Alto | MS Series | PAN-OS® Getting Started Guide

PAN-OS® Getting Started Guide
Palo Alto Networks
®
PAN-OS® Getting Started Guide
PAN-OS 6.0
Contact Information
Corporate Headquarters:
Palo Alto Networks
4401 Great America Parkway
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1211
http://www.paloaltonetworks.com/contact/contact/
About this Guide
This Getting Started Guide takes you through the initial configuration and basic
setup on your Palo Alto Networks firewalls. This guide takes over after you have
completed rack mounting your hardware-based firewall or have created your
virtual firewall; it is intended for administrators who want the basic framework
to quickly set up the firewall as a security gateway.
For additional information, refer to the following sources:

For information on the additional capabilities and for instructions on
configuring the features on the firewall, go to https://
www.paloaltonetworks.com/documentation.

For access to the knowledge base, complete documentation set, discussion
forums, and videos, go to https://live.paloaltonetworks.com.

For contacting support, for information on support programs, or to manage
your account or devices, go to https://support.paloaltonetworks.com.

For the latest release notes, go to the Software Updates page at https://
support.paloaltonetworks.com/Updates/SoftwareUpdates.
This guide provides procedures for configuring the firewall using the web
interface on the device. It does not provide procedures for deploying firewalls
using Panorama. For more information on using Panorama, refer to the
Panorama Administrator’s Guide.
To provide feedback on the documentation, please write to us at:
documentation@paloaltonetworks.com.
Palo Alto Networks, Inc.
www.paloaltonetworks.com
© 2014 Palo Alto Networks. All rights reserved.
Palo Alto Networks, PAN-OS, and Panorama are trademarks of Palo Alto
Networks, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
P/N 810-000137-00B
Revision Date: October 15, 2014
ii
Table of Contents
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Determine Your Management Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Perform Initial Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Set Up Network Access for External Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Activate Firewall Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Register With Palo Alto Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Activate Licenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Manage Content Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Install Software Updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Add Firewall Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Administrative Roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Administrative Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Create an Administrative Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Monitor the Firewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Monitor Applications and Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
View Local Log Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Forward Logs to External Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Monitor the Firewall Using SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Create the Security Perimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Security Perimeter Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Firewall Deployments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
About Network Address Translation (NAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
About Security Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Set Up Interfaces and Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Plan Your Deployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Configure Interfaces and Zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Configure NAT Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Translate Internal Client IP Addresses to your Public IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Enable Clients on the Internal Network to Access your Public Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Enable Bi-Directional Address Translation for your Public-Facing Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Set Up Basic Security Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Create Security Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Test Your Security Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Monitor the Traffic on Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Getting Started Guide
iii
Table of Contents
Protect Your Network Against Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Enable WildFire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Scan Traffic for Threats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Set Up Antivirus, Anti-Spyware, and Vulnerability Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Set Up File Blocking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Control Access to Web Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Configure User Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
User Identification Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
About Group Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
About User Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Enable User Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Map Users to Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Map IP Addresses to Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Enable User- and Group-Based Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Verify the User-ID Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Set Up High Availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
HA Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HA Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HA Links and Backup Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device Priority and Preemption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failover Triggers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HA Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
88
88
89
90
90
Prerequisites for Active/Passive HA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Configure an Active/Passive Pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Define the Failover Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Verify Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
iv
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your
Management Network
The following topics describe how to perform the initial configuration steps that are necessary to integrate a
new firewall into the management network and prepare it for security configuration:

Set Up Management Access to the Firewall

Activate Firewall Services

Add Firewall Administrators

Monitor the Firewall
Getting Started Guide
1
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall
All Palo Alto Networks firewalls provide an out-of-band management port (MGT) that you can use to perform
the firewall administration functions. By using the MGT port, you separate the management functions of the
firewall from the data processing functions, safeguarding access to the firewall and enhancing performance.
When using the web interface, you must perform all initial configuration tasks from the MGT port even if you
plan to use an in-band port for managing your device going forward.
Some management tasks, such as retrieving licenses and updating the threat and application signatures on the
firewall require access to the Internet. If you do not want to enable external access to your MGT port, you will
need to either set up a data port to provide access to required external services or plan to manually upload
updates regularly.
The following sections provide instructions for setting up management access to the firewall:

Determine Your Management Strategy

Perform Initial Configuration

Set Up Network Access for External Services
Determine Your Management Strategy
The Palo Alto Networks firewall can be configured and managed locally or it can be managed centrally using
Panorama, the Palo Alto Networks centralized security management system. If you have six or more firewalls
deployed in your network, use Panorama to achieve the following benefits:

Reduce the complexity and administrative overhead in managing configuration, policies, software and
dynamic content updates. Using device groups and templates on Panorama, you can effectively manage
device specific configuration locally on a device and enforce shared policies across all devices or device
groups.

Aggregate data from all managed firewalls and gain visibility across all the traffic on your network. The
Application Command Center (ACC) on Panorama provides a single glass pane for unified reporting across
all the firewalls, allowing you to centrally analyze, investigate and report on network traffic, security incidents
and administrative modifications.
The procedures in this document describe how to manage the firewall using the local web interface. If you want
to use Panorama for centralized management, after you complete the instructions in the Perform Initial
Configuration section of this guide and verify that the firewall can establish a connection to Panorama, refer to
the Panorama Administrator’s Guide for further instructions on configuring your firewall centrally.
Perform Initial Configuration
By default, the firewall has an IP address of 192.168.1.1 and a username/password of admin/admin. For security
reasons, you must change these settings before continuing with other firewall configuration tasks. You must
perform these initial configuration tasks either from the MGT interface, even if you do not plan to use this
interface for your firewall management, or using a direct serial connection to the console port on the device.
2
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall
Set Up Network Access to the Firewall
Step 1
Gather the required information from
your network administrator.
• IP address for MGT port
• Netmask
• Default gateway
• DNS server address
Step 2
Connect your computer to the firewall.
You can connect to the firewall in one of the following ways:
• Connect a serial cable from your computer to the Console port
and connect to the firewall using terminal emulation software
(9600-8-N-1). Wait a few minutes for the boot-up sequence to
complete; when the device is ready, the prompt changes to the
name of the firewall, for example PA-500 login.
• Connect an RJ-45 Ethernet cable from your computer to the
MGT port on the firewall. From a browser, go to
https://192.168.1.1. Note that you may need to change
the IP address on your computer to an address in the 192.168.1.0
network, such as 192.168.1.2, in order to access this URL.
Step 3
When prompted, log in to the firewall.
You must log in using the default username and password
(admin/admin). The firewall will begin to initialize.
Step 4
Configure the MGT interface.
1.
Select Device > Setup > Management and then click the Edit
icon in the Management Interface Settings section of the screen.
Enter the IP Address, Netmask, and Default Gateway.
2.
Set the Speed to auto-negotiate.
3.
Select which management services to allow on the interface.
Best Practice:
Make sure Telnet and HTTP are not selected because these
services use plaintext and are not as secure as the other services.
Step 5
(Optional) Configure general firewall
settings.
Getting Started Guide
4.
Click OK.
1.
Select Device > Setup > Management and click the Edit
in the General Settings section of the screen.
2.
Enter a Hostname for the firewall and enter your network
Domain name. The domain name is just a label; it will not be
used to join the domain.
3.
Enter the Latitude and Longitude to enable accurate placement
of the firewall on the world map.
4.
Click OK.
icon
3
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Set Up Network Access to the Firewall (Continued)
1.
Step 6
Configure DNS, time and date settings.
Note
You must manually configure at least one
DNS server on the firewall or it will not 2.
be able to resolve hostnames; it will not
use DNS server settings from another
3.
source, such as an ISP.
Step 7
Set a secure password for the admin
account.
Step 8
Commit your changes.
Note
When the configuration changes are
saved, you will lose connectivity to the
web interface because the IP address will
have changed.
Step 9
Connect the firewall to your network.
Select Device > Setup > Services and click the Edit icon
the Services section of the screen.
in
Enter the IP address of your Primary DNS Server and
optionally your Secondary DNS Server.
To use the virtual cluster of time servers on the Internet, enter
the hostname pool.ntp.org as the Primary NTP Server or add
the IP address of your Primary NTP Server and optionally your
Secondary NTP Server.
4.
Click OK to save your settings.
1.
Select Device > Administrators.
2.
Select the admin role.
3.
Enter the current default password and the new password.
4.
Click OK to save your settings.
Click Commit. The device may take up to 90 seconds to save your
changes.
1.
Disconnect the firewall from your computer.
2.
Connect the MGT port to a switch port on your management
network using an RJ-45 Ethernet cable. Make sure that the
switch port you cable the firewall to is configured for
auto-negotiation.
Step 10 Open an SSH management session to the Using a terminal emulation software, such as PuTTY, launch an SSH
firewall.
session to the firewall using the new IP address you assigned to it.
Step 11 Verify network access to external services
required for firewall management, such as
the Palo Alto Networks Update Server, in
one of the following ways:
• If you do not want to allow external
network access to the MGT interface,
you will need to set up a data port to
retrieve required service updates.
Continue to Set Up Network Access
for External Services.
• If you do plan to allow external
network access to the MGT interface,
verify that you have connectivity and
then proceed to Activate Firewall
Services.
4
If you cabled your MGT port for external network access, verify that
you have access to and from the firewall by using the ping utility from
the CLI. Make sure you have connectivity to the default gateway,
DNS server, and the Palo Alto Networks Update Server as shown in
the following example:
admin@PA-200> ping host updates.paloaltonetworks.com
PING updates.paloaltonetworks.com (67.192.236.252) 56(84)
bytes of data.
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252 : icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=40.5 ms
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252 : icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=53.6 ms
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252 : icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=79.5 ms
Note
After you have verified connectivity, press Ctrl+C to stop
the pings.
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall
Set Up Network Access for External Services
By default, the firewall uses the MGT interface to access remote services, such as DNS servers, content updates,
and license retrieval. If you do not want to enable external network access to your management network, you
must set up a data port to provide access to these required external services.
This task requires familiarity with firewall interfaces, zones, and policies. For more information on
these topics, see Create the Security Perimeter.
Set Up a Data Port for Access to External Services
Step 1
Decide which port you want to use for
The interface you use will need to have a static IP address.
access to external services and connect it
to your switch or router port.
Step 2
Log in to the web interface.
Using a secure connection (https) from your web browser, log in
using the new IP address and password you assigned during initial
configuration (https://<IP address>). You will see a certificate
warning; that is okay. Continue to the web page.
Step 3
(Optional) The firewall comes
preconfigured with a default virtual wire
interface between ports Ethernet 1/1 and
Ethernet 1/2 (and a corresponding
default security policy and zones). If you
do not plan to use this virtual wire
configuration, you must manually delete
the configuration to prevent it from
interfering with other interface settings
you define.
You must delete the configuration in the following order:
1. To delete the default security policy, select Policies > Security,
select the rule, and click Delete.
Getting Started Guide
2.
Next, delete the default virtual wire by selecting Network >
Virtual Wires, selecting the virtual wire and clicking Delete.
3.
To delete the default trust and untrust zones, select Network >
Zones, select each zone and click Delete.
4.
Finally, delete the interface configurations by selecting Network
> Interfaces and then select each interface (ethernet1/1 and
ethernet1/2) and click Delete.
5.
Commit the changes.
5
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Set Up a Data Port for Access to External Services (Continued)
Step 4
6
Configure the interface.
1.
Select Network > Interfaces and select the interface that
corresponds to the port you cabled in Step 1.
2.
Select the Interface Type. Although your choice here depends
on your network topology, this example shows the steps for
Layer3.
3.
On the Config tab, expand the Security Zone drop-down and
select New Zone.
4.
In the Zone dialog, define a Name for new zone, for example
L3-trust, and then click OK.
5.
Select the IPv4 tab, select the Static radio button, and click Add
in the IP section, and enter the IP address and network mask to
assign to the interface, for example 192.168.1.254/24.
6.
Select Advanced > Other Info, expand the Management Profile
drop-down, and select New Management Profile.
7.
Enter a Name for the profile, such as allow_ping, and then
select the services you want to allow on the interface. These
services provide management access to the device, so only select
the services that correspond to the management activities you
want to allow on this interface. For example, if you plan to use
the MGT interface for device configuration tasks through the
web interface or CLI, you would not want to enable HTTP,
HTTPS, SSH, or Telnet so that you could prevent unauthorized
access through this interface. For the purposes of allowing
access to the external services you probably only need to enable
Ping and then click OK.
8.
To save the interface configuration, click OK.
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall
Set Up a Data Port for Access to External Services (Continued)
Step 5
1. Select Device > Setup > Services > Service Route
Because the firewall uses the MGT
Configuration.
interface by default to access the external
services it requires, you must change the
interface the firewall uses to send these
requests by editing the service routes.
Note For the purposes of activating your licenses and getting the
most recent content and software updates, you will want to
change the service route for DNS, Palo Alto Updates, URL
Updates, and WildFire.
2.
Click the Customize radio button, and select one of the
following:
• For a predefined service, select IPv4 or IPv6 and click the link
for the service for which you want to modify the Source
Interface and select the interface you just configured.
If more than one IP address is configured for the selected
interface, the Source Address drop-down allows you select
an IP address.
• To create a service route for a custom destination, select
Destination, and click Add. Enter a Destination name and
select a Source Interface. If more than one IP address is
configured for the selected interface, the Source Address
drop-down allows you select an IP address.
Getting Started Guide
3.
Click OK to save the settings.
4.
Repeat steps 2-3 above for each service route you want to
modify.
5.
Commit your changes.
7
Set Up Management Access to the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Set Up a Data Port for Access to External Services (Continued)
Step 6
Configure an external-facing interface and an associated zone and then create security and NAT policy rules to
allow the firewall to send service requests from the internal zone to the external zone:
1. Select Network > Interfaces and then select your external-facing interface. Select Layer3 as the Interface
Type, Add the IP address (on the IPv4 or IPv6 tab), and create the associated Security Zone (on the Config
tab), such as l3-untrust. You do not need to set up management services on this interface.
2. To set up a security rule that allows traffic from your internal network to the Palo Alto Networks update server
and external DNS servers, select Policies > Security and click Add. For the purposes of initial configuration,
you can create a simple rule that allows all traffic from l3-trust to l3-untrust as follows:
3. If you are using a private
IP address on the
internal-facing interface,
you will need to create a
source NAT rule to translate the address to a publicly routable address. Select Policies > NAT and then click
Add. At a minimum you must define a name for the rule (General tab), specify a source and destination zone,
l3-trust to l3-untrust in this case (Original Packet tab), and define the source address translation settings
(Translated Packet tab) and then click OK. For more information on NAT, see Configure NAT Policies.
4. Commit your changes.
Step 7
Verify that you have connectivity from the
data port to the external services,
including the default gateway, DNS
server, and the Palo Alto Networks
Update Server.
After you verify you have the required
network connectivity, continue to
Activate Firewall Services.
Launch the CLI and use the ping utility to verify that you have
connectivity. Keep in mind that by default pings are sent from the
MGT interface, so in this case you must specify the source interface
for the ping requests as follows:
admin@PA-200> ping source 192.168.1.254 host
updates.paloaltonetworks.com
PING updates.paloaltonetworks.com (67.192.236.252) from
192.168.1.254 : 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=1 ttl=242 time=56.7 ms
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=2 ttl=242 time=47.7 ms
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=3 ttl=242 time=47.6 ms
^C
After you have verified connectivity, press Ctrl+C to stop the pings.
8
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Activate Firewall Services
Activate Firewall Services
Before you can begin using the firewall to secure your network, you must register it and activate the licenses for
the services you have purchased. In addition, you should ensure that you are running the appropriate version of
PAN-OS as described in the following sections:

Register With Palo Alto Networks

Activate Licenses

Manage Content Updates

Install Software Updates
Register With Palo Alto Networks
Register the Firewall
Step 1
Log in to the web interface.
Using a secure connection (https) from your web browser, log in
using the new IP address and password you assigned during initial
configuration (https://<IP address>). You will see a certificate
warning; that is okay. Continue to the web page.
Step 2
Locate your serial number and copy it to On the Dashboard, locate your Serial Number in the General
the clipboard.
Information section of the screen.
Step 3
Go to the Palo Alto Networks Support
site.
Step 4
Register the device. The way you register • If this is the first Palo Alto Networks device you are registering and
depends on whether you already have a
you do not yet have a login, click Register on the right side of the
login to the support site.
page. To register, you must provide your sales order number or
customer ID, and the serial number of your firewall (which you can
paste from your clipboard) or the authorization code you received
with your order. You will also be prompted to set up a username
and password for access to the Palo Alto Networks support
community.
In a new browser tab or window, go to
https://support.paloaltonetworks.com.
• If you already have a support account, log in and then click My
Devices. Scroll down to Register Device section at the bottom of
the screen and enter the serial number of your firewall (which you
can paste from your clipboard), your city and postal code and then
click Register Device.
Activate Licenses
Before you can start using your firewall to secure the traffic on your network, you must activate the licenses for
each of the services you purchased. Available licenses and subscriptions include the following:
Getting Started Guide
9
Activate Firewall Services
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network

Threat Prevention—Provides antivirus, anti-spyware, and vulnerability protection. For more information
about threat prevention, see Set Up Antivirus, Anti-Spyware, and Vulnerability Protection.

Decryption Port Mirror—Provides the ability to create a copy of decrypted traffic from a firewall and send
it to a traffic collection tool that is capable of receiving raw packet captures-such as NetWitness or Solera-for
archiving and analysis.

URL Filtering—In order to create policy rules based on dynamic URL categories, you must purchase and
install a subscription for one of the supported URL filtering databases: PAN-DB or BrightCloud. For more
information about URL filtering, see Control Access to Web Content.

Virtual Systems—This license is required to enable support for multiple virtual systems on PA-2000 and
PA-3000 Series firewalls. In addition, you must purchase a Virtual Systems license if you want to increase the
number of virtual systems beyond the base number provided by default on PA-4000 Series, PA-5000 Series,
and PA-7050 firewalls (the base number varies by platform). The PA-500, PA-200, and VM-Series firewalls
do not support virtual systems.

WildFire—Although basic WildFire support is included as part of the Threat Prevention license, the
WildFire subscription service provides enhanced services for organizations that require immediate coverage
for threats, enabling sub-hourly WildFire signature updates, advanced file type forwarding (APK, PDF,
Microsoft Office, and Java Applet), as well as the ability to upload files using the WildFire API. A WildFire
subscription is also required if your firewalls will be forwarding files to a private WF-500 WildFire appliance.
For more information about WildFire, see Enable WildFire.

GlobalProtect—Provides mobility solutions and/or large-scale VPN capabilities. By default, you can
deploy a single GlobalProtect portal and gateway (without HIP checks) without a license. However, if you
want to deploy multiple gateways, you must purchase a portal license (one-time, permanent license). If you
want to use host checks you will also need gateway licenses (subscription) for each gateway. For more
information on GlobalProtect, refer to the GlobalProtect Administrator’s Guide.
Activate Licenses
Step 1
Locate the activation codes for the
licenses you purchased.
When you purchased your subscriptions you should have received an
email from Palo Alto Networks customer service listing the
activation code associated with each subscription. If you cannot
locate this email, contact customer support to obtain your activation
codes before you proceed.
Step 2
Launch the web interface and go to the
license page.
Select Device > Licenses.
Step 3
Activate each license you purchased.
1.
Note
2.
If your firewall does not have Internet
access from the management port, you
can manually download your license files 3.
from the support site and upload them to
your firewall using the Manually upload
license key option.
10
Select Activate feature using authorization code.
When prompted, enter the Authorization Code and then click
OK.
Verify that the license was successfully activated. For example,
after activating the WildFire license, you should see that the
license is valid:
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Activate Firewall Services
Manage Content Updates
In order to stay ahead of the changing threat and application landscape, all Palo Alto Networks firewalls support
dynamic content updates. Depending on which subscriptions you’ve purchased, these updates include the latest
application and threat signatures, along with a URL filtering database. To ensure that you are always protected
from the latest threats (including those that have not yet been discovered), you must ensure that you keep your
firewalls up-to-date with the latest updates published by Palo Alto Networks. The following content updates are
available, depending on which subscriptions you have:
Although you can manually download and install content updates at any time, as a best practice
you should schedule updates to occur automatically.

Antivirus—Includes new and updated antivirus signatures, including signatures discovered by the WildFire
cloud service. You must have a Threat Prevention subscription to get these updates. New antivirus signatures
are published daily.

Applications—Includes new and updated application signatures. This update does not require any
additional subscriptions, but it does require a valid maintenance/support contract. New application updates
are published weekly.

Applications and Threats—Includes new and updated application and threat signatures. This update is
available if you have a Threat Prevention subscription (and you get it instead of the Applications update).
New Applications and Threats updates are published weekly.

GlobalProtect Data File—Contains the vendor-specific information for defining and evaluating host
information profile (HIP) data returned by GlobalProtect agents. You must have a GlobalProtect portal and
GlobalProtect gateway license in order to receive these updates. In addition, you must create a schedule for
these updates before GlobalProtect will function.

BrightCloud URL Filtering—Provides updates to the BrightCloud URL Filtering database only. You must
have a BrightCloud subscription to get these updates. New BrightCloud URL database updates are published
daily. If you have a PAN-DB license, scheduled updates are not required as devices remain in-sync with the
servers automatically.

WildFire—Provides near real-time malware and antivirus signatures created as a result of the analysis done
by the WildFire cloud service. Without the subscription, you must wait 24 to 48 hours for the signatures to
roll into the Applications and Threat update.
If your firewall does not have Internet access from the management port, you can download
content updates from the Palo Alto Networks Support Site (https://support.paloaltonetworks.com)
and then Upload them to your firewall.
Download the Latest Databases
Step 1
Launch the web interface and go to the
Dynamic Updates page.
Getting Started Guide
Select Device > Dynamic Updates.
11
Activate Firewall Services
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Download the Latest Databases (Continued)
Step 2
Check for the latest updates.
Click Check Now (located in the lower left-hand corner of the window) to check for the latest updates. The link
in the Action column indicates whether an update is available:
• Download—Indicates that a new update file is available. Click the link to begin downloading the file directly
to the firewall. After successful download, the link in the Action column changes from Download to Install.
Note You cannot download the antivirus database until you have installed the Application and Threats database.
• Upgrade—Indicates that there is a new version of the BrightCloud database available. Click the link to begin
the download and installation of the database. The database upgrade begins in the background; when
completed a check mark displays in the Currently Installed column. Note that if you are using PAN-DB as
your URL filtering database you will not see an upgrade link because the PAN-DB database automatically
stays in sync with the server.
Tip: To check the status of an action, click Tasks (on the lower right-hand corner of the window).
• Revert—Indicates that the corresponding software version has been downloaded previously. You can choose
to revert to the previously installed version of the update.
Step 3
Note
12
Click the Install link in the Action column. When the installation
completes,
a check mark displays in the Currently Installed column.
Installation can take up to 20 minutes on
a PA-200, PA-500, or PA-2000 device and
up to two minutes on a PA-3000 Series,
PA-4000 Series, PA-5000 Series, PA-7050,
or VM-Series firewall.
Install the updates.
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Activate Firewall Services
Download the Latest Databases (Continued)
Step 4
Schedule each update.
1.
Set the schedule of each update type by clicking the None link.
2.
Specify how often you want the updates to occur by selecting a
value from the Recurrence drop-down. The available values
vary by content type (WildFire updates are available Every 15
minutes, Every 30 minutes or Every Hour whereas all other
content types can be scheduled for Daily or Weekly update).
Repeat this step for each update you want
to schedule.
Best Practice:
Stagger the update schedules because the
firewall can only download one update at
a time. If you schedule the updates to
download during the same time interval,
3.
only the first download will succeed.
Specify the Time and (or, minutes past the hour in the case of
WildFire), if applicable depending on the Recurrence value you
selected, Day of the week that you want the updates to occur.
4.
Specify whether you want the system to Download And Install
the update (best practice) or Download Only.
5.
In rare instances, errors in content updates may be found. For
this reason, you may want to delay installing new updates until
they have been released for a certain number of hours. You can
specify how long after a release to wait before performing a
content update by entering the number of hours to wait in the
Threshold (Hours) field.
6.
Click OK to save the schedule settings.
7.
Click Commit to save the settings to the running configuration.
Install Software Updates
When installing a new firewall, it is a good idea to upgrade to the latest software update (or to the update version
recommended by your reseller or Palo Alto Networks Systems Engineer) to take advantage of the latest fixes
and security enhancements. Note that before updating the software, you should first make sure you have the
latest content updates as detailed in the previous section (the release notes for a software update specify the
minimum content update versions that are supported in the release).
Update PAN-OS
Step 1
Launch the web interface and go to the
Software page.
Select Device > Software.
Step 2
Check for software updates.
Click Check Now to check for the latest updates. If the value in the
Action column is Download it indicates that an update is available.
Getting Started Guide
13
Activate Firewall Services
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Update PAN-OS (Continued)
Step 3
Download the update.
Note
If your firewall does not have Internet
access from the management port, you
can download the software update from
the Palo Alto Networks Support Site
(https://support.paloaltonetworks.com).
You can then manually Upload them to
your firewall.
Step 4
Install the update.
Locate the version you want and then click Download. When the
download completes, the value in the Action column changes to
Install.
1.
Click Install.
2.
Reboot the firewall:
• If you are prompted to reboot, click Yes.
• If you are not prompted to reboot, select Device > Setup >
Operations and click Reboot Device in the Device
Operations section of the screen.
14
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Add Firewall Administrators
Add Firewall Administrators
By default, every Palo Alto Networks firewall comes preconfigured with a default administrative account
(admin), which provides full read-write access (also known as superuser access) to the firewall.
As a best practice, create a separate administrative account for each person who needs access
to the administrative or reporting functions of the firewall. This allows you to better protect the
firewall from unauthorized configuration (or modification) and to enable logging of the actions of
each individual firewall administrator.
The following sections describe the various ways you can set up administrative accounts and provide procedures
for setting up basic administrative access:

Administrative Roles

Administrative Authentication

Create an Administrative Account
Administrative Roles
The way you configure administrator accounts depends on the security requirements within your organization,
whether you have existing authentication services you want to integrate with, and how many different
administrative roles you require. A role defines the type of access the associated administrator has to the system.
There are two types of roles you can assign:

Dynamic Roles—Built-in roles that provide Superuser, Superuser (read-only), Device administrator,
Device administrator (read-only), Virtual system administrator, and Virtual system administrator (read-only)
access to the firewall. With dynamic roles, you don’t have to worry about updating the role definitions as new
features are added because the roles automatically update.

Admin Role Profiles—Allow you to create your own role definitions in order to provide more granular
access control to the various functional areas of the web interface, CLI and/or XML API. For example, you
could create an Admin Role Profile for your operations staff that provides access to the device and network
configuration areas of the web interface and a separate profile for your security administrators that provides
access to security policy definition, logs, and reports. Keep in mind that with Admin Role Profiles you must
update the profiles to explicitly assign privileges for new features/components that are added to the product.
Administrative Authentication
There are four ways you can authenticate administrative users:

Local administrator account with local authentication—Both the administrator account credentials and
the authentication mechanisms are local to the firewall. You can further secure the local administrator
account by creating a password profile that defines a validity period for passwords and by setting device-wide
password complexity settings.
Getting Started Guide
15
Add Firewall Administrators
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network

Local administrator account with SSL-based authentication—With this option, you create the
administrator accounts on the firewall, but authentication is based on SSH certificates (for CLI access) or
client certificates/common access cards (for the web interface). Refer to the article How to Configure
Certificate-based Authentication for the WebUI for details on how to configure this type of administrative access.

Local administrator account with external authentication—The administrator accounts are managed
on the local firewall, but the authentication functions are offloaded to an existing LDAP, Kerberos, or
RADIUS service. To configure this type of account, you must first create an authentication profile that
defines how to access the external authentication service and then create an account for each administrator
that references the profile.

External administrator account and authentication—Account administration and authentication are
handled by an external RADIUS server. To use this option, you must define Vendor Specific Attributes
(VSAs) on your RADIUS server that map to the admin role and, optionally, the virtual system objects you
have defined on the Palo Alto Networks device. Refer to the Radius Vendor Specific Attributes (VSA) article
for details on how to configure this type of administrative access.
Create an Administrative Account
Create administrative accounts to define access and administrative privileges for firewall administrators. Because
it is common to delegate specific administrative tasks to specific administrators with varying roles, Palo Alto
Networks recommends that you create admin role profiles that allow administrators access only to the areas of
the management interface that are required to perform their jobs. You can assign the various roles you create to
individual administrator accounts and specify access privileges to each management interface: the web interface,
the Command Line Interface (CLI), and the REST Management API. By creating admin roles with very granular
access privileges, you can ensure that sensitive company data is protected and end user privacy is ensured.
The following procedure describes how to create a local administrator account with local authentication,
including how to set administrator access for each management interface.
16
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Add Firewall Administrators
Create a Local Administrator
Step 1
If you plan to use Admin Role Profiles
rather than Dynamic Roles, create the
profiles that define what type of access, if
any, to give to the different sections of
the web interface, CLI, and XML API for
each administrator assigned to the role.
Complete the following steps for each role you want to create:
1. Select Device > Admin Roles and then click Add.
2.
Enter a Name and optionally a Description for the role.
3.
On the Web UI, Command Line and/or XML API tabs, specify
the access to allow for each management interface:
• On the Web UI and/or XML API tabs, set the access levels for
each functional area of the interface by clicking the icon to
toggle it to the desired setting: Enable , Read Only , or
Disable .
• On the Command Line tab, specify the type of access to
allow to the CLI: superreader, deviceadmin, or
devicereader (for Device roles); vsysadmin or vsysreader
(for Virtual System roles); or None to disable CLI access
entirely.
4.
Click OK to save the profile.
For example, allow an admin full access to a device using the XML
API, with the exception of importing or exporting files:
Getting Started Guide
17
Add Firewall Administrators
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Create a Local Administrator (Continued)
Step 2
(Optional) Set requirements for local
user-defined passwords.
• Create Password Profiles—Define how often administrators
must change their passwords. You can create multiple password
profiles and apply them to administrator accounts as needed to
enforce the desired security. To create a password profile, select
Device > Password Profiles and then click the Add.
• Configure minimum password complexity settings—Define
rules that govern password complexity, allowing you to force
administrators to create passwords that are harder to guess, crack,
or compromise. Unlike password profiles, which can be applied to
individual accounts, these rules are device wide and apply to all
passwords. To configure the settings, select Device > Setup and
then click the Edit icon in the Minimum Password Complexity
section.
Step 3
Step 4
18
Create an account for each administrator. 1.
Commit your changes.
Select Device > Administrators and then click Add.
2.
Enter a user Name and Password for the administrator.
3.
Select the Role to assign to this administrator. You can either
select one of the predefined Dynamic roles or a custom Role
Based profile if you created one in Step 1.
4.
(Optional) Select a Password Profile.
5.
Click OK to save the account.
1.
Click Commit.
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Monitor the Firewall
Monitor the Firewall
Another thing to consider during your initial deployment is how you plan to monitor the firewall—both for
proper functioning of the firewall as well as the monitoring of the traffic and threats it manages and controls.
Do you have centralized services, such as Syslog or SNMP, that you want to leverage? Do you have specific log
file archive, auditing, and/or backup requirements?
The following sections describe the methods you can use to monitor the firewall and provide basic setup
instructions:

Monitor Applications and Threats

View Local Log Data

Forward Logs to External Services

Monitor the Firewall Using SNMP
You can also configure the firewall (excluding PA-4000 Series and PA-7050 firewalls) to export
flow data to a NetFlow collector for analysis and reporting.
Monitor Applications and Threats
All Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewalls come equipped with the App-ID technology, which identifies
the applications traversing your network, irrespective of protocol, encryption, or evasive tactic. You can then
monitor the applications from the Application Command Center (ACC). The ACC graphically summarizes the
log database to highlight the applications traversing your network, who is using them, and their potential security
impact. ACC is dynamically updated, using the continuous traffic classification that App-ID performs; if an
application changes ports or behavior, App-ID continues to see the traffic, displaying the results in ACC.
You can quickly investigate new, risky, or unfamiliar applications that appear in ACC with a single click that
displays a description of the application, its key features, its behavioral characteristics, and who is using it.
Additional visibility into URL categories, threats, and data provides a complete and well-rounded picture of
network activity. With ACC, you can very quickly learn more about the traffic traversing the network and then
translate that information into a more informed security policy.
Getting Started Guide
19
Monitor the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
View Local Log Data
All Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewalls can generate log files that provide an audit trail of the activities
and events on the firewall. There are separate logs for separate types of activities and events. For example, the
Threat logs record all traffic that causes the firewall to generate a security alarm, whereas URL Filtering logs
record all traffic that matches a URL Filtering profile attached to a security policy, and Config logs record all
changes to the firewall configuration.
There are several ways you can view the log data on the local firewall:

View the Log Files

Display Log Data on the Dashboard

View Reports
View the Log Files
By default all log files are generated and stored locally on the firewall. You can view these log files directly
(Monitor > Logs):
20
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Monitor the Firewall
Display Log Data on the Dashboard
You can also monitor the local log data directly from the Dashboard by adding the associated widgets:
View Reports
The firewall also uses the log data to generate reports (Monitor > Reports) that display the log data in a tabular
or graphical format.
Getting Started Guide
21
Monitor the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Forward Logs to External Services
Depending on the type and severity of the data in the log files, you may want to be alerted to critical events that
require your attention, or you may have policies that require you to archive the data for longer than it can be
stored on the firewall. In these cases you will want to forward your log data to an external service for archive,
notification, and/or analysis.
When configuring log forwarding or WildFire file forwarding on a PA-7050 firewall, you must
configure one data port with the log type Log Card. This port must be connected to a network
that can communicate with your logging destinations and if WildFire forwarding is configured, it
must be able to reach the WildFire cloud or a WildFire appliance if one is deployed on your
network. After configuring an interface with this type, these services will automatically use the log
card port and no other configuration is required. For more information on this interface type, see
the help in the Network > Interfaces section of a PA-7050.
To forward log data to an external service you must complete the following tasks:

Configure the firewall to access the remote services that will be receiving the logs. See Define Remote
Logging Destinations.

Configure each log type for forwarding. See Enable Log Forwarding.
Define Remote Logging Destinations
In order to reach an external service—such as a Syslog server or SNMP trap manager—the firewall must know
the details of how to access and, if necessary, authenticate to the service. On the firewall, you define this
information in a Server Profile. You must create a Server Profile for each external service you want the firewall
to interact with. The type of logging destinations you need to set up and which logs you forward will depend
on your needs. Some common log forwarding scenarios include the following:

For immediate notification about critical system events or threats that require your attention, you can
generate SNMP traps or send email alerts. See Set Up Email Alerts and/or Set Up SNMP Trap Destinations.

For long-term storage and archival of data and for centralized device monitoring, you can send the log data
to a Syslog server. See Define Syslog Servers. This enables integration with third-party security monitoring
tools, such as Splunk! or ArcSight.
If you do not have a Syslog collector or if you do not require real-time updates, you can instead
schedule exports of logs and save them to a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server in CSV format
or use Secure Copy (SCP) to securely transfer data between the firewall and a remote host. For
more information, refer to the “Reports and Logging” section of the PAN-OS 6.0 Administrator’s
Guide.

For aggregation and reporting of log data from multiple Palo Alto Networks firewalls, you can forward logs
to a Panorama Manager or Panorama Log Collector. See Forward Logs to Panorama.
You can define as many Server Profiles as you need. For example, you could use separate Server Profiles to send
traffic logs to one Syslog server and system logs to a different one. Or, you could include multiple server entries
in a single Server Profile to enable you to log to multiple Syslog servers for redundancy.
22
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Monitor the Firewall
By default, all log data is forwarded over the MGT interface. If you plan to use an interface other
than MGT, you will need to configure a Service Route for each service to which you plan to
forward logs as described in Step 5 of the procedure to Set Up a Data Port for Access to
External Services.
Set Up Email Alerts
Set Up Email Alerts
Step 1
Create a Server Profile for your email
server.
1.
Select Device > Server Profiles > Email.
2.
Click Add and then enter a Name for the profile.
3.
(Optional) Select the virtual system to which this profile applies
from the Location drop-down.
4.
Click Add to add a new email server entry and enter the
information required to connect to the Simple Mail Transport
Protocol (SMTP) server and send email (you can add up to four
email servers to the profile):
• Name—Name to identify the mail server (1-31 characters).
This field is just a label and does not have to be the host name
of an existing SMTP server.
• Email Display Name—The name to show in the From field
of the email.
• From—The email address where notification emails will be
sent from.
• To—The email address to which notification emails will be
sent.
• Additional Recipient—If you want the notifications sent to
a second account, enter the additional address here. You can
only add one additional recipient. To add multiple recipients,
add the email address of a distribution list.
• Email Gateway—The IP address or host name of the SMTP
gateway to use to send the emails.
5.
Click OK to save the server profile.
Step 2
(Optional) Customize the format of the
email messages the firewall sends.
Select the Custom Log Format tab. For details on how to create
custom formats for the various log types, refer to the Common
Event Format Configuration Guide.
Step 3
Save the server profile and commit your
changes.
1.
Click OK to save the profile.
2.
Click Commit to save the changes to the running configuration.
Set Up SNMP Trap Destinations
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a standard facility for monitoring the devices on your
network. You can configure the firewall to send SNMP traps to your SNMP management software to alert you
to critical system events or threats that require your immediate attention.
Getting Started Guide
23
Monitor the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
You can also use SNMP to monitor the firewall. In this case, your SNMP manager must be
configured to get statistics from the firewall rather than (or in addition to) having the firewall send
traps to the manager. For more information, see Monitor the Firewall Using SNMP.
Set Up SNMP Trap Destinations
Step 1
(SNMP v3 only) Get the engine ID for
the firewall.
Note
In many cases, the MIB browser or
SNMP manager will automatically
discover the engine ID upon successful
connection to the SNMP agent on the
firewall. You can usually find this
information in the agent settings section
of the interface. Refer to the
documentation for your specific product
for instructions on finding the agent
information.
24
In order to find out the firewall’s engine ID, you must configure the
firewall for SNMP v3 and send a GET message from your SNMP
manager or MIB browser as follows:
1. Enable the interface to allow inbound SNMP requests:
• If you will be receiving SNMP GET messages on the MGT
interface, select Device > Setup > Management and click the
Edit icon in the Management Interface Settings section of
the screen. In the Services section, select the SNMP check
box and then click OK.
• If you will be receiving SNMP GET messages on a different
interface, you must associate a management profile with the
interface and enable SNMP management.
2.
Configure the firewall for SNMP v3 as described in Step 2 in Set
Up SNMP Monitoring. If you do not configure the firewall for
SNMP v3 your MIB browser will not allow you to GET the
engine ID.
3.
Connect your MIB browser or SNMP manager to the firewall
and run a GET for OID 1.3.6.1.6.3.10.2.1.1.0. The value that is
returned is the unique engine ID for the firewall.
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Monitor the Firewall
Set Up SNMP Trap Destinations (Continued)
Step 2
Create a Server Profile that contains the information for connecting and authenticating to the SNMP manager(s).
1. Select Device > Server Profiles > SNMP Trap.
2. Click Add and then enter a Name for the profile.
3. (Optional) Select the virtual system to which this profile applies from the Location drop-down.
4. Specify the version of SNMP you are using (V2c or V3).
5. Click Add to add a new SNMP Trap Receiver entry (you can add up to four trap receivers per server profile).
The required values depend on whether you are using SNMP V2c or V3 as follows:
SNMP V2c
• Name—Name to identify the SNMP manager (1-31 characters). This field is just a label and does not have
to be the host name of an existing SNMP server.
• SNMP Manager—The IP address of the SNMP manager to which you want to send traps.
• Community—The community string required to authenticate to the SNMP manager.
SNMP V3
• Name—Name to identify the SNMP manager (1-31 characters). This field is just a label and does not have
to be the host name of an existing SNMP server.
• SNMP Manager—The IP address of the SNMP manager to which you want to sent traps.
• User—The username required to authenticate to the SNMP manager.
• EngineID—The engine ID of the firewall, as identified in Step 1. This is a hexadecimal value from 5 to 64
bytes with a 0x prefix. Each firewall has a unique engine ID.
• Auth Password—The password to be used for authNoPriv level messages to the SNMP manager. This
password will be hashed using Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), but will not be encrypted.
• Priv Password—The password to be used for authPriv level messages to the SNMP manager. This
password be hashed using SHA and will be encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES 128).
6. Click OK to save the server profile.
Step 3
(Optional) Set up a service route for
SNMP traps.
By default, SNMP traps are sent over the MGT interface. If you want
to use a different interface for SNMP traps, you must edit the service
route to enable the firewall to reach your SNMP manager. See Set Up
Network Access for External Services for instructions.
Step 4
Commit your changes.
Click Commit. The device may take up to 90 seconds to save your
changes.
Step 5
Enable the SNMP manager to interpret
the traps it receives from the firewall.
Load the PAN-OS MIB files into your SNMP management software
and compile them. Refer to the documentation for your SNMP
manager for specific instructions on how to do this.
Define Syslog Servers
Syslog is a standard log transport mechanism that enables the aggregation of log data from different network
devices—such as routers, firewalls, printers—from different vendors into a central repository for archive,
analysis, and reporting.
Getting Started Guide
25
Monitor the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
There are five log types that PAN-OS can export to a Syslog server: traffic, threat, HIP match, config, and
system. For more details about the fields in each log type, refer to the PAN-OS Syslog Integration Tech Note. For
a partial list of log messages and their severity levels, refer to the System Log Reference.
Syslog messages are sent in clear text and cannot be directly encrypted. However, if you need
encryption, you can send the Syslog messages through a tunnel interface, which will force the
Syslog packets to be encrypted. You will also need to create a new service route for Syslog.
Set Up Syslog Forwarding
Step 1
Create a Server Profile that contains the 1.
information for connecting to the Syslog 2.
server(s).
3.
4.
Select Device > Server Profiles > Syslog.
Click Add and then enter a Name for the profile.
(Optional) Select the virtual system to which this profile applies
from the Location drop-down.
Click Add to add a new Syslog server entry and enter the
information required to connect to the Syslog server (you can
add up to four Syslog servers to the same profile):
• Name—Unique name for the server profile.
• Syslog Server—IP address or fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) of the Syslog server.
• Transport—Select TCP, UDP, or SSL as the method of
communication with the syslog server.
• Port—The port number on which to send Syslog messages
(default is UDP on port 514); you must use the same port
number on the firewall and the Syslog server.
• Format—Select the Syslog message format to use, BSD or
IETF. Traditionally, BSD format is over UDP and IETF
format is over TCP/SSL.
• Facility—Select one of the Syslog standard values, which is
used to calculate the priority (PRI) field in your Syslog server
implementation. You should select the value that maps to
how you use the PRI field to manage your Syslog messages.
26
5.
(Optional) To customize the format of the Syslog messages the
firewall sends, select the Custom Log Format tab. For details on
how to create custom formats for the various log types, refer to
the Common Event Format Configuration Guide.
6.
Click OK to save the server profile.
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Monitor the Firewall
Set Up Syslog Forwarding (Continued)
Step 2
Step 3
(Optional) Configure the hostname
format in the Syslog header messages.
Commit your changes.
1.
Select Device > Setup > Management and click the Edit
in the Logging and Reporting Settings section.
icon
2.
Select Log Export and Reporting and in Syslog HOSTNAME
format, select whether to include the hostname, FQDN (the
default that concatenates the hostname and domain name) or
the IPv4/IPv6 address of the device.
3.
Click OK.
Click Commit. The device may take up to 90 seconds to save your
changes.
Forward Logs to Panorama
Before you can forward log files to a Panorama Manager or a Panorama Log Collector, the firewall must be
configured as a managed device. For details on setting up Panorama and adding devices, refer to the Panorama
Administrator’s Guide. You can then enable log forwarding to Panorama for each type of log as described in
Enable Log Forwarding. For logs forwarded to Panorama, support for centralized log forwarding to an external
syslog server is available.
Enable Log Forwarding
After you create the Server Profiles that define where to send your logs, you must enable log forwarding. For
each log type, you can specify whether to forward it to Syslog, email, SNMP trap receiver, and/or Panorama.
The way you enable forwarding depends on the log type:

Traffic Logs—Enable forwarding of Traffic logs by creating a Log Forwarding Profile (Objects > Log
and adding it to the security policies you want to trigger the log forwarding. Only traffic that
matches a specific rule within the security policy will be logged and forwarded.
Forwarding)

Threat Logs—Enable forwarding of Threat logs by creating a Log Forwarding Profile (Objects > Log
Forwarding) that specifies which severity levels you want to forward and then adding it to the security policies
for which you want to trigger the log forwarding. A Threat log entry will only be created (and therefore
forwarded) if the associated traffic matches a Security Profile (Antivirus, Anti-spyware, Vulnerability, URL
Filtering, File Blocking, Data Filtering, or DoS Protection). The following table summarizes the threat
severity levels:
Getting Started Guide
27
Monitor the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Severity
Description
Critical
Serious threats such as those that affect default installations of widely
deployed software, result in root compromise of servers, and the exploit
code is widely available to attackers. The attacker usually does not need
any special authentication credentials or knowledge about the individual
victims and the target does not need to be manipulated into performing
any special functions.
High
Threats that have the ability to become critical but have mitigating factors;
for example, they may be difficult to exploit, do not result in elevated
privileges, or do not have a large victim pool.
Medium
Minor threats in which impact is minimized, such as DoS attacks that do
not compromise the target or exploits that require an attacker to reside on
the same LAN as the victim, affect only non-standard configurations or
obscure applications, or provide very limited access.
Low
Warning-level threats that have very little impact on an organization's
infrastructure. They usually require local or physical system access and
may often result in victim privacy or DoS issues and information leakage.
Data Filtering profile matches are logged as Low.
Informational
Suspicious events that do not pose an immediate threat, but that are
reported to call attention to deeper problems that could possibly exist.
URL Filtering log entries with a benign verdict are logged as
Informational.

Config Logs—Enable forwarding of Config logs by specifying a Server Profile in the log settings
configuration. (Device > Log Settings > Config Logs).

System Logs—Enable forwarding of System logs by specifying a Server Profile in the log settings
configuration. (Device > Log Settings > System Logs). You must select a Server Profile for each severity level
you want to forward. For a partial list of system log messages and their corresponding severity levels, refer
to the System Log Reference. The following table summarizes the system log severity levels:

28
Severity
Description
Critical
Hardware failures, including HA failover and link failures.
High
Serious issues, including dropped connections with external devices, such
as LDAP and RADIUS servers.
Medium
Mid-level notifications, such as antivirus package upgrades.
Low
Minor severity notifications, such as user password changes.
Informational
Log in/log off, administrator name or password change, any
configuration change, and all other events not covered by the other
severity levels.
WildFire Logs—Enable forwarding of WildFire logs that contain information about files that are
forwarded from the firewall to WildFire for analysis. You can configure the firewall to forward logs for the
verdict Benign and/or Malicious.
Getting Started Guide
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Monitor the Firewall
Monitor the Firewall Using SNMP
All Palo Alto Networks firewalls support standard networking SNMP management information base (MIB)
modules as well as proprietary Enterprise MIB modules. You can configure an SNMP manager to get statistics
from the firewall. For example, you could configure your SNMP manager to monitor the interfaces, active
sessions, concurrent sessions, session utilization percentage, temperature, and/or system uptime on the firewall.
Palo Alto Networks firewalls support SNMP GET requests only; SNMP SET requests are not
supported.
Set Up SNMP Monitoring
Step 1
Enable the interface to allow inbound
SNMP requests.
• If you will be receiving SNMP GET messages on the MGT
interface, select Device > Setup > Management and click the Edit
icon in the Management Interface Settings section of the screen.
In the Services section, select the SNMP check box and then click
OK.
• If you will be receiving SNMP GET messages on a different
interface, you must associate a management profile with the
interface and enable SNMP management.
Step 2
1.
From the web interface on the firewall,
configure the settings to allow the SNMP 2.
agent on the firewall to respond to
incoming GET requests from the SNMP
3.
manager.
Select Device > Setup > Operations > SNMP Setup.
Specify the Physical Location of the firewall and the name or
email address of an administrative Contact.
Select the SNMP Version and then enter the configuration
details as follows (depending on which SNMP version you are
using) and then click OK:
• V2c—Enter the SNMP Community String that will allow the
SNMP manager access to the SNMP agent on the firewall.
The default value is public, however because this is a
well-known community string, it is a best practice to use a
value that is not easily guessed.
• V3—You must create at least one View and one User in order
to use SNMPv3. The view specifies which management
information the manager has access to. If you want to allow
access to all management information, just enter the top-level
OID of .1.3.6.1 and specify the Option as include (you can
also create views that exclude certain objects). Use 0xf0 as the
Mask. Then when you create a user, select the View you just
created and specify the Auth Password and Priv Password.
The authentication settings (the community string for V2c or
the username and passwords for V3) configured on the firewall
must match the value configured on the SNMP manager.
Getting Started Guide
4.
Click OK to save the settings.
5.
Click Commit to save the SNMP settings.
29
Monitor the Firewall
Integrate the Firewall into Your Management Network
Set Up SNMP Monitoring (Continued)
Step 3
Enable the SNMP manager to interpret
firewall statistics.
Load the PAN-OS MIB files into your SNMP management software
and, if necessary, compile them. Refer to the documentation for your
SNMP manager for specific instructions on how to do this.
Step 4
Identify the statistics you want to
monitor.
Using a MIB browser, walk the PAN-OS MIB files to identify the
object identifiers (OIDs) that correspond to the statistics you want
to monitor. For example, suppose you want to monitor Session
Utilization Percentage on the firewall. Using a MIB browser you will
see that this statistic corresponds to OID
1.3.6.1.4.1.25461.2.1.2.3.1.0 in the PAN-COMMON-MIB.
Step 5
Configure the SNMP management
software to monitor the OIDs you are
interested in.
Refer to the documentation for your SNMP manager for specific
instructions on how to do this.
Step 6
After you complete the configuration on The following is an example of how an SNMP manager displays
both the firewall and the SNMP manager, real-time session utilization percentage statistics for a monitored
PA-500 firewall:
you can begin monitoring the firewall
from your SNMP management software.
30
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
The following topics provide basic steps for configuring the firewall interfaces, defining zones, and setting up a
basic security policy:

Security Perimeter Overview

Set Up Interfaces and Zones

Configure NAT Policies

Set Up Basic Security Policies
Getting Started Guide
31
Security Perimeter Overview
Create the Security Perimeter
Security Perimeter Overview
Traffic must pass through the firewall in order for the firewall to manage and control it. Physically, traffic enters
and exits the firewall through interfaces. The firewall decides how to act on a packet based on whether the packet
matches a security policy. At the most basic level, the security policy must identify where the traffic came from and
where it is going. On a Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall, security policies are applied between zones.
A zone is a grouping of interfaces (physical or virtual) that provides an abstraction for an area of trust for
simplified policy enforcement. For example, in the following topology diagram, there are three zones: Trust,
Untrust, and the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). Traffic can flow freely within a zone, but traffic will not be able
to flow between zones until you define a security policy that allows it.
The following sections describe the components of the security perimeter and provide steps for configuring the
firewall interfaces, defining zones, and setting up a basic security policy that allows traffic from your internal
zone to the Internet and to the DMZ. By initially creating a basic policy like this, you will be able to analyze the
traffic running through your network and use this information to define more granular policies for safely
enabling applications while preventing threats.

Firewall Deployments

About Network Address Translation (NAT)

About Security Policies
Firewall Deployments
All Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewalls provide a flexible networking architecture that includes
support for dynamic routing, switching, and VPN connectivity, enabling you to deploy the firewall into nearly
any networking environment. When configuring the Ethernet ports on your firewall, you can choose from
virtual wire, Layer 2, or Layer 3 interface deployments. In addition, to allow you to integrate into a variety of
network segments, you can configure different types of interfaces on different ports. The following sections
provide basic information on each type of deployment. For more detailed deployment information, refer to
Designing Networks with Palo Alto Networks Firewalls.
32
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Security Perimeter Overview
Virtual Wire Deployments
In a virtual wire deployment, the firewall is installed transparently on a network segment by binding two ports
together. By using a virtual wire, you can install the firewall in any network environment without reconfiguring
adjacent devices. If necessary, a virtual wire can block or allow traffic based on the virtual LAN (VLAN) tag
values. You can also create multiple subinterfaces and classify traffic according to an IP Address (address, range,
or subnet), VLAN, or a combination of the two.
By default, the virtual wire “default-vwire” binds together Ethernet ports 1 and 2 and allows all untagged traffic.
Choose this deployment to simplify installation and configuration and/or avoid configuration changes to
surrounding network devices.
A virtual wire is the default configuration, and should be used only when no switching or routing is needed. If
you do not plan to use the default virtual wire, you should manually delete the configuration before proceeding
with interface configuration to prevent it from interfering with other interface settings you define. For
instructions on how to delete the default virtual wire and its associated security policy and zones, see Step 3 in
Set Up a Data Port for Access to External Services.
Layer 2 Deployments
In a Layer 2 deployment, the firewall provides switching between two or more interfaces. Each group of
interfaces must be assigned to a VLAN object in order for the firewall to switch between them. The firewall will
perform VLAN tag switching when Layer 2 subinterfaces are attached to a common VLAN object. Choose this
option when switching is required.
For more information on Layer 2 deployments, refer to the Layer 2 Networking Tech Note and/or the Securing
Inter VLAN Traffic Tech Note.
Layer 3 Deployments
In a Layer 3 deployment, the firewall routes traffic between ports. An IP address must be assigned to each
interface and a virtual router must be defined to route the traffic. Choose this option when routing is required.
You must assign an IP address to each physical Layer 3 interface you configure. You can also create logical
subinterfaces for each physical Layer 3 interface that allows you to segregate the traffic on the interface based
on VLAN tag (when VLAN trunking is in use) or by IP address, for example for multi-tenancy.
In addition, because the firewall must route traffic in a Layer 3 deployment, you must configure a virtual router.
You can configure the virtual router to participate with dynamic routing protocols (BGP, OSPF, or RIP) as well
as adding static routes. You can also create multiple virtual routers, each maintaining a separate set of routes that
are not shared between virtual routers, enabling you to configure different routing behaviors for different
interfaces.
The configuration example in this chapter illustrates how to integrate the firewall into your Layer 3 network
using static routes. For information on other types of routing integrations, refer to the following documents:

How to Configure OSPF Tech Note

How to Configure BGP Tech Note
Getting Started Guide
33
Security Perimeter Overview
Create the Security Perimeter
About Network Address Translation (NAT)
When you use private IP addresses within your internal networks, you must use network address translation
(NAT) in order to translate the private addresses to public addresses that can be routed on external networks.
In PAN-OS, you create NAT policy rules that instruct the firewall which packets need translation and how to
do the translation. The firewall supports both source address and/or port translation and destination address
and/or port translation. For more details about the different types of NAT rules, refer to the Understanding and
Configuring NAT Tech Note.
It is important to understand the way the firewall applies the NAT and security policies in order to determine
what policies you need based on the zones you have defined. Upon ingress, the firewall inspects a packet to see
if it matches any of the NAT rules that have been defined, based on source and/or destination zone. It then
evaluates and applies any security rules that match the packet based on the original (pre-NAT) source and
destination addresses. Finally, it translates the source and/or destination port numbers for any matching NAT
rules upon egress. This distinction is important, because it means that the firewall determines what zone a packet
is destined for based on the address on the packet, not in the placement of the device based on its internally
assigned address.
About Security Policies
Security policies protect network assets from threats and disruptions and aid in optimally allocating network
resources for enhancing productivity and efficiency in business processes. On the Palo Alto Networks firewall,
security policies determine whether to block or allow a session based on traffic attributes such as the source and
destination security zone, the source and destination IP address, the application, user, and the service. By
default, intra-zone traffic (that is traffic within the same zone, for example from trust to trust), is allowed. Traffic
between different zones (or inter-zone traffic) is blocked until you create a security policy to allow the traffic.
Security policies are evaluated left to right and from top to bottom. A packet is matched against the first rule
that meets the defined criteria; after a match is triggered the subsequent rules are not evaluated. Therefore, the
more specific rules must precede more generic ones in order to enforce the best match criteria. Traffic that
matches a rule generates a log entry at the end of the session in the traffic log, if logging is enabled for that rule.
The logging options are configurable for each rule, and can for example be configured to log at the start of a
session instead of, or in addition to, logging at the end of a session.
Components of a Security Policy
The security policy construct permits a combination of the required and optional components listed below.
34
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Required
Fields
Optional
Fields
Security Perimeter Overview
Field
Description
Name
A label that supports up to 31 characters, used to identify the rule.
Source Zone
The zone from which the traffic originates.
Destination Zone
The zone at which the traffic terminates. If you use NAT, make sure
to always reference the post-NAT zone.
Application
The application which you wish to control. The firewall uses
App-ID, the traffic classification technology, to identify traffic on
your network. App-ID provides application control and visibility in
creating security policies that block unknown applications, while
enabling, inspecting, and shaping those that are allowed.
Action
Specifies an Allow or Deny action for the traffic based on the criteria
you define in the rule.
Tag
A keyword or phrase that allows you to filter security rules. This is
handy when you have defined many rules and wish to then review
those that are tagged with a particular keyword or color, for example
Inbound to DMZ.
Description
A text field, up to 255 characters, used to describe the rule.
Source Address
Define host IP or FQDN, subnet, named groups, or country-based
enforcement. If you use NAT, make sure to always refer to the
original IP addresses in the packet (i.e. the pre-NAT IP address).
Destination Address
The location or destination for the traffic. If you use NAT, make sure
to always refer to the original IP addresses in the packet (i.e. the
pre-NAT IP address).
Source User
The user or group of users for whom the policy applies. You must
have User-ID enabled on the zone. See Configure User
Identification for details.
Getting Started Guide
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Security Perimeter Overview
Create the Security Perimeter
Field
Description (Continued)
URL Category
Using the URL Category as match criteria allows you to customize
security profiles (antivirus, anti-spyware, vulnerability, file-blocking,
Data Filtering, and DoS) on a per-URL-category basis. For example,
you can prevent the downloads/uploads of executable files for URL
categories that represent higher risk while allowing them for other
categories. This functionality also allows you to attach schedules to
specific URL categories (allow social-media websites during lunch
and after-hours), mark certain URL categories with QoS (financial,
medical, and business), and select different log forwarding profiles
on a per-URL-category-basis.
Although you can manually configure URL categories on your
device, to take advantage of the dynamic URL categorization updates
available on the Palo Alto Networks firewalls, you must purchase a
URL filtering license.
Note
Service
Allows you to select a Layer 4 (TCP or UDP) port for the
application. You can choose any, specify a port, or use
application-default to permit use of the standards-based port for the
application. For example, for applications with well- known port
numbers such as DNS, the application-default option will match against
DNS traffic only on TCP port 53. You can also add a custom
application and define the ports that the application can use.
Note
Optional
Fields
For inbound allow rules (for example, from untrust to
trust), using application-default prevents applications from
running on unusual ports and protocols.
Application-default is the default option; while the device
still checks for all applications on all ports, with this
configuration, applications are only allowed on their
standard ports/protocols.
Security Profiles
Provide additional protection from threats, vulnerabilities, and data
leaks. Security profiles are only evaluated for rules that have an allow
action. For more information, see Scan Traffic for Threats.
HIP Profiles (for
Enables matching based on the state of the client system, such as
whenever it has the latest patches and antivirus updates. For more
information, refer to the section “Use Host Information in Policy
Enforcement” in the GlobalProtect Administrator’s Guide.
GlobalProtect)
Options
36
To just provide basic URL category filtering, define the
URL Category as Any and attach a URL Filtering profile to
the security policy. See Create Security Rules for
information on using the default profiles in your security
policy and see Control Access to Web Content for more
details.
Allow you to define logging for the session, log forwarding settings,
change Quality of Service (QoS) markings for packets that match the
rule, and schedule when (day and time) the security rule should be in
effect.
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Security Perimeter Overview
Policy Best Practices
The task of safely enabling Internet access and preventing misuse of web access privileges, and exposure to
vulnerabilities and attacks is a continuous process. The key principle when defining policy on the Palo Alto
Networks firewall is to use a positive enforcement approach. Positive enforcement implies that you selectively
allow what is required for day-to-day business operations as opposed to a negative enforcement approach where
you would selectively block everything that is not allowed. Consider the following best practices when creating
policy:


If you have two or more zones with identical security requirements, combine them into one security rule.
The ordering of rules is crucial to ensure the best match criteria. Because policy is evaluated top down, the
more specific policy must precede the ones that are more general, so that the more specific rule is not
shadowed. The term shadow refers to a rule that is not evaluated or is skipped because it is placed lower in
the policy list. When the rule is placed lower, it is not evaluated because the match criteria was met by
another rule that preceded it, thereby shadowing the rule from policy evaluation.

To restrict and control access to inbound applications, in the security policy, explicitly define the port that
the service/application will be listening on.

Logging for broad allow rules—for example access to well known servers like DNS—can generate a lot of
traffic. Hence it is not recommended unless absolutely necessary.

By default, the firewall creates a log entry at the end of a session. However, you can modify this default
behavior and configure the firewall to log at the start of the session. Because this significantly increases the
log volume, logging at session start is recommended only when you are troubleshooting an issue. Another
alternative for troubleshooting without enabling logging at session start is to use the session browser
(Monitor > Session Browser) to view the sessions in real time.
About Policy Objects
A policy object is a single object or a collective unit that groups discrete identities such as IP addresses, URLs,
applications, or users. With policy objects that are a collective unit, you can reference the object in a security
policy instead of manually selecting multiple objects one at a time. Typically, when creating a policy object, you
group objects that require similar permissions in a policy. For example, if your organization uses a set of server
IP addresses for authenticating users, you can group the set of server IP addresses as an address group policy
object and reference the address group in the security policy. By grouping objects, you can significantly reduce
the administrative overhead in creating policies.
You can create the following policy objects on the firewall:
Getting Started Guide
37
Security Perimeter Overview
Create the Security Perimeter
Policy Object
Description
Address/Address Group,
Region
Allow you to group specific source or destination addresses that require the same
policy enforcement. The address object can include an IPv4 or IPv6 address (single IP,
range, subnet) or the FQDN. Alternatively, a region can be defined by the latitude and
longitude coordinates or you can select a country and define an IP address or IP range.
You can then group a collection of address objects to create an address group object.
You can also use dynamic address groups to monitor changes and dynamically
update IP addresses in environments where host IP addresses change
frequently.
User/User Group
Allow you to create a list of users from the local database or an external database and
group them. For information on creating user groups, refer to the User-ID section in
the PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide.
Application Group and
Application Filter
An Application Filter allows you to filter applications dynamically. It allows you to filter,
and save a group of applications using the attributes defined in the application database
on the firewall. For example, you can filter by one or more attributes—category,
sub-category, technology, risk, characteristics—and save your application filter. With
an application filter, when a PAN-OS content update occurs, any new applications that
match your filter criteria are automatically added to your saved application filter.
An Application Group allows you to create a static group of specific applications that you
wish to group together for a group of users or for a particular service.
Service/Service Groups
Allows you to specify the source and destination ports and protocol that a service can
use. The firewall includes two pre-defined services—service-http and service-https—
that use TCP ports 80 and 8080 for HTTP, and TCP port 443 for HTTPS. You can
however, create any custom service on any TCP/UDP port of your choice to restrict
application usage to specific ports on your network (in other words, you can define the
default port for the application).
Note
To view the standard ports used by an application, in Objects > Applications
search for the application and click the link. A succinct description displays.
Some examples of address and application policy objects are shown in the security policies that are included in
Create Security Rules. For information on the other policy objects, see Protect Your Network Against Threats
and for more in-depth information refer to the PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide.
About Security Profiles
While security policies enable you to allow or deny traffic on your network, security profiles help you define an
allow but scan rule, which scan allowed applications for threats. When traffic matches the allow rule defined in
the security policy, the security profile(s) that are attached to the rule are applied for further content inspection
rules such as antivirus checks and data filtering.
Security profiles are not used in the match criteria of a traffic flow. The security profile is applied
to scan traffic after the application or category is allowed by the security policy
The different types of security profiles that can be attached to security policies are: Antivirus, Anti-spyware,
Vulnerability Protection, URL Filtering, File Blocking, and Data Filtering. The firewall provides default security
profiles that you can use out of the box to begin protecting your network from threats. See Create Security Rules
38
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Security Perimeter Overview
for information on using the default profiles in your security policy. As you get a better understanding about the
security needs on your network, you can create custom profiles. See Scan Traffic for Threats for more
information.
Getting Started Guide
39
Set Up Interfaces and Zones
Create the Security Perimeter
Set Up Interfaces and Zones
The following sections provide information on configuring interfaces and zones:

Plan Your Deployment

Configure Interfaces and Zones
Plan Your Deployment
Before you begin configuring your interfaces and zones, you should take some time to plan out the zones you
will need based on the different usage requirements within your organization. In addition, you should gather all
of the configuration information you will need ahead of time. At a basic level, you should plan which interfaces
will belong to which zones. For Layer 3 deployments you’ll also need to obtain the required IP addresses and
network configuration information from your network administrator, including information on how to
configure the routing protocol or static routes required for the virtual router configuration. The example in this
chapter will be based on the following topology:
The following table shows the information we will use to configure the Layer 3 interfaces and their
corresponding zones as shown in the sample topology.
Zone
Deployment Type
Interface(s)
Configuration Settings
Untrust
L3
Ethernet1/3
IP address: 203.0.113.100/24
Virtual router: default
Default route: 0.0.0.0/0
Next hop: 203.0.113.1
Trust
L3
Ethernet1/4
IP address: 192.168.1.4/24
Virtual router: default
DMZ
L3
Ethernet1/13
IP address: 10.1.1.1/24
Virtual router: default
40
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Set Up Interfaces and Zones
Configure Interfaces and Zones
After you plan your zones and the corresponding interfaces, you can configure them on the device. The way
you configure each interface depends on your network topology.
The following procedure shows how to configure a Layer 3 deployment as depicted in the preceding example
topology. For information on configuring a Layer 2 or virtual wire deployment, refer to the Networking section
in the PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide.
The firewall comes preconfigured with a default virtual wire interface between ports Ethernet 1/1
and Ethernet 1/2 (and a corresponding default security policy and virtual router). If you do not plan
to use the default virtual wire, you must manually delete the configuration and commit the change
before proceeding to prevent it from interfering with other settings you define. For instructions on
how to delete the default virtual wire and its associated security policy and zones, see Step 3 in
Set Up a Data Port for Access to External Services.
Set Up Interfaces and Zones
Step 1
Step 2
Configure a default route to your
Internet router.
Configure the external interface (the
interface that connects to the Internet).
Getting Started Guide
1.
Select Network > Virtual Router and then select the default
link to open the Virtual Router dialog.
2.
Click Add and select the Static Routes tab. Click Add on either
the IPv4 or IPv6 tab, enter a Name for the route and enter the
route in the Destination field (for example, 0.0.0.0/0).
3.
Select the IP Address radio button in the Next Hop field and
then enter the IP address for your Internet gateway (for
example, 203.0.113.1).
4.
Click OK twice to save the virtual router configuration.
1.
Select Network > Interfaces and then select the interface you
want to configure. In this example, we are configuring
ethernet1/3 as the external interface.
2.
Select the Interface Type. Although your choice here depends
on your network topology, this example shows the steps for
Layer3.
3.
In the Virtual Router drop-down, select default.
4.
On the Config tab, select New Zone from the Security Zone
drop-down. In the Zone dialog, define a Name for new zone,
for example Untrust, and then click OK.
5.
To assign an IP address to the interface, select the IPv4 tab and
Static radio button. Click Add in the IP section, and enter the
IP address and network mask to assign to the interface, for
example 208.80.56.100/24.
6.
To enable you to ping the interface, select Advanced > Other
Info, expand the Management Profile drop-down, and select
New Management Profile. Enter a Name for the profile, select
Ping and then click OK.
7.
To save the interface configuration, click OK.
41
Set Up Interfaces and Zones
Create the Security Perimeter
Set Up Interfaces and Zones (Continued)
1.
Step 3
Configure the interface that connects to
your internal network.
Note
In this example, the interface connects to
2.
a network segment that uses private IP
addresses. Because private IP addresses 3.
cannot be routed externally, you will have
to configure NAT. See Configure NAT
Policies.
4.
Step 4
Configure the interface that connects to
the DMZ.
Select Network > Interfaces and select the interface you want
to configure. In this example, we are configuring Ethernet1/4 as
the internal interface.
Select Layer3 from the Interface Type drop down.
On the Config tab, expand the Security Zone drop-down and
select New Zone. In the Zone dialog, define a Name for new
zone, for example Trust, and then click OK.
Select the same Virtual Router you used in Step 2.
5.
To assign an IP address to the interface, select the IPv4 tab and
the Static radio button, click Add in the IP section, and enter the
IP address and network mask to assign to the interface, for
example 192.168.1.4/24.
6.
To enable you to ping the interface, select the management
profile that you created in Step 2-6.
7.
To save the interface configuration, click OK.
1.
Select the interface you want to configure.
2.
Select Layer3 from the Interface Type drop down. In this
example, we are configuring Ethernet1/13 as the DMZ
interface.
3.
On the Config tab, expand the Security Zone drop-down and
select New Zone. In the Zone dialog, define a Name for new
zone, for example DMZ, and then click OK.
4.
Select the Virtual Router you used in Step 2, default in this
example.
5.
To assign an IP address to the interface, select the IPv4 tab and
the Static radio button, click Add in the IP section, and enter the
IP address and network mask to assign to the interface, for
example 10.1.1.1/24.
6.
To enable you to ping the interface, select the management
profile that you created in Step 2-6.
7.
To save the interface configuration, click OK.
Step 5
Save the interface configuration.
Click Commit.
Step 6
Cable the firewall.
Attach straight through cables from the interfaces you configured to
the corresponding switch or router on each network segment.
Step 7
Verify that the interfaces are active.
From the web interface, select Network > Interfaces and verify that
icon in the Link State column is green. You can also monitor link
state from the Interfaces widget on the Dashboard.
42
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Configure NAT Policies
Configure NAT Policies
Based on the example topology we used to create the interfaces and zones, there are three NAT policies we need
to create as follows:

To enable the clients on the internal network to access resources on the Internet, the internal 192.168.1.0
addresses will need to be translated to publicly routable addresses. In this case, we will configure source
NAT, using the egress interface address, 203.0.113.100, as the source address in all packets that leave the
firewall from the internal zone. See Translate Internal Client IP Addresses to your Public IP Address for
instructions.

To enable clients on the internal network to access the public web server in the DMZ zone, we will need to
configure a NAT rule that redirects the packet from the external network, where the original routing table
lookup will determine it should go based on the destination address of 203.0.113.11 within the packet, to
the actual address of the web server on the DMZ network of 10.1.1.11. To do this you must create a NAT
rule from the trust zone (where the source address in the packet is) to the untrust zone (where the original
destination address is) to translate the destination address to an address in the DMZ zone. This type of
destination NAT is called U-Turn NAT. See Enable Clients on the Internal Network to Access your Public Servers
for instructions.

To enable the web server—which has both a private IP address on the DMZ network and a public-facing
address for access by external users—to both send and receive requests, the firewall must translate the
incoming packets from the public IP address to the private IP address and the outgoing packets from the
private IP address to the public IP address. On the firewall, you can accomplish this with a single
bi-directional static source NAT policy. See Enable Bi-Directional Address Translation for your Public-Facing
Servers.
Getting Started Guide
43
Configure NAT Policies
Create the Security Perimeter
Translate Internal Client IP Addresses to your Public IP Address
When a client on your internal network sends a request, the source address in the packet contains the IP address
for the client on your internal network. If you use private IP address ranges internally, the packets from the client
will not be able to be routed on the Internet unless you translate the source IP address in the packets leaving
the network into a publicly routable address. On the firewall you can do this by configuring a source NAT policy
that translates the source address and optionally the port into a public address. One way to do this is to translate
the source address for all packets to the egress interface on your firewall as shown in the following procedure.
Configure Source NAT
Step 1
Create an address object for the external 1.
IP address you plan to use.
From the web interface, select Objects > Addresses and then
click Add.
2.
Enter a Name and optionally a Description for the object.
3.
Select IP Netmask from the Type drop down and then enter the
IP address of the external interface on the firewall,
203.0.113.100 in this example.
4.
To save the address object, click OK.
Best practice:
Although you do not have to use address objects in your policies, it
is a best practice because it simplifies administration by allowing you
to make updates in one place rather than having to update every
policy where the address is referenced.
Step 2
Create the NAT policy.
1. Select Policies > NAT and click Add.
2. Enter a Name for the policy and optional
Description.
3. On the Original Packet tab, select the
zone you created for your internal
network in the Source Zone section (click
Add and then select the zone) and the
zone you created for the external network
from the Destination Zone drop down.
4. On the Translated Packet tab, select
Dynamic IP And Port from the Translation Type drop-down in the Source Address Translation section of
the screen and then click Add. Select the address object you created in Step 1.
5. Click OK to save the NAT policy.
44
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Configure NAT Policies
Configure Source NAT (Continued)
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Click Commit.
Enable Clients on the Internal Network to Access your Public Servers
When a user on the internal network sends a request for access to the corporate web server in the DMZ, the
DNS server will resolve to the public IP address. When processing the request, the firewall will use the original
destination in the packet (the public IP address) and route the packet to the egress interface for the untrust zone.
In order for the firewall to know that it must translate the public IP address of the web server to an address on
the DMZ network when it receives requests from users on the trust zone, you must create a destination NAT
rule that will enable the firewall to send the request to the egress interface for the DMZ zone as follows.
Configure U-Turn NAT
Step 1
Step 2
Create an address object for the web
server.
1.
From the web interface, select Objects > Addresses and then
click Add.
2.
Enter a Name and optionally a Description for the object.
3.
Select IP Netmask from the Type drop-down and then enter the
public IP address and netmask of the web server,
203.0.113.11/24 in this example.
4.
To save the address object, click OK.
Create the NAT policy.
1. Select Policies > NAT and click Add.
2. Enter a Name and optional Description for
the NAT rule.
3. On the Original Packet tab, select the zone
you created for your internal network in the
Source Zone section (click Add and then
select the zone) and the zone you created
for the external network from the
Destination Zone drop down.
4. In the Destination Address section, click
Add and select the address object you created for your public web server.
5. On the Translated Packet tab, select
the Destination Address Translation
check box and then enter the IP address
that is assigned to the web server interface
on the DMZ network, 10.1.1.11 in this
example.
6. Click OK to save the NAT policy.
Getting Started Guide
45
Configure NAT Policies
Create the Security Perimeter
Configure U-Turn NAT (Continued)
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Click Commit.
Enable Bi-Directional Address Translation for your Public-Facing Servers
When your public-facing servers have private IP addresses assigned on the network segment where they are
physically located, you will need a source NAT rule for translating the source address of the server to the
external address upon egress. You do this by creating a static NAT rule that instructs the firewall to translate the
internal source address, 10.1.1.11, to the external web server address, 203.0.113.11 in our example. However, in
the case of a public-facing server, the server must both be able to send packets and receive them. In this case,
you need a reciprocal policy that will translate the public address that will be the destination IP address in
incoming packets from users on the Internet into the private address to enable the firewall to properly route the
packet to your DMZ network. On the firewall you do this by creating a bi-directional static NAT policy as
described in the following procedure.
Configure Bi-Directional NAT
Step 1
Create an address object for the web
server’s internal IP address.
1.
From the web interface, select Objects > Addresses and then
click Add.
2.
Enter a Name and optionally a Description for the object.
3.
Select IP Netmask from the Type drop down and then enter the
IP address and netmask of the web server on the DMZ network,
10.1.1.11/24 in this example.
4.
To save the address object, click OK.
Note
46
If you did not already create an address object for the public
address of your web server you should also create that
object now.
Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Configure NAT Policies
Configure Bi-Directional NAT (Continued)
Step 2
Create the NAT policy.
1. Select Policies > NAT and click Add.
2. Enter a descriptive Name for the NAT rule.
3. On the Original Packet tab, select the zone
you created for your DMZ in the Source
Zone section (click Add and then select the
zone) and the zone you created for the
external network from the Destination
Zone drop down.
4. In the Source Address section, click Add
and select the address object you created
for your internal web server address.
5. On the Translated Packet tab, select
Static IP from the Translation Type drop
down in the Source Address Translation
section and then select the address object
you created for your external web server
address from the Translated Address
drop down.
6. In the Bi-directional field, select Yes.
7. Click OK to save the NAT policy.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Getting Started Guide
Click Commit.
47
Set Up Basic Security Policies
Create the Security Perimeter
Set Up Basic Security Policies
Policies allow you to enforce rules and take action. The different types of policy rules that you can create on the
firewall are: Security, NAT, Quality of Service (QoS), Policy Based Forwarding (PBF), Decryption, Application
Override, Captive Portal, Denial of Service, and Zone protection policies. Different policies work together to
allow, deny, prioritize, forward, encrypt, decrypt, make exceptions, authenticate access, and reset connections as
needed to help secure your network. The following topics describe basic security policies and the default security
profiles:

Create Security Rules

Test Your Security Policies

Monitor the Traffic on Your Network
This section describes security policies only. For information on the other types of policies see
Protect Your Network Against Threats or refer to the following sections in PAN-OS Administrator’s
Guide: “Quality of Service” (for information on QoS policies) and “Map IP Addresses to User
Names Using Captive Portal” (for information on Captive Portal policies).
Create Security Rules
Security policies reference security zones and enable you to allow, restrict, and track traffic on your network.
Because each zone implies a level of trust, the implicit rule for passing traffic between two different zones is
deny, and the traffic within a zone is permitted. To allow traffic between two different zones, you must create a
security rule that allows traffic to flow between them.
While setting up the basic framework for securing the enterprise perimeter, it’s a good idea to start with a simple
security policy that allows traffic between the different zones without being too restrictive. As illustrated in the
following section, our objective is to minimize the likelihood of breaking applications that users on the network
need access to, while providing visibility into the applications and the potential threats for your network.
When defining policies make sure that you do not create a policy that denies all traffic from any
source zone to any destination zone as this will break intra-zone traffic that is implicitly allowed.
By default, intra-zone traffic is permitted because the source and destination zones are the same
and therefore share the same level of trust.
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Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Set Up Basic Security Policies
Define Basic Security Rules
Step 1
Note
Permit Internet access for all users on the To safely enable applications that are required for day-to-day
business operations we will create a simple rule that allows access to
enterprise network.
the Internet. To provide basic threat protection, we will attach the
Zone: Trust to Untrust
default security profiles available on the firewall.
By default, the firewall includes a security 1. Select Policies > Security and click Add.
rule named rule1 that allows all traffic
2. Give the rule a descriptive name in the General tab.
from Trust zone to Untrust zone. You can
either delete the rule or modify the rule to 3. In the Source tab, set the Source Zone to Trust.
reflect your zone-naming convention.
4. In the Destination tab, Set the Destination Zone to Untrust.
Note
5.
6.
To scan policy rules and visually identify the zones on each
rule, create a tag with the same name as the zone. For
example, to color code the Trust zone as green, select
Objects > Tags, click Add and Name the tag Trust, and
select the Color green.
In the Service/ URL Category tab, select service-http and
service-https.
In the Actions tab, complete these tasks:
a. Set the Action Setting to Allow.
b. Attach the default profiles for antivirus, anti-spyware,
vulnerability protection and URL filtering, under Profile
Setting.
Step 2
Note
7.
Verify that logging is enabled at the end of a session under
Options. Only traffic that matches a security rule will be logged.
Permit users on the internal network to
access the servers in the DMZ.
1.
Click Add in the Policies > Security section.
2.
Give the rule a descriptive name in the General tab.
Zone: Trust to DMZ
3.
In the Source tab, set the Source Zone to Trust.
4.
If using IP addresses for configuring
access to the servers in the DMZ, make 5.
sure to always refer to the original IP
addresses in the packet (i.e. the pre-NAT
6.
addresses), and the post-NAT zone.
7.
Getting Started Guide
In the Destination tab, set the Destination Zone to DMZ.
In the Service/ URL Category tab, make sure the Service is set
to application-default.
In the Actions tab, set the Action Setting to Allow.
Leave all the other options at the default values.
49
Set Up Basic Security Policies
Create the Security Perimeter
Define Basic Security Rules (Continued)
Step 3
Restrict access from the Internet to the To restrict inbound access to the DMZ from the Internet, configure
servers on the DMZ to specific server IP a rule that allows access only to specific servers’ IP addresses and on
the default ports that the applications use.
addresses only.
1. Click Add to add a new rule, and give it a descriptive Name.
For example, you might only allow users
2. In the Source tab, set the Source Zone to Untrust.
to access the webmail servers from
outside.
3. In the Destination tab, set the Destination Zone to DMZ.
Zone: Untrust to DMZ
Step 4
Allow access from the DMZ to your
internal network (Trust zone). To
minimize risk, you will allow traffic only
between specific servers and destination
addresses. For example, if you have an
application server on the DMZ that needs
to communicate with a specific database
server in your Trust zone, create a rule to
allow traffic between a specific source to
a specific destination.
4.
Set the Destination Address to the Public web server address
object you created earlier. The public web server address object
references the public IP address—208.80.56.11/24—of the web
server that is accessible on the DMZ.
5.
Select the webmail application in the Application tab.
6.
Make sure the Service is set to application-default.
7.
Set the Action Setting to Allow.
1.
Click Add to add a new rule, and give it a descriptive name.
2.
Set the Source Zone to DMZ.
3.
Set the Destination Zone to Trust.
4.
Create an address object that specifies the server(s) on your
Trust zone that can be accessed from the DMZ.
5.
In the Destination tab on the Security Policy rule, set the
Destination Address to the Address object you created above.
6.
In the Actions tab, complete these tasks:
Zone: DMZ to Trust
a. Set the Action Setting to Allow.
b. Attach the default profiles for antivirus, anti-spyware,
vulnerability protection, under Profile Setting.
c. In the Other Settings section, select the option to Disable
Server Response Inspection. This setting disables the
antivirus and anti-spyware scanning on the server-side
responses, and thus reduces the load on the firewall.
50
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Create the Security Perimeter
Set Up Basic Security Policies
Define Basic Security Rules (Continued)
Step 5
Step 6
Enable the servers on the DMZ to obtain 1.
updates and hot fixes from the Internet. 2.
Say, for example, you would like to allow
3.
the Microsoft Update service.
4.
Zone: DMZ to Untrust
Save your policies to the running
configuration on the device.
Add a new rule and give it a descriptive label.
Set the Source Zone to DMZ.
Set the Destination Zone to Untrust.
Create an application group to specify the applications that you
would like to allow. In this example, we allow Microsoft updates
(ms-updates) and dns.
5.
Ensure the Service is set to application-default. This allows
the firewall to permit the applications only when they use the
standard ports associated with these applications.
6.
Set the Action Setting to Allow.
7.
Attach the default profiles for antivirus, anti-spyware, and
vulnerability protection, under Profiles.
Click Commit.
Test Your Security Policies
To verify that you have set up your basic policies effectively, test whether your security policies are being
evaluated and determine which security rule applies to a traffic flow.
Getting Started Guide
51
Set Up Basic Security Policies
Create the Security Perimeter
Verify Policy Match Against a Flow
To verify the policy rule that matches a flow, use the
following CLI command:
test security-policy-match
source <IP_address> destination
<IP_address> destination port
<port_number> protocol
<protocol_number>
The output displays the best rule that matches the
source and destination IP address specified in the
CLI command.
For example, to verify the policy rule that will be applied for a
server on the DMZ with the IP address 208.90.56.11 when it
accesses the Microsoft update server, you will try the following
command:
test security-policy-match source 208.80.56.11
destination 176.9.45.70 destination-port 80
protocol 6
"Updates-DMZ to Internet" {
from dmz;
source any;
source-region any;
to untrust;
destination any;
destination-region any;
user any;
category any;
application/service[ dns/tcp/any/53
dns/udp/any/53 dns/udp/any/5353
ms-update/tcp/any/80 ms-update/tcp/any/443];
action allow;
terminal yes;
Monitor the Traffic on Your Network
Now that you have a basic security policy in place, you can review the statistics and data in the Application
Command Center (ACC), traffic logs, and the threat logs to observe trends on your network, to identify where
you need to create more granular policies.
Unlike traditional firewalls that use ports or protocols to identify applications, the Palo Alto Networks firewalls
use the application signature (the App-ID technology) to monitor applications. The application signature is
based on unique application properties and related transaction characteristics in combination with the port or
protocol. Therefore, even when the traffic uses the right port/protocol, the firewall can deny access to content
because the application signature is not a match. This feature allows you to safely enable applications by allowing
parts of the application while blocking or controlling functions within the same application. For example, if you
allow the application web-browsing a user will be able to access content on the Internet. Then, if a user goes to
Facebook and then goes on to play Scrabble on Facebook, the firewall will identify the application shifts and
recognize Facebook as an application and Scrabble as a Facebook-app. Therefore, if you create a specific rule that
blocks Facebook applications, the user will be denied access to Scrabble while still being able to access
Facebook.
To monitor traffic on your network:
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Getting Started Guide
Create the Security Perimeter
Set Up Basic Security Policies

In the ACC, review the most used applications and the high-risk applications on your network. The ACC
graphically summarizes the log information to highlight the applications traversing the network, who is using
them (with User-ID enabled), and the potential security impact of the content to help you identify what is
happening on the network in real time. You can then use this information to create appropriate security
policies that block unwanted applications, while allowing and enabling applications in a secure manner.

Determine what updates/modifications are required for your network security rules and implement the
changes. For example:

–
Evaluate whether to allow content based on schedule, users, or groups
–
Allow or control certain applications or functions within an application
–
Decrypt and inspect content
–
Allow but scan for threats and exploits
For information on refining your security policies and for attaching custom security profiles, see Protect
Your Network Against Threats.
View the traffic and threat logs at Monitor > Logs.
Traffic logs are dependent on how your security policies are defined and setup to log traffic. The
ACC tab, however, records applications and statistics regardless of policy configuration; it shows
all traffic that is allowed on your network, therefore it includes the inter-zone traffic that is allowed
by policy and the intra-zone traffic that is allowed implicitly.

Review the URL filtering logs to scan through alerts, denied categories/URLs. In order to generate a URL
log, you must have a URL profile attached to the security rule and the action must be set to alert, continue,
override or block.
Getting Started Guide
53
Set Up Basic Security Policies
54
Create the Security Perimeter
Getting Started Guide
Protect Your Network Against Threats
The Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall has unique threat prevention capabilities that allow it to
protect your network from attack despite evasive, tunneled, or circumvention techniques. The threat prevention
features on the firewall include the WildFire service, the Security Profiles that support Antivirus, Anti-spyware,
Vulnerability Protection, URL Filtering, File Blocking and Data Filtering capabilities and the Denial of Service
(DoS) and Zone protection functionality.
Before you can apply threat prevention features, you must first configure zones—to identify one
or more source or destination interfaces—and security policies. To configure interfaces, zones,
and the policies that are needed to apply threat prevention features, see Set Up Interfaces and
Zones and Set Up Basic Security Policies.
To begin protecting your network from threats start here:

Enable WildFire

Scan Traffic for Threats

Control Access to Web Content
Getting Started Guide
55
Enable WildFire
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Enable WildFire
The WildFire service is included as part of the base product. The WildFire service enables the firewall to
forward attachments to a sandbox environment where applications are run to detect any malicious activity. As
new malware is detected by the WildFire system, malware signatures are automatically generated and are made
available within 24-48 hours in the antivirus daily downloads. Your threat prevention subscription entitles you
for antivirus signature updates that include signatures discovered by WildFire.
Consider purchasing the WildFire subscription service for these additional benefits:

Sub-hourly (as often as every 15 minutes) WildFire signature updates

Advanced file type forwarding (APK, PDF, Microsoft Office, and Java Applet)

Ability to upload files using the WildFire API

Ability to forward files to a private WF-500 WildFire appliance
While the ability to configure a file blocking profile to forward Portable Executable (PE) files to the WildFire
cloud for analysis is free, in order to forward files to a private WildFire appliance, a WildFire subscription is
required.
Enable WildFire
Step 1
Step 2
Confirm that your device is registered
1.
and that you have a valid support account
as well as any subscriptions you require. 2.
Set the WildFire forwarding options.
Go to the Palo Alto Networks Support Site, log in, and select My
Devices.
Verify that the firewall is listed. If it is not listed, see Register
With Palo Alto Networks.
3.
(Optional) Activate Licenses.
1.
Select Device > Setup > WildFire.
2.
Click the edit icon in the General Settings section.
3.
(Optional) Specify the WildFire Server to which to forward
files. By default, the firewall will forward files to the public
WildFire cloud hosted in the United States. To forward files to
a different WildFire cloud, enter a new value as follows:
• To forward to a private WildFire cloud, enter the IP address
or FQDN of your WF-500 WildFire appliance.
Note
56
If you do not have a WildFire
subscription you can only forward
executables.
• To forward files to the public WildFire cloud running in
Japan, enter wildfire.paloaltonetworks.jp.
4.
(Optional) If you want to change the maximum file size that the
firewall can forward for a specific type of file, modify the value
in the corresponding field.
5.
Click OK to save your changes.
Getting Started Guide
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Enable WildFire
Enable WildFire (Continued)
Step 3
Step 4
Set up a file blocking profile to forward
files to WildFire.
Attach the file blocking profile to the
security policies that allow access to the
Internet.
1.
Select Objects > Security Profiles > File Blocking and click
Add.
2.
Enter a Name and optionally a Description for the profile.
3.
Click Add to create a forwarding rule and enter a name.
4.
In the Action column, select forward.
5.
Leave the other fields set to any to forward any supported file
type from any application.
6.
Click OK to save the profile.
1.
Select Policies > Security and either select an existing policy or
create a new policy as described in Create Security Rules.
2.
Click the Actions tab within the security policy.
3.
In the Profile Settings section, click the drop-down and select
the file blocking profile you created for WildFire forwarding. (If
you don’t see a drop-down for selecting a profile, select Profiles
from the Profile Type drop-down.
Click Commit.
Step 5
Save the configuration.
Step 6
Verify that the firewall is forwarding files 1.
to WildFire.
2.
Select Monitor > Logs > Data Filtering.
Check the Action column for the following actions:
• Forward— Indicates that the file was successfully forwarded
by the file blocking profile attached to the security policy.
• Wildfire-upload-success—Indicates that the file was sent to
WildFire. This means the file is not signed by a trusted file
signer and it has not been previously analyzed by WildFire.
• Wildfire-upload-skip—Indicates that the file was identified
as eligible to be sent to WildFire by a file blocking
profile/security policy, but did not need to be analyzed by
WildFire because it has already been analyzed previously. In
this case, the action will display as forward in the Data
Filtering log because it was a valid forward action, but it was
not sent to WildFire and analyzed because the file has already
been sent to the WildFire cloud from another session,
possibly from another firewall.
3.
View the WildFire logs by selecting Monitor > Logs > WildFire
Submissions. If new WildFire logs appear, the firewall is
successfully forwarding files to WildFire and WildFire is
returning file analysis reports.
For more information on WildFire, refer to the Palo Alto Networks WildFire Administrator’s Guide.
Getting Started Guide
57
Scan Traffic for Threats
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Scan Traffic for Threats
Security profiles provide threat protection in security policies. For example, you can apply an antivirus profile
to a security policy and all traffic that matches the security policy will be scanned for viruses.
The following sections provide steps for setting up a basic threat prevention configuration:

Set Up Antivirus, Anti-Spyware, and Vulnerability Protection

Set Up File Blocking
Set Up Antivirus, Anti-Spyware, and Vulnerability Protection
Every Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall comes with default Antivirus, Anti-Spyware, and
Vulnerability Protection profiles that you can attach to security policies.
As a best practice, attach the default antivirus profile and the strict profiles for anti-spyware and
vulnerability protection, to your basic web access policies to ensure that the traffic entering your
network is free from threats.
As you monitor the traffic on your network and expand your policy rulebase, you can design more granular
profiles to address your specific security needs. The strict profile applies the block response to all client and
server critical, high and medium severity spyware events and uses the default action for low and informational
vulnerability protection events. For all Anti-Spyware and Vulnerability Protection signatures a default action is
defined by Palo Alto Networks. You can view the default action by navigating to Objects > Security Profiles >
Anti-Spyware or Objects > Security Profiles >Vulnerability Protection and then selecting a profile. Click the
Exceptions tab and then click Show all signatures and you will see a list of the signatures with the default action
in the Action column. To change the default action, you must create a new profile and then create rules with a
non-default action, and/or add individual signature exceptions in the Exceptions tab of the profile.
Set up Antivirus/Anti-Spyware/Vulnerability Protection
Step 1
Verify that you have a Threat Prevention • The Threat Prevention license bundles the Antivirus,
license.
Anti-Spyware, and the Vulnerability Protection features in one
license.
• Select Device > Licenses to verify that the Threat Prevention
license is installed and valid (check the expiration date).
Step 2
58
Download the latest antivirus threat
signatures.
1.
Select Device > Dynamic Updates and click Check Now at the
bottom of the page to retrieve the latest signatures.
2.
In the Actions column, click Download to install the latest
Antivirus, and Applications and Threats signatures.
Getting Started Guide
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Scan Traffic for Threats
Set up Antivirus/Anti-Spyware/Vulnerability Protection (Continued)
Step 3
Schedule signature updates.
Best Practice for Updates:
Perform a download-and-install on a daily basis
for antivirus updates and weekly for applications
and threats updates.
1.
From Device > Dynamic Updates, click the text to the right of
Schedule to automatically retrieve signature updates for
Antivirus and Applications and Threats.
2.
Specify the frequency and timing for the updates and whether
the update will be downloaded and installed or only
downloaded. If you select Download Only, you would need to
manually go in and click the Install link in the Action column to
install the signature. When you click OK, the update is scheduled.
No commit is required.
3.
(Optional) You can also enter the number of hours in the
Threshold field to indicate the minimum age of a signature
before a download will occur. For example, if you entered 10, the
signature must be at least 10 hours old before it will be
downloaded, regardless of the schedule.
4.
In an HA configuration, you can also click the Sync To Peer
option to synchronize the content update with the HA peer
after download/install. This will not push the schedule settings
to the peer device, you need to configure the schedule on each
device.
Recommendations for HA Configurations:
• Active/Passive HA—If the MGT port is used for antivirus signature downloads, you should configure a schedule on
both devices and both devices will download/install independently. If you are using a data port for downloads, the
passive device will not perform downloads while it is in the passive state. In this case you would set a schedule on both
devices and then select the Sync To Peer option. This will ensure that whichever device is active, the updates will occur
and will then push to the passive device.
• Active/Active HA—If the MGT port is used for antivirus signature downloads on both devices, then schedule the
download/install on both devices, but do not select the Sync To Peer option. If you are using a data port, schedule the
signature downloads on both devices and select Sync To Peer. This will ensure that if one device in the active/active
configuration goes into the active-secondary state, the active device will download/install the signature and will then
push it to the active-secondary device.
Getting Started Guide
59
Scan Traffic for Threats
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Set up Antivirus/Anti-Spyware/Vulnerability Protection (Continued)
Step 4
Step 5
Attach the security profiles to a security
policy.
Save the configuration.
1.
Select Policies > Security, select the desired policy to modify it
and then click the Actions tab.
2.
In Profile Settings, click the drop-down next to each security
profile you would like to enable. In this example we choose
default for Antivirus, and strict for Vulnerability Protection,
and Anti-Spyware.
(If you don’t see drop-downs for selecting profiles, select
Profiles from the Profile Type drop-down.)
Click Commit.
Set Up File Blocking
File blocking profiles allow you to identify specific file types that you want to want to block or monitor. The
following workflow shows how to set up a basic file blocking profile that prevents users from downloading
executable files from the Internet.
Configure File Blocking
Step 1
Create the file blocking profile.
1.
Select Objects > Security Profiles > File Blocking and click
Add.
2.
60
Enter a Name for the file blocking profile, for example
Block_EXE. Optionally enter a Description, such as Block users
from downloading exe files from websites.
Getting Started Guide
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Scan Traffic for Threats
Configure File Blocking (Continued)
Step 2
Configure the file blocking options.
1.
Click Add to define the profile settings.
2.
Enter a Name, such as BlockEXE.
3.
Set the Applications to which to apply file blocking, or leave it
set to any.
4.
Set File Types to block. For example, to block download of
executables, you would select exe.
5.
Specify the Direction in which to block files download, upload,
or both.
6.
Set the Action to one of the following:
• continue—Users will have to click Continue in order to
proceed with the download/upload. You must enable
response pages on the associated interfaces if you plan to use
this option.
• block—Files matching the selected criteria will be blocked
from download/upload.
• alert—Files matching the selected criteria will be allowed,
but will generate a log entry in the data filtering log.
Step 3
Step 4
Attach the file blocking profile to the
security policies that allow access to
content.
7.
Click OK to save the profile.
1.
Select Policies > Security and either select an existing policy or
create a new policy as described in Create Security Rules.
2.
Click the Actions tab within the security policy.
3.
In the Profile Settings section, click the drop-down and select
the file blocking profile you created. (If you don’t see
drop-downs for selecting profiles, select Profiles from the
Profile Type drop-down.)
1.
Enable Response Pages in the
management profile for each interface on
which you are attaching file blocking
profile with a continue action.
2.
Getting Started Guide
Select Network > Network Profiles > Interface Mgmt and then
select an interface profile to edit or click Add to create a new
profile.
Select Response Pages, as well as any other management
services required on the interface.
3.
Click OK to save the interface management profile.
4.
Select Network > Interfaces and select the interface to which to
attach the profile.
5.
On the Advanced > Other Info tab, select the interface
management profile you just created.
6.
Click OK to save the interface settings.
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Scan Traffic for Threats
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Configure File Blocking (Continued)
Step 5
To test the file blocking configuration, access a client PC in the trust zone of the firewall and attempt to
download a .exe file from a website in the untrust zone. A response page should display. Click Continue to
download the file. You can also set other actions, such as alert only, forward (which will forward to WildFire), or
block, which will not provide a continue page to the user. The following shows the default response page for
File Blocking:
Example: Default File Blocking Response Page
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Getting Started Guide
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Control Access to Web Content
Control Access to Web Content
URL filtering provides visibility and control over web traffic on your network. With URL filtering enabled, the
firewall can categorize web traffic into one or more (from approximately 60) categories. You can then create
policies that specify whether to allow, block, or log (alert) traffic based on the category to which it belongs. The
following workflow shows how to enable PAN-DB for URL filtering, create security profiles, and attach them
to security policies to enforce a basic URL filtering policy.
Configure URL Filtering
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Confirm license information for URL
Filtering.
1.
Obtain and install a URL Filtering license. See Activate Licenses
for details.
2.
Select Device > Licenses and verify that the URL Filtering
license is valid.
Download the seed database and activate 1.
the license.
Create a URL filtering profile.
Best Practice for New Profiles:
2.
Choose a region (North America, Europe, APAC, Japan) and
then click OK to start the download.
3.
After the download completes, click Activate.
1.
Select Objects > Security Profiles > URL Filtering.
2.
Select the default profile and then click Clone. The new profile
will be named default-1.
Because the default URL filtering profile blocks
risky and threat-prone content, clone this profile 3.
when creating a new profile in order to preserve the
default settings.
Getting Started Guide
To download the seed database, click Download next to
Download Status in the PAN-DB URL Filtering section of the
Licenses page.
Select the new profile and rename it.
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Control Access to Web Content
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Configure URL Filtering (Continued)
Step 4
Define how to control access to web
content.
1.
For each category that you want visibility into or control over,
select a value from the Action column as follows:
• If you do not care about traffic to a particular category (that
is you neither want to block it nor log it), select Allow.
If you are not sure what traffic you want
to control, consider setting the categories
(except for those blocked by default) to
alert. You can then use the visibility tools
on the firewall, such as the ACC and App
Scope, to determine which web categories
to restrict to specific groups or to block
entirely. You can then go back and modify
the profile to block and allow categories
as desired.
• For visibility into traffic to sites in a category, select Alert
• To prevent access to traffic that matches the associated
policy, select Block (this also generates a log entry).
You can also define specific sites to always
allow or always block regardless of
category and enable the safe search
option to filter search results when
defining the URL filtering profile.
For more details, refer to “URL Filtering”
in the PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide.
Step 5
Step 6
64
Attach the URL filtering profile to a
security policy.
2.
Click OK to save the URL filtering profile.
1.
Select Policies > Security.
2.
Select the desired policy to modify it and then click the Actions
tab.
3.
If this is the first time you are defining a security profile, select
Profiles from the Profile Type drop-down.
4.
In the Profile Settings list, select the profile you just created
from the URL Filtering drop-down. (If you don’t see
drop-downs for selecting profiles, select Profiles from the
Profile Type drop-down.)
5.
Click OK to save the profile.
6.
Commit the configuration.
Enable Response Pages in the
1.
management profile for each interface on
which you are filtering web traffic.
Select Network > Network Profiles > Interface Mgmt and then
select an interface profile to edit or click Add to create a new
profile.
2.
Select Response Pages, as well as any other management
services required on the interface.
3.
Click OK to save the interface management profile.
4.
Select Network > Interfaces and select the interface to which to
attach the profile.
5.
On the Advanced > Other Info tab, select the interface
management profile you just created.
6.
Click OK to save the interface settings.
Getting Started Guide
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Control Access to Web Content
Configure URL Filtering (Continued)
Step 7
Save the configuration.
Click Commit.
Step 8
To test URL filtering, access a client PC from the zone where the security policy is applied and attempt to access
a site in a blocked category. You should see a URL Filtering response page that indicates that the page has been
blocked:
For More Information
For more details on URL filtering, refer to the URL Filtering section of the PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide.
For filtering or scanning for threats within encrypted traffic, such as with SSL and SSH, you must configure a
decryption policy, see Decryption in the PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide for more details.
For information about the threats and applications that Palo Alto Networks products can identify, visit the
following links:

Applipedia—Provides details on the applications that Palo Alto Networks can identify.

Threat Vault—Lists threats that Palo Alto Networks products can identify. You can search by Vulnerability,
Spyware, or Virus. Click the Details icon next to the ID number for more information about a threat.
Getting Started Guide
65
Control Access to Web Content
66
Protect Your Network Against Threats
Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
User Identification (User-ID) is a Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall feature that allows you to create
policies and perform reporting based on users and groups rather than individual IP addresses. The following
sections describe the Palo Alto Networks User-ID feature and provide instructions on setting up user- and
group-based access:

User Identification Overview

Enable User Identification

Enable User- and Group-Based Policy

Verify the User-ID Configuration
Getting Started Guide
67
User Identification Overview
Configure User Identification
User Identification Overview
User-ID seamlessly integrates Palo Alto Networks firewalls with a range of enterprise directory and terminal
services offerings, enabling you to tie application activity and security policies to users and groups—not just IP
addresses. The Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall supports the following enterprise services:

Microsoft Active Directory

LDAP

Novell eDirectory

Citrix Metaframe Presentation Server or XenApp

Microsoft Terminal Services
To be able to create policy based on user and group, the firewall must have a list of all available users and their
corresponding group mappings that you can select from when defining your policies. It gets this group mapping
information by connecting directly to your LDAP directory server. See About Group Mapping for more
information.
To be able to enforce the user- and group-based policies, the firewall must be able to map the IP addresses in
the packets it receives into user names. It gets this user mapping information—either directly or from a User-ID
agent installed on a Windows server—by monitoring Microsoft Exchange Server or domain controller event
logs for logon events, monitoring Novell eDirectory for login information, or by directly probing the client
systems. See About User Mapping for more information.
About Group Mapping
In order to define security policies based on user or group, the firewall must retrieve the list of groups and the
corresponding list of members from your directory server. To enable this functionality, you must create an
LDAP server profile that instructs the firewall how to connect and authenticate to the server and how to search
the directory for the user and group information. After you successfully connect to the LDAP server and
configure the group mapping functionality for user identification, you will be able to select users or groups when
defining your security policies. The firewall supports a variety of LDAP directory servers, including Microsoft
Active Directory (AD), Novell eDirectory, and Sun ONE Directory Server.
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Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
User Identification Overview
About User Mapping
Having the names of the users and groups is only one piece of the puzzle. The firewall also needs to know which
IP addresses map to which users so that security policies can be enforced appropriately. To do this user mapping,
you must configure a User-ID agent—either by installing the agent software on a Windows server in the domain
or by enabling the native agent on the firewall—to obtain the mappings using one or more of the following
methods:

Monitoring the security event logs for your Microsoft Exchange Servers, domain controllers, or Novell
eDirectory servers for logon events. For example, in an AD environment, the agent will monitor the security
logs for Kerberos ticket grants or renewals, Exchange server access (if configured), and file and print service
connections (for monitored servers). Keep in mind that in order for these events to be recorded in the
security log, the AD domain must be configured to log successful account logon events. See Configure User
Mapping for details.

In a Microsoft Windows environment, the agent can be configured to probe client systems using Windows
Management Instrumentation (WMI) or NetBIOS (not supported on the PAN-OS integrated User-ID
agent). If probing is enabled, the agent will probe each learned IP address periodically (every 20 minutes by
default, but this is configurable) to verify that the same user is still logged in. In addition, when the firewall
encounters an IP address for which it has no user mapping it will send the address to the agent for an
immediate probe. See Configure User Mapping for details.

In environments with multi-user systems—such as Microsoft Terminal Server or Citrix environments—
many users share the same IP address. In this case, the user-to-IP address mapping process requires
knowledge of the source port of each client. To perform this type of mapping, you must install the Palo Alto
Networks Terminal Services Agent on the Windows/Citrix terminal server itself to intermediate the
assignment of source ports to the various user processes. For terminal servers that do not support the
Terminal Services Agent, such as Linux terminal servers, you can use the XML API to send user mapping
information from login and logout events to User-ID. Refer to “Configure User Mapping for Terminal
Server Users” in the PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide for configuration details.

In environments with existing network services that authenticate users—such as wireless controllers, 802.1x
devices, Apple Open Directory servers, proxy servers, or other Network Access Control (NAC)
mechanisms—the firewall User-ID agent (either the Windows agent or the PAN-OS integrated agent on the
firewall) can now listen for authentication syslog messages from those services. Syslog filters, which are
provided by a content update (integrated User-ID agent only) or configured manually, allow the User-ID
agent to parse and extract usernames and IP addresses from authentication syslog events generated by the
external service, and add the information to the User-ID IP address to username mappings maintained by
the firewall. Refer to “Configure User-ID to Receive User Mappings from a Syslog Sender” in the PAN-OS
Administrator’s Guide for configuration details.

For mobile or roaming users, the GlobalProtect client provides the user mapping information to the firewall
directly. For more information on setting up GlobalProtect, refer to For more information on setting up
GlobalProtect, refer to the GlobalProtect Administrator’s Guide.

If the firewall or the User-ID agent are unable to map an IP address to a user—for example if the user is not
logged in or is using an operating system such as Linux that is not supported by your domain servers—you
can configure Captive Portal. When configured, any web traffic (HTTP or HTTPS) matching your Captive
Getting Started Guide
69
User Identification Overview
Configure User Identification
Portal policy requires user authentication, either transparently via an NT LAN Manager (NTLM) challenge
to the browser, or actively by redirecting the user to a web authentication form for authentication against a
RADIUS, LDAP, Kerberos, or local authentication database or using client certificate authentication.

For other types of user access that cannot be mapped using standard user mapping or Captive Portal
methods—for example, to add mappings of users connecting from a third-party VPN solution or users
connecting to a 802.1x enabled wireless network. Refer to the PAN-OS XMLAPI Usage Guide.
The following diagram illustrates the different methods that are used to identify users and groups on your
network:
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Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
Enable User Identification
Enable User Identification
To enable policy enforcement based on user or group, you must complete the following tasks:

Map Users to Groups

Map IP Addresses to Users

Enable User- and Group-Based Policy
Map Users to Groups
Use the following procedure to connect to your LDAP directory to enable the firewall to retrieve user-to-group
mapping information:
Getting Started Guide
71
Enable User Identification
Configure User Identification
Map Users to Groups
Step 1
Create an LDAP Server Profile that specifies how to connect to the directory servers you want the firewall to
use to obtain group mapping information.
1. Select Device > Server Profiles > LDAP.
2. Click Add and then enter a Name for the
profile.
3. (Optional) Select the virtual system to
which this profile applies from the
Location drop-down.
4. Click Add to add a new LDAP server
entry and then enter a Server name to
identify the server (1-31 characters) and
the IP Address and Port number the
firewall should use to connect to the
LDAP server (default=389 for LDAP;
636 for LDAP over SSL). You can add up to four LDAP servers to the profile, however, all the servers you
add to a profile must be of the same type. For redundancy you should add at least two servers.
5. Enter the LDAP Domain name to prepend to all objects learned from the server. The value you enter here
depends on your deployment:
• If you are using Active Directory, you must enter the NetBIOS domain name; NOT a FQDN (for example,
enter acme, not acme.com). Note that if you need to collect data from multiple domains you will need to
create separate server profiles.
• If you are using a global catalog server, leave this field blank.
6. Select the Type of LDAP server you are connecting to. The correct LDAP attributes in the group mapping
settings will automatically be populated based on your selection. However, if you have customized your LDAP
schema you may need to modify the default settings.
7. In the Base field, select the DN that corresponds to the point in the LDAP tree where you want the firewall
to begin its search for user and group information.
8. Enter the authentication credentials for binding to the LDAP tree in the Bind DN, Bind Password, and
Confirm Bind Password fields. The Bind DN can be in either User Principal Name (UPN) format
(i.e. administrator@acme.local) or it can be a fully qualified LDAP name
(i.e. cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=acme,dc=local).
9. If you want the firewall to communicate with the LDAP server(s) over a secure connection, select the SSL
check box. If you enable SSL, make sure that you have also specified the appropriate port number.
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Enable User Identification
Map Users to Groups (Continued)
Step 2
Add the LDAP server profile to the User-ID Group Mapping configuration.
1. Select Device > User Identification > Group
Mapping Settings and click Add.
2. Select the Server Profile you created in
Step 1.
3. Make sure the Enabled check box is selected.
4. (Optional) If you want to limit which groups
are displayed within security policy, select the
Group Include List tab and then browse
through the LDAP tree to locate the groups
you want to be able to use in policy. For each
group you want to include, select it in the
Available Groups list and click the add icon
to move it to the Included Groups list. Repeat
this step for every group you want to be able
to use in your policies.
5. Click OK to save the settings.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Click Commit.
Map IP Addresses to Users
The tasks you need to perform to map IP addresses to user names depends on the type and location of the client
systems on your network. Complete as many of the following tasks as necessary to enable mapping of your client
systems:

To map clients that are logged in to your monitored Exchange servers, domain controllers, or eDirectory
servers, or Windows clients that can be directly probed see Configure User Mapping.

If you have users with client systems that are not logged into your domain servers—for example, users
running Linux clients that do not log in to the domain—see Map IP Addresses to User Names Using
Captive Portal.

If you have clients running multi-user systems such as Microsoft Terminal Server or Citrix Metaframe
Presentation Server or XenApp, refer “Configure User Mapping for Terminal Server Users” in the
PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide for configuration details.

For other clients that you are unable to map using the previous methods, you can use the XML-based
REST API to add user mappings directly to the firewall. Refer to the PAN-OS XML API Usage Guide for
instructions.
Getting Started Guide
73
Enable User Identification
Configure User Identification
Configure User Mapping
In most cases, the majority of your network users will have logins to your monitored domain services. For these
users, the Palo Alto Networks User-ID Agent will perform the IP address to user mapping. The way you
configure the User-ID agent depends on the size of your environment and the location of your directory servers.
As a best practice, locate your User-ID agents on or near your monitored servers. This is because
most of the traffic for user mapping occurs between the agent and the monitored server, with only
a small amount of traffic—the delta of IP address mappings since the last update—from the agent
to the firewall.
However, in smaller environments (although this will vary depending on deployment, as a general rule you
should use the on-device agents in environments where you will be monitoring ten or fewer directory servers),
you can use the on-device agent that resides on the firewall without the need to install separate agent software
on your network servers. In addition, if you are using the on-device agent, you can configure it to redistribute
user mapping information to other firewalls.
For information about the system requirements for installing the Windows-based User-ID agent, refer to the
User-ID Agent Release Notes, which are available on the Palo Alto Networks Software Updates page.
The following procedure shows how to configure the PAN-OS integrated User-ID agent on the firewall for
monitoring Active Directory domain controllers. For instructions on installing and configuring the
Windows-based User-ID agent, refer to “Configure User Mapping Using the Windows User-ID Agent” in the
PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide.
Map IP Addresses to Users Using the PAN-OS Integrated User-ID Agent
Step 1
• Windows 2008 or later domain servers—Add the account to the
Create an Active Directory account for
Event Log Readers group. If you are using the on-device User-ID
the firewall agent that has the privilege
agent, the account must also be a member of the Distributed COM
levels required to log in to each service or
Users Group.
host you plan to monitor to collect user
mapping data.
• Windows 2003 domain servers—Assign Manage Auditing and
Security Logs permissions through group policy.
• WMI probing—Make sure the account has rights to read the
CIMV2 namespace; by default, Domain Administrator and Server
Operator accounts have this permission.
• NTLM authentication—Because the firewall must join the
domain if you are using NTLM authentication with an on-device
User-ID agent, the Windows account you create for NTLM access
must have administrative privileges. Note that due to AD
restrictions on virtual systems running on the same host, if you
have configured multiple virtual systems, only vsys1 will be able to
join the domain.
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Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
Enable User Identification
Map IP Addresses to Users Using the PAN-OS Integrated User-ID Agent (Continued)
Step 2
Define the servers the firewall should
monitor to collect IP address to user
mapping information. You can define
entries for up to 100 Microsoft Active
Directory, Microsoft Exchange, or Novell
eDirectory servers on your network.
1.
Select Device > User Identification > User Mapping.
2.
In the Server Monitor section of the screen, click Add.
3.
Enter a Name and Network Address for the server. The
network address can be a FQDN or an IP address.
4.
Select the Type of server.
5.
Keep in mind that in order to collect all of
the required mappings, you must connect 6.
to all servers that your users log in to so
that the firewall can monitor the security
log files on all servers that contain logon
events.
Make sure the Enabled check box is selected and then click OK
(Optional) To enable the firewall to automatically discover
domain controllers on your network using DNS lookups, click
Discover.
Note
7.
The auto-discovery feature is for domain controllers only;
you must manually add any Exchange servers or eDirectory
servers you want to monitor.
(Optional) To tune the frequency at which the firewall polls
configured servers for mapping information, in the Palo Alto
Networks User ID Agent Setup section of the screen, click the
Edit
icon and then select the Server Monitor tab. Modify
the value in the Server Log Monitor Frequency (sec) field.
Best Practice:
You should increase the value in the Server Log Monitor
Frequency (sec) field to 5 seconds in environments with older
DCs or high-latency links.
8.
Step 3
Set the domain credentials for the account 1.
the firewall will use to access Windows
resources. This is required for monitoring 2.
Exchange servers and domain controllers
as well as for WMI probing.
Getting Started Guide
Click OK to save the changes.
Click the Edit
icon in the Palo Alto Networks User ID Agent
Setup section of the screen.
On the WMI Authentication tab, enter the User Name and
Password for the account that will be used to probe the clients
and monitor servers. Enter the user name using the
domain\username syntax.
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Enable User Identification
Configure User Identification
Map IP Addresses to Users Using the PAN-OS Integrated User-ID Agent (Continued)
1.
Step 4
(Optional) Enable WMI probing.
Note
The on-device agent does not support
NetBIOS probing; it is supported on the 2.
Windows-based User-ID agent only.
Step 5
Step 6
Note
Save the configuration.
(Optional) Define the set of users for
which you do not need to provide IP
address to user name mappings, such as
service accounts or kiosk accounts.
On the Client Probing tab, select the Enable Probing check
box.
(Optional) If necessary, modify the value of the Probe Interval
to ensure that it is long enough for all learned IP addresses to be
probed.
3.
Make sure the Windows firewall will allow client probing by
adding a a remote administration exception to the Windows
firewall for each probed client.
1.
Click OK to save the User-ID agent setup settings.
2.
Click Commit to save the configuration.
1.
Open a CLI session to the firewall.
2.
To add the list of user accounts for which you do not want the
firewall to perform mapping, run the following command:
set user-id-collector ignore-user <value>
You can also use the ignore-user list to
identify users that you want to force to
authenticate using Captive Portal.
Where <value> is a list of the user accounts to ignore; there is
no limit to the number of accounts you can add to the list.
Separate entries with a space and do not include the domain
name with the username. For example:
set user-id-collector ignore-user SPAdmin SPInstall
TFSReport
3.
Step 7
Verify the configuration.
1.
Commit your changes.
From the CLI, enter the following command:
show user server-monitor state all
2.
On the Device > User Identification > User Mapping tab in the
web interface, verify that the Status of each server you
configured for server monitoring is Connected.
Map IP Addresses to User Names Using Captive Portal
If the firewall receives a request from a zone that has User-ID enabled and the source IP address does not have
any user data associated with it yet, it checks its Captive Portal policy for a match to determine whether to
perform authentication. This is useful in environments where you have clients that are not logged in to your
domain servers, such as Linux clients. This user mapping method is only triggered for web traffic (HTTP or
HTTPS) that matches a security rule/policy, but that has not been mapped using a different method.
Captive Portal Authentication Methods
Captive Portal uses the following methods to obtain user data from the client when a request matches a Captive
Portal policy:
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Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
Enable User Identification
Authentication Method
Description
NTLM Authentication
The firewall uses an encrypted challenge-response mechanism to obtain the user’s
credentials from the browser. When configured properly, the browser will provide
the credentials to the firewall transparently without prompting the user, but will
display a prompt for credentials if necessary. If the browser cannot perform NTLM
or if NTLM authentication fails, the firewall falls back to web form or client
certificate authentication, depending on your Captive Portal configuration.
By default, IE supports NTLM. Firefox and Chrome can be configured to use it.
You cannot use NTLM to authenticate non-Windows clients.
Web Form
Requests are redirected to a web form for authentication. You can configure
Captive Portal to use a local user database, RADIUS, LDAP, or Kerberos to
authenticate users. Although users will always be prompted for credentials, this
authentication method works with all browsers and operating systems.
Client Certificate Authentication
Prompts the browser to present a valid client certificate for authenticating the user.
To use this method, you must provision client certificates on each user system and
install the trusted CA certificate used to issue those certificates on the firewall. This
is the only authentication method that enables transparent authentication for Mac
OS and Linux clients.
Captive Portal Modes
The Captive Portal mode defines how web requests are captured for authentication:
Mode
Description
Transparent
The firewall intercepts the browser traffic per the Captive Portal rule and
impersonates the original destination URL, issuing an HTTP 401 to invoke
authentication. However, because the firewall does not have the real certificate for
the destination URL, the browser will display a certificate error to users attempting
to access a secure site. Therefore you should only use this mode when absolutely
necessary, such as in Layer 2 or virtual wire deployments.
Redirect
The firewall intercepts unknown HTTP or HTTPS sessions and redirects them to
a Layer 3 interface on the firewall using an HTTP 302 redirect in order to perform
authentication. This is the preferred mode because it provides a better end-user
experience (no certificate errors). However, it does require additional Layer 3
configuration. Another benefit of the Redirect mode is that it provides for the use
of session cookies, which enable the user to continue browsing to authenticated
sites without requiring re-mapping each time the time outs expire. This is especially
useful for users who roam from one IP address to another (for example, from the
corporate LAN to the wireless network) because they will not need to
re-authenticate upon IP address change as long as the session stays open. In
addition, if you plan to use NTLM authentication, you must use Redirect mode
because the browser will only provide credentials to trusted sites.
Getting Started Guide
77
Enable User Identification
Configure User Identification
Configure Captive Portal
The following procedure shows how to configure Captive Portal using the on-device User-ID agent to redirect
requests that match a Captive Portal policy to a Layer 3 interface on the firewall. For instructions on configuring
Captive Portal using the Windows-based agent, refer to refer to “Configure User Mapping Using the Windows
User-ID Agent” in the PAN-OS Administrator’s Guide.
If you plan to use Captive Portal without using the other User-ID functions (user mapping and group mapping),
you do not need to configure an agent.
Configure Captive Portal Using the PAN-OS Integrated User-ID Agent
Step 1
Make sure the firewall has a route to the
servers it will be monitoring to gather
user data (for example, your Domain
Controllers and your Exchange servers).
In this release of the product, the firewall must be able to
communicate with the servers over the MGT interface, so you must
make sure that the network your directory servers are on is accessible
from this interface. If this configuration does not work in your
environment, you must configure Captive Portal using the
Window-based User-ID agent.
Step 2
Make sure DNS is configured to resolve
your Domain Controller addresses.
To verify proper resolution, ping the server FQDN. For
example:
admin@PA-200> ping host dc1.acme.com
Step 3
(Redirect mode only) Create a Layer 3
interface to which to redirect Captive
Portal requests.
1.
Create a management profile to enable the interface to display
Captive Portal response pages:
a. Select Network > Network Profiles > Interface Mgmt and
click Add.
b. Enter a Name for the profile, select Response Pages, and
then click OK.
78
2.
Create the Layer 3 interface. See Set Up Interfaces and Zones
for instructions. Be sure to attach the management profile you
created in Step 1 (on the Advanced > Other Info tab of the
Ethernet Interface dialog).
3.
Create a DNS “A” record that maps the IP address you
configured on the Layer 3 interface to an intranet host name
(that is, a hostname that does not have a dot in the name, such
as ntlmhost).
Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
Enable User Identification
Configure Captive Portal Using the PAN-OS Integrated User-ID Agent (Continued)
To use a self-signed certificate, you must first create a root CA
certificate and then use that CA to sign the certificate you will use for
Captive Portal as follows:
1. To create a root CA certificate, select Device > Certificate
Management > Certificates > Device Certificates and then
click Generate. Enter a Certificate Name, such as RootCA. Do
not select a value in the Signed By field (this is what indicates
that it is self-signed). Make sure you select the Certificate
Authority check box and then click OK to generate the
certificate.
Step 4
(Redirect mode only) To transparently
redirect users without displaying
certificate errors, install a certificate that
matches the IP address of the interface to
which you are redirecting requests.You
can either generate a self-signed
certificate or import a certificate that is
signed by an external CA.
Note
When setting up Captive Portal for the
first time, imported certificates may not
work. If you plan to use an imported
2.
certificate, complete the initial
configuration without specifying a Server
Certificate. After you get Captive Portal
working, you can go back and switch to
the imported certificate.
Step 5
To create the certificate to use for Captive Portal, click
Generate. Enter a Certificate Name and enter the DNS name
of the intranet host for the interface as the Common Name. In
the Signed By field, select the CA you created in the previous
step. Add an IP address attribute and specify the IP address of
the Layer 3 interface to which you will be redirecting requests.
Click OK to generate the certificate.
3.
To configure clients to trust the certificate, select the CA
certificate on the Device Certificates tab and click Export. You
must then import the certificate as a trusted root CA into all
client browsers, either by manually configuring the browser or
by adding the certificate to the trusted roots in an Active
Directory Group Policy Object (GPO).
Set up an authentication mechanism to
1.
use to when the web form is invoked.
Note that even if you plan to use NTLM,
you must also set up a secondary
authentication mechanism that can be
used if NTLM authentication fails or if
the user agent does not support it.
Configure the firewall to connect to the authentication service
you plan to use so that it can access the authentication
credentials.
Best Practices:
• If using RADIUS to authenticate users
from the web form, be sure to enter a
RADIUS domain. This will be used as
the default domain if users don’t
supply one upon login.
2.
• If using AD to authenticate users from
the web form, make sure to enter
sAMAccountName as the
LogonAttribute.
Getting Started Guide
• If you plan to authenticate using LDAP, Kerberos, or
RADIUS you must create a server profile that instructs the
firewall how to connect to the service and access the
authentication credentials for your users. Select Device >
Server Profiles and add a new profile for the specific service
you will be accessing.
• If you plan to use local database authentication, you must
first create the local database. Select Device > Local User
Database and add the users and groups to be authenticated.
Create an authentication profile that references the server
profile or local user database you just created. Select Device >
Authentication Profile and add a new profile for use with
Captive Portal.
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Enable User Identification
Configure User Identification
Configure Captive Portal Using the PAN-OS Integrated User-ID Agent (Continued)
Step 6
Note
(Optional) Set up client certificate
1.
authentication. Note that you do not need
to set up both an authentication profile 2.
and a client certificate profile to enable
3.
Captive Portal. If you configure both, the
user will be required to authenticate using
both methods.
For details on other certificate profile
fields, such as whether to use CRL or
OCSP, click the help icon on the web
interface page Device > Certificate
Management > Certificate Profile.
Generate certificates for each user that will be authenticating
using Captive Portal.
Download the CA certificate in Base64 format.
Import the root CA certificate from the CA that generated the
client certificates onto the firewall:
a. Select Device > Certificate Management > Certificates >
Device Certificates and click Import.
b. Enter a Certificate Name that identifies the certificate as
your client CA certificate.
c. Browse to the Certificate File you downloaded from the
CA.
d. Select Base64 Encoded Certificate (PEM) as the File Format
and then click OK.
e. Select the certificate you just imported on the Device
Certificates tab to open it.
f. Select Trusted Root CA and then click OK.
4.
Create the client certificate profile that you will use when you
configure Captive Portal.
a. Select Device > Certificates > Certificate Management >
Certificate Profile and click Add and enter a profile Name.
b. In the Username Field drop-down, select the certificate field
that contains the user’s identity information.
c. In the CA Certificates field, click Add, select the Trusted
Root CA certificate you imported in Step 3 and then click OK.
1.
Step 7
Enable NTLM authentication.
Note
When using the on-device User-ID agent,
the firewall must be able to successfully
resolve the DNS name of your Domain 2.
Controller in order for the firewall to join
the domain. The credentials you supply 3.
here will be used to join the firewall to the
domain upon successful DNS resolution.
4.
80
Select Device > User Identification > User Mapping and click
the Edit
icon in the Palo Alto Networks User ID Agent
Setup section of the screen.
On the NTLM tab, select the Enable NTLM authentication
processing check box.
Enter the NTLM domain against which the User-ID agent on
the firewall should check NTLM credentials.
Enter the user name and password for the Active Directory
account you created in Step 1 in Map Users to Groups for
NTLM authentication.
Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
Enable User Identification
Configure Captive Portal Using the PAN-OS Integrated User-ID Agent (Continued)
Step 8
Configure the Captive Portal settings.
1. Select Device > User Identification >
Captive Portal Settings and click the Edit
icon in the Captive Portal section of the
screen.
2. Make sure the Enabled check box is selected.
3. Set the Mode. This example, shows how to
set up Redirect mode.
4. (Redirect mode only) Select the Server
Certificate the firewall should use to redirect
requests over SSL. This is the certificate you
created in Step 4.
5. (Redirect mode only) Specify the Redriect
Host, which is the intranet hostname that resolves to the IP address of the Layer 3 interface to which you are
redirecting requests, as specified in Step 3.
6. (Redirect mode only) Enable Session Cookies, using the Timeout field to specify the number of minutes the
session cookie is valid and select Roaming to retain the cookie if the IP address changes while the session is
active.
7. Select the authentication method to use if NTLM fails (or if you are not using NTLM):
• If you are using LDAP, Kerberos, RADIUS, or local database authentication, select the Authentication
Profile you created in Step 5.
• If you are using client certificate authentication, select the Certificate Profile you created in Step 6.
8. Click OK to save your settings.
9. Click Commit to save the Captive Portal configuration.
Getting Started Guide
81
Enable User- and Group-Based Policy
Configure User Identification
Enable User- and Group-Based Policy
In order to enable security policy based on user and/or group, you must enable User-ID for each zone that
contains users you want to identify. You can then define policies that allow or deny traffic based on user name
or group membership. Additionally, you can create Captive Portal policies to enable identification for IP
addresses that do not yet have any user data associated with them.
Enable User- and Group-Based Policy
Step 1
Enable User-ID on the source zones that contain the users that will be sending requests that require user-based
access controls.
1. Select Network > Zones.
2. Click on the Name of the zone in
which you want to enable User-ID to
open the Zone dialog.
3. Select the Enable User Identification
check box and then click OK.
Step 2
Create security policies based on user
and/or group.
1.
Best Practice:
After configuring User-ID, you will be able to choose a user
name or group name when defining the source or destination of
a security rule:
a. Select Policies > Security and click Add to create a new
policy or click on an existing policy rule name to open the
Security Policy Rule dialog.
Create policy based on group rather than
user whenever possible. This prevents
you from having to continually update
your policies (which requires a commit)
whenever your user base changes.
b. Specify which users and/or groups to match in the policy in
one of the following ways:
– If you want to specify specific users/groups as matching
criteria, select the User tab and click the Add button in
the Source User section of the dialog to display a list of
users and groups discovered by the firewall group mapping
function. Select the users and/or groups to add to the
policy.
– If you want the policy to match any user who has or has not
successfully authenticated and you don’t need to know the
specific user or group name, select known-user or
unknown from the drop-down list above the Source User
list.
2.
82
Configure the rest of the policy as appropriate and then click OK
to save it. For details on other fields in the security policy, see Set
Up Basic Security Policies.
Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
Enable User- and Group-Based Policy
Enable User- and Group-Based Policy (Continued)
Step 3
Create your Captive Portal Policies.
1. Select Policies > Captive Portal.
2. Click Add and enter a Name for the policy.
3. Define the matching criteria for the rule by completing the Source, Destination, and Service/URL Category
tabs as appropriate to match the traffic you want to authenticate. The matching criteria on these tabs is the
same as the criteria you define when creating a security policy. See Set Up Basic Security Policies for details.
4. Define the Action to take on traffic that matches the rule. You can choose:
• no-captive-portal—Allow traffic to pass without presenting a Captive Portal page for authentication.
• web-form—Present a Captive Portal page for the user to explicitly enter authentication credentials or use
client certificate authentication.
• browser-challenge—Open an NTLM authentication request to the user's web browser. The web browser
will respond using the user’s current login credentials. If the login credentials are not available, the user will
be prompted to supply them.
The following example shows a Captive Portal policy that instructs the firewall to present a web form to
authenticate unknown users who send HTTP requests from the trust zone to the untrust zone.
Step 4
Save your policy settings.
Getting Started Guide
Click Commit.
83
Verify the User-ID Configuration
Configure User Identification
Verify the User-ID Configuration
After you configure User Identification and enable User-ID on your security policies and Captive Portal policies,
you should verify that it is working properly.
Verify the User Identification Configuration
Step 1
Verify that group mapping is working.
From the CLI, enter the following command:
admin@PA-200>show user group-mapping statistics
Step 2
Verify that user mapping is working.
If you are using the on-device User-ID agent, you can verify this
from the CLI using the following command:
admin@PA-200>show user ip-user-mapping-mp all
IP
Vsys From
User
Timeout (sec)
-------------------------------------------------------------192.168.201.1
vsys1 UIA
acme\louis
210
192.168.201.11 vsys1 UIA
acme\eileen
210
192.168.201.50 vsys1 UIA
acme\kimberly
210
192.168.201.10 vsys1 UIA
acme\administrator
210
192.168.201.100 vsys1 AD
acme\administrator
748
Total: 5 users
*: WMI probe succeeded
Step 3
Test your security policy.
• From a machine in the zone where User-ID is enabled, attempt to
access sites and applications to test the rules you have defined in
your policy and ensure that traffic is being allowed and denied as
expected.
• You can also use the test security-policy-match
command to determine whether the policy is configured correctly.
For example, suppose you have a rule that blocks user duane from
playing World of Warcraft, you could test the policy as follows:
test security-policy-match application worldofwarcraft
source-user acme\svogt source any destination any
destination-port any protocol 6
"deny worldofwarcraft" {
from corporate;
source any;
source-region any;
to internet;
destination any;
destination-region any;
user acme\duane;
category any;
application/service worldofwarcraft;
action deny;
terminal no;
}
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Getting Started Guide
Configure User Identification
Verify the User-ID Configuration
Verify the User Identification Configuration (Continued)
Step 4
Test your Captive Portal configuration.
1.
From the same zone, go to a machine that is not a member of
your directory—such as a Mac OS system—and try to ping to a
system external to the zone. The ping should work without
requiring authentication.
2.
From the same machine, open a browser and navigate to a web
site in a destination zone that matches a Captive Portal policy
you have defined. You should see the Captive Portal web form.
3.
Log in using the correct credentials and confirm that you are
redirected to the requested page.
4.
You can also test your Captive Portal policy using the
test cp-policy-match command as follows:
test cp-policy-match from corporate to internet source
192.168.201.10 destination 8.8.8.8
Matched rule: 'captive portal' action: web-form
Step 5
Verify that user names are displayed in the log files (Monitor > Logs).
Getting Started Guide
85
Verify the User-ID Configuration
Configure User Identification
Verify the User Identification Configuration (Continued)
Step 6
86
Verify that user names are displayed in reports (Monitor > Reports). For example, when drilling down into the
denied applications report, you should be able to see a list of the users who attempted to access the applications
as in the following example.
Getting Started Guide
Set Up High Availability
High availability (HA) is a configuration in which two firewalls are placed in a group to prevent a single point
to failure on your network. Setting up the firewalls in a two-device cluster provides redundancy and allows you
to ensure business continuity. This section covers the following topics:

HA Overview

Prerequisites for Active/Passive HA

Configuration Guidelines

Configure an Active/Passive Pair

Define the Failover Conditions

Verify Failover
Getting Started Guide
87
HA Overview
Set Up High Availability
HA Overview
On Palo Alto Networks firewalls, you can set up two devices as an HA pair. HA allows you to minimize
downtime by making sure that an alternate device is available in the event that the primary device fails. The
devices use dedicated or in-band HA ports on the firewall to synchronize data—network, object, and policy
configurations—and to maintain state information. Device specific configuration such as management port IP
address or administrator profiles, HA specific configuration, log data, and the Application Command Center
(ACC) information is not shared between devices. For a consolidated application and log view across the HA
pair, you must use Panorama, the Palo Alto Networks centralized management system.
When a failure occurs on the active device and the passive device takes over the task of securing traffic, the event
is called a failover. The conditions that trigger a failover are:

One or more of the monitored interfaces fail. (Link Monitoring)

One or more of the destinations specified on the device cannot be reached. (Path Monitoring)

The device does not respond to heartbeat polls. (Heartbeat Polling)
HA Modes
You can set up the firewalls for HA in two modes:

Active/Passive— One device actively manages traffic while the other is synchronized and ready to
transition to the active state, should a failure occur. In this configuration, both devices share the same
configuration settings, and one actively manages traffic until a path, link, system, or network failure occurs.
When the active device fails, the passive device takes over seamlessly and enforces the same policies to
maintain network security. Active/passive HA is supported in the virtual wire, Layer 2 and Layer 3
deployments. For information on setting up your devices in an active/passive configuration, see Configure
an Active/Passive Pair.
The PA-200 and the VM-Series firewalls support a lite version of active/passive HA. HA lite provides configuration
synchronization and some runtime data synchronization such as IPSec security associations. It does not support
any session synchronization, and therefore, HA Lite does not offer stateful failover.
Active/Active— Both the devices in the pair are active and processing traffic, and work synchronously to
handle session setup and session ownership. The active/active deployment is supported in virtual wire and Layer
3 deployments, and is only recommended for networks with asymmetric routing. For information on setting up
the devices in an active/active configuration, refer to the Active/Active High Availability Tech Note.
HA Links and Backup Links
The devices in an HA pair use HA links to synchronize data and maintain state information. Some models of
the firewall have dedicated HA ports—Control link (HA1) and Data link (HA2)—while others require you to
use the in-band ports as HA links.
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Getting Started Guide
Set Up High Availability
HA Overview
On devices with dedicated HA ports (HA1 and HA2) such as the PA-3000 Series, PA-4000 Series, PA-5000
Series, and PA-7050 firewalls, the dedicated HA ports allow for a direct connection between the management
plane and dataplane of the two HA devices. Use these dedicated ports to manage communication and
synchronization between the devices. For devices without dedicated HA ports such as the PA-200, PA-500, and
PA-2000 Series firewalls, use the management port for the HA1 link, to allow for a direct connection between
the management planes on the devices, and an in-band port for the HA2 link.

Control Link: The HA1 link is used to exchange hellos, heartbeats, and HA state information, and
management plane sync for routing, and User-ID information. This link is also used to synchronize
configuration changes on either the active or passive device with its peer. The HA1 link is a Layer 3 link and
requires an IP address.
Ports used for HA1: TCP port 28769 and 28260 for clear text communication; port 28 for encrypted
communication (SSH over TCP).

Data Link: The HA2 link is used to synchronize sessions, forwarding tables, IPSec security associations and
ARP tables between devices in an HA pair. Data flow on the HA2 link is always unidirectional (except for
the HA2 keep-alive); it flows from the active device to the passive device. The HA2 link is a Layer 2 link,
and it uses ether type 0x7261 by default.
Ports used for HA2: The HA data link can be configured to use either IP (protocol number 99) or UDP
(port 29281) as the transport, and thereby allow the HA data link to span subnets.
Note: Active/Active deployments also use an HA3 link for packet forwarding.

Backup Links: Provide redundancy for the HA1 and the HA2 links. In-band ports are used as backup links
for both HA1 and HA2. Consider the following guidelines when configuring backup HA links:
–
The IP addresses of the primary and backup HA links must not overlap each other.
–
HA backup links must be on a different subnet than the primary HA links.
–
HA1-backup and HA2-backup ports must be configured on separate physical ports. The HA1-backup
link uses port 28770 and 28260.
Palo Alto Networks recommends enabling heartbeat backup (uses port 28771 on the MGT interface) if you use
an in-band port for the HA1 or the HA1 backup links.
Device Priority and Preemption
The devices in an HA pair can be assigned a device priority value to indicate a preference for which device should
assume the active role and manage traffic. If you need to use a specific device in the HA pair for actively securing
traffic, you must enable the preemptive behavior on both the firewalls and assign a device priority value for each
device. The device with the lower numerical value, and therefore higher priority, is designated as active and
manages all traffic on the network. The other device is in a passive state, and synchronizes configuration and
state information with the active device so that it is ready to transition to an active state should a failure occur.
By default, preemption is disabled on the firewalls and must be enabled on both devices. When enabled, the
preemptive behavior allows the firewall with the higher priority (lower numerical value) to resume as active after
it recovers from a failure. When preemption occurs, the event is logged in the system logs.
Getting Started Guide
89
HA Overview
Set Up High Availability
Failover Triggers
When a failure occurs on the active device and the passive device takes over the task of securing traffic, the event
is called a failover. A failover is triggered when a monitored metric on the active device fails. The metrics that
are monitored for detecting a device failure are:

Heartbeat Polling and Hello messages—The firewalls use hello message and heartbeats to verify that
the peer device is responsive and operational. Hello messages are sent from one peer to the other at the
configured Hello Interval to verify the state of the device. The heartbeat is an ICMP ping to the HA peer over
the control link, and the peer responds to the ping to establish that the devices are connected and responsive.
By default, the interval for the heartbeat is 1000 milliseconds. For details on the HA timers that trigger a
failover, see HA Timers.

Link Monitoring—The physical interfaces to be monitored are grouped into a link group and their state
(link up or link down) is monitored. A link group can contain one or more physical interfaces. A device
failure is triggered when any or all of the interfaces in the group fail. The default behavior is failure of any
one link in the link group will cause the device to change the HA state to non-functional to indicate a failure
of a monitored object.

Path Monitoring—Monitors the full path through the network to mission-critical IP addresses. ICMP
pings are used to verify reachability of the IP address. The default interval for pings is 200ms. An IP address
is considered unreachable when 10 consecutive pings (the default value) fail, and a device failure is triggered
when any or all of the IP addresses monitored become unreachable. The default behavior is any one of the
IP addresses becoming unreachable will cause the device to change the HA state to non-functional to
indicate a failure of a monitored object.
In addition to the failover triggers listed above, a failover also occurs when the administrator places the device
is a suspended state or if preemption occurs.
On the PA-3000 Series, PA-5000 Series, and PA-7050 firewalls, a failover can occur when an internal health
check fails. This health check is not configurable and is enabled to verify the operational status for all the
components within the firewall.
HA Timers
High Availability (HA) timers are used to detect a firewall failure and trigger a failover. To reduce the complexity
in configuring HA timers, you can select from three profiles: Recommended, Aggressive and Advanced. These
profiles auto-populate the optimum HA timer values for the specific firewall platform to enable a speedier HA
deployment.
Use the Recommended profile for typical failover timer settings and the Aggressive profile for faster failover
timer settings. The Advanced profile allows you to customize the timer values to suit your network requirements.
The following table describes each timer included in the profiles and the current preset values across the
different hardware models; these values are for current reference only and can change in a subsequent release.
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Getting Started Guide
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Timers
Description
HA Overview
PA-7050
PA-2000 Series
Panorama VM
PA-5000 Series
PA-500
M-100
PA-4000 Series
PA-200
PA-3000 Series
VM-Series
Current Recommended/Aggressive Values by Platform
0/0
0/0
0/0
Preemption hold
time
1/1
Time a passive or
active-secondary device will
wait before taking over as the
active or active-primary device.
1/1
1/1
Heartbeat interval
The frequency at which the
HA peers exchange heartbeat
messages in the form of an
ICMP ping.
2000/1000
2000/1000
2000/500
2000/500
Monitor fail hold up The interval during which the
time
firewall will remain active
following a path monitor or
link monitor failure. This
setting is recommended to
avoid an HA failover due to the
occasional flapping of
neighboring devices.
1000/1000
2000/500
Promotion hold time Time that the passive device
(in active/passive mode) or the
active-secondary device (in
active/active mode) will wait
before taking over as the active
or active-primary device after
communications with the HA
peer have been lost. This hold
time will begin only after the
peer failure declaration has
been made.
Getting Started Guide
91
HA Overview
Timers
Set Up High Availability
Description
PA-7050
PA-2000 Series
Panorama VM
PA-5000 Series
PA-500
M-100
PA-4000 Series
PA-200
PA-3000 Series
VM-Series
Current Recommended/Aggressive Values by Platform
Additional master
hold up time
This time interval is applied to 500/500
the same event as Monitor Fail
Hold Up Time (range 0-60000
ms, default 500 ms). The
additional time interval is
applied only to the active
device in active/passive mode
and to the active-primary
device in active/active mode.
This timer is recommended to
avoid a failover when both
devices experience the same
link/path monitor failure
simultaneously.
500/500
7000/5000
Hello interval
8000/8000
The time interval in
milliseconds between the hello
packets that are sent to verify
that the HA functionality on
the other firewall is
operational. The range is
8000-60000 ms with a default
of 8000 ms for all platforms.
8000/8000
8000/8000
Maximum no. of
flaps
3/3
A flap is counted when the
firewall leaves the active state
within 15 minutes after it last
left the active state. This value
indicates the maximum
number of flaps that are
permitted before the firewall is
determined to be suspended
and the passive firewall takes
over (range 0-16, default 3).
3/3
Not Applicable
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Getting Started Guide
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Prerequisites for Active/Passive HA
Prerequisites for Active/Passive HA
To set up high availability on your Palo Alto Networks firewalls, you need a pair of firewalls that meet the
following requirements:

The same model—both the devices in the pair must be of the same hardware model or virtual machine
model.

The same PAN-OS version—both the devices should be running the same PAN-OS version and must
each be up-to-date on the application, URL, and threat databases. They must also both have the same
multiple virtual systems capability (single or multi vsys).

The same type of interfaces—dedicated HA links, or a combination of the management port and in-band
ports that are set to interface type HA.

–
Determine the IP address for the HA1 (control) connection between the device pair. The HA1 IP
address for both peers must be on the same subnet if they are directly connected or are connected to
the same switch.
For devices without dedicated HA ports, you can use the management port for the control connection.
Using the management port provides a direct communication link between the management planes on
both devices. However, because the management ports will not be directly cabled between the devices,
make sure that you have a route that connects these two interfaces across your network.
–
If you use Layer 3 as the transport method for the HA2 (data) connection, determine the IP address
for the HA2 link. Use Layer 3 only if the HA2 connection must communicate over a routed network.
The IP subnet for the HA2 links must not overlap with that of the HA1 links or with any other subnet
assigned to the data ports on the firewall.
–
Use a crossover cable to connect the HA ports if the devices are directly connected. If the connection
is set up using a switch or a router, use a straight through cable.
The same set of licenses—Licenses are unique to each device and cannot be shared between the devices.
Therefore, you must license both devices identically. If both devices do not have an identical set of licenses,
they cannot synchronize configuration information and maintain parity for a seamless failover.
If you have an existing firewall and you want to add a new firewall for HA purposes and the new firewall has an
existing configuration, it is recommended that you perform a factory reset on the new firewall. This will ensure
that the new firewall has a clean configuration. After HA is configured, you will then sync the configuration on the
primary device to the newly introduced device with the clean config.
Getting Started Guide
93
Configuration Guidelines
Set Up High Availability
Configuration Guidelines
To set up an active (PeerA) passive (PeerB) pair in HA, you must configure some options identically on both
devices and some independently (non-matching) on each device. These HA settings are not synchronized
between the devices. For details on what is/is not synchronized, see HA Synchronization.
To proceed with the instructions on configuring the devices in HA, see Configure an Active/Passive Pair.
The following table lists the settings that you must configure identically on both devices:
Identical Configuration Settings on PeerA and PeerB
• HA must be enabled on both devices.
• Both device must have the same Group ID value. The Group ID value is used to create a virtual MAC address for all
the configured interfaces. The format of the virtual MAC is 00-1B-17:00: xx: yy where
00-1B-17: vendor ID; 00: fixed; xx: HA group ID; yy: interface ID.
When a new active device takes over, Gratuitous ARPs are sent from each of the connected interfaces of the new active
member to inform the connected Layer 2 switches of the virtual MAC address’ new location.
• If using in-band ports, the interfaces for the HA1 and HA2 links must be set to type HA.
• The HA mode must be set to Active Passive.
• If required, preemption must be enabled on both devices. The device priority value, however, must not be identical.
• If required, encryption on the HA1 link (for communication between the HA peers) must be configured on both
devices.
• Based on the combination of HA1 and HA1 Backup ports you are using, use the following recommendations to decide
whether you should enable heartbeat backup:
• HA1: Dedicated HA1 port
HA1 Backup: In-band port
Recommendation: Enable Heartbeat Backup
• HA1: Dedicated HA1 port
HA1 Backup: Management port
Recommendation: Do not enable Heartbeat Backup
• HA1: In-band port
HA1 Backup: In-band port
Recommendation: Enable Heartbeat Backup
• HA1: Management port
HA1 Backup: In-band port
Recommendation: Do not enable Heartbeat Backup
The following table lists the settings that must be configured independently on each device:
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Getting Started Guide
Set Up High Availability
Configuration Guidelines
Independent
Configuration
Settings
PeerA
PeerB
Control Link
IP address of the HA1 link configured on this
device (PeerA).
IP address of the HA1 link configured on
this device (PeerB).
For devices without dedicated HA ports, use the management port IP address for the control
link.
Data Link
By default, the HA2 link uses Ethernet/Layer 2.
If using a Layer3 connection, configure the IP
The data link
address for the data link on this device (PeerA).
information is
synchronized between
the devices after HA is
enabled and the
control link is
established between
the devices.
By default, the HA2 link uses
Ethernet/Layer 2.
If using a Layer3 connection, configure the
IP address for the data link on this device
(PeerB).
If PeerB is passive, set the device priority
The device you plan to make active must have a
Device Priority
lower numerical value than its peer. So, if Peer A is value to a number larger than that on
(required, if
preemption is enabled) to function as the active device, keep the default PeerA. For example, set the value to 110.
value of 100 and increment the value on PeerB.
Select the physical interfaces on the firewall that
Link Monitoring—
Monitor one or more you would like to monitor and define the failure
physical interfaces that condition (all or any) to trigger a failover.
handle vital traffic on
this device and define
the failure condition.
Path Monitoring—
Monitor one or more
destination IP
addresses that the
firewall can use ICMP
pings to ascertain
responsiveness.
Define the failure condition (all or any), ping
interval and the ping count. This is particularly
useful for monitoring the availability of other
interconnected networking devices. For example,
monitor the availability of a router that connects to
a server, connectivity to the server itself, or some
other vital device that is in the flow of traffic.
Pick a similar set of physical interfaces that
you would like to monitor on this firewall
and define the failure condition (all or any)
to trigger a failover.
Pick a similar set of devices or destination
IP addresses that can be monitored for
determining the failover trigger for PeerB.
Define the failure condition (all or any),
ping interval and the ping count.
Make sure that the node/device that you are
monitoring is not likely to be unresponsive,
especially when it comes under load, as this could
cause a a path monitoring failure and trigger a
failover.
Getting Started Guide
95
Configure an Active/Passive Pair
Set Up High Availability
Configure an Active/Passive Pair
The following procedure shows how to configure a pair of firewalls in an active/passive deployment as depicted
in the following example topology.
Connect and Configure the Devices
Step 1
Connect the HA ports to set up a
• For devices with dedicated HA ports, use an Ethernet cable to
physical connection between the devices.
connect the dedicated HA1 ports and the HA2 ports on the device
pair. Use a crossover cable if the devices are directly connected to
each other.
• For devices without dedicated HA ports, select two data interfaces
for the HA2 link and the backup HA1 link. Then, use an Ethernet
cable to connect these in-band HA interfaces across both devices.
Use the management port for the HA1 link and ensure that the
management ports can connect to each other across your network.
Pick a device in the pair and complete these tasks:
Step 2
Step 3
96
Enable ping on the management port.
1.
Enabling ping allows the management
port to exchange heartbeat backup
information.
Select Device > Setup > Management and then click the Edit
icon in the Management Interface Settings section of the screen.
2.
Select Ping as a service that is permitted on the interface.
If the device does not have dedicated HA 1.
ports, set up the data ports to function as 2.
HA ports.
3.
For devices with dedicated HA ports
continue to Step 4.
4.
Select Network > Interfaces.
Confirm that the link is up on the ports that you want to use.
Select the interface and set the interface type to HA.
On the Advanced tab, set the Link Speed and Link Duplex
settings, as appropriate.
Getting Started Guide
Set Up High Availability
Configure an Active/Passive Pair
Connect and Configure the Devices (Continued)
Step 4
Set up the control link connection.
1.
This example shows an in-band port that
2.
is set to interface type HA.
For devices that use the management port
as the control link, the IP address
information is automatically
pre-populated.
Step 5
(Optional) Enable encryption for the
control link connection.
1.
In Device > High Availability > General, edit the Control Link
(HA1) section.
Select the interface that you have cabled for use as the HA1 link
in the Port drop down menu. Set the IP address and netmask.
Enter a Gateway IP address only if the HA1 interfaces are on
separate subnets. Do not add a gateway if the devices are directly
connected.
Export the HA key from a device and import it into the peer
device.
a. Select Device > Certificate Management > Certificates >
This is typically used to secure the link if
the two devices are not directly
connected, that is if the ports are
connected to a switch or a router.
Device Certificates.
b. Select Export HA key. Save the HA key to a network location
that the peer device can access.
c. On the peer device, navigate to Device > Certificate
Management > Certificates > Device Certificates, and
select Import HA key to browse to the location that you saved
the key and import it in to the peer device.
Step 6
Set up the backup control link
connection.
Getting Started Guide
2.
Select Device > High Availability > General, edit the Control
Link (HA1) section.
3.
Select Encryption Enabled.
1.
In Device > High Availability > General, edit the Control Link
(HA1 Backup) section.
2.
Select the HA1 backup interface and set the IP address and
netmask.
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Configure an Active/Passive Pair
Set Up High Availability
Connect and Configure the Devices (Continued)
Step 7
Set up the data link connection (HA2) and 1.
the backup HA2 connection between the
devices.
2.
In Device > High Availability > General, edit the Data Link
(HA2) section.
Select the interface for the data link connection.
3.
Select the Transport method. The default is ethernet, and will
work when the HA pair is connected directly or through a
switch. If you need to route the data link traffic through the
network, select IP or UDP as the transport mode.
4.
If you use IP or UDP as the transport method, enter the IP
address and netmask.
5.
Verify that Enable Session Synchronization is selected.
6.
Select HA2 Keep-alive to enable monitoring on the HA2 data
link between the HA peers. If a failure occurs based on the
threshold that is set (default is 10000 ms), the defined action will
occur. For active/passive configuration, a critical system log
message is generated when an HA2 keep-alive failure occurs.
Note
Step 8
Enable heartbeat backup if your control
link uses a dedicated HA port or an
in-band port.
You do not need to enable heartbeat
backup if you are using the management
port for the control link.
98
You can configure the HA2 keep-alive option on both
devices, or just one device in the HA pair. If the option is
only enabled on one device, only that device will send the
keep-alive messages. The other device will be notified if a
failure occurs.
7.
Edit the Data Link (HA2 Backup) section, select the interface,
and add the IP address and netmask.
1.
In Device > High Availability > General, edit the Election
Settings section.
2.
Select Heartbeat Backup.
The heartbeat backup link is used for transmitting redundant
heartbeats and hello messages. To allow the heartbeats to be
transmitted between the devices, you must verify that the
management port across both peers can route to each other.
Getting Started Guide
Set Up High Availability
Configure an Active/Passive Pair
Connect and Configure the Devices (Continued)
Step 9
Set the device priority and enable
preemption.
1.
In Device > High Availability > General, edit the Election
Settings section.
This setting is only required if you wish to 2. Set the numerical value in Device Priority. Make sure to set a
lower numerical value on the device that you want to assign a
make sure that a specific device is the
higher priority to.
preferred active device. For information,
see Device Priority and Preemption.
Note If both firewalls have the same device priority value, the
firewall with the lowest MAC address on the HA1 control
link will become the active device.
3.
Select Preemptive.
You must enable preemptive on both the active and the passive
device.
Step 10 (Optional) Modify the failover timers.
1.
By default, the HA timer profile is set to
the Recommended profile and is suited 2.
for most HA deployments.
In Device > High Availability > General, edit the Election
Settings section.
Select the Aggressive profile for triggering failover faster; select
Advanced to define custom values for triggering failover in your
set up.
Note
To view the preset value for an individual timer included in
a profile, select Advanced and click Load Recommended
or Load Aggressive. The preset values for your hardware
model will be displayed on screen.
Step 11 (Optional, only configured on the passive Setting the link state to Auto allows for reducing the amount of time
device) Modify the link status of the HA it takes for the passive device to take over when a failover occurs and
it allows you to monitor the link state.
ports on the passive device.
Note
The passive link state is shutdown, by
default. After you enable HA, the link
state for the HA ports on the active device
will be green and those on the passive
device will be down and display as red.
To enable the link status on the passive device to stay up and reflect
the cabling status on the physical interface:
1. In Device > High Availability > General, edit the Active Passive
Settings section.
2.
Set the Passive Link State to Auto.
The auto option decreases the amount of time it takes for the
passive device to take over when a failover occurs.
Note
Although the interface displays green (as cabled and up) it
continues to discard all traffic until a failover is triggered.
When you modify the passive link state, make sure that the
adjacent devices do not forward traffic to the passive
firewall based only on the link status of the device.
Getting Started Guide
99
Configure an Active/Passive Pair
Set Up High Availability
Connect and Configure the Devices (Continued)
Step 12 Enable HA.
1.
Select Device > High Availability > General, edit the Setup
section.
2.
Select Enable HA.
3.
Set a Group ID. This ID uniquely identifies each HA pair on your
network, and is essential if you have multiple HA pairs that share
the same broadcast domain on your network.
4.
Set the mode to Active Passive.
5.
Select Enable Config Sync. This setting enables the
synchronization of the configuration settings between the active
and the passive device.
6.
Enter the IP address assigned to the control link of the peer
device in Peer HA1 IP Address.
For devices without dedicated HA ports, if the peer uses the
management port for the HA1 link, enter the management port
IP address of the peer.
7.
Step 13 Save your configuration changes.
Enter the Backup HA1 IP Address.
Click Commit.
Step 14 Complete Step 2 through Step 13 on the
other device in the HA pair.
Step 15 After you finish configuring both devices, 1.
verify that the devices are paired in
active/passive HA.
2.
3.
100
Access the Dashboard on both devices, and view the High
Availability widget.
On the active device, click the Sync to peer link.
Confirm that the devices are paired and synced, as shown below:
Getting Started Guide
Set Up High Availability
Configure an Active/Passive Pair
Connect and Configure the Devices (Continued)
On the passive device: The state of the
local device should display passive and
the configuration is synchronized.
Getting Started Guide
On the active device: The state of the local device should
display active and the configuration is synchronized.
101
Define the Failover Conditions
Set Up High Availability
Define the Failover Conditions
Configure the Failover Triggers
Step 1
Step 2
To configure link monitoring, define the 1.
interfaces that you would like to monitor. 2.
A change in the link state of these
3.
interface will trigger a failover.
(Optional) Modify the failure condition 1.
for the Link Groups that you configured 2.
(in the preceding step) on the device.
Select Device > High Availability > Link and Path Monitoring.
In the Link Group section, click Add.
Name the Link Group, Add the interfaces to monitor, and select
the Failure Condition for the group. The Link group you define
is added to the Link Group section.
Select the Link Monitoring section.
Set the Failure Condition to All.
The default setting is Any.
By default, the device will trigger a
failover when any monitored link fails.
Step 3
To configure path monitoring, define the 1.
destination IP addresses that the firewall
should ping to verify network
connectivity.
2.
In the Path Group section of the Device > High Availability >
Link and Path Monitoring tab, pick the option for your setup:
Add Virtual Wire Path, Add VLAN Path, Add Virtual Router
Path.
Select the appropriate item from the drop-down list for the
Name and Add the IP addresses (source and/or destination, as
prompted) that you wish to monitor. Then select the Failure
Condition for the group. The path group you define is added to
the Path Group section.
Step 4
(Optional) Modify the failure condition
for all Path Groups configured on the
device.
Set the Failure Condition to All.
The default setting is Any.
By default, the device will trigger a
failover when any monitored path fails.
Step 5
102
Save your changes.
Click Commit.
Getting Started Guide
Set Up High Availability
Verify Failover
Verify Failover
To test that your HA configuration works properly trigger a manual failover and verify that the devices transition
states successfully.
Verify Failover
Step 1
Suspend the active device.
Click the Suspend local device link on the Device > High
Availability > Operational Commands tab.
Step 2
Verify that the passive device has taken
over as active.
On the Dashboard, verify that the state of the passive device changes
to active in the High Availability widget.
Step 3
1.
Restore the suspended device to a
functional state. Wait for a couple
minutes, and then verify that preemption
has occurred, if preemptive is enabled.
On the device you previously suspended, select the Make local
device functional link on the Device > High Availability >
Operational Commands tab.
2.
In the High Availability widget on the Dashboard, confirm that
the device has taken over as the active device and that the peer
is now in a passive state.
Getting Started Guide
103
Verify Failover
104
Set Up High Availability
Getting Started Guide
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