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Solar Hot Water System
Installation and Operation Manual
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Table of Contents
1. Consumer Information
04
1.1. Understanding Water Heating
04
1.2. Solar Water Heating
04
1.3. How Does Boosting Work
05
1.4. Understanding Water Boiling
06
1.5. Electric Boosting Options
06
1.6. Maintenance
06
1.7. Precautions and Warnings
07
1.8 Warranty
07
2. Important Information
10
2.1. Local Standards
10
2.2. Authorised Person (5)
10
2.3. Safety
10
2.4. Pressure and Temperature Control and Relief
10
2.5. Water Quality
10
2.6. Legionella
11
2.7. Metallic Corrosion
11
2.8. Freeze protection
11
2.9. Collector Dimensions & Weights
11
2.10. Roof Structural Integrity
11
2.11. Vitreous Enamel Tanks with Sacrificial Anode Fitted
11
2.12. Draining Hot Water Tank
12
2.13. Setting Electric Boosted Tank Thermostat
12
2.14. Setting Gas Booster Temperature
12
2.15. Installation Preparation
12
2.16. Water Boiling Temperature
12
2.17. Scope of Manual
12
2.18. Terminology
12
3. Solar Collector Installation
3.1. Transport, Unpacking and Inspection
13
3.2. System Design
14
3.3. Mounting Frame
16
3.4. Installation Planning
17
3.5. Flat Roof Installation (Angle Frame)
18
3.6. Connection to Plumbing
18
3.7. Controller Installation
21
3.8. Evacuated Tube & Heat Pipe Installation
23
3.9 Post Installation
25
4. Maintenance
4.1. Broken Tube
2
13
26
26
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
4.2. Insulation
26
4.3. Draining the Collector
26
4.4. Other Components
26
4.5. Freezing
26
5. Troubleshooting
27
6. Safety Reminders
29
6.1. Metallic Components
29
6.2. Evacuated tubes
29
6.3. High Temperatures
29
6.4. Health & Safety
29
7. Installation Checklist
30
8. Appendices
30
Appendix A (Flat Roof Frame Assembly)
30
Appendix B (ZEN Solar-Electric Water Heating System - Everlast Tank)
32
Appendix C (ZEN Solar-Gas Water Heating System - Everlast Tank)
34
Appendix D (ZEN Solar-Electric Water Heating System - Rinnai Solar Tank)
36
Appendix E (ZEN Solar-Gas Water Heating System - Rinnai Solar Tank)
38
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
1. Information for the End User
This section provides the same content supplied in
the owner’s manual. As an installer please familiarise
yourself with the content, as part of the installation
process should be educating the consumer about
how the system works, maintenance and safety
considerations.
1.1. Understanding Water Heating
Before explaining the operation of your hot water
system is it important for you to understand how
water heating works.
A water heater is traditionally an insulated metal tank
full of water with an electric heating element or gas
burner in the bottom. The water is heated to about
60°C-70°C depending on the thermostat setting. The
average household of 4-5 people will use about 250300L of hot water per day, which requires quite a lot
of energy to heat, and that is why it is important to use
solar to reduce the amount of electricity or gas used.
Step 1. The evacuated tubes absorb sunlight and
converts it into usable heat.
Step 2. The heat inside the evacuated tubes is
transferred up into the insulated black box at the top of
the tubes which contains a copper heat exchanger.
Step 3. An electronic controller measures the
temperature of the solar collector and the water in the
bottom of the storage tank. If the collector is hotter,
meaning there is heat available, the controller supplies
power to a circulation pump which pushes water
through the collector heat exchanger and back to the
storage tank.
Step 4. Throughout the day the circulation pump
switches on and off gradually heating up the water
in the tank.
When you open the hot water tap, water pressure forces
the hot water out. When this happens cold water is
actually entering the bottom of the hot water storage
tank, gradually pushing the hot water up and out. This
can be seen in figure 1.1.2. Notice how the water is
separated nicely into hot and cold layers. Because hot
rises and cold sinks the water does not mix. This is
referred to as stratification and is very important as it
allows us to use nearly all of the hot water available in
the tank. You can experience this when having a shower
when the water suddenly turns cold; all of the hot has
been drawn out.
In order to prevent scalding due to excessively hot
water, most new houses have a tempering valve
installed. If you are in an older house the plumber
should advise that you install a tempering valve. This
is an important safety device, as it limits the water
supplied to the hot water taps to no more than 50°C.
This temperature is quite hot, but will not cause burns.
The water generally leaves the hot water tank at
60°C-70°C. Then it passes through the tempering valve
which brings the temperature down to 50°C by mixing
with cold water. At the shower most people will then
cool it down to around 42°-45°C by mixing with more
cold water. This process is clearly shown in figure 1.1.3.
FIG 1.1
Tempered Supply
FIG 1.1.2
Shower Rose
@50°C
HOT SUPPLY - 70°C
Shower tap
COLD SUPPLY - 15°C
1.2. Solar Water Heating
This solar collector is a thermal solar heating device,
quite different to photo-voltaic “PV” which converts the
suns energy into electricity. The operation is very simple
- see figure 1.2.
4
FIG 1.1.3
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Evacuated Tubes and Manifold
HOT OUT
Solar
Tempering
Valve
Solar Controller
Solar non
return valve
Flow Control
Solar pump
Solar
Storage
Tank
Air
Bleed
valve
Solar
non
return
valve
COLD IN
FIG. 1.2
Cold inlet valves to be supplied
by installing plumber
1.3. How Does Boosting Work?
If the solar contribution during the day is not enough to
raise the water to a suitable temperature an electric or
gas booster can provide additional heating. During good
sunny weather the solar collector will normally be able
to provide enough hot water, but during winter months
and overcast days boosting will be required. It is a legal
requirement that the water be heated to 60°C on a
regular basis to kill legionella bacteria that can lead to
Legionnaires disease.
Bottom element electric boosted system
= Once per week to 60°C
Mid element electric boosted systems
= Once per day to 60°C
Gas boosted systems
= each time water passes through the booster to 60°C
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Sensor Well Tee
(Supplied with tank)
During good sunny warm weather the electric booster
can often be turned off as the solar contribution will
achieve 60°C in the tank, however during overcast
or winter periods it is important that the booster is
activated to meet the above requirements. Gas boosted
systems should always be turned on.
Electric Boosted
If your system is electric boosted, when the electric
element is activated it will heat up all the water above
the element to 60°C (or the thermostat setting). This
heating can take as long as 3-4 hours if the tank is cold,
as the maximum output is limited to 3.6kW (15Amp).
Gas Boosted
Fig 1.3 show the operation for gas boosters that have
internal controls for temperature regulation, in which
case the booster only heats the water if it is less than
70°C. This “post boosting” method has the advantage
5
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
that you are not wasting gas keeping the tank hot and
you have virtually unlimited hot water supply, unlike
electric boosting which can run out.
FIG. 1.3
1.4. Understanding Water Boiling
Solar collectors have the potential to heat water well
above 100°C during periods of high solar radiation and
minimal hot water usage. The system is designed to
protect the tank by turning off the circulation pump
when the storage tank temperature reaches around
70°C. Turning off the circulation pump will cause
“stagnation” in the solar collectors which means
that the amount of energy being absorbed equals
the amount being radiated through heat loss to the
surrounding air. During hot conditions the collectors
can reach around 160°C. At this temperature the water
does NOT boil, because it is under pressure. Because
the pressure relief valve on the tank is set to 850kPa,
the water would have to reach about 180°C before any
steam formed which normally does not happen even
on a hot summer day. If somebody in the house opens
a hot water tap, the pressure in the system will drop to
that of the incoming cold water. That is normally around
500-750kPa depending on the water supply and any
pressure limiting valve that may be installed. Because
the pressure drops there is the potential for some
steam to form. This may result in some bubbling or
crackling noises in the collector or tank. This is normal.
If in an area with lower than normal mains water
pressure, or if using a pressure pump, a greater
volume of steam may form. In some cases this may
result in a louder noise in the tank due hot water from
the collector mixing will the cold water entering the
bottom of the tank. If this is of concern a combination
of adjusting the controller setting, and some changes
to the plumbing layout can help to reduce the noise.
Please contact the company that installed the system
for more information.
6
1.5. Electric Boosting Options
The end user may be happy to manually control the
timer, turning it on when there is not enough hot water.
This is OK if the operation of the system and hot water
usage patterns are understood. There is also the option
of an automatic timer fitted, which the plumber can fit
allowing automated daily boosting.
Normally the automatic timer should be set to provide
power to the element between 3-6pm ensuring a full
tank of hot water for evening/morning showers. If the
tank is already at 60°C the element will not turn on. If
more hot water than normal is used there is the option
of manually turning on the heating element via the ON/
AUTO switch on the timer; it will take 3-4 hours to heat
the tank up to a usable temperature. The element will
then turn off. It is important the timer is switched back
to AUTO, otherwise the element will keep turning on,
wasting electricity.
If regularly running out of hot water an additional
boosting period can be set. Technically competent
end users may read the timer manual and change the
settings, if not the plumber should be contacted to
provide that service.
Please take note that in order for solar to be effective
the tank should be at least half full of cold water in the
morning. If a boost is completed at night without lots
of morning hot water usage then the tank will be full
of hot water and solar will not be effective, essentially
“losing” that solar heat.
This can lead to the tank reaching maximum
temperature by mid-morning, turning off the solar
collector and wasting potential energy.
Example:
Problem: You use a lot of water in the evening and again
in the morning. You are often running out of hot water in
the morning.
Solution: Set two boost periods, one from 3-5pm in
the afternoon, another from 4-6am in the morning.
The afternoon boost period may need to be adjusted to
2-4pm if your day off-peak period is 10am-4pm, thus
taking advantage of cheaper electricity rates.
1.6. Maintenance
PTR: It is recommended that the lever on the pressure
and temperature relief valve (PTR) on the side of the hot
water tank be operated once every 6 months to ensure
reliable operation. It is important to raise and lower the
lever gently, and be careful as the water released will
be HOT.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Please note that hot water will be released from the
drain pipe so please be careful. Ask your plumber to tell
you where the valve is located if unsure.
GLASS BREAKAGE: If a severe storm occurs that
causes flying debris, falling branches or massive hail it
is possible that some of the tubes could be broken. The
collector tubes are made of glass and so please take
care to observe any broken glass that may have fallen
off the roof.
This should be cleaned up and disposed of and the
plumber called to come and check the system and
replace any damaged tubes.
CLEANING: Regular rain should keep the evacuated
tubes clean, but if particularly dirty they may be washed
with a soft cloth and warm, soapy water or glass cleaning
solution but ONLY if the solar collector is located in a
position which does NOT require climbing onto the roof,
use of stepladder or otherwise potentially dangerous
location. If the tubes are not easily and safely accessible,
high-pressure water spray is also effective.
If cleaning is required and the above outlined methods
are not suitable, the company that supplied and
installed the solar collector should be contacted to
complete such cleaning.
LEAVES: During autumn, leaves may accumulate
between or beneath the tubes. Please remove these
leaves regularly to ensure optimal performance and to
prevent a fire hazard. (The solar collector will not cause
the ignition of flammable materials). Such cleaning may
only be completed by the homeowner if the tubes are
easily and safely accessible.
If cleaning is required and collector is not safely
accessible the company that supplied and installed the
solar collector should be contacted to complete such
cleaning.
IF THE HOT WATER SYSTEM IS NOT USED
FOR TWO WEEKS OR MORE, A QUANTITY OF
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE HYDROGEN GAS MAY
ACCUMULATE IN THE WATER HEATER. TO DISSIPATE
THIS GAS SAFELY, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT A HOT
TAP BE TURNED ON FOR SEVERAL MINUTES OR UNTIL
DISCHARGE OF GAS CEASES. USE A SINK, BASIN, OR
BATH OUTLET, BUT NOT A DISHWASHER, CLOTHES
WASHER, OR OTHER APPLIANCE. DURING THIS
PROCEDURE, THERE MUST BE NO SMOKING, OPEN
FLAME, OR ANY ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE OPERATING
NEARBY. IF HYDROGEN IS DISCHARGED THROUGH
THE TAP, IT WILL PROBABLY MAKE AN UNUSUAL
SOUND AS WITH AIR ESCAPING.
1.8. Warranty
ZEN solar water heating systems comprise components
from a number of different suppliers. Pumps, tanks,
controllers and gas boosters all carry their own
manufacturer’s warranty policies.
Please refer to the documentation provided with those
products for complete warranty details.
The installer of the ZEN solar water heating system
MUST provide you will 2 copies of the completed
installation and warranty record form. In order to
register your system for warranty purposes, please
send to:
Fax: 08 8363 4110
Post to: 33 King Street, Norwood, South Australia 5067.
If the solar water heating system does not seem to be
working properly or if you do not have any hot water
during normal usage DO NOT attempt to inspect or
repair your hot water system yourself. Call the plumber
that installed the system or if they are unavailable call
1300 936 466.
FREEZE PROTECTION: The solar system has a freeze
protection feature built into the digital controller. If the
temperature in the solar collector drops to around 2°C,
the pump will be switched on to circulate some warmer
water from the bottom of the tank through the lines
to prevent freezing. The pump may come on several
times throughout the night during cold conditions. If
the pump is coming on more than once every hour, then
additional insulation may be needed on the copper pipe
runs.
Warranty Conditions
1.7. Precautions and Warnings
3. This warranty applies only to those components
provided as part of the ZEN solar water heating
product and not any electrical or plumbing parts
provided by the installer. E.g. Pressure limiting valve,
duo-valve, etc.
VITREOUS ENAMEL TANKS: For solar collector systems
using a vitreous enamel storage tank the following
precaution applies:
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
1. The solar water heating system must be installed
in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation
instructions, the local authorities and all relevant
statutory requirements - AS3500.4 & 5, AS5601,
AS3000, AS2712 etc.
2. Installation may only be completed by plumbers, gas
fitters and electricians that are licensed in the state
the installation is completed.
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
4. The coverage period is valid from the date of
installation. Should any part of the complete solar
water heating system be replaced during the
warranty period, the balance of the original warranty
will continue to remain effective.
5. Should the system be installed in a region where
regular flushing of the hot water tank is required to
clean out sediment, a drain cock for flushing must be
fitted at the time of installation. Please contact your
plumber or local water authority if unsure if this is
required.
6. The electrical system components are installed in a
domestic application and connected to a 240V power
supply by a qualified electrician in accordance with
AS3000.
7. Component manufacturers are at liberty to alter
the design or construction for the products not
withstanding that the product may have been sold by
description or sample, even though alterations may
have been introduced for the date of Contract and the
date of delivery provided that the products are of the
same or similar quality and are fit for the purposes
for which they are purchased. Such alterations shall
not constitute a defect in design or construction
under this Warranty.
8. Dated proof of purchase is required prior to
commencement of warranty work.
9. The Warranty shall be limited to the replacement or
repair, at the option of ZEN Energy of any defective
products and of such parts as have been damaged in
consequence of the defect. ZEN Energy is excluded to
the extended allowable by Law from responsibility for
consequential loss including:
• Injury to persons
• Damage to property
• Economic loss
• Pain and suffering; and
• Any legal or other damages resulting
from any manufacturing fault or defect.
10. ZEN Energy shall be under no obligation to
return parts replaced at its option pursuant to this
Warranty.
Warranty Exclusions
The following exclusions may cause the warranty to
become void, and may incur a service charge and cost
of parts that may be required.
1. Accidental damage, acts of God, failure due to
misuse or incorrect installation, attempts to repair
the system other than by a ZEN Energy accredited
serviceman/technician.
8
2. Where the solar collector leaks or fails to operate
normally due to freezing in regions above the
snow line and/or with minimum temperatures
below -5°C (in accordance with AS/NZS 2712:2007
freeze level 1), or when power supply to the
controller and pump is cut.
3. Damage to the collector due to excessive winds.
4. Damage to the evacuated tubes due to impact by any
object.
5. The solar collector is left dry (no liquid circulation)
and exposed to daily sunlight (I.e. not covered) for a
period exceeding 14 consecutive days.
6. Failure of a vitreous enamel steel tank where the
anode has been completely dissolved.
7. Where the solar water heating system component
has failed directly or indirectly as a result of excessive
water pressure, negative pressure (partial vacuum),
excessive temperature, corrosive atmosphere, faulty
plumbing and/or electrical wiring, or major variations
in electrical energy supply.
8. Subject to any statutory provisions to the contrary,
claims for damage to walls, foundations, gardens,
etc. or any other consequential loss or inconvenience
either directly or indirectly due to leakage from the
solar water heating system or any other matter
related to the system or its operation.
9. This warranty does not cover the effects of sludge/
sediment as a result of connection to a water supply
from suitably filtered or treated sources I.e. spring,
dam, bore, river or town supply from a bore.
10. Where the water stored in the cylinder exceeds at
any time the following levels:
Total hardness
Total dissolved solids
Electrical conductivity
Chloride
Magnesium
Sodium
pH
200 mg/litre or p.p.m
600 mg/litre or p.p.m
850 µS/cm
250 mg/litre or p.p.m
10 mg/litre or p.p.m
150 mg/litre or p.p.m
Min 6.5 to Max 8.5
11. Any serial tags/stickers on any of the components
are removed or defaced.
12. The product is relocated from its original point of
installation
13. Subject to statutory provisions to the contrary, ZEN
Energy shall not be liable for consequential damage
or any incidental expenses resulting from any
breach of this warranty.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
14. The benefits conferred by this warranty are in
addition to all other rights and remedies in respect
of the product, which the purchaser has under the
Trade Practices Act (Commonwealth) 1975, and
similar State or Territory laws.
Warranty Coverage
Components that fail within the “parts and labour”
warranted period due to faulty manufacturing or
workmanship will be replaced at no charge to the
customer within metropolitan areas. During the “parts
only” warranty period only replacement product will
be provided, with additional costs to be charged to the
customer. Where the system is installed outside the
boundaries of a Capital Cities Metropolitan area (I.e.
those areas STD), the cost of transport, insurance and
travelling between the nearest ZEN Energy accredited
Service Agents premises will be charged to the owner.
The period for which free replacement applies, varies
for different components, as outlined.
ZEN Solar Collector: Copper heat transfer header
• One year parts and labour (All states)
• Ten years parts only (All states)
ZEN Solar Collector: Evacuated Tubes and Heat Pipes
• One year parts and labour (All states)
• Ten years parts only (All states)
ZEN Solar Collector: Mounting Frame
• Two years parts only (All states)
• Two year parts and labour (All states)
ZEN Solar Controller
• Two year parts and labour (All states)
• Five year parts only (VIC only)
ZEN Circulation Pump
• Two years parts and labour (All states)
• Five year parts only (VIC only)
ZEN Stainless Steel Tank (in case of rupture)
• One year parts and labour (All states)
• Ten years parts only (All states)
ZEN Solar Storage Tanks – Vitreous Enamel
• One year parts and labour (All states)
• Five year parts only (All States)
ZEN S-Series Gas Boosters
• Three years parts and labour (All states)
• Five year parts only (VIC only)
• Ten years only on heat exchanger (All states)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
2. Important Information
2.1. Local Standards
a) Installation must be completed in accordance with
the requirements of AS/NZS 3500.4 (AS/NZS3500.4.2
“National Plumbing and Drainage Code Hot Water
Supply Systems – Acceptable Solutions”), or in New
Zealand, Clause G12 of the New Zealand Building
Code, as well as any relevant local standards and
regulations.
2.2. Authorised Person(s)
a) Installation must be completed by a qualified trades
person “installer”, who holds relevant industry
licenses or certificates required for the work
completed during the installation process.
c) The term “authorised person(s)” or “installer”
used throughout this document refers to a suitably
qualified professional
d) Unless otherwise specified in section 3, no part of
the ZEN solar collector may be inspected, repaired
or maintained by anybody other than authorised
person(s).
2.3. Safety
a) At all times installers must adhere to operational
health and safety guidelines as outlined by Work Care
and other relevant industry associations.
b) At all times the installer is responsible for their own
safety while completing installations.
c) Under no circumstances should any person, qualified
or otherwise, attempt to install a ZEN solar water
heating system without thoroughly READING and
UNDERSTANDING this installation manual. For any
queries ZEN Energy staff may be contacted.
2.4. Pressure and Temperature Control and Relief
a) Where the mains pressure supply can exceed or
fluctuate beyond the pressure of 750kPa, a pressure
limiting device (complying with AS 1357) must be
fitted to the cold water inlet supply. This device must
be installed after the isolation valve and set at or
below 750kPa.
NOTE: In WA and SA, it is a requirement that a
pressure relief valve be fitted on the cold water supply
line between the non-return valve and water heater.
A separate drain line must be run for this relief valve.
It is not permitted to couple drain lines from relief
valves into a single common drain.
b) Any system design must provide means for allowing
pressure release at no more than 850kPa, using a
pressure and temperature relief valve (PTR).
10
From time to time the PTR may discharge a small
amount of water, this is normal. The PTR must have
a downward direction copper pipe connected that is
open to the atmosphere, running the expelled hot water
or air to a safe, frost free and appropriate drainage
location.
THE RELIEF VALVE OR DRAIN TUBE MUST NOT BE
SEALED OR BLOCKED.
c) It is recommended that the lever on pressure and
temperature relief valves be operated once every 6
months to ensure reliable operation. It is important to
raise and lower the lever gently, and be careful as the
water released will be HOT.
d) If installed inside a building, a safe-tray must
be installed beneath the hot water tank to safely
collect any water expelled from the pressure and
temperature relief valve.
e) For glass lined/enamel lined tanks the electric
thermostat setting (if applicable) and maximum
tank temperature in the solar controller must be set
to no more than 70°C, or as specified by the tank
manufacturer.
2.5. Water Quality
a) Water used in the system must meet the following
requirements. This is extremely important for
stainless steel tanks which are more susceptible to
damage from poor quality water. If in doubt contact
your local water authority or have a water test
completed.
Total dissolved solids < 600 mg/L or ppm
Total hardness < 200 mg/L or ppm
Chloride < 250 mg/L or ppm
pH < Min 6.5 to Max 8.5
Magnesium < 10 mg/L or ppm
Sodium < 150 mg/L or ppm
b) In areas with “hard” water (< 200mg/L or ppm), it is
advisable to install a water softening device to ensure
the long term efficient operation of the collector, and
to avoid voiding the collector and tank warranty.
c) If using a glycol/water mix, the water must meet the
above requirements, and the glycol content of the
liquid must not exceed 50%, unless the manufacture
specifies that a different ratio is recommended for
use with solar water heaters. Glycol may need to
be changed periodically (every 3-5 years) to prevent
the glycol from becoming acidic; please refer to
the guidelines provided by the glycol manufacturer
regarding replacement times.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
d) In order to meet health and safety regulations, only
food heat transfer fluids should be used.
2.6. Legionella
a) In order to kill Legionella bacteria it is an Australian
standards requirement (AS3498-2009) that the
hot water in the storage tank be heated up to at
least 60°C on a regular basis, either while in the
storage tank (solar/ electric) or by a post boost (gas
continuous flow). Please educate the home owner to
ensure they adhere to the following guidelines:
Bottom element electric: Tank must reach 60°C at
least once a week. The element should be activated at
least once weekly during winter months and overcast
weather.
Gas boosted systems: Gas booster must be left on at all
times. It will only boost the water if it is less than 70°C.
2.7. Metallic Corrosion
a) Both copper & stainless steel are susceptible
to corrosion when, amongst other factors, high
concentrations of chloride are present. The solar
collector may be used for heating of spa or pool
water, but levels of free chlorine must not exceed
5ppm, otherwise the copper header could be
corroded.
b) ZEN Energy does not warrant the solar collector
against corrosion related damage.
2.8. Freeze protection
The solar collector is not suitable for frost-prone areas
unless protected by a frost protection system or device.
a) For all ZEN Energy systems listed in Appendix C-E
freeze protection is provided by the delta-t controller
which will circulate the pump if the collector
temperature approaches freezing. This freeze
protection method has passed to frost level 2 (-15°C)
in line with ASNZS2712:2007 requirements. In areas
with unreliable power supply a UPS (uninterrupted
power supply) unit may be used to ensure power to
the controller and pump during power outages.
b) For areas with sustained winter temperatures
below –5°C, a closed loop filled with an anti-freeze
heat transfer fluid should be used to provide freeze
protection. Please refer to heat transfer liquid
manufacturer’s specifications about the temperature
ranges the liquid can withstand. Only food grade heat
transfer fluids should be used.
c) Evacuated tubes are not susceptible to damage
in cold weather, and ZEN copper heat pipes are
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
protected against damage that could result from the
freezing of the water inside.
d) ZEN Energy does not warrant the solar collector
against freeze related damage.
2.9. Collector Dimensions & Weights
Collector Size
20 Tube HP
32 Tube HP
No. of Tubes
20
32
Tube Length
1800mm
1800mm
Overall Height
1960mm
1960mm
Overall Width
1530mm
2394mm
Overall Depth
150mm
150mm
Absorber Area
1.6m²
2.57m²
Aperture Area
2.0 m²
3.2 m²
Gross Area
2.99m²
4.69m²
Installation Angle
20° - 70°
20° - 70°
Dry Weight
76 kg
118kg
2.10. Roof Structural Integrity
a) Collector weight is minimal and will not cause
excessive weight stress on the roof structure. No
reinforcement of the roof structure is needed for
flush mounted collectors.
b) If installing at a raised angle (angle frame) in a
high wind region, high winds will cause vertical and
horizontal loads on the frame. Please ensure that
the frame structure is able to withstand such forces.
Contact your local building department if in doubt.
2.11. Vitreous Enamel Tanks with Sacrificial
Anode Fitted
For solar collector systems using a vitreous enamel
storage tank:
IF THE HOT WATER SYSTEM IS NOT USED
FOR TWO WEEKS OR MORE, A QUANTITY OF
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE HYDROGEN GAS MAY
ACCUMULATE IN THE WATER HEATER. TO DISSIPATE
THIS GAS SAFELY, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT A HOT
TAP BE TURNED ON FOR SEVERAL MINUTES OR UNTIL
DISCHARGE OF GAS CEASES. USE A SINK, BASIN, OR
BATH OUTLET, BUT NOT A DISHWASHER, CLOTHES
WASHER, OR OTHER APPLIANCE. DURING THIS
PROCEDURE, THERE MUST BE NO SMOKING, OPEN
FLAME, OR ANY ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE OPERATING
NEARBY. IF HYDROGEN IS DISCHARGED THROUGH
THE TAP, IT WILL PROBABLY MAKE AN UNUSUAL
SOUND AS WITH AIR ESCAPING.
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
2.12. Draining Hot Water Tank
2.16. Water Boiling Temperature
In the event that the hot water tank needs to be
serviced, relocated or replaced it must first be drained.
To drain the tank:
It is important to understand the properties of water
when dealing with any hot water system that operates
under pressure. The solar collector has the potential
to reach temperatures above 100°C during high solar
radiation level once the tank has reached temperature
at the pump has been switched off. The table below
shows that at 811kPa, which is close to the opening
pressure of the PTRV, the boiling temperature of water
is 170°C.
WARNING: BEWARE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER.
a) Disconnect all power supply to water heater (for
electric boosted tanks).
b) Turn off the mains cold water supply.
c) Release the pressure in tank by carefully operating
the PTR valve release lever/knob.*
Pressure - kPa
Boiling Point - ºC
d) Undo the cold water inlet union. Attach a hose to the
heater side of the union. Drain the hose to waste.
101
100
203
120
e) Operate the PTR valve release lever/knob allowing air
into the heater and water to drain via the hose.
304
133
405
143
507
151
2.13. Setting Electric Boosted Tank Thermostat
608
158
a) Electrical connections must only be completed by a
qualified electrician.
709
164
811
170
f) To fill the hot water tank refer to 3.8.4.
b) The thermostat is generally factory set to between
60°C and 70°C. Under no Circumstances should
the setting be reduced below 60°C. Changes to the
thermostat setting may only be completed by a
qualified electrician.
c) To adjust the temperature setting:
i) Disconnect the electrical power supply to the tank.
ii) Remove the element cover.
iii) Using a small screw driver, rotate the thermostat
to the desired temperature.
2.14. Setting Gas Booster Temperature
ZEN S20, S26 & Enviro 26
a) The ZEN booster is pre-set to 70°C and does not
need to be adjusted.
2.15. Installation Preparation
a) Always check components before travelling to
installation site. In particular check to ensure all
evacuated tubes are in good condition.
b) Always take spares of key components such as
evacuated tubes, fittings, sensor cables etc.
c) Ensure any required tools and safety equipment are
taken to the installation site.
2.17. Scope of Manual
a) This manual pertains only to the installation and
operation of the ZEN solar collector. Details for
the installation, operation and maintenance of the
complete solar gas/electric water heating system
including, but not limited to storage tank, gas/electric
booster, pump, system controller, valves and other
plumbing components should be provided separately
by their respective manufacturers.
b) This manual is primarily a reference document for
installers, as the solar collector is not permitted to
be installed by non-authorised persons.
2.18. Terminology
The terminology used from region to region differs
and so to avoid confusion please note the following
terminology.
a) Return: indicates the plumbing line running from the
outlet of the collector back to the tank.
b) Flow or Supply: indicates the plumbing line running
from the tank (or heat exchanger) to the inlet of the
collector. This line incorporates the circulation pump.
c) Insolation: solar radiation level, expressed in kWh/
m²/day
d) Ensure a copy of this installation manual is kept in
the vehicle for reference.
d) PTR: pressure temperature relief valve, installed on
the hot water storage tank to relieve pressure, and
excessive temperatures.
e) Always take a digital camera to take photos of the
completed installation.
e) Header: is the copper heat exchanger pipe in the
solar collector through which the water flows.
12
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
3. Solar Collector Installation
3.1. Transport, Unpacking and Inspection
3.1.1. Transport
a) When possible transport the boxes of evacuated
tubes standing upright, taking notice of the “THIS
WAY UP” arrows. If the boxes can only be laid
down, always place on a flat, firm surface such as
a compressed wooden board. If stacking the boxes,
ideally do not exceed 3 layers, and ensure they are
strapped down in place to avoid movement. Straps
should be padded with thick cardboard or similar at
box corners to avoid cutting into the boxes.
3.1.2. Component List
a) Please familiarize yourself with the components
listed on the packing list, which is included in the
collector manifold packing box. If any components
are missing, or additional parts are required, please
contact your supplier who will have spares in stock.
3.1.2. Tube & Heat Pipe Inspection
a) Open tube box(s), which contain the evacuated tubes
with heat pipes inserted. Check to make sure the
evacuated tubes are all intact, and the bottom of
each tube is still silver. If a tube has a white or clear
bottom, it is damaged and should be replaced. The
heat pipe should be removed and inserted into a
replacement tube.
c) Do not remove and/or expose the tubes to sunlight
until ready to install, otherwise the heat pipe tip will
become very hot, sufficient to cause serious skin
burns. The outer glass surface will not become hot.
NEVER TOUCH THE INSIDE OF THE EVACUATED
TUBE OR HEAT PIPE TIP AFTER EXPOSURE TO
SUNLIGHT. WEAR THICK LEATHER GLOVES IF
HANDLING THE HEAT PIPE.
d) WEAR SAFETY GLASSES AT ALL TIMES WHEN
HANDLING THE GLASS TUBES.
e) ZEN Energy does not warrant the tube or heat pipes
against failure as a result of damage incurred during
transport or installation.
3.1.3. Frame
a) Unpack the standard frame that is provided together
with the manifold. If a frame kit is being used,
those components will be packed separately from
the manifold. See Appendix A for standard frame
diagram.
b) Depending on the roof surface, rubber pads, roof
attachment straps or round feet may be used
to attach the standard frame to the roof. These
components are supplied separately from the
standard frame.
b) Heat pipes are bright and shiny when newly
manufactured, but will dull and may form darkgrey surface discolouration over time. This is due to
mild surface oxidation (when exposed to air) and is
perfectly normal and does not affect the integrity of
the heat pipe.
FIG. 3.1.1
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
3.2. System Design
3.2.1. Custom System Design
a) For commercial or other nonstandard installations,
the system design should be completed prior to
commencing installation. Solar collectors need to be
installed correctly to ensure high efficiency, and most
importantly, safe and reliable operation. Please seek
professional advice for the design and installation
of the solar heating system. Only installers are
permitted to install the solar collector. ZEN Energy
does not provide warranty coverage and will not be
held liable for any damage to person or property
that results from solar collectors that are installed
by un-authorised persons. In addition, all system
components must meet relevant Australian Standard,
in particular Watermark for any component in contact
with potable water.
3.2.2. Delta-T Controller Settings
a) Usually a Delta-T ON value of 8°C and Delta-T OFF
value of 2°C is suitable. These settings may need
to be altered slightly according to the location and
system design. Setting the Delta-T OFF value too
high runs the risk of the pump coming on and off too
frequently, shunting batches of hot water back down
the line, but not necessarily running for long enough
for that hot water to reach the tank. The result is
the hot water cools in the lines before reaching the
tank, reducing heat input. Ideally when there is good
sunlight the pump should run continually, and so a
suitable Delta-T OFF setting will allow this.
3.2.3. Stagnation and Overheating
a) Stagnation refers to the condition that occurs when
the pump stops running, due to pump failure, power
blackout, or as a result of a high tank temperature
protection feature built into the controller, which
turns the pump off.
b) If the system is designed to allow stagnation
as a means of preventing tank overheating, the
collector and plumbing in close proximity may reach
temperatures of up to 170°C; therefore components
that may be exposed to the high temperatures such
as valves, plumbing or insulation, should be suitably
rated.
c) If the system is designed to allow stagnation of the
collector when the tank reaches a set maximum
level, steam may form in the header (depending
on the system pressure). In such a system, a
temperature relief valve should NOT be installed
on the collector outlet, as it will dump hot water,
14
which is not allowed. Auto air vents can help to
relieve steam formation, but must be rated to at least
200°C. In addition; air vents are highly susceptible to
blockage over time due to scale formation in areas
with hard water.
The system designs listed in Appendix B through E
meet the NO-LOAD system requirements of AS/NZS
2712:2007 and will not dump large volumes of water
from the PTRV. They are designed to allow stagnation
by means of turning off the circulation pump once
the tank reaches a target maximum temperatures as
measured by the controller.
d) When the storage tank temperature is up to 70°C in
the bottom of the tank, cold water entering the tank
when hot water is used can causing gurgling noises.
This is normal but can be greatly reduced by forming
a heat trap in the copper pipe on the solar return
line, just before the tank. The downward U shaped
heat trap should be at least 20cm tall.
3.2.4. Correct System Sizing to Avoid Overheating
a) For custom system designs, the system should
be sized so that overheating of the tank is difficult
to achieve in a single day, even during hot, sunny
periods. If the system is over-sized, such that
excessive heat is often produced during summer
months, then excessive heat can be used to heat a
spa or pool; see also 3.2.6.
3.2.5. Solar for Central Heating – Preventing
Overheating
a) If a system has been designed to provide contribution
to central heating, it will often provide much more
heat in the summer than is required for hot water
supply alone. In such cases it is advisable for the
home to have a spa or pool that can use the heat
in the summer period. See also the following point
(3.2.6), regarding reduction of summer heat output.
3.2.6. Adjusting Collector Angle to Ease Overheating
a) Apart from installing a smaller collector, a good
method of reducing summer heat output is to angle
the collector for optimal winter sun exposure. This
is achieved by installing the collector at an angle of
around 15°-20° above the latitude angle. This angle
corresponds closely to angle of the sun in the sky
during the winter months, thus maximizing winter
output. Conversely, during the summer when the
sun is high in the sky, the relative surface area of the
collector exposed to sunlight is reduced, in effect
reducing overall heat production considerably (by
about 20%). This option is ideal for installations
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
where solar thermal is being used for space heating.
A wall mounted collector with overhanging eves
above is also an excellent design for large systems,
ensuring optimal winter output and shading the
collector partially during summer periods.
3.2.7. Collector Direction
a) The collector should face the equator, which in
Australia and New Zealand (Southern hemisphere)
is due North. Facing the collector in the correct
direction and at the correct angle is important to
ensure optimal heat output from the collector,
however a deviation of up to 15° east or west of due
north is acceptable, and will have minimal effect
on heat output. If installed due east or west, the
solar collector output will be considerably reduced,
with predominately morning output or afternoon
output for each direction respectively. If, however,
the collector is installed pointing east or west on a
low pitched or flat roof, by raising the angle of the
collector to 50°-60° the underside of the tubes can
be exposed to sunlight, increasing the total day
output to a closer level to if pointing north.
3.2.8. Collector Plane
a) The collector manifold is normally installed on the
flat horizontal plane, but may be installed at an angle
of +/-60° from horizontal as may occur if installing on
the side of an east or west facing pitched roof.
b) The collector must not be installed up-side-down
(tubes pointing upwards) or with tubes lying
horizontally, as the heat pipes will not function
properly.
3.2.9. Collector Angle
a) It is common for collectors to be installed at an angle
that corresponds to the latitude of the location. While
adhering to this guideline, an angle of latitude +/10° is acceptable, and will not greatly reduce solar
output. See also point 3.2.6.
3.2.10. Avoid Shade
a) Collectors should be located so that shading does not
occur for at least the 3 hours either side of 12 noon
local time.
b) Partial shading due to small objects such antennas
and small flues is not of great concern.
3.2.11. Location
a) The collector should be positioned as close as
possible to the storage cylinder to avoid long pipe
runs. Storage cylinder positioning should therefore
consider the location requirements of the solar
collector.
b) The storage cylinder should be located as close as
possible to the most frequent draw off points in the
building. If the storage cylinder is located a long way
from hot water draw points a hot water circulation
loop on a timer may be considered to reduce the
time-lag for hot water, and resultant water wastage.
3.2.12. Expansion Vessel/Tank
a) In any hot water system, be it solar, gas, electric or
combination thereof, expansion of water will occur as
the water heats up. When water expands it has to be
controlled, as it cannot be compressed like air.
b) In mains pressure open loop systems that have a
check valve/non-return valve on the cold mains, this
water is released via the pressure release valve,
which is installed on the storage tank.
c) Closed loop systems using an anti-freeze heat
transfer fluid should always be installed with an
expansion vessel as the liquid should not be dumped
from the system. The expansion vessel will accept
the increase in liquid volume and prevent excessive
pressure levels. For domestic applications using
30-90 tubes, a 10-12L expansion vessel should be
used. Refer to the expansion vessel manufacturers’
guidelines regarding correct sizing for larger
applications.
b) The solar collector should be installed at an angle of
between 20-80° to ensure optimal operation. Vertical
installation is acceptable, but the heat output may
be reduced somewhat due to less optimal heat pipe
operation.
Flat installation is not acceptable. In most installations
it is highly recommended to achieve an install angle of
45-50°. This provides optimal winter output, and greatly
increases resistance to freak hail storms. See also point
3.2.6.
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
3.2.13. Lightning Protection
a) If the installation location is prone
to lightning strikes, it is advisable
to earth/ground the copper
circulation loop of the collector to
avoid lightning related damage, or
electrical safety issues. Refer also
to local building codes regarding
lightning safety and grounding.
Fig. 3.2.8
FIG. 3.2.8
3.2.14. Pipe Connections & Pipe Size
a) ZEN solar collectors are provided with a standard
20mm brass male thread for direct connection. This
male thread is for use with a female elbow and is
NOT a compression fitting. The fitting body can be
changed to a 3/4MI / 20MI union body if connecting
multiple collectors for commercial applications. Only
Australian standards approved DZR brass fittings
may be used.
b) For domestic heating applications with 1 or 2
collectors, nominal DN15 / 1/2” copper piping is
suitable.
c) For applications using 2 or more solar collectors
in series, or with a pipe run longer than 40m it is
advisable to use a nominal DN18 / 3/4” piping.
d) For connection of banks of collectors, larger pipe
sizes should be used as specified for the given
application, with consideration made to flow rates,
pressure drop and pump sizing.
e) The material used for the solar loop must be able to
withstand the operating temperatures and pressures
to which the system may be exposed, due both
normal and extraordinary conditions (E.g. Pump
failure, or power outage). Copper pipe is the most
widely used piping material for solar applications.
Synthetic piping should not be used for the solar
loop, unless specifically rated for high temperatures
(>180°C), and even then should not be connected
directly to the collector, but rather an intermediate
50+cm length of copper pipe should first be used.
3.2.15. Connection of Multiple Collectors
a) When connecting collectors in series that have end
manifold connections (as opposed to rear), flexible
connections should be used between each collector
in order to allow for the expansion and contraction of
the copper header with temperature changes. Failure
to use flexible connections between consecutive
16
collectors may result in damage to the header if the
system stagnates.
b) ZEN Energy does not warrant the collector against
damage resulting from poorly managed header
expansion and contraction.
3.2.16. Heat Transfer Liquid
a) In regions where freeze protection is not a concern,
water is the most appropriate heat transfer fluid.
b) If the system is direct flow, meaning that potable
water is flowing through the collector, any
components used in the system must meet potable
water requirements (Watermark approval).
c) When using a direct flow system in an area with
hard water (high mineral content), scale may
gradually form in the solar collector loop, reducing
performance, increasing pressure drop, and
ultimately rendering the system inoperable (due to
flow restriction). In such regions, a water treatment
system should be installed, which either removes the
scale forming minerals, or prevents formation of a
scale layer.
d) In regions where freeze protection is required, it is
advisable to use a closed loop system with a food
grade heat transfer fluid (normally propylene glycol).
This liquid should be used directly, or mixed with
water as per the manufactures instructions.
If using a non-food grade heat transfer fluid, check with
local authorities about regulations regarding the use of
single or double wall heat exchangers with such liquids.
3.2.17. Delayed Installation or Use
a) If the manifold is to be installed days or weeks prior
to tube installation please note the following:
i) Cover the manifold with a durable, waterproof
cover to prevent water ingress, or access to insects
or birds.
ii) DO NOT leave the manifold without tubes installed
during periods of likely snowfall, as there is a high
probability of snow entering the manifold ports and
causing water damage to the Polyurethane.
b) The collector should not be installed fully and left
sitting dry (no fluid circulation) for more than 14 days
- to do so will void the warranty as it could affect heat
pipes or tube longevity. If to be left for a long period
of time the tubes should not be installed (see above
point), or the collector should be covered.
3.3. Mounting Frame
ZEN solar collectors are supplied with a standard
frame, which is suitable for flush mounting on a suitably
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
pitched roof. For installation on insufficient pitched
roofs, flat roofs or off walls, additional frame kits are
available.
roofs, remove selected tiles and secure the stainless
straps beck to rafters using roofing screws
Depending on the roof surface, the standard frame
may be attached to the roof with rubber pads, roof
attachment straps, or round feet.
3.3.1. Frame Material
a) All frame components are made of aluminium
making the frame both strong and corrosion
resistant. It is important that frame attachment
points and externally supplied fasteners are also of
suitable structural strength.
b) Tighten frame bolts with supplied spanner or short
shafted socket wrench only. DO NOT use power tools
or long shafted tools that may over-torque the bolt.
Bolt assemblies include a spring washer to maintain
good long term tension with heat expansion and
contraction.
3.3.2. Galvanic Reaction between SS and Zinc
Galvanised Steel
a) Zinc galvanized components should NOT be
installed in direct contact with stainless steel, as
galvanic reaction between the two metals can cause
premature oxidation of the zinc coating and rusting
of the steel underneath. Zincalume roofing material
is not as susceptible to the same reaction, however a
rubber pad should always be used to avoid scratching
of the roofing material.
b) Avoid using galvanized steel bolts; instead use
stainless steel components.
If galvanized components are used, avoid direct contact
between the two metals by using the rubber/ plastic
separators, such as the ZEN rubber frame pad.
3.3.3. Manifold and Bottom Track Attachment
Step 1. Lay the left and right frames opposite on the
ground as shown in the right figure. (Image: SFA1)
Step 2. Bolt the frames to the header and the tube
bottom rack. (Each set of fittings includes one bolt, one
nut, one washer and one spring washer.) (Image: SFA2)
Step 3. Bolt two braces to the frames and the header
and another two braces to the frames and the tube
bottom rack. Tighten all the fittings. (Image: SFA3)
Step 4. Attach the stainless steel strap (supplied) to the
top of the manifold frame leaving 500mm from the top
edge of the manifold
3.3.4. Customising the Frame
a) The standard frame, flat roof frame components
can be used creatively to suit a range of different
installation surfaces. Additional holes (no larger
than Ø10mm diameter) may be drilled in the frame
as required, but the frames structural integrity must
not be compromised (DO NOT drill holes closer than
30mm centre to centre).
3.4. Installation Planning
a) For tiled roofs, carefully plan the location of the
manifold, frame front tracks and plumbing pipes in
order to minimize the number of tiles that need to
be removed (and returned into place). Tiles may have
holes cut to allow the roof straps or bolts to pass
through. Any holes must be covered and/or sealed
with standard roofing materials/sealants to avoid
leaks.
3.4.1. Positioning Manifold
a) Lay the collector flatly on the support frame, hook
the groove underside manifold case to hang the
collector on two frames, adjust the collector to get an
even clearance between two support frames.
Note: Do not install vacuum tube now.
Step 5. Position the frame on to the roof. For iron roofs
position the stainless steel tails from the manifold
frame and secure to existing roofing screws. For tiled
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
3.4.2. Connection of hot pipe from Manifold
3.4.5. Correctly Align Frame
a) When connecting the return hot water from manifold
to the solar tank, there MUST be the inclusion of a
solar non return valve and bleed valve, this will allow
full flow through the manifold thus forcing all the air
from the highest point on the solar system. (Ref: Fig
1.1.2)
a) Ensure that the front tracks are both parallel and
level before attaching the manifold or bottom
track. Using the horizontal braces supplied with
the standard frame will ensure the front tracks are
parallel. An uneven or non-parallel frame may result
in damage to the system, in particular, the evacuated
tubes.
b) When a steady stream of water flows from the bleed
valve, this can then be isolated and secured.
3.4.3. Tiled Roof Attachment
a) For flush mounting on tiled roofs, roof attachment
straps can be used; 2 per front track. One end of
each strap should be secured to the underside of
the frame front tracks using the supplied M8-20
bolts and nut lock assemblies, the other end to the
roof rafter using 2 x Ð6x75mm stainless steel batten
screws. Once the upper straps are attached and
tightened, adjust the bottom straps to ensure that
they too are providing support to the frame.
b) In high wind areas roof attachment straps should
NOT be used, instead direct bolting through the tiles
into the roof frame is recommended. Care should
be taken when drilling a hole in the tiles to avoid
breakage.
3.4.4. Corrugated Steel Roof
a) For installation on a corrugated steel roof, rubber
pads can be used to separate the frame from the roof
and also to seal the hole. It will bend to match the
shape of the ridge. Never install in the valleys..
b) Where possible only use stainless steel screws.
Direct contact between the screw and the roofing
material should be avoided to prevent galvanic
reaction and therefore a >10mm diameter hole
should be drilled.
c) If the roofing screw is galvanized steel, direct contact
between the screw and the frame must be avoided by
use of a nylon or rubber washer. Many roofing screws
come with a washer already in place.
d) Cover the bottom side of the rubber pad with a
layer of outdoor grade silicone sealant to ensure a
waterproof seal where the roof is formed. Also put a
small amount of silicone sealant on the thread of the
screw to form a waterproof seal with the rubber pad
hole.
e) This mounting method is also suitable when
attaching the roof tracks used in the low, mid or high
angle frame kits when using the roof track option.
(See section 3.5 & 3.6)
18
3.5. Flat Roof Installation (Angle Frame)
Refer to Appendix B for assembly diagram. The high
angle frame is appropriate for installations on flat
surfaces. The high angle frame kit combines with the
standard frame components to form the complete
frame assembly. Refer to Appendix B for assembly
diagram.
3.6. Connection to Plumbing
3.6.1. Plumbing Connection
a) Once the frame has been mounted and the manifold
attached, the manifold header may be connected to
the system plumbing.
b) Evacuated tubes and heat pipes should only be
installed after connection to the tank and flooding
of the system has occurred. Flooding a hot dry solar
collector will generate large volumes of super-hot
steam and could be dangerous.
3.6.2. Temperature Sensor Insertion
a) The temperature sensor port on the solar collector
is located beside the inlet and outlet ports. The
temperature should be sensed at the outlet of the
manifold, which is the higher of the two ports. Fig
3.8.7
b) The solar controllers temperature sensor should be
coated with a thin layer of thermal paste and inserted
into the sensor port to the full depth. If the fit is too
loose, slide a piece of copper or stainless steel plate/
wire in beside the sensor.
c) Ensure that the insulation tightly covers the opening
to prevent water ingress. Use a silicone sealant if
required to ensure a watertight seal against the
manifold.
d) Ensure that sensors used on the collector are high
temperature rated (up to 180°C), in particular the
cable which should ideally be silicone rubber.
e) Do not run the sensor underneath the insulation
alongside the copper pipe, as high temperatures can
melt the cable. Instead run along the outside of the
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
insulation, securing in place every 15-20cm with UV
resistant nylon cable ties.
3.6.3. Collector header connection
a) Both the inlet and outlet of the header are externally
threaded (20mm).
Note: Connect the collectors with Copper pipes rather
than plastic pipes, given their high temperature and
pressure resistance.
i) ZEN Energy will not be held responsible for
damage to the collector resulting from flame/
heat related damage.
b) Hold the header inlet/ outlet with a wrench before
connecting the connectors. See Fig. 3.8.7
3.6.6. Plumbing Check
a) Once plumbing is confirmed as leak free and with the
correct flow rate, the heat pipes and evacuated tubes
may be installed.
3.6.7. Insulation
a) Heavily insulate all piping running to and from the
manifold with a high quality insulation of at least
15mm thickness, or 25mm in cold climates. Heat loss
from the piping can be significant, and so particular
attention should be taken to insulate any possible
points of heat loss.
b) Ensure the insulation is tight against the manifold
casing, thus minimising loss of heat from the inlet
and outlet. In order to prevent water from entering
the temperature probe port and/or in-between the
piping and insulation foam, a high quality silicone
sealant should be used to form a water-tight seal.
c) Insulation foam that is exposed to direct sunlight
should be protected against UV related degradation
by wrapping/covering with a suitable material such
as adhesive back aluminium foil, PVC conduit or
similar.
d) All internal piping as well as external should be
insulated. This includes at least the 1m of piping
closest to the hot water outlet of the tank, as this
copper pipe is a significant point of passive heat
losses.
FIG. 3.8.7
3.6.4. System Filling & Air Purge
Once the inlet and outlet are connected to the plumbing
system, the hot water tank should be filled with water
and the collector loop should be purged of air. This
should be completed before the evacuated tubes are
installed.
a) To fill the tank, open the cold water supply to the
tank. Gently operate the level/knob on the PTRV to
allow air to be release so the tank can fill. Close the
PTRV once water is expelled.
b) Mains Pressure Open Loop – for a system without
an auto-air vent installed, open the isolation valve
installed on the hot water return from the solar
manifold, this will purge all air from the highest point
of the solar circuit, leave isolation valve open for up
to 60 seconds to ensure all air has been removed.
Operate the PTR again to release any air in the top of
the tank.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
3.6.8. Pump Selection
a) The pump should provide enough
pressure to enable circulation
through the collector header at a set
flow rate which ensures optimal heat
transfer and minimises turbulence
in the storage tank. For installations
of a single collector (32 tubes) with
the installation of the Flow Regulator
(Image. Flow 1.1) a nominal flow
rate of .75L/min per m² is generally
suitable and can be adjusted to suit
using a bladed screw driver
b) For more than 32 tubes: Flow rate =
# tube x 0.1L/min. E.g. 180 tubes =
18L/min. This is based on a 7°C
temperature rise during peak solar
radiation levels. If a higher temp
rise is required the flow rate can
be decreased accordingly.
IMAGE. Flow 1.1
c) If the water pressure used in the solar
loop is sufficient to fill the header passively,
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
then the pump is simply required to circulate
the water. The key consideration is therefore the
pressure drop throughout the pipeline. Elbows, tees,
and bends in piping all contribute to pressure drop.
Pressure drop through a ZEN 32 tube header at 3L/
min and 20°C is around 0.8kPa. Pressure drops at
higher temperatures will be slightly lower.
d) For single storey/floor houses where the pipe run to
and from the collector is no more than about 12m,
a small 33 Watt pump with low head pressure (1m
head / 10 kPa) may be sufficient. Two or three storey
houses where the pump run is longer, a 70Watt pump
may be required. The use of a 3 speed pump is ideal,
as an appropriate speed setting can easily be chosen
(I.e. 40, 60 & 90Watt settings).
iv) Overcast or winter weather the pump should cycle
on and off every 2-5 minutes.
v) If flow and return are longer than 10m, the
controller PUMP ON setting may need to be
increased from 8° to 12°C.
g) Always use hot water rated pumps (up to 100°C),
as high temperatures can be experienced.
The pump should always be installed on the
collector flow line, thus avoiding exposure to high
temperatures (as a check valve is installed after
the pump). Only brass, bronze or stainless steel
pumps that are suitable for potable water should
be used. Cast iron pumps will quickly suffer from
corrosion as they are not designed for use with
fresh water.
e) Checking pump operation:
i) After initial installation of collector, watch the
operation of the pump and controller for at least 5
ON/OFF cycles or 15 minutes, as the system may
take a few minutes to stabilise.
ii) Pump should turn on, then within 20-30 seconds
return line should heat up to about 8°-10°C hotter
than the flow. Pump should only turn off once
return line has got hot, then started to cool again.
iii) In good sunny weather the pump should run
almost continually. ROOF should be 5°-10°C
hotter than TANK as shown on controller (if
controller has temp display).
Horizontal pipe run
FIG. 3.8.8
Vertical pipe run
f) Checking pump flow rate and operation - troubleshooting guide:
Observation
Action / Status
Return line not getting hot when pump is on
No flow. Run on speed 3 for 2-3mins to clear out air
Return line takes more than a minute to get hotter after
pump turns on.
Flow rate too slow
Pump runs continually & collector temperature much
higher than tank (> 20°C difference)
Flow rate too slow - or no flow. Also check collector
and tank sensor positions.
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
h) Cavitation can occur when an elbow or valve is too
close to the suction side of the pump. Cavitation
is the forming of bubbles in the water due to a low
pressure zone, similar to what appears behind
a propeller on a boat. This greatly reduces the
efficiency of the pumping and can actually degrade
the impeller reducing the life of the pump. To
avoid this occurring and ensure maximum head
pressure, always allow 15-20cm of straight copper
pipe on both sides of the pump.
i) It is important that the pump is installed in the
correct orientation, which for a 3 speed pump is
with the barrel in a horizontal position, (see figure
3.8.8). If vertical, the bearings can quickly be
damaged. In addition the electronics casing should
be positioned on the side with the cable exiting
the bottom to avoid water ingress. The body of the
pump can be rotated easily by just removing the two
bolts, and the cable gland position on the plastic
case can also be easily reversed by removing the lid
and rotating 180deg.
3.7. Controller Installation
3.7.1. Controller Basics
a) In a solar thermal collector system, it is important
to extract heat from the collector as quickly as
possible, thus allowing the collector to run at the
lowest possible temperature which in turn maximizes
efficiency. The controller achieves this by measuring
the temperature at the outlet of the solar collector
and also the bottom of the solar storage tank. This
temperature difference is referred to as a Delta-T,
often written as ∆t. When the collector is hotter
than the bottom of the tank by a set amount, usually
8-16°C the controller will supply power to the pump
which circulates water through the collector. Once
the temperature levels drop below a set point,
the pump turns off again. This cycle continues
throughout the day, with the frequency and length of
pump run dependent on solar radiation levels.
For most domestic installations the ZEN Solar
controller (see section 3.9.2) is used. This controller
provides basic Delta-T, maximum temperature and
freeze protection functions. This unit is suitable for
outdoor use.
3.7.2. ZEN Solar Controller
Figure 3.9.2.1 is a photo of the controller as it comes
out of the box. Note all sensors and power cables are
already connected. For most installations there is no
need to complete any configuration of settings.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
FIG. 3.9.2.1
All mains voltage electrical work must be carried out by
a qualified electrician, especially external power outlet
socket installation.
a) A readily accessible disconnect device, overcurrent
device and RCD Protection rated to suit the size of the
pump plus 5VA must be incorporated in the power
supply wiring. The overcurrent device for a 1500W,
240Vac pump must not exceed 10Amps.
• Sensor leads should be kept 300mm (12 inches)
away from mains and comms cables.
• Do not use mains power extension cords unless
approved by the manufacturer. Water resistant
plugs and sockets should be used.
• The ZEN Solar Controller outputs (PUMP and HWC)
will be connected to the input power supply wiring
and are not isolated from it. Supply voltages will be
output through that outlet during activation.
• The HWC Relay Socket is normally used with a ZEN
Solar Controller Relay or other external relay. The
total current must not exceed 10A maximum.
• Always use the unit within specified voltage and
load ranges. Never use with damaged leads, plugs
or sockets.
• Do not allow the sensor cable to come within 10mm
of the high voltage connectors or components
inside the enclosure.
• The electric element should have a fuse that is
rated within the stated maximum of the relay
driving the element.
• Do not connect the mains or the pump to a circuit
that could be switched off by your electricity
supplier to manage peak loads (ripple control).
• Comply with all local and relevant electrical
regulations.
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
b) INSTALLATION
The ZEN Solar Controller should be mounted so that:
• It is against a flat surface with sufficient strength to
hold the enclosure and any additional weight from
the plugs, sockets and cables
which could increase the risk of biological
contamination. Hot water readings on the display
may be inaccurate.
If the ROOF sensor is not correctly mounted:
• Power Leads face down not sideways or up,
• The unit may not be able to detect FROST settings
(this can lead to the collector panel bursting).
• It is safe for users to inspect,
Please follow the instructions below carefully.
• The display can be easily read and buttons
accessed, and
• Allowance is made for cable runs, location of power
outlets and lengths of wires.
NOTE: In general, you should not need to open
the controller unit during installation unless the
installation is for a hot water cylinder with two
elements.
Follow these steps:
1. Allow for the enclosure dropping 5mm (1/5 inch)
from screw centres once mounted (keyhole
mounting).
2. Place the drill guide template against the wall,
checking for level alignment. Four screws
are supplied: two chipboard screws and two
combination plasterboard/wood screws. All four
mounting holes should be used with at least
two firmly secured into wood. The outer plastic
plasterboard anchors will self tap into plasterboard
and their inner metal screws fix into the centre of
the plastic anchors.
3. Mark and drill/screw as appropriate leaving
the heads of the screws above the surface by
approximately 3mm (1/8 inch).
4. Place the unit over the four screw heads. The unit
should slide down 5mm into the ‘key’ slots and
become secured to the wall. You will need to adjust
the screw height to obtain a secure fit.
The locations and way that the sensors are mounted
is critical to ensure the ZEN controller:
c) SENSORS
Positioning the ROOF Sensor
The 10m ROOF sensor should be fitted into a metal
immersion ‘pocket’ in the hot water outlet pipe.
Apply plenty of heat transfer compound (available
from your distributor) between the sensor and the
lining of the hot water outlet pipe.
Seal the sensor with neutral cure sealant and install
external lagging. The cable should also be insulated
from the bare pipe.
Positioning the TANK Sensor
The INLET sensor should be fitted into a metal
immersion ‘pocket’ above the HWC electric element
near the bottom of the tank (usually just above the
element).
If a ‘pocket’ is not available, then bond the sensor
against the metal wall of the tank (not the outside
cladding or insulation).
Apply plenty of heat transfer compound (available
from your distributor) between the sensor and the
lining of the ‘pocket’ (or between the tank and the
sensor).
d) PROGRAMMING
The solar controller comes pre-set with suitable
settings for most domestic applications:
PUMP ON = 8°C
Temperature differential at which the pump turns ON.
• Operates correctly and at greatest efficiency;
PUMP OFF = 1°C
Temperature differential at which the pump turns OFF.
• Protects the system against damage from extreme
temperatures, and Displays hot water readings
accurately.
TOP OUT = 60°C
Maximum tank temperature. When exceeded; pump
turns OFF.
If the TANK and/or INLET sensors are not mounted
correctly:
FROST = 2°C
When collector drops below this temperature pump
circulates to raise temp by 2°C.
• There may be an inaccurate Top out sensing, which
could lead to damage to the hot water cylinder or
other components.
• There may be an inaccurate Bio-Safe sensing,
22
The instruction manual provided with each of the
controls, refers to an “installer code” to access the
programming mode. This code is simply: HWC then
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
NEXT then PUMP. To enter the programming mode
press TEST, then wait for the lights to stop flashing
before entering the code. Please read the controller
manual for complete details.
e) DISPLAY
The controller provides a digital display providing
the two sensor temperatures, as well as information
when programming the functions. (See figure
3.9.2.2.) To cycle through the temperature display
press the NEXT button, the current displayed sensor
is indicated by the LED on the left hand side (INLET
LED will also show the TANK temperature).
f) MANUAL PUMP CONTROL
Holding down the PUMP button will run the
circulation pump, as may be required during initial
system air bleeding or to check for suitable flow.
Suitable flow rate would be indicated by a decrease
in the collector temperature as the water passes
through, so is an easy way to check if there is an air
lock, or insufficient flow.
3.8. Evacuated Tube & Heat Pipe Installation
The ZEN solar collector is a simple “plug in” system.
The heat pipe and evacuated tube assembly just needs
FIG. 3.9.2.2
The TANK light should be
on - showing the sensor
measurement that is on the
screen.
Check that the PUMP is operating by
pressing the PUMP button. This will turn
the pump on for as long as you hold it
down, unless it is already operating.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
to be plugged into the manifold. The contact between
the heat pipe condenser/tip and heat pipe port in the
header needs to be tight in order to ensure good heat
transfer. Under normal use, once the heat pipes are
installed they should never have to be removed, even if
replacing a damaged evacuated tube.
DO NOT INSTALL THE HEAT PIPES AND EVACUATED
TUBES UNTIL SYSTEM PLUMBING IS COMPLETED AND
PUMP AND CONTROLLER ARE OPERATIONAL, UNLESS
TUBES ARE COVERED. WEAR SAFETY GLASSES AT ALL
TIMES WHEN HANDLING EVACUATED TUBES.
a) If an evacuated tube is damaged for any reason
(I.e. knocked heavily or dropped), it will need to be
replaced. Either use another tube with heat pipe
already inserted, or if a plain evacuated tube spare is
being used, carefully remove the heat pipe from the
broken tube and insert into the new tube. This should
be done with care, holding the heat pipe close to the
tube opening and inserting by making a short push
and twisting action. Never throw heat pipes away, as
they are very sturdy and will not be damaged even
if the tube has been. They can be kept as spares, or
inserted into plain spare evacuated tubes. If a heat
pipe is bent it can be easily be straighten by hand or
by rolling on a flat surface like a rolling pin.
A digital readout of the TANK temperature.
NOTE: This temperature reading will be the
outside surface temperature of the tank.
It may be a couple of degrees lower than the
water temperature in the tank, especially on
glass lined ceramic tanks.
These lights will show you if the pump is working or
(as shown here) and/or the hot water cylinder elements/s
is/are heating up.
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
3.8.2. Heat Pipe and Evacuated Tube Insertion
IMAGE. SFA4
Step 1. Place the black rubber rings into the holes
in the header with even parts on the upper side and
uneven parts on the lower side; (image SFA4)
Step 2. The heat pipe should be inserted into a closing
plug which is about 2cm away from the condensing
section (the upper part of the pipe). Then apply the
thermal silicon grease to the upper part and insert
the heat pipe into the copper sleeve in the inner tank;
(image: SFA5)
Black rubber ring
Copper
sleeve
IMAGE. SFA5
Step 3. Assemble the fins around the thin part of the
pipes; (image: SFA6)
Thermal grease
Step 4. Moisturize the vacuum tube opening or the
black rubber ring with water; then one person clenches
the fins together and the other person inserts a vacuum
tube from the lower part of fins, keeping the vacuum
tube and heat pipe concentric. Move the vacuum tube
forward and insert the closing plug to the vacuum
tube until the uncoated part of the vacuum tube is fully
inserted into the black rubber ring; You may lubricate
the tube with graphite or other lubricants. (image SFA7)
Heat pipe
Closing plug
IMAGE. SFA6
Step 5. Push the jacket to the end of the vacuum tube
and fix it to the tube bottom rack, and then install
the cover; Screw up the retaining strap with a cross
recessed pan head screw. Make sure the gap between
the two holes is less than 15mm. (image: SFA8)
Closing plug
Fin
IMAGE. SFA7
Closing plug
Fin
Vacuum tube
IMAGE. SFA8
Jacket
Cover
Hook
Tube Support
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© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
3.8.3. Post Installation Cleaning
3.9.3. Installation Record Form
a) Clean each evacuated tube with a liquid glass cleaner
and cloth/paper.
a) Complete the triplicate installation record form,
which is available from ZEN Home Energy. This form
should be completed with the original and a copy left
with the owner, and a copy retained by the installer.
The owner is required to fax or mail the original to
ZEN Energy, 33 King Street, Norwood SA 5067
3.9 Post Installation
3.9.1. Collector Operation
a) After installing all the tubes, and given good sunlight,
the solar collector will begin to produce heat after a
5-10min “warm up” period. Check the controller and
pump for correct operation and adjust settings as
required.
3.9.2. Take Photograph
a) Always take several photos of the solar collector on
the house roof. These serve as an important record
if you ever receive a phone call from the home owner
about the installation.
b) Send a copy of ALL installation photos to ZEN Energy
as a record of the installation, and for use on their
websites and in promotional material.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
4. Maintenance
Under normal conditions the solar collector is
maintenance free. Please refer to the documentation
provided by the manufacturer of other components for
maintenance guidelines.
The following maintenance may ONLY be completed by
Authorised PERSONS
4.1. Broken Tube
a) If a tube is broken it should be replaced as soon
as possible to maintain maximum collector
performance.
b) The system will still operate normally and safely even
with a tube broken.
c) Any broken glass should be cleared away to prevent
injury. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLOVES AND
GLASSES.
d) To replace a tube:
• Remove the tube clip(s), slide broken tube out and
carefully pick up any glass pieces. Protective gloves
must be worn when handling broken glass.
• If the heat pipe is not easily removed, it can be
left in place and a new evacuated tube inserted,
guiding the heat pipe down the groove between the
evacuated tube inner wall and heat transfer fin. If
the heat pipe is easily removed, the easiest option is
to replace the heat pipe and evacuated completely.
4.2. Insulation
a) The plumbing pipes running to and from the collector
should be heavily insulated. This insulation foam
should be checked periodically (at least once every 3
years) for damage.
b) For any insulation that is exposed to sunlight, ensure
any protective cover/wrap/foil is in good condition,
replacing as required.
4.3. Draining the Collector
Draining of the manifold may be required if maintaining
the system. Periodic flushing of the system is NOT
required unless in areas with hard water resulting in
scale formation in the bottom of the tank.
with the isolation valves closed may lead to leaks or
dangerously high pressure. CAREFUL THE WATER MAY
BE HOT.
Step 3. Open an air vent or drain cock, or undo a fitting
on the manifold outlet to allow air to enter the system,
permitting the solar loop to drain of liquid.
Step 4. Allow the manifold to sit in a vented state for
5-10min to allow the manifold to boil dry (may need
longer in poor weather).
Step 5. Close the air vent or drain cock, or re-fasten
fitting. CAREFUL THE PIPING MAY BE HOT
4.4. Other Components
a) For the replacement of Sacrificial anodes, these
should be maintained in accordance to their
manufacturer’s own maintenance guidelines and
Other parts of the system such as the pump and
storage tank (electric or gas water heater) should be
serviced/inspected according to their manufacturer’s
own maintenance guidelines.
4.5. Freezing
a) During extended sub-zero periods with concurrent
pump/controller failure or power outage, a direct
flow (water) system may suffer from freeze related
damage, indicated by no pump flow due to pipe
blockage, or in most cases leaking due to a split pipe.
b) The most likely area of freeze damage is exposed
copper piping, particularly near elbows or
connections. Once the system thaws, leaks will
indicate any areas of damage which require
replacement.
c) To repair, isolate flow to the collector or drain the
system and repair/replace any damaged piping, then
recommission the system.
d) If freezing is a regular occurrence, consider installing
a battery power backup system to ensure continued
operation of the pump and controller during a power
outage. To provide complete protection the system
may need to be upgraded to a closed loop anti-freeze
(potable grade heat transfer fluid) system.
Step 1. Turn off the mains water supply to the solar
storage tank.
Step 2. If the storage tank is being concurrently
drained, refer to section 2.15. If storage tank is not
being drained, isolate piping to and from the solar
collector (isolation valves should already be installed),
and IMMEDIATELY open drain cocks on both lines (or
undo fittings). Allowing the collector to sit pressured
26
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
5. Troubleshooting
Problem
Cause
Solution
1. Pump always ON even during
minimal solar radiation
conditions.
Air lock in manifold.
Ensure system is air bled properly.
A ball valve and drain should be
installed on the return line allowing
the drain to be opened, ball valve
shut off, thus flushing the collector.
Take care as some steam may be
released.
Insufficient flow rate.
Check flow rate by temporarily
installing flow meter.
If not sufficient try:
**Ensure there is 15-20cm of
straight pipe both sides of the pump
to ensure optimal operation.
**Eliminating any unnecessary
elbows or bends in copper line to
reduce pressure drop.
**Change the pump to a higher
speed setting.
**Confirm correct pump orientation
(see figure 3.8.8).
Pump Cavitation.
Bleed the pump of air by opening
the top bleed screw. Also ensure
there is at least 15cm of straight
pipe on both sides of the pump.
Collector sensor (ROOF) not
inserted properly.
Coat with thermal paste, insert into
the port beside outlet and check
operation.
Faulty sensors.
Check sensor operation by putting
ROOF sensor in hot water, INLET
sensor in cold water, the pump
should come on. Replace one
or both sensors and re-check
operation.
3. Pump running at night.
Freeze protection operating.
This is normal, but if the pump
is running more than once an
hour, additional insulation on the
collector line should be used.
4. Not enough hot water.
Electric or gas booster is not
configured correctly.
Ensure gas booster is operational.
For electric systems, fit an
automatic timer for the element
power supply set to run from 3pm
to 6pm, providing a boost each day.
End user can over-ride to turn the
element ON for a few hours if they
need additional hot water.
2. Pump not cycling during good
weather and collector is hot.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Problem
Cause
Solution
5. Hot water dumping from tank
PTR.
High temperature setting in
controller not functioning to turn off
pump.
Check to ensure TOP-OUT function
is set to 60°C. Check TANK sensor
contact.
6. Excessively hot water delivered to No tempering valve installed.
house taps.
Install tempering valve, providing
50°C water supply to house.
7. Banging noise in tank when hot
water tap is opened.
Cold water entering the bottom
of the tank mixing from the solar
return line. Increased when inlet
cold pressure is low (<400kPa).
Check cold supply water pressure.
Install pressure pump to raise cold
supply pressure above 400kPa.
Install heat trap on return solar line.
8. Banging noise in pipe even when
hot water is not being used.
Check valve (duo-valve) may not
be installed on cold mains line,
combined with low supply water
pressure (<400kPa).
Install check valve (duo-valve)
on cold line before tank. Install
pressure pump to raise cold supply
pressure above 400kPa.
Check valve on cold line not sealing. Replace with new check valve. Cold
expansion valve or PTRV should be
dumping water each day.
9. Poor solar contribution.
28
Insufficient flow rate
See Troubleshooting point 1.
Is working fine, but customer has
turned booster off.
Explain to customer that in the
winter or poor weather the tank
will not heat up to full temperature,
refer to section 1 of this manual.
Boosting is still needed all year
round and will operate as needed.
Damaged tubes.
Check to ensure tubes are all intact.
Replace any damaged tubes.
Incorrect installation of heat pipes.
Heat pipes are not inserted into
the ports correctly, or do not have
coating of heat transfer paste.
Low installation angle, reducing
winter output (if any angle is less
than the latitude).
Increase installation angle to at
least latitude angle, and preferably
10-15° greater than latitude.
Insufficient insulation resulting in
excessive heat loss.
Ensure all exposed copper pipe is
insulated and protected against UV
degradation.
Thermosiphoning at night.
Install heat trap (U shaped copper
pipe) on collector return pipe just
before tank inlet.
Increased hot water demand.
If the customer is using a lot more
hot water than in the past then the
% solar contribution will be reduced
even though solar output may be
the same.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
6. Safety Reminders
6.1. Metallic Components
6.3. High Temperatures
a) Always wear leather protective gloves when handling
solar collector components. All efforts have been
made to make the metal components safe to handle,
but there may still be some sharp edges.
a) With the heat pipe installed in the evacuated tube,
and good sunlight, the heat pipe tip can reach
temperatures in excess of 200°C / 392°F. At this
temperature touching the heat pipe will result in
serious burns, so thick leather gloves must be worn
when handling hot tubes and heat pipes.
6.2. Evacuated tubes
a) Be careful when handling the evacuated tubes, as
they will break if knocked heavily or dropped.
b) If exposed to sunlight and therefore hot (have internal
pressure built up), the tubes may explode rather
than implode if knocked and broken. This is a rare
occurrence, but nevertheless safety precautions
should be taken.
SAFETY GLASSES SHOULD BE WORN AT ALL TIMES
WHEN HANDLING EVACUATED TUBES
c) If the evacuated tubes are struck by a hard object
with sufficient force (I.e. branch falling on roof),
they may break. During installation consideration
should be taken as to the possible path any broken
glass may take. Where possible protection should be
implemented to prevent broken glass from reaching
ground level where somebody could walk on it (I.e.
Guttering on roof).
b) In an installed fully plumbed system, if the pump is
stopped during good sunlight the collector header
and plumbing pipe close to the manifold can easily
reach temperatures in excess of 160°C, and therefore
caution should be taken when handling such
components.
6.4. Health & Safety
a) Always wear safety glasses when handling evacuated
tubes.
b) Wear leather gloves when handling metal components.
c) Wear thick leather gloves if handling hot heat pipes.
d) Adhere to safety regulations regarding working on
roofs (or at a height).
d) The home owner should be made aware by the
installer the location of the solar collector and
the possible vicinity of broken glass in the event of an
extreme storm or object falling on the collector.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
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Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
7. Installation Checklist
The following list is a guide only. Specific items will depend on the nature of the installation.
1
Collector faces as close as possible to due North
YES
NO
2
Collector is not significantly shaded throughout the day.
YES
NO
3
Collector is not likely to be struck by falling objects such as branches, falling fruit,
or other nearby objects
YES
NO
4
Collector is installed at an angle of between 20° – 80°,
preferably at latitude angle or higher
YES
NO
5
In areas prone to large hail (>20mm), collector is installed at an angle of 40° or greater
YES
NO
6
Frame is secured to structurally sound roof/wall
YES
NO
7
Plumbing is leak free
YES
NO
8
Plumbing pipe runs are well insulated
YES
NO
9
Exterior insulation above is protected against sunlight with foil wrap or equivalent.
YES
NO
10
Functional checks for controller and pump have been completed
YES
NO
11
Pressure relief valve drain pipe will dump only onto high temperature resistant material
and will not pose a danger of scolding people.
YES
NO
12
Pump, controller and all electrical connections are protected from water ingress
YES
NO
13
Evacuated tubes have been cleaned
YES
NO
14
This basic operation of the collector has been explained to the end user.
YES
NO
15
Water quality has been checked (if applicable)
YES
NO
16
Installation record form has been completed and the original left with customer
YES
NO
All items should be ticked YES for the installation to be considered completed and satisfactory.
8. Appendices
8.1. Appendices
Appendix A – Flat Roof Frame Assembly
Appendix B – ZEN Solar Electric water heating system (Stainless Steel Solar Tank)
Appendix C – ZEN Solar Gas water heating system (Stainless Steel Solar Tank)
Appendix D – ZEN Solar Electric water heating system (Vitreous Enamel Solar Tank)
Appendix E – ZEN Solar Gas water heating system (Vitreous Enamel Solar Tank)
Appendix A - Flat Roof Frame Assembly
Parts - Distinguish the different part according to the quantity list below
No.
Name
Quantity
1
Upper connector
3
2
Bottom connector
6
3
Diagonal track
3
4
Vertical track
3
5
Bottom track
2
6
Bar
4
7
L corner
12
30
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
IMAGE 1
IMAGE 2
Step 1: One bottom track and 3 pieces of diagonal tracks are assembled together by 3 pieces of bottom connectors
(see Image 1 and 2). Image 3 for connecting detail.
IMAGE 3
Step 2. The other bottom track and 3 pieces of vertical
tracks are assembled together by 3 pieces of bottom
connectors (see Image 4)
IMAGE 5
IMAGE 4
Step 3. The 4 pieces of bars are assembled as shown
in Image 4. The result is Image 5.
IMAGE 6
Step 4. Assemble the configurations shown in Image 5
and Image 2 together. The result is Image 6.
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
31
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Appendix B
ZEN Solar Electric water heating system (Stainless Steel Solar Tank)
9
HOT OUT
10
8
7
Note 4
5
11
Note 6
Note 5
4
6
5
Note 3
Note 2
COLD IN
1
2
3
Note 1
32
Sensor Well Tee
(Supplied with tank)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Bill Of Materials *
NO.
Component Name
QTY. Supplier Part Number
1
Non Return Isolation Valve
1
AS Approved
2
In-line Strainer
1
AS Approved
3
Pressure Limiting Valve (500kPa)
1
AS Approved
4
Air Bleed Valve
1
AS Approved
5
Solar Non-Return Valve
2
AS Approved
6
Circulation Pump
1
UPS15-20
7
ZEN Solar controller
1
Sola-stat-plus-1
8
Tempering Valve
1
Heatguard Ultra 15
9
ZEN Evacuated Tube Collector
1
HRJ-32/1.8
10
ZEN Stainless Steel Tank
1
250/315ES
11
Ajustable flow control
1
Flow control regulator
* Materials in bold supplied by ZEN Energy.
NOTES:
1. Optional Inclusion, compulsory in some states.
2. Allow 150mm of straight pipe either side of the collectors
3. For runs longer than 20m, use DN20mm copper.
4. Tempering Valve Must be installed.
5. Solar compatible non-return valves are to be used no synthetic valve seats are to be used.
6. The installation manual specifies the flow required, so that it can match the modelling parameters.
1L/min was used in the modelling and this can be achieved in real installation accurately.
System diagrams have been designed in line with AS/NZS2712 requirements.
The installer must not change the design of the system or use alternative major system components. It is the
responsibility of the installer/contractor to ensure that the system design meets all relevant standards, regulations
and guidelines, and is safe and operating correctly.
Any installer/contractor must be legally certified to install solar water heating systems and have attended an
accredited ZEN training session before completing the installation of any ZEN Solar Thermal products.
Product Description
Model Numbers
Document Number
Designer
Date Created
Revision Number
ZEN - Solar Thermal
Stainless Steel Electric Boosted Tank System
ZEN-250/315-30SS-E
ZEN-ST-2011-v12.1
T. Ielasi
21/11/2011
1.0 Rev (Oct - 2012)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
33
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Appendix C
ZEN Solar Gas water heating system (Stainless Steel Solar Tank)
9
3
8
GAS INLET
HOT OUT
Note 4
10
7
5
4
Note 5
Note 6
6
11
5
Note 2
Note 3
COLD IN
1
34
2
Note 1
Sensor Well Tee
(Supplied with tank)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Bill Of Materials *
NO.
Component Name
QTY. Supplier Part Number
1
Non Return Isolation Valve
1
AS Approved
2
In-line Strainer
1
AS Approved
3
ZEN Gas Booster
1
S20/S26
4
Air Bleed valve
1
AS Approved
5
Solar Non-Return Valve
1
AS Approved
6
Circulation Pump
1
UPS15-20
7
ZEN Solar controller
1
Sola-stat-plus-1
8
Tempering Valve
1
Heatguard Ultra 15
9
ZEN Evacuated Tube Collector
1
HRJ-32/1.8
10
Everlast Stainless Steel Tank
1
250/315GS
11
Flow control regulator
1
Flow control regulator
* Materials in bold supplied by ZEN Energy.
NOTES:
1. Optional Inclusion, compulsory in some states.
2. Allow 150mm of straight pipe either side of the collectors
3. For runs longer than 20m, use DN20mm copper.
4. Tempering Valve Must be installed.
5. Solar compatible non-return valves are to be used - no synthetic valve seats are to be used.
6. The installation manual specifies the flow required, so that it can match the modelling parameters.
1L/min was used in the modelling and this can be achieved in real installation accurately.
System diagrams have been designed in line with AS/NZS2712 requirements. The installer must not change the
design of the system or use alternative major system components. It is the responsibility of the installer/contractor
to ensure that the system design meets all relevant standards, regulations and guidelines, and is safe and
operating correctly.
Any installer/contractor must be legally certified to install solar water heating systems and have attended an
accredited ZEN training session before completing the installation of any ZEN Solar Thermal products.
Product Description
Model Numbers
Document Number
Designer
Date Created
Revision Number
ZEN - Solar Thermal - Stainless Steel Gas Boosted Tank System
ZEN250/315-30SS-S20/S26
ZEN-ST-2011-v12.3
T. Ielasi
21/11/2011
1.0 Rev (Nov-2011)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
35
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Appendix D
ZEN Solar Electric water heating system (Vitreous Enamel Solar Tank)
9
HOT OUT
10
8
7
Note 4
5
Note 5
Note 6
11
6
Note 2
4
Note 3
5
COLD IN
1
2
3
Note 1
36
Sensor Well Tee
(Supplied with tank)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Bill Of Materials *
NO.
Component Name
QTY. Supplier Part Number
1
Non Return Isolation Valve
1
AS Approved
2
In-line Strainer
1
AS Approved
3
Pressure Limiting Valve (500kPa)
1
AS Approved
4
Air Bleed Valve
1
AS Approved
5
Solar Non-Return Valve
1
AS Approved
6
Circulation Pump
1
UPS15-20
7
ZEN Solar controller
1
Sola-stat-plus-1
8
Tempering Valve
1
Heatguard Ultra 15
9
ZEN Evacuated Tube Collector
1
HRJ-32/1.8
10
Rinnai Vitreous Enamel Tank
1
SE315 (DSF-24315)
11
Adjustable flow control
1
flow control regulator
* Materials in bold supplied by ZEN Energy.
NOTES:
1. Optional Inclusion, compulsory in some states.
2. Allow 150mm of straight pipe either side of the collectors.
3. For runs longer than 20m, use DN20mm copper.
4. Tempering Valve Must be installed.
5. Solar compatible non-return valves are to be used - no synthetic valve seats are to be used.
6. The installation manual specifies the flow required, so that it can match the modelling parameters.
1L/min was used in the modelling and this can be achieved in real installation accurately.
System diagrams have been designed in line with AS/NZS2712 requirements. The installer must not change the
design of the system or use alternative major system components. It is the responsibility of the installer/contractor
to ensure that the system design meets all relevant standards, regulations and guidelines, and is safe and
operating correctly.
Any installer/contractor must be legally certified to install solar water heating systems and have attended an
accredited ZEN training session before completing the installation of any ZEN Solar Thermal products.
Product Description
Model Numbers
Document Number
Designer
Date Created
Revision Number
ZEN - Solar Thermal
Vitreous Enamel Electric Boosted Tank System
ZEN315-30VE-E
ZEN-ST-2011-v12.2
T. Ielasi
21/11/2011
1.0 Rev (Oct-2012)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
37
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Appendix E
ZEN Solar Gas water heating system (Vitreous Enamel Solar Tank)
9
3
8
GAS INLET
HOT OUT
Note 4
10
7
5
Note 5
11
Note 6
6
Note 2
4
Note 3
5
COLD IN
1
2
Note 1
38
Sensor Well Tee
(Supplied with tank)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
Solar Hot Water System Installation and Operation Manual
Bill Of Materials *
NO.
Component Name
QTY. Supplier Part Number
1
Non Return Isolation Valve
1
AS Approved
2
In-line Strainer
1
AS Approved
3
ZEN Gas Booster
1
S20/S26
4
Air Bleed valve
1
AS Approved
5
Solar Non-Return Valve
1
AS Approved
6
Circulation Pump
1
UPS15-20
7
ZEN Solar controller
1
Sola-stat-plus-1
8
Tempering Valve
1
Heatguard Ultra 15
9
ZEN Evacuated Tube Collector
1
HRJ-32/1.8
10
Rinnai Vitreous Enamel Tank
1
SG270 (DSF-24250)
11
Adjustable flow control
1
Flow control regulator
* Materials in bold supplied by ZEN Energy.
NOTES:
1. Optional Inclusion, compulsory in some states.
2. Allow 150mm of straight pipe either side of the collectors.
3. For runs longer than 20m, use DN20mm copper.
4. Tempering Valve Must be installed.
5. Solar compatible non-return valves are to be used - no synthetic valve seats are to be used.
6. The installation manual specifies the flow required, so that it can match the modelling parameters.
1L/min was used in the modelling and this can be achieved in real installation accurately.
System diagrams have been designed in line with AS/NZS2712 requirements. The installer must not change the
design of the system or use alternative major system components. It is the responsibility of the installer/contractor
to ensure that the system design meets all relevant standards, regulations and guidelines, and is safe and
operating correctly.
Any installer/contractor must be legally certified to install solar water heating systems and have attended an
accredited ZEN training session before completing the installation of any ZEN Solar Thermal products.
Product Description
Model Numbers
Document Number
Designer
Date Created
Revision Number
ZEN - Solar Thermal - Vitreous Enamel Gas Boosted Tank System
ZEN270-30VE-S20/S26
ZEN-ST-2011-v12.4
T. Ielasi
21/11/2011
1.0 Rev (Nov-2011)
© 2012 ZEN Technologies (Power and Energy) Pty Ltd
39
ZEN Home Energy Systems
33 King Street, Norwood
South Australia 5067
Sales 1300 936 466
Telephone +61 8 8211 0600
Fax +61 8 8363 4110
zenhomeenergy.com.au
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