COMPUTER NEWS Inside This Issue The Napa Valley Personal

COMPUTER NEWS Inside  This  Issue The Napa Valley Personal
Napa Valley
Personal Computer
Users Group
P.O. Box 2866
Napa, California 94558
Volume 28, No. 3
Mar. 2011
Inside This Issue
NVPCUG Special Interest Groups
President’s Message
Officers List
NVPCUG Calendar
The Seventh Son of Windows
Windows Lab - The Start Menu
for Windows 7
An App – What it is and
What it does
User Accounts in Windows 7
E-mail Hacked?
An Ounce of Prevention…
The Napa Valley Personal
Computer Users Group will meet
Wednesday, Mar 16th,
7:00-9:00 P.M.
At the Napa Senior Activity Center,
1500 Jefferson Street, Napa, California
The meeting begins with Random Access, an
open-floor question-and-answer period during
which attendees can ask questions about computers
and computer-related problems and receive helpful
information from other meeting attendees.
Questions may be submitted before the meeting
by emailing them to Random Access moderator Jerry Brown at
[email protected]
For the March 16 Meeting Computer Tutor Jeff
Solomon will be talking about his recent adventures
and observations and recommendations involving
the purchase and return and purchase of small boxlike devices that are moved about by hand over a flat
surface to generate signals to control the position of a cursor or pointer
on a computer display. In other words he will be discussing the Mouse.
If you have an idea or question that the Computer Tutor Jeff Solomon
at [email protected]
10 Discovering Windows 7 – Part 11
11 Discovering Windows 7 – Part 12
12 Discovering Windows 7 – Part 13
14 Dick’s Clicks
15 Santa Brought Your Parents a
Laptop! Oh No!
16 Free “Cheat Sheets” for Software
and Hardware
18 Windows 7 Bible
20 New Cameras Worth Checking Out Part II
22 An Easy Way to Transfer from iPod
to iTunes
24 Membership Application/Renewal
You want some information or a download from a
website, but they want your email address. Every
time you give out an email address, you lose control
over how it is used, often exposing yourself to receiving
spam or having it sent in your name. Once it starts,
there is no way you can make it stop – unless you
change your email address. The best solution is using temporary or
throw away email addresses.All disposable email services provide the
basic protection you need, but some of them also have some neat
features. This month Beth Pickering will tell us about some of them.If
you have a suggestion on which feature and topics should discusses
in the future, please contact Susy Ball at [email protected]
See ya all at the meeting.
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011
In SIG meetings you can learn about
a subject in greater detail than is
feasible at NVPCUG general meetings.
SIG meetings are open to everyone.
Meeting times and locations
occasionally change, so for current
meeting information, see our Web
site,, or contact
the SIG leaders.
Inv e stors SIG
Meets: Monthly, second Monday
5:30 to 7:30 p.m
Jerry Brown’s home,
23 Skipping Rock Way, Napa
Leader: Jerry Brown
(707) 254-9607
Napa Valley Mac User Group
Meets: Monthly, second Thursday
6:30 - 8:30 p.m.
Napa Senior Activity Center
1500 Jefferson St., Napa
Leader: Ron Rogers
(707) 226-5352
Sonoma Computer Group
Meets: Monthly, fourth Saturday,
except Mar 2011
10:00 - 11:30 a.m..
DeLong room
Sonoma Library, Sonoma, CA
Leader: Beth Pickering
[email protected]
Working Status
Deleting a file is usually quite simple. The application that you’re
working in may provide you with a warning before you delete a file,
asking you to confirm that you indeed want to delete the file before
proceeding. Once confirmation is given, that’s all it takes.
Windows versions since Windows 95 all feature the Recycle Bin, the
trash can icon on your Desktop that temporarily stores deleted files.
The Recycle Bin is there in case you have second thoughts and decide
you need a deleted file after all and is just an area on your hard disk set
aside to temporarily hold files marked for deletion. Files stored in the
Recycle Bin may last for a while, depending on the size of the Bin. (By
default, Windows makes the Recycle Bin 10% of whatever the hard
disk capacity is.)
But be aware that the Recycle Bin doesn’t exist in certain situations.
For example, if you delete a file stored in a thumb drive, there won’t
be any Recycle Bin to bail you out if you change your mind. Ditto for
network drives, which usually don’t have a Recycle Bin either; usually,
a file stored in a network drive is immediately deleted. But, since
network drives are frequently backed up by businesses, there may be
a copy of the file that you can retrieve from backup media if you
accidentally delete something you needed after all.
Power Supply Unit
If your computer is hot to the touch, and you can smell burnt plastic and
even see smoke after you switch off your computer, your power supply fan
is not functioning properly. The fan is likely dirty or the airflow to the fan
is obstructed. Clean the power supply fan and surrounding area immediately,
and if this doesn’t solve the problem, replace the entire PSU.
Generally, many intermittent problems that go away or appear to be
repaired after you shut off your computer and let it cool down may be
linked to your power supply and/or the power supply fan.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit to learn what Smart Computing can
do for you and your user group!
Could you use some practical information that would help you
make better use of your computer? Come to this meeting! Guests
are always welcome. Admission is always free.
Interested in becoming a member? See page 24 for
application information.
The Napa Valley Personal Computer Users Group has served
novice and experienced computer users since 1983. Through its
monthly meetings, newsletters, online forum, special interest
groups, mentor program and community involvement, it has
helped educate people of all ages. The NVPCUG provides
opportunities for people to find friends who share common
interests and experiences. From January 2003 to October 2007
the NVPCUG provided 783 computers and 140 printers to local
schools. Additional equipment has been given to charitable
nonprofit organizations and to disadvantaged individuals.
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 2
Napa Valley Personal Computer
Users Group Contact Information
Officers for 2011
Board of Directors
Jim Gray
Presiden[email protected]
Vice President
Ron Dack
[email protected]
Marcia Waddell
[email protected]
Roy Wagner
[email protected]
Other Directors: Susy Ball, Julie Jerome, Bernhard Krevet , Dick Peterson, Bob
Simmerman, Raylene Thompson, Tom Uboldi and Dean Unruh
Appointed Officers
Computer Tutor Coordinator
Jeff Solomon
[email protected]
Facility Arrangements Coordinator
Dianne Prior
[email protected]
Greeter Coordinator
Raylene Thompson
[email protected]
Greeter Coordinator
Bob Simmerman
[email protected]
[email protected]
Membership Director
Bob Simmerman
[email protected]
Newsletter Editor
Susy Ball
[email protected]
Product Review CoCoordinator
Susy Ball
Marcia Waddell
[email protected]
[email protected]
Co-Programs Director
Bernhard Krevet
Susy Ball
[email protected]
[email protected]
Dean Unruh
Publicity Director
Random Access Moderator
Jerry Brown
[email protected]
[email protected]
Ron Dack
• All telephone numbers are in Area Code 707.
NVPCUG General Meetings
Held the third Wednesday of each month, 7:00 to 9:00 p.m.
Napa Senior Activity Center,
1500 Jefferson Street, Napa
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 3
Computer News
Computer News (ISS
0897-5744) is published
monthly by the Napa
Valley Personal
Computer Users Group,
Inc. (NVPCUG), P.O.
Box 2866, Napa, CA
Subscriptions: $30 for
one year (12 issues).
Editor: Susy Ball,
[email protected] The
material in Computer
News is intended for
purposes and may not
be reproduced without
prior written permission,
except that permission
for reproducing articles,
with authors properly
credited, is granted to
other computer user
groups for their internal,
nonprofit use only. The
information in this
newsletter is believed to
be correct. However, the
NVPCUG can assume
neither responsibility for
errors or omissions nor
liability for any damages
resulting from the use or
misuse of any
The NVPCUG is an IRC
501(c)(3) tax-exempt
nonprofit educational
organization (EIN 680069663) and is a
member of the
Association of Personal
Computer User Groups
(APCUG), an
organization. Donations
to the NVPCUG are taxdeductible as charitable
contributions to the
extent allowed by law.
Copyright © 2008 by
The Seventh Son of Windows
Customizing the Notification Area, By Lee Reynolds, Contributing Editor, Boca Raton
Computer Society, FL, February 2011 issue, Boca Bits,,
[email protected]
The “Notification Area” is that area on the right-hand side
of the Taskbar where your system clock resides, and
probably a large number of other icons. It used to be called,
prior to Windows XP, the “system tray.” Programs just love
to install an icon there, to supposedly speed up access to their
features. You doubtless have a lot of not very useful icons
there, which can sometimes be removed by selecting an
option or preference from the menus of the associated
program. And in XP and Vista, you can right click the
Taskbar, select Properties from the context menu that
scrolls out, click on the Notification Area tab, and then
perform various operations in order to “hide inactive icons.”
If you have any other icons in the Notification Area (such
as one for your antivirus program, for example), they will
usually be found by clicking the little upward-pointing carat
to the left of the Action Center icon, which causes a small
popup window to be shown. If you want to see any of those
icons in this popup window in your Notification Area
instead, you can just drag them down there.
Windows 7
This situation has improved a lot in Windows 7. By default,
there are only four icons that will appear in your Windows
7 taskbar notification area:
• The Sound icon (so you can adjust the volume of
your speakers or mute them)
• The Network icon (so you can perform maintenance
tasks concerning your network connection)
• The Battery icon (if you’re running Windows 7 on a
laptop) to tell you how much charge is remaining to
your pc’s battery or whether it’s charging if you are
running your laptop plugged into a wall outlet
• An icon connected with a new Control Panel applet
called Action Center
Windows 7 Action Center
The Action Center icon will normally handle all those
notification messages coming from the system when some
program thinks you need to take an action of some kind.
For example: download important updates from Microsoft
Update, or perform a scan with Windows Defender, or
download the most recent antivirus data, etc.
In Windows 7 there is now a new Control Panel applet
called Notification Area Icons, which takes the place of the
corresponding tab of Taskbar Properties in Windows Vista,
XP, and previous versions.
When you go to that Control Panel applet, you will be
shown a list of each of the Notification Area icons, and for
each one you can use the “list box” next to it to choose one
of three possible settings:
• Show icon and notifications
• Hide icon and notifications
• Show only notifications
NVPCUG Calendar
Mar 16
Mar 19
Apr 11
Apr 14
Apr 20
Apr 23
May 7
May 9
May 12
May 18
May 23
Jun 9
Jun 13
Jun 15
Jun 25
7:00-9:00 p.m.
10:00-11:30 a.m..
5:30-7:30 p.m.
6:30-8:30 p.m.
7:00-9:00 p.m.
10:00-11:30 a.m..
10:00-11:30 am.
5:30-7:30 p.m.
6:30-8:30 p.m.
7:00-9:00 p.m.
10:00-11:30 a.m..
6:30-8:30 p.m.
5:30-7:30 p.m.
7:00-9:00 p.m.
10:00-11:30 a.m..
NVPCUG General Meeting, + A
Sonoma Computer Group + E
Investors SIG meeting + C
Napa Valley Mac User Group + A
NVPCUG General Meeting, + A
Sonoma Computer Group + E
Board of Directors meeting + D
Investors SIG meeting + C
Napa Valley Mac User Group + A
NVPCUG General Meeting, + A
Sonoma Computer Group + E
Napa Valley Mac User Group + A
Investors SIG meeting + C
NVPCUG General Meeting, + A
Sonoma Computer Group + E
M e e ting Lo c a tions
A - Napa Senior Activity Center,
1500 Jefferson Street, Napa
B - Piner’s Nursing Home,
1800 Pueblo Ave., Napa
C - Jerry Brown’s home,
23 Skipping Rock Way, Napa
D - Peterson’s Family Christmas
Tree Farm,
1120 Darms Lane, Napa.
E - DeLong Room
Sonoma Library, Sonoma, CA
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 4
Windows Lab - The Start Menu for
Windows 7
By Barney Babin, Cajun Clickers Computer Club (LA) member and instructor
for XP, Vista Workshop and Windows 7, January 2010 issue, Cajun Clickers
Computer News,, [email protected]
Every iteration of Microsoft’s Operating System since XP
has had a Start Menu that functions basically the same; but
Windows 7 has many distinctly different features that
make it stand apart from the others. For example, when
you open the Start Menu, your curser is automatically
positioned in the “Search Programs and files” area (Fig. 1),
just as in Vista, and is waiting for you to type something
there. If you have no clue where something is located, or
how to navigate to a specific place in your computer, type
it into this area. As you start typing the item you are looking
for, the search results will appear. When you see your item,
stop typing, click it (Fig. 2), and it will appear on your
screen (Fig. 3).
I chose the item Getting Started to search for on
purpose. As seen in Fig. 3, there are six items that
can be double clicked for more useful information
about that topic. For those of you who are new to
Windows 7, I strongly urge you to look at these
categories to glean a lot of useful information. If
you notice the address window at the top of the item
or the category where the item was listed on the
search results, it can be found in the Control Panel,
but since you searched on the item and opened it
from search, knowing that this item exists in Control
Panel is not necessary.
I also recommend that you click Control Panel and
look at the various items listed there. You will soon
discover that some of the items have changed names
from previous versions of the Microsoft Operating
Systems. For example, Add/Remove Programs in
XP is now called Programs and Features. The
functionality is basically the same; just the item
name has changed.
Another new item in Windows 7 is theAction Center (Fig. 4),
which can be found either in Control Panel, via the start menu
search feature, or double clicking the white flag in the icons just
to the left of the clock. In action center, you will find many things
that are very useful such as Backup and Restore, User
Accounts, Security, and maintenance; but as you have probably
guessed by now, you can also access all of these items via the
Start Menu search function.
You can also use the search function to search for words,
phrases, titles, etc. of documents and access items in your
search results directly from there.
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 5
By Wil Wakely, President, Seniors Computer Group, CA, February 2011 issue, Bits and Bytes,
The Official Electronic Newsletter of the SCG,, [email protected]
Qualcomm has developed a color display called Mirasol
It took a long time for e-books
to arrive on the scene, but that uses interference colors like butterfly wings or oil-onnow they are here in a swarm, water; it also uses very little power for long battery life.
offering many styles, file Like the Kindle, it is reflective for viewing in bright light.
formats and displays. In a few Although holding great promise, it is not yet on the market,
years, when standards are but is due later this year in some e-book. Every day
established, this confusing hundreds more books become available in digital format.
variety will disappear. Google claims to be converting almost every book in print
Currently, the major players are Kindle by Amazon, to digital format, and they have the resources to do it.
Nook by Barnes & Noble, Sony eReader, and a lot of Amazon and Barnes & Nobel offer huge book selections
on their Web sites. Surprisingly, Amazon sold more digital
fledglings trying to get their foot in the door.
The concept of the e-book is books last year than printed ones.
great: a portable electronic book
containing hundreds of titles;
low cost books in digital format so no paper printing is
required; variable type font selection for ease of
reading; immediate downloads for impulse purchases;
access to the Web for blogs, magazines and
newspapers; audio text-to-speech for when your eyes
are tired. And I know of other advantages besides
these. Recently, there has been a price war and
Amazon and others have slashed prices drastically. I
predict that Walmart will have an e-book for $39.95 in
the not too distant future. The e-book concept has
been around for years; I recall promoting the idea 25
years ago, but at that time the technology was not yet
A major problem is the plethora of file formats that
available to make it practical. What was missing was
are too numerous to describe here.
an inexpensive low cost display; cheap large memory;
For more info go to: In time,
a fast computer chip; and a small, lightweight, powerful
will boil down to just a few standard file formats.
battery. None of these existed at that time, but now
meantime, there are free conversion programs
they are here and the concept has been actualized.
which will allow you to read almost any file format on
Several types of displays are now available: Kindle
your e-book, regardless of the model.
uses a black/white display called e-ink. It is low power
If you are an avid reader, I would recommend that
for long battery life and reflective so sunlight doesn’t
consider an e-book. It will save you money in the
fade it; in fact, it is viewed best in bright light. The
run on the cost of books (NY Times Best Sellers,
downside is that a book light is required to read in bed long
and many free ones), Plus, all the neat features
without disturbing your bed partner.
make it a joy to use.
Audio Tips
The Nook is a color display using liquid crystals,
which is poor in bright light and a battery power hog.
However, it is color and can be viewed in the dark, the
darker the better.
If you’re like many people and use your computer in
the office or at home when there are other people
around, don’t overlook quality headphones as an
option. Many speakers come with headphone jacks
and some computers have a built-in jack, but figuring
out how to adjust the volume can be a problem if
there is no volume dial on the device where the
headphones are connected.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit to learn what Smart
Computing can do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 6
An App – What it is and What it does
By Sandy Berger, Compu-KISS,, [email protected]
An app can be found on the iPhone and the iPad as well
as many other smart phones and tablet PCs. In fact,
Apple’s introduction of the idea of apps in 2008 is what
made smart phones and tablet PCs so popular. Up until
that time, we were all used to full-blown programs like
those that run on a computer. Most of these programs
contain millions of lines of code, have numerous
functions, and have menus that open up to reveal a
multitude of choices.
In contrast, an app is a little mini program that has
one basic function. It is an expression in simplicity. A
good app does only one thing and it does it very quickly
and easily. There are no nested menus and there are
very few choices to make. One similarity between a
full-blown program and an app is that both can be
started by an icon that you choose by using a mouse or
by pressing your finger on the screen.
One of the best things about apps are that they are
easy to use. The true beauty of the apps, however lies
in their variety. There are hundreds of thousands of
apps, but you don’t have to use them all. You can
choose only the ones you want. A computer program
may be able to handle 100 different functions. Even if
you only want to use one of those functions, you still
have to install the entire program. Apps are different.
You only install the ones you need.
However, like computer programs, apps are specific
to an operating system. For example, a program that is
created for the Mac will not run on a PC. An app that
was created for the iPhone will not work on an Android
phone. Each operating system has their own App Store
or Marketplace where you can download apps. Many
apps are free. Many are under $2.
Right now there is a large selection of apps for
the Apple iPhone and iPad at the iTunes App
Store. BlackBerry, Google (Android), Microsoft,
Nokia, and Samsung all offer apps through their
own app storefronts.
If you have never used a smart phone or a tablet PC
that uses apps, you will be amazed by the sheer
number and variety of apps. Apple has over 300,000
apps in their App Store. Google has more than 200,000
in their marketplace.
Because of the wide variety of apps, it is difficult to
talk about them all, but let me give you a quick idea of
what an app can do. Using an app, you can you express
your artist abilities, play the piano, or visit with your
Facebook friends. You can turn your phone into a level
to get that picture straight, or turn it into a light saber
and become a savior of the universe. There are apps
to let you play games, find recipes, read news, get
stock quotes, follow sports, shop, and compare prices.
There are apps that help you relax, time the seeping of
your tea, identify any song, tune your guitar, and even
match the color of any object to a paint color.
Yes, there is an app that will help you do almost
anything. And people are using these apps in numbers
that seem almost unimaginable. The Apple app store
opened on July 10, 2008 and they have already had
over 10,000,000,000 downloads. The wild popularity
of apps will entrench that word in the technical
dictionaries for many years to come.
Updating Antivirus Software
How often you update can depend on how you use
your PC. Antivirus software developers frequently
update their applications and signature files, so it’s
worth your time to check the antivirus software’s
site every one to two weeks for updates. If you
hear about a dangerous new virus outbreak, check
for emergency or priority updates right away.
Many antivirus applications include an automatic
updater or utility that checks the software’s site for
you. For example, Norton AntiVirus provides a
Live-Update feature that will prompt you to
download updates as they become available. As
for scanning your system, most users only perform
a complete system scan once when they initially
install an antivirus application. After that, the
antivirus application resides in system memory
where it continues to scan downloads, emails,
macros, and other potential sources of infection on
the fly. Even so, if your antivirus software runs in
memory, you should think about performing a
complete system scan at least once per month, as
well as when there’s a major update to the software
and/or if the system starts behaving strangely. If
you don’t run the antivirus software in memory
(maybe you have a limited amount of system RAM),
you’ll need to perform a complete system scan
much more frequently, such as once a week.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit to learn what Smart
Computing can do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 7
User Accounts in Windows 7
By Lynn Page, Editor, Crystal River Users Group, Florida, November 2010 issue, CRUG
newsletter,, [email protected]
Every computer has at least one user account. When you
or the manufacturer set up Windows, an Administrator
account is created. This administrator account is used to
set up the computer and install applications.
User accounts let different people share a computer.
With a user account for every user, each has their own
settings and preferences like the desktop background and
color theme. User accounts also specify which files and
programs can be accessed and what changes can be made
to the computer. The account type provides a different
level of control over the computer. Use a standard account
for everyday use and an administrator account only when
necessary as it provides maximum control over the
computer. The guest account is for those who need only
temporary access to the computer.
If you are the only person to use the computer it is still
advisable to set up at least two user accounts. Setting up
a standard account for your own use can help protect your
computer by preventing you or other users from making
changes affecting everyone who uses the computer. This
stops you from inadvertently making a change like deleting
required files or installing an application you don’t really
want. When logged on with a standard account, you can do
most things you need to do. But to do something that
affects other users of the computer you may be asked for
an administrator password. So when you want to do a
system task like installing software or changing security
settings, log on as the administrator or just provide the
password when asked.
user accounts and account type for you to select from
when you log on to Windows.
Password Protect User Accounts
Password protecting all of
your user accounts is
advisable. But it is really
important to password the
Administrator account.
Open Control Panel and
in the User Accounts and
Family Safety section click Add or Remove user accounts.
In the list of user accounts, select the one to change and
click Create a password. Follow the directions to enter the
account password.
Be sure to set a password that you will remember,
especially for the Administrator account. But don’t post it
on a sticky note on your monitor or some other place like
that. Having a password that is readily available to everyone
ruins the purpose of password protecting your computer.
I password protect all of the accounts on my computers as
well as my important files.
Switch between User Accounts
Fast User Switching lets you
switch to a different user
account without logging off
or closing programs and files.
To switch to a different user
account, click the Start button
point to the right arrow next
to the Shut Down button, and
click Switch User.
Set Up a New Standard Account
User Accounts are managed
through the Control Panel. To
set up a new user account in
Control Panel under the User
Accounts and Family Safety
section click Add or Remove
Accounts. If not logged onto
an Administrator Account a
password may be required.
Input the name for the account
and select Standard user as the account type and click
Create Account.
Now you have the original Administrator account and a
Standard user account for everyday use. Follow the same
process to set up Standard user accounts for any others
who will be using the computer. I go to the extreme of
creating a Standard account for temporary guests in place
of using a Guest account.
The Windows Welcome screen displays the available
Change the Picture for a User Account
Changing the picture
representing a user
account is similar to adding
or changing a password.
Open Control Panel and in
the User Accounts and
Family Safety section click
Add or Remove user
accounts. In the list of user
accounts select the one to change and then in the list select
Change the picture. Select one of the pictures shown or
click Browse for more pictures to go to and select a picture
you have saved on the hard drive.
After selecting the new picture click the Change
Picture button.
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 8
E-mail Hacked? An Ounce of Prevention…
By Lee Seidman, Vice President, Business and Professional Microcomputer Users Group,
Inc. (BPMUG), CT, February 2011 issue, The Help Key, [email protected],
message board, generally he or she is
asked to use his or her e-mail address as the user name. will ask the person to generate a password and
often will send a confirmation e-mail identifying the username
and password in clear text (meaning it is not obscured). The
first thing a third-party (in other words, someone who is not
the subscriber or a representative of the web site) may try to
do is use the password contained in that e-mail to access
[email protected] itself.
Once a hacker with bad intentions gets into the e-mail,
Recently, some unsuspecting e-mail users
or she may start slowly to not get noticed, however, it
may have experienced dismaying and shocking
not require much effort for the “Black Hat” to change
notifications suggesting that his or her e-mail has
AND security questions (for password
been hacked and used to send spam (or worse),
lock the account owner out of his or
even if the e-mail system is web-based rather
her own e-mail. If nefarious activity is suspected to take
than downloaded directly to one’s computer via
place with one’s e-mail account:
a local application like Microsoft Mail, Outlook,
• Inform those in your contact list of the circumstances,
Outlook Express, MacMail, Entourage,
preferably by voice or an alternate e-mail account
Thunderbird, etc. (and hence, susceptible to
and make sure they understand not to engage the
operating system-level vulnerabilities). The
questionable content (usually seeking money in one
primary suspect is the password used to access
form or another – especially via embedded
the account.
hyperlinks); get as much help to act as quickly as
People tend to try to keep things simple by
possible as time is of the essence and everyone in
using the same password to access a variety of
that contact list is potentially at risk since they trust
sites, but at the risk of security. People’s e-mail
the e-mail is coming from you when in actuality it
account password should never be used for any
does not
other account or web site. Generally, e-mail can
Change the password to access the e-mail account
be compared to a postcard; although the message
(and make it complex and very difficult to guess)
is destined for a particular recipient, it has the
• Change the security questions to change the
potential to be read by anyone as it traverses the
Internet. Additionally, if one joins a web site that
requests a password to subscribe, a confirmation
• Notify the e-mail provider
e-mail is often generated clearly presenting the
• If this is a commonly used password for online
username (often an e-mail address) and the
financial transactions (banking, purchasing, etc.),
proper password. The postcard analogy applies
change the password for those e-commerce sites
to that non-encrypted e-mail – it is open for
• Keep all correspondence between the “Black Hat”
anyone to read. A typical malicious-minded
and any contacts as evidence
hacker (the “Black Hat”) who either intercepts
If money is involved, contact local and federal
that e-mail or accesses that web site’s consumer
authorities at the Internet Crime Complaint Center
database would first attempt to use that password
associated with that e-mail address to access
especially if the “Black Hat” actually defrauded
the e-mail account. For example, if someone
someone out of money.
is [email protected] registers to
it is a good idea to have an e-mail account for
join community web site or
personal correspondence and a separate one for webbased subscriptions (or use a temporary/disposable e-mail
address offered by the majority of providers). The key is
to use distinct passwords; the online world can be a
dangerous place in which to operate, but one’s own
behavior usually determines the level of jeopardy one will
risk in such an environment. A little forethought can
prevent a whole lot of hind-sight consternation.
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 9
Discovering Windows 7 – Part 11
By Neil Stahfest, Vice President, Tacoma Area PC User Group, Washington, December 2010
issue, the Data Line, [email protected],
A few months ago, while discussing Windows 7 System
Restore, I mentioned that there is a limit to the number of
Restore Points that Windows will save. Restore Points are
created every time there is a Windows 7 update so,
generally speaking, at least one new Restore Point is
created every week. It is possible that when you discover
the need to use a Restore Point it will be too late to go back
to the point you want.
Microsoft says that at least three to five percent of each
disk should be reserved for Restore Points. As it happens,
Microsoft has given us a way to control the amount of
space reserved for Restore Points. All you have to do is
click on the Start button, then right click on Computer and
then left click on Properties. Now left click on System
protection and you’ll see the System Properties window.
In the Protection Settings area you’ll see all the hard
drives in your computer and whether or not Protection,
While we’re on the topic of saving and restoring, this
System Restore, is enabled. In the example below, might be a good time to talk about the Windows Recycle
Protection is enabled for drive C but turned off for drives Bin. Periodically I guess all of us delete files and folders
D and E. You can click on a drive, high lighting it, and then that we “think” we don’t need. Deleting files and folders
click on the Configure button.
is a two step process. When you click on “Delete” they go
When you click on the Configure button you open the
System protection window. As you can see, in this new
window, under Restore Settings you can choose what kind
of information is saved in Restore Points, setting and
previous versions of files or just previous versions of files.
Or you can turn off Restore Points all together. Under Disk
Space Usage you can use a slider to set the amount of
space reserved for Restore Points and delete all previously
saved Restore Points.
to the Recycle Bin. At that point they appear to be gone but
they are not really deleted. If you check the amount of used
space on your hard drive you won’t see any change. It is
not until you empty the Recycle Bin that they are really
gone. This gives you a chance to get restore deleted files
and folders if you suddenly realize that you accidently
deleted something that you need or simply change your
mind. In that case, you simply double left-click on the
Recycle Bin. After selecting the files or folders that you
want to undelete with one left-click, just click on Restore
all items (circled in red). Instantly the files or folders are
back where they were before you deleted them.
Of course, just like your hard drive, the Recycle Bin is
space limited. Typically 10% of your hard drive space is
reserved for the Recycle Bin. If you don’t periodically
empty the Recycle Bin it will eventually get full. At that
point the oldest files will be deleted to make space for the
newest deleted files.
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 10
After some thought, you may decide that the Recycle
Bin is too large and wasting your hard drive space. After
all, 10% of a 500 GB hard drive is 50 GB. You may need
some of that space for something else. On the other hand,
if you have a 160 GB hard drive a 16 GB Recycle Bin may
seem too small. Fortunately, Windows gives you a way to
change the size of your Recycle Bin.
All you need to do is to right-click on the Recycle Bin and
then left-click on “Properties”. There is a separate Recycle
Bin for every hard drive or hard drive partition that you
have. As you can see in the example, under “Settings for
selected location” you can control the size of the Recycle
Bin. You also have an option to delete the Recycle Bin
function as well as an option to delete the confirmation
dialog when you delete files.
Discovering Windows 7 – Part 12
By Neil Stahfest, Vice President, Tacoma Area PC User Group, Washington
January 2011 issue, the Data Line, [email protected],
The Black Friday sales were too tempting this year and I
decided it was time to treat myself to a new laptop
computer. When selecting a new computer you need to
determine what your requirements are. I wanted something
powerful enough to run my current software plus what I
would probably need a year or two from now. I don’t
consider myself to be a “gamer” but I do use some flight
simulation software which has some pretty intensive
graphics requirements. I decided to look for a computer
with an Intel Core i7 processor plus with a lot of RAM and
a good graphics card. I wanted a laptop computer so I
could demonstrate software at S.I.G. meetings. After
checking the Internet to find the best candidates that meet
my requirements, I made my selection and placed an order.
Getting a new computer is exciting and, while the experience
is fresh in my mind, this is probably a good time to talk about
setting up a new computer.
If you bought your computer from one of the major
manufacturers or a store it probably arrived packed in a
box with its accessories. When I opened my box and found
a large folded sheet of paper labeled “START HERE.”
(Can anyone remember the last time they got a printed
manual with a new computer?) Unfolding it, on the front
side I found two illustrated columns. One was labeled
“QUICK SETUP” and the other “AFTER SETUP.”
Because I’ve learned the hard way, I took a moment to
turn the paper over. Printed on the backside of the paper
was “GET MORE FROM YOUR PC” with pictures of
my computer showing the top and sides with everything
labeled. There was also a section showing how the
TouchPad works. I’ve used a number of computers with
TouchPads and it seems like they are all a little different.
If your computer comes with a TouchPad, I advise you to
look this section over. You should at least find out how to
turn the TouchPad on and off or you may wonder why it
doesn’t work. ;-)
Having studied (well at least glanced at) how the
controls on my computer are laid out, I flipped the paper
over to get back to “QUICK SETUP”. Following the
illustrated instructions, I removed everything from the box,
noting that I seemed to have everything shown in the
picture. I started by installing my laptop’s battery (as
shown in an illustration). I connected external power,
turned on the computer and prepared to follow on-screen
instructions. Nothing to it really. For a few minutes, the
computer seemed to be doing internal things and small
lights flashed. Then it asked me for my name, a password
(which I had to enter twice) and I had to accept the license
agreement. A clock appeared and I had to reset the
computer’s clock to my local time zone and time. Then it
was time to connect to the Internet!
I could have used a cable to my Internet modem but I
elected to go wireless (that’s what I use most of the time
anyway). The setup program included a “wizard” to help
Discovering Windows-Part 12 cont. from page 12
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 11
me here. The wizard wanted some information about my
wireless network. A list of available local networks appeared
(well, only mine really) and I clicked on it. It only took a few
seconds for the wizard to figure out that I have an
encrypted wireless network and a security key code was
needed. Since I’m so well organized (not really) it only took
me a minute to find the book where I wrote it down when
I created the key code. A dozen or two key strokes and the
code was entered. Now it wanted to know what kind of
network I was using. Was it a Home network, a Public
network or Work network? They have different security
settings. I selected “Home.”
Next, the installer wanted to know about my “Homegroup.”
The Homegroup is a new feature of Windows 7. It is
basically a private network that allows secure access to
selected files and printers on the Homegroup network
without a complicated process of configuring the computer
with various network settings. In a Homegroup network,
each Homegroup member is a computer not a specific user.
In other words, if I add my laptop computer to my Homegroup,
which includes a desktop computer running Windows 7,
anyone using my laptop will have the same access to files
and printers attached to my desktop computer. In a home
setting this can make it very easy to share files and printers
between computers. I can print documents and pictures
from my laptop computer on the laser printer attached to my
desktop computer.
So after asking me if I wanted to use a Homegroup, the
installer program asked me to select what I wanted to
share including pictures, music, videos, documents and
printers. I selected all of them. Then it asked for my
Workgroup password. This password encrypts the
information passing between the computers on the your
Homegroup so, even if you are using a wireless network
connection, if someone in your neighborhood were to
intercept the information passing between your computers
they wouldn’t be able to read the information.
Duh, I didn’t have that written down. Luckily, the
installer program told me how to find it on my other
Homegroup computer. All I needed to do was to go to my
other computer, click on the Windows “Start” button, type
“Homegroup” in the search box and, when the
Homegroup window appeared, locate where it says
“View or print the Homegroup password” and click on it.
I decided to print it. After entering the password on my
laptop computer, I placed the printout in my book with the
Internet security key code for future reference.
At this point the computer restarted, using Windows 7.
Since this was the first time Windows 7 was running on this
computer, it gave me an opportunity to register the computer
with the manufacturer and then gave me a tour of Windows
7. After the tour, now that my new computer was working,
I make a system image backup (as described in this column
in “Discovering Windows – Part 3”). Now all I have to do
is figure out what programs I want to install on my new
computer! :^)
Setting up a new computer will probably never be as
easy as setting up a new bread toaster but, as you can see
from the above description, it’s not very difficult. I could
have saved a few steps if I had plugged the computer
directly into my hi-speed modem with a cable before I
started the installation. That would have avoided the need
to setup the wireless connection, but I wanted my computer
to be portable. If I only had one computer then I wouldn’t
have needed to configure a Homegroup but even that was
no real challenge. If you setup a Homegroup just remember
that all the computers connected to the same Homegroup
must use the same Homegroup password.
So to all of you who got a new computer over
the holidays, or in the January sales,
Discovering Windows 7 – Part 13
By Neil Stahfest, Vice President, Tacoma Area PC User Group, Washington, February 2011
issue, the Data Line, [email protected],
they were smaller they would be less obtrusive. Of course
the downside of having smaller icons is that you get more
space to have more icons which can make your desktop
look more complicated (sort of like making space on a real
life desk to add more piles of stuff). Anyway, try reducing
the size of your icons, it’s easy.
Start by right-clicking on an empty area on your desktop.
Next, click on “View” in the window that appears. Now
select a smaller icon size and you’re done. If you don’t like
the results you can always go back to the old size. Note that
there are other things that you can do from the icon menu.
You can select auto arrange (not my favorite because I like
Do your desktop icons look large and consume a lot of your to control which icon goes where) or you can turn
computer’s desktop real estate? The chances are that if off desktop icons altogether. As you can see you
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 12
can also control how icons are sorted and screen resolution
as well as gadgets from this menu.
of the icon (such as .DOC for documents and .JPG for
images) the files will be moved to your Windows 7 library
folders. Thus documents will go to your Documents folder,
images to your Pictures folder, audio files to you Music
folder and video files to your Video folder. Right-clicking
on the Magic Folder icon will show you a number of options
including adding folders to it, adding controls to move files
with non-standard file extensions to the proper folders and
changing the appearance of the Magic Folder icon.
Download the Magic Folder gadget from http://
Windows 7 Gadgets are customizable programs that
display information such as weather, time, currency
conversions and news. Gadgets were first introduced with
Windows Vista in the Windows Sidebar. In Windows 7, the
Sidebar is gone and you can place gadgets anywhere on
your desktop.
Personally, I didn’t like the Sidebar in Windows Vista, it
used up part of my desktop space, so I didn’t use gadgets.
On the other hand, I like to check the weather when I turn
on my computer in the morning. A weather gadget is a
convenient way to do that. Windows 7 lets me leave my
Weather gadget in an out of the way corner of my desktop,
where it doesn’t get in the way of other things.
You may have had some gadgets on your desktop when
you purchased your computer, maybe not. In any case, you
can reach the Desktop Gadget Gallery pretty easily. Just
click on “Start,” click on “All Programs” and then “Desktop
Gadget Gallery.” You’ll see something like this. As you can
see I’ve experimented with a number of different weather
gadgets. If you click on “Show details” (circled in green)
you’ll see a short description of the gadget. To add one if
these gadgets to your desktop, just click on it and drag it to
your desktop, or alternately you can double-click on it. Once
the gadget is on your desktop, click and drag it to the location
you want. If you right-click on a gadget you see a menu of
options. These options will vary with each gadget but usually
include resizing, opacity and closing the gadget.
Suppose you don’t see a gadget for what you want? Just
left-click on the lower right corner of the Gadget Gallery
window where it says “Get more gadgets online” (circled
in red). This will take you to a Microsoft site that literally
has thousands of free gadgets available for download. The
web site has a search feature that will let you search for
gadgets by topic.
Many of us save various files to our Desktop. This often
produces a messy desktop loaded with document, image
and video icons. One gadget that you may find useful is
called “Magic Folder.” All you have to do is drag the file
icons to the Magic Folder icon. Based on the file extension
Overheating: What To Watch For
Any component inside your computer can overheat
under the right circumstances, but due to their
nature, there are several pieces of hardware that
are at high risk for heat damage. At the top of the
list is the computer’s CPU. Whenever you launch a
program on your computer or use an application
that’s already running, the CPU must work a little
harder to keep up. Eventually, the CPU is forced to
operate at the peak of its abilities, and that’s when
it consumes the most electricity and generates the
most heat. When the CPU overheats, programs that
typically run fine may generate error messages, or
the entire computer may crash. Some CPUs are
designed to reduce their speed when they overheat,
so if you experience severe slowdowns in programs
after a certain amount of time has passed, heat is
the likely culprit. Video cards are the second most
likely type of hardware to overheat, especially if
you use the computer to play graphics-intensive 3D
games. Most video cards contain their own memory
and CPU, and when the memory overheats, it tends
to cause white “sparkles” to appear randomly
on-screen, where-as heat problems resulting from
the card’s CPU generally cause the game to slow
down or crash.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit to learn what Smart
Computing can do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 13
Dick’s Clicks
By Dick Ramette, President, Computer Club of Green Valley, AZ, February 2011 issue, Green
Bytes,, [email protected]
“Sam” likes being technophobic. He grew up happily antiquated QBasic. I measure my walks by GPS. But
without PCs, cell phones, and credit cards, and is amused I ignore Skype, Picas , Windows 7 and online
by those who flaunt their myriad electronic devices. He banking, though I do order stuff from http://
quotes Clifford Stoll: “Why is it drug addicts and computer
aficionados are both called users?” But, in reality, there is
With my new BFF, the iPod touch, I play the Scramble
no such thing as a “nonuser,” because of how computers
word game, listen to music, take photos and go online. I
permeate most aspects of modern society.
marvel that such technology can be bundled in such a small
Sam’s not impressed with how stores use computers to package: it holds my lifetime music collection and my
scan price codes, manage inventories, and arrange for lifetime photo collection. And, as we heard at the CCGV
shipping. He’s uninformed about how modern medicine is meeting in January, the Apple iPad is even more amazing,
highly digitized, from storing personal records to advanced now with 300,000 apps.
diagnostic tools, as are all bank accounts. newspapers,
This month I bought a Blu-Ray DVD player and a 50"
magazine subscriptions, telephones and public library plasma TV, and I’m astonished by all the functions that
accounts. Travel relies on the computers of hotels,
were not available on my 22-year-old Sony, including
restaurants, cruise ships and airlines, and all newer cars
wireless access to all the photos on my computer, and free
are governed by built-in computers. The USPS and the
streaming of Netflix movies. The old Sony still works, so
phone system could not function well without computers,
make an offer.
nor could law enforcement and fire fighters. Even the
And yet—and yet—I know that many among us, like
aerobics machines in GVR fitness rooms are computerized.
Sam, are living happy and rich, productive lives at a more
At the other extreme from Sam are the true technophiles, leisurely pace, without the comfort of a personal computer.
like the few elites in CCGV, whose computer expertise
Recently an AP story told of a NY mother who “unplugged”
dwarfs that of the typical user. Nothing will do except the
her kids for six months, with clearly beneficial effects on
latest version of hardware and software. Some golfers are
grades and use of spare time. Kinda like the way we all
even using GPS devices to plot strategy during a round.
were three or four decades ago. I imagine them having
I’m more in the common mainstream, I guess. My two coffee with friends, hanging out at the library, reading
computers do enrich my life on a daily basis. My son in books, writing hand-written letters, enjoying family phone
Wisconsin sent me an email with a video of wild turkeys near calls, pursuing all sorts of personal hobbies, blissfully
his property, and I was able to inform him, thanks to Google, unaware of all the richness of living in a computerthat a group of turkeys is called a gang, a posse, or a rafter. dominated world. And they don’t send $600/year to an ISP.
See: Should I pity them in their technical austerity? Or should
they pity me, for embracing the Church of Google?
I enjoy the Astronomy Picture of the Day, my favorite
comics (those not included in the AZ Star, like Judge
Parker), opinions on NYTimes and Huffington Post, and I
Quotes of the month:
sample the thousands of reader comments. I play
“Computers make it easier to do a lot of things, but
Wordscraper with a daughter and a grandson, but do
most of the things they make it easier to do don’t need
nothing else with Facebook. I download the NYT
to be done.”
crossword, check movie reviews on
Andy Rooney, look at political cartoons
who works
on, and note
with computers knows about. It’s a very serious
obituaries on All my Pima
disease and it interferes completely with the work.
Library reserves are by computer. I have links to the
The trouble with computers is that you ‘play’ with
menus of my favorite restaurants.
I use Open Office spreadsheet to keep statistics for the
GVR Shuffleboard Club, and I manage my photo collection
Richard P. Feynman
with Windows Explorer and Photoshop Elements. I’d hate
“No one ever said on their deathbed, ‘Gee, I wish I had
to do without email.
spent more time alone with my computer’.”
I’m content with Wordpad for writing things, including
Danielle Berry
this column. I still write useful little programs using the
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 14
Santa Brought Your Parents a Laptop! Oh No!
By Gregory West, Mac Instructor for Lambton College; Webmaster at Central United Church,
the home of Sarnia’s new Community Computer Training Centre at:,
[email protected]
For more tips visit his Blog:
Don’t read any further, unless you need to “Teach your
parents well...”
I have always enjoyed seeing people get computers for
the first time. Although it is hard to detect the look in their
eyes: horror or excitement.
My first computer was in 1972, it was the size of a house,
well not really, but close. It was a beast of a machine, an IBM
360 located in the data centre where I worked as a keypunch
programmer. My first home computer was in 1984, a
Mackintosh desktop, much smaller but not easier to use. It had
no help buttons as it came with an extra box of instructional
manuals. I couldn’t call others for help because hardly anyone
had a home computer back then. Some people still experience
a huge learning curve with their first computer.
Your parents and/or grandparents may get their first
computer from Santa this year...look out! Your life will
never be the same. Guess what they probably know where
you live. They know your home and cell phone number.
They even have your work phone number. They may have
mastered the art of texting. You cannot escape from the
proverbial: “How do I do this?”
I know people who literally hide. They screen calls. They
turn out lights and read from the reflection of their computer
screens or light candles fearing a drive-by from parents. All
in an effort to evade the constant cry for tech help from
relatives who want to learn but cannot figure it out alone.
Sure, we must admit it is fun at first. Seeing them slowly
getting the gist of how to send and receive an email. The
look in their eyes when they perform their very first Google
search. This is all well and good, and even sort of healthy.
But when you leave them home alone, that is when it starts.
The constant queries begin like this:
Parent: “HELP me.”
“What did you do?”
Parent: “Nothing, I didn’t touch a thing. The
computer won’t do anything.”
“Did you reboot the computer?”
Parent: “Do what?”
“Restart your system.”
Parent: “Do I unplug everything?”
“Never mind, I’ll be right over, AGAIN.”
It won’t stop here with one visit. Now they really start
seeking you out...STOP! Wait a minute. This is our parents
we are talking about. The ones who asked Santa for that
computer, the same one we talked them into asking Santa.
Now it is our moral duty to stand up and be counted, to
come to their rescue. We
are like super sons and
daughters. But how can
we accomplish this
almost impossible task
and keep our sanity?
Never fear, Google is
here. Google realized
this is a massive
problem for
m a n y
a n d
m o s t
j u s t
don’t have
the time to help and
designed free training
Introducing: “Send your parents A TECH SUPPORT
care package,” from Google. No, this is not a scam, it for
real. As of this writing 13,999 parents have received this
care package. Ok, I can hear the questions: “What is it?”
Google’s TECH SUPPORT is your “saving grace.”
And to be honest, you might just learn some tips and tricks
yourself from these videos. Here’s how it works:
There are five categories: BASICS - WWW COMMUNICATION - MEDIA - FINDING
INFORMATION. Within each category you find real
help video topics in the BASIC as Copy & Paste,
Screensavers, Backgrounds, Make Text Larger or
Smaller. Others such as in the WWW, as Upgrade
Your Browser, Make Strong Passwords, Make a
Bookmark etc. All-in-all there are 37 training videos
produced by Google to assist in learning basic computer
to digital photos, sound, and much more. Each video is
very easy to follow and learn at one’s own speed. One
I really like is the “How to Unsubscribe to a Newsletter”
sent by email subscription. It is easy. You send your
parents the training video that matches their problem
or program they want to learn.
I call this new GOOGLE TECH SUPPORT a “Post
Christmas” must have for everyone. I think that within
these 37 videos even you will find something you didn’t
know or have forgotten how to do. Best of all, they are free
with no scams attached.
For peace of mind go here to check out Google’s new
TECH SUPPORT video training: w w w .
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 15
Free “Cheat Sheets” for Software and Hardware
By Ira Wilsker, Member, Golden Triangle PC Club, TX; Columnist, The Examiner, Beaumont,
TX; Radio Show Host, Mondays, 6-7pm CT,, [email protected]
This article has been obtained from APCUG with the author’s services. Some of the nearly
permission for publication by APCUG member groups; all other three dozen available include:
uses require the permission of the author (see e-mail address above).
How To Easily Build Your Own
N O T E : This article contains information used in the Feb. Cheap Computer, The
2011 Computer Tutor Session of the Napa Valley Personal Users Group..
Awesome Automation Guide for
Mac Users, The (Very)
Unofficial Facebook Privacy
• Guide, The Office Worker’s 101
great-cheat-sheets-posters-to- Guide to a USB Thumb Drive,
The Windows 7 Guide: From Newbies To Pros, The
• h t t p : / / w w w . c u s t o m g u i d e . c o m / Ultimate Guide To Gmail, Your Guide To Create Professional
c o m p u t e r - t r a i n i n g / q u i c k - Documents on Word, The Internet Music Guide For The
Audiophile, The Essential Guide To Digital Photography, A
• Newbie’s Getting Started Guide to Linux, The Mac Manual,
The Underground iPhone Guide, The Big Book Of iTunes,
and about 25 other such titles.
(free registration required)
One of the best sources of
software cheat sheets is
Guide’s “Quick
References”, available online at
Recently, I was asked to teach
quick-references On this
an eight hour non-credit class
Quick Reference page are free
on Excel to the employees of a
PDF format cheat sheets for Office 2010, Excel 2010,
local company. I know by
Outlook 2010, PowerPoint 2010, and Word 2010. With
experience that handouts are a
free registration, the user can
popular adjunct for any class, so
also access the full collection of
I had to find some useful handouts
Custom Guide’s Quick
for this Excel class; so called
References, including the 2007
“cheat sheets” are as good as
and 2003 versions of the Office
any other handout, so I proceeded to print a set of Excel products, as well as Microsoft’s
cheat sheets for Excel versions 2003, 2007, and 2010. The OneNote, Project (2007 and
information on those cheat sheets alone was more than 2003), Publisher, SharePoint,
adequate for a one-day class, and could have also been and Visio. There are also Quick References for Windows
used for a longer class.
7, Vista, and XP. Apple users may also find these Quick
In this context, a “cheat sheet”
Reference Guides useful, as there are guides for
is not a device used by a college
Appleworks, MAC OS, Microsoft Entourage, and the
student in an act of academic
Apple versions of Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.
dishonesty, but a digital or printed
Some of the guides for Adobe products are available for
copy of instructions for a
both the PC and MAC versions, and include Acrobat,
software product that clearly
Dreamweaver, Fireworks, Flash, and Photoshop.
explains and shows how to use
Almost all of the Custom
the features and functions of
Guide’s Quick References are
that product. In addition to the various versions of Microsoft
of a similar design and format as
Office, free cheat sheets are available for many other PC,
downloadable PDF files. The
MAC, LINUX, and other computer related software and
guides are in full color, and
hardware products. While most of the free cheat sheets
typically two pages in length.
are for software products, some cheat sheets, called by
They all display the opening
their publisher “Make Use of Guides”
screen of the product with all of
( are for hardware and
the features labeled with a clear
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 16
and concise explanation of each
item. If there is a ribbon or menu
bar in the software, the guide
labels each function on the image
of the item, and presents a
summary of the functions in a
table adjacent to the image. Most
of the products covered by the
guides also have a selection of “keyboard shortcuts”
displayed that can be used to increase the speed and
efficiency of the user by using
these shortcuts rather than
clicking on menu items.
Commonly done tasks like
copying something can be
accomplished by utilizing the
common Windows shortcut
CTRL-C, and then pasting the item with CTRL-V; this is
much quicker then clicking on the menu and then scrolling
to COPY, and repeating the
menu process and clicking on
PASTE. In many Office
products (including competitors
to Microsoft Office), formatting
can also be done with intuitive
shortcuts, such as CTRL-B for
bold, CTRL-U for underline, CTRL-I for italics, and
several other similar shortcuts; these shortcuts are among
the dozens displayed in the Quick
Reference guides. The guides
also include information (as
appropriate) for formatting,
graphics, editing, styles,
animations, special effects,
tables, and other functions of
the software. There is a lot of very useful information
crammed into these two-page guides, and they would be
ideal for all users of these products, regardless of experience
level. These are precisely the handouts that I use in my
non-credit software classes.
The “MakeUseOf Guides”
pages are also downloadable
in PDF format. While these
guides are free, a one-time
registration is necessary to download them. In addition to
the “MakeUseOf Guides”, there
are also dozens of other free
guides available for download
(free registration required) at
Some guides that I have used
to learn shortcuts include guides
for Firefox, Gmail, Linux, and
Internet Explorer. MAC users
may find useful the shortcut
guides for OS X, and the MAC
versions of Firefox. Since its
release, I have been using
Windows 7 as my primary home computer, and have found
“The Ultimate Windows 7 Guide: From Newbies To Pros”
a very helpful document. This free 50 page guide (PDF)
to Windows 7 is written in an easy to read and understand
format, and contains useful information and tips for
Windows 7 users of all levels. I
have used “The Essential Guide
To Digital Photography” to help
me with my digital camera, and
since it seems that almost
everyone today has a digital
camera, this guide may be invaluable. I know a lot of
people who use Google’s Gmail service as their email
provider, and the “The Ultimate Guide To Gmail” is 35
pages full of Gmail hints, tips, and ideas. “The Incredible
Free Manual For Every Mac User” is a 69 page ebook
(PDF) with a treasure trove of information for MAC
users. In all, there are 32 such ebooks available.
With all of this free information available for computer
users, there should be several titles that would be of
interest to just about everyone. I use some of these “cheat
sheets” in the classes that I
teach, and recommend them as
needed to my students and
coworkers. You too may find
them very useful.
Also shown at the meeting was
Protect Your CE Devices
We know the sun’s UV rays can be dangerous to our
skin and eyes, and we know that it can also dehydrate
us and wear us out. If we’re smart, we can guard
against these problems with simple solutions: sun hats,
sunscreen, water, beach umbrellas. Our batterypowered gizmos are just as vulnerable as we are to
overexposure, so it’s important to give some thought to
their safety when deciding what to take to the water’s
edge, and what to do with them once we get there.
It’s wise not to expose the display of any device to
direct sunlight for any length of time. Keep your
phone, your MP3 player, your digicam, and anything
else with an LCD (liquid-crystal display), in the
shade as much as possible, inside a protective case,
or at the very least, turned away from the sun.
Keeping devices turned off when you’re not using
them is also a good idea.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit to learn what Smart
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NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 17
Windows 7 Bible
Wayne O. Evans, Member, Tucson Computer Society, Arizona, February
2010 issue, TCS eJournal,, [email protected]
Quick Review
and more are answered
in this section. The
This is a well-written in-depth discussion of Windows 7
discussion of basics
features. The information is well presented for both novice
of drives, folders and files
and experienced Windows 7 readers. The book is loaded
is a MUST READ for
with illustrations and tips that help explain the details of
computer novices. The management and search
Windows 7. The size of the book (over 1200 pages) makes
options explain needed skills to manage data on your
it awkward to carry around.
There are 11 parts, 10 major topics and the appendix.
7 – Printing, Faxing, and Scanning
Every part (section) concludes with a discussion of troubleshooting. Each of the 54 chapters has a trouble-shooting
Details on printer installation are followed with
and wrap-up summary, I recommend reading the wrap-up
information on how to print documents and manage
first for a quick preview of the material in the chapter, and
printer jobs. The scanning and faxing of documents
then as intended, for review of the chapter.
is covered.
Part 1 – Getting Started, Getting Secure
Part 8 – Installing and Removing Programs
The first chapter covers the new features in Windows
One chapter is devoted to installing and upgrading
7. Essential start-up information is provided under
new programs. The use of the compatibility features
the setting up of user accounts and use of parental
to run programs written to run on earlier versions
(DOS, Windows 95/98/XP) is explained.
Part 2 – Batten Down the Security Hatches
One chapter focuses on repair and removal of programs.
Security features of virus checkers, firewalls, and The chapter on default programs is valuable for even the
the need to install security updates are explained. experienced user. The section concludes with a chapter on
The anti-virus discussion could have included some the Part 9 Hardware and Performance Tuning. I did not
details explaining how virus checkers function and expect hardware installation and removal in a Windows 7
the importance of automatic update of virus discussion. The greatest value of this section is that it
serves as a primer to hardware features (USB ports,
signatures. (See suggestion at end of review.)
master and slave drives, disk partitioning and Bluetooth
Part 3 – Personalizing Windows 7
devices). Installing and removing hardware is well written.
The personalization of the desktop and start-up
However, I recommend you consider more detailed
procedures describe how to customize the
documentation before attempting major hardware changes
appearance and function of Windows 7. The tip in
(CPU Upgrade and hard drive).
Chapter 13 on customizing the system to bypass the
The configuration of file systems for hard drives and disk
logon page is useful. Chapter 14 focuses on
is also not for novices. The section concludes
accessories and how to transfer files from one
devices and trouble-shooting.
system to another.
Chapter 49 on performance tuning is a MUST READ
Part 4 – Using the Internet
for those wishing to get the most out of their system. The
The discussion on Internet Explorer covers its basic
author does an excellent job describing the basic features
functions but explains other features. I found this to
of the Windows 7 Performance Monitor in a limited
be an excellent chapter. There is extensive discussion
number of pages, but he admits it is a complex topic and
on Windows Live Mail and blogs. The section
could easily cover several chapters.
concludes with a discussion of trouble-shooting
Part 10 – Networking and Sharing
internet problems.
Wired and wireless LAN (Local Area Network)
Part 5 – Pictures. Music, and Movies
connections and routers are explained with
There is a lengthy discussion of media (pictures,
recommendations for planning and installing a home
music, movies) file types. Importing media into your
network. File and hardware sharing configuration is
computer is described for DVD and VCD. This
well documented.
section should be read multiple times, as there is a
Part 11 – Appendices
wealth of information.
Since new computers will likely have Windows 7
Part 6 – Managing Files and Folders
installed, C will have little use for the majority of
“Where is my data?” is one of the most frequent
users. Appendix A is a discussion on how to
questions asked by the novice user. That question
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 18
upgrade Windows Vista to Windows 7. Appendix
B describes the installation of Windows 7 on a
new system.
Appendix C on shortcut keys is very useful. I have
copied these seven pages for quick reference.
Other Comments
As an experienced user of Windows 7 I enjoyed reading
The Windows 7 Bible. While reviewing it I discovered new
and very useful information. The right amount of detail is
provided, so it is possible to discover new ways to use
specific Windows features. I liked the TIPS and
SUMMARY at the end of each chapter. The information
was well organized and illustrations helped me understand
the concepts.
The Windows 7 Bible is an excellent book but I would
not recommend it as the first book a novice picks up. The
author has done an excellent job making the information
easy to read and understand, but the sheer size of the
book could discourage a novice reader. I see three ways
to read the book:
1. Read the book from start to finish (not advised).
Better to follow the author’s recommendations in
Chapter 1 and skip around to chapters of interest.
2. Read the Chapter wrap-up summaries first; then
read the Chapters that interest you (I recommend
this method).
3. Use it as the excellent reference it is. There are so
many options it is difficult to remember all of the
details. When I wanted to refresh my memory on
how to accomplish some task, I found the Windows
7 Bible was well organized so I could find the answer
to my question quickly.
Suggested Improvements
While it is often difficult to challenge the author, in
some cases I felt some improvements to the
material would be useful. These are specific
Chapter 8:
The discussion on virus protection could be improved
with the following How do Virus Scanners Work:
You may have seen the posters in a public building
of individuals wanted by law enforcement. The
picture shows the image of the suspected criminals.
Virus checkers use a similar technique: the picture
is similar to the virus signature. The virus signature
is a sequence of bits (data) that can be found in the
virus and the virus scanner simply looks for that
sequence to detect a virus.
Keep your virus signatures up to date: Reverting
back to the picture analogy, it is essential to have
pictures of current criminals posted. In a similar
manner the virus scanner must have virus
signatures for the latest virus. The third party
vendors provide an update facility to download
the current virus signatures. You should allow
your virus signatures to be updated on a regular
basis. I recommend at least daily.
Free Virus Checkers: While third party vendors offer
virus scanners for a fee, some vendors (Avast, AVG
FREE) offer a scaled down version of their product,
often for no charge.
For those cost-conscious individuals, if you elect
not to install a virus checker because of cost, then
look for and install the free versions. Most free
virus checkers provide a high degree of protection
and are recommended if you elect not to buy a
more complete version.
Windows 7 Bible
Author: Jim Boyce
Publisher: Wiley
IS B N 1 0:
IS B N 1 3:
Pri c e :
$39,99, $26.39 @ Amazon
Memory Capacity
The theoretical capacities listed for most MP3
players were based on audio recorded at low
quality, which makes small file sizes. Songs recorded
at higher quality, which is probably what you will be
listening to most often, will take up more space, so
you’ll fit fewer songs on the player. For example, a
player can store three times as many songs recorded
at 64Kbps as those at 192Kbps, but the sound
quality for the 192Kbps tracks is more than three
times better than that of the 64Kbps tracks.
Where storage is concerned, there are eight bits in a
byte, 1,024 bytes in a KB (kilobyte), 1,024KB in a
MB (megabyte), and 1,024MB in a GB (gigabyte).
If you record tracks at 192Kbps, divide that number
by eight to get 24KBps. There are 60 seconds in a
minute, so that means your audio requires about
1,440KB (1.41MB) of storage per minute or about
84.5MB per hour. Therefore, each gigabyte of
memory will hold about 12 hours of 192Kbps audio.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit to learn what Smart
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NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 19
New Cameras Worth Checking Out - Part II
By Jerry Schneir, a member of the Los Angeles Computer Society, CA, January 2011 issue,
User Friendly,, [email protected]
I could devote one whole article just on Panasonic’s new
cameras, but I will not. There are several that are of great
interest because of how much their earlier versions impacted
photography. I will mainly deal with the FZ100, FZ40,
FX700, and LX5. and the GH2, The GH2 is a 4/3 size
sensor camera that resembles an SLR except that it does
not have mirror box, has an EVF (Electronic View Finder)
and uses interchangeable lenses.
The FZ100 is
Panasonic’s ultra zoom
camera with an optical
zoom range of 25600mm (24x) which
follows closely on the
FZ28 and FZ35 models,
both of which were very
well received by
pros and dedicated
armatures alike. However, a price of about $450 may be
inhibiting to some people. In many ways this camera is
Panasonic’s response to Canon’s SX-1 IS which was
announced in September 2008 since they share so many
features. The FZ100 uses a CMOS sensor which may
have some advantages over similar cameras with a CCD
sensor. This may be apparent in the movie and fast
shooting modes. The LCD is 3" with 461,000 dots and is
tiltable. It also uses an EVF and will create image files in
both the RAW and JPEG formats. In the burst mode it can
capture 11 frames per second at full resolution. The
camera will also shoot full 1080p HD video. Again, here is
the link to the press release which contains more info
1 0 0 7 2 1 0 8 p a n a s o n i c d m c
The FZ40 is a lower
cost version of the
FZ28, FZ35 as well as
FZ100. The differences
here are: it only has a 3"
230,000 pixel fixed
mounted LCD and uses
a CCD 14MP sensor. It
has the same zoom range (25-600mm 24x optical) ) with
a f2.8-f5.2 lens. It also can capture images in both the
RAW and JPEG formats. Expect to pay a bit more than
$350. It cannot match the FZ100 in shooting speeds, but
then again, not much can.
The FX700 will set you back about $370 but it is money
well spent. It too uses a CMOS sensor combined with a 24-
120mm zoom range
f2.2-f5.9 lens. The
FX700 also shoots full
HD 1080p movies. This
is a pocket size camera
with full manual control
but does not produce
RAW images, just
JPEG. For those of you who like
touch screens this is the camera for you. It incorporates
a 3" touch screen but with only 230,000 pixels. If interested,
you can read the press release (July 2010) to get more info
at h t t p : / / w w w . d p r e v i e w . c o m / n e w s /
The LX5 is the pros’
camera although many
appreciate the apparent
quality of this camera.
This is Panasonic’s
equal to (or better) than
Canon’s S95 at a price
of about $450. For that money you get a camera that will
fit in most shirt pockets, has full manual controls, produces
RAW and JPEG files and has a 24-90mm (3.8x optical)
f2.0-f3.3 lens of superb quality. The LCD is 460,000 dot
but does not articulate. Most significantly it gains a connector
to add the DMW-LVF1 electronic viewfinder so that the
camera becomes much more usable in bright sun light.
This is something missing from the S95 of Canon. This
camera, like the S95 is only 10MP, but because of that,
image quality even at higher ISOs is great. The LX5 is also
one of the few cameras with threaded lens so that
accessories can be mounted directly on the lens barrel.
In movie recording,
the LX5 has some
added value more than
simply recording HD
movies. The LX5 also
lets the user set
the shutter speed and
aperture manually to make even more impressive movies.
Changing the shutter speed brings special effects to
movies, which is especially suitable for shooting fastmoving subjects. The ability to control the aperture is
convenient when there are several subjects at different
distances so as to isolate just the one you want and blur the
others out. Other very desirable movie features have been
included such as blocking wind noise and optical zooming
while taking a picture. Don’t buy this camera without
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 20
checking out the S95, and likewise don’t buy the S95
without checking out this camera. Read more on the LX5
Panasonic’s GH2 takes
the mirrorless style
cameras to a whole new
level. In my opinion, it is one
of the best, if not the best, of
the hybrid cameras, those that combine still photography
with video. The GH2 sports a 3" touch screen along with
a very good EVF. This is not a cheap camera, be prepared
to pay a $1,000 for the camera with the 14-42mm (2884mm f3.5-f5.6 in 35mm film equiv.) lens. If video
photography is a very important part of your camera
selection process then this is one camera you do want to
look closely at. For the preview, check out DPReview at
The GH2 has a 18MP
sensor but only uses
16MP for pictures. The
camera and sensor are
designed so that the
camera delivers 16MP
at 16:9, 4:3 and 3:2
aspect ratios, unlike
most other cameras that
loose a megapixel or
two as aspect ratios are
changed. But beware,
the higher pixel count
may also result in some
added noise at higher ISO settings. The camera is too new
for any meaningful review that may reveal camera problems,
especially those addressing any possible noise issues. One
added nice feature is the number of lens from Olympus as
well as Panasonic that are usable on this camera as well
as the other micro 4/3 cameras.
The major difference as far as I can see is the P7000
does not have an articulated LCD. It does have a very high
quality 921,000 dot LCD along with an optical viewfinder,
but no articulation. The lens is 28-200mm (35mm equiv)
with a 7x optical zoom• F2.8-5.6. Not as bright as the G12
but with a longer zoom range. Expect to pay something in
the range of $550, give or take a little. You can explore
more about the P7000 at h t t p : / / w w w .
I lied, there really is another Nikon camera, the Nikon
S1100pj. You might ask, and rightly so, why this camera?
It has only a 28-140mm f3.8-f5.9 optical zoom lens, pretty
weak in light catching ability and will shoot 720p movies.
And it can cost up to $350 although you can get the earlier
version (S1000pj) for about $160. So, why even think about
this camera? Because, unlike almost any other camera, it
has a built in digital projector. Don’t think you can project
from 10 feet away and cover a whole wall, you can’t. But
from a short distance you can project 48-52 inch images
that are fairly bright if the room is fairly dark. Is it worth
getting just for that feature? I don’t know, but it might be
handy to have. Can it display pictures taken on another
camera? I don’t know.
Buying a New Model Camera
At the start of this article I noted that I would discuss
buying a new camera model. Here you are in great danger
of picking a lemon, a camera that sounds better than it
proves to be. So how to avoid that problem?
Fairly simple but it takes work and time.
Which camera is best, Point and Shot / a DSLR?
As far as I am concerned
there is only one Nikon
camera that belongs in
this group and that is
Nikon’s answer to
Canon’s G12, the Nikon
P7000. Nikon, with the
P7000, has dropped the
bland industrial design of
their previous P-series compacts. This new camera much
more closely resembles the Canon G11/G12 than anything
else. Obvious kudos to Canon’s design team.
1. go to a camera store armed with a memory card.
Make sure you talk to a clerk before inserting your
card. Set the resolution and compression so as to get
the fewest pictures on your memory card. This gives
you the most image detail.
2. take a bunch of pictures, movies included, and I
mean a bunch. Get close to something and fire away,
shoot into dark corners with and without the flash,
use the zoom at the widest angle and again at the
longest range. If there are bright areas in the store
shoot pictures there as well. It is critical to try using
Cameras cont. on page 22
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 21
the camera outdoors in bright sunlight if the camera
does not have a viewfinder of any type. You may
have to negotiate with clerk in order to take the
camera outside but do it. Some cameras without any
viewfinder are totally unusable in bright sunlight.
Reading the specs can’t tell you anything about how
easy the camera is to use in bright sunlight.
3. explore how easy it is to change camera settings, find
where you change aperture and/or shutter speed.
What about ISO and white balance? How good does
the camera adjust for white balance. Change the ISO
to 800 and shoot some pictures. Now change it to
1600 and shoot the same shots. Go for broke and
shoot at 3200 if it has it. Then shoot the same images
at the lowest setting, ISO 80 or 100, Do all of this
without using the flash. If the camera has an optical
viewfinder estimate how accurate it is when shooting
at 5 feet and again at 15 feet. If the camera has an
EVF. how good is it? Is the image clear, can you read
the camera settings in the EVF? Does it refresh the
image fast enough so that as you sweep the camera
around the store, the image in the EVF keeps up or is
the lag between what is displayed and where the
camera is aimed vastly different? Is there blurring of
the image as you sweep across a scene?
4. take out your memory card and go home. Check all
the images at 100% magnification. Look for vignette
effects at wide angle and at longest zoom Look for
exposure problems, grain or noise. Look for good
detail in the image at 100% magnification. How good
was the auto white balance? Now, take a couple of
minutes to think about how easy/hard it was to use
that new camera compared to the one you are
currently using. If you found it relatively easy, you are
on the right track. However, if you found it hard to use
or confusing, you may want to look at something
different. High end cameras do not get easier to use.
Why? Because they have more features to master;
more things to consider before taking the shot; more
places to go wrong. In truth, a number of people who
buy high end cameras would be just as well off, and
a whole lot happier, if they set their sights a bit lower
and got an easier to use camera.
One more point, if you are buying the camera as a gift,
don’t buy what you want, buy what they can use and
appreciate even if it means buying something less fancy.
To do all this well, and I mean well, can take anywhere
from 2 to 4 hours. But afterwards you should have a good
idea about what that camera can do and cannot do and how
comfortable you are using that camera. Most of today’s
cameras have very little shutter lag but start-up times do
vary. So remember to check that out as well.
You may have also noticed that I paid very little attention
to pixel count. For the most part, pixel count in these
cameras means little. Just because one camera is 10MP
and another is 12 or 14MP (or more) has little impact on
photos in this class of cameras. I only addressed that point
when I thought it was important, such as on the Panasonic
GH-2 and there only because of how clever the camera
designers at Panasonic were.
The above should help you discover a camera that fits
your needs and avoid those that just sounded good, perhaps
a little too good.
An Easy Way to Transfer from iPod to iTunes
By Abby Stokes, Author, Is This Thing On?
One of my friends computer died. She and her daughter
had about 1,000 songs between their two iPods, which
were purchased online, as well as copied from their own
CDs, into iTunes. Their songs were now trapped on the
dead computer and on their two iPods. What to do? Good
news for any of you in this dilemma - with little time and
effort and at the low cost of $14.99 you can transfer your
music from your iPod to iTunes.
If their broken computer was functional, I would have
attached an external hard drive (like an extra brain) to the
computer. Then I could have moved their music libraries to
the external hard drive and onto the new computer. But,
that wasn’t an option.
If I plugged their iPods into their new computer and did
a sync (making the computer and iPod combine content),
iTunes would have wiped out everything on the iPods.
Obviously not an option., [email protected]
Instead, I visited the website http://www.
(moved from the website to
their computer) the program
TuneJack. Have your credit card
at the ready. Be sure to print the
receipt when your purchase is
complete. TuneJack will send you
an e-mail with a license number
that is required to begin the
installation of the program onto
your computer.
Before you start the download process, open iTunes and
make the following change:
1. Click Edit.
2. Click Preferences.
3. Click on Devices tab.
NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 22
4. Click in the box to the left of “Prevent iPods and
iPhones from syncing automatically.”
5. Click OK.
that, but you can double check. Be sure to close iTunes
after checking.)
At the step where TuneJack wants to find your iPod, plug
in your iPod and wait patiently. When I did the initial
transfer from the iPod to iTunes an error message appeared.
I didn’t panic. I just repeated all the steps again and it
worked perfectly the second time around.
Be patient, read what’s in front of you, and take deep
For those of you that don’t know an iPod from your
elbow (and you’re not alone), take a peek at Chapter 24 Extra, Extra, Read All About It: The Scoop on Cell
Phones, PDAs, Blackberries, iPods and iPhones in “Is
This Thing On?” A Computer Handbook for Late
Bloomers, Technophobes and the Kicking &
Screaming (p. 349).
This stops iTunes from automatically syncing when your
iPod is plugged in. There can be times when you don’t
want to sync automatically. This is one of those times.
Next, plug in your iPod. There’s one more change we
want to make before we install TuneJack.
1. Wait until iTunes identifies your iPod, click on your
device in the left hand sidebar.
2. Click in box to left of “Automatically sync when
iPod or iPhone is connected” to remove the
check - deactivating the choice.
3. Click Apply.
4. Click on “eject” symbol (
) to the right of your
device name then unplug your iPod.
iTunes will now NOT open automatically when you plug in
the iPod. (We don’t want iTunes to be open when we use
TuneJack. They don’t play well together.)
Next close any open programs on your computer especially iTunes.
Great! Now you can install TuneJack by following
their very clear instructions. I always like to turn my
computer off and back on after I install a new program.
That’s your call.
A shortcut for TuneJack will appear on your desktop.
Double-click on the icon and follow their step-by-step
instructions. (A warning window will appear asking you to
deactivate the auto sync at plug-in. We’ve already done
Requirements For Web Radio
You will need a player, a software application capable
of playing back Internet radio streams. Popular players
include Microsoft Windows Media Player 9, RealNetworks RealPlayer10, Apple iTunes, and many
MP3 music players. We will focus on using Windows
Media Player 9. You’ll also need an Internet
connection. A dial-up connection is sufficient for
reproducing audio with AM radio quality. Many
Internet radio stations offer streams designed for
dial-up users. If you have a broadband connection,
you have a wider choice of playback quality. Some
radio stations offer near CD-quality streams, although
often only as part of an added cost subscription
package. Depending on the format, even lower bit
rate broadcasts can sound remarkably good. With a
broadband connection, you have your choice of any
of the available stream bit rates. Finally, your computer
system needs a way to play the streams. This can be
as simple as a sound card and desktop speakers or
headphones or as complicated as using a high-quality
sound card to connect to your stereo system. (editors
note: new versions may be available.)
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit to learn what Smart
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NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 23
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Napa, St. Helena
and Yountville
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NVPCUG Computer News, Mar 2011, Page 24
Revised 2-14-2010
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