Materials: Developing collaborative practice between LETs and NESTs

Materials: Developing collaborative practice between LETs and NESTs
Materials: Developing collaborative
practice between LETs and NESTs
Fiona Copland, Monika Davis, Sue Garton and Steve Mann
Materials: Developing collaborative
practice between LETs and NESTs
Fiona Copland, Monika Davis, Sue Garton and Steve Mann
ISBN 978-0-86355-768-2
© British Council 2016 Design /F003
10 Spring Gardens
London SW1A 2BN, UK
www.britishcouncil.org
Introduction to Materials:
Developing collaborative practice
between LETs and NESTs
These materials have been designed with the aim of
developing cooperation and understanding between
local English teachers (LETs) and native English
speaker teachers (NESTs). As far as we are aware,
these are the only materials published which are
designed to be used in a range of different contexts
by both LETs and NESTs. We are grateful to the British
Council for making them available as a free resource.
The materials were produced as part of a British
Council ELTRA funded project titled: Investigating
NEST schemes around the world: supporting LET/
NNEST collaborative practices, which also produced
a report and an audit of different government funded
NEST schemes (insert web page). As part of this
project, we interviewed both LETs and NESTs about
their experiences of working together: what they had
enjoyed and what they had found difficult. We also
visited a number of classrooms around the world and
saw the challenges and affordances that working
together can bring to English language teaching. The
materials in this collection have been very much
informed by these experiences.
On NEST schemes there are different teaching
modes. At one end of the scale, NESTs will be
required to teach their own classes independently. At
the other, NESTs and LETs will be expected to teach
together in what is usually called either ‘co-teaching’
or ‘team-teaching’. This can cause difficulties for both
teachers, especially if they do not know each other
well. The activities in this collection are particularly
aimed at supporting the team teaching relationship
and trying to get teachers thinking about potential
challenges, difficulties and constraints and ways to
overcome them. Although the primary target of these
materials is LETs and NESTs who are going to coteach , a number of the materials are also suitable for
NESTs preparing to teach independently and for LETs
preparing to host these teachers in their schools.
Altogether there are 12 different activities. They have
been designed by the research team and by partners
around the world who have had extensive
experience of co-teaching. We would like to extend
our thanks to these partners who have contributed
both ideas and expertise so willingly. They are: Sarah
Demola, Chris Devinson, Michael Free, Michael Griffin,
Mihn Khanh Tran Thi, Emily Quade, George Skuse. We
would also like to particularly thank the British
Council, CfBT and Fulbright Taiwan for their support.
Using the Materials
The materials are designed for ease of use. Each
activity provides information on focus, learning
outcomes, mode of delivery and materials, as well as
a step-by-step guide on how to use them.
Some of the materials are designed primarily for
face-to-face use with a trainer/facilitator, while others
are designed for self-study. They are suitable for
teachers working on formal NEST schemes and also
for teachers who are not. Each activity includes a set
of ‘alternatives’, suggestions on how to use the
materials in slightly different ways. You may, of
course, come up with your own alternatives and
adaptations to suit your own learning and teaching
context. We would very much like to hear about your
experiences of using the materials. You might also
have materials of your own that you would like to
share. Please do get in touch with us in either case.
We would like to add your ideas and materials to
those in this collection.
Fiona Copland ([email protected])
Sue Garton ([email protected])
Steve Mann ([email protected])
List of Materials
1 Classroom Management..................................................................................................................................................................... 9
2 Co-Teaching Communication Strategy Development...................................................................................................... 11
3 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)..............................................................................................................................15
4 Comparing Classroom Cultures....................................................................................................................................................19
5 Cross-cultural Proverb Exchange...............................................................................................................................................25
6 Exploring Similarities and Differences....................................................................................................................................29
7 Good Language Teaching.................................................................................................................................................................33
8 Language Use in the Classroom...................................................................................................................................................37
9 Lesson Planning.....................................................................................................................................................................................41
10 Preparing to Co-teach in a LET-NEST Partnership with the Experiential Learning Cycle..........................49
11 The Culture Iceberg.............................................................................................................................................................................55
12 Who Said What?......................................................................................................................................................................................63
H
| Appendices
Classroom Management
Eli Yonetsugi
Type of activity
Questionnaire and discussion activity
Main focus
Comparing different cultural perspectives on classroom management
Learning outcomes
To reach a consensus on how the logistics of classroom management are handled by
both NESTs and LETs
Length of activity
1 hour
Mode of delivery
Face to face
Intended audience
LETs and NESTs
Summary
Teachers individually fill out a questionnaire on how they handle various aspects of
classroom management. Answers are compared and a discussion is held to come to
a consensus about which style to use.
Procedures
TIMING
1. T
eachers individually fill out the questionnaire on how they handle
classroom management. (See ‘Activity 1 – Comparing different
cultural perspectives on classroom management’)
20 minutes
2. A LET and a NEST pair up and compare answers. Any answers that
differ widely are highlighted.
10 minutes
3. T
he pairs discuss the reasons why things are done in a certain way in
their cultures, and then they reach a compromise on how things will
be handled in their classes.
15 minutes
4. Each pair reports back to the group on the compromise reached on
one or two aspects of classroom management.
10 minutes
Notes
This activity could be undertaken by pairs of co-teachers working together in their own school. It would be particularly
effective if it were done before actual co-teaching started.
Stage 3 could be done in an email exchange. In addition, the school could make a list of recommended best practices
to keep the English lessons in line with other classes in the school.
Extension activities can involve watching videos related to classroom teaching and reflecting on classroom
management (see Materials). For extension activity 2, it would be useful if each teacher selected a different website.
Appendices |
9
Materials
Activity 1 – Comparing different cultural perspectives on classroom management
Q1. Please indicate the number of years of teaching experience you have.
Years
0-1
1-2
3-4
4-6
More
than 7
Q2. What do you think is the best way to seat the children in your class?
(e.g. boy/girl or girl/girl, boy/boy, strong/weak, quiet/noisy, random order, etc.)
Comment:
Q3. What do you think is the best way to evaluate class work, like a printed worksheet? (e.g. a check for a correct
answer, a cross for a wrong answer, a numerical value 3/10, an alphabetical value A+, a smiley face, etc.)
Comment:
Q4. What do you think is the best way to evaluate students at the end of a term?
(e.g. set a test, grade them on ability only, grade them on a combination of ability, participation and behaviour)
Comment:
Q5. Are there any kinds of games you think are best to avoid in class? (e.g. games with only one winner, games that
involve running, games that involve raised voices, etc.)
Comment:
Q6. What would be your first method of dealing with a small issue of classroom management, such as a child talking
over the teacher? (e.g. ignore the bad behaviour, call out the student by name, write the student’s name on the board,
have a system of good and bad marks, etc.)
Comment:
Q7. How would you deal with a more serious issue of classroom management, such as a student running around the
room despite repeated attempts to get them back in their seat? (e.g. send them to stand outside the room, send them
to the principal’s office, give them detention, etc.)
Comment:
10
| Appendices
Co-Teaching Communication
Strategy Development
Sarah Demola and Emily Quade
Type of activity
Team building for NESTs and LETs
Main focus
Developing effective communication strategies between co-teachers
Learning outcomes
1. Promote teamwork skills between LETs and NESTs
2. Identify communication challenges
3. Develop and use effective communication strategies
4.Identify and reflect on transferable communication strategies
for future co-teaching
Length of activity
50-60 minutes
Mode of delivery
Face-to-face
Intended audience
LETs and NESTs
Summary
Teachers participate in an activity to strength their communication skills and
awareness of how to deliver and receive instruction. Teachers reflect and
engage in discussion about successful communication between co-teachers.
Procedures
Timing
1. The facilitator introduces the module objectives in general terms (as some of these
may emerge).
3 minutes
2. The facilitator explains the activity (instructions, group roles, materials, purpose and
expected outcome) and then models the activity with a volunteer.
7 minutes
3. Round One:
10 minutes
■■
Form teams of two, including one NEST and one LET. Preferably, everyone should be
working with his or her co-teacher.
■■
Each team moves to a space in the room that has the poster paper and materials
set up.
■■
Members choose roles for the first round. There will be one describer and one artist.
■■
The artist will be blindfolded and draw the picture according to the describer’s
instructions.
■■
The describer holds the ‘secret picture’ (see below) and describes it to the artist. The
describer should adjust his or her instructional strategy in order to help the artist to
complete the picture.
■■
The describer is not allowed to physically guide the artist while he or she is drawing.
■■
The facilitator keeps track of time and announces when two minutes are remaining in
the activity.
■■
The picture that looks the closest to the original (within the time limit) is the winner.
Round Two:
■■
Team members switch roles.
■■
Flip poster paper around to the clean side.
■■
Perform activity second time.
4. Teachers share pictures and discuss if their artwork is accurate (or not!).
10 minutes
5 minutes
Appendices |
11
5. The facilitator leads a think-pair-share activity to promote reflection and discussion,
using the following questions:
20 minutes
1. What was the purpose of this activity?
2. What did you learn about communication?
3. How is this activity related to co-teaching?
4. What strategies did you use when there was a breakdown in communication?
5. Why is communication so important in co-teaching?
6. Can the communication strategies used in this activity be applied to your future
teaching? Why or why not?
7. What role were you the best at? Why?
8. How can you use your and your co-teacher’s strengths in your future teaching?
9. How is language utilised in the activity?
10. What did you learn about giving instructions? What’s its application to your future
teaching?
11. How can this activity be adapted to be used in your classroom with your students?
Notes
The timing of the activity can vary according to the size and needs of the group. The facilitator needs to prepare the
materials and room in advance. There should be one workstation for every two (or three, see Alternatives below)
teachers. Each workstation should have pens and large sheets of poster paper, or a flipchart or whiteboard. There
needs to be enough space for each team to draw and move comfortably.
A ‘Think-Pair-Share’ activity is one where participants have individual time to think on a given topic or question. This
enables them to formulate individual ideas. They can then and share these ideas with a peer. This strategy promotes
classroom participation as it encourages engagement.
Materials
You will need:
12
■■
Chart/poster paper or white board space
■■
Tape (if poster paper is being used)
■■
Markers
■■
Secret picture copies
■■
Timer
■■
Blindfolds (one for each team)
| Appendices
Alternatives
1.
This activity could also be used with groups of three using the following roles and procedure:
Person 1: Describer
Person 2: Communicator
Person 3: Blind artist
The describer (the only member who can see the picture) tells the communicator what is in the picture. The
communicator then takes the information from the describer and tells the blind artist what to draw. The artist tries to
draw the same picture as the describer is holding. The picture that looks the closest to the original is the winner.
Switch roles.
2.
This activity can also be done with groups of only LETs and NESTs. The key points about communication are the same.
Appendices |
13
14
| Appendices
Communicative Language
Teaching (CLT)
Fiona Copland, Sue Garton, Steve Mann
Type of activity
Introductory session on CLT/TBL (Communicative Language Teaching and
Task-Based Learning)
Main focus
Considering the nature of communication and the role of grammar
Learning outcomes
Build an awareness of key choices for the language teacher
Length of activity
60 minutes
Mode of delivery
Face-to-face
Intended audience
NESTs (but may be used with a mixed group of NESTs/LETs).
Summary
Teachers complete various tasks related to the basic concepts for language teaching.
The tasks deliberately include discussion tasks (matching/ranking), and reading and
listening tasks, as part of the aim is to highlight how skills can be integrated through
tasks. This can be pointed out at the end of the session.
Procedures
Timing
1. Teachers complete a matching exercise and discuss a number of key concepts in
language teaching (see Activity 1 – ‘Methods in language teaching’.)
15 minutes
2. Teachers read and discuss a series of quotations on balancing grammar and
communication (see Activity 2 – Balancing grammar and communication’)
15 minutes
3. Teachers watch a video presentation and take notes (see Activity 3 ‘Different
approaches to teaching language’). They then look back at and discuss the key
concepts introduced in the session.
40 minutes
Notes
Activity 1 – ‘Methods in language teaching’ would be best cut up into cards, so that the teachers can match them up
and talk about them as they match them up. This may take longer if the teachers’ basic knowledge of language teaching
concepts is very limited. In the materials below the terms and explanations are mixed up. The answers are provided in
the key.
Appendices |
15
Activity 1 – Methods in language teaching
This matching exercise allows you to talk about and
clarify some basic methods in language teaching.
Match one of the terms (in dark blue) with one of
the explanations (in light blue).
Grammar Translation
Method
Facilitator, adviser and
sometimes cocommunicator.
Audio-lingual method
Students are actively
engaged in negotiating
meaning and trying to
make themselves
understood/understand
others.
CLT (Communicative
Language Teaching)
Teacher talking time. Most
shows how teachers totally
dominate classroom talk
and that there is often little
opportunity for learners to
use the target language.
TBL (Task-based learning)
Materials that were not
originally designed as
teaching materials.
Examples would be menus,
bus timetables, travel
brochures.
Role of teacher in CLT/TBL
At the heart of the ‘method’
is the belief that learners
learn best if they are
engaged in meaningful
communication.
Role of learners in CLT/TBL
This ‘method’ is related
closely to CLT. Students
learn by being engaged in
tasks. Often pre-task,
during-task and post-task
progression.
CLT/TBL classroom
interaction
Presentation, Practice and
Production (moving from
focus on language to
communication).
Authentic materials
Shifts the balance away
from teacher talk to more
opportunities for studentstudent talk.
Presentation, Practice
and Production
Listening to and repeating
dialogues.
Teacher Talking Time
Reading and translating
texts Primarily reading and
writing. Lots of exercises
and tests.
Activity 2 – Balancing grammar
and communication
One of the difficult balances for a teacher is creating
opportunities for communication and teaching form/
grammar. Look at these three views contained in an
article called ‘What’s the best way to teach
languages?’ (the Guardian, 2013). What do you think
of them?
Huw Javis (Professor of Linguistics) talking about
task-based learning (an approach to learning that
typically involves an information gap: students may
have to share knowledge to communicate effectively,
or look for language rules themselves before reapplying them) says: “We know that people learn
better when they struggle to communicate – so that
needs to be at the core of the kind of delivery and
the methodology.”
16
| Appendices
Richard Hudson (Professor of Linguistics): “There
was a strong reaction against grammar-translation …
But what happened is that they got rid of the
grammar and the translation. It was a classic case of
throwing out the baby with the bath water. It’s not fair
on children to leave them to work out the rules of
language themselves.”
Christelle Bernard, a language teacher, says: “You
need a little bit of grammar, but my approach is much
more topic based with as little grammar as possible …
I hardly ever use a textbook – I use Twitter much
more. ICT allows them to collaborate with others. So
they can work together, but it gives them a choice of
medium. And because they know how to use
computers, it creates a comfort zone where they can
focus on the language.”
Activity 3 – Different approaches
to teaching language
Listening task
The video below is an introduction to different approaches to
teaching language (PPP to TBL) available on YouTube. It features
different approaches to language presentation and thoughts about
them.
Before you watch – look at the terms below – Do you know what
they mean? If not, guess what they might mean.
As you watch – make notes in the form below.
After you watch – check your matching pairs and talk about your
understanding of how they help think about language teaching in
the classroom.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5r-DRmN42fE
Take notes as you listen (Listen for ‘Possible components of a language lesson’)
Freer, authentic use
Monitor
Correction
Clarify MFP (Meaning, Form
and Pronunciation)
Rehearsal
Activate schemata
Controlled practice
Concept checking
Context for language
Appendices |
17
KEY Activity 1 –
Methods in language teaching
Here are the matching pairs for basic methods
in language learning.
Grammar Translation
Method
Reading and translating
texts. Primarily reading and
writing. Lots of exercises
and tests.
Audio-lingual method
Listening to and repeating
dialogues.
CLT (Communicative
Language Teaching)
At the heart of the ‘method’
is the belief that learners
learn best if they are
engaged in meaningful
communication.
TBL (Task-based learning)
This ‘method’ is related
closely to CLT. Students
learn by being engaged in
tasks. Often pre-task,
during-task and post-task
progression.
Role of teacher in CLT/TBL
Facilitator, adviser and
sometimes cocommunicator/
Role of learners in CLT/TBL
Students are actively
engaged in negotiating
meaning and trying to
make themselves
understood/understand
others.
CLT/TBL classroom
interaction
Shifts the balance away
from teacher talk to more
opportunities for studentstudent talk.
Authentic materials
Materials that were not
originally designed as
teaching materials.
Examples would be menus,
bus timetables, travel
brochures.
PPP
Presentation, Practice and
Production (moving from
focus on language to
communication).
TTT
Teacher talking time. Most
shows how teachers totally
dominate classroom talk
and that there is often little
opportunity for learners to
use the target language.
REFERENCES
The quotations are from the Guardian, 2013: What’s
the best way to teach languages? For the full article
go to:
www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacherblog/2013/may/14/best-way-teach-language-schools
18
| Appendices
Comparing Classroom Cultures
Fiona Copland, Sue Garton and Steve Mann
Type of activity
Reflective task
Main focus
Comparing classroom cultures
Learning outcomes
1.
Develop sensitivity to different educational norms.
2.
Consider the challenges and opportunities of working in different environments
Length of activity
60 minutes
Mode of delivery
Self-access
Intended audience
LETs and NESTs
Summary
Teachers read the classroom descriptions and consider the educational norms that
are similar or different to those in classes they are familiar with. They identify the
opportunities and challenges of working in different environments.
Procedures
Timing
1.
In Column B in the table ‘Classroom Features’ below, make brief notes on the
features of a classroom you know well.
10 minutes
2.
Choose two of the three classrooms described below (see ‘Three Classrooms’). Make
notes of the classroom features in columns C and D in the table.
20 minutes
3.
For the two classrooms in columns C and D write down two things that you would
find difficult about working in the class and two things that you would like about
teaching the class.
10 minutes
4.
Go back to the notes you have written in Column B (a class you know well). Imagine a
teacher from one of the other classrooms was coming to teach there. At the bottom
of column B, write down two things they might find difficult and two things they
might like about teaching the class (at the bottom of the table).
5 minutes
5.
Write an email/letter to a teacher from another country who is going to teach in the
class you know well. Describe the class and point out the difficult and attractive
things
15 minutes
Notes
Although classrooms are immediately recognisable, what happens in them may seem very ‘foreign’ indeed. This activity
is designed to develop understanding of working in different educational cultures and to consider what others might
find strange about our own. The classroom descriptions below are drawn in part from observational fieldnotes taken
during research for this project.
Appendices |
19
Materials
Classroom features
A
B
C
D
Classroom features
A classroom you know well
Classroom
Classroom
Where does the
teacher sit/stand?
(e.g. moves around
the class)
How are students
arranged?
(e.g. in groups)
What kind of activities
happen in class?
(e.g. dictation)
How does the
teacher behave?
(e.g. amusing,
talks a lot)
How do students behave?
(e.g. sit quietly)
How are students
disciplined?
(e.g. sent out of class)
How does the class
start and finish?
(e.g. students stand
and greet the teacher)
What do students wear?
(e.g. own clothes)
Two difficult
things
Two attractive things
20
| Appendices
Three Classrooms
Classroom One
There are about 35 students in the class, sitting at
tables in groups. They are wearing uniform, although
little has been bought at the school shop. Instead,
students prefer to buy clothing in the appropriate
colours in chain stores. The classroom is decorated
with work produced by students at the school and
with posters giving information about different
language points. There is a whiteboard and a
computer and projector. When the teacher comes in,
the students continue chatting to each other and
using their mobile phones. The teacher calls for
attention and asks the students to put their phones
away. Some do, but some hide them on their laps so
they can be used during class.
The teacher begins by distributing marked homework
and commenting on the quality in the learners’ first
language. Two students have not produced the
homework and she gives them a warning, marking
their names on the register to report to their form
tutor later in the day. She then gives a short lecture
about the general strengths and weaknesses in
the work.
The teacher then announces the focus of the lesson
and writes the lesson objectives on the whiteboard,
this time in the target language. She then asks the
students to work together in groups to identify
different kinds of verbs in a text. As the students
work, she moves from group to group, offering help
and encouragement. Some students are engaged in
the task; others text surreptitiously on their phones,
chat quietly or call out comments designed to make
the other students laugh. These students are
threatened with detention. At the end of the class, a
bell sound is heard through the tannoy and the
students pack away their things as the teacher tries
to set some more homework.
Classroom Two
There are about 65 students in the class, sitting in
rows on benches. They are wearing a basic school
uniform, which is included in their school fees. At the
front of the class is a long blackboard, but no
technology and there is nothing on the walls except a
small noticeboard. When the teacher comes in, the
students stand and greet him. The teacher tells the
students in the target language that today they are
going to learn a song. The children cheer and look
happy. One child who gets too excited is told to kneel
in the corner of the classroom with his hands on his
head, which he does for about ten minutes.
The teacher sings each line of the song and asks the
students to sing after him. Each line is accompanied
by a gesture or other movement. When the teacher
has completed the song, he asks the children to
stand up to sing the song through with all the
movements. The children sing the song three times.
The students sit down and the teacher begins to
explain what the song means using the target
language. Every now and again, he asks the students
a question and they answer all together. Some of the
key vocabulary is written on the board and then the
students repeat the pronunciation after the teacher.
Some join in; others look down or seem confused.
Then the teacher asks students to copy the new
vocabulary into their notebooks. Some students
don’t have notebooks so they don’t do the activity.
At the end of the class, signalled by a hand-rung bell,
the students stand and thank the teacher.
Appendices |
21
Classroom Three
There are about 35 students in the class. They are
sitting in rows, wearing regulation school uniform,
although some students have customised it; for
example, shortening the skirts or undoing collars. At
the front of the class is a green board and there is a
projector and screen. At the back is a noticeboard,
which displays school information and some bright
posters. When the teacher enters, the class captain
calls for the class to stand and bow, which they do.
The teacher greets the class in the target language.
The topic of the class is announced and students get
out their coursebooks and turn to the correct page.
The teacher then begins to go through the dialogue
in the book, translating from the target language into
the learners’ first language. Some students pay
attention; some sleep. One student gets out of his
seat and slaps a sleeping student around the head to
wake him up. The teacher quietly asks him to sit
down, which he does eventually. Another student
asks to go to the toilet. The teacher then plays a CD
of the dialogue and stops it so that the students can
repeat line by line. Most students join in. The teacher
praises the efforts of the students. He then asks
some comprehension questions, first in the target
language and then in the learners’ L1.
The teacher then asks a student to give out a
worksheet. The teacher explains what to do using the
students’ first language. Some students begin work.
The teacher walks around the class and speaks to
some students who are not completing the
worksheet. He spends some time encouraging them
to do the work. The students joke in a friendly way
with the teacher. They agree to do the worksheet but
spend the time joking with each other.
When the signal for the end of class comes through
the tannoy, the class captain again asks the students
to stand and bow, which they do. The teacher leaves.
22
| Appendices
Alternatives
1.
his activity can be done face to face with a mixed group of LETs and NESTs, or single groups of LETs and NESTs,
T
in the following way:
a.
The teachers are shown some pictures of classrooms in different countries and invited to guess where the
classes are (the images below can be used for this).
b.
The facilitator elicits from the teachers what features are common to all classrooms (chairs, teacher,
students, board and so on).
c.
The table is distributed. Individually, teachers write in column B the features of a class they know well. They
then share their notes with a partner. In a mixed group, a LET should be partnered with a NEST.
d.
The class is divided into three groups. Group one receives descriptions of classroom one, group two
descriptions of classroom two, and group three descriptions of classroom three.
e.
Teachers make notes about the classroom in the appropriate column of the table.
f.
The teachers are regrouped. Each new group has one member from groups one, two and three. Teachers
share their notes so that the other members can complete the table.
a.
Teachers then discuss in their groups what they would find easy and difficult about working in these different
educational contexts. They also discuss what a teacher coming to their classroom might find difficult and
easy.
2. It is also possible to watch YouTube video clips of different classrooms around the world rather than reading
descriptions of them. The links below could be used for this purpose.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtHwF-X-8bE
India
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y9CZRcSVVBE
China
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQqoCp9TJY4
Australia
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sBdUAcfyqbQ
Nigeria
Appendices |
23
Photographs of classrooms around
the world
COLOMBIA, South America
ABU DHABI, UAE
TANZANIA, Africa
SOUTH KOREA, Asia
24
| Appendices
Cross-cultural Proverb Exchange
Chris Devinson
Type of activity
Group activity for LETs and NESTs working together
Main focus
To create a greater cultural understanding among LETs and NESTs
Learning outcomes
1.
Promote communication between LETs and NESTs
2.
Develop intercultural understanding through discussing local proverbs
Length of activity
45 minutes
Mode of delivery
Face-to-face
Intended audience
LETs and NESTs
Summary
The teachers communicate with each other to discuss proverbs from their respective
cultures. They try to find a matching proverb or similar expression from the other’s
culture. Finally, as a team, they explain the proverb and its possible origins to the rest
of the group.
Procedures
Timing
1.
The facilitator introduces the topic by providing examples of proverbs from each
culture. He/she then elicits further examples from the group.
5 minutes
2.
Using a proverb from the local culture, the facilitator asks the NESTs to try to guess
the meaning of the proverb, and then does the same using a proverb from the
NESTs’ culture and eliciting a response from the LETs. (Proverbs of varying difficulty
and obscurity should be used.)
5 minutes
3.
The facilitator asks the teachers if they know of any proverbs that both cultures
share and provides an example if they do not. A common example from Korea is:
“The other man’s rice cake always looks bigger,” and from the USA: “The grass is
always greener on the other side”. The example is focused on showing how proverbs
from the two cultures can sometimes be similar or even share the same meaning.
5 minutes
4.
The facilitator provides each teacher with a proverb. LETs should get a proverb from
their culture and NESTs should get a proverb or expression with a similar meaning
from their culture. If the numbers are too large, more than one member of each
group can have the same proverb. Teachers then move around and find a partner
with the corresponding proverb. The facilitator should warn teachers that some
proverbs won’t exactly match and are open for interpretation, and can intervene
when clarification is needed.
10 minutes
5.
When teachers find their partner with the matching proverb, they can sit down together
to discuss the meaning and possible origins of their proverbs in further detail.
10 minutes
6.
A few pairs can share their proverbs and ideas about them with the whole group. The
facilitator should have background information on each proverb so he/she can share
some cultural information about them with the group.
5 minutes
7.
The facilitator elicits responses from the teachers about some of the similarities and
differences between the two cultures and whether they can think of any other
proverbs that reflect these.
5 minutes
Notes
Timing may vary according to the size of the group. The facilitator needs to prepare proverbs in advance. Idioms and
common expressions sometimes will substitute for proverbs.
As an extension activity (see ‘Ten Proverbs’), teachers match proverbs with the country of origin, discuss the meaning
of the proverbs and decide if there is a similar proverb in their own language. The teachers’ answers here are likely to
be purely guesswork, but the activity further underlines cultural similarities and differences.
Appendices |
25
Materials
Extension activity – Ten Proverbs
For this activity, the materials required are proverbs
from the local culture and NEST cultures. The
examples below are from a training session with
Korean and North American teachers.
Below are ten proverbs from around the world. Can
you match them with the country they come from?
Example proverbs and explanations
a. In South Korea, ‘power distance’ is quite high when
compared to Western countries. A proverb
reflecting this is: “There is order even when drinking
water,” which emphasises the importance of
hierarchy, even in everyday life (Choe, 2002:068).
An English equivalent might be: “Don’t get ideas
above your station”.
b. South Korea is generally considered to have a
highly collectivist culture. The proverb: “You’ll be
happy to see even a crow if it comes from your
hometown,” emphasises the importance of regional
ties in Korea (Choe, 2002:210). A corresponding
proverb in English could be: “Blood is thicker than
water,” or: “Birds of a feather flock together”.
c. Other Korean proverbs may be related to Buddhist
or Confucian beliefs, which remain prominent
influences on the culture of Korea. A Confucian
example could be: “A woman who harbours han can
make it frost in May and June,” (Choe, 2002:64)
where ‘han’ connotes a feeling of resentment
against injustice. An English language idiom
with a similar meaning is to have “a chip on
one’s shoulder”.
d. Other Korean proverbs may be about food,
stemming from a time when Korea was a much
poorer nation than it is today and suffered a lot of
hardship. This is evident in the casual greeting of:
“Have you eaten today?”, a common way to ask:
“How are you?” (Choe, 2002:11).
e. Western proverbs may be related to the
establishment of a newer nation and emphasise
desirable traits, such as working hard. An example
of this can be seen in: “When the going gets tough,
the tough get going.” Others may include
references to animals, such as: “You can lead a
horse to water but can’t make him drink”. (Phrase
Mix, 2013)
26
| Appendices
Proverbs
1.
Hold a true friend with both your hands.
(friendship)
2.
At the gate of patience there is no
crowding. (patience)
3.
When eating fruit, remember the one
who planted the tree. (gratitude)
4.
A stumble is not a fall. (adversity)
5.
A beautiful thing is never perfect.
(beauty)
6.
A little axe can cut down a big tree.
(permanence and change)
7.
Be the first in the field and the last to
the couch. (work)
8.
Fire in the heart sends smoke into the
head. (anger)
9.
You can't sew buttons on your
neighbour’s mouth. (gossip)
10. Everyone is the age of their heart.
(youth and age)
Country
a
China
b
Nigeria
c
Jamaica
d
Guatemala
e
Haiti
f
Egypt
g
Germany
h
Morocco
i
Vietnam
j
Russia
Alternatives
1.
Use proverbs from only one culture. The proverbs can be split in half with one half being given to the NESTs and
the other half to the LETs. Teachers mingle to find their partner and then discuss the meaning of the proverb and
try to identify a similar proverb or expression in the other language. An example is: “His bark is … / … louder
(worse) than his bite.”
2.
Use proverbs from only one culture, where there is no corresponding proverb or saying. One teacher is given the
proverb and another teacher is given an explanation. Teachers mingle to find their partners. Steps 5, 6 and 7 can
then be followed.
3.
Find proverbs from a completely different culture. A NEST and LET work in pairs (or groups) to try to work out the
meaning. Checking meanings can then be done in a number of lively ways (for example, running dictations,
post-its stuck around the room, matching cards, and so on). Once the meaning has been established, teachers
work together to identify similar proverbs in their own languages.
References
The Korean proverbs were taken from the
following book:
Choe, Sang Hun (2002) How Koreans Talk, A
Collection of Expressions. EunHaeng Namu
Publishing.
Some English proverbs were taken from the
following website:
Phrase Mix, 2013. The 50 Most Important Proverbs.
Retrieved from the Phrase Mix homepage on
September 16 2014 from:
www.phrasemix.com/collections/the-50-mostimportant-english-proverbs
The proverbs from around the world were
taken from: www.wiseoldsayings.com
Key to
extension
activity
1.
b
2.
h
3.
i
4.
e
5.
f
6.
c
7.
a
8.
g
9.
j
10.
d
Appendices |
27
28
| Appendices
Exploring Similarities and Differences
Mihn Khanh Tran Thi
Type of activity
Task-based discussion and use of vignettes
Main focus
Raising teachers’ awareness of cultural and interpersonal issues, as well as
developing problem-solving skills in preparation for team teaching
Learning outcomes
1.
Raise awareness of possible issues in co-teaching from the perspectives of both
LETs and NESTs
2.
Develop problem-solving skills to deal with issues in co-teaching
Length of activity
90-120 minutes
Mode of delivery
Face-to-face
Intended audience
LETs and NESTs
Summary
LETs and NESTs work together on a variety of interactive tasks and a discussion of six
case studies. The aim is for teachers to share their experiences of co-teaching and
become more aware of cultural and interpersonal issues, as well as to develop
problem-solving skills in their team-teaching.
The ideas and suggestions from the teachers can be documented for the purpose of
creating guidelines or developing strategies for other teachers, so that they can work
more efficiently together and at the same time improve their team-teaching
practices.
Procedures
Timing
1.
Teachers work in pairs, discuss and choose the top five areas where they believe NESTs
and LETs differ most significantly (see ‘Areas for discussion of the most significant
differences between NESTs and local teachers’ below).
10 minutes
2.
Each pair joins another pair to make a group of four and discusses the reasons for their
answers. Each group should agree on a final list of areas of difference (this may include
more than five areas).
10 minutes
3.
One member from each group reports their choices to the whole group. The facilitator
writes the answers on the board to compare them and identify similarities.
10 minutes
4.
Each group of four then discusses ways to overcome the differences. Each group has a
large sheet of paper on which to write their answers. All the sheets of paper with
suggestions are then put up on the wall for everyone to have a look at.
15 minutes
5.
Teachers form new groups of four NESTs or four LETs. The facilitator hands out copies of
the three vignettes relevant to the group to each group (see ‘Stage 5 – Vignettes for
discussion’). The groups work through the vignettes, identify the issues raised, share their
feelings and discuss possible solutions. Each group prepares a short presentation with
their solutions (5 minutes per group maximum).
15 minutes
6.
Other groups listen to presentations and comment on the solutions suggested.
20 minutes
7.
The facilitator leads a whole-group discussion to review the issues identified in each
vignette and to see how they are related to the issues discussed in stages 1-3. The
discussion should also focus on which issues are related to cultural factors or ‘other’
factors.
10 minutes
The outcome of the workshop is a collection of the participants’ ideas and suggestions for
handling particular issues, as well as developing necessary strategies in order to solve
potential problems that might occur before, during and after team teaching.
Appendices |
29
Notes
In large groups, each group can present on just one or
two vignettes.
Materials
Areas for discussion of the most significant
differences between NESTs and local
teachers’ below (for Stage 1)
Aspects
Examples
Pedagogic
Teaching methods/styles
Evaluation and assessment
Classroom management
Lesson preparation
Use of teaching materials
Classroom roles
Personal/Interpersonal
Competency (insight of subject matter/English proficiency)
Personal characteristics
Working styles/ethics
Ways of communicating/expressing ideas
Ability to co-operate or deal with emerging differences
Relationship outside class
Logistical
School culture
Scheduling
Time for lesson planning
Workload share/division of teaching responsibilities
30
| Appendices
For Stage 5 – Vignettes for discussion
Vignette 1 for LETs: Disagreement over the
change of class content
You are having a lesson planning meeting with an
American teacher in order to discuss in detail who
would do what, based on textbook activities that you
and your partner had already agreed upon
previously. However, you find that some of the
contents have been modified and a lot of new
material has been added without your knowledge.
The class is scheduled in the next two days and you
don’t have enough time to follow up on all of the
changes, so how would you handle this situation?
Vignette 2 for LETs: Lack of support
in using games
You have taught English with an Australian colleague
for two months. Although you want to use some
games in the class in order to motivate the students,
your partner does not seem to be supportive in that
s/he just sits at the table and does nothing to help
you during your teaching. How would you feel in this
situation and what would you do to solve this
problem?
Vignette 3 for LETs: Dissatisfaction over the role
played in class teaching
You have been teaching an English course with a
British teacher for several weeks. One day, the head
teacher tells you that your teaching partner has
complained about his/her role in team teaching with
you. In particular, he/she feels like your assistant
because he/she was not given enough time to teach
students and says sometimes you used him/her as a
tape recorder or a helper during your instruction.
How would you respond to this situation?
Vignette 1 for NESTs: Dissatisfaction over the role
played in class teaching
You have been teaching an English course with a
local teacher for several weeks. Although you have a
teaching qualification and are supposed to teach the
class, you feel that your local teacher treats you like
an assistant. In particular, you feel like you are not
given enough time to teach students and sometimes
you are used as a tape recorder or a helper during
your classes. How would you handle this situation?
Vignette 2 for NESTs: Lack of planning and
co-operation
You have been teaching with a LET for two weeks.
You try to use only English in the classroom and, as
your learners are quite high level, you’re convinced
they can follow what you say. However, your coteacher insists on translating nearly everything you
say into the learners’ L1, as he/she is concerned that
they don’t understand you. How would you feel in this
situation and what would you do to solve this
problem?
Vignette 3 for NESTs: Disagreement
of levels of control
You’ve been teaching with a LET for over a month.
Initially you agreed on a 50/50 split in the lesson, but
increasingly your co-teacher wants to do more of the
lesson him/herself. Moreover, he/she insists on
seeing your ideas and materials beforehand and
often overrides you, saying your plan isn’t good,
sometimes in a way you perceive as rude. What
would you do to solve this situation?
Appendices |
31
Alternatives
32
1.
Although developed for use with both LETs and NESTs, the workshop described here would work equally well with
groups of just NESTs or just LETs.
2.
If the group is a mix of NESTs and LETs, stage 1 can be done in similar pairs (i.e. NEST with NEST) and in stage 2
the pairs can be mixed (LET pair with NEST pair).
3.
In stage 1, the teachers can be asked to rank all the areas in order of significance. This can also be done by having
each area on a separate strip of paper and asking the teachers to sort them into an agreed order.
4.
In stage 2, groups of four can be asked to reach an agreement on the five most important areas. The whole group
can then also be asked to agree on the five most important areas during stage 3.
5.
While walking around and reading the posters in stage 4, teachers can vote for the three best solutions overall, or
for the best solution to each issue.
6.
Role play can be used instead of presentations in stages 5 and 6. Groups can act out the scene in which the issue
is tackled.
| Appendices
Good Language Teaching
Fiona Copland, Sue Garton, Steve Mann
Type of activity
Introductory session on good teaching
Main focus
Considering the nature of the ‘good language teacher’
Learning outcomes
Build an awareness of key attributes of a successful language teacher
Length of activity
60 minutes
Mode of delivery
Face-to-face
Intended audience
NESTs (but may be used with a mixed group of NESTs/LETs). For this session it is
anticipated that the teachers have little or no training in language teaching. However,
some of the activities could still be adapted to facilitate discussion for more
experienced teachers.
Summary
Teachers complete various tasks related to the ‘good teacher’. The tasks are
deliberately introductory in nature in order to elicit participants’ views on teaching.
Procedures
Timing
1.
As a warm-up, teachers work in pairs, look at images of teachers and think of adjectives to
describe them. Ideas are elicited from the group.
5 minutes
2.
Teachers watch and respond to a short video clip of students talking about what makes a
good teacher.
10 minutes
3.
Teachers recall a good teacher from their past experience and share ideas with a partner,
then briefly with the whole group.
15 minutes
4.
Teachers work in small groups to suggest adjectives to describe the qualities of a good
teacher – one for every letter of the alphabet. Ideas are fed back to the group as a whole.
10 minutes
5.
Teachers read and discuss a short text on what it takes to be an ideal language teacher.
10 minutes
6.
The facilitator shows a quotation about what makes teaching complex and invites teachers
to comment
10 minutes
Notes
The extension activity (see Extension activity – three experts on teaching) features quite a long video. It includes views
from three experts. It might be best treated as a homework activity.
Appendices |
33
Activity 1 – Images of teachers
Think of three adjectives for each of the teachers in
these photographs.
Activity 2 – What makes a good teacher?
Watch the first two minutes of this video. What sorts
of things do these students say makes a good
teacher?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cI5EM8WBSSQ
Activity 3 – Remembering a good teacher
34
1.
Spend a few minutes thinking of a teacher from your
past schooling. Get a picture of them in your mind.
What did they do in the classroom? What sorts of
things did they say?
2.
In pairs, interview each other for 5 minutes. Find out
as much as you can about your partner’s ‘good
teacher’.
3.
Share some of the good features of these teachers as
a whole group. Perhaps build a list together.
| Appendices
Activity 4 – Good teacher alphabet
What are the most important qualities of a good
teacher? There are probably hundreds of different
qualities that a good teacher possesses. See if you
can think of one adjective for the following letters of
the alphabet. The first few are done for you.
A
adaptable
B
brave
C
D
determined
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
R
S
T
U
W
caring
Activity 5 – Qualities of an ideal teacher
Read this short text and talk about whether it misses
anything important.
What does it take to be the ideal language teacher?
The ideal language teacher is encouraging but also demanding. He/she has a wide range of language knowledge
and has a clear idea of learning aims for the class but is also flexible and encourages learners to contribute and ask
questions. He/she has a good sense of humour, is capable of entertaining and informing but doesn’t talk too much.
While being able to maintain control and discipline, he/she is also adaptable and innovative. The ideal teacher
knows the students’ names and above all treats them with respect.
Activity 6 – The ‘language’ in language
teaching
Extension activity – three experts
on teaching
Look at this quotation about teaching. Do you think
language teaching makes things even more difficult?
If a doctor, lawyer or dentist had 40 people in his
office at one time, all of whom had different needs,
and some of whom didn’t want to be there and were
causing trouble, and the doctor, lawyer or dentist,
without assistance, had to treat them all with
professional excellence for nine months, then he
might have some conception of the classroom
teacher’s job. (Donald D. Quinn)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXaLGt460e4
The video above features three experts on teaching.
They discuss what makes a great teacher. Research
claims there are characteristics that can predict
whether a teacher will be a great teacher before they
even get into the classroom. Before you watch the
video, think about what you expect these
characteristics will be.
Appendices |
35
36
| Appendices
Language Use in the Classroom
Fiona Copland, Sue Garton, Steve Mann
Type of activity
Discussion-based using data extracts
Main focus
To highlight the different uses of L1 and L2 in the classroom and the languages used
by LETs and NESTs
Learning outcomes
1.
Reflect on attitudes towards L1 use in the classroom
2.
Explore reasons for using L1
3.
Understand the functions of L1
Length of activity
60 minutes
Mode of delivery
Self-access
Intended audience
NESTs and LETs
Summary
Teachers explore their own attitudes to language use in the classroom. They then
look at data extracts from interviews with both NESTs and LETs, and reflect on the
different attitudes towards and reasons for L1 and L2 use in the English classroom
Procedures
Timing
1.
Complete Activity 1 individually.
5 minutes
2.
Go back and look at your answers again. Think about the reasons for each of your
answers.
10 minutes
3.
Look at the interview extracts in Activity 2. Identify whether the focus of the extract is on:
Local Teacher language use
NEST language use
Learner language use.
10 minutes
4.
Now look at the extracts in Activity 3. Can you sort them according to whether they are for
L1 use in the classroom, against it, or neutral?
10 minutes
5.
Look again at the extracts that are favourable to L1 use and identify the functions that L1
can have in the classroom. Add any other functions of/justifications for L1 use you can
think of. Do you agree with the positions expressed?
15 minutes
6.
Now go back to the initial questionnaire to see if any of your views have changed.
10 minutes
Notes
All of the activities above could be used in a face-to-face situation with a facilitator to organise the pairs/groups and
lead the discussions.
Appendices |
37
Materials
Activity 1 – Your opinions
For each of the statements below about English
classes, say whether you entirely agree/agree/
somewhat agree/somewhat disagree/disagree/
entirely disagree.
1. NESTS should only use English in the classroom.
2. Classes should be conducted entirely in English.
3. Only the local teacher should use L1 in class.
4. The local teacher should translate into the L1
everything the NEST says in English.
5. Classes should be about 40 per cent in the L1
and 60 per cent English.
6. NESTs and local teachers can use both L1 and
English during classes.
7. It’s not important which language is used; it’s
important that learners understand what’s said.
8. The choice of L1 or English depends on the level
of the learners.
9. Limited use of the L1 is always justified for
specific reasons.
10. The local teacher should always translate
difficult words for learners.
Activity 2 – L1 and L2 use in the classoom
Who uses which language in the classroom is a key
part of co-teaching and concerns NESTs, LETs and
learners too. Below are some extracts from
interviews with teachers who are co-teaching, in
which they talk about the use of L1 and English in the
classroom. Whose language use is the focus of each
extract? Who uses L1 and who uses L2?
a. LET language use
b.NEST language use
c. Learner language use
NB There may be more than one answer for
some extracts.
38
| Appendices
Extract 1
It really was teacher dependent, because some
teachers were a lot more engaging of the students
and would really engage and try to ask questions
and really try to use their English and have an only
English classroom, whereas some teachers would
just stand in the corner and just be silent for 50
minutes, so it really was teacher dependent.
Extract 2
I mainly use English but I also use Chinese. In my
opinion, I know some people can do entirely in
English but … I don’t know how to bridge the gap
without using Chinese. So I also use Chinese. But
what I try to do instead of me speaking Chinese is
having my high-level students help me translate,
and then I’ll give them points on the board, I’ll give
them points based on whether or not they’re
helping their team mates.
Extract 3
In the beginning of my class, like beginning of
semester, I told them I don’t expect them to speak
100 per cent English. It’s just like, throw me in a
Korean classroom, ask me to speak 100 per cent
Korean, it’s impossible. So I don’t really like the idea
of saying, ‘No Korean’ because I feel that it’s not
practical … And just for them it just takes the stress
off of them. So it’s OK if Korean comes out once in a
while, but at least they try, that’s one of my
expectations – try.
Extract 4
I think in our lessons the Japanese teachers try to
use as much English as possible, usually they tend
to say it in English and then say it in Japanese after,
for no reason whatsoever, even though the
students completely understand.
Extract 5
To get them to even speak in the L2 when everyone
speaks the same L1 is a challenge in itself, because
Japanese … it’s all about confidence, so in Japanese
mindset if they don’t do it perfectly they’re not
going to really try, and they’re going to practise and
practise and practise until they do it perfectly, but if
they can’t do it perfectly, even in class, they get
really nervous and shut down.
Activity 3 – Attitudes towards using L1
Here are some more interview extracts. Read them
and decide which show a positive attitude to L1 use
in the classroom, which are negative and which are
neutral. When you’ve done that, look at the possible
reasons for using L1 and match the extracts with the
reasons given. Can you add any more reasons for
L1 use?
Reasons:
a. To create a positive atmosphere in class
b.To act as a model language learner for the
students
c. For classroom management when students are
misbehaving
d.When the learners don’t understand something
in English
e. When the LET doesn’t know a word/phrase
in English
Extract 1
Miss K always tries to speak English as much as she
can. Sometimes she code-switches into Japanese if
she doesn’t have that word, which is perfectly OK,
perfectly great actually, great model for the
students, and I can understand what she’s saying so
I just throw in English.
Extract 2
One of the male teachers, he doesn’t have English
but it doesn’t matter because he’s very positive and
enthusiastic and he always does some funny things
in the classroom, so students laugh and then really
nice atmosphere, building great rapport with me
and then the students as well, so he’s like a bridge
between me and the students. So that helps.
That’s fine.
Extract 3
Some teachers try to use only English, not many of
them, but some of them do. I never use Japanese in
a classroom, except for comedy purposes, but I’ll
often respond in English to something they’ve said
in Japanese ... Although, to be honest, if there’s
some kind of disciplinary action where the
Japanese teacher does nothing and there’s a
student that’s causing trouble, if they’re just doing
nothing, that doesn’t matter, but if they’re causing
trouble to such an extent, then I’ll go and speak to
them, just quietly, so the other students can’t hear,
in Japanese, and just say: ‘Come on!’ Yes, but the
strange thing is I’ll do it quietly, I don’t know why.
Extract 4
I think part of the reason I’ve wanted to use Chinese
in the classroom is because I want to give them a
role model of a language learner, so that they see
that it’s OK to make mistakes because I always
make mistakes in my Chinese. But they’ll correct me
and they’ll laugh at me, so I think that’s a good way
to make them a little bit more comfortable and
show them that it is OK to make mistakes.
Extract 5
I would always teach in English. My first year I think I
had some teachers that would translate
automatically. I would say a task in English and they
would translate to Japanese, and that drove me
nuts! So after class I had a word with them: ‘Would
you please not explain immediately in Japanese,
because what’s the point?’ So most of the time
most of them were pretty good about using English,
and unless there was something absolutely
important to announce, then they would say it in
Japanese and that was fine, but most of the time
they were pretty good at using English.
Extract 6
I taught oral communications class, so in theory this
is how it was explained to me, oral communication
should not be anything new to them, it should be a
review of what they had learned previously, so I was
not really teaching any new information. New
information, the tough stuff, was left to the JTEs and
other classes. So on paper it wasn’t necessary to
speak Japanese. But I also felt that the moment I
spoke Japanese or gave them a clue that I
understood, then they would just depend on it.
Extract 7
I think it’s really important to encourage them to
use more English, so that’s why. I was thinking:
‘Should I use some Korean?’ No! If they know I use
Korean language, they would, so I’ll say the first rule
is use English. One of the rules. It’s an English class!
Extract 8
I use no Korean, I tell my students from the
beginning: ‘I do not speak Korean.’ I know a little
tiny bit ‘cause of having been here, but if they have
a question or they don’t understand, especially
third grade, we have a sign, they can signal ‘I don’t
understand’ and then Jo will come and help them
individually and help translate some things.
Sometimes in fourth grade when we were going
over some tricky vocabulary or they ask a question
that … like for kitchen things, there was a picture of
what was in the kitchen and they asked: ‘Teacher,
what is that above the stove?’ ‘Well, that’s a range
hood.’ How do you explain range hood? So then:
‘Oh, teacher, what is that in Korean?’ And so she’ll
say and they’ll go: ‘Ohh! That’s what that is.’ So it’s
very rare that we use Korean in class but it’s usually
just for particular clarification.
Appendices |
39
Alternatives
40
1.
A teacher could work with a colleague and discuss the answers together.
2.
This activity could also be used in a face-to-face situation, with stages 2 onwards being done as a discussion in
pairs or groups and then reported back to the class.
3.
For stages 3 onwards, the extracts could be cut up into separate strips of paper so that the groups can physically
sort them.
4.
A possible extension activity is for a teacher to record one of their classes and then listen to it, identifying all the
uses of L1 and the reasons for them.
| Appendices
Lesson Planning
Sarah DeMola and Emily Quade
Type of activity
Discussion and planning tasks
Main focus
Collaborative lesson planning
Learning outcomes
1.
Analyse and identify key components of effective lesson plans
2.
Gather new resource ideas and lesson plan templates
3.
Identify a lesson plan format that can be used in future teaching
4.
Practise developing a lesson plan template and lesson plan
Length of activity
90 minutes
Mode of delivery
Face-to-face
Intended audience
LETs and NESTs
Summary
Teachers are exposed to and analyse a variety of lesson plan templates. Teachers
identify key components of effective language teaching lesson plans and create a
lesson plan template that fits their specific needs. Finally, they use their lesson plan
template to develop a lesson to be used in their future teaching.
Procedures
Timing
1.
The facilitator introduces the module objectives in general terms (as some of these may emerge).
3 minutes
2.
The facilitator hands out planning quotes or puts them on a PowerPoint. In pairs, the teachers
choose one of the quotes and discuss why the message is important. Pairs then report back to the
group.
7 minutes
3.
In a think-pair-share (“tell a partner”), teachers discuss the questions in Activity 2 and then report
their discussions back to the group:
10 minutes
Why is lesson planning important?
What are important components of a lesson plan?
■■ What resources do you use when lesson planning?
■■ Who (i.e. NESTs or LETs) should plan which parts of a lesson?
■■
■■
4.
The facilitator organises teachers into groups of three or four (preferably with co-teachers). Each
group is given a packet of different lesson plan templates (see Activity 3 below). Teams are
instructed to analyse the templates and answer the questions.
15 minutes
5.
When teams are finished, the facilitator leads a whole-group discussion based on the same
questions.
10 minutes
6.
Groups are asked to create their perfect hybrid lesson plan template that is suitable for their
specific context. Teams are asked to create a large version on chart paper and share their
template with the group.
20 minutes
7.
Groups are asked to create a detailed lesson plan using the newly created template. Lesson plan
topics may be based on upcoming lessons in the textbook or common thematic lessons such as
holidays. If there is time, the facilitator may ask for some or all of the groups to share their newly
created lesson plans. Participants are encouraged to provide feedback and ideas on the lesson
plan and its execution.
20 minutes
8.
The facilitator asks participants to reflect and record their thoughts in the following format:
5 minutes
Three big ideas that I learned from this session (write these down)
Two ideas that I will use in my future teaching (think-pair-share)
■■ One big “A-ha” moment (share with the group)
■■
■■
Appendices |
41
Notes
Groupings for these activities could either be NESTs working together and LETs working together and then comparing
answers, or in mixed groups.
Activities 3-7 can also be used without a facilitator by co-teachers working on their own or in groups in school.
The facilitator may choose to ask participants to bring a textbook to the workshop in order to help with lesson planning.
Materials
Activity 1 – Thought-provoking quotes
Activity 2 – Your views on lesson planning
Discuss the following questions with a partner.
Why is lesson planning important?
What are important components of a lesson plan?
■■ What resources do you use when lesson planning?
■■ Who (i.e. NESTs or LETs) should plan which parts of a lesson?
■■
■■
Activity 3 – Lesson plan templates
In groups, look at the different lesson plan templates and answer the following questions.
What is your favourite template and why?
What is your least favourite template and why?
■■ What are the components/aspects that were present in every lesson plan template?
■■ Are there any components that you don’t think are necessary and why?
■■ Are there any components/aspects missing? If so, what and why is it important to include?
■■
■■
42
| Appendices
Lesson plan examples
Lesson plan 1 – FSE 1
Lesson Plan
Topic
Date
Time
Book
Grade
Teacher/s
Classroom
setting
Special situation
Teaching Materials
Objectives
Basic Vocabulary and Sentence Patterns
Procedures
Mins
Materials/Tools
I. Warm up:
II. Activities:
III. Assessment/Closure:
Reflection
Appendices |
43
Lesson plan 2 – FSE 2
Lesson Plan
Course Title
Aims
Student Level
Skills
Materials and Resources
Class Periods
Objectives
Teaching Procedure
Activity
1.
Greeting
2.
Warm-up
3.
Review the vocabulary
4.
Introduce new words
5.
Vocabulary Review Game
6.
Introduce the sentence pattern
7.
Simulation
8.
Video
9.
Review vocabulary
44
| Appendices
NEST
NNEST
Time Spent Mins.
Lesson Plan 3 – TESOL
Grade, Book:
Time:
Lesson and Title:
Materials:
Objectives:
Introduction (Motivation): ***build your scaffold***
Information:
***Have a strong scaffold***
Guided Practice:
Independent Practice:
***start removing scaffold***
Closure:
Assessment:
Homework:
Appendices |
45
Lesson Plan 4 – ACTFL
Language Level
Novice
Grade
Unit Theme and
Question
Families and Communities: How does where I live influence what I eat?
Daily Topic:
Agriculture in China’s 5 regions
STANDARDS
What are the
communicative
and cultural
objectives for
the lesson?
3
Date
xxx
Day in
Unit
xxx
Minutes
25
LESSON OBEJECTIVES
Communication
and Cultures
Which modes of
communication
will be
addressed?
Learners can:
■■
Identify agricultural products of the five regions
of China.
Interpersonal
Interpretive
Presentational
If applicable,
indicate how
Connections /
Comparisons /
Communities /
Common Core will
be part of your
lesson.
Connections
Lesson Sequence
Activity/Activities
Time*
Materials • Resources • Technology
What will learners do?
How many minutes
will this segment
take?
Be specific. What materials will you
develop? What materials will you
bring in from other souces?
5 min
■■
Shower curtain map of China
■■
Velcro images of geography of
different regions of China
■■
Blank maps of China for Learner
groups
■■
Envelopes of geography images
to accompany blank maps of
China
■■
Images of corn, wheat, chicken,
cattle, lamb, soybean, duck
Associate geography with agricultural products.
Comparisons
Communities
Common Core
Speaking and Listening 1. Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of
conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’
ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
What does the teacher do?
Gain Attention /
Activate Prior
Knowledge
Provide Input
46
| Appendices
■■
Teachers share geography
visuals.
■■
Learners will work in small
groups to place geography
visuals on the map of China.
■■
After completing this activity,
learners will take turns placing
large Velcro visuals on a shower
curtain map of China so that
everyone can check their group
maps for accuracy.
■■
Learners will repeat the names
of agricultural products as the
teacher shows them.
3 min
Elicit Performance
/ Provide
Feedback
■■
Learners will move to five
different stations around the
room, identify the region and
the geographic features of the
region (review) and learn the
agricultural products associated
with the region.
■■
After learners move to a new
station, they identify the region
and geographic features, and
learn the agricultural products
associated with the new region.
■■
The teacher makes simple
comparisons between regions:
Does the (north) have (chicken)?
What region has (chicken)?
Provide Input
If applicable
Elicit Performance
/ Provide
Feedback
If applicable
Closure
■■
■■
Learners return to their groups
and maps of China. They place
agricultural products on the
maps.
15 min
7min
After completing this activity,
learners take turns placing large
velcro visuals on a shower
curtain map of China so that
everyone can check their group
maps for accuracy. The teacher
asks: What region has (chicken)?
■■
Five stations with visuals of the
geography of the region and map
of China showing the region
■■
Visuals of agricultural products
■■
Shower curtain map of China
■■
Velcro images of agricultural
products
■■
Blank maps of China for groups
■■
Envelopes of agricultural products
for groups
Ensure Retention
& Transfer
Alternatives
1.
Instead of starting with lesson plan templates, teachers can be asked to draw up their own list of essential
components of a lesson plan and then compare with the templates.
2.
Teachers can be given a list of all the possible components of a lesson plan and asked to group them according to
whether they are essential, useful or not necessary.
3.
The chart papers with the hybrid lesson plan templates can be put on the wall around the room and the group can
vote on the best one, which can then be used for the lesson planning activity.
References
■■
The picture from the PPT was taken from: https://
openclipart.org/detail/630/thinkingboy-outline-byryanlerch
■■
The lesson plans labelled FSE 1 and FSE 2 are
forms used by the authors at the Foundation for
Scholarly Exchange – Fulbright Taiwan.
■■
The TESOL lesson plan sample was adapted from
the following website: www.tesol.org/docs/defaultsource/new-resource-library/essential-parts-of-alesson-plan.pdf?sfvrsn=0 www.tesol.org/connect/
tesol-resource-center/search-details/teachingtips/2013/08/22/essential-parts-of-a-lesson-plan
■■
The ACTFL lesson plan sample was adapted from:
www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/
KeysTemplates/N-ChineseLessonPlanThirdGrade.
pdf
Appendices |
47
48
| Appendices
Preparing to Co-teach in a LET-NEST Partnership
with the Experiential Learning Cycle
Michael Free and Michael Griffin
Type of activity
Task-based exploration of the Experiential Learning Cycle to facilitate problem
solving in co-teaching contexts
Main focus
Co-teacher pre-service professional development
Learning outcomes
1.
Become familiar with the Experiential Learning Cycle (ELC)
2.
Experience using the ELC to reflect on co-teaching experiences
3.
Develop strategies to increase awareness of points of view between co-teachers
Length of activity
50-60 minutes
Mode of delivery
Self-access
Intended audience
LETs and NESTs
Summary
Following a short pre-activity task, the ELC is briefly described. Teachers are walked
through the cycle step by step and then work through the cycle independently.
Optional post-activity tasks are provided.
Procedures
Timing
1.
Make notes about the situation described in the pre-activity task.
5 minutes
2.
Read the short text about co-teaching and the ELC.
5 minutes
3.
Complete the gap-fill activity introducing the ELC.
10 minutes
4.
Read each section of the walk-through and write responses, with reference to the situation
you thought about in the pre-activity task.
15-20 minutes
5.
Work through the cycle from the alternative point of view.
15-20 minutes
6.
Use the situations described or your own ideas for further practice with the ELC (optional).
15 minutes
Notes
This activity sequence is an ideal way to talk with a co-teacher about problems in co-teaching in a non-threatening,
non-accusatory and constructive way. The ELC does not ask teachers to apportion blame or make judgments. Instead,
the ELC provides a framework for finding positive solutions.
Materials
Activity 1 – A challenging situation
Consider the following situation:
You’re co-teaching a class one day. Your new co-teacher has
written something on the board, but there’s an error.
Wanting to help without disturbing the flow of the lesson,
you move to the board and correct the error. However, in so
doing, you startle your partner and cause a moment’s
confusion. You’re not entirely certain, but you think your
co-teacher may be upset.
What would you do about this?
Appendices |
49
Activity 2 – The co-teaching relationship
Read the following text. Do you agree that
co-teaching is like a marriage? What other metaphors
describe the relationship?
Co-teaching – a marriage?
Experienced co-teachers will tell you that success is dependent on the relationship between the two partner teachers.
This relationship is so crucial that it is often likened to a marriage. First, these marriages are often arranged. That is to
say, the two people who will have to work closely together did not choose each other and, occasionally, did not ask (or
even want) to be involved. Second, these marriages are cross-cultural. Communication, difficult enough in any
marriage, is even more difficult when the marriage partners come from different cultures. And yet, communication is
key to a successful marriage. And it is key to a successful teaching partnership.
The Experiential Learning Cycle
One tool that co-teachers can use to help when preparing to work in a new situation is the Experiential Learning Cycle
(ELC). This cycle is often used as a way to reflect on lessons. It can also be used to structure conversations with
co-teachers. In this activity, you will use it to prepare you for communication with your new co-teacher. The ELC
requires you to articulate your own thoughts and also to consider an alternative point of view.
Activity 3 – Introducing the ELC cycle
Below is a graphic showing the complete ELC cycle.
Read the text and fill the gaps with the missing
words. A key is given below.
Here is a diagram of the ELC:
The Experiential Learning Cycle, adapted from Kolb
(1984)
On the upper-right side is the section for a.
_________. This is where we “unload,” openly
acknowledging and expressing them. It is important
to state what our feelings are because they can
affect the other stages if they are not considered or
addressed.
50
| Appendices
What? You now have to be as objective as possible.
In this b. ________ stage, we should say what we
thought happened in the class. Teachers can say
what they saw and heard. The ‘what’ stage provides a
chance for teachers to refresh their memories and
be sure they are talking about the same point in the
lesson. It is the time for sharing objective data on
what happened in the class with a primary focus on
what might have helped or hindered student
learning. It is not the time for judgments about best
practice or sharing beliefs about teaching. It is the
time to prepare a rich description of things that
happened in class.
So what? This is the c. ____________ stage,
where we analyse what happened and consider why
it might have happened the way it did. Teachers look
back to the descriptions written for the ‘what’ stage
and create possible explanations for what happened.
In the ‘so what’ stage, you can make generalisations
about teaching and learning. Another way to think of
these generalisations is as beliefs about teaching.
Now what? The final stage is the writing of our d.
________, when we state what we will do next time.
Teachers’ plans should be based on the findings from
the previous stages. They should address how a
similar situation might be treated in the future. Action
plans should be relevant and use specific language
about what we will do.
Activity 4 – A walk through the cycle
You will now use your notes from the Pre-activity task
to practise the ELC. After reading each section, you
should write your responses in the boxes provided.
Feelings. Expressing our emotions is not always
easy, but it is important. While the purpose is to state
how we feel, we should not assign blame (either to
ourselves or someone else). Using ‘I-statements’ is a
good idea: “I felt a bit embarrassed today,” and “I was
surprised when the words were changed during
class,” are fine. ‘You-statements’, such as “You made
me cry when you changed the words,” should be
avoided.
Box 1: Feelings
I was
I felt
I
I
What? For the description, it can be useful to start
sentences with “I heard” and “I noticed”. Specific
statements about student actions and reactions are
also helpful. For the example in the pre-task activity,
we might detail the manner and timing of the
correction, e.g. “I noticed when the correction was
made, the students wrote the correct version into
their books”. Avoid writing phrases such as: “You
made a mistake,” or “You shouldn’t have done that,”
or “Co-teachers shouldn’t correct each other in front
of students,” or even “I didn’t appreciate that”. These
are not objective statements.
Box 2: What?
I heard
I noticed
I
I
So What? The first step in interpretation is when we
create a variety of hypotheses about what happened.
So here we might say: “Perhaps I thought the error
was a major one,” or “Maybe I didn’t want students to
learn the wrong thing,” or “Maybe my co-teacher
thought students couldn’t perform the activity
without knowing the word”. These are all possibilities
from which we can explore our co-teaching.
Box 3: So what?
I was
I felt
I
I
So What (continued)? The second step of the
interpretation section is for sharing beliefs or
generalisations about teaching. Here we might say: “I
think it is important to have all materials students see
be 100 per cent correct,” or “I think there are times
when co-teachers can correct each other,” or
“Co-teachers should never cause each other to lose
face in front of students”. This is not an opportunity
to attack your co-worker or to offer suggestions for
the future but rather to clarify your thinking on key
issues of teaching and learning.
Box 4: So what (cont.)?
I think it is important
I think
I
I
Now what? The final stage is when action plans are
made. An example might be: “Next time I see an error
in class materials I will find a free moment to check
with my co-teacher before making a correction.”
Saying “I will never correct something a co-teacher
does,” is not quite specific enough. Also, “I will try
harder” or “Do better” next time are not clear or
measurable enough to have much of an impact.
Box 5: Now what?
Next time I will
In the future I will try to
Appendices |
51
Activity 5 – Through the cycle on your own
Now you will work through the ELC on your own,
asking the same questions and writing down the
answers in the same style. However, you will do it
from the other teacher’s point of view. The objective
is not to guess any particular answer, but to explore
other possible perspectives while working more
with the ELC.
Re-consider the situation:
You’re co-teaching a class one day. You’ve written
something on the board, but there’s an error. Your new
co-teacher quietly moves to the board to make the
necessary correction. However, your partner’s sudden
appearance startles you and causes a moment’s confusion.
Though you were initially surprised, you weren’t particularly
upset once you understood what was happening.
Use the ELC to articulate your feelings, describe and
interpret what happened, and propose a plan of action.
Activity 6 – Further work on the ELC
(optional)
Choose one or more of the following tasks and work
through the ELC in the same manner you did above. It
is preferable that you do so from both your own
perspective and exploring other points of view. If you
opt for number three, try to keep your hypothetical
situation short, simple and specific. In other words,
don’t try to tackle any big issues in one of your first
attempts through the ELC!
Situations for NESTs:
1.
A student comes into the office you share with your
co-teacher. She wants to ask a question about the
last test. When you offer to help, she requests to
speak to “the real teacher”.
2.
You’ve been instructed to use “only English” in your
co-taught classes by your director. However, when
working with one class, your co-teacher
consistently translates instructions into L1.
3.
Your choice.
Situations for LETs:
52
1.
When in class, a student asks a question about an
idiomatic expression or grammar point. Your
co-teacher provides an explanation which you
know to be wrong.
2.
Your co-teacher sets up a competitive group
activity that requires students to move quickly
around the class. This leads to a great deal of
noise and confusion.
3.
Your choice.
| Appendices
Alternatives
1.
This activity is also suitable for face-to-face work in the following contexts:
a. Groups of NESTs on pre-service induction programmes or in in-service development programmes.
b. Groups of LETs preparing to work with NESTs.
c. LETs and NESTs preparing to work together.
In all cases, after working through the reading passages, teachers complete the boxes independently and then share
their answers with a partner. In the case of a mixed group, pairs should comprise a NEST and a LET.
2.
NESTs and LETs can use the ELC on a regular basis collaboratively to ensure that misunderstandings do not
escalate into serious problems. In this case, they will start at step 5.
Gap-fill answers:
a.
Feelings
b.
Description
c.
Interpretation
d.
Action plan
Appendices |
53
54
| Appendices
The Culture Iceberg
George Skuse
Type of activity
Reflective task
Main focus
Considering different aspects of culture and how visible these aspects are. The
notion of cultural stereotypes is also explored.
Learning outcomes
1.
Develop a better understanding of culture in terms of visibility and invisibility
2.
Consider cultural beliefs in relation to cultural stereotypes
Length of activity
75 minutes
Mode of delivery
Face to face
Intended audience
LETs and NESTs
Summary
Teachers work through a series of activities designed to develop understandings of
culture. Teachers are encouraged to move beyond stereotypical understandings of
culture towards understanding individuals as complex cultural beings.
Procedures
Timing
1.
Teachers read a short text about surface and deep aspects of culture (independent work).
10 minutes
2.
Based on their reading, teachers list aspects of surface and deep culture on an iceberg
image (pair work/group work).
15 minutes
3.
Teachers then compare their lists to those on the ‘answer sheet’ (pair work/group work).
5 minutes
4.
Teachers make notes on their attitudes to hidden cultural beliefs and think of others from
their country that may think differently (independent work). Teachers share their notes in a
mingle activity (whole group).
20 minutes
5.
Teachers then grade their beliefs according to how stereotypical they are (group work).
This activity is designed to promote discussion of whether it is possible to identify
stereotypical views or not. In practice, it is very difficult to complete this task but in the
attempt a number of important issues may be raised.
15 minutes
6.
Finally, teachers complete stem sentences, which should help them to reflect on the
cultural activities in this unit.
10 minutes
Notes
The activities presented here are designed to help participants to develop a broad understanding of culture and to
challenge the notion of stereotype. This should help teachers to look beyond stereotypes when working with people
from different cultures.
Appendices |
55
Materials
Activity 1 – Why is culture like an iceberg?
Look at the diagram and read the text. As you read,
try to think of your own examples of observable and
hidden cultural values.
Deep below the “water line” are a culture’s core
values. These are primarily learned ideas of what is
good, right, desirable and acceptable, as well as what
is bad, wrong, undesirable and unacceptable. In
many cases, different cultural groups share the
similar core values (such as “honesty”, or “respect”,
or “family”), but these are often interpreted
differently in different situations and incorporated in
unique ways into specific attitudes we apply in daily
situations. Ultimately, these internal forces become
visible to the casual observer in the form of
observable behaviours, such as the words we use,
the way we act, the laws we enact and the ways we
communicate with each other.
It is also important to note that the core values of a
culture may not change quickly or easily. They are
often passed on from generation to generation by
numerous institutions that surround us. These
institutions of influence are powerful forces that
guide us and teach us. Although an economic system
may change, or a new methodology in school may be
adopted, or new definitions of “common and normal”
may be perceived on the television, there are
innumerable forces that continue to mould a culture
as they have in the past. However, it is also true that
culture is not a static force and that it does change
over time.
When we see an iceberg, the portion that is visible
above water is, in reality, only a small piece of a much
larger whole. Similarly, people often think of culture
as the numerous observable characteristics of a
group that we can ‘see’ with our eyes, be it their food,
dances, music, arts or greeting rituals. The reality,
however, is that these are merely an external
manifestation of the deeper and broader
components of culture – the complex ideas and
deeply held preferences and priorities known as
attitudes and values.
56
| Appendices
Of course, it is also clear that not everyone from the
‘same’ culture shares core values. Some values will
be shared and others will not be. For example, in one
family some members might think it is not acceptable
to punish children physically. Other family members
might be happy to slap children when they are being
naughty. All members of the family, in contrast, might
believe that women should dress modestly, covering
their legs, arms and heads.
So, like an iceberg, there are things that we can see
and describe easily ... but there are also many deeply
rooted ideas that we can only understand by
analysing values, studying institutions and, in many
cases, reflecting on our own core values.
(Adapted from http://languageandculture.com/
cultural-iceberg)
Activity 2 – Cultural iceberg
As the text from http://languageandculture.com/
cultural-iceberg explains, culture is like an iceberg.
Some elements of culture we can readily see, some
are more ingrained and not readily visible.
In the figure below, write your own examples of
visible and hidden cultural elements. Above the line
add visible or ‘overt’ elements of culture, below the
line add hidden or ‘covert’ elements of culture. Some
ideas have been added to get you started. You can
do this activity in pairs or in groups.
festivals
clothing
Religious beliefs
Notions of beauty
Appendices |
57
Activity 3 – Elements of the cultural
iceberg
Now compare your cultural iceberg to the one below.
Did you think of the same ideas?
58
| Appendices
Activity 4 – Identifying your individual
cultural beliefs
In the table below, make notes of your views on some
elements of hidden culture. In the third column, write
the name of a family member, friend or acquaintance
from your country who holds different views. Then
stand up and share your ideas with others in the
group.
Hidden culture
What I believe
Name of someone who thinks
differently
Views on raising
children
Religious beliefs
Notions of
modesty
Importance of
space
The notion of
friendship
Add your own
here:
Appendices |
59
Activity 5 – Stereotypes
A stereotype is defined by the Oxford English
Dictionary as: ‘A widely held but fixed and
oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of
person or thing’(www.oxforddictionaries.com/
definition/english/stereotype).
To what extent do you think your beliefs conform to
the stereotype of people from your country? In pairs,
mark each line with a cross to show where you stand.
The first one has been done as an example:
1. My views on raising children:
Conform to stereotype
Do not conform to stereotype
X
2. My religious beliefs:
Conform to stereotype
Do not conform to stereotype
3. My views on modesty:
Conform to stereotype
Do not conform to stereotype
4. My views on the notion of friendship:
Conform to stereotype
Do not conform to stereotype
5. My views on the notion of space:
Conform to stereotype
60
| Appendices
Do not conform to stereotype
Activity 6 – Thinking about culture
Complete the following stem sentences:
When working with a teacher from another country, problems might arise when
Teachers from another country may or may not share
Celebrating festivals from other countries might
Understanding culture is
Alternatives
1.
The activities can be done independently in a self-study context. Activity 5 can be omitted, as it is designed to
promote discussion.
2.
Teachers who are going to work together could complete the activities and then exchange their answers by email.
Appendices |
61
62
| Appendices
Who Said What?
Fiona Copland, Sue Garton, Steve Mann
Type of activity
Sorting and reflecting
Main focus
To consider a viewpoint from the other side
Learning outcomes
1.
Find out about recent research into NEST schemes
2.
Consider how NESTs and LETs view each other
Length of activity
40 minutes
Mode of delivery
Self-access
Intended audience
NESTs and LETs
Summary
In this activity quotations from interviews with LETs and NESTs are sorted according
to whether they were said by a LET or a NEST.
Procedures
Timing
1.
Read the short text about recent research into NEST schemes.
5 minutes
2.
Complete Activity 2 on who said what.
15 minutes
3.
Check answers with the key.
5 minutes
4.
Write a brief policy document on key elements of school life for your school.
15 minutes
Notes
Working in a new environment or with a new colleague will always provide challenges and opportunities. Often these
challenges and opportunities are recognised by the people you work with as the activities presented here show. In
order to make the most of the opportunities and to overcome the challenges, LETs and NESTs consistently suggest that
teachers must communicate with each other.
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63
Materials
Activity 1 – Research into NEST schemes
Read the text and find three issues that researchers
have identified in NEST schemes.
Recent research into NEST schemes
A great deal has been written about NEST schemes. Some writers criticise them and some believe they are a good idea.
The majority of researchers, however, are interested in the challenges and benefits to teachers and learners of NEST
schemes. For example, Luo (2007) found that in Taiwan NESTs found it hard to work with local home-room teachers
while the local teachers found it difficult to work with inexperienced NEST teachers. Luo (2014) also found that NEST
teachers were able to motivate learners and provide a helpful language model and they also helped local teachers to
improve their English skills. However, NESTs were also considered unreliable as they often left their posts with no
notice. Ma (2012) provides evidence from Hong Kong that NEST teachers have strong linguistic strengths but are weak
in teaching skills while local teachers are strong in teaching skills but weak in language skills.
Our research suggests that local teachers and NESTs are often very perceptive about the strengths of the other group,
and about their own weaknesses, and vice versa. For example, a number of local teachers in our study highlighted the
energy and motivation of NEST teachers. For their part, NEST teachers were keen to point out that local teachers had
very many duties apart from teaching that took up a lot of their time and made it difficult to find planning time.
The worksheet provides quotations from local and NEST teachers we interviewed for our research. We think these
comments show local teachers and NESTs are sensitive to each other and to the challenges they have to face.
References
Luo WH (2007) A study of native English-speaking teacher programs
in elementary schools in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Education Review, v8 (2). Springer.
Ma, LP (2012) Strengths and weaknesses of NESTs and NNESTs: Perceptions of
NNESTs in Hong Kong. Linguistics and Education, 23(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2011.09.005
Activity 2 – Who said what?
Read the following extracts taken from interviews
with NESTs and local teachers. Decide if you think
the comment was made by a NEST or a local
teacher, and give a reason why:
Interview quote
a. On the first day we were really worried. We couldn’t sleep.
b. I think the teaching roles aren’t set in stone. It depends on
the context.
c. If the students know I use L1, they would too, so I say the first
rule is to use English. One of the rules. It’s an English class!
d. Be open minded. You can communicate with each other.
Communication is really important!
e. Sometimes the co-teacher walks around and just observes
and helps the students. Sometimes they sit at the back and
tell everyone to be quiet every couple of minutes.
Sometimes they are more involved and mirror what I say
in L1.
f. If you don’t communicate with each other because you’ve
had a small misunderstanding, then it will grow and grow
over time and eventually there will be a big gap between you
and your co-teacher and you’ll get to the point where you
hate each other! And then the students become the victims.
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| Appendices
NEST/local teacher? Why?
g. The person who rules is the principal, the principal rules at
every school and if he or she likes English, English gets more
money, English gets more time spent on it.
h. NESTs can be quite vocal and it is hard for local teachers to
accept this. Local teachers need to become more globalised
to try to understand other cultures as well as their own.
i. I wish they would make it voluntary for the Korean teachers.
For Korean teachers sometimes, not all the time, they get the
duty, they get told: ‘You have to go and take care of the
foreign teacher.’
j. After I explain the activity I will go around and if students are
having a hard time I’ll explain it in the students’ L1, one on
one.
k. I think the programme should have a more systematic way of
fostering intercultural understanding. For example,
understanding the differences in expectation in the
workplace. Local teachers are sometimes too indirect and
the work/life balance is very important for NESTs.
l. NESTs need to be flexible and adaptable and they have to …
how do I put it … they have to learn to understand their place,
not in the sense that you will do what you are told, but they
can’t come in and change things straight away. They should
really spend a lot of time listening and observing and
watching and learning about the context that they are
working in.
m.And then during class I’m teaching the lesson but the
co-teacher helps with translation and classroom
management. So I make a lesson plan and lead the class but
it’s definitely a collaborative process.
Now check your answers against the key at the end of this document.
Were you surprised by any of the quotations or by who said them?
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65
Activity 3 – Writing a policy document
Imagine you have been asked to write a short policy
document for English language teaching for the
school where you work or where you are going
to work. Write guidance for teachers under
the headings:
Policy Document for English Language Teaching
1.
Collaboration between teachers
2.
Understanding the school culture
3.
Using English and the first language in the classroom
4.
Intercultural understanding
Alternatives
1.
Activity 1: Individual work
Activity 2: Pair work
Activity 3: Pair work
Activity 4: Group work
2.
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This activity can easily be adapted for a training session of either LETs, NESTs or a mixed group,
in the following way:
A LET and NEST could also work on these activities independently before they meet each other. Before teaching
starts, they could compare their ideas and discuss the similarities and differences with a view to developing
greater intercultural understanding.
| Appendices
KEY
a.
LT
b.
LT
c.
LT
d.
LT
e.
NEST
f.
LT
g.
NEST
h.
LT
i.
NEST
j.
NEST
k.
LT
l.
NEST
m.
NEST
Appendices |
67
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