Apple | PowerBook 3400c/180 | Specifications | Apple PowerBook 3400c/180 Specifications

Apple PowerBook 3400c/180 Specifications

Developer Note
Macintosh PowerBook 3400
Computer
Macintosh PowerBook 3400c/180
Macintosh PowerBook 3400ce/200

Developer Note Launch Draft APPLE CONFIDENTIAL
4/18/00
Developer Technology Services
© Apple Computer, Inc. 1996

Apple Computer, Inc.
© 1996 Apple Computer, Inc.
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
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means, mechanical, electronic,
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Apple Computer, Inc.
Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo
(Option-Shift-K) for commercial
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competition in violation of federal and
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No licenses, express or implied, are
granted with respect to any of the
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Apple retains all intellectual property
rights associated with the technology
described in this book. This book is
intended to assist application
developers to develop applications only
for Apple-labeled or Apple-licensed
computers.
Every effort has been made to ensure
that the information in this manual is
accurate. Apple is not responsible for
printing or clerical errors.
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Instruments.
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
Contents
Figures and Tables
Preface
vii
About This Developer Note
Contents of This Note
ix
Supplemental Reference Documents
Apple Publications
x
Other Publications
xi
Conventions and Abbreviations
xi
Typographical Conventions
xi
Standard Abbreviations
xii
Chapter 1
Introduction
ix
x
1
Features
2
Appearance
4
Configurations
5
Peripheral Devices
6
Compatibility Issues
6
Internal PCI Bus
6
Enhanced Trackpad
6
Open Transport
6
PC Card Software
7
Chapter 2
Architecture
9
Processor Bus
10
Main Processor
10
Second-Level Cache
11
RAM
11
ROM
12
PSX Memory Controller and Bridge IC
12
Memory Control
12
PCI Bus Bridge
12
Big-Endian and Little-Endian Bus Addressing
Processor Bus to PCI Bus Transactions
13
PCI Bus to Processor Bus Transactions
13
PCI Bus
14
O’Hare Peripheral Support IC
14
AWAC Sound IC
15
13
iii
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
Power Management Unit
15
Display Controller IC
16
PC Card Bridge IC
16
Chapter 3
I/O Features
17
Internal ATA Hard Disk Drive
18
Hard Disk Specifications
18
Hard Disk Connector
19
Signal Assignments
20
ATA Signal Descriptions
21
Trackpad
22
Keyboard
22
Flat Panel Display
23
External Video Monitor
24
Monitors Supported
24
Video Connector
25
Video Adapter
26
Monitor Sense Codes
26
Serial Port
27
SCSI Port
28
ADB Port
29
Infrared Communication Link
30
Sound System
31
Sound Inputs
31
Built-in Microphone
32
External Sound Input
32
Expansion Bay Sound Input
32
PC Card Sound Input
32
Sound Outputs
32
External Sound Output
32
Internal Speakers
33
PCI Slot and Expansion Bay
33
Ethernet and Modem Cards
33
Ethernet and Modem Card
33
Ethernet-Only Card
34
Chapter 4
Expansion Modules
35
PCI Expansion Slot
36
PCI Expansion Signals
36
Connector Signal Assignments
PCI Signals
38
Other Signals
38
36
iv
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
Expansion Card Design
39
Connectors on the Expansion Card
39
Card Dimensions
43
Component Height Limits
45
Thermal Considerations for the Expansion Card
47
Power Budget for the Expansion Card
48
Expansion Card Operation and Sleep Mode
49
Power Saving Considerations
51
Power Sequences
51
Expansion Bay
53
Expansion Bay Module
54
Datum Slot
54
Maximum Dimensions
56
Location of the Circuit Board and Connectors
57
Grounding the Module
62
Mechanical Support Areas
64
Expansion Bay Connector
65
PCI Signals on the Expansion Bay Connector
67
PCI Control Signals in Sleep Mode
69
PCI Signals During Power On and Off
69
ATA and Floppy Disk Signals on the Expansion Bay Connector
Signal Definitions
72
Unused IDE Signals on the Expansion Bay Connector
74
Power on the Expansion Bay Connector
75
User Installation of an Expansion Bay Module
75
Sequence of Control Signals
75
Guidelines for Developers
76
RAM Expansion
76
Electrical Design Guidelines for the RAM Expansion Card
76
Connector Pin Assignments
76
Signal Descriptions
79
Address Multiplexing
80
RAM Banks
81
DRAM Device Requirements
82
RAM Expansion Card Electrical Limits
82
Buffers on the Ram Expansion Card
83
Card Layout Suggestions
83
Mechanical Design Guidelines for the RAM Expansion Card
83
PC Card Expansion
85
PC Card Slot Features
85
Summary Specifications
86
Zoom Video
86
PC Card Software
87
71
v
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
Chapter 5
Software Features
89
Internal System ROM
90
Power Management Unit ROM
Battery Charging
91
Interface to Nonvolatile RAM
BootPowerPC ROM
92
OpenFirmware ROM
92
Macintosh System ROM
92
ATA Manager and Driver
92
Floppy Disk Driver
93
IRTalk Driver
93
Expansion Bay Manager
93
PC Card Manager
94
SCSI Disk Mode
94
Sound Manager
94
Video Driver
94
Glossary
Index
91
91
97
99
vi
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
Figures and Tables
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Introduction
1
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Front view of the computer
Back view of the computer
Table 1-1
Configurations
Architecture
9
Figure 2-1
Block diagram
I/O Features
17
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 3-3
Figure 3-4
Figure 3-5
Figure 3-6
Figure 3-7
Maximum dimensions of the internal ATA hard disk
Connector for the internal ATA hard disk
20
Keyboard, United States layout
23
Keyboard, ISO layout
23
Signal pins on the video connector
25
Serial port connector
27
ADB connector
29
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
Table 3-4
Table 3-5
Table 3-6
Table 3-7
Table 3-8
Pin assignments on the ATA hard disk connector
20
Signals on the ATA hard disk connector
21
Monitors and pixel depths supported
24
Signals on the video connector
26
Monitor sense codes
27
Pin assignments on the serial port connector
28
SCSI connector signals
28
ADB connector pin assignments
30
Expansion Modules
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
Figure 4-5
Figure 4-6
Figure 4-7
Figure 4-8
Figure 4-9
Figure 4-10
4
5
5
11
19
35
PCI expansion card
39
Connectors on the PCI expansion card
40
Location of external connector
41
Shielded RJ45 connector
42
Connector grounding considerations
42
Expansion card internal connector
43
Dimensions of the PCI expansion card
44
PCI expansion card maximum component space
45
Maximum component heights on the top of the PCI expansion
card
46
Maximum component heights on the bottom of the PCI expansion
card
47
vii
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
Figure 4-11
Figure 4-12
Figure 4-13
Figure 4-14
Figure 4-15
Figure 4-16
Figure 4-17
Figure 4-18
Figure 4-19
Figure 4-20
Figure 4-21
Figure 4-22
Figure 4-23
Figure 4-24
Figure 4-25
Figure 4-26
Figure 4-27
Figure 4-28
Figure 4-29
Figure 4-30
Figure 4-31
Figure 4-32
Figure 4-33
Figure 4-34
Heatsink for the PCI expansion card
48
PCI peripheral in sleep mode, interface unswitched
49
PCI peripheral in sleep mode, interface switched
50
Timing of the expansion card control signals for sleep mode
51
Front view of expansion bay module
54
Rear view of expansion bay module
55
Location of expansion bay connector and datum slot
55
Maximum dimensions of the expansion module
56
Exploded view of expansion bay module
57
Suggested locations of circuit board and connector
58
Locations of connectors
59
Alternate mounting for connector
59
Suggested dimensions of circuit board
60
Maximum component height on bottom of circuit board
61
Electrical grounding surfaces, top view
62
Electrical grounding surfaces, bottom view
63
Mechanical contact areas, top view
64
Mechanical contact areas, bottom view
65
Section through expansion bay connector
66
Timing of expansion bay control signals for sleep mode
69
Timing of the expansion bay control signals during power on
70
Timing of the expansion bay control signals during power off
70
Dimensions of the RAM expansion card
84
Height restrictions on the RAM expansion card
85
Table 4-1
Table 4-2
Table 4-3
Table 4-4
Table 4-5
Table 4-6
Table 4-7
Table 4-8
Table 4-9
Table 4-10
Table 4-11
Table 4-12
Table 4-13
Table 4-14
Signal assignments on the PCI expansion connector
36
Other signals on the PCI expansion connector
38
Device ID signals and types of devices
66
PCI signals on the expansion bay connector
67
ATA and floppy disk signals on the expansion bay connector
71
Audio and control signals on the expansion bay connector
73
Floppy disk signals on the expansion bay connector
73
ATA signals on the expansion bay connector
73
Unused IDE signals on the expansion bay connector
74
Power lines on the expansion bay connector
75
Signal assignments on the RAM expansion connector
77
Signals on the RAM expansion connector
79
Address multiplexing for some types of DRAM devices
80
RAM bank selection
82
viii
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
P R E F A C E
About This Developer Note
This developer note is a concise description of the Macintosh PowerBook 3400
computer, with the emphasis on the features that are new or different from
those of the Macintosh PowerBook 5300 computer.
This developer note is intended to help hardware and software developers
design products that are compatible with the Macintosh products described in
the note. If you are not already familiar with Macintosh computers or if you
would simply like more technical information, you may wish to read the
supplementary reference documents described in this preface.
This note is published electronically. You can obtain a copy in two ways:
■
on Apple Computer’s Developer World web page on the Internet, at
http://devworld.apple.com/dev/devnotes/dntable1.html
■
on the Reference Library Edition of the Developer CD Series, available
through the Apple Developer Catalog.
Contents of This Note
0
The information in this note is arranged in five chapters.
■
Chapter 1, “Introduction,” introduces the PowerBook 3400 computer and
describes its new features.
■
Chapter 2, “Architecture,”describes the internal logic of the computer,
including the main ICs that appear in the block diagram.
■
Chapter 3, “I/O Features,”describes the input/output features, including
both the internal I/O devices and the external I/O ports.
■
Chapter 4, “Expansion Modules,”describes the expansion features of
interest to developers. It includes development guides for expansion-bay
devices, the RAM expansion card, the internal PCI card, and the PC Card
slot.
■
Chapter 5, “Software Features,” describes the system software, with
emphasis on new and changed features.
This developer note also contains a glossary and an index.
ix
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
P R E F A C E
Supplemental Reference Documents
0
The following documents provide information that complements or extends
the information in this developer note.
Apple Publications
0
For information about the PCI bus as it is supported on Macintosh desktop
computers, developers should refer to Designing PCI Cards and Drivers for
Power Macintosh Computers and to Macintosh Technote Number 1008,
Understanding PCI Bus Performance.
For information about PC Cards and the PC Card slot, developers should have
a copy of PC Card Family Programming Interface for Mac OS. Currently in
preparation, it defines the new PC Card software model for System 7.5.3 and
future releases of Mac OS.
For information about Mac OS system 7.6, the system software that
accompanies the PowerBook 3400 computer, developers should refer to
TECHNOTE: System 7.6. It is available on the Developer CD Series and on the
technote web site at <http://devworld.apple.com/dev/technotes.shtml>.
Developers should also have copies of the appropriate Apple reference books,
including the relevant volumes of Inside Macintosh. These Apple publications
are available in technical bookstores and through the Apple Developer Catalog.
The Apple Developer Catalog (ADC) is Apple Computer’s worldwide source for
hundreds of development tools, technical resources, training products, and
information for anyone interested in developing applications on Apple
computer platforms. Customers receive the Apple Developer Catalog featuring
all current versions of Apple development tools and the most popular
third-party development tools. ADC offers convenient payment and shipping
options, including site licensing.
To order products or to request a complimentary copy of the Apple Developer
Catalog, contact
Apple Developer Catalog
Apple Computer, Inc.
P.O. Box 319
Buffalo, NY 14207-0319
Telephone
1-800-282-2732 (United States)
1-800-637-0029 (Canada)
716-871-6555 (International)
Fax
716-871-6511
AppleLink
ORDER.ADC
Internet
order.adc@applelink.apple.com
x
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
P R E F A C E
Other Publications
0
For information about programming the PowerPC™ family microprocessors,
developers should have copies of Motorola’s PowerPC 603 RISC Microprocessor
User’s Manual and PowerPC 603ev Microprocessor Implementation Definition
Book IV.
For information about ATA devices such as the built-in IDE hard disk,
developers should have access to the ATA/IDE specification, ANSI proposal
X3T10/0948D, Revision 2K or later (ATA-2).
For information about the IR data link, consult the Physical Layer Standard
created by the Infrared Data Association (IrDA). The standard is available on
the Internet at ftp://irda.org.
For information about the PCI interface, developers should contact the PCI
special interest group at
PCI-SIG
M/S HF3-15A
5200 NE Elam Young Parkway
Hillsboro, OR 97124
Phone: 508-696-2000
For information about PC Cards and the PC Card slot, developers should refer
to the PC Card Standard. You can order that book from
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
1030G East Duane Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone: 408-720-0107
Fax:
408-720-9416
Conventions and Abbreviations
0
This developer note uses the following typographical conventions and
abbreviations.
Typographical Conventions
0
Computer-language text—any text that is literally the same as it appears in
computer input or output—appears in Courier font.
Hexadecimal numbers are preceded by a dollar sign ($). For example, the
hexadecimal equivalent of decimal 16 is written as $10.]
Note
A note like this contains information that is of interest but is not essential
for an understanding of the text. ◆
xi
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
P R E F A C E
IMPORTANT
A note like this contains important information that you should read
before proceeding. ▲
▲
W AR N I N G
Warnings like this direct your attention to something that could cause
injury to the user, damage to either hardware or software, or loss of
data. ▲
Standard Abbreviations
0
Standard units of measure used in this note include
A
amperes
MHz
megahertz
dB
decibels
mm
millimeters
GB
gigabytes
ms
milliseconds
Hz
hertz
mV
millivolts
K
1024
µF
microfarads
KB
kilobytes
µW
microwatts
kbps
kilobits per second
ns
nanoseconds
kHz
kilohertz
Ω
ohms
kΩ
kilohms
pF
picofarads
M
1,048,576
V
volts
mA
milliamperes
VAC
volts alternating current
MB
megabytes
VDC
volts direct current
Mbps
megabits per second
W
watts
Other abbreviations used in this note include
$n
hexadecimal value n
AC
alternating current
ADB
Apple Desktop Bus
API
application program interface
ASIC
application-specific integrated circuit
ATA
AT attachment
ATAPI
ATA packet interface
AUI
auxiliary unit interface
BCD
binary coded decimal
BGA
ball grid array
CAS
column address strobe (a memory control signal)
CCFL
cold cathode fluorescent lamp
CD
compact disc
xii
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P R E F A C E
CIS
card information structure
CLUT
color lookup table
CMOS
complementary metal oxide semiconductor
CPU
central processing unit
DAA
data access adapter (a telephone line interface)
DAC
digital-to-analog converter
DC
direct current
DCE
device control entry (a data structure)
DDC
display data channel
DDM
driver descriptor map
DMA
direct memory access
DMF
distribution media format
DOS
disk operating system
DRAM
dynamic RAM
DSP
digital signal processor
EDO
extended data out
FIFO
first in, first out
FPU
floating-point unit
HBA
host bus adapter
IC
integrated circuit
IDE
integrated device electronics
I/O
input/output
IR
infrared
IrDA
Infrared Data Association
LCD
liquid crystal display
LS TTL
low-power Schottky TTL (a standard type of device)
MMU
memory management unit
NiCad
nickel cadmium
NiMH
nickel metal hydride
PC Card
an expansion card conforming to the specifications of the
PCMCIA
PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect, an industry-standard
expansion bus
PCMCIA
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PDS
processor-direct slot
PGA
pin grid array
PMU
power management unit
PROM
programmable read-only memory
xiii
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P R E F A C E
PWM
pulse width modulation
RAM
random-access memory
RAMDAC
random-access memory, digital to analog converter
RAS
row address strobe
RGB
red-green-blue (a type of color video system)
RISC
reduced instruction set computing
rms
root-mean-square
ROM
read-only memory
SCC
Serial Communications Controller
SCSI
Small Computer System Interface
SNR
signal-to-noise ratio
SOJ
small outline J-lead package
SOP
small outline package
SVGA
super video graphics adapter
TDM
time division multiplexing
TFT
thin-film transistor (a type of LCD)
TSOP
thin small outline package
TTL
transistor-transistor logic (a standard type of device)
VCC
positive supply voltage (voltage for collectors)
VGA
video graphics adapter
VRAM
video RAM
xiv
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
Figure 1-0
Listing 1-0
Table 1-0
1
Introduction
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
1
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
The Macintosh PowerBook 3400 computer is an all-in-one notebook computer with
several new features that greatly increase its performance. The PowerBook 3400
computer also has a PC Card slot, a PCI expansion slot, an improved expansion bay, a
CD-ROM module, and a larger display.
Features
1
Here is a list of the features of the Macintosh PowerBook 3400 computer. Each feature is
described in a later chapter, as indicated in the list.
2
■
Processor: The PowerBook 3400 computer has a PowerPC™ 603ev microprocessor
running at a clock frequency of either 180 or 200 MHz, depending on the
configuration. See “Main Processor” on page 10.
■
Cache: The computer has a 256 KB second-level (L2) cache. See “Second-Level Cache”
on page 11.
■
Processor bus: The computer’s processor data bus is 64 bits wide. See “RAM” on
page 11.
■
RAM: The computer comes with 16 MB of dynamic RAM (DRAM). See “RAM” on
page 11.
■
RAM expansion: The RAM expansion card available from Apple Computer provides
16 MB of additional RAM for a total of 32 MB. A RAM expansion card can contain up
to 128 MB of RAM for a total of 144 MB of RAM. See “RAM Expansion” beginning on
page 76.
■
Hard disk: The computer has an internal 2.5-inch IDE hard disk drive with a storage
capacity of 1.3 or 2 GB. See “Internal ATA Hard Disk Drive” on page 18.
■
Disk mode: With an optional HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter cable, the computer allows
the user to read and store data on the computer’s internal hard disk from another
Macintosh computer.
■
CD-ROM: Some configurations come with a 6x-speed CD-ROM module in the
expansion bay.
■
Floppy disk: A 1.4-MB DOS-compatible floppy-disk drive is installed in the
expansion bay.
■
Display: The computer has a 12.1-inch color flat panel display with SVGA resolution
(800 by 600 pixels). The display is backlit by a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL).
See “Flat Panel Display” beginning on page 23.
■
Video output: The computer has built-in support for an external video monitor. The
computer works with VGA or SVGA monitors and can display up to 1024 by 768
pixels. With an adapter cable, the computer can also support all Apple monitors,
including the 17-inch and 20-inch multiple scan displays. See “External Video
Monitor” beginning on page 24.
■
PCI expansion slot: The computer has an internal slot that accepts a plug-in card
using the PCI expansion bus. See “PCI Expansion Slot” beginning on page 36.
Features
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
■
Expansion bay: The computer has an opening that accepts a plug-in module with
either a 5.25-inch CD-ROM drive, a 1.4-MB DOS-compatible floppy-disk drive, some
other IDE storage device, or a power device such as an AC adapter. The expansion bay
accepts expansion modules that use the PCI expansion bus; it can also accept the
3.5-inch expansion modules designed for the PowerBook 5300 and 190 computers. See
“Expansion Bay” beginning on page 53.
■
PC Card slot: The computer accepts one Type III or two Type II PC Cards (PCMCIA).
The lower socket is compatible with zoom video. See “Zoom Video” on page 86.
■
Standard I/O ports: The computer has all the standard Macintosh inputs and outputs.
The I/O ports are an HDI-30 connector for external SCSI devices, a 4-pin mini-DIN
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) port, a 9-pin mini-DIN serial port, stereo audio input and
output jacks, and a VGA-type video output connector. See Chapter 3, “I/O Features.”
■
DMA: The computer supports DMA operation on the following I/O devices: sound
input and output, internal ATA hard disk, ATA CD-ROM, SCSI devices, and floppy
disk drive.
■
Networking: The computer has a built-in LocalTalk network interface. See “Serial
Port” on page 27. Most configurations come with either a combination ethernet and
modem card in the PCI expansion slot or an ethernet card in the PCI slot and a modem
card in the PC Card slot. See “Ethernet and Modem Cards” on page 33.
■
Sound: The computer has a built-in microphone and speakers as well as a line-level
input jack and a stereo headphone jack. See “Sound System” on page 31.
■
Keyboard: The keyboard design provides 76 (United States) or 77 (ISO) keys,
including 12 function keys. See “Keyboard” on page 22.
■
Trackpad: The integrated flat pad includes new features: tap/double tap and drag.
See “Trackpad” on page 22.
■
Infrared link: The computer has an infrared module that can communicate with other
IR-equipped devices at speeds up to 1.152 Mbps. See “Infrared Communication Link”
on page 30.
■
Modem: Some configurations include a PCI card with a modem and ethernet
interface. See “Ethernet and Modem Cards” on page 33.
■
Batteries: The computer has space for one Macintosh PowerBook Intelligent Battery.
Batteries of different weights, capacities, and technologies will be available from Apple
and from other vendors.
■
Power supply: The computer comes with a 45 watt external recharger/power adapter
that accepts any worldwide standard voltage from 100–240 VAC at 50–60 Hz.
■
Security connector: The computer has a connector on the side panel that allows users
to attach a security device. The security device also secures the battery and any
module in the expansion bay.
■
Weight: The computer weighs 6.7 pounds with the battery and with a PC Card holder
installed in the expansion bay. With a floppy-disk drive in the expansion bay, the
computer weighs 7.1 pounds.
■
Size: The computer is 11.5 inches wide, 9.4 inches deep, and 2.4 inches high.
Features
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
3
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Appearance
1
The Macintosh PowerBook 3400 computer has a streamlined case that opens up like a
clamshell. The case is a new design with more flexibility than earlier PowerBook models.
Figure 1-1 shows a front view of the computer; Figure 1-2 shows a back view.
Figure 1-1
Front view of the computer
Brightness control
Sleep indicator
Volume control
Microphone
Stereo
speakers
Power key
Floppy disk drive module
Trackpad
Expansion bay drive in-use light
Security slot
Trackpad button
4
Battery
Appearance
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Figure 1-2
Back view of the computer
Sound input port
Sound output port
Two PC card
(PCMCIA card) slots
Infrared window
PC card eject buttons
Expansion port
Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB) port
Reset button
Elevation foot
release button
Printer/external modem port
SCSI port (HDI-30)
Video port
Elevation feet
Power adapter port
Configurations
1
Table 1-1 lists the configurations of the PowerBook 3400 computer. All configurations
include 16 MB of RAM and a 12.1-inch color display with active-matrix technology.
Table 1-1
Configurations
Model
Regions
Clock speed
Hard disk
CD-ROM
Ethernet
PowerBook 3400c/180
US and Pacific
180 MHz
1.3 GB
no
no
PowerBook 3400c/180
US and Pacific
180 MHz
1.3 GB
yes
yes (PCI)
PowerBook 3400ce/200
US and Pacific
200 MHz
2 GB
yes
yes (PCI)
PowerBook 3400c/180
Europe
180 MHz
1.3 GB
yes
yes (PCI)
PowerBook 3400ce/200
Europe
200 MHz
2 GB
yes
yes (PCI)
Configurations
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
5
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Peripheral Devices
1
In addition to the devices that are included with the PowerBook 3400 computer, several
peripheral devices are available separately:
■
The Macintosh PowerBook 16 MB Memory Expansion Card expands the RAM in the
computer to 32 MB.
■
The Macintosh PowerBook 6x-speed CD-ROM drive module, which fits into the
expansion bay, is available separately for models that do not include it.
■
The Macintosh PowerBook Intelligent Battery is available separately as an additional
or replacement battery.
■
The Macintosh PowerBook 45W AC Adapter, which comes with the computer, is also
available separately. The adapter can recharge the internal battery in just four hours
while the computer is running or two hours while the computer is shut down or in
sleep mode.
Compatibility Issues
1
The Macintosh PowerBook 3400 computer incorporates several significant changes from
the earlier PowerBook 5300 computer. This section highlights key areas you should
investigate in order to ensure that your hardware and software work properly with the
new PowerBook model. These topics are covered in more detail in subsequent sections.
Internal PCI Bus
1
The I/O subsystem in the PowerBook 3400 computer is entirely different from the one in
the PowerBook 5300. It is similar to the I/O subsystem in the Power Macintosh 7500,
8500, and 9500 and runs at the same speed: 33 MHz.
Enhanced Trackpad
1
The trackpad in the PowerBook 3400 computer is similar to the one in the Macintosh
PowerBook Duo 2300 and includes the tap, double-tap, and drag functions.
Open Transport
The system software supplied with the PowerBook 3400 includes Open Transport
networking only. While the Open Transport software supports existing network device
drivers in compatibility mode, developers may wish to write new higher-performance
drivers for use with Open Transport.
6
Peripheral Devices
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1
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Note
The new TCP/IP control panel supports Open Transport; the older
MacTCP control panel does not. ◆
PC Card Software
1
The PowerBook 3400 computer comes with a new version of the PC Card software. See
“PC Card Software” on page 87.
Compatibility Issues
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
7
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
8
Compatibility Issues
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
Figure 2-0
Listing 2-0
Table 2-0
2
Architecture
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
2
C H A P T E R
2
Architecture
The architecture of the Macintosh PowerBook 3400 computer is designed around two
main buses: the processor bus and the PCI bus. The processor bus operates at 40 MHz, a
submultiple of the microprocessor’s clock speed. The PCI bus operates at 33 MHz. An
Apple custom IC called the PSX IC acts as the bridge between the two buses. The input
and output devices are connected by way of the PCI bus.
The block diagram in Figure 2-1 shows how the devices are connected to the buses.
Processor Bus
2
The devices on the processor bus include the PowerPC 603ev microprocessor, the
second-level cache, the main RAM, and the ROM. An optional RAM expansion card can
be plugged into the main logic board and is connected to the processor bus. The PSX
custom IC is also connected to the processor bus and provides the interface to the PCI
bus.
Main Processor
2
The main processor in the PowerBook 3400 computer is a PowerPC 603ev
microprocessor, an enhanced version of the PowerPC 603. Its principal features include
■
RISC processing architecture
■
a load-store unit that operates in parallel with the processing units
■
a branch manager that implements branches by reloading the incoming instruction
queue, usually without using any processing time
■
two internal memory management units (MMU), one for instructions and one for data
■
two 16 KB on-chip caches for data and instructions
For technical details, please refer to the reference books listed in the preface.
The PowerPC 603ev microprocessor in the PowerBook 3400 computer normally runs at a
clock speed of 180 or 200 MHz. The microprocessor’s clock speed is locked at 4.5 or 5
times the processor bus’s clock speed, which is 40 MHz.
10
Processor Bus
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
2
Architecture
Figure 2-1
Block diagram
Processor/memory subsystem
Input/output subsystem
ADB port
PowerPC
603ev
microprocessor
L2
cache
PMU
power
manager
IC
SRAM
Trackpad
Keyboard
Power
Address
Sound in
AWAC
sound IC
ROM
Data
Sound out
O'Hare
RAM
expansion
card
PSX
memory
controller
and PCI
bus bridge
RAM
Video/display subsystem
SCSI
Buffer
Internal
IDE
hard disk
PCI bus
Expansion
bay
Buffer
Video
DRAM
65550
Flat
panel
display
Serial port
Port B [IR]
I/O and
disk
controller
Video
DAC
External video
Zoom video
Buffer
TI 1130
PCI to
PC card
bridge
Second-Level Cache
PC card
slots
2
The PowerBook 3400 computer has a second-level (L2) cache with of 256 KB of fast static
RAM. The L2 cache is a look-aside cache implemented in a single BGA package that
includes the cache controller, tag RAM, and data RAM.
RAM
2
The PowerBook 3400 computer has 16 MB of dynamic RAM (DRAM) on the main logic
board. The RAM ICs are low-power, non-self-refreshing, EDO type with an access time of
70 ns.
Processor Bus
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11
C H A P T E R
2
Architecture
An optional RAM expansion card plugs into a 120-pin connector on the logic board. The
RAM expansion card can contain up to 128 MB of RAM for a total of up to 144 MB of
RAM. See the section “RAM Expansion” beginning on page 76 for details.
Note
The RAM expansion card for the PowerBook 3400 computer is a new
design. The RAM expansion cards used in earlier PowerBook models
will not work in the PowerBook 3400. ◆
The memory data bus (part of the processor bus) is 64 bits wide. The on-board RAM and
the expansion RAM are connected to the memory data bus through low-power bus
buffers. Microprocessor accesses to RAM and ROM are typically burst accesses and are
cached.
Memory control is provided by the PSX custom IC, which has a memory bank decoder in
the form of an indexed register file. By writing the appropriate values into the register file
at startup time, the system software makes the memory addresses contiguous from
$0000 0000 even if some banks are not populated. See “PSX Memory Controller and
Bridge IC.”
ROM
2
The ROM in the PowerBook 3400 computer consists of 4 MB of storage on a data bus that
is 64 bits wide. The ROM is implemented as a 512K by 64-bit array consisting of four
512K by 16-bit ROM ICs. The ROM devices support burst mode for better processor
access.
PSX Memory Controller and Bridge IC
2
The PSX IC is an Apple custom IC that provides RAM and ROM memory control and
also acts as the bridge between the processor bus and the PCI bus.
Memory Control
2
The PSX IC controls the system RAM and ROM and provides address multiplexing and
refresh signals for the DRAM devices. For information about the address multiplexing,
see “Address Multiplexing” on page 80.
PCI Bus Bridge
2
The PSX IC acts as a bridge between the processor bus and the PCI expansion bus,
converting signals on one bus to the equivalent signals on the other bus. The PCI bridge
functions are performed by two converters. One accepts requests from the processor bus
and presents them to the PCI bus. The other converter accepts requests from the PCI bus
and provides access to the RAM and ROM on the processor bus.
The PCI bus bridge in the PSX IC runs asynchronously so that the processor bus and the
PCI bus can operate at different rates. The processor bus operates at a clock rate of
40 MHz and the PCI bus operates at 33 MHz.
12
Processor Bus
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C H A P T E R
2
Architecture
The PCI bus bridge generates PCI parity as required by the PCI bus specification, but it
does not check parity or respond to the parity error signal.
Big-Endian and Little-Endian Bus Addressing
2
Byte order for addressing on the processor bus is big endian and byte order on the PCI
bus is little endian. The bus bridge performs the appropriate byte swapping and address
transformations to translate between the two addressing conventions. For more
information about the translations between big endian and little endian byte order, see
Part One, “The PCI Bus,” in Designing PCI Cards and Drivers for Power Macintosh
Computers.
Processor Bus to PCI Bus Transactions
2
Transactions from the processor bus to the PCI bus can be either burst or non-burst. Burst
transactions are always 32 bytes long and are aligned on cache-line or 8-byte boundaries.
In burst transactions, all the bytes are significant. Burst transactions are used by the
microprocessor to read and write large memory structures on PCI devices.
Note
For the processor to generate PCI burst transactions, the address space
must be marked as cacheable. Refer to Macintosh Technote Number 1008,
Understanding PCI Bus Performance, for details. ◆
Non-burst transactions can be of arbitrary length from 1 to 8 bytes and can have any
alignment. Non-burst transactions are used by the processor to read and write small data
structures on PCI bus devices.
PCI Bus to Processor Bus Transactions
2
For transactions from the PCI bus to the processor bus, the bridge responds only to PCI
bus memory commands and configuration commands. On the processor bus, the bridge
generates a burst transaction or a non-burst transaction depending on the type of
command and the address alignment. For Memory Write and Invalidate commands that
are aligned with the cache line, the bridge generates a burst write transaction. Similarly,
for Memory Read Line and Memory Read Multiple commands whose alignment is less
than three-quarters through a cache line, the bridge generates a burst read transaction.
The maximum burst read or burst write transaction allowed by the bridge is 32 bytes—8
PCI beats.
Commands other than those mentioned here are limited to two beats if aligned to a
processor bus doubleword boundary and to one beat otherwise.
Processor Bus
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13
C H A P T E R
2
Architecture
PCI Bus
2
The PCI bus connects the following devices:
■
the PSX IC that provides the bridge to the processor bus, already described
■
the O’Hare peripheral support IC
■
the display controller IC (Chips and Technologies 65550)
■
the PCI to PC Card bridge IC (TI 1130) that controls the PC Card sockets
The PCI bus also connects to the internal expansion slot and the expansion bay. See the
sections “PCI Expansion Slot” beginning on page 36 and “Expansion Bay” beginning on
page 53 for details.
O’Hare Peripheral Support IC
2
The O’Hare IC is an I/O controller and DMA engine for Power Macintosh computers
using the PCI bus architecture. It provides power-management control functions for
Energy Star–compliant features.
The O’Hare IC provides the interface between the PCI bus and the I/O device controllers.
The O’Hare IC uses three clocks:
■
33 MHz PCI bus clock
■
45 MHz sound device clock
■
31.33 MHz I/O device clock
The O’Hare IC derives other clock signals from these three.
The O’Hare IC includes circuitry equivalent to the IDE, SCC, SCSI, sound, SWIM3, and
VIA controller ICs. The functional blocks in the O’Hare IC include the following:
■
support for descriptor-based DMA for I/O devices
■
system-wide interrupt handling
■
a SWIM3 floppy drive controller
■
SCSI controller (MESH based)
■
SCC serial I/O controller
■
two ATA bus interfaces with DMA
■
sound control logic and buffers
The SCC section of the O’Hare includes 8-byte FIFO buffers for both transmit and receive
data streams. The O’Hare IC supports DMA transfers between its I/O ports and the
computer’s main memory.
The O’Hare IC provides bus interfaces for the following I/O devices:
■
14
PMU microcontroller IC
PCI Bus
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C H A P T E R
2
Architecture
■
AWAC sound amplifier and codec IC
■
ATA and floppy disk devices in the expansion bay
The O’Hare IC controls the power to the expansion bay and the signals that allow the
user to insert a device into the expansion bay while the computer is operating. Those
signals are fully described in the section “Expansion Bay” beginning on page 53.
The O’Hare IC controls the interface for both the internal ATA hard disk drive and a
possible second ATA drive in the expansion bay. For information about the internal ATA
drive see the section “Internal ATA Hard Disk Drive” beginning on page 18. For
information about the ATA drive signals in the expansion bay, see the section “PCI
Signals on the Expansion Bay Connector,” particularly Table 4-4 on page 67.
The O’Hare IC also handles the signals to a floppy disk drive installed in the expansion
bay. For more information, see the section “PCI Signals on the Expansion Bay Connector,”
particularly Table 4-4 on page 67.
The floppy disk drive for the PowerBook 3400 computer is an Apple drive with auto
eject. The control signals are generated by the O’Hare custom IC.
The O’Hare IC also contains the sound control logic and the sound input and output
buffers. There are two DMA data buffers—one for sound input and one for sound
output—so the computer can record sound input and process sound output
simultaneously. The data buffer contains interleaved right and left channel data for
support of stereo sound.
The SCC circuitry in the O’Hare IC is an 8-bit device. The PCLK signal to the SCC is a
24 MHz clock. The SCC circuitry supports GeoPort and LocalTalk protocols.
AWAC Sound IC
2
The audio waveform amplifier and converter (AWAC) is a custom IC that combines a
waveform amplifier with a 16-bit digital sound encoder and decoder (codec). It conforms
to the IT&T ASCO 2300 Audio-Stereo Codec Specification and furnishes high-quality sound
input and output. For a description of the operation of the AWAC IC, see Power Macintosh
DAV Interface for PCI Expansion Cards. For information about sound inputs and outputs in
this computer, see the section “Sound System” beginning on page 31.
Note
The AWAC IC is also used in the Power Macintosh 6000, 7000, and 8000
series desktop computers. ◆
Power Management Unit
2
The power management unit (PMU) is a 68HC05 microprocessor that operates with its
own RAM and ROM. The PMU IC performs the following functions:
■
controls sleep and power on and off sequences
■
controls power to the other ICs
PCI Bus
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15
C H A P T E R
2
Architecture
■
controls clock signals to the other ICs
■
supports the ADB
■
scans the keyboard
■
controls display brightness
■
monitors battery charge level
■
controls battery charging
Display Controller IC
2
The Chips and Technologies 65550 IC controls both the flat panel display and the external
video monitor. It is set up to address 1 MB of video RAM.
The components of the display controller IC include
■
256-entry CLUT (color lookup table) in RAM
■
display buffer controller with hardware cursor support
■
flat panel control circuits
■
zoom video support
The display controller IC also includes a zoom video input that accepts video information
directly from a PC Card. The video controller performs scaling and video merging in
hardware, so the zoom video feature provides full-motion video at the same time the
computer is performing other tasks. See “Zoom Video” on page 86.
The processor in the display controller IC is capable of providing graphics acceleration
for certain QuickDraw operations.
PC Card Bridge IC
2
The TI 1130 IC provides the bridge between the PCI bus and the PC Card sockets. The TI
1130 IC performs the following functions
■
provides the interrupt structure for the PC Card sockets
■
transfers single-byte and word data to and from the PC Cards
■
manages power for the PC Cards, including
■ sleep mode
■ control of power to individual sockets
■ support of insertion and removal of PC Cards while the computer is operating
For more information about the operation of PC Cards in the PowerBook 3400 computer,
see “PC Card Expansion” on page 85.
16
PCI Bus
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
Figure 3-0
Listing 3-0
Table 3-0
3
I/O Features
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
3
C H A P T E R
3
I/O Features
This chapter describes both the built-in I/O devices and the interfaces for external I/O
devices. It also contains descriptions of the Ethernet cards installed in the PCI expansion
slot in some configurations.
This chapter describes the following I/O ports and devices:
■
internal ATA hard disk drive
■
built-in trackpad
■
built-in keyboard
■
built-in flat panel display
■
built-in video for an external monitor
■
serial port
■
SCSI port
■
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) port
■
infrared (IR) communication link
■
sound system
■
PCI cards for Ethernet and modem
Internal ATA Hard Disk Drive
3
The Macintosh PowerBook 3400 computer has an internal hard disk that uses the
standard IDE (integrated drive electronics) interface. This interface, used for IDE drives
on IBM AT–compatible computers, is also referred to as the ATA interface. The
implementation of the ATA interface on the PowerBook 3400 computer is a subset of the
ATA/IDE specification, ANSI proposal X3T10/0948D, Revision 2K (ATA-2).
The software that supports the internal hard disk is the same as that in previous
Macintosh PowerBook models with internal IDE drives except that DMA support has
been added. For a complete description of that software, see “Software for ATA Devices”
in Macintosh Developer Note Number 14.
Hard Disk Specifications
Figure 3-1 shows the maximum dimensions of the hard disk and the location of the
mounting holes. For more flexibility in the choice of hard disk drives, the PowerBook
3400 computer has more mounting holes than earlier PowerBook computers.
The minimum clearance between any conductive components on the drive and the
bottom of the mounting envelope is 0.5 mm.
18
Internal ATA Hard Disk Drive
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3
C H A P T E R
3
I/O Features
Figure 3-1
Maximum dimensions of the internal ATA hard disk
19.25 maximum
[0.757 maximum]
3.00
[0.118]
14.00 [0.403]
34.93±0.38
[1.375±0.015]
90.60
[3.567]
38.10
[1.500]
101.60 maximum
[4.00 maximum]
4.06
[0.160]
61.72
[2.430]
70.00
[2.755]
M3, 3.5 deep,
minimum full
thread, 16X
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Hard Disk Connector
3
The internal hard disk has a 48-pin connector that carries both the ATA signals and the
power for the drive. The connector has the dimensions of a 50-pin connector, but with
one row of pins removed, as shown in Figure 3-2. The remaining pins are in two groups:
pins 1–44, which carry the signals and power, and pins 46–48, which are reserved. Pin 20
has been removed, and pin 1 is located nearest the gap, rather than at the end of the
connector.
Internal ATA Hard Disk Drive
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
19
C H A P T E R
3
I/O Features
Figure 3-2
Connector for the internal ATA hard disk
Key: vacant
position at pin 20
Pin 1
3.99
[0.157]
19.25 maximum
[0.757 maximum]
Vacant row in
50-pin connector
10.14±0.375
[0.399±0.014]
Center line of pin 44
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Signal Assignments
3
Table 3-1 shows the signal assignments on the 44-pin portion of the hard disk connector.
A slash (/) at the beginning of a signal name indicates an active-low signal.
Table 3-1
Pin
number
Pin assignments on the ATA hard disk connector
Signal name
Pin
number
Signal name
1
/RESET
2
GROUND
3
DD7
4
DD8
5
DD6
6
DD9
7
DD5
8
DD10
9
DD4
10
DD11
11
DD3
12
DD12
13
DD2
14
DD13
15
DD1
16
DD14
17
DD0
18
DD15
19
GROUND
20
KEY
21
DMARQ
22
GROUND
23
/DIOW
24
GROUND
25
/DIOR
26
GROUND
27
IORDY
28
CSEL
29
/DMACK
30
GROUND
continued
20
Internal ATA Hard Disk Drive
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
3
I/O Features
Table 3-1
Pin assignments on the ATA hard disk connector (continued)
Pin
number
Signal name
Pin
number
Signal name
31
INTRQ
32
/IOCS16
33
DA1
34
/PDIAG
35
DA0
36
DA2
37
/CS0
38
/CS1
39
/DASP
40
GROUND
41
+5V LOGIC
42
+5V LOGIC
43
GROUND
44
Reserved
NOTE CSEL, /DASP, /IOCS16, and /PDIAG are not used; see Table 3-2
ATA Signal Descriptions
3
Table 3-2 describes the signals on the ATA hard disk connector.
Table 3-2
Signals on the ATA hard disk connector
Signal name
Signal description
DA(0–2)
Device address; used by the computer to select one of the registers in
the ATA drive. For more information, see the descriptions of the CS0
and CS1 signals.
DD(0–15)
Data bus; buffered from IOD(16–31) of the computer’s I/O bus.
DD(0–15) are used to transfer 16-bit data to and from the drive buffer.
DD(8–15) are used to transfer data to and from the internal registers
of the drive, with DD(0–7) driven high when writing.
/CS0
Register select signal. It is asserted low to select the main task file
registers. The task file registers indicate the command, the sector
address, and the sector count.
/CS1
Register select signal. It is asserted low to select the additional control
and status registers on the ATA drive.
CSEL
Cable select; not available on this computer (n.c.).
/DASP
Device active or slave present; not available on this computer (n.c.).
IORDY
I/O ready; when driven low by the drive, signals the CPU to insert wait
states into the I/O read or write cycles.
/IOCS16
I/O channel select; not used on this computer (pulled low by 1 kΩ).
/DIOR
I/O data read strobe.
/DIOW
I/O data write strobe.
continued
Internal ATA Hard Disk Drive
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
21
C H A P T E R
3
I/O Features
Table 3-2
Signals on the ATA hard disk connector (continued)
Signal name
Signal description
/DMACK
Used by the host to initiate a DMA transfer in response to DMARQ.
DMARQ
Asserted by the device when it is ready to transfer data to or from the
host.
INTRQ
Interrupt request. This active high signal is used to inform the computer
that a data transfer is requested or that a command has terminated.
/PDIAG
Asserted by device 1 to indicate to device 0 that it has completed the
power-on diagnostics; not available on this computer (n.c.).
/RESET
Hardware reset to the drive; an active low signal.
Key
This pin is the key for the connector.
The built-in ATA devices and ATA devices in the expansion bay are separately connected
to the I/O bus through bidirectional bus buffers.
Trackpad
3
The pointing device in the PowerBook 3400 computer is a trackpad, an integrated flat
pad that replaces the trackball used in some earlier PowerBook computers. The trackpad
provides precise cursor positioning in response to motions of the user’s fingertip over the
surface of the pad. A single button below the trackpad is used to make selections.
The trackpad is a solid-state device that emulates a mouse by sensing the motions of the
user’s finger over its surface and translating those motions into ADB commands. The
trackpad is lighter and more durable than the trackball used in earlier PowerBook
computers, and it consumes less power.
The trackpad includes tap and double tap features. As described in the user’s manual,
the trackpad responds to one or two taps on the pad itself as one or two clicks of the
button. The user can tap and drag on the trackpad in much the same manner as clicking
and dragging with the mouse.
Keyboard
3
The keyboard provides 76 (United States) or 77 (ISO) keys, including 12 function keys.
Figure 3-3 shows the version of the keyboard used on machines sold in the United States.
Figure 3-4 shows the version of the keyboard used on machines sold in countries that
require the ISO standard.
22
Trackpad
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
3
I/O Features
Figure 3-3
esc
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F1
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tab
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F5
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4
X
F8
&
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F10
(
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V
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#
3
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4
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2
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_
-
enter
F2
!
1
F12
{
[
L
M
F11
P
K
option
esc
±
T
F
Figure 3-4
§
^
6
R
D
Z
F6
%
5
E
S
shift
ctrl
F4
#
3
A
caps lock
Keyboard, United States layout
M
F12
_
-
+
=
{
[
P
:
;
L
<
,
F11
>
.
}
]
"
'
|
\
?
/
ctrl
The keyboard is attached to the computer’s case by screws. After removing the screws,
the user can remove the keyboard and lift it out to obtain access to the internal
components and expansion connectors inside the computer.
Flat Panel Display
3
The PowerBook 3400 computer has a built-in color flat panel display. The display is 12.1
inches across (measured diagonally) and is backlit by a cold cathode fluorescent lamp
(CCFL). The display contains 800 by 600 pixels and can show up to thousands of colors.
The display uses active matrix (TFT) technology for high contrast and fast response.
Flat Panel Display
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I/O Features
External Video Monitor
3
The PowerBook 3400 computer has a built-in connector for an external video monitor.
The connector is a standard DB9/15 connector for use with a VGA or SVGA monitor. An
optional adapter allows the user to attach a standard Apple video cable.
Monitors Supported
3
With the adapter, the computer can display on any Apple monitor, including the AV
monitors and the 17-inch and 20-inch multiple scan monitors. The computer also
supports VGA and SVGA monitors and PAL and NTSC television monitors, as shown in
Table 3-3.
The computer includes 1 MB of DRAM, which enables it to support up to 16 bits per
pixel on most monitors and up to 8 bits per pixel on the larger monitors. Table 3-3 lists
the pixel depths supported for each type of monitor.
Table 3-3
Monitors and pixel depths supported
Monitor type
Resolution
Bits per pixel
12-inch color
512 by 384
1, 4, 8, 16, 24
12-inch monochrome
640 by 480
1, 4, 8
13-inch and 14-inch color
640 by 480
1, 4, 8, 16
VGA and SVGA
640 by 480*
1, 4, 8, 16
SVGA
800 by 600
1, 4, 8, 16
SVGA
1024 by 768
1, 4, 8
Full-page monochrome
640 by 870
1, 4, 8
Full-page color
640 by 870
1, 4, 8
16-inch color
832 by 624
1, 4, 8
Apple 15-inch multiple scan
640 by 480
1, 4, 8, 16
Apple 15-inch multiple scan
800 by 600*
1, 4, 8, 16
Apple 15-inch multiple scan
832 by 624
1, 4, 8
Apple 17-inch multiple scan
640 by 480
1, 4, 8, 16
Apple 17-inch multiple scan
800 by 600*
1, 4, 8, 16
Apple 17-inch multiple scan
832 by 624
1, 4, 8
Apple 17-inch multiple scan
1024 by 768
1, 4, 8
continued
24
External Video Monitor
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Table 3-3
Monitors and pixel depths supported (continued)
Monitor type
Resolution
Bits per pixel
Apple 20-inch multiple scan
640 by 480
1, 4, 8, 16
Apple 20-inch multiple scan
800 by 600*
1, 4, 8, 16
Apple 20-inch multiple scan
832 by 624
1, 4, 8
Apple 20-inch multiple scan
1024 by 768
1, 4, 8
NTSC TV monitor
512 by 384*
1, 4, 8, 16, 24
NTSC TV monitor
640 by 480
1, 4, 8, 16
PAL TV monitor
640 by 480*
16 only
PAL TV monitor
768 by 576
1, 4, 8, 16
NOTE An asterisk indicates the startup resolution. Other resolutions can be selected using the
Monitors control panel or the control strip.
Note
The computer does not provide a display with 2 bits per pixel.
◆
For multiple scan monitors, Table 3-3 indicates the default resolution with an asterisk. For
example, when first connected to the computer, an SVGA monitor’s display resolution
will be 640 by 480 pixels. The user can switch to a higher resolution by using the
Monitors control panel or the control strip. The resolution set by the user will be used the
next time the computer is started up.
If the external monitor can display 800 by 600 pixels at 60 Hz, the PowerBook 3400
computer can display simultaneously on both the external monitor and the flat panel
display. This mode of display, called Simulscan, provides the same information on both
displays.
Video Connector
3
The video connector is a standard DB9/15 connector. Figure 3-5 shows the pin
configurations of the DB-9/15 connector. Table 3-4 lists the signal pin assignments.
Figure 3-5
1
2
6
11
Signal pins on the video connector
3
7
12
4
8
13
5
9
14
10
15
External Video Monitor
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I/O Features
Table 3-4
Signals on the video connector
Pin
Signal name
Description
1
RED
Red video signal
2
GREEN
Green video signal
3
BLUE
Blue video signal
4
MONID(0)
Monitor ID signal 0
5
GND
DDC return
6, 7, 8
AGND_VID
Analog video ground
9
+5V_IO
5 V power for I/O device
10
GND
HSYNC and VSYNC ground
11
VGA_ID
VGA ID signal
12
MONID(2)
Monitor ID signal 2
13
HSYNC
Horizontal synchronization signal
14
VSYNC
Vertical synchronization signal
15
MONID(1)
Monitor ID signal 1
Video Adapter
3
An optional video adapter allows the user to connect a standard Apple video cable to the
computer. The adapter is similar to another video adapter used with older Macintosh
PowerBooks. It is a different color—granite—and it enables the PowerBook 3400
computer to recognise a wider range of monitor types. The Apple part number for the
new adapter is 590-0289-A.
Monitor Sense Codes
3
To identify the type of monitor connected, the computer first determines whether the
adapter is connected. It does this by checking pin 11; on the new adapter, this pin is
connected to the VSYNC signal. If the adapter is not found, the computer next checks to
determine whether a DDC-type monitor is connected. DDC is the interface that provides
monitor ID signals for VGA and SVGA monitors.
If the computer does not detect a DDC-capable monitor, it uses the Apple monitor sense
codes on the signals MONID(0–2) in Table 3-4. Table 3-5 shows the sense codes and the
extended sense codes for each of the monitors the card can support. Refer to the
Macintosh Technical Note M.HW.SenseLines for a description of the sense code system.
26
External Video Monitor
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I/O Features
Table 3-5
Monitor sense codes
Standard sense codes
Monitor type
Extended sense codes
(2–0)
(1, 2)
(0, 2)
(0, 1)
12-inch RGB
010
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
13-inch RGB
110
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Portrait
001
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
16-inch RGB
111
10
11
01
17-inch multiscan
110
11
01
00
VGA and SVGA
111
01
01
11
No monitor
111
11
11
11
Note
Both VGA and SVGA monitors have the same sense code. The first time
the user starts up with an SVGA monitor, the video card treats it as a
VGA monitor and shows a 640-by-480 pixel display. The user can switch
to the 800-by-600 pixel mode from the Monitors control panel; when that
happens, the computer changes the display to the 800-by-600 pixel mode
immediately and uses that mode the next time it is started up. ◆
Serial Port
3
The PowerBook 3400 computer has a standard Macintosh serial port. The 9-pin circular
mini-DIN socket on the back panel is the same as those on other Macintosh computers.
The serial port socket accepts either 8-pin or 9-pin plugs. Figure 3-6 shows the connector.
Figure 3-6
8
5
Serial port connector
7
6
9
4
2
1
3
The serial port can be programmed for asynchronous or synchronous communication
formats up to 4 Mbps, including AppleTalk and the full range of Apple GeoPort
protocols. With an external module connected to the serial port, the computer can
Serial Port
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C H A P T E R
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I/O Features
communicate with a variety of ISDN and other telephone transmission facilities. For
more information, refer to Macintosh Technote Number 1018, Serial DMA.
Table 3-6 shows the signal assignments for the serial port.
Table 3-6
Pin assignments on the serial port connector
Pin
Name
Function
1
HSKo
Handshake output
2
HSKi
Handshake input or external clock (up to 4 Mbps)
3
TxD–
Transmit data –
4
Gnd
Ground
5
RxD–
Receive data –
6
TxD+
Transmit data +
7
GPi
General-purpose input (wake up CPU or perform DMA handshake)
8
RxD+
Receive data +
9
+5V
Power to external device (300 mA maximum)
SCSI Port
3
The SCSI port on the PowerBook 3400 computer supports the SCSI interface as defined
by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3T9.2 committee.
The external HDI-30 connector is identical to those used in other PowerBook models. The
data and control signals on the SCSI bus are active low signals that are driven by open
drain outputs. The SCSI bus has built-in active termination.
Table 3-7 shows the signal assignments for the external SCSI connector. Pin 1 of the
external SCSI connector is the /SCSI.DISK.MODE signal. When this signal is asserted at
startup time, the computer operates in disk mode instead of starting up the Mac OS.
Table 3-7
28
SCSI connector signals
Pin
Signal name
Pin
Signal name
1
/SCSI.DISK.MODE
16
/DB6
2
/DB0
17
GND
3
GND
18
/DB7
4
/DB1
19
/DBP
SCSI Port
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I/O Features
Table 3-7
SCSI connector signals (continued)
Pin
Signal name
Pin
Signal name
5
TERMPWR (not used;
reserved)
20
GND
6
/DB2
21
/REQ
7
/DB3
22
GND
8
GND
23
/BSY
9
/ACK
24
GND
10
GND
25
/ATN
11
/DB4
26
/C/D
12
GND
27
/RST
13
GND
28
/MSG
14
/DB5
29
/SEL
15
GND
30
/I/O
ADB Port
3
The Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) port on the PowerBook 3400 computer is functionally the
same as on other Macintosh computers. The connector is located on the left side of the
computer near the back.
The ADB connector is a 4-pin mini-DIN connector. Figure 3-7 shows the arrangement of
the pins on the ADB connector.
Figure 3-7
4
2
ADB connector
3
1
The ADB is a single-master, multiple-slave serial communications bus that uses an
asynchronous protocol and connects keyboards, graphics tablets, mouse devices, and
other devices to the computer. The custom ADB microcontroller drives the bus and reads
ADB Port
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C H A P T E R
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I/O Features
status from the selected external device. A 4-pin mini-DIN connector connects the ADB
controller to the outside world. Table 3-8 lists the ADB connector pin assignments. For
more information about the ADB, see Guide to the Macintosh Family Hardware, second
edition.
Table 3-8
ADB connector pin assignments
Pin number
Name
Description
1
ADB
Bidirectional data bus used for input and output; an
open collector signal pulled up to +5 volts through a
470-ohm resistor on the main logic board.
2
PSW
Power-on signal; generates reset and interrupt key
combinations.
3
+5V
+5 volts from the computer.
4
GND
Ground from the computer.
IMPORTANT
The total current available for all devices connected to the +5-V pins on
the ADB is 100 mA. ▲
Infrared Communication Link
The computer has a directed infrared (IR) communication link connected internally to
serial port B. When the computer is placed within range of another device with an IR
interface, it can send and receive serial data using one of several communications
protocols. The other device may be another IR-equipped PowerBook, a desktop
computer with an IR communications link, or some other device that complies with the
Infrared Data Association (IrDA) standard. The minimum range of the IR link is
approximately two inches, and the maximum range is one meter for IrDA compliant
devices and six feet for PowerBooks.
The IR link in the PowerBook 3400 computer supports the following communications
methods:
■
IRTalk (LocalTalk over IR)
■
IrDA at up to 1.152 Mbps
For LocalTalk operation, the IR link takes serial bits from the SCC and transmits them
using a modified form of pulse encoding called PPM-4. This method of encoding uses
four cycles of a 3.92-MHz carrier for each pulse, which increases the system’s immunity
to interference from ambient light sources. Two serial bits are encoded as a symbol
consisting of a start pulse followed by either a second pulse in one of three possible
positions or no second pulse.
30
Infrared Communication Link
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The modulation method used in the Newton PDA consists of gating a 500-kHz carrier on
and off. This method is capable of data rates up to 38.4k bits per second. Apple currently
has no plans to support Macintosh to Newton connectivity using this method due to its
low data rate. Future Newton PDAs will support the IrDA standard. The IrDA
modulation method complies with the IrDA physical layer standard, which can be found
at ftp://irda.org.
Sound System
3
The 16-bit stereo audio circuitry provides high-quality sound input and output through
the built-in microphone and speakers. The user can also connect external input and
output devices by way of the sound input and output jacks.
The sound system is based on the AWAC codec IC along with input and output
amplifiers and signal conditioners. In the PowerBook 3400 computer, the AWAC codec
supports three channels of digital sound: two stereo channels plus a multiplexed channel.
The sound system supports sample sizes up to 16 bits and sample rates of 11.025 kHz,
22.05 kHz, and 44.1 kHz.
The frequency response of the sound circuits, not including the microphone and
speakers, is within plus or minus 2 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Total harmonic distortion
and noise is less than 0.05 percent with a 1-V rms sine wave input. The signal-to-noise
ratio (SNR) is 85 dB, with no audible discrete tones.
Note
All sound level specifications in this section are rms values.
◆
Sound Inputs
3
The sound system accepts inputs from six possible sources:
■
built-in microphone
■
external sound input jack
■
sound from the PCI expansion slot
■
sound from the expansion bay
■
sound from a zoom video device in the lower PC Card socket
■
1-bit sound from the PC Card sockets
The microphone and the sound input jack have dedicated input channels on the AWAC
IC; the other four inputs share a third input on the IC. Those four inputs are switched on
and off by the hardware; they can be selected either as a group or in any combination for
play-through or recording.
Sound System
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I/O Features
Built-in Microphone
3
The sound signal from the built-in microphone goes through a dedicated preamplifier
that raises its nominal 30-mV level to the 1-V level of the codec circuits in the AWAC IC.
External Sound Input
3
The external sound input jack accepts a line-level signal or an Apple PlainTalk
microphone. When a connector is plugged into the external sound input jack, the
computer turns off the sound input from the built-in microphone. The input jack has the
following electrical characteristics:
■
input impedance: 6.8k
■
maximum level: 2.0 V rms
Note
The sound input jack accepts the maximum sound output of an audio
CD without clipping. When working with sound sources that have
significantly lower levels, you may wish to increase the signal gain of the
sound input circuit. You can do that using the Sound Manager as
described in Inside Macintosh: Sound. ◆
Expansion Bay Sound Input
3
The sound input from the expansion bay has the following electrical characteristics:
■
input impedance: 3.2k
■
maximum level: 0.5 V rms
PC Card Sound Input
3
Each PC Card socket has one sound output pin (SPKR_OUT) and the computer accepts
either one or two cards. The one-bit digital signals from the sound output pins are
exclusive-ORed together and routed to the built-in speaker and the external sound
output jack.
Sound Outputs
3
The sound system sends computer-generated sounds or sounds from an expansion-bay
device or PC Card to the built-in speakers and to an external sound output jack. The
sound output jack is located on the left side of the computer near the front.
External Sound Output
The sound output jack provides enough current to drive a pair of low-impedance
headphones. The sound output jack has the following electrical characteristics:
32
Sound System
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C H A P T E R
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I/O Features
■
output impedance: 33 Ω
■
minimum recommended load impedance: 32 Ω
■
maximum level: 1 V rms
■
maximum current: 32 mA peak
Internal Speakers
3
The computer has a total of four internal speakers: two 20 mm speakers located beneath
the bezel between the back of the keyboard and the display, and two 50 mm speakers
located in a tuned port enclosure in the back of the display. The 20 mm speakers are
driven by the high-frequency portion of the stereo sound signals from the computer. The
50 mm speakers are driven by a monophonic mix of the low-frequency portion of the
sound signals.
The computer turns off the sound signals to the internal speaker when an external device
is connected to the sound output jack and during power cycling.
PCI Slot and Expansion Bay
3
Sound output signals are provided at both the PCI slot and the expansion bay. The sound
signals are line-level audio.
Ethernet and Modem Cards
3
Most configurations of the PowerBook 3400 computer come with an ethernet interface
installed in the PCI expansion slot. Two types of card are used, one with an ethernet
interface and a modem, the other with ethernet only. Both cards have an RJ-45 connector
that is accessible through an opening in the back of the computer’s case.
Ethernet and Modem Card
3
The ethernet and modem card for the PowerBook 3400 computer has the following
features:
■
10 Mbps ethernet interface with a 10baseT connection
■
modem bit rates up to 33.6 Kbps
■
fax modem bit rates up to 14.4 Kbps
Facsimile applications must support Class 1 fax; a Class 1 fax application comes with the
computer.
The modem appears as a serial port that responds to the typical AT commands. The card
provides a sound output for monitoring the progress of the modem connection.
Ethernet and Modem Cards
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I/O Features
Ethernet-Only Card
3
The ethernet-only card provides a 10 Mbps ethernet interface with a 10baseT connection.
The ethernet interface conforms to the ISO/IEC 8802-3 specification, where applicable.
34
Ethernet and Modem Cards
Launch Draft. Preliminary, Confidential. ©2000 Apple Computer, Inc. 4/18/00
C H A P T E R
Figure 4-0
Listing 4-0
Table 4-0
4
Expansion Modules
4
35
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C H A P T E R
4
Expansion Modules
This chapter describes each of the expansion features of the PowerBook 3400 computer:
■
PCI expansion slot
■
expansion bay
■
RAM expansion
■
PC Card slot
PCI Expansion Slot
4
The PowerBook 3400 computer has an internal slot for an expansion card. The card fits
between the expansion bay and the PC Card slots. The user can get access to the
expansion card by removing the keyboard.
PCI Expansion Signals
4
This section describes the signals on the internal PCI expansion connector. The expansion
slot uses the PCI expansion bus with a few additional signals to support modems.
Connector Signal Assignments
4
Table 4-1 shows the signal assignments on the PCI expansion connector.
Table 4-1
Signal assignments on the PCI expansion connector
Pin
Signal name
Pin
Signal name
1
+5V_MAIN
51
+5V_MAIN
2
+3V_MAIN
52
/PCISERR
3
/PCI_RST_3V
53
PCIPAR
4
/SLOT_INT
54
+3V_MAIN
5
GND
55
GND
6
GND
56
GND
7
/PCI_SLOT_GNT
57
PCIAD(15)
8
SLOT_PCI_CLK
58
/PCICBE(1)
9
+5V_MAIN
59
PCIAD(13)
10
/PCI_SLOT_REQ
60
PCIAD(14)
11
PCIAD(30)
61
+5V_MAIN
12
PCIAD(31)
62
PCIAD(12)
continued
36
PCI Expansion Slot
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Expansion Modules
Table 4-1
Signal assignments on the PCI expansion connector (continued)
Pin
Signal name
Pin
Signal name
13
PCIAD(28)
63
PCIAD(11)
14
PCIAD(29)
64
+3V_MAIN
15
GND
65
GND
16
GND
66
GND
17
PCIAD(26)
67
PCIAD(9)
18
PCIAD(27)
68
PCIAD(10)
19
PCIAD(24)
69
/PCICBE(0)
20
PCIAD(25)
70
PCIAD(8)
21
+5V_MAIN
71
/PCMCIA_IRQ2
22
PCIAD(23)
72
PCIAD(7)
23
PCIAD(22)
73
PCIAD(6)
24
+3V_MAIN
74
/PCMCIA_IRQ1
25
GND
75
GND
26
GND
76
GND
27
/PCICBE(3)
77
PCIAD(4)
28
+3V_MAIN
78
PCIAD(5)
29
PCIAD(20)
79
PCIAD(2)
30
PCIAD(21)
80
PCIAD(3)
31
+5V_MAIN
81
+5V_MAIN
32
PCIAD(19)
82
PCIAD(1)
33
PCIAD(18)
83
PCIAD(0)
34
+3V_MAIN
84
+3V_MAIN
35
GND
85
GND
36
GND
86
GND
37
PCIAD(16)
87
SLEEP
38
PCIAD(17)
88
/CFW_3V
39
/PCIFRAME
89
RING_DET
40
/PCICBE(2)
90
+3V_MAIN
41
+5V_MAIN
91
+5V_MAIN
42
/PCIIRDY
92
+3V_MAIN
43
/PCITRDY
93
n.c.
continued
PCI Expansion Slot
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Expansion Modules
Table 4-1
Signal assignments on the PCI expansion connector (continued)
Pin
Signal name
Pin
Signal name
44
+3V_MAIN
94
PSLOT_IDSEL
45
GND
95
MB_COM_OUT
46
GND
96
PSLOT_SND_COM
47
/PCISTOP
97
MB_R_OUT
48
/PCIDEVSEL
98
PSLOT_SND_R
49
/PCIPERR
99
MB_L_OUT
50
/PCILOCK
100
PSLOT_SND_L
PCI Signals
4
The PCI signals on the expansion card conform to the standards for 32-bit-wide PCI with
3.3 V signaling. For more information about the PCI interface, contact the PCI-SIG
(special interest group) at the address given in the preface.
IMPORTANT
The interface for the PCI expansion card supports only 3.3 V signaling
levels. ▲
Other Signals
4
The PCI expansion slot has several signals in addition to the PCI signals. Table 4-2 gives
the definitions of those signals.
Table 4-2
38
Other signals on the PCI expansion connector
Signal name
Signal description
/CFW_3V
Clock failure warning: The PCI clock will stop 16 ms after this
signal (active low). The expansion card should use this time to
prepare for the removal of the clock.
MB_L_OUT,
MB_R_OUT,
MB_COM_OUT
Main sound output from the computer; a stereo pair of
line-level signals. These signals are shared outputs to the
expansion bay connector.
PSLOT_SND_L,
PSLOT_SND_R,
PSLOT_SND_COM
Sound input signals from the card to the computer; a stereo
pair of line-level signals.
SLEEP
Active (high) when the computer is in sleep mode; SLEEP is a
5 V signal, not 3.3 V. See “Expansion Card Operation and Sleep
Mode” beginning on page 49.
PCI Expansion Slot
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Expansion Modules
Expansion Card Design
4
This section describes the mechanical design of the PCI expansion card. Figure 4-1 shows
a perspective view of the expansion card and its orientation.
Figure 4-1
PCI expansion card
Rear of computer
Location of RJ45 connector
Connectors on the Expansion Card
4
The PCI expansion card has two connectors: an internal connector that plugs into the
computer’s logic board and an external connector that occupies an opening in the back of
the case. Figure 4-2 shows the location of the connectors on the PCI expansion card.
PCI Expansion Slot
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C H A P T E R
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Expansion Modules
Figure 4-2
Connectors on the PCI expansion card
11.98 [0.472]
Pin 1
External
connector
101.72
[4.005]
Internal
connector
9.25
[0.364]
17.50 [0.689]
Pin 1
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Note
The following tolerances apply to all the drawings in this section:
One digit after the decimal point (X.X): ±0.20 [0.01]
Two digits after the decimal point (X.XX): ±0.13 [0.005]
Three digits after the decimal point (X.XXX): ±0.100 [0.0039]
External Connector
4
A card in the PCI expansion slot can include an external connector by way of an opening
in the rear of the case. The case opening can accommodate a shielded RJ45 connector or
some other connector of a compatible size and shape. Figure 4-3 shows the location of the
external connector on the expansion card. Figure 4-4 shows the dimensions of the
shielded RJ45 connector.
40
PCI Expansion Slot
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Figure 4-3
Location of external connector
RJ45 connector
18.37 [0.723]
RJ45 connector, accessible
through hole in rear bottom case
14.0 [0.55]
4.73 [0.186]
15.87 [0.625]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Figure 4-4
Shielded RJ45 connector
15.87 [0.625]
14.0 [0.55]
17.15 [0.675]
21.3 [0.84]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Grounding the External Connector
4
To prevent excessive electromagnetic radiation, the external connector on the PCI
expansion card must be a shielded connector. The computer’s case has conductive metal
fingers that make electrical contact with the shield and ground it to the case. Figure 4-5
shows the location of the contact area on the connector. If some other type of connector is
used, the opening in the computer’s case must still be covered, grounded, and shielded
against EMI.
Figure 4-5
Connector grounding considerations
5.00 [0.197]
Pin 1
13.50
[0.531]
17.14
[0.675]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Internal Connector
The internal connector for the PCI expansion card is a 100-pin Molex connector. The
connector has a pitch of 0.63 mm and a stack height of 10 mm. Figure 4-6 shows the
dimensions of the connector.
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Figure 4-6
Expansion card internal connector
5.20 [0.205]
38.62 [1.52]
9.00 [0.354]
33.62 [1.324]
0.60 [0.024]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Card Dimensions
4
Figure 4-7 shows the dimensions of the internal PCI expansion card.
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Figure 4-7
Dimensions of the PCI expansion card
39.99
[1.575]
28.89
[1.138]
10.34 [0.407]
20.20 [0.795]
ø4.20 [0.165]
Mounting hole
118.45
[4.663]
R1.00 [0.039
106.32
[4.186]
100.50
[3.957]
80.54
[3.171]
ø4.20 [0.165]
Mounting slot
2X
R 0.5 [0.020]
4.20 [0.165]
3.03 [0.119]
43.00 [1.693]
45°
44
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Component Height Limits
4
Figure 4-8 shows a general view of the maximum component heights on the internal PCI
expansion card. Figure 4-9 shows the height limits on the top of the card, and Figure 4-10
shows the height limits on the bottom of the card.
Figure 4-8
PCI expansion card maximum component space
Rear of computer
Maximum component geometry
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Figure 4-9
Maximum component heights on the top of the PCI expansion card
15.29 [0.602]
9.00 [0.354]
Component height restricted
to 1.75 [0.069] maximum.
11.00 [0.433]
Component height restricted to
3.20 [0.126] maximum.
Conductive component height
restricted to 1.35 [0.053] maximum.
97.03
[3.820]
65.24
[2.568]
;;
;;
;;
;;
;;
58.50
[2.303]
6.00 [0.236]
35.49 [1.397]
No components or
traces allowed.
Component height restricted to
3.85 [0.152] maximum.
Conductive component height
restricted to 2.00 [0.079] maximum.
9.53 [0.375]
Component height restricted to
2.35 [0.093] maximum.
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Figure 4-10
Maximum component heights on the bottom of the PCI expansion card
19.41 [0.764]
7.60 [0.299]
No components allowed
Component height restricted
to 4.50 [0.177] maximum
R 3.80 [0.150]
Component height restricted
to 3.50 [0.138] maximum
Component height restricted
to 6.00 [0.236] maximum
54.00 [2.126]
Component height restricted
to 3.92 [0.154] maximum
83.04 [3.269]
5.80 [0.228]
24.35 [0.959]
13.15 [0.518]
17.21 [0.678]
21.19 [0.834]
ø7.60 [0.299]
No components allowed
12.30 [0.484]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Thermal Considerations for the Expansion Card
4
The computer’s case encloses a copper heat sink above the PCI expansion card. Figure
4-11 shows the positions of the heat sink and the card with respect to the bottom of the
case.
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Figure 4-11
Heatsink for the PCI expansion card
Rear of computer
Heat transfer pad adhered to hot component
Heat sink
3.20 [0.126]
3.85 [0.151]
65.24 [2.568]
Bottom case
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
An insulating layer between the heatsink and the PCI expansion card prevents electrical
shorts between the heatsink and tall components on the card. Hot components on the top
of the card can be thermally connected to the heatsink with a compliant thermal transfer
material. To complete the thermal transfer path, the insulating layer should be removed
or cut away in the component area to allow direct contact with the copper heatsink. For
effective thermal transfer, the thermal transfer material must touch both the hot
component and the copper heatsink.
IMPORTANT
The force exerted by the thermal transfer material against the heatsink
must not exceed 1 pound. A higher force may lift the heatsink away from
the main processor, causing the processor to overheat. ▲
Power Budget for the Expansion Card
Designers of expansion cards for the PowerBook 3400 computer must make sure their
cards do not exceed the limits on power consumption. The peak currents the card may
draw from the power mains are:
■
3.3 V supply: 900 mA
■
5 V supply: 600 mA
The maximum total power dissipation from both mains combined is 3.0 W. The
expansion card must not draw the maximum current from both supply mains because
doing so exceeds the 3.0 W total limit on power dissipation. ▲
▲
W AR N I N G
Exceeding these current limits will shorten the time the computer can
operate from its battery and may result in damage to the computer. ▲
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Expansion Card Operation and Sleep Mode
4
Power is constantly supplied to the PCI expansion card while the computer is in sleep
mode. The circuitry on the card can monitor the SLEEP and /CFW_3V signals to
determine the state of the computer. During sleep mode, the card must reduce its power
consumption to a maximum of 3.3 mW.
All clocks become inactive and are driven low when the computer switches to sleep
mode. All PCIAD signals are driven low during sleep mode. Some PCI control signals are
not driven low before entering sleep mode.
Note
Many of the sleep mode considerations described here also apply to the
operation of PCI devices in the expansion bay module. See “PCI Control
Signals in Sleep Mode” beginning on page 69. ◆
Switching Power to the Card
4
Figure 4-12 shows a typical circuit that switches power to the devices on the expansion
card but maintains power to the PCI interface IC. In addition to switching the power
mains, the circuitry on the card must also provide its own reset signal to the devices
whose power is switched.
Figure 4-12
PCI peripheral in sleep mode, interface unswitched
PCI interface and
registers
Local interface
PCI interface IC
PCI bus
Address/data,
enables, clock,
and control
signals
Bus to local
peripheral circuitry
/PCI_RST_3V
+3v only
+3v and +5v
+3v and +5v
+3v and +5v switched power
to local peripheral circuitry
Power switch
/CFW and
SLEEP
Power
controller
Power always on
Reset signals to
local circuitry with
switched power
Power off during sleep mode
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Depending on the power requirements of the devices on the expansion card, it may be
necessary to provide low-power operation of the PCI interface IC. The circuit in Figure
4-13 is similar to the one in Figure 4-12, except it also switches the power to the PCI
interface IC.
The following control signals are connected to pull-up resistors on the main logic board:
/DEVSEL, /FRAME, /GRANT, /INT, /IRDY, /LOCK, /PERR, /REQ, /SERR, /STOP,
and /TRDY. A bus switch can be added to disconnect those control signals from the PCI
interface IC during low-power operation of the card.
For cards on which the PCI interface is being switched off, the device driver software
must save the card configuration information each time the computer switches to sleep
mode and restore it when the card is switched back to full power operation.
Figure 4-13
PCI peripheral in sleep mode, interface switched
PCI interface and
registers
Local interface
PCI interface IC
PCI bus
Address/data,
enables, and
clock
Control
signals
Bus
switch
Bus to local
peripheral circuitry
+3v
only
+3v
and +5v
+3v and +5v
Power switch
/PCI_RST_3V
/CFW and
SLEEP
Power
controller
Power always on
+3v and +5v switched
power to local peripheral
circuitry
Reset signals to
local circuitry with
switched power
Power off during sleep mode
IMPORTANT
The same control signals are used for PCI devices on a card in the PCI
expansion slot and on a module in the expansion bay, but those signals
are electrically different during sleep mode. See “PCI Control Signals in
Sleep Mode” beginning on page 69. ▲
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Timing of Control Signals in Sleep Mode
4
Figure 4-14 shows the timing of the control signals on the PCI expansion card when the
computer goes into and out of sleep mode.
Figure 4-14
Timing of the expansion card control signals for sleep mode
/CFW
SLEEP
PCICLK
AD, C/BE
Controls*
/PCI_RST_3V
t1
t2
t3
t1 = 16 ms min. /CFW to clocks stopped
t2 = 16 ms min. Clocks stopped to system sleep
t3 = 50 ms min. Clocks started to clock valid
Power Saving Considerations
4
Because PCI peripherals have the ability to switch to low-power operation during sleep
mode, developers should provide a software option to switch to low-power operation
during normal operation of the computer. If the user knows that the PCI peripheral will
not be used for some time, the user can select the option to reduce power consumption
and extend the battery life. Providing such an option would probably involve a special
driver call that would invoke the card’s power-down sequence.
If you choose to provide such a low-power or nonuse mode, you must be aware of the
differences between system sleep mode and your local low-power mode. For example, in
sleep mode the system clocks, PCIAD, and CB/E are stopped and driven low, and the
control signals listed in Figure 4-13 are pulled up to 3.3 V. On the other hand, while your
card is in its local low-power mode, the PCI bus signals are still active.
Power Sequences
4
Here are the sequences of events on the power supply and control signals when the
operating mode of the computer changes. Knowledge of these sequences will help
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developers design devices that operate properly when the computer switches from one
power mode to another.
Note
These power sequences apply to both the internal PCI expansion slot and
a PCI device in an expansion bay module. ◆
Power Sequence From Off to On
4
Here is the sequence of states and events when the computer switches from off to on:
1. The computer is in the power-off mode.
2. The PMU detects power on.
3. The main power supplies (+5V, +3.3V, and +2.6V) switch on.
4. The clocks begin operating.
5. The /CFW signal changes to high (inactive).
6. The /RESET signal changes to high (inactive).
7. The processor starts executing the ROM code.
8. If a module is installed in the expansion bay, power to the expansion bay switches on.
9. The processor continues to execute the startup sequence and configures PCI cards, if
any.
10. The computer loads and launches the operating system from the available mass
storage device.
11. The computer is in the on (normal operating) mode.
Power Sequence From On to Sleep
4
Here is the sequence of states and events when the computer switches from on to sleep:
1. The computer is in the on (normal operating) mode.
2. The SLEEP mode is initiated by the user or by some predetermined condition.
3. The processor stops running.
4. The /CFW signal changes to low (active).
5. There is a time delay of 16 ms.
6. The clocks stop operating.
7. The SLEEP signal switches to high (active), which switches off the power to unused
circuitry (sound, oscillators, and so on).
8. If a PCI device is installed in the expansion bay, power to the expansion bay remains
on.
9. If the expansion bay does not have a PCI device installed in it, power to the expansion
bay switches off.
10. The computer is in sleep mode.
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Power Sequence From Sleep to On
4
Here is the sequence of states and events when the computer switches from sleep to on:
1. The computer is in sleep mode.
2. The PMU detects keyboard activity or the power-on switch.
3. The SLEEP signal changes to low (inactive).
4. The clocks begin operating.
5. The /CFW signal changes to high (inactive).
6. An interrupt is sent to the main processor.
7. The processor starts executing code.
8. If power to the expansion bay was off and an expansion bay module is still present,
expansion bay power switches to on.
9. The display buffer is reloaded.
10. The computer is in the on (normal operating) mode.
Power Sequence From On to Off
4
Here is the sequence of states and events when the computer switches from on to off:
1. The computer is in the on (normal operating) mode.
2. The computer detects the shutdown signal.
3. The processor stops running.
4. The /CFW signal changes to low (active).
5. There is a time delay of 16 ms.
6. The system /RESET signal is asserted on the CPU and PCI busses.
7. The clocks stop operating.
8. The main power supplies (+5 V, +3.3 V, and +2.6 V) switch off.
9. The computer is in the power-off mode.
Expansion Bay
4
The expansion bay is an opening in the PowerBook 3400 computer that accepts a plug-in
disk drive such as a CD-ROM or floppy disk. The expansion bay can also accept a PCI
device or a power device such as an AC adapter.
Note
While the expansion bay in the PowerBook 3400 computer can accept
expansion modules designed for the Macintosh PowerBook 5300 and
PowerBook 190 computers, Apple Computer recommends that modules
for the new computer use the new, larger size described here. ◆
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Expansion Bay Module
4
Figure 4-15 shows a module designed to fit into the expansion bay. A notch on the side of
the module engages a catch inside the computer to prevent the module from being pulled
out.
Figure 4-15
Front view of expansion bay module
Suggested label location
Suggested bar code location
Locking notch
External surface
Datum Slot
4
As the module is inserted into the expansion bay, a tab on the main logic board mates
with the datum slot, thereby aligning the module with the logic board. Because the
datum slot determines the position of the module with respect to the main logic board,
the datum slot should be used as the reference for the mechanical design of the expansion
bay module.
Figure 4-16 is a view of the expansion bay module from the rear showing the connector
and the datum slot. Figure 4-17 shows the exact location of the connector and the datum
slot.
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Figure 4-16
Rear view of expansion bay module
External surface
Connector
Locking notch
Datum locating slot
Figure 4-17
Location of expansion bay connector and datum slot
Datum slot centerline
Datum slot
Connector centerline
4.00 [0.157]
1.70 [0.067]
29.44 [1.159]
15.30 [0.602]
37.50 [1.476]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Maximum Dimensions
4
Figure 4-18 shows the maximum dimensions of a module that can be accommodated by
the expansion bay.
Figure 4-18
Maximum dimensions of the expansion module
128.00
[5.039]
29.44
[1.159]
Datum slot centerline
145.75 [5.738]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Location of the Circuit Board and Connectors
4
Figure 4-19 is an exploded view of a typical expansion bay module showing the locations
of the circuit board and the connectors.
Figure 4-19
Exploded view of expansion bay module
Top case
Internal connector
External connectors
Circuit board
Screw bosses
PCB locating bosses
Bottom case
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Figure 4-20 shows the recommended method of installing the circuit board in the
expansion module. This pin and slot arrangement provides accurate location of the board
without overconstraining it.
Figure 4-20
Suggested locations of circuit board and connector
4X
mounting holes
Boss in bottom case
locates hole in PCB
Slot in PCB aligns to
boss in bottom case
Localized thin zone
to clear connector
2mm wall plastic
0.40 [0.016]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Figure 4-21 and Figure 4-22 show typical and alternative ways of mounting the
connectors.
Figure 4-21
Locations of connectors
Connectors recessed
below the external surface
Figure 4-22
Alternate mounting for connector
Connector mounts vertical to PCB
0.40 [0.016]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Figure 4-23 shows the maximum dimensions of the circuit board and the location of the
expansion bay connector.
Figure 4-23
Suggested dimensions of circuit board
135.5 [5.335]
57.56
[2.266]
84.10
[3.311]
121.00
[4.764]
Connector
1.50 [0.059]
5.44 [0.214]
36.25 [1.427]
Maximum component height in
this area 10.25 [0.404]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Figure 4-24 shows the maximum component height on the bottom of the circuit board.
Figure 4-24
Maximum component height on bottom of circuit board
Connector
Maximum component height in
this area 2.00 [0.079]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Grounding the Module
4
If the device in the expansion bay module requires grounding to reduce electromagnetic
radiation, the module should be provided with electrically grounded conductive surfaces
as shown in Figure 4-25 and Figure 4-26.
Figure 4-25
Electrical grounding surfaces, top view
Ground plane contact surface
4X
R 1.00
98.51
[3.878]
Centerline of
datum slot
26.67
[1.050]
123.31 [4.855]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Figure 4-26
Electrical grounding surfaces, bottom view
3X
7.00 [0.276]
3X
99.01 [3.898]
20.00
[0.787]
Ground plane
contact surfaces
10.00 [0.394]
40.00
[1.575]
3X
26.00 [1.024]
12X R1.00 [0.039]
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Mechanical Support Areas
4
The expansion bay comes in contact with the module and supports it in the areas shown
in Figure 4-27 and Figure 4-28. Those areas should not be recessed below the surface of
the module.
Figure 4-27
Mechanical contact areas, top view
131.31 [5.170]
4.15 [0.163]
10.12 [0.398]
9.98 [0.393]
10.27 [0.404]
7X R. Full
4X
2.00 [0.079]
96.50
[3.799]
77.06
[3.034]
Centerline of
datum slot
67.08
[2.641]
28.00 [1.102]
3.47 [0.137]
10.78 [0.424]
4X
contact surfaces
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
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Figure 4-28
Mechanical contact areas, bottom view
15X
2.00 [0.079]
Centerline of datum slot
3X 21.00 [0.827]
3X
37.00
[1.457]
3X
87.00
[3.425]
3X
7.00
[0.276]
3X
67.00
[2.638]
5X 10.32 [0.406]
5X 50.33 [1.981]
5X 90.33 [3.556]
15X 18.25 [0.719]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Expansion Bay Connector
4
The expansion bay connector is a 90-pin shielded connector. The pins are divided into
two groups by a gap. The gap breaks one row of pins between pins 11 and 12 and the
other row between pins 56 and 57.
The connector on the expansion module is AMP part number 787481-1. For a
specification sheet or information about obtaining this connector, contact AMP at
AMP, Inc.
19200 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Cupertino, CA 95014-2578
408-725-4914
AppleLink: AMPCUPERTINO
Figure 4-29 shows a section through the expansion bay connector and gives its
dimensions.
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Figure 4-29
Section through expansion bay connector
14.65 [0.577]
9.45 [0.372]
5.00 [1.97]
3.50 [0.138]
Contacts
6.45 [0.254]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
IMPORTANT
The expansion bay connector is designed so that when a module is
inserted into the bay, the first connection is the ground by way of the
connector shells, then the power pins make contact, and last of all the
signal lines. ▲
The expansion bay connector can be used for several different kinds of devices. The
values of the device ID signals DEV_ID(2–0) determine how the other signals are
connected, as shown in Table 4-3. A value of 0 corresponds to a device ID line connected
to ground; a value of 1 corresponds to an open line.
IMPORTANT
An expansion bay module must never tie or pull up any device ID line to
any power main. ▲
Table 4-3
Device ID signals and types of devices
DEV_ID(2)
DEV_ID(1)
DEV_ID(0)
Type of device
0
0
0
MFM/GCR floppy disk, auto eject
0
0
1
Reserved
0
1
0
Reserved
0
1
1
ATA device; if the device supports DMA
operation, DEV_ID(1) and DEV_ID(0)
are connected together
continued
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Table 4-3
Device ID signals and types of devices (continued)
DEV_ID(2)
DEV_ID(1)
DEV_ID(0)
Type of device
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
PCI device
1
1
0
Power input device
1
1
1
No device installed
PCI Signals on the Expansion Bay Connector
4
Table 4-4 shows the signal assignments on the expansion bay connector when it is used
with a PCI device. Signal names that begin with a slash (/) are active low.
Note
The table shows the signals in the same arrangement as the pins on the
connector; that is, with pin 1 next to pin 46 and pin 45 next to pin 90. ◆
Table 4-4
Pin
PCI signals on the expansion bay connector
Signal name
Pin
1
Reserved
46
Reserved
2
Reserved
47
Reserved
3
A3.3V
48
I
SND_IN_L
SND_IN_RET
49
I
SND_IN_R
5
SND_OUT_L
50
6
SND_OUT_R
51
O
RAW_BAT
7
LONG AGND
52
O
RAW_BAT
4
Direction
I
Direction
Signal name
SND_OUT_RET
8
O
MB_PCI_IDSEL
53
9
I
/DEV_IN
54
I/O
DEV_ID(0)
10
I/O
DEV_ID(1)
55
I/O
DEV_ID(2)
GND
56
O
PCI_CLK
(Gap)
—
—
(Gap)
+5V
57
O
IN_USE_LED
11
—
—
12
n.c.
13
I
/INTA
58
14
I/O
/C/BE(0)
59
I/O
/C/BE(1)
+5V
60
I/O
/C/BE(2)
15
GND
16
I/O
/C/BE(3)
61
LONG GND
17
I
/REQ
62
+5V
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Table 4-4
Pin
PCI signals on the expansion bay connector (continued)
Direction
Signal name
Pin
Direction
Signal name
continued
18
O
/GNT
63
I/O
/PERR
19
I/O
PAR
64
O
/BUF_PCI_RST
GND
65
I/O
/IRDY
I/O
/FRAME
20
21
I/O
/TRDY
66
22
I/O
/SERR
67
23
I/O
/DEVSEL
68
I/O
/LOCK
24
I/O
/STOP
69
I/O
AD(0)
LONG GND
70
I/O
AD(1)
AD(2)
71
I/O
AD(3)
+3V
72
I/O
AD(4)
I/O
AD(6)
25
26
I/O
27
28
I/O
AD(5)
73
29
I/O
AD(7)
74
30
I/O
AD(8)
75
I/O
AD(9)
31
I/O
AD(10)
76
I/O
AD(11)
+3V
77
I/O
AD(12)
I/O
AD(14)
32
GND
33
I/O
AD(13)
78
34
I/O
AD(15)
79
35
I/O
AD(16)
80
I/O
AD(17)
36
I/O
AD(18)
81
I/O
AD(19)
+3V
82
I/O
AD(20)
I/O
AD(22)
37
LONG GND
38
I/O
AD(21)
83
39
I/O
AD(23)
84
40
I/O
AD(24)
85
I/O
AD(25)
41
I/O
AD(26)
86
I/O
AD(27)
+3V
87
I/O
AD(28)
I/O
AD(30)
42
GND
43
I/O
AD(29)
88
44
I/O
AD(31)
89
GND
RAW_BAT
90
RAW_BAT
45
68
+5V
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PCI Control Signals in Sleep Mode
4
The following PCI control signals are disconnected from the expansion bay during sleep:
/DEVSEL, /FRAME, /GRANT, /INT, /IRDY, /LOCK, /PERR, /REQ, /SERR, /STOP,
and /TRDY. PCI devices on a module in the expansion bay should have these signals
pulled up through 100 KΩ resistors to the PCI device Vcc.
IMPORTANT
The same control signals are used for PCI devices on a module in the
expansion bay and on a card in the PCI expansion slot, but those signals
are electrically different during sleep mode. See “Expansion Card
Operation and Sleep Mode” beginning on page 49. ▲
Figure 4-30 shows the timing of the control signals on the expansion bay connector as the
computer goes into and emerges from sleep mode.
Figure 4-30
Timing of expansion bay control signals for sleep mode
/CFW
SLEEP
PCICLK
AD, C/BE,
and controls*
Hi-Z
Hi-Z
/BUF_PCI_RST
t1
t2
t3
t1 = 16 ms min. /CFW to clocks stopped
t2 = 16 ms min. Clocks stopped to system sleep
t3 = 50 ms min. Clocks started to clock valid
*/DEVSEL, /FRAME, /GRANT, /INT, /IRDY, /LOCK,
/PERR, /REQ, /SERR, /STOP, and /TRDY
PCI Signals During Power On and Off
4
Figure 4-31 shows the timing of the control signals on the expansion module during the
power-on sequence. Figure 4-32 shows the timing of the control signals on the expansion
module during the power-off sequence.
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Figure 4-31
Timing of the expansion bay control signals during power on
/DEV_IN
/MB_PWREN
+3 V, +5 V
/BUF_PCI_RST
and /IDE_RST
AD, C/BE,
and controls*
Hi-Z
t1
t2
t3
t 1 = 250 ms min.
t 2 = 5 ms min.
t 3 = 10 ms min.
*/DEVSEL, /FRAME, /GRANT, /INT, /IRDY, /LOCK,
/PERR, /REQ, /SERR, /STOP, and /TRDY
Figure 4-32
Timing of the expansion bay control signals during power off
/DEV_IN
/MB_PWREN
+3 V, +5 V
/BUF_PCI_RST
and /IDE_RST
AD, C/BE,
and controls*
Hi-Z
*/DEVSEL, /FRAME, /GRANT, /INT, /IRDY, /LOCK,
/PERR, /REQ, /SERR, /STOP, and /TRDY
For descriptions of the sequences of operations that occur whenever the computer power
is switched on or off, see “Power Sequences” beginning on page 51.
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ATA and Floppy Disk Signals on the Expansion Bay Connector
4
Table 4-5 shows the signal assignments on the expansion bay connector when it is used
with an ATA device or a floppy disk drive. Signal names that begin with a slash (/) are
active low.
Note
The table shows the signals in the same arrangement as the pins on the
connector; that is, with pin 1 next to pin 46 and pin 45 next to pin 90. ◆
Table 4-5
ATA and floppy disk signals on the expansion bay connector
Pin
Direction
Signal name
Pin
Direction
Signal name
1
I/O
/TPB
46
I/O
TPB
2
I/O
/TPA
47
I/O
TPA
A3.3V
48
I
SND_IN_L
3
4
I
SND_IN_RET
49
I
SND_IN_R
5
R
SND_OUT_L
50
R
SND_OUT_RET
6
R
SND_OUT_R
51
R
RAW_BAT
LONG AGND
52
R
RAW_BAT
7
8
R
Reserved (video)
53
R
Reserved (video)
9
I
/DEV_IN
54
I/O
DEV_ID(0)
10
I/O
DEV_ID(1)
55
I/O
DEV_ID(2)
GND
56
(Gap)
—
—
(Gap)
+5V
57
O
IN_USE_LED
11
—
—
12
n.c.
13
O
/WRREQ
58
14
O
PHASE(0)
59
O
PHASE(1)
+5V
60
O
PHASE(2)
15
GND
16
O
PHASE(3)
61
LONG GND
17
O
WRDATA
62
+5V
18
I
RDDATA
63
O
/FL_ENABLE
19
O
HDSEL
64
O
/IDE_RST
20
GND
65
n.c.
21
n.c.
66
n.c.
22
n.c.
67
+5V
continued
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Table 4-5
Pin
ATA and floppy disk signals on the expansion bay connector (continued)
Direction
23
24
I
25
26
I/O
27
Signal name
Pin
n.c.
68
Direction
Signal name
IOCHRDY
69
I/O
IDE_D(0)
LONG GND
70
I/O
IDE_D(1)
IDE_D(2)
71
I/O
IDE_D(3)
+3V
72
I/O
IDE_D(4)
I/O
IDE_D(6)
n.c.
28
I/O
IDE_D(5)
73
29
I/O
IDE_D(7)
74
30
I/O
IDE_D(8)
75
I/O
IDE_D(9)
31
I/O
IDE_D(10)
76
I/O
IDE_D(11)
+3V
77
I/O
IDE_D(12)
I/O
IDE_D(14)
32
GND
33
I/O
IDE_D(13)
78
34
I/O
IDE_D(15)
79
35
O
/DIOR
80
O
/DIOW
36
O
/CS3FX
81
O
/CS1FX
+3V
82
O
DA(0)
O
DA(2)
37
LONG GND
38
O
DA(1)
83
39
O
/DMACK
84
40
I
DMARQ
85
41
n.c.
86
n.c.
42
+3V
87
n.c.
43
n.c.
88
n.c.
44
n.c.
89
GND
45
RAW_BAT
90
RAW_BAT
GND
I
IDE_INTRQ
Signal Definitions
The signals on the expansion bay connector are of three types: expansion bay audio and
control signals, floppy disk signals, and ATA signals. The next three tables describe the
three types of signals: Table 4-6 describes the audio and control signals, Table 4-7
describes the floppy disk signals, and Table 4-8 describes the ATA signals.
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Table 4-6
Audio and control signals on the expansion bay connector
Signal name
Signal description
DEV_ID(0–2)
These three signal lines identify the type of expansion bay device.
Table 4-3 shows the identification codes for different devices.
/DEV_IN
This signal should be low whenever a device is installed in the
expansion bay; it is used by the O’Hare IC to determine when a
device has been inserted or removed. The expansion bay module
should connect this pin to ground.
/IDE_RST
/BUF_PCI_RST
Reset signals.
MB_SND_COM
Common (ground) line for expansion bay sound signals.
MB_SND_L
Left channel sound signal from the expansion bay device.
MB_SND_R
Right channel sound signal from the expansion bay device.
NOTE The MB_SND signals on the expansion bay connector are shared with the MB sound
signals on the PCI expansion connector.
Table 4-7
Floppy disk signals on the expansion bay connector
Signal name
Signal description
FD_RD
Read data from the floppy disk drive.
/FL_ENABLE
Floppy disk drive enable.
PHASE(0–3)
Phase(0–2) are state-control lines to the drive; Phase(3) is the strobe
signal for writing to the drive’s control registers.
WRDATA
Write data to the floppy disk drive.
/WRREQ
Write data request signal.
Table 4-8
ATA signals on the expansion bay connector
Signal name
Signal description
/CS1FX
Register select signal. It is asserted low to select the main task file
registers. The task file registers indicate the command, the sector
address, and the sector count.
/CS3FX
Register select signal. It is asserted low to select the additional
control and status registers on the IDE drive.
/DIOR
I/O data read strobe.
/DIOW
I/O data write strobe.
DMARQ
DMA request signal.
DMACK
DMA acknowledge signal.
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Table 4-8
ATA signals on the expansion bay connector (continued)
Signal name
Signal description
continued
IDE_ADDR(0–2)
IDE device address; used by the computer to select one of the
registers in the drive. For more information, see the descriptions of
the /CS1FX and /CS3FX signals.
IDE_D(0–15)
IDE data bus, buffered from IOD(16–31) of the controller IC.
IDE_D(0–15) are used to transfer 16-bit data to and from the drive
buffer. IDE_D(0–7) are used to transfer data to and from the drive’s
internal registers, with IDE_D(8-15) driven high when writing.
IOCHRDY
I/O channel ready; when driven low by the IDE drive, signals the
CPU to insert wait states into the I/O read or write cycles.
IDE_INTRQ
IDE interrupt request. This active high signal is used to inform the
computer that a data transfer is requested or that a command has
terminated.
/MB_IDE_RST
Hardware reset to the IDE drive.
Note
Signal names that begin with a slash (/) are active low.
◆
Unused IDE Signals on the Expansion Bay Connector
4
Several signals defined in the standard interface for the IDE drive are not used by the
expansion bay. Those signals are listed in Table 4-9 along with any action required for the
device to operate in the expansion bay.
Table 4-9
74
Unused IDE signals on the expansion bay connector
Signal name
Comment
CSEL
This signal must be tied to ground to configure the device as
the master in the default mode.
IOCS16
No action required.
PDIAG
No action required; the device is never operated in
master-slave mode.
DAS
No action required.
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Power on the Expansion Bay Connector
4
Table 4-10 describes the power lines on the expansion bay connector. The MB_+5V and
MB_+3V lines are controlled by the /MB_PWR signal from the O’Hare IC.
Table 4-10
Power lines on the expansion bay connector
Signal name
Signal description
GND
Ground.
MB_+5V
5 V power; maximum total current is 1.0 A.
MB_+3V
3 V power; maximum total current is 1.5 A.
IMPORTANT
The maximum combined total power available from the MB_+5V and
MB_+3V lines is 5 W. ▲
User Installation of an Expansion Bay Module
4
The user can insert a module into the expansion bay while the computer is operating.
This section describes the sequence of control events in the computer and gives
guidelines for designing an expansion bay module so that such insertion does not cause
damage to the module or the computer.
IMPORTANT
The user must not remove a module from the expansion bay while the
computer is communicating with the module or, for a module with a
disk drive, while the disk is spinning. ▲
Sequence of Control Signals
4
Specific signals to the O’Hare IC allow the computer to detect the insertion of a module
into the expansion bay and take appropriate action. For example, when module with an
ATA device is inserted, the computer performs the following sequence of events:
1. When a module is inserted, the /DEV_IN signal goes low, causing the O’Hare IC to
generate an interrupt.
2. System software responds to the interrupt, determines the type of module inserted,
and sets the /MB_PWR_EN signal low, which turns on the power to the expansion
bay; see Figure 4-31 on page 70.
3. System software internally notifies the appropriate driver of the presence of a newly
inserted module.
Essentially the reverse sequence occurs when a module is removed from the expansion
bay:
1. When the module is removed, the /DEV_IN signal goes high causing the O’Hare IC to
generate an interrupt.
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2. System software responds to the interrupt and notifies the appropriate driver that the
module has been removed.
Guidelines for Developers
4
Each expansion bay module must be designed to prevent damage to itself and to the
computer when the user inserts or removes an expansion bay module with the computer
running.
The expansion bay connector is designed so that when the module is inserted the ground
and power pins make contact before the signal lines.
Even though you can design an expansion bay module that minimizes the possibility of
damage when it is inserted hot—that is, while the computer is running—your
instructions to the user should include warnings about the possibility of data corruption.
RAM Expansion
4
This section includes electrical and mechanical guidelines for designing a RAM
expansion card for the PowerBook 3400 computer.
IMPORTANT
The RAM expansion card for the PowerBook 3400 computer is a new
design. RAM expansion cards for earlier PowerBook models will not
work in this computer. ▲
The RAM expansion card can contain from 4 MB to 128 MB of dynamic RAM in one to
four banks, with 4 to 32 MB in each bank.
▲
W AR N I N G
Installation of a RAM expansion card computer must be performed by
an experienced technician. Installation requires care to avoid damage to
the pins on the RAM expansion connector. ▲
Electrical Design Guidelines for the RAM Expansion Card
4
This section provides the electrical information you need to design a RAM expansion
card for the PowerBook 3400 computer.
Connector Pin Assignments
Table 4-11 lists the names of the signals on the RAM expansion connector. Entries in the
table are arranged the same way as the pins on the connector: pin 1 across from pin 2,
and so on. Signal names that begin with a slash (/) are active low.
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Table 4-11
Signal assignments on the RAM expansion connector
Pin
Signal name
Pin
Signal name
1
GND
2
GND
3
GND
4
GND
5
GND
6
/CAS(6)
7
GND
8
/CAS(4)
9
+12V_MAIN
10
/CAS(5)
11
/RAS(4)
12
/RAS(2)
13
/RAS(1)
14
RADDR(9)
15
RADDR(8)
16
RADDR(10)
17
RADDR(7)
18
RADDR(0)
19
RADDR(6)
20
RADDR(1)
21
RADDR(5)
22
RADDR(2)
23
RADDR(4)
24
RADDR(3)
25
DATA(32)
26
DATA(0)
27
GND
28
GND
29
DATA(33)
30
DATA(1)
31
+3V_MAIN
32
+3V_MAIN
33
DATA(34)
34
DATA(2)
35
DATA(35)
36
DATA(3)
37
GND
38
GND
39
/CAS(1)
40
/CAS(2)
41
+3V_MAIN
42
/CAS(0)
43
DATA(7)
44
DATA(39)
45
DATA(6)
46
DATA(38)
47
DATA(5)
48
DATA(37)
49
DATA(4)
50
DATA(36)
51
DATA(11)
52
DATA(43)
53
DATA(10)
54
DATA(42)
55
DATA(9)
56
DATA(41)
57
/RAMOE
58
GND
59
DATA(8)
60
DATA(40)
61
+3V_MAIN
62
+3V_MAIN
continued
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Table 4-11
78
Signal assignments on the RAM expansion connector (continued)
Pin
Signal name
Pin
Signal name
63
DATA(15)
64
DATA(47)
65
DATA(14)
66
DATA(46)
67
DATA(13)
68
DATA(45)
69
+3V_MAIN
70
+3V_MAIN
71
DATA(12)
72
DATA(44)
73
DATA(19)
74
DATA(51)
75
DATA(18)
76
DATA(50)
77
DATA(17)
78
DATA(49)
79
DATA(16)
80
DATA(48)
81
DATA(23)
82
DATA(55)
83
DATA(22)
84
DATA(54)
85
DATA(21)
86
DATA(53)
87
GND
88
GND
89
DATA(20)
90
DATA(52)
91
+3V_MAIN
92
+3V_MAIN
93
DATA(27)
94
DATA(59)
95
DATA(26)
96
DATA(58)
97
DATA(25)
98
DATA(57)
99
DATA(24)
100
DATA(56)
101
DATA(31)
102
DATA(63)
103
DATA(30)
104
DATA(62)
105
DATA(29)
106
DATA(61)
107
DATA(28)
108
DATA(60)
109
/CAS(3)
110
/CAS(7)
111
+3V_MAIN
112
/RAMWE
113
RADDR(11)
114
/RAS(3)
115
GND
116
GND
117
+3V_MAIN
118
+3V_MAIN
119
+3V_MAIN
120
+3V_MAIN
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IMPORTANT
The RAM expansion connector is the same type as the one in the
PowerBook 5300, but it is oriented in the opposite direction and the pin
assignments are different. A RAM expansion card designed for the
PowerBook 5300 will not work in a PowerBook 3400 computer. ▲
Signal Descriptions
4
Table 4-12 describes the signals on the RAM expansion connector. Signal names that
begin with a slash (/) are active low.
Table 4-12
Signals on the RAM expansion connector
Signal name
Description
+12V_MAIN
12.0 V for flash memory; 30 mA maximum.
+3V_MAIN
3.3 V ± 5%; 500 mA maximum.
/CAS(0–7)
Column address select signals for the individual bytes in a
longword. The /CAS signals are assigned to the byte lanes as
follows:
/CAS(0): Data(0–7)
/CAS(4): DataL(32–39)
/CAS(1): Data(8–15)
/CAS(5): DataL(40–47)
/CAS(2): Data(16–23)
/CAS(6): DataL(48–55)
/CAS(3): Data(24–31)
/CAS(7): DataL(56–63)
DATA(0–63)
Bidirectional 64-bit DRAM data bus.
GND
Chassis and logic ground.
RADDR(0–11)
Multiplexed row and column address to the DRAM devices.
(See the section “Address Multiplexing” on page 80 to determine
which address bits to use for a particular type of DRAM device.)
/RAMOE
Output enable signal to the DRAM devices.
/RAS(0–4)
Row address select signals for the five banks of DRAM. (Signals
/RAS(1–4) are for DRAM banks on the expansion card. The /RAS(0)
signal selects the bank of DRAM on the main logic board. The byte
lanes of the 64-bit data bus are selected by the /CAS(0–7) signals.)
/RAMWE
Write enable for all banks of DRAM.
In the table, signals are specified as inputs or outputs with respect to the main logic board
that contains the CPU and memory module; for example, an input is driven by the
expansion card into the logic board.
Address signals must be stable before the falling edge of RAS. Each RAS line is connected
to only one bank of devices whereas each address signal must reach all the devices. If
each address line were connected to every DRAM device, the difference in loading would
cause the address signals to change more slowly than the RAS signals. To ensure that the
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address signals are stable before the RAS transition, RAM expansion cards must have
buffers on the address lines; see “RAM Expansion Card Electrical Limits” beginning on
page 82.
Address Multiplexing
4
Signals RA(0-11) are a 12-bit multiplexed address bus and can support several different
types of DRAM devices. Depending on their internal design and size, different types of
DRAM devices require different row and column address multiplexing. The operation of
the multiplexing is determined by the way the address pins on the devices are connected
to individual signals on the RA(0-11) bus and depends on the exact type of DRAM used.
Table 4-13 shows how the signals on the address bus are connected for several types of
DRAM devices. The device types are specified by their size and by the number of row
and column address bits they require.
Table 4-13 also shows how the signals are multiplexed during the row and column
address phases. The numbers in square brackets at the top of the table identify the signals
on the RAM address bus that are connected to the device’s address pins. For each type of
DRAM device, the table shows the address bits that drive each address pin during row
addressing and column addressing.
IMPORTANT
The address bits in Table 4-13 are numbered in PowerPC notation: MSB
to LSB from left to right, starting with bit 0. Some other documentation
uses the MC680x0 notation where MSB is bit 31. To convert from one
convention to the other, simply subtract each bit number from 31. ▲
The address multiplexing scheme used in the PowerBook 3400 computer supports only
the types of RAM devices shown in Table 4-13. Other types of devices should not be used
with this computer. ▲
Table 4-13
Address multiplexing for some types of DRAM devices
DRAM address signals connected to device address pins
Type of DRAM device
[11]
[10]
[9]
[8]
[7]
[6]
[5]
[4]
[3]
[2]
[1]
[0]
Row address bits
–
–
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Column address bits
–
–
–
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Row address bits
9
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Column address bits
–
–
9
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
512K by 8;
10 row bits, 9 column bits
2M by 8;
12 row bits, 9 column bits
continued
80
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Table 4-13
Address multiplexing for some types of DRAM devices (continued)
DRAM address signals connected to device address pins
Type of DRAM device
[11]
[10]
[9]
[8]
[7]
[6]
[5]
[4]
[3]
[2]
[1]
[0]
Row address bits
–
–
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Column address bits
–
–
9
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Row address bits
–
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Column address bits
–
–
9
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Row address bits
–
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Column address bits
–
7
9
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
9
8*
10*
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
7*
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1M by 4 or 1M by 16;
10 row bits, 10 column bits
2M by 8;
11 row bits, 10 column bits
4M by 1 or 4M by 4;
11 row bits, 11 column bits
4 M by 16;
12 row bits, 10 column bits
Row address bits
Column address bits
NOTE Expansion cards using 4 M by 16 bit devices must connect device address bits 9 and 10 as shown (swapped).
IMPORTANT
The only 64-megabit DRAM devices supported by the PowerBook 3400
computer are 4 M by 16-bit devices with 12-by-10 address multiplexing.
As Table 4-13 shows, the connections to device address bits 9 and 10
must be swapped on the card for this type of DRAM device. ▲
RAM Banks
4
The RAM expansion card can have up to four banks of RAM. Banks can be 4 MB, 8 MB,
16 MB, or 32 MB in size.
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Banks are selected by individual signals /RAS(0–4) as shown in Table 4-14.
Table 4-14
RAM bank selection
Signal names
Bank
Bank location
/RAS(0)
0
Main logic board
/RAS(1)
1
RAM expansion card
/RAS(2)
2
RAM expansion card
/RAS(3)
3
RAM expansion card
/RAS(4)
4
RAM expansion card
Because only one bank is active at a time, and because different-sized DRAM devices
consume about the same amount of power when active, a card having fewer devices per
bank consumes less power than a card having more devices per bank.
DRAM Device Requirements
4
The DRAM devices used in a RAM expansion card must meet the following minimum
specifications:
■
Power supply voltage: 3.3 V
■
Access type: EDO
■
Access time: 60 ns or shorter access time
■
Refresh: CBR, extended refresh capable (L-type)
■
Refresh cycle: 15.6 ms
IMPORTANT
Space limitations require devices used on the RAM expansion card to
have TSOP packages. ▲
RAM Expansion Card Electrical Limits
4
The RAM expansion card must not exceed the following maximum current limits on the
+3 V supply:
Active
500 mA
Standby
24 mA
Sleep
12 mA
During system sleep at the 15.6 µs refresh rate, the current for the entire RAM card must
not exceed 12 mA. Vendors of cards that exceed the refresh-current restriction will be
required to state in their user manuals that their cards may reduce the amount of time the
computer can remain in sleep mode before running down the battery.
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The capacitive loading on the signal lines must not exceed the following limits:
■
DATA(0–63): 50 pF
■
RADDR(0–11): 140 pF
■
/RAMWE: 140 pF
■
RAMOE: 140 pF
■
/RAS(n): 80 pF
■
/CAS(n): 50 pF
Buffers on the Ram Expansion Card
4
The RAM expansion card must have buffers on the RADDR(0–11), /RAMWE, RAMOE,
/RAS(n), and /CAS(n) signals. The buffer ICs must meet the following requirements:
▲
■
operate at 3 V
■
conform to package height limits (TSOP)
■
have less than 4 ns propagation delay
■
draw less than 20 µA from the supply when static
W AR N I N G
Do not use buffers such as the TI 74ALVC and 74ALVCH series that have
a bus hold feature on the input signals. ▲
Card Layout Suggestions
4
The following suggestions will reduce noise and improve the performance of the RAM
expansion card.
■
Route address traces so that stubs are minimized, with no stub longer than 0.5 inch.
■
Route address traces on higher impedance layers (50 Ω nominal).
■
Interleave banks of devices physically so that /CAS(n) and DATA(n) traces are routed
together.
A RAM expansion card with poorly routed traces can corrupt signal integrity on the
main RAM and may cause intermittent system errors. When testing a newly designed
RAM expansion card, developers should also characterize the signal integrity of RAM
address signals on the main logic board.
Mechanical Design Guidelines for the RAM Expansion Card
4
This section provides the mechanical information you need to design a RAM expansion
card for the PowerBook 3400 computer.
Figure 4-33 shows the dimensions of the card and the location of the connector. The
connector and other components are all on the same side of the card; the figure shows the
component side. Dimensions are shown in millimeters and [inches].
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When the card is installed in the computer, the components and the connector are on the
bottom of the card.
Figure 4-34 shows the component height restrictions on the card. Except for the
connector, the maximum component height is 1.42 mm (0.056 inches). No components or
leads are allowed on the reverse (top) side of the card.
As shown in Figure 4-34, the thickness of the card is 0.75 mm (0.030 inches).
Figure 4-33
Dimensions of the RAM expansion card
89.30 [3.504]
86.30
[3.398]
Pin 2
Connector
5.30 [0.209]
6.30 [0.248]
9.96 [0.392]
5.00 [0.197]
23.92 [0.942]
Pin 1
54.40 [2.142]
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
Note
The following tolerances apply to all the drawings in this section:
One digit after the decimal point (X.X): ±0.20 [0.01]
Two digits after the decimal point (X.XX): ±0.13 [0.005]
Three digits after the decimal point (X.XXX): ±0.100 [0.0039]
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Figure 4-34
Height restrictions on the RAM expansion card
Component height
restricted to
1.42 [0.56] maximum
4X R 1.52 [0.060]
0.75 [0.030]
No components or
component leads allowed
Note: Dimensions are in millimeters [inches].
PC Card Expansion
4
The computer has a slot with two sockets that can accept either two type II PC Cards
(PCMCIA) or one type III PC Card. This section summarizes the features and
specifications of the PC Card slots.
IMPORTANT
The PowerBook 3400 computer uses new PC Card software. The changes
have little effect on simple modem and ATA cards, but developers of
multi-function cards or network cards must be aware of the changes. The
book PC Card Family Programming Interface for Mac OS contains complete
specifications for the new software. Also see “PC Card Software” on
page 87. ▲
PC Card Slot Features
4
Each PC Card socket supports two types of PC Cards: mass storage cards such as SRAM
and ATA drives (both rotating hard disk and flash media) and I/O cards such as modems
and network cards. The Macintosh desktop metaphor includes the concept of storage
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device representation so it already supports mass storage cards. Apple Computer has
extended the metaphor to include I/O cards as well.
The user can insert or remove a PC Card while the computer is operating. The user can
eject a PC Card either by selecting Eject in Finder menu or by dragging the card’s icon to
the trash.
PowerBook computers currently support PC Card ejection by software command.
Software ejection is controlled by Card Services and allows the system to eject a PC Card
after notifying all clients of the card that its ejection is about to occur. If clients are using
resources on the card, the clients have the option of refusing the request and alerting
users to the reasons why an ejection can’t take place.
Summary Specifications
4
The PC Card slot contains two standard PC Card sockets. Each socket accepts either a
Type I or Type II card. The bottom PC Card socket also accepts one Type III card, which
prevents the top socket from being used. The bottom socket is also capable of supporting
the new PCMCIA zoom video standard for digital video applications.
The mechanical and electrical characteristics of the PC Card slot conform to the
specifications given in the PCMCIA PC Card Standard, Release 5.1. Each socket supports
16-bit PC Cards with either 5 volt or 3.3 volt operating voltages, and each socket also
provides a maximum of 120 mA of 12 V power for programming flash devices on PC
Cards.
Note
Unlike the PC Card slot in the PowerBook 5300 series computers, the PC
Card slot in the PowerBook 3400 computer provides both 3.3 and 5 volts
and supports 120 mA of programming power to both sockets at the same
time. ◆
The PowerBook 3400 computer utilizes an industry-standard Texas Instruments PCI1130
PCI to CardBus controller to act as the bridge between the system PCI bus and each of
the PC Card slots. Although the TI device is a cardbus-capable controller, the PowerBook
3400 does not support CardBus cards due to the requirement of a specialized PC Card
socket, which is not part of the system.
Each socket supports five memory windows and two I/O windows, to allow mapping
PC Card memory and registers into PCI address space.
Zoom Video
4
The lower PC Card slot in the PowerBook 3400 computer supports zoom video, a method
of displaying video information sent from a PC Card. The video information can be
displayed in a window on the internal display or on an external video monitor. Because
the zoom video feature sends video information from a PC Card directly to the video
controller, it provides full-motion video at the same time the computer is performing
other tasks.
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The zoom video signals from the lower PC Card slot are accompanied by stereo audio
signals in PCM (pulse-code modulated) format.
The zoom video connection makes it possible for PC Cards to provide a variety of video
services such as
■
MPEG video decompression hardware
■
a TV tuner
■
connecting a camera for video teleconferencing
The computer’s software includes the Apple Video Player application, which allows the
user to select the device that provides the video image and to set the size of the video
window on the display.
PC Card Software
4
The PowerBook 3400 computer uses the new PC Card 3.0 software. PC Card 3.0 uses a
multilayered architecture designed for robustness, extensibility, and ease of maintenance.
The layers are implemented to make the best use of the Mac OS 7.5.x as well as future
versions of the Mac OS.
PC Card 3.0 is designed to handle single-function and multifunction cards. Support for
well-behaved cards is built into the system. Support for new technologies is implemented
by means of plug-in card enabler modules. Custom icons, card names, and device names
are available to card developers with a minimum of effort through the use of enablers.
For complete specifications and descriptions of the software interfaces, developers
should consult PC Card Family Programming Interface for Mac OS, an upcoming document
that defines the new PC Card software model for both System 7.5.3 and planned future
versions of Mac OS. You may also wish to consult Designing PCI Cards and Drivers for
Power Macintosh Computers.
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Figure 5-0
Listing 5-0
Table 5-0
5
Software Features
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Software Features
This chapter describes the new features of the software in the ROM of the Macintosh
PowerBook 3400 computer.
Note
The system software shipped with the PowerBook 3400 computer is
Mac OS system 7.6. For documentation, developers should refer to
TECHNOTE: System 7.6. The technote is available on the Developer CD
Series and on the technote web site at
<http://devworld.apple.com/dev/technotes.shtml>. ◆
The ROM includes new tables and code for identifying the machine. Applications can
find out which computer they are running on by using the Gestalt Manager. The
gestaltMachineType value for the PowerBook 3400 is 306 (hexadecimal $132). Inside
Macintosh: Overview describes the Gestalt Manager and tells how to use the
gestaltMachineType value to obtain the machine name string.
This chapter is in two parts: a description of the internal system ROM and a description
of the Macintosh system ROM.
Internal System ROM
5
The internal system ROM for the PowerBook 3400 is composed of four major functional
modules:
■
Power Management Unit (PMU) ROM code
■
Macintosh System ROM code
■
BootPowerPC ROM code
■
OpenFirmware ROM code
Starting up the PowerBook 3400 system for the first time requires the use of the power
button on the back. On subsequent startups, the user can start from the keyboard because
the power management unit (PMU) scans the keyboard to detect when the power key is
depressed. When that happens, the PMU turns on the power to the main logic board and
releases the reset signal to the PowerPC processor.
The PowerPC processor executes its reset vector, which defines the starting address of the
hardware initialization section of the BootPowerPC code. That code runs diagnostic tests,
determines whether the PMU ROM code should be downloaded, and provides enough
hardware initialization to run the OpenFirmware ROM code. After the boot beep sound
is played, the OpenFirmware ROM code starts executing. It probes the PCI bus to
determine the device configuration and builds a device tree describing the hardware it
finds. Unless the user interrupts it to select an alternate operating system, the
OpenFirmware code loads the default OS: the Macintosh System ROM.
To be able to run the Macintosh System ROM, which is 68K code, the PowerPC
nano-kernel is loaded, and the 68K emulator task is started. The emulator begins
executing code in the system ROM. This code uses the device tree provided by
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OpenFirmware to install device drivers and Macintosh OS Services (Toolbox Managers),
and finally the system ROM loads the rest of the operating system from the startup disk.
The following sections describe the new features of each of the major modules in the
ROM.
Power Management Unit ROM
5
At the core of the PowerBook 3400 architecture is the power management unit (PMU), a
Motorola 68HC05 microprocessor that is used for I/O functions mainly concerned with
controlling power to various parts of the system. The PMU functions include power
control, keyboard scanning, and controlling the ADB. The code used by the PMU is
downloaded from an image contained in the main ROM or on the system disk.
Battery Charging
5
The PMU controls the battery charging capabilities of the power supply. It does this by
providing pulse width modulated (PWM) signals to control the power supply current
and voltage limits.
The PowerBook 3400 can use either Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) or Lithium Ion (LiIon)
batteries, which require different charging algorithms. The batteries contain an
identification value inside their internal controller that the PMU uses to find out the
battery type.
NiMH batteries must be charged with a constant current (CC) charging algorithm that
stops charging when the temperature inside the battery begins to rise rapidly. The current
limit is determined by the available power from the wall adapter: 9 W when the
computer is running, 45 W when the computer is off or in sleep mode. The system
software examines the machine configuration to determine the amount of power
available for charging the batteries and provides this information to the PMU.
LiIon batteries can be charged using the CC or the quicker constant wattage (CW)
charging mode until the battery voltage reaches its predefined limit, then the constant
voltage (CV) charge mode is used to complete the charge cycle. The PMU uses CW
charging by monitoring the battery voltage and setting the charge current to the
maximum available considering the available power. The PMU also programs the CV
limit so that even if the battery disconnects from the charger, the maximum voltage will
not be exceeded.
Interface to Nonvolatile RAM
5
The PMU provides an interface to 8192 bytes of nonvolatile RAM for use by
OpenFirmware and PCI device drivers. The interface allows reading and writing
multiple bytes to any address range. The maximum number of bytes is determined by the
PmgrOp protocol. The PMU maintains a checksum of the RAM area; if the checksum
fails, the PMU initializes the NVRAM to all zeros.
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BootPowerPC ROM
5
When the PowerPC 603ev processor is released from reset, it begins executing the
BootPowerPC code. This code includes exception handling, power-on self tests (POST),
hardware initialization, the PowerPC nano-kernel, and the 68LC040 Emulator.
Among the changes that have been incorporated into the BootPowerPC ROM are:
■
the PowerPC nanokernel now supports the PowerPC 603ev microprocessor
■
the 68LC040 emulator is now the faster dynamic recompilation emulator
OpenFirmware ROM
5
The OpenFirmware code provides a machine independent mechanism for loading
operating systems from a variety of startup devices. OpenFirmware probes the PCI bus
looking for devices and possible OpenFirmware drivers for those devices. A driver can
be either built into the OpenFirmware module or located on the same PCI card as the
device, thus providing plug-and-play capabilities even for newly installed devices. The
OpenFirmware code is capable of using the driver to load an operating system from the
device.
The OpenFirmware ROM provides drivers for all built-in devices that are capable of
loading the next generation operating system (Mac OS 8), including SCSI, internal ATA,
expansion bay ATA, and ATAPI.
Normally the OpenFirmware code starts up using the default device and loads the
default operating system. While that is going on, the user may interrupt the
OpenFirmware code by holding down the Command-Option-O-F keys. The
OpenFirmware code responds by providing a command line interface using the keyboard
and the computer’s built-in display. The user can then select an alternate operating
system or change the OpenFirmware code’s stored parameters, such as the default OS to
be loaded.
Macintosh System ROM
5
The following sections describe the changes in the Macintosh System ROM for the
PowerBook 3400 computer.
Note
The Macintosh System ROM is also called the 68K ROM because it
begins with the 680x0 reset vector. ◆
ATA Manager and Driver
5
The PowerBook 3400 computer uses the native ATA Manager, which has been updated to
support several new features:
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■
DMA accesses on both ATA buses
■
new expansion bay manager API for detecting device insertion and removal
■
new Card & Socket Services model
■
now fully native for the PowerPC processor
The ATAPI driver now supports 4x and 6x CDROM drives in the expansion bay. The
driver supports audio compact discs as well as data discs.
Floppy Disk Driver
5
The new floppy disk driver can read disks that use Microsoft’s distribution floppy format
(DMF, 1.6 MB FM).
IRTalk Driver
5
The new IR driver works with Open Transport and provides data transfer at two rates:
■
115 kbps IRTalk (compatible with the PowerBook 5300)
■
230 kbps IRTalk
Expansion Bay Manager
5
The PowerBook 3400 computer has a new Expansion Bay Manager in place of the
previous Socket Services for the expansion bay, which didn’t accommodate the use of the
PCI bus in the expansion bay.
The Expansion Bay Manager keeps a table of the handlers that are called when a device is
inserted or removed. The handlers are responsible for creating the appropriate
notifications and for opening and closing the device drivers. The system ROM includes
handlers for the floppy disk drive and for ATA devices.
The first time the computer is started after a PCI device has been inserted, the Expansion
Bay Manager probes the PCI bus and adds any new devices to the name registry. The first
time the computer is started after a PCI device has been removed, the Expansion Bay
Manager deallocates the memory space that was allocated to the device and closes the
appropriate driver.
IMPORTANT
Expansion modules that have PCI devices can be inserted or removed
only while the computer is off. They cannot be inserted or removed
while the computer is in sleep mode. ▲
The Expansion Bay Manager cooperates with the Power Manager to determine the
amount of power the different devices consume.
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PC Card Manager
5
The PC Card ROM software includes built-in clients for ATA devices (disk drives), SRAM
cards, and 16550-based modem cards. The ATA devices are handled by the ATA Manager,
although the ATA client is responsible for configuring the card for ATA operation. The
SRAM client is a complete driver capable of supporting any file system available from the
Mac OS (currently Macintosh HFS and PC FAT).
The PC Card Manager supports ATA PC Cards, SRAM cards, and modem cards. Other
types of cards require drivers or card enablers.
Note
The PC Card Manager for PowerBook 3400 is a new implementation of
PC Card Services; it is not the same as the PC Card software described in
the Macintosh PowerBook 5300 Developer Note (Macintosh Developer Note
Number 14). ◆
SCSI Disk Mode
5
New SCSI disk mode software supports SCSI disk mode (when the user connects the
special SCSI cable). To improve performance, the SCSI disk mode software uses available
system RAM as a large write-through disk cache and uses DMA for data transfers.
Sound Manager
5
The Sound Manager has been updated to deal with a new mixer function in the sound
input and output subsystem. The new mixing capabilities allow the Sound Manager to
select from several different sound sources:
■
built-in microphone
■
external sound input jack
■
internal devices: expansion bay, PC Card, Zoom Video port, and PCI slot
To conserve power, the Sound Manager has been modified to turn off the sound system
whenever sounds have not been played for several minutes.
Video Driver
5
A new video driver has been written to support driving both flat panels and an external
monitor from the same frame buffer. This driver uses the new native driver model and
driver services library provided for PCI-based Macintosh models. The video driver
requests system services only by way of the drivers services library. The system software
includes additional APIs for backlight and contrast voltage control.
This driver uses the native QuickDraw acceleration API to take advantage of the
accelerated BitBlt feature of the 65550 video controller IC for rectangular copies and
fills.
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The video driver supports the hardware cursor when the display is set to 8 bpp (256
colors) or 16 bpp (thousands of colors). In the other display modes the conventional
software cursor is used. The hardware cursor does not appear different, but it should
provide improved performance when the application is drawing under the cursor—for
example, when the user moves the cursor over a QuickTime movie that is playing.
The Display Manager has been modified to handle video mirroring when there is only
one frame buffer.
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Glossary
680x0 code Instructions that can run on a
PowerPC microprocessor only by means of an
emulator. See also native code.
direct memory access (DMA) A process for
transferring data rapidly into or out of RAM
without passing it through a processor or buffer.
ADB See Apple Desktop Bus.
distribution media format (DMF) A format for
3.5-inch floppy disks. By putting three more
sectors in each track (21 instead of 18), it provides
1.7 MB of storage instead of the conventional
1.4 MB on a 3.5-inch high-density disk.
Apple Developer Cataog (ADC) Apple
Computer’s worldwide direct distribution
channel for Apple and third-party development
tools and documentation products.
API See application programming interface.
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) An asynchronous
bus used to connect relatively slow user-input
devices to Apple computers.
Apple SuperDrive Apple Computer’s disk
drive for high-density floppy disks.
AppleTalk Apple Computer’s local area
networking protocol.
application programming interface (API)
The calls and data structures that allow
application software to use the features of the
operating system.
big endian Data formatting in which each field
is addressed by referring to its most significant
byte. See also little endian.
codec A digital encoder and decoder.
DLPI Data Link Provider Interface, the standard
networking model used in Open Transport.
DMA See direct memory access.
DRAM See dynamic random-access memory.
DR Emulator The Dynamic Recompilation
Emulator, an improved 680x0-code emulator for
the PowerPC microprocessor.
dynamic random-access memory (DRAM)
Random-access memory in which each storage
address must be periodically interrogated (or
refreshed) to maintain its value.
ECSC Enhanced color support chip, the custom
IC that provides the data and control interface to
the flat panel display.
Ethernet A high-speed local area network
technology that includes both cable standards and
a series of communications protocols.
color depth The number of bits required to
encode the color of each pixel in a display.
GCR See group code recording.
DAC See digital-to-analog converter.
Group Code Recording (GCR) An Apple
recording format for floppy disks.
data burst Multiple longwords of data sent over
a bus in a single, uninterrupted stream.
data cache In a PowerPC microprocessor, the
internal registers that hold data being processed.
digital-to-analog converter (DAC) A device
that produces an analog electrical signal in
response to digital data.
display data channel (DDC) A standard
interface that provides monitor ID signals for
VGA and SVGA monitors.
input/output (I/O) Parts of a computer system
that transfer data to or from peripheral devices.
I/O See input/output.
little endian Data formatting in which each
field is addressed by referring to its least
significant byte. See also big endian.
localtalk The cable terminations and other
hardware that Apple supplies for local area
networking from Macintosh serial ports.
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mini-DIN An international standard form of
cable connector for peripheral devices.
native code Instructions that run directly on a
PowerPC microprocessor. See also 680x0 code.
Serial Communications Controller (SCC)
Circuitry on the Combo IC that provides an
interface to the serial data ports.
SIMM See Single Inline Memory Module.
nonvolatile RAM RAM that retains its contents
even when the computer is turned off; also
known as parameter RAM.
Single Inline Memory Module (SIMM) A
plug-in card for memory expansion containing
several RAM ICs and their interconnections.
NuBus™ A bus architecture in Apple computers
that supports plug-in expansion cards.
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
An industry standard parallel bus protocol for
connecting computers to peripheral devices such
as hard disk drives.
O’Hare A custom IC that provides core I/O
services in the PowerBook 3400 computer.
PSX The custom IC that provides the interface
between the processor bus and the internal PCI
bus in the PowerBook 3400 computer.
PC Card An expansion card that conforms to
the PC Card standard. See also PC Card standard.
PC Card Manager The part of the Mac OS that
supports PC Cards in PowerBook computers.
PC Exchange A utility program that runs on
Macintosh computers and reads other floppy disk
formats, including DOS and ProDOS.
PC Card standard A standard specification
defined by the Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association (PCMCIA) for computer
expansion cards.
pixel Contraction of picture element; the smallest
dot that can be drawn on a display.
POWER-clean Refers to PowerPC code free of
instructions that are specific to the PowerPC 601
and Power instruction sets and are not found on
the PowerPC 603 and PowerPC 604
microprocessors.
socket The hardware receptacle that a PC Card
is inserted into.
Socket Services The layer of software that is
responsible for communication between Card
Services and the socket controller hardware.
tuple A parsable data group containing
configuration information for a PCMCIA card.
Versatile Interface Adapter (VIA) The interface
for system interrupts that is standard on most
Apple computers.
VIA See Versatile Interface Adapter.
video RAM (VRAM) Random-access memory
used to store both static graphics and video
frames.
VRAM See video RAM.
zoom video A method of connecting video
signals from a PC Card directly to the video
controller.
PowerPC Trade name for a family of RISC
microprocessors. The PowerPC 601, 603, and 604
microprocessors are used in Power Macintosh
computers.
reduced instruction set computing (RISC) A
technology of microprocessor design in which all
machine instructions are uniformly formatted and
are processed through the same steps.
RISC See reduced instruction set computing.
SCC See Serial Communications Controller.
SCSI See Small Computer System Interface.
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Index
Numerals
serial port 28
video 25
custom ICs
AWAC 15, 31
O’Hare 14
PSX 12
68HC05 microprocessor 15
68K ROM 92
A
AC adapter 6
access to internal components 23
ADB (Apple Desktop Bus) port 29
ADB connector 30
appearance 4
ATA disk interface 18
ATA hard disk 18
connector
pin assignments on 20
data bus 22
dimensions and mounting holes 18
signals 21
ATA Manager 92
ATAPI driver 93
AWAC custom IC 15, 31
D
DDC monitors 26
device handlers 93
direct memory access (DMA) 14
display controller IC 16
displays
external video monitors 24
adapter for 26
DDC monitors 26
sense codes 26
VGA and SVGA monitors 24, 27
flat panel 23
DRAM
device requirements 82
. See also RAM
types of devices 80–81
B
batteries 6
battery charging 91
big-endian addressing 13
block diagram 11
BootPowerPC ROM 92
bus clock speeds 10
C
compatibility 6–7
configurations 5
connectors
ADB 30
expansion bay 65
external video 25
hard disk 20
RAM expansion 76, 79
SCSI 28
E
ethernet and modem card 33
ethernet card 34
expansion bay 53–76
. See alsoexpansion bay module
expansion bay connector 65–70
and sleep mode 69
ATA and floppy disk signals on 71
PCI control signals 69–70
in sleep mode 69
power on and off 69
PCI signals on 67
power 75
signal assignments 67, 71
signal definitions 72–74
Expansion Bay Manager 93
expansion bay module 54–65
circuit board in 57
connectors on 57
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I N D E X
datum slot on 54
dimensions 56
grounding of 62
insertion and removal of 93
installation by the user 75
support areas 64
expansion card. See PCI expansion card
K
keyboard 22
ISO layout 23
removing 23
United States layout 23
L
F
little-endian addressing 13
LocalTalk 15, 30
features, new 2
flat panel display 23
floppy disk drive 15
floppy disk driver 93
M
G
GeoPort 15
gestaltMachineType value 90
H
hard disk 18
ATA data bus 22
dimensions and mounting holes 18
hard disk capacity 5
hard disk connector 20
pin assignments on 20
signals on 21
hardware cursor 95
HDI-30 connector 28
hot swapping of expansion bay modules 75
Macintosh System ROM 92
main processor 10
memory control IC. See PSX IC
memory controller IC 12
memory expansion 6, 12
modem
on ethernet and modem card 33
monitor sense codes 26
multiple scan monitors 25
N
new features 2
nonvolatile RAM 91
O
O’Hare custom IC 14
OpenFirmware ROM 92
Open Transport networking 6
I, J
IDE controller IC 14
IDE disk interface. See ATA disk interface 18
IDE hard disk 18
identifying the computer 90
I/O ports
DMA with 14
SCSI 28
serial 28
video 25
IR (infrared) link 30
IR driver 93
P, Q
PC card bridge IC 16
PC Card Manager 94
PC cards 85–87
PC Card Services 94
PC card slot
features 86
specifications 86–87
zoom video feature of 86
PC card software 87
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I N D E X
PCI bus 12, 13, 14–16
PCI bus bridge 12–13
PCI expansion card
access to 36
component height limits 45–47
dimensions 43
external connector 40
grounding 42
internal connector 42
mechanical design 39–47
power-down requirement 51
power sequences 52–53
off to on 52
on to off 53
on to sleep 52
sleep to on 53
sleep mode 49–51
thermal considerations 47
PCI expansion slot 36–53
connector
signal assignments on 36
other signals on 38
PCI signals on 38
signals 36–38
peripheral devices 6
peripheral support IC 14
pointing device 22
power management unit (PMU)
ROM software for 91
power management unit(PMU) 15
PowerPC 603ev microprocessor 10
processor bus 10–13
processor bus clock speed 10
processor clock speed 2, 10
PSX custom IC 10, 12
as PCI bus bridge 12
R
RAM 11
contiguous banks of 12
expansion 6, 12, 76–85
addressing 80
DRAM devices 82
RAM banks 82
signals 76, 79
size of 5
RAM expansion card 76–85
buffer requirements 83
component height restrictions 85
current during sleep mode 82
design suggestions for 83
dimensions of 84
DRAM devices 82
mechanical design of 83
RAM banks 82
signal load limits 83
supply current limits 82
reference documents x
resolution on SVGA monitors 25
ROM
functional modules of 90
implementation of 12
S
SCC IC 14
SCSI controller IC 14
SCSI disk mode 94
SCSI port 28
connector 28
serial port 28
Simulscan 25
68K ROM 92
sleep mode
and expansion bay 69
and PCI expansion card 49–51
insertion and removal of expansion module 93
SLEEP signal 37, 38, 52, 53
Socket Services 93
sound
input sources 31
built-in microphone 32
expansion bay 32
PC card 32
internal speakers 33
output devices 32
signals on the expansion bay 33
signals on the PCI slot 33
sound circuits
electrical characteristics 32
sound controller IC 14
sound IC 15, 31
Sound Manager 94
sound sample rates 31
sound specifications 31
speakers 33
SVGA monitors 24, 27
SVGA monitors, setting resolution on 25
SWIM3 IC 14
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I N D E X
T
trackball 22
trackpad 22
U
user installation of expansion bay modules 75
V, W
VGA monitors 24, 27
VIA controller IC 14
video connector 25
video driver 94
video for external monitor 24–27
video mirroring 95
video monitor adapter 26
video monitors 24
adapter for 26
DDC monitors 26
sense codes 26
VGA and SVGA monitors 24, 27
X, Y, Z
zoom video 16, 86
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I N D E X
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Developer Press
Art List
Writer
Prod. Editor
# of Figures
Allen Watson
Hooper Developer Note
Art Director
Alex Solinsky
Illustrator
45
Draft stage
Sandee Karr & Bruce Lee
Sandee Karr & Bruce Lee
launch
Figure #
Path Name
Caption
Figure 1-1
art files:HP-01
Front view of the computer..................................................................................... 4
Figure 1-2
art files:HP-02
Back view of the computer ..................................................................................... 5
Figure 2-1
art files:HP-03
Block diagram ....................................................................................................... 11
Figure 3-1
art files:HP-04
Maximum dimensions of the internal ATA hard disk .......................................... 19
Figure 3-2
art files:HP-05
Connector for the internal ATA hard disk ............................................................ 20
Figure 3-3
art files:HP-06
Keyboard, United States layout ............................................................................ 23
Figure 3-4
art files:HP-07
Keyboard, ISO layout ........................................................................................... 23
Figure 3-5
art files:HP-41
Signal pins on the video connector ....................................................................... 25
Figure 3-6
art files:HP-09
Serial port connector ............................................................................................. 27
Figure 3-7
art files:HP-10
ADB connector ..................................................................................................... 29
Figure 4-1
art files:HP-11
PCI expansion card ............................................................................................... 39
Figure 4-2
art files:HP-40
Connectors on the PCI expansion card ................................................................. 40
Figure 4-3
art files:HP-17
Location of external connector ............................................................................. 41
Figure 4-4
art files:HP-12
Shielded RJ45 connector....................................................................................... 42
Figure 4-5
art files:HP-39
Connector grounding considerations .................................................................... 42
Figure 4-6
art files:HP-36
Expansion card internal connector........................................................................ 43
Figure 4-7
art files:HP-13
Dimensions of the PCI expansion card ................................................................. 44
Figure 4-8
art files:HP-14
PCI expansion card maximum component space ................................................. 45
Figure 4-9
art files:HP-15
Maximum component heights on the top of the PCI expansion card ................... 46
Figure 4-10
art files:HP-16
Maximum component heights on the bottom of the PCI expansion card............. 47
Figure 4-11
art files:HP-18
Heatsink for the PCI expansion card..................................................................... 48
Figure 4-12
art files:HP-19
PCI peripheral in sleep mode, interface unswitched............................................. 49
Figure 4-13
art files:HP-42
PCI peripheral in sleep mode, interface switched................................................. 50
Figure 4-14
art files:HP-43
Timing of the expansion card control signals for sleep mode .............................. 51
Figure 4-15
art files:HP-20
Front view of expansion bay module.................................................................... 54
Figure 4-16
art files:HP-21
Rear view of expansion bay module ..................................................................... 55
Figure 4-17
art files:HP-22
Location of expansion bay connector and datum slot........................................... 55
Figure 4-18
art files:HP-23
Maximum dimensions of the expansion module .................................................. 56
Figure 4-19
art files:HP-24
Exploded view of expansion bay module ............................................................. 57
April 6, 2000 4:04 pm
Page #
1
Figure 4-20
art files:HP-25
Suggested locations of circuit board and connector.............................................. 58
Figure 4-21
art files:HP-26
Locations of connectors......................................................................................... 59
Figure 4-22
art files:HP-27
Alternate mounting for connector ......................................................................... 59
Figure 4-23
art files:HP-28
Suggested dimensions of circuit board.................................................................. 60
Figure 4-24
art files:HP-29
Maximum component height on bottom of circuit board...................................... 61
Figure 4-25
art files:HP-30
Electrical grounding surfaces, top view ................................................................ 62
Figure 4-26
art files:HP-31
Electrical grounding surfaces, bottom view .......................................................... 63
Figure 4-27
art files:HP-32
Mechanical contact areas, top view....................................................................... 64
Figure 4-28
art files:HP-33
Mechanical contact areas, bottom view ................................................................ 65
Figure 4-29
art files:HP-35
Section through expansion bay connector............................................................. 66
Figure 4-30
art files:HP-44
Timing of expansion bay control signals for sleep mode...................................... 69
Figure 4-31
art files:HP-45
Timing of the expansion bay control signals during power on ............................. 70
Figure 4-32
art files:HP-46
Timing of the expansion bay control signals during power off ............................ 70
Figure 4-33
art files:HP-38
Dimensions of the RAM expansion card .............................................................. 84
Figure 4-34
art files:HP-37
Height restrictions on the RAM expansion card ................................................... 85
2
April 6, 2000 4:04 pm
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