F4-Delete
F5-Reset
F12-Ok
v 1.00
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-13
Step 5 Current Disk Partitions – Select "Mount Point: / - Grow to fill disk?:[*]
Type: linux native" and press OK
Red Hat Linux (C) 2000 Red Hat, Inc.
Partition
+-------------------------+ Current Disk Partitions +--------------------------+
|
Mount Point
Device
Requested
Actual
Type
|
|
+------------------------+ Edit New Partition +------------------------+ : |
|
|
| : |
|
|
Mount Point:
/_____________________________
| : |
|
|
| : |
|
|
Size (Megs):
1_______
Type:Linux swap
:
| : |
|
|
Grow to fill disk?:[*]
Linux native
:
| : |
|
|
Linux RAID
:
| : |
|
|
DOS 16-bit <32M
#
| # |
|
|
|
|
|
|
Allowable Drives: [*] sda
|
|
|
|
| :|
|
|
+----+
+--------+
| :|
|
|
| Ok |
| Cancel |
| :|
|
|
+----+
+--------+
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
|
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
F1-Add
F3-Edit
F4-Delete
F5-Reset
F12-Ok
v 1.00
2-14
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
Step 6 Current Disk Partitions – Select OK to save changes.
Red Hat Linux (C) 2000 Red Hat, Inc.
Partition
+-------------------------+ Current Disk Partitions +--------------------------+
|
Mount Point
Device
Requested
Actual
Type
|
|
sda1
1000M
1004M
Linux swap
: |
|
/
sda2
1M
7663M
Linux native
: |
|
: |
|
# |
|
: |
|
: |
|
: |
|
: |
| Drive Summaries
|
|
Drive
Geom [C/H/S]
Total
Used
Free
|
|
sda
[ 1106/255/63]
8675M
8667M
8M
[##########]
:|
|
:|
|
:|
|
|
|
+-----+
+------+
+--------+
+----+
+------+
|
|
| Add |
| Edit |
| Delete |
| Ok |
| Back |
|
|
+-----+
+------+
+--------+
+----+
+------+
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
F1-Add
F3-Edit
F4-Delete
F5-Reset
F12-Ok
v 1.00
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-15
2.7
Making Final Configuration Changes
The final step in installing Linux on Alpha is to configure the system to enable
booting from the hard drive.
After the Linux software has been loaded to the disk, the system will attempt to
reboot. Before it begins the boot process, press the Reset button on the
front panel or power-cycle the system. The system will stop at the SRM
prompt. You can now boot directly from the hard drive. The boot output looks
similar to the following. This example uses the AlphaServer DS10 system.
P00>>> boot
(boot dka0.0.0.17.0 -flags 0)
block 0 of dka0.0.0.17.0 is a valid boot block
reading 152 blocks from dka0.0.0.17.0
bootstrap code read in
base = 200000, image_start = 0, image_bytes = 13000
initializing HWRPB at 2000
initializing page table at 3ff46000
initializing machine state
setting affinity to the primary CPU
jumping to bootstrap code
aboot: Linux/Alpha SRM bootloader version 0.5
aboot: switching to OSF/1 PALcode version 1.72
aboot: valid disklabel found: 2 partitions.
aboot: booted_dev=‘scsi 0 17 0 0 0 0 0’, guessing boot_device=‘sda2’
aboot: loading compressed boot/vmlinux.gz...
aboot: ok, now starting the kernel...
Linux version 2.2.15 (jestabro@linux04) (gcc version egcs-2.91.66
19990314/Linux
(egcs-1.1.2 release)) #2 SMP Thu May 11 10:08:04 EDT 2000
Booting GENERIC on Tsunami variation Webbrick using machine vector Webbrick
from
SRM
Command line: root=/dev/sda2 bootdevice=sda2 bootfile=boot/vmlinux.gz
SMP: 1 CPUs probed -- cpu_present_mask = 1
HWRPB cycle frequency (462962962) seems inaccurate - using the measured value
of
462372120 Hz
Console: colour VGA+ 80x25
Calibrating delay loop... 920.65 BogoMIPS
Memory: 1032544k available
Dentry hash table entries: 131072 (order 8, 2048k)
Buffer cache hash table entries: 524288 (order 9, 4096k)
Page cache hash table entries: 131072 (order 7, 1024k)
VFS: Diskquotas version dquot_6.4.0 initialized
POSIX conformance testing by UNIFIX
SMP mode deactivated.
Alpha PCI BIOS32 revision 0.04
PCI: Probing PCI hardware
Linux NET4.0 for Linux 2.2
Based upon Swansea University Computer Society NET3.039
NET4: Unix domain sockets 1.0 for Linux NET4.0.
NET4: Linux TCP/IP 1.0 for NET4.0
IP Protocols: ICMP, UDP, TCP
TCP: Hash tables configured (ehash 524288 bhash 65536)
Starting kswapd v 1.5
parport0: PC-style at 0x3bc (0x7bc) [SPP,ECP,ECPPS2]
2-16
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
parport0: detected irq 7; use procfs to enable interrupt-driven operation.
Detected PS/2 Mouse Port.
Serial driver version 4.27 with no serial options enabled
ttyS00 at 0x03f8 (irq = 4) is a 16550A
ttyS01 at 0x02f8 (irq = 3) is a 16550A
pty: 256 Unix98 ptys configured
lp0: using parport0 (polling).
RAM disk driver initialized: 16 RAM disks of 4096K size
loop: registered device at major 7
hda: COMPAQ CDR-8435, ATAPI CDROM drive
ide0 at 0x1f0-0x1f7,0x3f6 on irq 14
io_request_lock is fffffc0000558d28
hda: ATAPI 32X CD-ROM drive, 128kB Cache
Uniform CDROM driver Revision: 2.56
Floppy drive(s): fd0 is 2.88M
FDC 0 is a post-1991 82077
DAC960: ***** DAC960 RAID Driver Version 2.2.5 of 23 January 2000 *****
DAC960: Copyright 1998-2000 by Leonard N. Zubkoff <lnz@dandelion.com>
DAC960#0: Configuring Mylex DAC960PRL PCI RAID Controller
DAC960#0:
Firmware Version: 4.07-0-29, Channels: 1, Memory Size: 4MB
DAC960#0:
PCI Bus: 0, Device: 15, Function: 1, I/O Address: Unassigned
DAC960#0:
PCI Address: 0xA800000 mapped at 0xA800000, IRQ Channel: 39
DAC960#0:
Controller Queue Depth: 124, Maximum Blocks per Command: 128
DAC960#0:
Driver Queue Depth: 123, Maximum Scatter/Gather Segments: 33
DAC960#0:
Stripe Size: 64KB, Segment Size: 8KB, BIOS Geometry: 128/32
DAC960#0:
Physical Devices:
DAC960#0:
0:0 Vendor: DEC
Model: RZ1DF-CB (C) DEC Revision: 0372
DAC960#0:
Serial Number:
680101914A
DAC960#0:
Disk Status: Online, 17772544 blocks
DAC960#0:
0:1 Vendor: SEAGATE
Model: ST34501W
Revision: 7B00
DAC960#0:
Serial Number: LG517138
DAC960#0:
Disk Status: Online, 8386560 blocks
DAC960#0:
0:2 Vendor: SEAGATE
Model: ST34501W
Revision: 7B00
DAC960#0:
Serial Number: LG235961
DAC960#0:
Disk Status: Online, 8386560 blocks
DAC960#0:
Logical Drives:
DAC960#0:
/dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Online, 16773120 blocks, Write Thru
qlogicisp : new isp1020 revision ID (5)
scsi0 : QLogic ISP1020 SCSI on PCI bus 00 device 88 irq 47 I/O base 0xb800
scsi0 : QLogic ISP1020 SCSI on PCI bus 00 device 88 irq 47 I/O base 0xb800
scsi : 1 host.
Vendor: COMPAQ
Model: BB00921B91
Rev: 3B05
Type:
Direct-Access
ANSI SCSI revision: 02
Detected scsi disk sda at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0
scsi : detected 1 SCSI disk total.
SCSI device sda: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 17773524 [8678 MB] [8.7 GB]
PPP: version 2.3.7 (demand dialling)
TCP compression code copyright 1989 Regents of the University of California
PPP line discipline registered.
3c59x.c:v0.99H 11/17/98 Donald Becker
http://cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov/linux/drivers/
vortex.html
tulip.c:v0.89H 5/23/98 becker@cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov
eth0: Digital DS21142/3 Tulip at 0x8000, 08 00 2b 86 75 9c, IRQ 29.
eth0: EEPROM default media type Autosense.
eth0: Index #0 - Media 10baseT (#0) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
block.
eth0: Index #1 - Media 10baseT-FD (#4) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
bloc
k.
eth0: Index #2 - Media 100baseTx (#3) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block.
Installing the Red Hat V6.2 Distribution
2-17
eth0: Index #3 - Media 100baseTx-FD (#5) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block
.
eth1: Digital DS21142/3 Tulip at 0x8800, 08 00 2b 86 75 9f, IRQ 30.
eth1: EEPROM default media type Autosense.
eth1: Index #0 - Media 10baseT (#0) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
block.
eth1: Index #1 - Media 10baseT-FD (#4) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
bloc
k.
eth1: Index #2 - Media 100baseTx (#3) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block.
eth1: Index #3 - Media 100baseTx-FD (#5) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block
.
Partition check:
sda: sda1 sda2
rd/c0d0: rd/c0d0p1 rd/c0d0p2
VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem) readonly.
Freeing unused kernel memory: 176k freed
Adding Swap: 1028144k swap-space (priority -1)
Adding Swap: 1026032k swap-space (priority -2)
.
.
.
Red Hat Linux release 6.2 (Zoot)
Kernel 2.2.15 on an alpha
login:
2-18
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
Chapter 3
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
This chapter explains how to install the SuSE V6.4 distribution on Alpha
systems. The following general steps are required:
•
Determining the firmware version
•
Examining the system configuration
•
Setting boot environment variables
•
Preparing the system disks
•
Installing the SuSE distribution
•
Creating and editing the BSD Disklabels
•
Making final configuration changes
•
Configuring the X Window System
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-1
3.1
Determining the Firmware Version
The minimum supported version of SRM firmware for booting Linux is V5.6. To
determine the firmware version on your system, power up the system.
512 Meg of system memory
probing hose 0, PCI
probing PCI-to-ISA bridge, bus 1
bus 0, slot 9 -- ewa -- DE500-BA Network Controller
bus 0, slot 11 -- ewb -- DE500-BA Network Controller
bus 0, slot 13 -- dqa -- Acer Labs M1543C IDE
bus 0, slot 13 -- dqb -- Acer Labs M1543C IDE
bus 0, slot 14 -- vga -- ELSA GLoria Synergy
bus 0, slot 15 -- pka -- QLogic ISP10x0
os_type: UNIX - console CIPCA driver not started
Testing the System
Testing the Disks (read only)
Testing the Network
System Temperature is 39 degrees C
initializing GCT/FRU at 1f8000
COMPAQ AlphaServer DS10 466 MHz Console V5.6-3, Nov 30 1999 08:36:11
>>>
1. At the SRM console prompt, enter the following command to check the
firmware version:
>>>show version
version
V5.6-3 Nov 30 1999 08:36:11
If your system is running an earlier version, you will need to update the
firmware.
3-2
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
3.1.1
Sources of Firmware Updates
The system firmware resides in the flash ROM located on the system board.
The Alpha Systems Firmware Update Kit comes on a CD-ROM, which is
updated quarterly. You can also obtain Alpha firmware updates from the
Internet.
Quarterly Update Service
The Alpha Systems Firmware Update Kit CD-ROM is available by subscription
from Compaq.
Alpha Firmware Internet Access
You can also obtain Alpha firmware update files from the Internet:
http://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/
If you do not have a Web browser, you can access files using anonymous ftp:
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/
Click down the following directories: Alpha/firmware/readme.html
The README file explains how to download firmware updates.
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-3
3.2
Examining the System Configuration
Before installing the SuSE distribution, you need to make note of your
installation device (a floppy and/or CD-ROM) and your target disk drive.
3.2.1
Displaying the Boot Device
To display the devices and controllers on the system, enter the show device
command at the SRM console prompt and make note of the installation device
and target disk drive:
>>>show dev
dka0.0.0.15.0
dqa0.0.0.13.0
dva0.0.0.0.0
ewa0.0.0.9.0
ewb0.0.0.11.0
pka0.7.0.15.0
DKA0
DQA0
DVA0
EWA0
EWB0
PKA0
COMPAQ BB00921B91
COMPAQ CDR-8435
3B05
0013
08-00-2B-86-68-18
08-00-2B-86-66-CA
SCSI Bus ID 7
5.57
In this example, DKA0 is a hard disk, DQA0 is a CD-ROM, and DVA0 is a
floppy drive. The naming conventions for devices are described in the next
section.
3-4
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
3.2.2
Device Naming Conventions
The following table shows examples of boot device naming under SRM and
corresponding Linux device names. Under SRM the first two letters (dq, dk,
and so on) designate a port or class driver, and the third letter (a, b, c, and so
on) is an ID for a storage adapter. The number (0, 1, and so on) is the device
unit number.
NOTE: Under SRM, the partition number on a disk device is not given as part
of the device name. As noted in Chapter 1, SRM knows nothing about
partitions or disklabels. Extra numbers displayed in the show device
output correspond to things like PCI bus and device numbers.
SRM Device Names and Corresponding Linux Device Names
SRM
Linux
Meaning
dva0
/dev/fd0
First floppy drive
dqa0
/dev/hda
Primary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk as
Master
dqa1
/dev/hdb
Primary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk as
slave
dqb0
/dev/hdc
Secondary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk
as slave
dqb1
/dev/hdd
Secondary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk
as slave
dka0
/dev/sda
SCSI disk on first bus, Device 0
dka500
/dev/scd0
First CD-ROM or hard disk on a DS20
system
dra0 (see note)
/dev/ rd/c0d0
First hard disk on a Mylex disk
controller. Not supported on SuSE 6.4
distribution.
dwa0 or eia0
/dev/eth0
First Ethernet device
Note: The kernel that supports the Mylex RAID controller (SN-KZPBC-AA) can
be found at the following ftp site:
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Linux-Alpha/mylex/
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-5
3.3
Setting Boot Environment Variables
After examining the system configuration, you need to set SRM boot
environment variables. The following example shows how to configure boot
environment variables for the Linux SuSE installation. Use the show boot*
command to verify the settings. Details on these environment variables follow
the example.
Example 3–1 Boot Settings
P00>>> set bootdef_dev dka0
P00>>> set boot_file
P00>>> set boot_osflags 0
P00>>> show boot*
boot_dev
dka0.0.0.17.0
boot_file
boot_osflags
0
boot_reset
OFF
bootdef_dev
dka0.0.0.17.0
booted_dev
booted_file
booted_osflags
➊
➋
➌
➊
The device from which Linux will be booted (dka0)
➋
The default file name to be used for booting when no file name is
specified by the boot command
➌
The device to be selected as the root-file system
3-6
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
3.3.1
bootdef_dev
The bootdef_dev environment variable specifies one or more devices
from which to boot the operating system. When more than one device is
specified, the system searches in the order listed and boots from the
first device.
Enter the show bootdef_dev command to display the current default boot
device. Enter the show device command for a list of all devices in the system.
The syntax is:
set bootdef_dev boot_device
boot_device
The name of the device on which the system software has been
loaded. To specify more than one device, separate the names with
commas.
NOTE: When you set the bootdef_dev environment variable, it is
recommended that you set the operating system boot parameters as well,
using the set boot_osflags command.
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-7
3.3.2
boot_file
The boot_file environment variable specifies the default file name to be
used for booting when no file name is specified by the boot command.
The syntax is:
set boot_file filename
The filename is specific to the distribution of Linux.
3.3.3
boot_osflags
The boot_osflags environment variable sets the default boot flags.
Boot flags contain information used by the operating system to determine some
aspects of a system bootstrap. Under normal circumstances, you can use the
default boot flag settings.
To change the boot flags for the current boot only, use the flags_value argument
with the boot command.
The syntax is:
set boot_osflags flags_value
The flags_value argument is specific to the operating system.
For Linux, the boot_osflags is set to zero.
3-8
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
3.4
Preparing the System Disks
Before installing Linux it is recommended that you erase the system disks.
Enter the following commands at the SRM prompt:
>>>chmod +w dka*
>>>exer -a w dka0 &
Use the show_status command to determine the number of bytes written.
Wait until the Bytes Written counter reaches 8 MB and then initialize the
system.
P00>>> show_status
ID
Program
Device
Pass Hard/Soft Bytes Written Bytes Read
-------- ------------ ------------ ------ --------- ------------- ----------00000001 idle system
0
0
0
0
0
000003c exer_kid
dka0.0.0.17.0
0
0
0
8087040
0
.
.
.
>>>init
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-9
3.5
Installing the SuSE Distribution
Install the SuSE distribution as follows:
1. Insert the SuSE 6.4 CD into the drive.
2. For IDE CD-ROM, enter the following boot command to boot the SuSE
installation program.
>>>boot dqa0 –flags 0
For SCSI CD-ROM, enter the following boot command (assuming DKA500
is the CD-ROM):
>>>boot dka500 –flags 0
The SuSE distribution has a simple installation program. Most of the devices
available with the Alpha systems can be correctly auto-detected by SuSE.
NOTE: If you have trouble booting, for example, because of a typing error in
setting the SRM environment variables, the system will display an
aboot> prompt. Reset the system with the Reset button on the front
panel. Then correct the error and reenter the boot command.
3-10
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
Boot example:
>>>boot dqa0 –flags 0
(boot dqa0.0.0.13.0 -flags 0)
block 0 of dqa0.0.0.13.0 is a valid boot block
reading 165 blocks from dqa0.0.0.13.0
bootstrap code read in
base = 200000, image_start = 0, image_bytes = 14a00
initializing HWRPB at 2000
initializing page table at 1ff48000
initializing machine state
setting affinity to the primary CPU
jumping to bootstrap code
aboot: Linux/Alpha SRM bootloader version 0.7
aboot: switching to OSF/1 PALcode version 1.72
aboot: booting from device 'IDE 0 13 0 0 0 0 0'
aboot: no disklabel found.
iso: Max size:332303
Log zone size:2048
iso: First datazone:22
Root inode number 45056
aboot: loading compressed /etc/vm_full.gz...
aboot: segment 0, 2684800 bytes at 0xfffffc0000310000
aboot: zero-filling 267584 bytes at fffffc000059f780
aboot: loading initrd (2213196 bytes/2161 blocks) at
0xfffffc001fc46000
aboot: starting kernel /etc/vm_full.gz with arguments rw
root=/dev/fd0
...etc.
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-11
3.6
Creating and Editing the BSD Disklabels
To boot Linux from a disk using SRM, a disklabel is required. A disklabel is a
partition table. The standard disklabels used by Linux are DOS partition
tables. However, the SRM console’s boot sector format overlaps with parts of
the DOS partition table on disk, and therefore DOS partition tables cannot be
used with SRM.
To boot Linux from a disk using SRM, a BSD disklabel is required. The SRM’s
boot block does not conflict with the BSD disklabel. In fact, the BSD disklabel
resides entirely within reserved areas of the first sector.
The SuSE V6.4 installation can create and edit the BSD disklabels through the
disk partitioning utility. The distribution automatically installs and configures
aboot, the boot program for installing Linux when using SRM. The
distribution also adds a configuration file, aboot.conf, for aboot that simplifies
the installation process. Follow the example shown to automatically partition
the disk drive.
After booting, the installation program displays the language screen. Click on
the OK button and follow the menus on the screen to complete the installation.
NOTE: If you wish to install the X Window System, the Elsa Gloria card has 8
MB of video RAM available. See the SuSE installation guide for
details.
3-12
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
3.6.1
SuSE Auto Disk Partitioning Procedure
Step 1 Select "Partitioning"
Step 2 Select "Whole hard disk"
Continued on next page
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-13
Step 3 Select "Yes"
Step 4 Wait for partitioning to be completed
3-14
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
3.7
Making Final Configuration Changes
The final step in installing Linux on Alpha is to configure the system to enable
booting directly from the hard drive.
You can now boot directly from the hard drive. The boot output looks similar to
the following. This example uses the AlphaServer DS10 system.
>>>boot
(boot dka0.0.0.15.0 -flags 0)
block 0 of dka0.0.0.15.0 is a valid boot block
reading 165 blocks from dka0.0.0.15.0
bootstrap code read in
base = 200000, image_start = 0, image_bytes = 14a00
initializing HWRPB at 2000
initializing page table at 1ff52000
initializing machine state
setting affinity to the primary CPU
jumping to bootstrap code
aboot: Linux/Alpha SRM bootloader version 0.7
aboot: switching to OSF/1 PALcode version 1.62
aboot: booting from device ’SCSI 0 15 0 0 0 0 0’
aboot: valid disklabel found: 4 partitions.
aboot: loading compressed vmlinux.gz...
aboot: segment 0, 2719584 bytes at 0xfffffc0000310000
aboot: zero-filling 269856 bytes at fffffc00005a7f60
aboot: starting kernel vmlinux.gz with arguments ro root=/dev/sda4
Linux version 2.2.14 (root@AlphaSerial.suse.de) (gcc version 2.95.2 19991024
(release)) #1 Thu May 11 18:10:58 GMT 2000
Booting GENERIC on Tsunami variation Webbrick using machine vector Webbrick
from SRM
Command line: ro root=/dev/sda4
Console: colour VGA+ 80x25
Calibrating delay loop... 460.32 BogoMIPS
Memory: 513392k available
Dentry hash table entries: 65536 (order 7, 1024k)
Buffer cache hash table entries: 524288 (order 9, 4096k)
Page cache hash table entries: 65536 (order 6, 512k)
VFS: Diskquotas version dquot_6.4.0 initialized
POSIX conformance testing by UNIFIX
Alpha PCI BIOS32 revision 0.04
PCI: Probing PCI hardware
Linux NET4.0 for Linux 2.2
Based upon Swansea University Computer Society NET3.039
NET4: Unix domain sockets 1.0 for Linux NET4.0.
NET4: Linux TCP/IP 1.0 for NET4.0
IP Protocols: ICMP, UDP, TCP, IGMP
TCP: Hash tables configured (ehash 524288 bhash 65536)
Initializing RT netlink socket
Starting kswapd v 1.5
Detected PS/2 Mouse Port.
Serial driver version 4.27 with no serial options enabled
ttyS00 at 0x03f8 (irq = 4) is a 16550A
ttyS01 at 0x02f8 (irq = 3) is a 16550A
pty: 256 Unix98 ptys configured
Real Time Clock Driver v1.09
RAM disk driver initialized: 16 RAM disks of 64000K size
loop: registered device at major 7
Uniform Multi-Platform E-IDE driver Revision: 6.30
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-15
ide: Assuming 40MHz system bus speed for PIO modes; override with idebus=xx
ALI15X3: IDE controller on PCI bus 00 dev 68
ALI15X3: not 100% native mode: will probe irqs later
ide0: BM-DMA at 0xb000-0xb007, BIOS settings: hda:pio, hdb:pio
ide1: BM-DMA at 0xb008-0xb00f, BIOS settings: hdc:pio, hdd:pio
hda: COMPAQ CDR-8435, ATAPI CDROM drive
ide0 at 0x1f0-0x1f7,0x3f6 on irq 14
hda: ATAPI 32X CD-ROM drive, 128kB Cache, DMA
Uniform CDROM driver Revision: 2.56
Floppy drive(s): fd0 is 2.88M
FDC 0 is a post-1991 82077
LVM version 0.8e by Heinz Mauelshagen (4/1/2000)
lvm -- Driver successfully initialized
md driver 0.36.6 MAX_MD_DEV=4, MAX_REAL=8
linear personality registered
raid0 personality registered
raid1 personality registered
qlogicisp : new isp1020 revision ID (5)
scsi0 : QLogic ISP1020 SCSI on PCI bus 00 device 78 irq 39 I/O base 0xb800
scsi : 1 host.
Vendor: COMPAQ
Model: BB00921B91
Rev: 3B05
Type:
Direct-Access
ANSI SCSI revision: 02
Detected scsi disk sda at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0
scsi : detected 1 SCSI disk total.
SCSI device sda: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 17773524 [8678 MB] [8.7 GB]
Partition check:
sda: sda1 sda2 sda3 sda4
VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem) readonly.
Freeing unused kernel memory: 208k freed
Adding Swap: 136544k swap-space (priority -1)
VFS: Disk change detected on device ide0(3,0)
ISO 9660 Extensions: RRIP_1991A
tulip.c:v0.91g-ppc 7/16/99 becker@cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov
eth0: Digital DS21143 Tulip rev 65 at 0x8000, 08:00:2B:86:68:18, IRQ 29.
eth0: EEPROM default media type Autosense.
eth0: Index #0 - Media 10baseT (#0) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
block.
eth0: Index #1 - Media 10baseT-FD (#4) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
block.
eth0: Index #2 - Media 100baseTx (#3) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block.
eth0: Index #3 - Media 100baseTx-FD (#5) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block.
eth1: Digital DS21143 Tulip rev 65 at 0x8800, 08:00:2B:86:66:CA, IRQ 30.
eth1: EEPROM default media type Autosense.
eth1: Index #0 - Media 10baseT (#0) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
block.
eth1: Index #1 - Media 10baseT-FD (#4) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
block.
eth1: Index #2 - Media 100baseTx (#3) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block.
eth1: Index #3 - Media 100baseTx-FD (#5) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block.
.
.
.
3-16
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
Welcome to SuSE Linux 6.4 (AXP) - Kernel 2.2.14 (0).
peng3 login: root
Password:
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root.
Last login: Thu Jun 29 16:10:06 on tty1
Have a lot of fun...
peng3:~ #
Installing the SuSE V6.4 Distribution
3-17
3.8
Configuring the X Window System
To complete the installation, configure the X Window System:
1. At the Linux console prompt, enter the following command to configure the
X Window System:
peng3:~ # sax
SaX: searching card...done
SaX: using XF86_3DLabs for configuration
SaX: if not correct set server manually using the -s option
SaX: go up again within 8 seconds [ Ctrl-c to abort ]
sax: .........
SaX: start new XF86_3DLabs server
.
.
.
2. To start the X Window System, enter the following command:
peng3:~ # startx
XFree86 Version 3.3.6 / X Window System
(protocol Version 11, revision 0, vendor release 6300)
Release Date: January 8 1999
If the server is older than 6-12 months, or if your card is
newer
than the above date, look for a newer version before reporting
problems. (see http://www.XFree86.Org/FAQ)
Operating System: Linux 2.2.13 alpha [ELF] SuSE
Configured drivers:
GLINT: accelerated server for 3DLabs GLINT graphics adapters
(Patchlevel 0)
(using VT number 8)
XF86Config: /etc/XF86Config
(**) stands for supplied, (--) stands for probed/default values
(**) XKB: rules: "xfree86"
(**) XKB: model: "pc104"
(**) XKB: layout: "us"
(**) Mouse: type: PS/2, device: /dev/psaux, samplerate: 60
(**) Mouse: buttons: 3
(**) GLINT: Graphics device ID: "Primary-Card"
(**) GLINT: Monitor ID: "Primary-Monitor"
.
.
.
3-18
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
Chapter 4
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0
Distribution
This chapter explains how to install the TurboLinux V6.0 distribution on Alpha
systems. The following general steps are required:
•
Determining the SRM firmware version
•
Examining the system configuration
•
Setting SRM boot environment variables
•
Preparing the system disks
•
Installing the TurboLinux distribution
•
Creating and editing the BSD Disklabels (with fdisk)
•
Making final configuration changes
NOTE: The SRM console examples in this chapter are based on the
AlphaServer DS10 system. Console output will vary depending on the
Alpha model.
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
4-1
4.1
Determining the Firmware Version
The minimum supported version of SRM firmware for booting Linux is V5.7. To
determine the firmware version on your system, power up the system:
1024 Meg of system memory
probing hose 0, PCI
probing PCI-to-ISA bridge, bus 1
probing PCI-to-PCI bridge, bus 2
bus 0, slot 9 -- ewa -- DE500-BA Network Controller
bus 0, slot 11 -- ewb -- DE500-BA Network Controller
bus 0, slot 13 -- dqa -- Acer Labs M1543C IDE
bus 0, slot 13 -- dqb -- Acer Labs M1543C IDE
bus 0, slot 14 -- vga -- ELSA GLoria Synergy
bus 0, slot 15, function 1 -- dra -- Mylex DAC960
bus 0, slot 17 -- pka -- QLogic ISP10x0
System Temperature is 36 degrees C
initializing GCT/FRU at 3ff60000
COMPAQ AlphaServer DS10 466 MHz Console V5.7-8, Apr 12 2000 11:20:07
>>>
At the SRM console prompt, enter the following command to check the firmware
version:
P00>>> show version
Version
V5.7-8 Apr 12 2000 11:20:07
If your system is running an earlier version, you will need to update the
firmware.
4-2
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
4.1.1
Sources of Firmware Updates
The system firmware resides in the flash ROM located on the system board.
The Alpha Systems Firmware Update Kit comes on a CD-ROM, which is
updated quarterly. You can also obtain Alpha firmware updates from the
Internet.
Quarterly Update Service
The Alpha Systems Firmware Update Kit CD-ROM is available by subscription
from Compaq.
Alpha Firmware Internet Access
You can also obtain Alpha firmware update files from the Internet:
http://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/
If you do not have a Web browser, you can access files using anonymous ftp:
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/
Click down the following directories: Alpha/firmware/readme.html
The README file explains how to download firmware updates.
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
4-3
4.2
Examining the System Configuration
Before installing the TurboLinux distribution, you need to make note of your
installation device (a floppy and/or CD-ROM) and your target disk drive.
4.2.1
Displaying the Boot Device
To display the devices and controllers on the system, enter the show device
command at the SRM console prompt and make note of the installation device
and target disk drive:
>>>show dev
dka0.0.0.17.0
dqa0.0.0.13.0
dra0.0.0.115.0
dva0.0.0.0.0
ewa0.0.0.9.0
ewb0.0.0.11.0
pka0.7.0.17.0
DKA0
DQA0
DRA0
DVA0
EWA0
EWB0
PKA0
COMPAQ BB00921B91 3B05
COMPAQ CDR-8435 0013
3 Member RAID 5
08-00-2B-86-75-9C
08-00-2B-86-75-9F
SCSI Bus ID 7
5.57
In this example, DKA0 is a SCSI disk, DQA0 is a CD-ROM, DRA0 is a hard disk
in a RAID set, and DVA0 is a floppy drive. The naming conventions for devices
are described in the next section.
4-4
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
4.2.2
Device Naming Conventions
The following table shows examples of boot device naming under SRM and
corresponding Linux device names. Under SRM the first two letters (dq, dk,
and so on) designate a port or class driver, and the third letter (a, b, c, and so
on) is an ID for a storage adapter. The number (0, 1, and so on) is the device
unit number.
NOTE: Under SRM, the partition number on a disk device is not given as part
of the device name. As noted in Chapter 1, SRM knows nothing about
partitions or disklabels. Extra numbers displayed in the show device
output correspond to things like PCI bus and device numbers.
SRM Device Names and Corresponding Linux Device Names
SRM
Linux
Meaning
dva0
/dev/fd0
First floppy drive
dqa0
/dev/hda
Primary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk as
Master
dqa1
/dev/hdb
Primary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk as
slave
dqb0
/dev/hdc
Secondary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk
as slave
dqb1
/dev/hdd
Secondary IDE CD-ROM or hard disk
as slave
dka0
/dev/sda
SCSI disk on first bus, Device 0
dka500
/dev/scd0
First CD-ROM or hard disk on a DS20
system
dra0 (see note)
/dev/ rd/c0d0
First hard disk on a Mylex disk
controller. Not supported on
TurboLinux 6.0 distribution.
dwa0 or eia0
/dev/eth0
First Ethernet device
Note: The kernel that supports the Mylex RAID controller (SN-KZPBC-AA) can
be found at the following ftp site:
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Linux-Alpha/mylex/
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
4-5
4.3
Setting Boot Environment Variables
After examining the system configuration, you need to set SRM boot
environment variables. The following example shows how to configure boot
environment variables for the TurboLinux installation. Use the show boot*
command to verify the settings. Details on these environment variables follow
the example.
Example 4–1 Boot Settings
P00>>> set bootdef_dev dka0
P00>>> set boot_file
P00>>> set boot_osflags 0
P00>>> show boot*
boot_dev
dka0.0.0.17.0
boot_file
boot_osflags
0
boot_reset
OFF
bootdef_dev
dka0.0.0.17.0
booted_dev
booted_file
booted_osflags
➊
➋
➌
➊
The device from which Linux will be booted (dka0)
➋
The default file name to be used for booting when no file name is
specified by the boot command
➌
The device to be selected as the root-file system (dev/sda).
4-6
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
4.3.1
bootdef_dev
The bootdef_dev environment variable specifies one or more devices
from which to boot the operating system. When more than one device is
specified, the system searches in the order listed and boots from the
first device.
Enter the show bootdef_dev command to display the current default boot
device. Enter the show device command for a list of all devices in the system.
The syntax is:
set bootdef_dev boot_device
boot_device
The name of the device on which the system software has been
loaded. To specify more than one device, separate the names with
commas.
NOTE: When you set the bootdef_dev environment variable, it is
recommended that you set the operating system boot parameters as well,
using the set boot_osflags command.
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
4-7
4.3.2
boot_file
The boot_file environment variable specifies the default file name to be
used for booting when no file name is specified by the boot command.
The syntax is:
set boot_file filename
The filename is specific to the distribution of Linux.
4.3.3
boot_osflags
The boot_osflags environment variable sets the default boot flags.
Boot flags contain information used by the operating system to determine some
aspects of a system bootstrap. Under normal circumstances, you can use the
default boot flag settings.
To change the boot flags for the current boot only, use the flags_value argument
with the boot command.
The syntax is:
set boot_osflags flags_value
The flags_value argument is specific to the operating system.
For Linux, the boot_osflags value is set to zero.
4-8
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
4.4
Preparing the System Disks
Before installing Linux, it is recommended that you erase the system disks. At
the SRM prompt, enter the following commands:
>>>chmod +w dka*
>>>chmod +w dra*
>>>exer -a w dka0 &
>>>exer -a w dra0 &
Use the show_status command to determine the number of bytes written.
Wait until the Bytes Written counter reaches 8 MB and then initialize the
system.
P00>>> show_status
ID
Program
Device
Pass Hard/Soft Bytes Written Bytes Read
-------- ------------ ------------ ------ --------- ------------- ----------00000001 idle system
0
0
0
0
0
000003c exer_kid
dka0.0.0.17.0
0
0
0
8087040
0
00000040 exer_kid
dra0.0.0.115.0 0
0
0
8779776
0
.
.
.
>>>init
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
4-9
4.5
Installing the TurboLinux Distribution
Install the TurboLinux distribution as follows:
1. Insert the TurboLinux V6.0 CD into the drive.
2. For IDE CD-ROM, enter the following boot command to boot the
TurboLinux installation program.
>>>boot dqa0
For SCSI CD-ROM, enter the following boot command (assuming DKA500
is the CD-ROM):
>>>boot dka500
The TurboLinux distribution has a simple installation program. Most of the
devices available with the Alpha systems can be correctly autodetected by
TurboLinux.
NOTES: If you have trouble booting, for example, because of a typing error in
setting the SRM environment variables, the system will display an
aboot> prompt. Reset the system with the Reset button on the front
panel. Then correct the error and reenter the boot command.
During the boot process, messages about IDE STO errors may be
displayed. You can ignore them.
When configuring "Timezones," select EST or the appropriate value for
your location.
4-10
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
4.6
Creating and Editing the BSD Disklabels
To boot Linux from a disk using SRM, a disklabel is required. A disklabel is a
partition table. The standard disklabels used by Linux are DOS partition
tables. However, the SRM console’s boot sector format overlaps with parts of
the DOS partition table on disk, and therefore DOS partition tables cannot be
used with SRM.
To boot Linux from a disk using SRM, a BSD disklabel is required. The SRM’s
boot block does not conflict with the BSD disklabel. In fact, the BSD disklabel
resides entirely within reserved areas of the first sector.
The TurboLinux V6.0 installation can create the BSD disklabels through the
fdisk utility. The distribution manually asks to installs and to configure aboot,
the boot program for installing Linux when using SRM. The distribution also
adds a configuration file, aboot.conf, for aboot that simplifies the installation
process.
After booting, the installation program displays the language screen. Select the
language and then press Enter to continue with the installation. When
prompted to enter the Extra Hardware Floppy, select “skip” and continue with
the installation.
NOTE: If you wish to install the X Window System, the Elsa Gloria card has 8
MB of video RAM available (8192 kilobytes). It uses the 3Dlabs
Permedia2 (generic driver). See the TurboLinux installation guide for
details.
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
4-11
4.6.1
Partitioning Guidelines
Before you start the partitioning, note the following:
•
Partitions are letters from a–h (not numbers). Partition "c" covers the
whole of the disk. You will need to delete partition "c" to install Linux
correctly. See Section 4.6.2.
•
While the disk parameters are viewable, make note of them, because you
will use them more often than in making a DOS disklabel.
•
Creating a new partition uses the same procedure as the DOS disklabel
method except that the partitions are referred to by letter instead of
number. That is, n to make a new partition, followed by the partition letter,
followed by the starting block, followed by the end block.
•
Setting partition type is slightly different from the DOS disklabel method
because the numbering scheme is different (1 is swap, 8 is ext2).
The following multi-partition layout is strongly recommended:
Swap partition
A swap partition is used to support virtual memory. A
swap partition of two times the computer RAM is
recommended.
Root partition
The root partition is where the /root_directory resides.
4-12
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
4.6.2
Partitioning Procedure
NOTE: Type "p" after each main step in the procedure to verify the information
you have specified.
CAUTION: If there is partition information already configured for the disk,
delete it with the "d" option. Be sure you want to zero out this drive.
All data on the drive will be lost.
1. Choose option "b" to make a BSD disklabel. Answer Y to the following
message:
/dev/sda contains no disklabel. Do you want to create a disklabel? (y/n) Y
2. Delete the "c" partition.
3. Create the "a" (swap) partition and type the starting and ending cylinder
numbers. Always start at cylinder 2 for the first partition (swap). Do the
same to create the "b" (/root) partition.
4. Type "p" to print the partition table. The fstype is set to unused for each of
the partitions. You will set each partition’s filesystem ID. For each
partition, type "t" to change the partitions’ filesystem ID, enter the letter for
the partition, then enter the system ID for the partition, as indicated below:
Partition
Filesystem ID
a (swap)
1
b (/ root)
8
5. Type "p" to print the partition table and verify all your settings.
6. Type "w" to write the disklabel to the disk.
7. Type "q" to quit.
NOTE: For more information on creating partitions, see the Installation Guide
provided by the software distribution vendor.
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
4-13
4.7
Making Final Configuration Changes
The final step in installing Linux on Alpha is to configure the system to enable
booting from the hard drive.
After the Linux software has been loaded to the disk, the system will attempt to
reboot. Before it begins the boot process, press the Reset button on the
front panel or power-cycled the system. The system will stop at the SRM
prompt. You can now boot directly from the hard drive. The boot output looks
similar to the following. This example uses the AlphaServer DS10 system.
P00>>> boot
(boot dka0.0.0.17.0 -flags 0)
block 0 of dka0.0.0.17.0 is a valid boot block
reading 152 blocks from dka0.0.0.17.0
bootstrap code read in
base = 200000, image_start = 0, image_bytes = 13000
initializing HWRPB at 2000
initializing page table at 3ff46000
initializing machine state
setting affinity to the primary CPU
jumping to bootstrap code
aboot: Linux/Alpha SRM bootloader version 0.5
aboot: switching to OSF/1 PALcode version 1.72
aboot: valid disklabel found: 2 partitions.
aboot: booted_dev=‘scsi 0 17 0 0 0 0 0’, guessing boot_device=‘sda2’
aboot: loading compressed boot/vmlinux.gz...
aboot: ok, now starting the kernel...
Linux version 2.2.15 (jestabro@linux04) (gcc version egcs-2.91.66
19990314/Linux
(egcs-1.1.2 release)) #2 SMP Thu May 11 10:08:04 EDT 2000
Booting GENERIC on Tsunami variation Webbrick using machine vector Webbrick
from
SRM
Command line: root=/dev/sda2 bootdevice=sda2 bootfile=boot/vmlinux.gz
SMP: 1 CPUs probed -- cpu_present_mask = 1
HWRPB cycle frequency (462962962) seems inaccurate - using the measured value
of
462372120 Hz
Console: colour VGA+ 80x25
Calibrating delay loop... 920.65 BogoMIPS
Memory: 1032544k available
Dentry hash table entries: 131072 (order 8, 2048k)
Buffer cache hash table entries: 524288 (order 9, 4096k)
Page cache hash table entries: 131072 (order 7, 1024k)
VFS: Diskquotas version dquot_6.4.0 initialized
POSIX conformance testing by UNIFIX
SMP mode deactivated.
Alpha PCI BIOS32 revision 0.04
PCI: Probing PCI hardware
Linux NET4.0 for Linux 2.2
Based upon Swansea University Computer Society NET3.039
NET4: Unix domain sockets 1.0 for Linux NET4.0.
NET4: Linux TCP/IP 1.0 for NET4.0
IP Protocols: ICMP, UDP, TCP
TCP: Hash tables configured (ehash 524288 bhash 65536)
Starting kswapd v 1.5
parport0: PC-style at 0x3bc (0x7bc) [SPP,ECP,ECPPS2]
4-14
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
parport0: detected irq 7; use procfs to enable interrupt-driven operation.
Detected PS/2 Mouse Port.
Serial driver version 4.27 with no serial options enabled
ttyS00 at 0x03f8 (irq = 4) is a 16550A
ttyS01 at 0x02f8 (irq = 3) is a 16550A
pty: 256 Unix98 ptys configured
lp0: using parport0 (polling).
RAM disk driver initialized: 16 RAM disks of 4096K size
loop: registered device at major 7
hda: COMPAQ CDR-8435, ATAPI CDROM drive
ide0 at 0x1f0-0x1f7,0x3f6 on irq 14
io_request_lock is fffffc0000558d28
hda: ATAPI 32X CD-ROM drive, 128kB Cache
Uniform CDROM driver Revision: 2.56
Floppy drive(s): fd0 is 2.88M
FDC 0 is a post-1991 82077
DAC960: ***** DAC960 RAID Driver Version 2.2.5 of 23 January 2000 *****
DAC960: Copyright 1998-2000 by Leonard N. Zubkoff <lnz@dandelion.com>
DAC960#0: Configuring Mylex DAC960PRL PCI RAID Controller
DAC960#0:
Firmware Version: 4.07-0-29, Channels: 1, Memory Size: 4MB
DAC960#0:
PCI Bus: 0, Device: 15, Function: 1, I/O Address: Unassigned
DAC960#0:
PCI Address: 0xA800000 mapped at 0xA800000, IRQ Channel: 39
DAC960#0:
Controller Queue Depth: 124, Maximum Blocks per Command: 128
DAC960#0:
Driver Queue Depth: 123, Maximum Scatter/Gather Segments: 33
DAC960#0:
Stripe Size: 64KB, Segment Size: 8KB, BIOS Geometry: 128/32
DAC960#0:
Physical Devices:
DAC960#0:
0:0 Vendor: DEC
Model: RZ1DF-CB (C) DEC Revision: 0372
DAC960#0:
Serial Number:
680101914A
DAC960#0:
Disk Status: Online, 17772544 blocks
DAC960#0:
0:1 Vendor: SEAGATE
Model: ST34501W
Revision: 7B00
DAC960#0:
Serial Number: LG517138
DAC960#0:
Disk Status: Online, 8386560 blocks
DAC960#0:
0:2 Vendor: SEAGATE
Model: ST34501W
Revision: 7B00
DAC960#0:
Serial Number: LG235961
DAC960#0:
Disk Status: Online, 8386560 blocks
DAC960#0:
Logical Drives:
DAC960#0:
/dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Online, 16773120 blocks, Write Thru
qlogicisp : new isp1020 revision ID (5)
scsi0 : QLogic ISP1020 SCSI on PCI bus 00 device 88 irq 47 I/O base 0xb800
scsi0 : QLogic ISP1020 SCSI on PCI bus 00 device 88 irq 47 I/O base 0xb800
scsi : 1 host.
Vendor: COMPAQ
Model: BB00921B91
Rev: 3B05
Type:
Direct-Access
ANSI SCSI revision: 02
Detected scsi disk sda at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0
scsi : detected 1 SCSI disk total.
SCSI device sda: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 17773524 [8678 MB] [8.7 GB]
PPP: version 2.3.7 (demand dialling)
TCP compression code copyright 1989 Regents of the University of California
PPP line discipline registered.
3c59x.c:v0.99H 11/17/98 Donald Becker
http://cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov/linux/drivers/
vortex.html
tulip.c:v0.89H 5/23/98 becker@cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov
eth0: Digital DS21142/3 Tulip at 0x8000, 08 00 2b 86 75 9c, IRQ 29.
eth0: EEPROM default media type Autosense.
eth0: Index #0 - Media 10baseT (#0) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
block.
eth0: Index #1 - Media 10baseT-FD (#4) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
bloc
k.
eth0: Index #2 - Media 100baseTx (#3) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block.
Installing the TurboLinux V6.0 Distribution
4-15
eth0: Index #3 - Media 100baseTx-FD (#5) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block
.
eth1: Digital DS21142/3 Tulip at 0x8800, 08 00 2b 86 75 9f, IRQ 30.
eth1: EEPROM default media type Autosense.
eth1: Index #0 - Media 10baseT (#0) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
block.
eth1: Index #1 - Media 10baseT-FD (#4) described by a 21142 Serial PHY (2)
bloc
k.
eth1: Index #2 - Media 100baseTx (#3) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block.
eth1: Index #3 - Media 100baseTx-FD (#5) described by a 21143 SYM PHY (4)
block
.
Partition check:
sda: sda1 sda2
rd/c0d0: rd/c0d0p1 rd/c0d0p2
VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem) readonly.
Freeing unused kernel memory: 176k freed
Adding Swap: 1028144k swap-space (priority -1)
Adding Swap: 1026032k swap-space (priority -2)
.
.
.
TurboLinux release 6.0 English Server (Coyote)
Kernel 2.2.15 on an alpha (peng1)
VC: tty1
peng1 login:
4-16
Installing Linux on Alpha Systems
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