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DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators
Manual
Specifications are subject to change without notice. Detroit Diesel
Corporation is registered to ISO 9001:2001.
Copyright © Detroit Diesel Corporation. All rights reserved. Detroit
Diesel Corporation is a Daimler company.
Printed in U.S.A.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Forward............................................................................................................. 4
Introduction.................................................................................................... 4
Non-Genuine and Rebuilt Component Quality Alert.................................... 4
Personnel Requirements................................................................................ 4
Engine Conversions and Modifications......................................................... 5
To the Operator................................................................................................ 6
Caution Summary............................................................................................. 8
Engine Identification...................................................................................... 15
Engine Components - DD Platform............................................................. 15
Engine Model and Serial Number Designation........................................... 16
Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine........................................... 20
First Time Start Preparations....................................................................... 20
Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System.................................... 38
DDEC VI System........................................................................................ 38
Detroit Diesel Electronic Control System Operation.................................. 40
Detroit Diesel Electronic Control System Features..................................... 44
Accelerating the Vehicle.............................................................................. 46
Cruise Control.............................................................................................. 47
Engine Brake and Cruise Control................................................................ 49
DD Platform Shifting................................................................................... 50
Idling............................................................................................................ 50
Engine Brake System...................................................................................... 51
Driver Control Switches.............................................................................. 51
Clutch Pedal and Throttle Position Controls............................................... 51
Engine Brake Activation Conditions........................................................... 51
Engine Brake Operation............................................................................... 51
Anti-Lock Braking Systems........................................................................ 52
Operating on Flat, Dry Pavement................................................................ 53
Operating Down a Long, Steep Grade......................................................... 53
Operating on Wet or Slippery Pavement..................................................... 54
Engine Systems............................................................................................... 56
Preventive Maintenance Intervals................................................................ 58
Preventive Maintenance Intervals................................................................ 58
Preventive Maintenance Tables................................................................... 62
Routine Preventive Maintenance.................................................................. 64
Monitoring the Lubricating Oil................................................................... 64
Monitoring the Lubricating Oil Filter.......................................................... 65
Monitoring the Cooling System................................................................... 66
Inspection of the Radiator............................................................................ 67
Monitoring the Cooling System Filter......................................................... 68
Monitoring the Fuel Filters.......................................................................... 68
Adjusting the Valve Lash............................................................................ 68
Monitoring the Belt Tensioner..................................................................... 69
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DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Monitoring the Serpentine Belts.................................................................. 69
Inspection of the Air Intake System............................................................ 70
Monitoring the Air Cleaner.......................................................................... 70
Monitoring the Exhaust System................................................................... 71
Inspection of the Air Compressor................................................................ 71
Monitoring the Fuel and Fuel Tank............................................................. 71
Inspection of Hoses and Fittings for Fuel Leaks......................................... 72
Inspection of the Turbocharger and Charge Air Cooler.............................. 73
Inspection of the Battery.............................................................................. 73
Steam Cleaning the Engine.......................................................................... 74
Inspection of the Battery-Charging Alternator............................................ 74
Lubricating the Fan Hub.............................................................................. 75
Checking the Vibration Damper.................................................................. 75
How to Procedures.......................................................................................... 77
How to Select Lubricating Oil..................................................................... 77
When to Change Oil.................................................................................... 78
How to Replace the Lubricating Oil and Oil Filter..................................... 79
How to Select Diesel Fuel........................................................................... 81
How to Replace the Fuel Filters.................................................................. 83
Engine Out of Fuel – How to Restart.......................................................... 89
How to Clean an Engine.............................................................................. 90
How to Clean the Cooling System............................................................... 91
Degreasing the Cooling System................................................................... 92
How to Select Coolant................................................................................. 92
How to Replace the Coolant Filter............................................................ 100
Checking the Hoses................................................................................... 101
How to Service the Dry Type Air Cleaner................................................ 101
Troubleshooting............................................................................................ 103
Abnormal Coolant Temperature................................................................ 103
Hard Starting.............................................................................................. 103
Abnormal Engine Operation...................................................................... 104
Abnormal Operating Conditions................................................................ 105
Engine Storage.............................................................................................. 107
Preparing Engine for Storage..................................................................... 107
Procedure for Restoring to Service an Engine that Has Been in Extended
Storage....................................................................................................... 110
Customer Assistance..................................................................................... 112
Customer Assistance.................................................................................. 112
Detroit Genuine Coolant Engine Products................................................. 114
Engine Oil Capacities................................................................................... 116
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
3
Forward
Forward
Introduction
This manual is intended for use by the operator of a Detroit™ engine used in OnHighway Vehicle applications.
Non-Genuine and Rebuilt Component Quality Alert
Electronic engine controls have been instrumental in aiding engine manufacturers
in meeting the stringent emission requirements of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and also
in meeting the ever-increasing performance demands of the customer.
Maintenance procedures must be followed in order to continue satisfactory
performance and durability and to ensure coverage of the engine under the
manufacturer’s warranty. Many of these maintenance procedures also ensure that
the engine continues to comply with applicable emissions standards. Proper
maintenance procedures, using specific components engineered to comply with
emissions regulations, may be performed by an authorized Detroit™ distributor or
dealer, an independent outlet or the operator or owner. The owner is responsible for
determining the suitability of components to maintain emissions compliance during
the engine’s useful emission life.
Detroit™ cautions that the indiscriminate rebuilding of precision components,
without the benefit of specifications, specialized equipment, and knowledge of the
electronic operating system, will jeopardize performance or lead to more serious
problems, and can take the engine outside of compliance with U.S. EPA or CARB
emissions standards.
There are several other components in an engine, such as turbocharger, camshaft,
piston, which are specifically designed and manufactured to exacting standards for
emissions compliance. It is important that these components, if replaced, modified
or substituted, can be verified to ensure that the engine remains in compliance with
emissions standards. The use of inadequately engineered, manufactured or tested
components in repair or rebuild of the engine may be in violation of the federal
Clean Air Act and applicable U.S. EPA or CARB regulations.
Furthermore, modern engines exhibit operating parameters which require the use of
proper fluids, such as fuel, coolant and lubricating oil, to maintain long engine life.
The use of fluids that do not meet Detroit™ specifications may result in premature
wear or engine failure.
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Personnel Requirements
Work on the engine should be carried out only by skilled technicians who have
been instructed in the specific skills necessary for the type of work being
performed.
Engine Conversions and Modifications
The function and safety of the engine could be affected if unauthorized
modifications are made to it. Detroit™ will not accept responsibility for any
resulting damage.
Tampering with the fuel injection system and engine electronics could also affect
engine power output or exhaust emission levels. Compliance with the
manufacturer's settings and with statutory environmental protection regulations
cannot then be guaranteed.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
5
To the Operator
To the Operator
This manual contains instructions on the safe operation and preventive maintenance
of your Detroit™ engine used in vehicle applications. Maintenance instructions
cover routine engine services such as lubricating oil and filter changes in enough
detail to permit self-servicing, if desired.
The operator should become familiar with the contents of this manual before
operating the engine or carrying out maintenance procedures.
Power-driven equipment is only as safe as the person operating the controls. You
are urged, as the operator of this diesel engine, to keep fingers and clothing away
from the revolving belts, drive shafts, pulleys, etc. on the engine installation.
Throughout this manual CAUTIONS and WARNINGS regarding personal safety
and NOTICES regarding engine performance or service life will appear. To avoid
personal injury and ensure long engine service life, always heed these instructions.
Whenever possible, it will benefit you to rely on an authorized Detroit™ service
outlet for all your service needs from maintenance to major parts replacement.
Authorized service outlets worldwide stock factory-original parts.
The information and specifications in this publication are based on the information
in effect at the time of approval for printing. Contact an authorized Detroit™
service outlet for information on the latest revision. The right is reserved to make
changes at any time without obligation.
Detroit™ engines are built in accordance with sound technological principles and
based on state-of-the-art technology.
Despite this, the engine may constitute a risk of damage to property or injury to
persons if it is not used for its intended purpose.
The engine should not be modified or converted in an incorrect manner or the
safety instructions included in this manual disregarded.
Keep this Operator Manual with the engine installation at all times. It contains
important operating, maintenance, and safety instructions.
NOTICE: Coolant must be inhibited with the recommended Supplemental
Coolant Additives (SCA) listed in the “How-To Procedures” section of this
engine Operator Manual. In addition, the engine can be equipped with a
coolant filter as an installed option or as an after-sale item. Failure to
check and maintain SCA levels at required concentrations will result
in severe damage (corrosion) to the engine cooling system and
related components.
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All information subject to change without notice.
Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Table 1.
WARRANTY
The applicable engine warranty is contained in the booklet “Warranty Information for
Detroit™ Engines,” available from authorized Detroit™ service outlets.
Trademark Information
DDC®, Detroit™, DDEC®, Optimized Idle®, Diagnostic Link®, POWER Trac®,
POWER COOL®, and POWER GUARD® are registered trademarks of Detroit
Diesel Corporation. All other trademarks used are the property of their respective
owners.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
7
Caution Summary
Caution Summary
The following cautions must be observed by the operator of the vehicle or
equipment in which this engine is installed and/or by those performing basic engine
preventive maintenance. Failure to read and heed these cautions and exercise
reasonable care for personal safety and the safety of others when operating the
vehicle/equipment or performing basic engine preventive maintenance may result
in personal injury and engine and/or vehicle/equipment damage.
Engine Operation
Observe the following cautions when operating the engine.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from loss of vehicle/vessel control, the operator of
a DDEC equipped engine must not use or read any diagnostic
tool while the vehicle/vessel is moving.
CAUTION: LOSS OF VEHICLE CONTROL
To avoid injury from the loss of vehicle control, do not use cruise
control under these conditions:
• When it is not possible to keep the vehicle at a constant speed
(on winding roads, in heavy traffic, in traffic that varies in
speed, etc.).
• On slippery roads (wet pavement, ice-or snow-covered roads,
loose gravel, etc.).
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other
reproductive harm.
• Always start and operate an engine in a well ventilated area.
• If operating an engine in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to
the outside.
• Do not modify or tamper with the exhaust system or emission
control system.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from engine shutdown in an unsafe situation,
ensure the operator knows how to override the stop engine
condition on a DDEC-equipped unit.
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
CAUTION: LOSS OF VEHICLE CONTROL
To avoid injury from loss of vehicle control, do not activate the
Engine Brake system under the following conditions:
• On wet or slippery pavement, unless the vehicle is equipped
with ABS (anti-lock braking system) and you have had prior
experience driving under these conditions.
• When driving without a trailer (bobtailing) or pulling an empty
trailer.
• If the tractor drive wheels begin to lock or there is fishtail
motion after the Engine Brake is activated, deactivate the brake
system immediately if this occurs.
WARNING: BODILY INJURY
To avoid injury from an explosion, do not use ether or starting
fluid on engines equipped with a manifold (grid) heater.
Preventive Maintenance
Observe the following cautions when performing preventive maintenance.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine,
remove loose items of clothing and jewelry. Tie back or contain
long hair that could be caught in any moving part causing injury.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury when working on or near an operating engine,
wear protective clothing, eye protection, and hearing protection.
WARNING: HOT OIL
To avoid injury from hot oil, do not operate the engine with the
rocker cover(s) removed.
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from fire, contain and eliminate leaks of flammable
fluids as they occur. Failure to eliminate leaks could result in fire.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
9
Caution Summary
CAUTION: USED ENGINE OIL
To avoid injury to skin from contact with the contaminants in used
engine oil, wear protective gloves and apron.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury when using caustic cleaning agents, follow the
chemical manufacturers usage, disposal, and safety instructions.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from hot surfaces, wear protective gloves, or allow
engine to cool before removing any component.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury, use care when working around moving belts and
rotating parts on the engine.
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from combustion of heated lubricating-oil vapors,
stop the engine immediately if an oil leak is detected.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from contact with rotating parts when an engine is
operating with the air inlet piping removed, install an air inlet
screen shield over the turbocharger air inlet. The shield prevents
contact with rotating parts.
WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from fire, do not smoke or allow open flames
when working on an operating engine.
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from fire from a buildup of volatile vapors, keep
the engine area well ventilated during operation.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from rotating belts and fans, do not remove and
discard safety guards.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up
any spilled liquids.
Compressed Air
Observe the following cautions when using compressed air.
WARNING: EYE INJURY
To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air,
wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and
do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.
Cooling System
Observe the following cautions when servicing the cooling system.
WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up
any spilled liquids.
Electrical System
Observe the following cautions when jump starting an engine, charging a battery,
or working with the vehicle/application electrical system.
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11
Caution Summary
WARNING: ELECTRICAL SHOCK
To avoid injury from electrical shock, do not touch battery
terminals, alternator terminals, or wiring cables while the engine
is operating.
WARNING: Battery Explosion and Acid Burn
To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid,
work in a well ventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid
sparks or flames near the battery. If you come in contact with
battery acid:
•
•
•
•
Flush your skin with water.
Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.
Flush your eyes with water.
Get medical attention immediately.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the
engine, disconnect/disable the starting system.
Air Intake System
Observe the following cautions when working on the air intake system.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from hot surfaces, wear protective gloves, or allow
engine to cool before removing any component.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from contact with rotating parts when an engine is
operating with the air inlet piping removed, install an air inlet
screen shield over the turbocharger air inlet. The shield prevents
contact with rotating parts.
Lubricating Oil and Filters
Observe the following cautions when replacing the engine lubricating oil and filter.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up
any spilled liquids.
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DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from combustion of heated lubricating-oil vapors,
stop the engine immediately if an oil leak is detected.
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from fire, do not smoke or allow open flames
when working on an operating engine.
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from fire from a buildup of volatile vapors, keep
the engine area well ventilated during operation.
Fuel System
Observe the following cautions when fueling the vehicle or working with the fuel
system.
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from fire, keep all potential ignition sources away
from diesel fuel, including open flames, sparks, and electrical
resistance heating elements. Do not smoke when refueling.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To prevent the escape of high pressure fuel that can penetrate
skin, ensure the engine has been shut down for a minimum of 10
minutes before servicing any component within the high pressure
circuit. Residual high fuel pressure may be present within the
circuit.
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid increased risk of a fuel fire, do not mix gasoline and
diesel fuel.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
13
Caution Summary
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid injury from fire caused by heated diesel-fuel vapors:
• Keep those people who are not directly involved in servicing
away from the engine.
• Stop the engine immediately if a fuel leak is detected.
• Do not smoke or allow open flames when working on an
operating engine.
• Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, insulated
gloves and apron, etc.).
• To prevent a buildup of potentially volatile vapors, keep the
engine area well ventilated during operation.
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All information subject to change without notice.
Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Engine Identification
Engine Components - DD Platform
All DD Platform engine components are shown below:
DD15 Engine Components
For a general view of the Detroit™ engines and major components, see the
following:
1. Axial Power Turbine
2. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Cooler
3. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Valve / Actuator
4. Turbocharger
5. Crankcase Breather
6. Fuel Doser Valve
Figure 1. DD15 Left Side View
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
15
Engine Identification
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Water Pump
Oil/Coolant Module
Oil Filter
Fuel Rail (under cover)
Air Intake Manifold
High Pressure Fuel Pump
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Dual Stage Air Compressor
Power Steering Pump Location
Fuel Filter Module
Motor Control Module (MCM)
Thermostat
Engine Serial Number Location
Figure 2. DD15 Right Side View
Engine Model and Serial Number Designation
The following information covers engine model number, serial number and
certification label.
Engine Model and Serial Number
The fourteen-digit engine model and manufacturing serial number is etched on a
pad located on the left front of the engine cylinder block, above the date and time
of manufacture. Using 472908S0005703 as an example:
•
•
•
•
16
472 = engine model (DD15 EuroIV)
908 = vehicle application (Freightliner EuroIV)
S = assembly plant (Detroit™)
0005703 = serial number
All information subject to change without notice.
Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Figure 3. Engine Model and Serial Number Location
Engine Model Breakdown
• 472 - DD15
Motor Control Module and Engine Serial Number
The Motor Control Module (MCM) part number and Engine Serial Number (ESN)
are located on the MCM label.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
17
Engine Identification
Figure 4. Motor Control Module Label
Engine Certification Exemption Label
An engine certification exemption label is attached to the engine rocker cover. This
label certifies the engine conforms to federal and state emissions regulations for its
application. It gives the operating conditions under which certification was made.
The following illustration is an EPA07 engine certification exemption label.
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Figure 5. EuroIV Engine Certification Exemption Label
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
19
Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
First Time Start Preparations
When preparing to start a new (or newly overhauled) engine, which has been in
storage, perform all of the operations listed below. Failure to follow these
instructions may result in serious engine damage.
Be sure you are familiar with all of the instruments, gauges and controls which are
needed to operate the engine.
Note especially the location and function of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oil pressure gauge
Low oil pressure warning light
Coolant temperature gauge
High coolant temperature warning light
Water-in-Fuel warning light in the side of the fuel filter module
Air restriction indicator
Watch for any signs of engine problems when starting or driving. If the engine
overheats, uses excessive fuel or lubricating oil, vibrates, misfires, makes unusual
noises or shows an unusual loss of power, turn the engine off as soon as possible
and determine the cause of the problem. Engine damage may be avoided by a quick
response to early indications of problems.
When starting the engine in cold weather, Refer to section "Cold Weather
Operation"
System Checks
Perform the following system checks before starting for the first time.
Checking the Cooling System
Check the cooling system as follows:
1. Make sure all drain cocks in the cooling system are installed (drain cocks are
often removed for shipping) and are closed tightly.
2. Fill the coolant overflow surge tank with Detroit™ Genuine Coolant until
coolant level stays between the low and full coolant marks on the tank.
3. Entrapped air must be purged after filling the cooling system. To do this,
allow the engine to warm up with the pressure cap removed. With the
transmission in neutral, increase engine speed to 1000 rpm and add coolant
to the surge tank as required.
4. Check to make sure the front of the radiator and charge air cooler (if
equipped) are unblocked and free of debris.
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All information subject to change without notice.
Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Lubrication System Checks
The lubricating oil film on the rotating parts and bearings of a new or newly
overhauled engine, or one which has been in storage for six months or more, may
be insufficient when the engine is started for the first time.
Pre-Lubricating the Engine
To ensure an immediate flow of oil to all bearing surfaces at initial engine startup,
prepare the engines as follows:
NOTICE:
• Insufficient lubrication at startup can cause serious damage to engine
components.
• Do not add oil if the oil reading falls on the crosshatch area of the
dipstick. There are approximately 5.0 L (5.2 qt) from the fill mark to the
full mark. Overfilling the oil pan can cause engine damage.
1. Charge the engine lubrication system with lubricating oil using a
commercially-available pressure pre-lubricator.
2. Charge the engine lubrication system with lubricating oil using a
commercially-available pressure pre-lubricator. Use only the heavy-duty oils
recommended in the "How to Replace the Lubricating Oil and Oil Filter"
section in this manual.
3. After pre-lubricating, check the engine oil level. If necessary, top off by
filling engine oil no more than 5.0 L (5.2 qt) at a time through the oil fill cap
to the satisfactory fill range on the oil dipstick. Do not overfill.
Checking and Monitoring the Oil Level
Check the oil level as follows:
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up
any spilled liquids.
NOTICE: Do not add oil if the oil reading is in the crosshatch area on the
dipstick. There are approximately 5.0 L (5.2 qt) from the fill mark to the full
mark. Overfilling the oil pan can cause engine damage.
NOTE: If the engine operating temperature is below 60°C (140°F), the
engine must be on a level surface and then shut down for 60 minutes for an
accurate oil level reading. Otherwise, the engine must be brought up to an
operating temperature of 60°C (140°F), parked on a level surface and then
shut down for five minutes for an accurate oil level reading.
All information subject to change without notice.
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21
Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
1. Check the oil level daily with the engine stopped and on a level surface. If
the engine has just been stopped and is warm, wait approximately 20 minutes
to allow the oil to drain back into the oil pan before checking.
2. Add oil to maintain the correct level on the dipstick. Use only the heavy-duty
oils recommended in the "How to Replace the Lubricating Oil and Oil Filter"
section in this manual.
NOTE: The dipstick has a positive locking device such as a lever or twistlock design that must be disengaged before pulling the dipstick out of the
guide tube.
3. Remove the dipstick from the guide tube. Use a shop rag to wipe off the end
of the dipstick.
4. Wait 15 seconds to allow any crankcase pressure to dissipate through the
guide tube and let the oil level settle in the oil pan.
5. Reinstall the dipstick and make sure it is fully inserted into the guide tube.
6. Remove the dipstick and read the oil level dipstick.
7. The figure shows a comparison between the bends on the dipstick and a
crosshatch pattern on a conventional dipstick. Note the exact area noted on
the bends. For example, the 'maximum' oil level will be at the BOTTOM of
that bend. For the 'minimum' oil level, it is noted at the TOP of the bend. If
the oil level is below the 'minimum' bend, add oil to bring it up the
'maximum' level. Do NOT fill beyond the maximum fill level on the dipstick,
since overfilling may result in high oil consumption and possible severe
engine damage.
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DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
After an Extended Storage
NOTICE: Failure to eliminate water-diluted lubricating oil may lead to
serious engine damage at startup.
An engine in storage for an extended period of time (over winter, for example) may
accumulate water in the oil pan through normal condensation of moisture (always
present in the air) on the cold, internal surfaces of the engine.
Lubrication oil diluted by water cannot provide adequate bearing protection at
engine startup. For this reason, Detroit™ recommends replacing the engine
lubricating oil and filters after extended storage.
Fuel System Checks
Make sure the fuel shutoff valve (if used) is open. Fill the tanks with the
recommended fuel. Keeping tanks full reduces water condensation and helps keep
fuel cool, which is important to engine performance. Full tanks also reduce the
chance for microbe (black slime) growth. For fuel recommendations, Refer to
section "How to Select Diesel Fuel".
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
23
Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
NOTICE: Prolonged use of the starting motor and engine fuel pumps to
prime the fuel system can result in damage to the starter, fuel pumps, and
injectors.
If the shutoff valve is even partially closed, it may cause erratic engine
operation due to an inadequate supply of fuel to the fuel pump.
NOTICE: NEVER use ether as a starting aid to run the engine. Doing so will
result in injector damage.
If an external starting aid is used, such as a starting fluid, the heat generated by the
external fuel source will cause the injector tips to be damaged when the fuel cools
them. The injector piston and bushing can be scored from running without
lubrication.
To ensure prompt starting and even running, the fuel system must be primed if air
has entered the fuel system. Priming is done by operating the manual hand priming
pump located on the fuel filter module or connecting an external priming pump to
the priming port on the fuel filter module.
Authorized Detroit™ service outlets are properly equipped for this type of service.
Priming is required if the fuel system has been serviced.
Drain off any water that has accumulated. Water in fuel can seriously affect engine
performance and may cause engine damage.
Adding Fuel
When adding fuel, pay attention to the following:
• Add winter or summer grade fuel according to the season of the year.
• Work in the cleanest conditions possible.
• Prevent water from entering the fuel tank.
For further information, Refer to section "How to Select Diesel Fuel".
Priming the Fuel System
Prime the fuel system as follows:
1. Operate the hand primer on module for three minutes or 250 strokes, or use
an external priming source such as tool J-47912 or ESOC 350.
2. Crank the engine for 20 seconds.
3. Wait 60 seconds for the starter to cool down.
4. If the engine does not start, repeat step 2 and step 3. The starting cycle can be
repeated up to three times.
5. If the engine still fails to start, continue as follows:
a. Use DDDL to check for fault codes, repair as necessary.
b. Repeat step 2 and step 3.
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST
To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the
engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury before starting and running the engine, ensure the
vehicle is parked on a level surface, parking brake is set, and the
wheels are blocked.
NOTICE: If no oil pressure is shown after approximately 10 seconds, stop
the engine and determine the cause. Running the engine with no oil
pressure could result in engine damage.
6. Start the engine with the accelerator pedal in the idle position. Monitor the
oil pressure gauge or indicator lamp. Keep the engine running at idling
speed until the oil pressure reading is 14 psi (97 kPa) or more.
7. Allow engine to reach operating temperature 60ºC (140ºF).
NOTICE: Increasing engine speed above idle before oil pressure has
stabilized may cause severe engine damage.
8. Increase engine speed to 1800 rpm for three minutes.
9. Return the engine to idle and allow to idle for approximately one minute,
then shut down the engine.
10. Check for leaks. Repair if necessary.
Checking Other Engine Parts
Check the engine compartment as follows:
• Make sure the transmission is filled to the proper level with the fluid
recommended by the gear manufacturer. Do not overfill.
• Make sure cable connections to the storage batteries are clean and tight.
• Check for cracks in the battery cases (1), for tightness of the cable clamps (2) at
the terminals, and for corrosion of the terminals (3). Service or replace as
needed.
• To provide corrosion protection, apply dielectric grease liberally to the terminal
pads.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
25
Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
Starting the Engine for the First Time
WARNING: EXPLOSION
To avoid injury from explosion, never use ether with an engine's
electrical cold starting system.
Before starting the engine the first time, perform an inspection of the engine
systems.
To start the engine, the transmission should be in neutral and the ignition key
turned to ON.
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST
To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the
engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine
equipped with an hydraulic clutch fan, remove loose items of
clothing and jewelry. Tie back or contain long hair that could be
caught in any moving part causing injury. The hydraulic fan may
start without warning.
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You will notice that the Amber Warning Lamp (AWL), Red Stop Lamp (RSL),
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) will come on. This is the result of the DDEC
computer diagnosing the system to ensure everything is functional, including the
light bulbs for the warning lights. If everything is OK, all lights will go out in
approximately five seconds.
The lights must go out before starting the engine. If starting a vehicle, the
operators foot must be OFF the accelerator pedal before starting the engine.
NOTICE: If the warning lights stay on, or do not come on momentarily after
turning on the ignition, contact the Detroit™ Support Center. Operating the
engine under these circumstances may result in engine damage.
Starting the Engine
1. Place the transmission in neutral, and set the parking brake.
NOTICE: To prevent serious starter motor damage, release the ignition
switch immediately after the engine has started.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Turn on the ignition switch.
Wait for the engine system indicator lights on the instrument panel to go out.
With foot off the accelerator pedal, start the engine.
If the engine does not start after 20 seconds, stop. Try again after waiting
about 60 seconds.
NOTICE: Do not increase engine speed if the oil pressure gauge indicates
no oil pressure. Shut down the engine within approximately ten seconds to
avoid engine damage. Check to determine the cause of the problem.
NOTE: Do not place the engine under full load until it reaches operating
temperature. Colder engine temperatures will cause the engine to preset
idle up to 900 rpm. Even at a high idle condition, you do not have to wait for
engine warm up and return to normal 600 rpm idle to drive the truck.
6. Monitor the oil pressure gauge immediately after starting the engine.
Running the Engine
While the engine is operating, monitor the battery charge indicator light, the oil
pressure, and avoid excessive idling.
Checking the Oil Pressure
Monitor the oil pressure as follows:
All information subject to change without notice.
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Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
WARNING: HOT OIL
To avoid injury from hot oil, do not operate the engine with the
rocker cover(s) removed.
1. Observe the oil pressure gauge immediately after starting the engine. An oil
pressure gauge that registers pressure 14 psi (96 kPa) at idle speed and
normal operating temperature is a good indicator that all moving parts are
getting lubrication.
2. If no pressure is indicated within 10 to 15 seconds, stop the engine and check
the lubrication system at normal operating temperature.
3. The oil pressure should not drop below 55 psi (380 kPa) at 1800 rpm, at
normal operating temperature. If oil pressure does not fall within these
guidelines, check it with a manual gauge.
Warming Up the Engine
Run the engine at part throttle for about five minutes to allow it to warm up before
applying a load.
Inspection During Idling
While the engine is idling, inspect the transmission and crankcase for fluid leaks.
On DD15 engines, check the Axial Power Turbine (APT) for oil leaks.
Checking the Transmission
While the engine is idling, check the automatic transmission (if equipped) for
proper oil level and add oil as required.
Checking for Fluid Leaks
Check for fluid leaks as follows:
1. Look for coolant, fuel, or lubricating oil leaks.
2. If any leaks are found, shut down the engine immediately and have the leaks
repaired after the engine has cooled.
Checking the Crankcase
Check the crankcase as follows:
1. If the engine oil was replaced, stop the engine after normal operating
temperature has been reached. Allow the oil to drain back into the crankcase
for about 60 minutes, then check the oil level.
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NOTICE: Do not add oil if the oil reading is in the crosshatch area. There
are approximately 5.0 L (5.2 qt) from the fill mark to the full mark. Overfilling
the oil pan can cause engine damage.
2. If necessary, add no more oil than 5.0 L (5.2 qt) at a time to bring the level to
the proper mark on the dipstick. Use only the heavy-duty oils recommended
in the "How to Replace the Lubricating Oil and Oil Filter" section in this
manual.
Checking the Turbocharger
Check the turbocharger as follows:
1. Make a visual inspection of the turbocharger for oil leaks, exhaust leaks,
excessive noise, or vibration.
2. If a leak, unusual noise, or vibration is noted, stop the engine immediately.
Do not restart the engine until the cause of the concern has been
investigated and corrected.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
Checking the Axial Power Turbine
Check the axial power turbine for excessive noise or vibration. Stop the engine
immediately if unusual noise or vibration is noted. Do not restart the engine until
the cause of the concern has been investigated and corrected.
Avoid Unnecessary Idling
Whenever possible, unnecessary idling should be avoided. During long engine
idling periods with the transmission in neutral, the engine coolant temperature may
fall below the normal operating range. The incomplete combustion of fuel in a cold
engine will cause crankcase oil dilution, formation of lacquer or gummy deposits
on the valves, pistons, and rings, and rapid accumulation of sludge in the engine.
When prolonged idling is necessary, maintain at least 900 rpm.
Stopping the Engine
Stop an engine under normal operating conditions as follows:
NOTICE: Do not stop a turbocharged engine immediately after a highspeed operation. Allow a sufficient cool-down period of about five minutes
to prevent the turbocharger from continuing to turn without an oil supply to
the bearings or damage can result.
1. Reduce engine speed to idle and put all shift levers in the neutral position.
NOTE: Cool-down idling needs to take place after pulling off an interstate.
When finding a parking spot or backing into a dock, immediate shutdown
should be avoided. Shutting the engine off immediately retains more block
heat than if the engine runs at idle for five minutes.
2. Allow the engine to run between idle and 1000 rpm with no load for five
minutes. This allows the engine to cool and permits the turbocharger to slow
down. After five minutes, shut down the engine.
Emergency Jump Starting
The engine's electronic system operates on 12 volts DC. If a DD Platform engine
with an electric starting motor requires emergency jump starting, DO NOT
EXCEED 16 VOLTS DC.
WARNING: BATTERY EXPLOSION
To avoid injury from battery explosion when jump starting the
engine, do not attach the cable end to the negative terminal of the
disabled battery.
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WARNING: Battery Explosion and Acid Burn
To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid,
work in a well ventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid
sparks or flames near the battery. If you come in contact with
battery acid:
•
•
•
•
Flush your skin with water.
Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.
Flush your eyes with water.
Get medical attention immediately.
NOTICE: Jump starting with voltages greater than those indicated or
reversing battery polarity may damage the MCM.
NOTICE: Failure to connect jumper cables in the proper sequence can
result in alternator and/or equipment damage.
Before attempting to jump start the engine, the jumper cables must be connected
properly; positive-to-positive, and negative-to-chassis or suitable ground. The
proper sequence is to connect negative to negative ground last.
Routine Engine Start
The following are procedures for a routine engine start.
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST
To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the
engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine
equipped with an hydraulic clutch fan, remove loose items of
clothing and jewelry. Tie back or contain long hair that could be
caught in any moving part causing injury. The hydraulic fan may
start without warning.
Routinely Starting the Engine
Before a routine start, see the daily checks for your engine in the Maintenance
section of this manual.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
NOTICE: Before starting the engine, carefully read all operating instructions
in this manual and do all the recommended pre-trip inspections and daily
maintenance. Check the coolant, engine oil, and fuel levels, and drain
contaminants from the water separator/coalescer.
Start the engine as follows:
NOTE: If you drain water from the water separator/coalescer, you have to
prime the fuel system with the built-in hand primer (about 50 strokes).
NOTE: As a safety function, the electronic engine control system may be
wired to start the engine only if the transmission is in neutral. This feature is
vehicle application specific.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Turn on the ignition switch.
Wait for the engine system indicator lights on the instrument panel to go out.
With the accelerator pedal in the idle position, start the engine.
Check the engine for leaks.
a. Check all hoses, hose clamps, and pipe unions on the engine for
tightness. Shut down the engine and tighten them if necessary.
b. Check the oil feed and return lines at the turbocharger for leaks. Shut
down the engine and tighten them if necessary.
5. Shut down the engine.
NOTE: If the engine operating temperature is below 60ºC (140ºF), the
engine must be on a level surface and then shut down for 60 minutes for an
accurate oil level reading. Otherwise, the engine must be brought up to an
operating temperature of 60ºC (140ºF), parked on a level surface and then
shut down for five minutes for an accurate oil level reading.
6. Check the oil level using the oil dipstick. The oil level is measured using the
crosshatch area on the dipstick. If the oil reading within the crosshatch area,
then the oil is at the proper level for engine operation.
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7. Check all the mounting fasteners on the engine for tightness.
Checking the Coolant Level (Cold Check)
Check coolant level as follows:
1. Ensure that all coolant plugs in the bottom of the radiator and on the radiator
outlet pipe are secure and tight.
2. Check the coolant level. The cooling system is correctly filled when the
coolant is between the full and low marks on the surge tank.
Checking the Coolant Level (Hot Check)
Check the coolant levels as follows:
1. Allow the engine to run for approximately five minutes at a moderate speed.
2. After the coolant temperature reaches 50°C (122°F), recheck the coolant
level in the surge tank.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
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Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
3. Add more coolant if necessary. Open the heater valves before adding coolant.
4. Do not close the heater valves until the engine has been running briefly and
the coolant level is again checked and corrected as necessary.
Monitoring the Engine Operation
While the engine is operating, monitor the battery charge indicator light and the oil
pressure. Excessive idling should be avoided.
Monitoring the Battery Charging System
The battery charge indicator light must go out once the engine starts. If the
indicator light comes on while the engine is running, do the following:
1. Shut down the engine.
2. Test the charging system, per OEM guidelines.
WARNING: BATTERY EXPLOSION
To avoid injury from battery explosion when jump starting the
engine, do not attach the cable end to the negative terminal of the
disabled battery.
3. If necessary, visit the nearest authorized dealer to have the alternator voltage
and output checked.
4. Do a load test on the batteries.
5. Replace components as needed.
Monitoring the Oil Pressure
When the engine has reached its normal operating temperature, the engine oil
pressure must not drop below the following values:
• 55 psi (380 kPa) at rated speed
• 14 psi (97 kPa) at idling speed
If oil pressure drops below these values, stop the engine and determine the cause.
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Excessive Idling
Never allow the engine to idle for more than 30 minutes. Excessive idling can
cause oil to leak from the turbocharger.
Changing the Idle Speed
The idle speed range of the DD Platform engine is 600 to 900 rpm if the parameters
in the CPC are set to the default range. Change the idle speed as follows:
1. Turn the cruise control switch to the ON position.
2. To increase the idle speed, push the RSM/ACC switch until the idle reaches
the desired rpm.
3. To decrease the idle speed, push the SET/CST switch until the idle reaches
the desired rpm.
Shutting Down the Engine after High Load Operation
If the engine has been running at full output or the coolant temperature has been
high, idle the engine for five minutes without load. If any of the following
conditions occur, shut down the engine immediately:
NOTICE: A engine running at full output or with high coolant temperature
after a high load operation should idle for five minutes without load. Shutting
down without idling may cause damage to the turbocharger.
•
•
•
•
•
The oil pressure swings back and forth or falls sharply.
Engine power and rpm fall, even though the accelerator pedal remains steady.
The exhaust pipe gives off heavy smoke.
The coolant and/or oil temperature climb abnormally.
Abnormal sounds suddenly occur in the engine or turbocharger.
Emergency Running Mode
The engine is equipped with an electronic motor control system which monitors the
engine as it is running.
NOTICE: To prevent possible serious engine damage, have any faults
corrected without delay by an authorized service location.
As soon as an engine fault is detected, it is evaluated and one of the following
measures is initiated.
• In conjunction with any dashboard or instrument panel display, the code for the
electronic control unit reporting the fault can be read immediately on the display.
• If the fault is serious enough to impair normal operation, the electronic control
unit switches over to a "limp home" mode. The limp home speed is dependent on
engine control parameters and could be as low as 1000 rpm. This allows you to
safely move the vehicle to a service location or a safe stopping area.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Operating Instructions for Starting the Engine
Stop Engine Override Option
The Stop Engine Override Option is used for a momentary override. The electronic
engine control system will record the number of times the override is activated after
an engine fault occurs.
Momentary Override
A Stop Engine Override Switch is used to override the shutdown sequence. This
override resets the 60 second (30 second for oil pressure) shutdown timer, restoring
power to the level when the RSL/Stop Engine was illuminated. The switch must be
recycled after five seconds to obtain a subsequent override.
NOTE: The operator has the responsibility to take action to avoid engine
damage.
Cold Weather Operation
Special precautions must be taken during cold weather. To protect your engine,
special cold weather handling is required for fuel, engine oil, coolant, and batteries.
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
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Winter Fronts
A winter front may be used to improve cab heating while idling. At least 25% of
the grill opening should remain open in sectioned stripes that run perpendicular to
the charge air cooler tube flow direction. This assures even cooling across each
tube and reduces header to tube stress and possible failure. Winter fronts should
only be used when the ambient temperature remains below -12°C (10°F).
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
37
Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System
Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System
DDEC VI System
The engine is equipped with a fully electronic control system, which regulates the
fuel injection quantity and timing using solenoid valves, allowing extremely lowemission operation. Besides the engine and its related sensors, the system is
composed of the following:
• The Motor Control Module (MCM)
• The Common Powertrain Controller (CPC) located under the right-hand dash
panel.
The two control units are connected by a proprietary datalink through which all
necessary data and information can be exchanged.
The CPC then broadcasts all information on the J1587 and J1939 datalinks, where
it can be read by the diagnostic tool.
The engine control system monitors both the engine and the datalink. When a
malfunction or other problem is detected, the system selects an appropriate
response; for example, the emergency running mode may be activated.
The Accelerator Pedal Assembly (AP) eliminates the need for any throttle
linkage.
Motor Control Module Description
The Motor Control Module (MCM) is typically located on the left-hand side of the
engine.
Figure 6. Motor Control Module
The MCM processes the data received from the Common Powertrain Controller
(CPC), for example the position of the Accelerator Pedal (AP), engine brake, etc.
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These data are evaluated together with the data from the sensors on the engine,
such as coolant and fuel temperature and oil and charge pressure. The data is then
compared to the characteristic maps or lines stored in the MCM. From these data,
quantity and timing of injection are calculated.
NOTE: To obtain a replacement MCM, all the data given on the MCM label
are required.
The MCM data label has the 10 digit engine serial number.
Figure 7. Motor Control Module Label
Common Powertrain Controller
The Common Powertrain Controller (CPC) communicates with any other Motor
Control Module (MCM) unit installed on the vehicle over the J1939 data link.
Data for specific applications is stored in the CPC. These include idle speed,
maximum running speed, and speed limitation. From these data, instructions are
computed for controlling the engine and transmitted to the CPC via the proprietary
datalink.
The CPC receives data from the following sources:
• The operator (accelerator pedal position, engine brake switch)
• Other electronic control units (for example, the anti-lock brake system)
• The MCM (oil pressure and coolant temperature)
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
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Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System
1. Connector 1
2. Connector 2
3. Connector 3
4. Connector 4
Figure 8. Common Powertrain Controller
Detroit Diesel Electronic Control System Operation
NOTE: This engine is equipped with DDEC software. This software
generally assures optimal engine performance. The installation of software
upgrades may cause minor changes in features and engine performance.
Since the DDEC system is electronic, a battery is required to operate the computer.
The system operates at 12 volts. However, in the event of a power supply
malfunction, the system will continue to operate at reduced voltage. When this
occurs, the AWL (Check Engine) will come on.
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
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The engine will only operate at reduced rpm until the battery voltage reaches a
point where the MCM will no longer function and the engine shuts down.
Should the AWL (Check Engine) come on for any reason, the vehicle can still be
operated and the driver can proceed to the required destination. This condition
should be reported to an authorized Detroit™ distributor or dealer.
NOTICE: When the RSL (Stop Engine) comes on, the system has detected
a major malfunction in the engine that requires immediate attention. It is
the operator's responsibility to shut down the engine to avoid serious
damage.
The engine can be configured to give a warning only, to ramp down (reduce power)
or to shut down. Ramp down will reduce engine rpm to a predetermined speed, but
will not shut down the engine. With the 30-second shutdown option, the engine will
begin a 30-second, stepped power down sequence until it shuts down completely.
The "Stop Engine Override" feature can be activated in the case where the vehicle
is operating in a critical location.
Stop Engine Override Switch
This feature allows the operator to override the automatic stop engine sequence.
This is done by pressing the Stop Engine Override Switch every 15 to 20 seconds
to prevent engine shutdown from occurring.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System
NOTE: The Stop Engine Override Switch and the Diagnostic Request
Switch are the same.
NOTE: Holding down the Stop Engine Override Switch will not prevent the
engine shutdown sequence. You must continue to reset the automatic
shutdown system by pressing the Stop Engine Override Switch at intervals
of approximately 15 to 20 seconds.
It takes 30 seconds from the time the automatic shutdown sequence begins until
engine shutdown. Therefore, the operator must press the override switch just prior
to engine shutdown and continue to do so until the vehicle can be brought to a stop
in a safe location.
Immediate Speed Reduction
The immediate speed reduction option will bring engine rpm back to a
predetermined speed, but will not shut down the engine.
The engine should not be restarted after it has been shut down by the engine
protection system, unless the problem has been located and corrected.
Red Stop Lamp
The conditions that will cause the RSL (Stop Engine) to come on are:
•
•
•
•
•
High coolant temperature
Loss of coolant
High oil temperature
Low oil pressure
Auxiliary shutdown
If the malfunction is intermittent, the lights will come on and go off as the
computer senses the changing engine condition.
Diagnostic Tool
The diagnostic tool for Detroit Diesel Electronic Control is the Detroit Diesel
Diagnostic Link (DDDL 7.X). DDDL 7.X requirements are listed earlier in the
manual under Data Recording Capability.
The temperature of air in the intake system is increased with the addition of EGR.
DDEC is programmed to reduce fueling (power) for a short time to reduce air and
coolant temperatures when necessary.
DDEC will store an information code that this event occurred, but no corrective
action is required as this action is designed to maintain operation without a
noticeable affect on vehicle performance.
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Flashing Malfunction Codes
All malfunction codes are four digits. The malfunction code recorded in the
computer memory will remain until it is erased by a technician.
The flashing malfunction code can also be obtained by the operator. To support
flashing codes, a Stop Engine Override/Diagnostic Request Switch must be
configured and the AWL (Check Engine) and RSL (Stop Engine) must be hardwired. The CPC cannot flash these lamps if they are not hard-wired.
The flashing code feature may be activated by satisfying one of the following
conditions:
• Engine speed is <100 rpm and the Stop Engine Override Switch is put in the ON
position.
• Idle Governor is active and the Stop Engine Override Switch is put in the ON
position.
• Vehicle speed is <3 mph and Parking Brake is activated and the Stop Engine
Override Switch is put in the ON position.
The flashing code feature is deactivated once the Stop Engine Override Switch is
returned to the OFF position or the listed conditions are no longer satisfied.
Only one light will be flashing codes at any time. All codes will be flashed twice.
The inter-digit pause is 1.5 seconds. The pause between codes is 3.5 seconds. The
same 3.5-second pause occurs as the switch is made from RSL (Stop Engine) to
AWL (Check Engine).
When code flashing is initiated, the active codes will be flashed on the RSL (Stop
Engine). Then the inactive codes will be flashed on the AWL (Check Engine).
When all the inactive codes have been flashed, the process of flashing all the active
codes followed by all the inactive codes will repeat until the conditions for code
flashing are no longer satisfied.
If there are no active or inactive faults, the number 3 is flashed once followed by a
gap of 3 seconds.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
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Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System
Reading Fault Codes
To read the fault codes, press and hold the Stop Engine Override / Diagnostic
Request Switch.
Active codes will be flashed on the RSL (Stop Engine) first, followed by inactive
codes being flashed on the AWL (Check Engine). The codes will continue to flash
and repeat as long as the Diagnostic Request Switch is held in the ON position.
Both CPC and MCM faults are included.
Active Codes
The active codes will be flashed on the RSL (Stop Engine) in the order of most
recent to least recent occurrence based on engine hours.
Inactive Codes
The inactive codes will be flashed on the AWL (Check Engine) in the order of most
recent to least recent occurrence based on engine hours.
Detroit Diesel Electronic Control System Features
The electronic engine control system offers a variety of features and options
designed to warn the operator of any engine or Aftertreatment System (ATS)
malfunction. Options can range from warning panel lights to automatic reduction in
engine power followed by automatic engine shutdown. The electronic engine
control system has the ability to perform diagnostics for self-checks and
continuous monitoring of other system components.
Depending on the application, the electronic engine control system can monitor oil
temperature, coolant temperature, oil pressure, fuel pressure, coolant level and
remote sensors (if used).
The electronic engine control system activates the Amber Warning Lamp (AWL) /
Check Engine and the Red Stop Lamp (RSL) / Stop Engine to provide a visual
warning of a system malfunction.
Data Recording Capability
The electronic engine control system contains the ability to extract detailed data on
engine use and performance using DDEC Reports software. This detailed data (or
DDEC Data) is stored in the CPC and contains information on engine performance
such as fuel economy, idle time, and time in top gear. Critical incidents such as
detailed diagnostic data records and hard braking events are also stored. DDEC
Data can be downloaded using DDEC Reports software to produce reports.
NOTE: As the diagnostic and reprogramming software applications have
evolved, the requirements for additional computer storage capacity and
memory has increased. Please review these computer specifications
carefully and take any necessary steps to update your hardware as needed.
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Table 2.
DDDL 7.X System Requirements
Minimum Hardware
Recommended Hardware
Windows XP, Windows Vista or Windows 7
(32 & 64 bit)
Windows XP, Windows Vista or Windows 7
(32 & 64 bit)
Intel® Core™ 2 Duo, AMD Athlon™ 64X2, or
equivalent
1.8 Ghz processor
2.0+ GHz Dual-Core processor
1.0 GB RAM
2 GB RAM or more
40 Gigabyte Hard drive with 20 Gigabyte free 100 GB hard drive with 20 GB free space
32x CD ROM Drive
DVD ROM drive
Monitor and graphics card supporting 1024 x
768 resolution and 16-bit color
Monitor and graphics card supporting 1280 x
1024 resolution and 32-bit color
1 free USB port
Parallel port, three free USB ports
Internet or Mainframe Connection to DDC
Server (for updates)
High Speed Internet – Broadband Internet
Hardware
Adapter device (One of the following) › Nexiq MagiKey device with parallel cable › Nexiq
USB-Link with USB cable (Required for Cascadia diagnostics) Bluetooth functionality NOT
approved at this time
Engine Brake
The engine brake is enabled by a dash-mounted ON/OFF Switch with a separate
intensity switch to select low, medium, or high braking power.
CAUTION: LOSS OF VEHICLE CONTROL
To avoid injury from loss of vehicle control, do not activate the
Engine Brake system under the following conditions:
• On wet or slippery pavement, unless the vehicle is equipped
with ABS (anti-lock braking system) and you have had prior
experience driving under these conditions.
• When driving without a trailer (bobtailing) or pulling an empty
trailer.
• If the tractor drive wheels begin to lock or there is fishtail
motion after the Engine Brake is activated, deactivate the brake
system immediately if this occurs.
The engine brake will only operate when the Accelerator Pedal is fully released.
Disengaging the clutch will prevent the engine brake from operating.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System
The engine brake will supply braking power even when in Cruise Control. The
Motor Control Module will control the amount of engine braking with respect to
the Cruise Control set speed. The maximum amount of braking (low, medium,
high) is selected with the dash or steering wheel switches.
Engine Protection
The electronic engine control protection system monitors all engine sensors,
electronic components, and recognizes system malfunctions. If a critical fault is
detected, the AWL (Check Engine) and RSL (Stop Engine) illuminate. The
malfunction codes are logged into the MCM's memory.
The standard parameters which are monitored for engine protection are low coolant
level, high coolant temperature, low oil pressure, and high oil temperature.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from engine shutdown in an unsafe situation,
ensure the operator knows how to override the stop engine
condition on a DDEC-equipped unit.
NOTICE: Engines equipped with the power down/shutdown option have a
system override button or switch to allow engine operation for a short period
of time. Using the override button so the engine does not shut down in 30
seconds but operates for an extended period may result in engine damage.
This system features a 30-second, stepped-power shutdown sequence, or an
immediate speed reduction without shutdown in the event a major engine
malfunction occurs, such as low oil pressure, high oil or coolant temperature, or
low coolant level.
Idle Shutdown Timer
This feature is an optional 1-80 minute idle shutdown system. Its purpose is to
conserve fuel by eliminating excessive idling and allowing a turbocharger cooldown period. To activate the shutdown, the transmission must be in neutral with the
vehicle parking brakes set and the engine in idle or fast-idle mode.
Accelerating the Vehicle
Engine response versus pedal movement may feel different from the mechanicalgoverned engine you were driving. The Accelerator Pedal (AP) was designed to
communicate 'percentage' foot pedal travel to the engine's Motor Control Module
(MCM). The engine will respond accordingly to the driver's demand.
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Another throttle or governor characteristic you may need time to get used to is the
DDEC Limiting Speed Governor. This allows the driver to command total engine
response between idle and rated speed, such as accelerating at half throttle - an
advantage when driving under slippery conditions.
If you require wide-open throttle engine response, either accelerating or just plain
pulling hard, the throttle AP will have to be held to the floor. To obtain 100%
fueling at any speed, the AP will have to be maintained at the fully pressed
position.
Cruise Control
For added driver convenience and comfort, DDEC also features a Cruise Control
option that works just like the system in your car. It can be operated in any gear
above 1100 rpm or road speed faster than 20 mph (32 kph), up to the rated engine
speed. It also can be programmed to hold your road speed at or below the
maximum vehicle speed. The switch to energize Cruise Control is usually mounted
on the instrument panel or steering wheel.
Engine speed and power are varied under Cruise Control to maintain the set vehicle
speed. The vehicle speed must be above Min Cruise Set Speed and below Max
Cruise Set Speed. It is recommended that Max Cruise Set Speed be set to the
default to allow proper operation of other features such as Fuel Economy Incentive
and PasSmart. The Vehicle Speed Limit should be used to limit vehicle throttle
speed.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
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Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System
Turn the switch ON to energize the system. Remember as a check after each engine
start, DDEC looks for a one-time activation of the clutch (if equipped) and service
brake before DDEC allows Cruise Control to be enabled.
DDEC must also see or recognize that the Cruise Enable Switch has changed. If the
Cruise Enable Switch is OFF it needs to be turned ON. If the Cruise Enable Switch
is left in the ON position at key OFF, the switch must be cycled OFF then ON for
DDEC to see a status change to allow Cruise Control activation. The status of
DDEC inputs to activate Cruise Control at key ON is listed in the following table.
Table 3.
Input Status to Activate Cruise Control
Input
Input Status at Key ON
Input Status Before Cruise
Control Activates
Service Brake Switch
ON
OFF
Clutch Release Switch
(Manual Trans. only)
ON
OFF
Cruise Control Enable Switch
OFF
ON
Once Cruise Control is enabled and you reach your road speed, press the SET
Switch to activate Cruise Control. The cruise light will come on. To increase road
speed toggling the switch will result in a one mile-per-hour (1.6 kph) increase or
decrease in vehicle speed. If Cruise Control has been disabled, toggling the
RSM/ACC Switch restores the vehicle to the previously set cruise speed. , press the
RSM/ACC Switch. To reduce road speed, press and hold the SET/CST Switch until
the lower speed is reached.
Cruise Control can be overridden at any time with the throttle pedal if the vehicle is
operating at less than the programmed Max Road Speed.
Cruise Control is deactivated by slightly pressing the service brakes, clutch pedal,
or trailer brake. The ON/OFF Switch will also deactivate Cruise Control.
Cruise Control will maintain vehicle speed even on upgrades, unless power
requirements demand a downshift. If the Cruise Control/Engine Brake function is
turned ON, the Cruise Control will limit your speed on downgrades. Most likely,
Cruise Control will feel stronger than driving with the accelerator pedal because of
the instantaneous and wide-open throttle response. That's why Cruise Control use is
not suggested during slippery driving conditions.
Use Cruise Control after downshifting on a hill to pull the hill. Hitting the
RSM/ACC Switch (not the SET Switch) will keep the truck accelerating in the
lower gears up to the rated engine speed.
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CAUTION: LOSS OF VEHICLE CONTROL
To avoid injury from the loss of vehicle control, do not use cruise
control under these conditions:
• When it is not possible to keep the vehicle at a constant speed
(on winding roads, in heavy traffic, in traffic that varies in
speed, etc.).
• On slippery roads (wet pavement, ice-or snow-covered roads,
loose gravel, etc.).
Cruise Control will maintain the set speed under normal road and load conditions.
It cannot limit vehicle speeds on down grades if available engine braking effort is
exceeded, nor can it maintain speed on upgrades if power requirements exceed
engine power capability.
Cruise Control will disengage below 1000 rpm or 20 mph (32 kph) road speed.
When using Cruise Control, if you want to pull the engine below 1000 rpm,
remember to hold the accelerator pedal to the floor to keep the engine pulling at
wide-open throttle. The engine will pull down to about 1050 rpm.
Remember:The electronic data programmed into the DDEC system will not allow
you to hurt or over fuel the engine at low or lug engine speeds. There is enough oil
pressure to withstand hard pulls at low engine speeds.
Cruise Control may also be programmed to permit fast idle using the Cruise
Control switches.
With the engine at normal idle, transmission in neutral and service brakes on, press
the SPD CNTL Switch, and use the RSM/ACC Switch. The engine rpm should
increase to a pre-defined speed. The engine rpm can be raised or lowered from this
point using the SET/CST and RSM/ACC switches.
Engine Brake and Cruise Control
Your engine is equipped with both Cruise Control and an engine brake; the engine
brake can operate automatically while you are in Cruise Control. If the Cruise
Control/Engine Brake function is turned ON in the DDEC 10 system programming,
the engine brake will come on low when your set road speed increases a few mph
(kph) above your cruise set speed. If your speed continues to increase, the DDEC
10 system will increase the engine brake's braking power progressively. When the
vehicle returns to the set cruise speed the engine brake will turn off until you need
them.
For safety reasons, don't use Cruise Control when it is not possible to keep the
vehicle at constant speed due to:
•
•
•
•
Winding roads
Heavy traffic
Slippery pavement
Descending grades calling for engine brake assistance
All information subject to change without notice.
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Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) System
For an explanation of the engine brake system and recommendations for proper
operation, "Engine Brake System" in this manual.
DD Platform Shifting
Depending on your transmission model, the gear split may vary from 400 to 500
rpm. The electronic governor provides almost no overrun capability; and, if the
transmission is downshifted too early, you will experience a temporary loss of
pulling power until the engine speed falls below rated speed.
In general, when using a 7- or 9-speed transmission, you should always downshift
between 1000 and 1100 rpm for the DD15. This is true even on steep grades with
heavy loads. When using an 18-, 15-, or 13-speed transmission, you will need to
downshift at an rpm that allows "less than rated" rpm before throttle application in
the next gear down. You may want to limit engine speed to 1900 rpm in all gears.
DD Platform engines provide horsepower through 2100 rpm, but fuel economy is
not as efficient above 1800 rpm.
If you decide to drive at a lower rpm for improved fuel economy, don’t let different
engine noises throw you off guard. The engine sounds quiet at 1400 rpm, almost as
if it had quit pulling. Depending on the air intake arrangement, you may also
experience a "chuffing" sound as the engine starts to pull hard at lower rpm. This is
normal and caused by the velocity changes of the air flow within the air intake
plumbing. Electronic engines can actually deliver more fuel at lower engine speeds
than at rated speed.
The engine has been designed for a very quiet operation, but the air flow may be
noticeable to the tuned, attentive ear. The turbocharger operates at higher boost
pressure forcing EGR gas flow through the EGR plumbing. In some situations the
driver may believe he/she has experienced a charge air cooler system leak. Even
connecting trailer light and air hoses, the driver may hear a different tone (exhaust
and under hood with the engine idling.) If equipped with a turbo boost gauge, the
driver may occasionally note intake manifold pressure exceeds 35 psi (6.89 kPa).
Idling
The common belief that idling a diesel engine causes no engine damage is wrong.
Idling produces sulfuric acid, which is absorbed by the lubricating oil and eats into
bearings, rings, valve stems and engine surfaces. If you must idle the engine for cab
heat or cooling, the high idle function of the Cruise Control switches should be
used. An idle speed of 900 rpm should be enough to provide cab heat in above 0°C
(32°F) temperatures.
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Engine Brake System
The engine is equipped with an engine brake. Before operating the vehicle, you
must familiarize yourself with the engine brake system to obtain optimum benefit
from it. Engine brake control systems may vary slightly, depending on the engine
brake configuration and cab design. However, basic operator controls are similar
for all models.
Driver Control Switches
Vehicles with manual transmissions allow the driver to turn the engine brake on
and off and select a Low, Medium, or High level of braking.
• The "Low" setting on this switch activates braking on two cylinders, yielding
about one-third engine braking horsepower.
• The "Medium" setting on this switch activates four cylinders, supplying about
two-thirds engine braking horsepower.
• The "High" setting on this switch activates all six cylinders, providing full
engine brake horsepower.
NOTE: There is very little difference in the exhaust sound when the engine
brakes are activated in either the medium or high position.
Clutch Pedal and Throttle Position Controls
Engine brakes have two additional controls, one activated by the position of the
clutch pedal and the other activated by the position of the throttle. These controls
permit fully automatic operation of the engine braking system.
Engine Brake Activation Conditions
The engine braking system only permits fully automatic operation when the
following conditions are met:
•
•
•
•
•
Engine Brake switch is on.
An Engine Brake level (Low/Med/High) is selected.
Vehicle meets the programmed minimum speed.
The Clutch Pedal is out.
The Accelerator Pedal is at zero percent activation.
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Engine Brake System
Engine Brake Operation
NOTICE: Always allow the engine to reach full normal operating
temperature before activating the engine brake system to ensure positive
engine brake engagement.
The engine brake system depends on a full-pressure flow of warm engine
lubricating oil for proper lubrication of moving parts and optimum performance.
The minimum operating speed for the engine brake is 900 rpm. A check engine
lamp will be illuminated when the operating speed exceeds 2200 to 2300 rpm
depending on engine configuration.
NOTICE: Never exceed 2500 rpm or extensive engine damage can occur.
CAUTION: LOSS OF VEHICLE CONTROL
To avoid injury from loss of vehicle control, do not activate the
Engine Brake system under the following conditions:
• On wet or slippery pavement, unless the vehicle is equipped
with ABS (anti-lock braking system) and you have had prior
experience driving under these conditions.
• When driving without a trailer (bobtailing) or pulling an empty
trailer.
• If the tractor drive wheels begin to lock or there is fishtail
motion after the Engine Brake is activated, deactivate the brake
system immediately if this occurs.
Under normal driving conditions the engine brake system is left in the ON position.
However, this should change if roads become wet or slippery.
NOTICE: Do not attempt to “double clutch” the transmission while the
engine brake system is turned on. Shifting gears without pressing the clutch
or using the engine brake to reduce engine rpm may result in serious
powertrain damage.
After it is switched on, the engine brake system is automatically activated each time
you remove your feet completely from the clutch pedal and accelerator pedal. The
engine brake automatically deactivates itself when you press the clutch pedal while
shifting gears.
NOTE: Some systems may be programmed to activate themselves only
when the brake pedal is pressed, so read your vehicle owner's manual
thoroughly to find out if you have this option.
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Anti-Lock Braking Systems
Vehicles equipped with ABS have the ability to turn the engine brake OFF if a
wheel-slip condition is detected. The engine brake will automatically turn itself ON
once the wheel slip is no longer detected.
The DDEC system will deactivate the engine brake system when the engine speed
falls below a preset rpm or when the vehicle slows down to a preset speed,
depending on DDEC programming. This prevents stalling the engine. The engine
brake can also be used with vehicle Cruise Control turned ON.
Operating on Flat, Dry Pavement
Use the following guidelines when driving on flat, dry pavement:
• If driving on flat, dry, open stretches with a light load and greater slowing power
is not required, place the progressive braking switch in the LOW position.
• If you find you are still using the service brakes, move the progressive braking
switch to a higher position until you do not need to use the service brakes to slow
the vehicle down.
• If you are carrying a heavier load and road traction is good, move the progressive
braking switch to the HIGH position.
• Check your progressive braking switch often for proper position, since road
conditions can change quickly. Never skip a step when operating the progressive
braking switch. Always go from OFF to LOW, and then to a higher position.
Operating Down a Long, Steep Grade
An explanation of speed; may be helpful in understanding how to use the engine
brake system while descending a grade. Control Speed is the constant speed at
which the forces pushing the vehicle forward on a grade are equal to the forces
holding it back, without using the vehicle service brakes. In other words, this is the
speed the vehicle will maintain without using the service brakes or fueling.
NOTICE: Failure to keep the vehicle within safe control speed limits while
descending a grade may result in vehicle or property damage or both.
Use the following guidelines when descending a long, steep grade:
1. Before beginning the descent, determine if your engine brake system is
operating properly by lifting your foot briefly off the accelerator pedal. You
should feel the system activate.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
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Engine Brake System
CAUTION: BRAKE FADE
To avoid injury, do not over apply the vehicle service brakes
when descending a long, steep grade. Excessive use of the
vehicle brakes will cause them to heat up, reducing their stopping
ability. This condition, referred to as “brake fade”, may result in
loss of braking, which could lead to personal injury or vehicle/
property damage or both.
2. Ensure the progressive braking switch is in the appropriate power position
(LOW/MED/HIGH).
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
Failure to keep the vehicle within safe control speed limits while
descending a grade may result in loss of vehicle control, which
could cause personal injury.
3. Do not exceed the safe control speed of your vehicle. Example: You could
descend a 6% grade, under control only at 10 mph (16 kph) without an
engine brake, but at 25 mph (40 kph) with an engine brake. You could not
descend that same hill at 50 mph (80 kph) and still expect to remain under
control. Get to know how much slowing power your engine brake can
provide. So get to know your engine brake system before climbing hills and
do not exceed a safe control speed.
4. Check your progressive braking switch often for proper position
(LOW/MED/HIGH), since road conditions can change quickly. Never skip a
step when operating the progressive braking switch. Always go from OFF to
LOW and then to a higher position when on slippery roads.
Operating on Wet or Slippery Pavement
Operate the engine brake system as follows:
NOTE: Experience with the engine brake system on dry pavement is
recommended before attempting to use it on wet or slippery roads.
1. On wet or slippery pavement, start with the master switch in the OFF position
and use the gear you would normally use under these conditions.
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
CAUTION: LOSS OF VEHICLE CONTROL
To avoid injury from loss of vehicle control, do not activate the
Engine Brake system under the following conditions:
• On wet or slippery pavement, unless the vehicle is equipped
with ABS (anti-lock braking system) and you have had prior
experience driving under these conditions.
• When driving without a trailer (bobtailing) or pulling an empty
trailer.
• If the tractor drive wheels begin to lock or there is fishtail
motion after the Engine Brake is activated, deactivate the brake
system immediately if this occurs.
NOTE: On single trailers or combinations, a light air application of the trailer
brakes may be desirable to help keep the trailer stretched out. Follow the
manufacturer's recommended operating procedure when using your trailer
brakes.
2. If the tractor drive wheels begin to lock or there is fishtail motion after the
Engine Brake is activated, deactivate the brake system immediately if this
occurs.
3. However, if the tractor drive wheels begin to lock or there is a fishtail
motion, turn the engine brake system OFF immediately and do not activate it
until road conditions improve.
4. Check your progressive braking switch often for proper position
(LOW/MED/HIGH), since road conditions can change quickly. Never skip a
step when operating the progressive braking system. Always go from OFF to
LOW and then to a higher position.
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
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Engine Systems
Engine Systems
The engine systems are as follows:
Fuel System
The fuel system consists of DDEC control system, fuel injectors, low and high
pressure pumps, fuel filter module, prefilter, coalescer/final filter, and the necessary
connecting fuel lines. The common rail system with injectors provides
amplification for better fuel atomization.
Lubrication System
The lubrication system consists of an oil pump, oil cooler, cartridge-style oil filter,
pressure regulator valve, and oil pressure sensor. Clean, pressurized oil is fed to all
components via passages in the engine block and cylinder head.
Air System
Outside air enters the engine through the air filter and is drawn to the turbocharger
and then is compressed, and forced through the air-to-air charge cooler (heat
exchanger) and is cooled. Next, it flows to the intake manifold and into the
cylinders, where it mixes with atomized fuel from the injectors.
For optimum engine protection from dust and other airborne contaminants, service
the dry-type air cleaners used when the maximum allowable air restriction has been
reached.
Cooling System
A radiator/thermo-modulated fan cooling system is used on the engine. This system
has a centrifugal-type coolant pump to circulate coolant within the engine. One
full-blocking type thermostat located in the coolant module attached to the left side
of the cylinder block controls the flow of coolant. The coolant module incorporates
the oil cooler, oil filter, coolant filter, and coolant pump.
Electrical System
The electrical system consists of a starting motor, starting switch, battery-charging
alternator, storage batteries, and necessary wiring.
Exhaust System
Hot exhaust gas from the exhaust manifolds is used to drive the turbocharger.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system consists of an EGR cooler, EGR
valve and actuator. The EGR actuator opens and closes the EGR valve to allow hot
exhaust gas to enter the EGR cooler. Heat is extracted from the exhaust gas,
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resulting in cooler exhaust gas to the cylinders. EGR lowers the temperature of the
exhaust from the engine, therefore, reducing exhaust gas emissions to acceptable
levels.
The purpose of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation System (EGR) is to reduce engine
exhaust gas emissions in accordance with EPA regulations.
The EGR system has been optimized to dramatically cut NOx formation by routing
a measured amount of exhaust flow to the cylinders to lower combustion
temperatures. Lower temperatures result in lower NOx levels without the negative
effects of retarding engine timing. The EGR valve has been moved to the top of the
engine for improved serviceability.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Preventive Maintenance Intervals
Preventive Maintenance Intervals
Preventive Maintenance Intervals
The following guide establishes preventive maintenance intervals. These
recommendations should be followed as closely as possible to obtain long life and
optimum performance from your engine. When performed on a regular basis,
changing the engine oil, coolant, and filters is the least costly way of obtaining safe
and reliable vehicle operation. Added benefits and savings occur when you check
that the valves, fuel injectors, oil and cooling circuits are in good working order
during oil changes.
The intervals shown apply only to the maintenance functions described. These
functions should be coordinated with other regularly scheduled maintenance.
Schedule Use
Complete each maintenance operation at the required interval. The intervals are
based on a collaboration of field and fleet data. For a more accurate analysis of
when fluids should be changed, such as engine oil, refer to publication Engine
Requirements; Lubricating Oil, Fuel and Filters and publication Coolant Selections
for Detroit™ Engines, available from authorized Detroit™ distributors.
Each maintenance table shows which maintenance operation must be performed at
the recommended interval (in miles, kilometers, and hours).
NOTE: Failure to check and maintain Supplemental Coolant Additive levels
at required concentrations will result in severe damage (corrosion) to the
engine cooling system and related components. Coolant must be inhibited
with the recommended Supplemental Coolant Additives listed in this
manual.
Cooling System Flush and Fill
Coolant Flush and Fill - Proper maintenance of the cooling system is vital to its
performance and longevity. The cooling system must, on a constant basis, deal with
cavitation, temperature / pressure swings, and continuous threats on the additive
package. Once the additives have been depleted from the coolant, it will only be a
matter of time until the engine components suffer. Refer to section "Cooling
System Fill Procedure"
Cooling System Inspection - Inspect the cooling system as follows:
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WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
1. Inspect the radiator, condenser, coolant pump, engine oil cooler, freeze plugs,
and heat exchanger for damage and leaks.
2. Check all cooling system pipes and hoses for damage and leaks; ensure they
are positioned to avoid chafing, and are securely fastened.
3. Check the outside of the radiator and condenser for blockage. Check fins for
damage; straighten them if necessary.
Valve Lash Checking and Adjustment
Valve lash checking and adjustment should be performed per the maintenance
intervals prescribed under the proper service category for the engine. All three
service categories (Severe, Short Haul, and Long Haul) require a 'first time' valve
lash adjustment at a shorter interval. After the initial adjustment, all others are
based on the same mileage intervals. Proper valve lash clearance allows the engine
to produce the best possible performance with the lowest emissions. Valve lash
adjustments should be performed by an authorized Detroit™ maintenance or repair
facility.
Drive Belt
Belts should be neither too tight nor too loose. Belts that are too tight impose extra
loads on the crankshaft, fan and/or alternator bearings, shortening both belt and
bearing life. Excessively overtightened belts can result in crankshaft breakage. A
loose belt will slip and generate excessive heat that may cause damage to the belt
and accessory drive components.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from rotating belts and fans, do not remove and
discard safety guards.
Belt Replacement - Drive belts (V and poly-V) should be replaced every 2,000
hours or 100,000 miles (160,000 km).
After an extended time in service, minor rib cracks may appear, usually one or two
cracks per inch is considered normal. A concern occurs when the belt ribs exhibit
severe multiple cracking or 'chunking'. At this point, the belt should be replaced.
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Preventive Maintenance Intervals
Poly-V Belt
Auto Tensioner - Auto tensioners are usually maintenance free for the life of the
engine. However, routine inspections should be performed. Uneven belt wear can
indicate a loose, wore out, or bad bearing on the auto tensioner. A build up of dirt
or grime around the front bearing surface of the wheel can indicate a future bearing
failure due to inadequate lubrication.
Fuel / Water Separator
Incorporated into the fuel filter module is a fuel/water separator. The separator
removes emulsified water as well as droplets and is located in the lower
compartment of the fuel filter module. A water-in-fuel (WIF) sensor indicates when
trapped water needs to be drained.
NOTICE: Do not over-tighten the water drain valve. Failure to properly
tighten the water drain valve may cause damage to the water drain valve
and housing.
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1. Water in Fuel Separator(Coalescer/
Final Filter) Cap
2. Pre Filter Cap
3. Water Drain Valve
Figure 9. Fuel Filter Module
Fuel Filters
The prefilter is housed within the fuel filter module. The prefilter element filters
particles down to 100 microns and is snapped into the prefilter cap. The coalescer/
final filter is housed within the fuel filter module. The coalescer/final filter has the
task of separating out the water contained in the fuel and also filtering out particles
down to 3 to 5 microns. The coalescer/final filter snaps into the coalescer/final filter
cap.
Air System
Air Cleaner - The air cleaner element should be inspected per the maintenance
intervals or more often if the engine is operated under severe dust conditions.
Replace the element, if necessary. Check the gaskets for deterioration and replace,
if necessary. If the dry type air cleaner is equipped with an aspirator, check for
aspirator damage or clogging. Clean, repair or replace, as necessary.
NOTICE: Do not allow the air inlet restriction to exceed 5.5 kPa (22 in.
H2O) under any engine operating conditions. A clogged air cleaner element
will cause excessive intake restriction and reduced air supply to the engine
resulting in increased fuel consumption, inefficient engine operation and
reduced engine life.
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Preventive Maintenance Intervals
Inspect the entire air system for leaks daily. Look especially for torn air inlet piping
or boots and loose or damaged clamps. Have worn or damaged parts repaired or
replaced, as required. Retighten loose connections
Air Cleaner Replacement - Dry type air cleaner elements should be replaced after
one year of service or when the maximum allowable air intake restriction has been
reached, whichever comes first.
Air-to-Air Charge Cooler - Periodically inspect the air-to-air charge cooler for
buildup of dirt, mud, etc. and wash off using a mild soap solution. Check the charge
cooler, ductwork, and flexible connections for leaks and have repaired or replaced,
as required.
Exhaust System
The exhaust manifold retaining bolts and other connections should be inspected for
leaks. The exhaust pipe rain cap should be checked for proper operation, if so
equipped.
Air Compressor
The air compressor incorporates three of the major systems of a diesel engine (air,
lubrication, and coolant). Proper inspection of air compressor would include
inspecting for air, oil, and coolant leaks. Due to inadequate internal sealing air
compressors, when failed, can produce excessive crankcase pressure or allow an
engine to ingest oil.
Vibration Damper
The viscous vibration damper should be inspected periodically and replaced if
dented or leaking. Heat from normal engine operation may, over a period of time,
cause the fluid within the damper to break down and lose its dampening properties.
For this reason the viscous vibration damper must be replaced at time of normal
major engine overhaul, regardless of apparent condition.
Preventive Maintenance Tables
NOTE: Actual fuel filter life will vary based on fuel quality.
Table 4.
Service Maintenance Intervals
Miles X 1000/
25/
50/
75/
100/
125/
150/
Km X 1000/
40/
80/
120/
160/
200/
240/
Hours*
640
1280
1925
2565
3205
3850
Lubricating Oil
R
R
R
R
R
R
Lubricating Oil Filter
R
R
R
R
R
R
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Service Maintenance Intervals
Coolant
Refer to section "How to Select Coolant" for the
listing of required intervals using the
recommended coolants.
Cooling System Filter (if equipped)
-
-
-
R
-
-
R
R
R
Fuel Filters without Frame-mounted Filter
Fuel Filters
R
R
R
Fuel Filters with Frame-mounted Filter
Frame-mounted Filter
R
R
R
R
R
R
Fuel Filters
-
-
R
-
-
R
Valve Lash Adjustment
Adjust at 100,000 miles (160,000 km), at 500,000
miles (800,000 km), and then every 500,000 miles
(800,000 km) thereafter.
Belts
I
I
I
I
R
I
Air System
I
I
I
I
I
I
Air Cleaner
I
I
I
I
I
I
Exhaust System
I
I
I
I
I
I
Air Compressor
I
I
I
I
I
I
• *Whichever comes first.
• Currently, Davco 482 is the only frame-mounted filtration system compatible for Detroit™
Engines.
• Refer to "Routine Preventive Maintenance" for a description of all items.
• R = Replace
• I = Inspect
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Routine Preventive Maintenance
Routine Preventive Maintenance
This section describes the items listed in the maintenance interval tables. The Daily
instructions apply to routine or daily starting of the engine. They do not apply to a
new engine or one that has been operated for a considerable period of time.
Monitoring the Lubricating Oil
Perform the following maintenance on the lubricating oil:
1. Check the oil level daily with the engine stopped and on a level surface. If
the engine has just been stopped and is warm, wait approximately 20 minutes
to allow the oil to drain back into the oil pan before checking.
NOTE: the dipstick has a positive locking device such as a lever or twistlock design that must be disengaged before pulling the dipstick out of the
guide tube. Use a shop rag to wipe off the end of the dipstick. Wait 15
seconds to allow any crankcase pressure to dissipate through the guide
tube and let the oil level settle in the oil pan.
2. Add the proper grade of oil to maintain the correct level on the dipstick.
Remove the dipstick from the guide tube. Before adding lubricating oil, refer
to "How to Select Lubricating Oil."
NOTICE: Do NOT fill beyond the maximum fill level on the dipstick, since
overfilling may result in high oil consumption and possible severe engine
damage.
NOTE: If the engine operating temperature is below 60° C (140° F), the
engine must be on a level surface and then shut down for 60 minutes for an
accurate oil level reading. Otherwise, the engine must be brought up to an
operating temperature of 60° C (140° F), parked on a level surface and then
shut down for five minutes for an accurate oil level reading.
3. Reinstall the dipstick and make sure it is fully inserted into the guide tube.
Remove the dipstick and read the oil level dipstick.
NOTICE: Do not add oil if the oil reading is in the crosshatch area on the
dipstick. There are approximately 5.0 L (5.2 qts) from the minimum mark to
the maximum mark on the dipstick. Overfilling the oil pan can cause engine
damage.
NOTICE: If the oil level is constantly above normal and excess oil has not
been added to the crankcase, consult with an authorized Detroit service
outlet for the cause. Fuel or coolant dilution of lubricating oil can result in
serious engine damage.
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4. Check the oil level daily. With the engine stopped, use the oil dipstick and
measure the oil level on crosshatch area on the dipstick. Figure below shows
Maximum oil level (1) and Minimum oil level (2). If the oil reading is in the
crosshatch area or between the bends of the dipstick, then the oil is at the
proper level for engine operation.
5. Add the proper grade of oil to maintain the satisfactory range on the dipstick.
All diesel engines are designed to use some oil, so the periodic addition of oil
is normal. Before adding lubricating oil, refer to "How to Select Lubricating
Oil."
Monitoring the Lubricating Oil Filter
The engines are equipped with a single cartridge-style oil filter (1) that is part of the
oil/coolant module. Incorporated into the housing is a drain back port which allows
residual oil to be returned to the oil pan when the filter is removed. This design,
including the cartridge style element, allows for a more environmentally-safe oil
change.
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Routine Preventive Maintenance
Perform the following maintenance on the Lubricating Oil Filter:
1. Replace the oil filters when recommended by the appropriate maintenance
table.
Refer to section "Preventive Maintenance Tables"
2. Make a visual check of all lubricating oil lines for wear and/or chafing. If any
indication of wear is evident, replace the oil lines and correct the cause.
3. Check for oil leaks after starting the engine.
Monitoring the Cooling System
The cooling system must be full for proper operation of the engine.
WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
1. Check the coolant level daily and maintain it between the full and low marks
on the surge tank.
2. Add coolant as required, but do not overfill. Before adding coolant, refer to
"How to Select Coolant" for the listing of required intervals using the
recommended coolants
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Checking for Coolant Leaks
Perform daily visual checks for cooling system leaks. Look for an accumulation of
coolant when the engine is running and when it is stopped.
NOTE: Coolant leaks may be more apparent on a engine when it is cold.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury before starting and running the engine, ensure the
vehicle is parked on a level surface, parking brake is set, and the
wheels are blocked.
Coolant Inhibitors
The inhibitors in antifreeze solutions must be replenished with an approved
corrosion inhibitor supplement when indicated by testing the coolant. Refer to
section "How to Select Coolant" for the listing of required intervals using the
recommended coolants for required test intervals, inhibitor levels, and approved
inhibitors.
NOTICE: Coolant must be inhibited with the recommended Supplemental
Coolant Additives listed in this manual. Failure to check and maintain
Supplemental Coolant Additive levels at required concentrations will result
in severe damage (corrosion) to the engine cooling system and related
components.
The cooling system is protected by a Supplemental Coolant Additive element. In
addition, the engine can be equipped with a coolant filter/inhibitor system as an
installed option or as an after-sale item.
Coolant Drain Interval
A coolant system properly maintained and protected with supplemental coolant
inhibitors can be operated up to the intervals listed. At these intervals the coolant
must be drained and disposed of in an environmentally responsible manner
according to state and/or federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
recommendations.
Inspection of the Radiator
Inspect the radiator as follows:
1. Inspect the exterior of the radiator core every 30,000 miles (50,000 km) or 12
months.
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Routine Preventive Maintenance
WARNING: EYE INJURY
To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air,
wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and
do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.
NOTE: It may be necessary to clean the exterior of the radiator more
frequently if the engine is being operated in extremely dusty or dirty areas.
2. If necessary, clean the exterior using a quality grease solvent, such as mineral
spirits, and dry with compressed air. Do not use fuel oil, kerosene, or
gasoline.
3. If the low coolant level sensor is installed in the top tank of the radiator, test
for proper operation every 100,000 miles (160,000 km) or 12 months,
whichever comes first. Authorized Detroit™ distributors are properly
equipped to perform this service.
Monitoring the Cooling System Filter
Install a new cooling system filter at the distance intervals indicated by each
specific Maintenance Interval chart.
• Refer to section "Preventive Maintenance Tables".
Monitoring the Fuel Filters
Monitoring the Fuel System Filters
The engine is equipped with a prefilter that filters down to 100 microns, a
coalescer/final filter that separates water, and filters down to 3 to 5 microns. When
servicing these elements, all two filters should be changed at the same time. All
two elements are located within the fuel filter module located on the left side of the
engine.
NOTICE: Do not over-tighten the water drain valve. Failure to properly
tighten the water drain valve may cause damage to the water drain valve
and housing.
NOTE: Filter change intervals may be shortened to conform with
established preventive maintenance schedules, but should never be
extended.
1. Replace the fuel filters using the Preventative Maintenance Tables.
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Adjusting the Valve Lash
NOTE: Proper valve lash clearance allows the engine to produce the best
possible performance with the lowest emissions. Valve lash adjustments
should be performed by an authorized Detroit™ maintenance or repair
facility.
Perform a valve lash adjustment as scheduled for the appropriate engine duty cycle.
Monitoring the Belt Tensioner
The engine is equipped with two engine belt tensioners to ensure the belts are
neither too tight nor too loose. Belts that are too tight impose extra loads on the
crankshaft, fan, and alternator bearings shortening both belt and bearing life. A
loose belt will slip and generate excessive heat that may cause damage to the belt
and accessory drive components.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from rotating belts and fans, do not remove and
discard safety guards.
1. Inspect the belt tensioner for wear or damage.
2. If damage is found it may need to be replaced by an authorized Detroit™
maintenance or repair facility.
Monitoring the Serpentine Belts
Two poly-V-belts (8 and 9) are used on the engine for On-Highway Vehicle
applications. One belt drives the fan hub and the other belt drives the remaining
accessories. To provide proper running tension, the current engine uses an
automatic fan hub belt tensioner (6) and an accessory belt tensioner (2). Automatic
belt tensioners require no adjustment.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Routine Preventive Maintenance
Replacement of Belts
Replace the drive belts every 2,000 hours or 300,000 miles (480,000 km).
Inspection of the Air Intake System
Perform the following maintenance on the Air Intake System:
1. Inspect all the connections in the air system to make sure they are tight and
leak-free.
2. Check all hoses and ducting for punctures, deterioration, or other damage and
replace, if necessary.
Monitoring the Air Cleaner
The engine is equipped with an engine-mounted air cleaner that is flat in design to
accommodate various vehicle packages. Replace dry type air cleaner elements
when the maximum allowable air intake restriction has been reached.
1. Inspect the air cleaner element every 50,000 miles (80,000 km) or more often
if the engine is operating under severe dust conditions. Replace the element,
if necessary.
2. Check the gaskets for deterioration and replace, if necessary.
3. If the dry type air cleaner is equipped with an aspirator, check for aspirator
damage or clogging. Clean, repair or replace, as necessary.
NOTICE: Do not allow the air inlet restriction to exceed 20 in. H2O (5.0
kPa) under any engine operating conditions. A clogged air cleaner element
will cause excessive intake restriction and reduced air supply to the engine
resulting in increased fuel consumption, inefficient engine operation, and
reduced engine life.
4. Inspect the entire air system for leaks daily.
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a. Look especially for torn air inlet piping or boots and loose or damaged
clamps. Have worn or damaged parts repaired or replaced, as required.
b. Re-tighten loose connections.
Monitoring the Exhaust System
Inspect the Exhaust System as follows:
1. Check the exhaust manifold retaining bolts and other connections for
tightness.
2. Check the exhaust pipe rain cap for proper operation, if so equipped.
Inspection of the Air Compressor
NOTE: Because the air compressor facilitates air, lubricating oil, and
coolant flow, a failed air compressor could result in contamination between
these three fluids. When failed, an air compressor can produce excessive
crankcase pressure or allow an engine to ingest lubricating oil.
The air compressor incorporates three of the major systems of a diesel engine (air,
lubrication, and cooling). Inspect the air compressor looking for air, oil, and
coolant leaks.
Monitoring the Fuel and Fuel Tank
To prevent fuel and fuel tank problems, the following measures are recommended:
1. Keep the fuel tank filled to reduce condensation.
2. Before adding fuel, Refer to section "How to Select Diesel Fuel"
3. Refill the tank at the end of each day's operation to prevent condensation
from contaminating the fuel. Condensation formed in a partially filled tank
promotes the growth of microorganisms that can clog fuel filters and restrict
fuel flow.
4. To prevent microbe growth, add a biocide to the fuel tank or primary fuel
supply only as needed.
5. Open the drain at the bottom of the fuel tank every 30,000 miles (50,000
kilometers) to drain off any water and/or sediment.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from improper use of chemicals, follow the
chemical manufacturer's usage, handling, and disposal
instructions. Observe all manufacturer's cautions.
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Routine Preventive Maintenance
NOTICE: Never use galvanized steel fuel tanks, fittings, pipes, or supply
lines. The fuel reacts chemically with the zinc coating to form powdery
flakes that can quickly clog the fuel filters and damage the fuel pumps and
injectors.
6. Every 120,000 miles (200,000 kilometers) or 12 months, tighten all fuel tank
mountings and brackets. At the same time, check the seal in the fuel tank cap,
the breather hole in the cap, and the condition of the flexible fuel lines.
Repair or replace the parts, as necessary.
Inspection of Hoses and Fittings for Fuel Leaks
A pre-start inspection of hoses and fuel lines is recommended. Make a visual check
for fuel leaks at all engine-mounted fuel lines and connections, and at the fuel tank
suction and return lines. Since fuel tanks are susceptible to road hazards, leaks in
this area may best be detected by checking for an accumulation of fuel under the
tank.
WARNING: HOT OIL
To avoid injury from hot oil, do not operate the engine with the
rocker cover(s) removed.
NOTE: Leaks are not only detrimental to machine operation, but they can
also result in added expense caused by the need to replace lost fluids
Inspection of Hoses and Fittings
Check hoses daily as part of the pre-start inspection.
• Examine hoses for leaks, and check all fittings, clamps and ties carefully.
• Make sure hoses are not resting on or touching shafts, couplings, heated surfaces
including exhaust manifolds, sharp edges, or other obvious hazardous areas.
• Since all machinery vibrates and moves to a certain extent, clamps and ties can
fatigue with age. To ensure continued proper support, inspect fasteners
frequently and tighten or replace them as necessary.
• If fittings have loosened or cracked, or if hoses have ruptured or worn through,
take corrective action immediately.
Inspection of Hoses with Extended Service Life
A hose has a finite service life. With this in mind, inspect hoses as follows:
NOTE: Fire-resistant fuel and lubricating oil hose assemblies do not require
automatic replacement after five years of service or at major overhaul, but
should be inspected carefully before being put back into service.
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1. Thoroughly inspect all hoses at least every 500 operating hours (1,000 hours
for fire-resistant fuel and lubricating oil hoses) and/or annually. Look for
cover damage and/or indications of twisted, worn, crimped, brittle, cracked or
leaking lines. Hoses with their outer cover worn through or with damaged
metal reinforcements should be considered unfit for further service.
2. Replace all hoses in and out of machinery during major overhaul and/or after
a maximum of five (5) years of service.
Inspection of the Turbocharger and Charge Air Cooler
Inspect turbocharger and charge air cooler as follows:
1. Visually inspect the turbocharger mountings, intake and exhaust ducting, and
connections for leaks daily.
2. Check the lubricating oil inlet and outlet lines for leaks or restrictions to oil
flow.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from hot surfaces, wear protective gloves, or allow
engine to cool before removing any component.
3. Check the turbocharger for unusual noise or vibration and, if excessive, stop
the engine and do not operate until the cause is determined.
4. Periodically inspect the air-to-air charge air cooler for buildup of dirt, mud,
or other debris. Clean as necessary.
5. Check the charge air cooler, duct work, and flexible connections for leaks
and repair or replace as required.
Inspection of the Battery
Inspect the battery as follows:
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the
engine, disconnect/disable the starting system.
1. Check for cracks in the battery cases (1), for tightness of the cable clamps (2)
at the terminals, and for corrosion of the terminals (3). Service or replace as
needed.
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Routine Preventive Maintenance
2. Keep the terminal surface clean.
3. Inspect the cables, clamps and hold-down brackets regularly. Clean and
reapply a light coating of petroleum jelly when needed. Have corroded or
damaged parts replaced.
4. If the engine is to be out of service for more than 30 days, remove the
batteries and store in a cool, dry place.
a. Keep batteries fully charged, if possible.
b. Replace any battery that fails to hold a charge.
5. Periodically check battery connections for corrosion and tightness.
a. If necessary, remove connections and wire brush any corrosion from
terminals and cable ends.
b. Replace damaged wiring.
Steam Cleaning the Engine
NOTICE: Do not apply steam or solvent directly to the battery-charging
alternator, starting motor, DDEC components, sensors or other electrical
components, as damage may result.
The engine and engine compartment should be steam cleaned every 60,000 miles
(100,000 km) or 2,000 hours, whichever comes first.
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Inspection of the Battery-Charging Alternator
Precautions must be taken when working on or around the alternator. The diodes
and transistors in the alternator circuit are very sensitive and can be easily
destroyed. To avoid equipment damage, the following conditions must be met:
WARNING: Battery Explosion and Acid Burn
To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid,
work in a well ventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid
sparks or flames near the battery. If you come in contact with
battery acid:
•
•
•
•
Flush your skin with water.
Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.
Flush your eyes with water.
Get medical attention immediately.
• Avoid grounding the output terminal. Grounding an alternator output wire or
terminal (which is always hot, regardless of whether or not the engine is running)
and accidentally reversing the battery polarity will result in equipment damage.
• Do not reverse battery connections.
• Never disconnect the battery while the alternator is operating. Disconnecting the
battery can result in damage to the battery diodes. In applications which have
two sets of batteries, switching from one set to the other while the engine is
running will momentarily disconnect the batteries.
• If a booster battery is to be used, batteries must be connected correctly (negative
to negative, positive to positive).
• Never use a fast charger with the batteries connected or as a booster for battery
output.
For information on the alternator assembly, contact an authorized distributor,
depending on manufacturer.
Check the alternator as follows:
1. Inspect the terminals for corrosion and loose connections and wiring for
damage and frayed insulation. Have wiring repaired or replaced, as required.
2. Check torque on alternator mounting bolts and bracketing every 30,000 miles
(50,000 km). Re-tighten if necessary.
Lubricating the Fan Hub
If the fan bearing hub assembly has a grease fitting, use a hand grease gun to
lubricate the bearings with one shot of quality lithium-based, multipurpose grease
every 120,000 miles (200,000 km). Care should be taken not to overfill the bearing
housing.
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Routine Preventive Maintenance
Checking the Vibration Damper
Check the vibration damper as follows:
1. Inspect the viscous vibration damper (1) periodically and replace if dented or
leaking.
2. Heat from normal engine operation may, over a period of time, cause the
fluid within the damper to break down and lose its dampening properties. For
this reason, replace the viscous vibration damper at time of normal major
engine overhaul, regardless of apparent condition.
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How to Procedures
This section covers the Detroit™ recommendations on how to select lubricating oil,
diesel fuel, and coolant. Also included are basic engine maintenance procedures
which can be performed by the operator.
NOTICE: The manufacturer’s warranty applicable to the engine provides in
part that the provisions of such warranty shall not apply to any engine unit
that has been subject to misuse, negligence or accident. Accordingly,
malfunctions attributable to neglect or failure to follow the manufacturer’s
fuel or lubricating recommendations may not be within the coverage of the
warranty.
How to Select Lubricating Oil
NOTICE: Detroit™ POWER GUARD® Oil Specification 93K214 is
recommended for all EuroIV cooled EGR-equipped engines without
aftertreatment devices or any engine operating on Low Sulfur fuel < 500
ppm. These engines meet 2002 to 2006 model year emission requirements.
These oils are similar to API CI-4 PLUS.
Figure 10. Example SAE Viscosity Grade: 15W-40 API Classification:
CI-4 PLUS
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How to Procedures
Cold Weather Starting
NOTICE: Monograde oils should not be used in the engine, regardless of
API service classification. Monograde oils gel at lower ambient
temperatures, reducing lubricant flow, and do not provide adequate lubricity
at higher engine operating temperatures resulting in severe engine
damage.
At ambient temperatures below -10° C (14° F), SAE 5W-30, 5W-40, or 10W-40
oils may be used, provided they are API CI-4 PLUS and have demonstrated field
performance in Detroit™ engines. These oils must possess a High Temperature /
High Shear Viscosity of 3.7 cP minimum.
Use of Synthetic Oils
NOTE: Synthetic oil does not permit extension of recommended oil drain
intervals.
Synthetic oils may be used in Detroit™ engines provided they are approved by a
POWER GUARD® Oil Specification (PGOS) 93K214. The use of synthetic oils
does not necessarily ensure the extension of the recommended oil drain intervals
beyond the limits. Synthetic oils offer improved low-temperature flow properties,
high-temperature oxidation resistance, and improved fuel mileage. However, they
are generally more costly than non-synthetic oils.
Product information about synthetic oils should be reviewed carefully. Performance
additive systems often respond differently in synthetic oils.
Use of Supplemental Additives
Lubricants meeting the Detroit™ specifications outlined in this publication already
contain a balanced additive treatment. Supplemental additives are generally not
necessary and can even be harmful. These additives may be marketed as either oil
treatments or engine treatments and are discouraged from use in Detroit™ engines.
Engine damage resulting from the use of such materials is not covered by your
Detroit™ warranty. Detroit™ will not provide statements beyond this publication
relative to their use.
When to Change Oil
Refer to DDC-SVC-BRO-0001 for more information.
The length of time an engine may operate before an oil change depends upon the
lubricant and fuel used, engine oil consumption, and the operating cycle.
CAUTION: USED ENGINE OIL
To avoid injury to skin from contact with the contaminants in used
engine oil, wear protective gloves and apron.
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Oil analysis may be used to determine whether this interval should be shortened,
but it should not be used to lengthen the interval.
The use of fuels with sulfur content above 0.05 mass percent will require a
shortening of drain intervals and/or the use of a higher TBN oil.
Disposal of Waste Oil
Used lubricating oil and filters require disposal in an environmentally responsible
manner, according to federal (EPA) and/or state recommendations. The disposal of
waste oil may be best addressed by the engine oil supplier, who may accept
responsibility for proper disposal of this material as part of the business of
providing lubricant.
How to Replace the Lubricating Oil and Oil Filter
The oil filter is an integral part of the lubrication system. Proper filter selection and
maintenance are important to satisfactory engine performance and service life. The
filter should be used to maintain a clean system, not to clean up a contaminated
system. The maintenance intervals for the appropriate duty cycle are listed in tables
in this manual.
Change the oil and replace the lubricating oil filter as follows:
NOTE: If the used oil was contaminated by fuel or coolant, it may be
necessary to take the vehicle to a certified Detroit Service Center. The
Service Center may drain the oil and then remove the oil pan, oil pump, and
oil pump intake manifold to drain the remaining oil held back by the
backflow valve. It is important to remove all contaminated oil from the
engine.
NOTE: Change the engine oil only when the engine oil temperature is
approximately 60°C (140°F). Changing cold oil will result in extended drain
times.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury, never remove any engine component while the
engine is running.
1. Place the transmission in neutral, and set the parking brake.
NOTICE: Use care to prevent foreign objects from entering the filter
housing.
2. Clean outside of the oil filter housing.
3. Using a 36-mm socket, unscrew the oil filter cap and filter and allow the oil
to drain into the housing. After draining is complete, remove the assembly
from the housing.
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How to Procedures
4. Remove the filter element by pressing and twisting the side and detaching it
from the cap.
5. Remove the oil filter O-ring and discard. Lightly coat a new O-ring with
clean engine oil and install it on the filter cap.
6. Check the filter housing for any debris and remove if necessary.
7. Insert a new filter element into the oil filter cap.
8. Insert the filter element and cap assembly into the housing. Torque the cap to
40 to 50 N·m (30 to 37 lb·ft).
9. Drain oil from the oil pan as follows:
a. Place a suitable receptacle, 55 L (58 qt) or more, beneath the oil drain
plug on the underside of the oil pan.
b. Carefully unscrew the oil drain plug, and allow the oil to drain out.
c. Discard the plug seal ring.
10. Install the oil pan drain plug with a new O-ring and torque the plug:
a. On a plastic oil pan, torque plug to 45 N·m +/- 7 N·m (33 lb·ft +/- 5
lb·ft).
b. On an aluminum oil pan, torque plug to 60 N·m +/- 9 N·m (44 lb·ft +/6 lb·ft ).
NOTICE: Do not add oil if the oil reading is between the crosshatch area on
the dipstick. There are approximately 5.0 L (5.2 qt) from the fill mark to the
full mark. Overfilling the oil pan can cause engine damage.
11. Add new engine oil through the oil fill tube in the following amount; Refer to
section "Engine Oil Capacities". Verify the oil level reading is between the
full and fill marks on the dipstick.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury before starting and running the engine, ensure the
vehicle is parked on a level surface, parking brake is set, and the
wheels are blocked.
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST
To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the
engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.
NOTICE: If no oil pressure is shown after approximately 10 seconds, stop
the engine and determine the cause. Running the engine with no oil
pressure could result in engine damage.
12. Start the engine with the accelerator pedal in the idle position (600 rpm).
Monitor the oil pressure gauge or indicator lamp. Keep the engine running at
idling speed (600 rpm) until the oil pressure reading is 10.2 psi (70 kPa) or
more for the DD15.
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NOTICE: Do not add oil if the oil reading is between the crosshatch area on
the dipstick. There are approximately 5.0 L (5.2 qt) from the fill mark to the
full mark. Overfilling the oil pan can cause engine damage.
NOTE: If the engine operating temperature is below 60°C (140°F), the
engine must be on a level surface and then shut down for 60 minutes for an
accurate oil level reading. Otherwise, the engine must be brought up to an
operating temperature of 60°C (140°F), parked on a level surface and then
shut down for five minutes for an accurate oil level reading.
13. Check the filter housing for signs of leakage.
14. Stop the engine. Check the oil level again per the following guidelines. If
necessary, add oil no more than 5.0 L (5.2 qt) at a time up to the maximum
fill level on the oil dipstick.
How to Select Diesel Fuel
All EuroIV DD engines are designed to operate on Low Sulfur Diesel fuel.
Quality
NOTICE: Use only Low Sulfur Diesel (LSD) fuel (500 PPM sulfur content
maximum), based on ASTM Standard D 2622 test procedure.
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Fuel quality is an important factor in obtaining satisfactory engine performance,
long engine life, and acceptable exhaust emission levels. In general, fuels meeting
the properties of ASTM Standard D 975 (grades 1-D and 2-D) have provided
satisfactory performance. See "Diesel Fuel Specification" table in DDC-SVCBRO-0001.
The fuels used must be clean, stable, and non-corrosive. For more information
regarding the significance of these properties and selection of the proper fuel, refer
to DDC-SVC-BRO-0001, "Diesel Fuel Properties."
Fuel Contamination
Generally, fuel contamination occurs as the result of improper fuel handling. The
most common types of contamination are water, dirt, and microbial growth "black
slime". The formation of varnishes and gums resulting from poor stability or
extended storage "stale fuel" also affects fuel quality. The best treatment for
contamination is prevention by maintaining a clean storage system and choosing a
reputable fuel supplier.
Supplemental additives are not recommended due to potential injector system
or engine damage. Our experience has been that such additives increase
operating costs without providing benefit.
The use of supplemental fuel additives does not necessarily void the engine
warranty. However, repair expenses which result from fuel system or engine
component malfunctions or damage attributed to their use will not be covered.
Biodiesel 1 General recommendations and guidelines
Detroit™ supports biodiesel as a renewable fuel. Biodiesel fuels are mono alkali
esters of long chain fatty acids commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
(FAME) and are derived from renewable resources through a chemical process
called transesterification.
Detroit™ approves the use of biodiesel fuel blends as follows:
• DD Family of Engines - Biodiesel blends up to 5% are allowed
• MBE900/4000 Engines - Biodiesel blends up to 5% are allowed
• S60 Engines - Biodiesel blends up to 20% are allowed*
*Engines built prior to MY 2004 may contain materials that are not compatible
with biodiesel blends. Biodiesel blends above 5% are not recommended 2.
Prohibited Additives
The following fuel additives are not allowed and MUST NOT be mixed with
diesel fuel:
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NOTICE: Do not burn used lubricating oil in fuel. It will cause the diesel
particulate filter to prematurely plug with ash.
• Used Lubricating Oil Do not use fuel blended with used lubricating oil.
Detroit™ specifically prohibits the use of used lubricating oil in diesel fuel.
Used lubricating oil contains combustion acids and particulate materials
which can severely erode fuel injector components, resulting in loss of power
and increased exhaust emissions. In addition, the use of drained lubricating
oil will increase maintenance requirements due to filter plugging and
combustion deposits.
WARNING: FIRE
To avoid increased risk of a fuel fire, do not mix gasoline and
diesel fuel.
NOTICE: Detroit™ will not be responsible for any detrimental effects
resulting from adding drained lubricating oil or gasoline to the diesel fuel.
• GasolineThe addition of gasoline to diesel fuel will create a serious fire
hazard. The presence of gasoline in diesel fuel will reduce fuel cetane
number and increase combustion temperatures. Drain and clean tanks which
contain a mixture of gasoline and diesel fuel as soon as possible.
• Fuel Additives with Sulfur or Sulfated Ash Do not use non-approved fuel
additives containing sulfur or sulfated ash.
How to Replace the Fuel Filters
NOTICE: If you have just changed the engine oil and filter, you MUST start
the engine and confirm proper oil pressure before changing the fuel filters. If
no oil pressure is shown after approximately 10 seconds, stop the engine
and determine the cause. Running the engine with no oil pressure could
result in engine damage. Start the engine with the accelerator pedal in the
idle position. Monitor the oil pressure gauge or indicator lamp. Keep the
engine running at idling speed until the oil pressure reading is 97 kPa (14
PSI) or more.
NOTE: If you are replacing all fuel filters, it is not necessary to run the
engine and test for leaks after installing each individual fuel filter. However,
if repairing a leak at one filter, complete that repair and test the system for
leaks after priming the fuel system.
Filters are an integral part of the fuel system. Proper filter selection and
maintenance are important to satisfactory engine operation and service life. Filters
should be used to maintain a clean system, not to clean up a contaminated system.
The scheduled maintenance intervals for the appropriate duty cycles are listed in
this manual.
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WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To prevent the escape of high pressure fuel that can penetrate
skin, ensure the engine has been shut down for a minimum of 10
minutes before servicing any component within the high pressure
circuit. Residual high fuel pressure may be present within the
circuit.
NOTICE: At cold temperatures (-40° C or -40° F), DO NOT remove the filter
elements from the caps unless the intent is to replace the filter elements.
Repeated removals at cold temperatures may break the filter element tabs.
Removal of the Fuel Prefilter
Remove the prefilter as follows:
1. Using a 36 mm socket, unscrew the prefilter cap.
2. Pull the cap and prefilter straight up and out of the fuel filter housing.
3. Remove the prefilter (1) from the prefilter cap (2) by placing the filter on a
solid surface and apply pressure on prefilter cap (2) at an angle.
4. Discard the prefilter cap seal ring.
Installation of the Fuel Prefilter
Install the fuel prefilter as follows:
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NOTE: If a filter service is being performed, replace all other filters before
priming.
1. Install a new prefilter cap seal ring on to the prefilter cap.
2. Snap new prefilter into the prefilter cap.
3. Apply a thin coat of petroleum-based lithium grease to the prefilter cap seal
ring and the prefilter seals (1).
4. Install the prefilter into the fuel filter module.
5. Turn the cap counterclockwise until a click sound is made, then turn
clockwise and hand tighten.
6. Torque prefilter cap to 55-60 N·m (41-44 ft·lb).
7. Once all required filters have been changed, prime the fuel system using the
ESOC 350, J-47912 or the engine mounted hand primer.
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST
To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the
engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury before starting and running the engine, ensure the
vehicle is parked on a level surface, parking brake is set, and the
wheels are blocked.
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8. Start the engine with the accelerator pedal in the idle position. Monitor the
oil pressure gauge or indicator lamp. Maintain the engine running at idle
until a stable oil pressure reading of 97 kPa (14 psi) or more is maintained
for one minute.
9. Check for leaks.
NOTICE: Increasing engine speed above idle before oil pressure has
stabilized may cause severe engine damage.
10. Allow the engine to reach operating temperature of 60°C (140°F).
11. Increase engine speed to 1800 rpm for three minutes.
12. Return the engine to idle and allow to idle for approximately one minute,
then shut down the engine.
13. Check for leaks.
Removal of the Water Coalescer/Final Filter
Remove the water coalescer/final filter as follows:
NOTICE: Do not tilt the water coalescer/final filter when removing it from
the housing. Possible damage to the water coalescer/final filter or stand
pipe may occur.
1. Using a 36mm socket, unscrew the water coalescer/final filter cap.
2. Pull the cap and water coalescer/final filter straight up and allow the fuel to
drain back.
3. Remove the water coalescer/final filter (2) from the water coalescer/final
filter cap (1) by placing the filter on a solid surface with the drain back plug
location at 12 o’clock (3) and apply pressure on the water coalescer/final
filter cap at an angle.
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4. Discard the water coalescer/final filter.
5. Inspect inside the housing for any large debris, clean housing as needed.
6. Discard water coalescer/final filter cap seal ring.
Installation of the Coalescer/Final Filter - Two Filter System
Install the water coalescer/final filter as follows:
NOTE: If a fuel filter service is being performed, replace all other fuel filters
before priming the fuel system.
1. Install a new seal ring on to water coalescer/final filter cap.
2. Snap a new water coalescer/final filter into the water coalescer/final filter
cap.
3. Apply a light coat of Parker super O-lube or petroleum-based lithium grease
to the water coalescer/final filter cap seal ring and drain back plug seal ring
(C).Apply a heavy coat of Parker super O-lube or petroleum-based lithium
grease to the upper (A) and lower seals (B) on the water coalescer/final filter.
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The illustration below shows the proper amount of lubricant to use on
the upper and lower seals.
4. Install the water coalescer/final filter into the fuel filter module.
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NOTE: Viewing the fuel filter module from the top, the drain back port is
located at 10 o'clock.
5. Turn the water coalescer/final filter cap counterclockwise until the drain
back plug has located the drain back port. Apply light pressure to the top
of the water coalescer/final filter cap to seat the drain back plug into the drain
back port, hand tighten the filter cap by turning the cap clockwise.
6. Torque water coalescer/final filter cap to 55 to 60 N·m (41 to 44 lb·ft).
7. Once all required filters have been changed, prime the fuel system using the
ESOC 350, J-47912 or the engine-mounted hand primer.
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST
To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the
engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury before starting and running the engine, ensure the
vehicle is parked on a level surface, parking brake is set, and the
wheels are blocked.
8. Start the engine with the accelerator pedal in the idle position. Monitor the
oil pressure gauge or indicator lamp. Keep the engine running at an idling
speed until a stable oil pressure reading of 97 kPa (14 psi) or more is
maintained for one minute.
9. Check for leaks.
10. Allow the engine to reach operating temperature of 60°C (140°F).
NOTICE: Increasing engine speed above idle before oil pressure has
stabilized may cause severe engine damage.
11. Increase engine speed to 1800 rpm for three minutes.
12. Return the engine to idle and allow to idle for approximately one minute, and
then shut down the engine.
13. Check for leaks.
Engine Out of Fuel – How to Restart
When an engine has run out of fuel, there is a definite procedure to follow when
restarting it.
NOTICE: Never use the starting motor and fuel pump to prime the fuel
filters. Prolonged use of the starting motor and fuel pump to prime the fuel
system can result in damage to the starter, fuel pump, and injectors.
Use the following procedure to prime the fuel system:
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NOTE: If a vehicle is on uneven ground, more fuel may be required.
1. Fill the fuel tank with the recommended grade of fuel. If only partial filling is
possible, add a minimum of 10% of the total tank volume of fuel to the tank.
For example, a 150-gallon tank would require a minimum of 15 gallons of
fuel.
2. Connect ESOC 350 (J-47912) or operate the engine mounted hand primer for
three minutes or 250 strokes.
3. Turn on the ignition switch.
4. Wait for the engine system indicator lights on the instrument panel to go out.
5. With the accelerator pedal in the idle position, start the engine.
6. Crank engine for 20 seconds.
NOTE: The starting cycle can be repeated up to three times.
7. If engine does not start, allow for a 60-second cool down and repeat previous
step.
8. Monitor the oil pressure gauge or indicator lamp. Keep the engine running at
an idling speed until a stable oil pressure reading of 97 kPa (14 psi) or more
is maintained for one minute.
9. Check for leaks.
10. Allow the engine to reach operating temperature of 60° C (140° F).
NOTICE: Increasing engine speed above idle before oil pressure has
stabilized may cause severe engine damage.
11. Increase engine speed to 1800 RPM for three minutes.
12. Return the engine to idle and allow to idle for approximately one minute,
then shut down the engine.
13. Check for leaks.
14. If engine still fails to start, contact an authorized Detroit™ repair facility.
How to Clean an Engine
Observance of all environmental protection regulations is required. Use highpressure equipment as follows:
CAUTION: EYE INJURY
To avoid injury from flying debris, wear a face shield or goggles.
NOTICE: To prevent damage to engine components, keep the water
moving at all times while cleaning. Never direct water onto electrical
components, plug connectors, seals or flexible hoses.
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Information on suitable cleaning and protective products is available from any
authorized dealer. Note the equipment manufacturer's operating instructions.
Use the following minimum working distance between the high-pressure nozzle
and the surface being cleaned:
• Approximately 28 in. (700 mm) for circular pattern jets
• Approximately 12 in. (300 mm) for 25-degree flat jets and dirt cutters
Power clean the engine as follows:
1. Allow engine to cool down to room temperature before spraying the engine.
NOTICE: Avoid all of the electrical connections with direct water or steam
spray or damage can result.
2. Thoroughly clean the entire engine using a steam cleaner or high pressure
washer with mild soap and warm water.
WARNING: EYE INJURY
To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air,
wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and
do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.
NOTE: Do not use compressed air or pressurized water to clean or dry the
engine if any part of the engine is disassembled.
3. Once the engine is clean, blow the electrical connectors dry with compressed
air to remove most of the standing water.
4. Allow the engine to dry completely before making any kind of repair.
5. When reassembling, ensure that there is no standing water in any electrical
connectors before seating the plug.
How to Clean the Cooling System
Collect the used coolant, cleaning solutions, and washing liquids and dispose of
them in an environmentally responsible manner.
Clean as follows:
1. First remove debris (such as dust, insects) from the fins of the radiator grille.
WARNING: EYE INJURY
To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air,
wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and
do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.
NOTICE: Clean at moderate air pressures only to avoid damaging the
radiator grille fins.
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2. Remove the debris by blowing them through with compressed air or spraying
them out with water. Work from the rear of the radiator (in the opposite
direction of the normal cooling air flow).
3. Drain the coolant when the engine is cold. Refer to section "Cooling System
Drain Procedure". For detailed procedures, see the vehicle/chassis
maintenance manual. For types of coolant, refer to the How to Select Coolant
section for the listing of required intervals using the recommended coolants.
4. If the HVAC unit is connected to the cooling system, open the regulating
valves all the way.
Degreasing the Cooling System
Degrease as follows:
WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
1. Fill the cooling system with a 5% solution (1.6 ounces per quart [50 grams
per liter] of water) of a mildly alkaline cleaning agent, such as sodium
carbonate.
2. Run the engine at moderate speed until the thermostat starts to open, at an
operating temperature of approximately 60° C (140° F). Then run it for about
five minutes longer. Shut down the engine and allow it to cool to
approximately 50° C (112° F).
3. Drain all the cleaning solution.
4. Flush the cleaning solution from the cooling system.
a. Immediately after draining the cleaning solution, flush the system with
clean water.
b. Once the clean water has drained, fill the system again with clean
water.
c. Run the engine. Allow the engine to warm up to approximately 60° C
(140° F), and then run it about five minutes longer.
d. Drain the hot water.
5. Fill the cooling system with new coolant. For detailed procedures, see the
vehicle/chassis maintenance manual. For types of coolant, refer to the How
to Select Coolant section for the listing of required intervals using the
recommended coolants.
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How to Select Coolant
This section covers selection of the required coolant for the engine.
Coolant Definitions
To help ensure complete understanding of the information, the definitions of the
following terms are listed in the following Table.
Table 5.
Coolant Terms
Term
Definition
Antifreeze
Ethylene Glycol containing a corrosion inhibitor package and which
meets an appropriate heavy-duty specification (i.e., TMC RP-329
Type A or ASTM Standard D6210 Type A for ethylene glycol).
Coolant
The fluid mixture circulating in the engine cooling system, typically a
mixture of 50% water and 50% antifreeze.
Drop–Out
Fully Formulated
Antifreeze
Initial–Fill Coolant
OAT
SCA
Precipitated sludge or deposit formation on cooling system
components.
Contains all the necessary inhibitors to protect a diesel engine, and
does not, therefore, require a pre-charge of Supplemental Coolant
Additive before its first use.
The coolant that is used in a new or rebuilt engine, or any time the
cooling system is emptied and then refilled with coolant.
Organic Acid Technology. An inhibitor system based on organic acid
inhibitors instead of traditional North American inhibitor formulations.
Supplemental Coolant Additive. Supplemental Coolant Additives are
used in a preventive maintenance program to prevent corrosion,
cavitation, and the formation of deposits.
Approved Coolants
Required specifications for water and ethylene glycol inhibitor packages and
inhibitor concentration are included in this section.
NOTICE: To avoid engine damage from inadequate or over concentrated
coolant, the required specifications must be adhered to before the coolant is
replaced.
The approved and preferred coolants for the engine are listed in the following table.
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Table 6.
Initial Fill Coolant Options
Coolant Fill Option
Ethylene Glycol & Water + Corrosion
Inhibitors (Required Coolant)
Product
Detroit Genuine Coolant
Ethylene Glycol & Water + Nitrated Organic
Acid Technology Inhibitors
—
Once installed, this coolant should be maintained according to the recommended
procedures.
Ethylene Glycol and Water Plus Supplemental Coolant Additive
Inhibitor
These products are available as fully formulated, phosphate-free, Extended Service
Interval coolants. They are commercially available from Detroit™ (recommended)
and other manufacturers as either a concentrated antifreeze or as a premixed
antifreeze. The premixed antifreeze is ready for use, while the concentrated coolant
must be mixed with water prior to use.
Detroit Genuine Coolant (P/N: 23512138) is the preferred ethylene glycol coolant.
If other commercial brands of ethylene glycol are used, they must be equivalent to
the Detroit Genuine Coolant.
Fully formulated antifreeze does not require a dosage of Supplemental Coolant
Additive prior to initial use.
Mixing and Using Ethylene Glycol Antifreeze
Use ethylene glycol antifreeze as follows:
• If a concentrated ethylene glycol antifreeze is purchased, mix the antifreeze with
water meeting the required quality standards and fill the cooling system.
• If a pre-diluted, fully-formulated coolant is purchased, fill the cooling system
without dilution.
NOTE: For best overall performance, a coolant consisting of 50%
concentration of antifreeze (50% antifreeze, 50% water) is recommended.
An antifreeze concentration over 67% (67% antifreeze, 33% water) is not
recommended due to poor heat transfer, reduced freeze protection
(Inhibited Ethylene Glycol [IEG] only), and possible silicate dropout. Also,
an antifreeze concentration below 33% (33% antifreeze, 67% water) offers
too little freeze and/or corrosion protection and is not recommended.
• Always verify that the freeze point and nitrite concentration of the antifreeze/
water mixture are correct by using Detroit Genuine Fluid Analysis 3–Way
Coolant Test Strip. If chemical analysis is used, elements in the coolant must
fall within the following limits.
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Table 7.
Fully Formulated Glycol Coolant Concentration Limits with TMC RP-329 Chemistry
Type A (50/50 Coolant/Water Mixture)
Boron
125 – 500 PPM
Nitrite
900 – 3200 PPM
Nitrate
200 – 1000 PPM
Silicon
50 – 150 PPM
Phosphorous
0 PPM
pH
8.0 – 11.0
Water Requirements
Distilled, reverse osmosis-purified, or de-ionized water which eliminates the
adverse effects of minerals in tap water is preferred.
High levels of dissolved chlorides, sulfates, magnesium, and calcium in some tap
water causes scale deposits and/or corrosion resulting in water pump failures and
poor heat transfer, leading to overheating. If tap water is used, the mineral content
in the water must be below the following maximum allowable limits.
Table 8.
Satisfactory Water Limits – Make-Up Water Only
Maximum Allowable
Parts per Million
Grains per Gallon
Chlorides
40
2.5
Sulfates
100
5.8
Total Dissolved Solids
340
20
Total Hardness – Magnesium
and Calcium
170
10
NOTICE: Do not add additional supplemental coolant additives to new, fully
formulated antifreeze or coolant. This can result in dropout and/or the
formation of deposits.
Coolant Maintenance Intervals
Check the nitrite concentration at the regular intervals listed in the following table
with a Detroit Genuine Fluid Analysis 3–Way Test Strip.
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Table 9.
Coolant
Interval
Action
Ethylene Glycol* / Water +
20,000 miles (32,000 km) Test nitrite concentration
Conventional Corrosion Inhibitor
or 3 months
with test strip. Add SCA
or dilute coolant as
needed.
300,000 miles (480,000
km)
Drain and clean system.
Refill with new coolant.
300,000 miles (48,000
km) or 10,000 hours
Add POWERCOOL Plus
extender.
600,000 miles (960,000
km), 4–years, or Engine
Overhaul
Drain and clean system.
Refill with new coolant.
300,000 miles (48,000
km) or 10,000 hours
Add NOAT extender.
600,000 miles (960,000
Drain and clean system.
km), 4–years, or Engine
Overhaul
Refill with new coolant.
Ethylene Glycol* / Water + OAT
Inhibitor
Ethylene Glycol* / Water + NOAT
Inhibitor
Water Only + Conventional Corrosion 20,000 miles (32,000
Inhibitor
km), 3–months, or 500
Water Only + OAT Inhibitor
Test nitrite concentration
with test strip. Add SCA
hours
or dilute coolant as
needed.
Engine Overhaul
Drain and clean system.
Refill with new coolant.
300,000 miles (480,000
km), 2–years, or 10,000
Add POWERCOOL Plus
extender.
hours
600,000 miles (960,000
km), 4–years, or Engine
Drain and clean system.
Refill with new coolant.
Overhaul
Water Only + NOAT Inhibitor
300,000 miles (480,000
km), 2–years, or 10,000
Add NOAT extender.
hours
600,000 miles (960,000
km), 4–years, or Engine
Overhaul
Drain and clean system.
Refill with new coolant.
*Propylene glycol is an acceptable substitute for ethylene glycol.
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Coolants Not Recommended
The following coolants are not recommended for use in Detroit™ engines.
• Antifreezes and Coolants Containing Phosphate – Coolants containing
phosphate are not recommended. Drop out, overheating, and water pump seal
failures can result from the use of coolant or inhibitor packages based on
phosphate.
• Automotive Type Coolants – These coolants generally contain high levels of
phosphate and silicate, offer no liner pitting protection, and are not suitable for
use in Detroit™ engines.
• Methyl Alcohol-Based Antifreeze – Methyl Alcohol-Based Antifreeze must not
be used because of its effect on the non-metallic components of the cooling
system and its low boiling point.
• Glycol-Based Coolants Formulated for HVAC – These coolants formulated
for Heating/Ventilation/Air Conditioning (HVAC) should not be used. These
coolants generally contain high levels of phosphates, which can deposit on hot
internal engine surfaces and reduce heat transfer.
Additives Not Recommended
The following additives are not recommended for use in Detroit™ engines.
• Soluble Oil Additives – These additives are not approved for use in Detroit™
engine cooling systems. A small amount of oil adversely affects heat transfer.
For example, a 1.25% concentration of soluble oil increases fire deck
temperature 6%. A 2.50% concentration increases fire deck temperature 15%.
The use of soluble oil additives may result in engine overheating and/or failure.
• Chromate Additives – These additives are not approved for use in Detroit™
engine cooling systems. Chromate additives can form chromium hydroxide,
commonly called "green slime." This, in turn, can result in engine damage due to
poor heat transfer. Cooling systems operated with chromium-inhibited coolant
must be chemically cleaned with a recommended cooling system cleaner/
conditioner (or equivalent sulphuric acid/sodium carbonate cleaner) and flushed.
Testing for Supplemental Coolant Additives
Detroit Genuine Fluid Analysis 3–Way Coolant Test Strips should be used to
measure nitrite and glycol concentrations. Cavitation/corrosion is indicated on the
strip by the level of nitrite concentration. Freeze/boil over protection is determined
by glycol concentration.
WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
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97
How to Procedures
For best results, take the test while the coolant is between 10.0–60° C (50–140° F).
Wait at least 60, but not longer than 75 seconds, before reading the nitrite level.
NOTE: A factory coolant analysis program is available through authorized
Detroit™ service outlets.
Use the test strips as follows:
NOTE: Color change of the additive indicator (middle pad) indicates the
presence of inhibitor that is not approved by Detroit™.
1. Dip the strip into coolant for one second. Remove and shake briskly to
eliminate excess fluid.
2. Immediately compare the pad end (% glycol) to the color chart on the
container.
3. Sixty seconds (one minute) after dipping, compare the nitrite pad to the color
chart.
4. Promptly replace and tighten the test strip container cap after each use.
Discard unused strips if they have turned light pink or tan.
Removal of Dropout
Excessive amounts of some inhibitors in the coolant can cause a gel or crystalline
deposit that reduces heat transfer and coolant flow. The deposit, called "dropout,"
takes the color of the coolant when wet, but appears as a white or gray powder
when dry. It can pick up solid particles in the coolant and become gritty, causing
excessive wear of water pump seals and other cooling system components.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury when using caustic cleaning agents, follow the
chemical manufacturers usage, disposal, and safety instructions.
NOTE: If the gel is allowed to dry, it is necessary to disassemble the engine
and clean it with a caustic solution or physically clean individual
components.
Remove the wet gel using a non-acid (alkali) type heavy-duty cleaner, such as
Detroit Genuine Cooling System On-Line Cleaner (sodium nitrite/sodium tetra
borate).
Chronic Coolant System Problems
The most commonly seen coolant system problems result from maintenance and
formulation factors such as:
•
•
•
•
•
98
Hard water
Dilution of the coolant by the addition of untreated water
Over dosage or under dosage of corrosion inhibitors
Improper corrosion inhibitor (most often phosphate)
Mixing Supplemental Coolant Additives
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DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
• Improper testing
Detroit Cooling System Maintenance Products
Detroit Genuine Coolant Supplemental Coolant Additives are water-soluble
chemical compounds. These products are available in coolant filter elements, liquid
packages, and in fully formulated Detroit Genuine Coolant antifreeze and are
available to do maintenance on the cooling system.
Summary of Coolant Recommendations
The Detroit™ coolant recommendations for the engine are:
WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
• Always maintain the engine coolant to meet Detroit™ specifications.
• Only use water that meets the specifications listed in this manual. Distilled,
demineralized (reverse osmosis) or de-ionized water is preferred.
• The proper dosage of inhibitors be included in the coolant at initial fill for all
Detroit™ engines. This dosage is usually included in the fully formulated
antifreeze used, or it may need to be added if water alone or if less than 50%
antifreeze is used. The user is urged to use the full text of this section to
determine the proper dosage. Mixing of different manufacturers technologies
(brands) could cause cooling system problems.
• Maintain the inhibitor at the prescribed concentration. Test the nitrite
concentration by using a titration kit or Detroit Genuine Fluid Analysis 3-Way
Coolant Test Strips. Add Supplemental Coolant Additives only if the nitrite
concentration is below 900 PPM.
NOTE: If the nitrite concentration exceeds 3,200 PPM, the coolant must be
drained and replaced with new coolant. A thorough cleaning of the cooling
system may be required.
• Do not use another manufacturer's test kit to measure the Supplemental Coolant
Additive concentration of Detroit™ maintenance products.
• Premix coolant makeup solutions to the proper concentration before adding to
the cooling system.
• Do not mix Organic Acid Technology and other coolants in the same engine.
• Do not use automotive coolants.
• Where antifreeze/boil over protection is required, use only antifreeze that meets
TMC RP-329 Type A specification or ASTM Standard D 6210 Type A for
Ethylene Glycol. Always maintain coolant at the proper level.
Do not use the following in Detroit™ engine cooling systems:
All information subject to change without notice.
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99
How to Procedures
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Soluble Oil
High Silicate, Automotive-Type Antifreeze
Chromate Supplemental Coolant Additives
Methoxy Propenyl-Based Coolant
Methyl Alcohol-Based Coolant
Sealer Additives or Coolant Containing Sealer Additives
HVAC Coolant
Phosphate-Inhibited Coolant
Nitrated Organic Acid Technology Coolant
Coolant Life of Glycol Coolant
A properly maintained cooling system, filled with phosphate-free coolant
consisting of a 50/50 mix of antifreeze and water per TMC RP-329; Type A; (EG)
specifications can be operated to the limits recommended. The proper maintenance
involves periodic evaluation using Detroit Genuine Fluid Analysis 3-Way Coolant
Test Strips and the addition of Supplemental Coolant Additive as needed, indicated
by the strip test. To verify coolant acceptability, submit a sample for laboratory
analysis once a year. Submit the sample in a Detroit Genuine Fluid Analysis
Coolant Test Bottle.
How to Replace the Coolant Filter
The engine is equipped with a coolant filter. The coolant filter contains
supplemental corrosion inhibitors. Refer to the EPA07 or EPA10 Preventative
Maintenance Tables for the interval in which to replace the coolant filter.
• Refer to section "EPA07 DD Series Preventive Maintenance Tables"
• Refer to section "EPA10/GHG14 DD Series Preventive Maintenance Tables"
NOTE: In addition to the cleaning procedure, other components of the
cooling system should be checked periodically to keep the engine operating
at peak efficiency.
Service the cooling system as follows:
WARNING: HOT COOLANT
To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never
remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at
operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face
shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly
to relieve pressure.
NOTE: Change the coolant filter only after the vehicle has cooled and no
residual pressure is present.
NOTE: Use care to prevent foreign objects from entering the filter housing.
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1. Place the transmission in neutral, and set the parking brake.
2. Clean outside of the coolant filter housing.
3. Using a 36-mm socket, unscrew cap and filter and allow the coolant to drain
into the housing. After draining, remove the assembly from the housing.
4. Remove the filter from the plastic cap by placing the filter on a solid surface
and apply pressure on the plastic cap at an angle.
5. Remove coolant filter O-ring and discard it. Lightly lubricate a new O-ring
with clean engine oil and install it on the filter cap.
6. Check filter housing for any debris and remove if necessary.
7. Insert a new filter element into the cap.
8. Insert element and cap assembly into the housing. Torque the cap to 55-60
N·m (41-44 lb·ft).
9. Check coolant level and adjust if necessary.
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST
To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the
engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.
WARNING: PERSONAL INJURY
To avoid injury before starting and running the engine, ensure the
vehicle is parked on a level surface, parking brake is set, and the
wheels are blocked.
10. Start engine with the accelerator pedal in the idle position. Monitor all
gauges or indicator lamps.
11. Check the filter housings for signs of leakage.
Checking the Hoses
Check the hoses as follows:
1. Inspect the cooling system hoses and replace any hose that shows obvious
signs of damage or feels abnormally soft or hard.
2. Replace damaged clamps.
3. Correct all external leaks as soon as detected.
NOTE: If Detroit Genuine antifreeze/coolant (or equivalent fully formulated,
pre-charged antifreeze is used, a pre-charged element is not required.
4. Check coolant inhibitor levels at the intervals listed in this manual.
Refer to section "EPA07 DD Series Preventive Maintenance Tables"
Refer to section "EPA10/GHG14 DD Series Preventive Maintenance Tables"
All information subject to change without notice.
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How to Procedures
How to Service the Dry Type Air Cleaner
Maintain the air cleaner as follows:
1. Replace dry type air cleaner elements when the maximum allowable air
cleaner restriction [20 in. H2O (5.0 kPa)] has been reached. Some air
cleaners are equipped with a restriction indicator which aids in determining
the servicing interval.
2. Do not clean and/or reuse dry paper-type air cleaner elements unless the
cleaning method used removes clogging without damaging the element.
3. Inspect and clean the elements in accordance with the air cleaner
manufacturer's recommendations, if any.
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DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Troubleshooting
This section covers basic troubleshooting of engine operation or performance
malfunctions and their probable causes. In addition to operating the engine
carefully and maintaining it properly, make sure to correct any malfunction
promptly.
Abnormal Coolant Temperature
This section explains Abnormal Coolant Temperature Symptoms and Probable
Causes.
Table 10.
Abnormal Coolant Temperature Symptoms and Probable Causes
Probable Causes
Above Normal
Below Normal
Restricted cooling system passages
X
—
Restricted radiator core passages
X
—
Slipping fan drive belts
X
—
Faulty temperature-controlled fan
X
—
Obstruction in front of radiator or intercooler
X
—
Low coolant level
X
—
Damaged hoses
X
—
Faulty thermostat
X
—
Faulty water pump
X
—
Faulty radiator pressure cap
X
—
Air in coolant
X
—
Thermostat not fully closed
—
X
Leakage around thermostat seal
—
X
Faulty temperature-controlled fan
—
X
Hard Starting
This section explains hard starting.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Troubleshooting
Table 11.
Hard Starting Symptoms and Probable Causes
Engine Will Not
Rotate
Low Cranking
Speed
Engine Cranks
But Will Not
Start
Low Battery Voltage
X
X
—
Loose cranking motor
connections
X
—
—
Faulty cranking motor
X
X
—
Faulty cranking motor switch
X
X
X
Internal seizure
X
—
—
Improper lubricating oil
—
X
—
Circuit breaker/electronic control
malfunction
—
—
X
—
—
X
Probable Causes
Fuse blown or missing
Insufficient Fuel Supply
Air in fuel
—
—
X
Out of fuel
—
—
X
Loose fuel connections
—
—
X
Cracked fuel lines
—
—
X
Obstructed fuel filters/lines
—
—
X
Faulty fuel pumps
—
—
X
Faulty injector operation
—
—
X
Restricted fuel fitting missing
—
—
X
DDEC Malfunction
—
—
X
Installation/operation of fuel
check valve or shutoff valve
—
—
X
Low Compression
Worn intake and exhaust valves
—
—
X
Worn piston rings/liners
—
—
X
Leaking cylinder head gasket
—
—
X
Improper intake or exhaust valve
adjustments
—
—
X
Abnormal Engine Operation
This section explains Abnormal Engine Operation Symptoms and Probable Causes
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Table 12.
Abnormal Engine Operation Symptoms and Probable Causes
Rough Running or
Frequent Stalling
Low Power
Detonation
Misfiring cylinder
X
X
—
Insufficient fuel
X
X
—
High return fuel temperature
X
X
—
Low compression
X
X
—
DDEC malfunction
X
X
—
High air inlet restriction/
exhaust back pressure
—
X
—
Engine application
—
X
—
High air inlet temperature
—
X
—
High altitude operation
—
X
—
Incorrect engine gear train
timing
—
X
—
Low coolant temperature
—
—
X
Oil picked up by inlet
airstream
—
—
X
Faulty injector operation
—
—
X
Incorrect injector height
setting
—
X
X
Probable Causes
Abnormal Operating Conditions
This section explains Abnormal Operating Condition Symptoms and Probable
Causes
Table 13.
Abnormal Operating Condition Symptoms and Probable Causes
High Lubrication Oil
Consumption
Low Oil Pressure
Loose connections
X
—
Cracked lines
X
—
Damaged gaskets or seal rings
X
—
* Lubrication oil loss at breather tube
X
—
* Lubrication oil loss at dipstick tube
X
—
Leaking oil cooler
X
—
Leaking valve stem seals
X
—
Probable Causes
All information subject to change without notice.
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Troubleshooting
Abnormal Operating Condition Symptoms and Probable Causes
Worn/broken oil control rings
X
—
Scored liner and/or piston
X
—
Excessive engine installation angle
X
—
Crankcase overfilled
X
—
Oil in air tanks (air compressor malfunction)
X
—
Plugged crankcase breather
X
—
Oil level low
—
X
Improper engine oil viscosity (fuel in the oil)
—
X
Faulty oil pressure regulator valve
—
X
Worn crankshaft, camshaft or connecting rod
bearings
—
X
Faulty oil pressure relief valve
—
X
Air leaks in oil pump (suction side)
—
X
Worn or damaged oil pump
—
X
Faulty oil pressure gauge
—
X
Faulty electrical components (for gauge)
—
X
Plugged oil line or orifice
—
X
* Indicates high crankcase pressure
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DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Engine Storage
When an engine is to be stored or removed from operation for a period of time,
special precautions should be taken to protect the interior and exterior of the
engine, transmission and other parts from rust accumulation and corrosion. The
parts requiring attention and the recommended preparations are given below.
Preparing Engine for Storage
It will be necessary to remove all rust or corrosion completely from any exposed
part before applying rust preventive compound. Therefore, it is recommended that
the engine be processed for storage as soon as possible after removal from
operation.
The engine should be stored in a building that is dry and can be heated during the
winter months. Moisture-absorbing chemicals are available commercially for use
when excessive dampness prevails in the storage area.
Temporary Storage (30 Days or Less)
An engine prepared in this manner can be returned to service in a short time by
removing the seals at the engine openings and by checking the engine coolant, fuel
oil, lubricating oil and transmission oil levels.
To protect the engine for a temporary period of time (30 days or less), follow this
procedure:
1. With the engine at ambient temperature and cool to the touch, drain engine
crankcase oil into a suitable container. Dispose of the oil in an
environmentally friendly manner, according to state and/or federal (EPA)
recommendations.
2. Fill the crankcase to the proper level with the recommended viscosity and
grade of oil.
3. Fill the fuel tank with the recommended grade of fuel oil. Operate the engine
for two (2) minutes at 1200 rpm and no load. Do not drain the fuel system or
the crankcase after this run.
4. Check the air cleaner and service it, if necessary.
NOTE: If an antifreeze solution is not required during storage, flush the
cooling system with a good soluble oil (3% – 5% by volume) rust inhibitor to
prevent rusting of the outside diameter of the cylinder liners.
5. If freezing weather is expected during the storage period, check the
antifreeze/coolant for required freeze and inhibitor protection. Add antifreeze
solution to the cooling system in accordance with Detroit's recommendations.
Refer to section "How to Select Coolant"
All information subject to change without notice.
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Engine Storage
WARNING: EYE INJURY
To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air,
wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and
do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.
6. Clean the exterior of the engine (except electrical parts) with fuel oil and dry
with compressed air.
7. Seal all engine openings. The material used must be waterproof, vapor-proof
and possess sufficient physical strength to resist puncture and damage from
the expansion of entrapped air.
Extended Storage (More than 30 Days)
Outdoor storage of the engine is not recommended. If units must be kept out of
doors, follow the preparation and storage instructions already given. Protect units
with quality, weather-resistant tarpaulins (or other suitable covers) arranged to
provide for air circulation.
NOTICE: Do not use plastic sheeting for outdoor storage. Enough moisture
can condense on the inside of the plastic to rust ferrous metal surfaces and
pit aluminum surfaces. If a unit is stored outside for any extended period of
time, severe corrosion damage can result.
NOTE: Plastic is fine for indoor storage.
The stored engine should be inspected periodically. If there are any indications of
rust or corrosion, corrective steps must be taken to prevent damage to the engine
parts. Perform a complete inspection at the end of one year and apply additional
treatment as required.
To prepare an engine for extended storage (more than 30 days), follow this
procedure:
1. Drain the cooling system. Refer to section "Cooling System Drain
Procedure", and flush with clean, soft water. Refill with clean, soft water and
add a rust inhibitor to the cooling system.
2. Circulate the coolant by operating the engine until normal operating
temperature is reached. Refer to section "Cooling System Fill Procedure".
3. Stop the engine.
4. With the engine at ambient temperature and cool to the touch, drain the
engine crankcase oil into a suitable container. Remove the oil filters. Dispose
of the oil and filters in an environmentally friendly manner, according to
state and/or federal (EPA) recommendations. Replace the drain plug and
torque to 45-50 N·m (33-77 lb·ft).
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5. Install new lubricating oil filters. Fill the crankcase to the proper level with
Tectyl® 930A preservative lubricating oil or an equivalent 30-weight
preservative lubricating oil meeting Mil-L-21260C, Grade 2 Specification.
NOTE: If engines are stored where condensation of water in the fuel tank
may be a problem, additives containing methyl carbitol or butyl cellusolve
may be added to the fuel. Follow manufacturer's instructions for treatment.
Where biological contamination of fuel may be a problem, add a biocide
such as Biobor® JF (or equivalent) to the fuel. When using a biocide, follow
the manufacturer's concentration recommendations and observe all
cautions and warnings.
6. Drain the fuel tank. Refill with enough clean No. 1 diesel fuel to permit the
engine to operate for about ten (10) minutes. If draining the fuel tank is not
convenient, use a separate, portable supply of recommended fuel.
7. Drain the fuel system and remove the fuel filters. Dispose of used filters in
an environmentally responsible manner, according to state and/or federal
(EPA) recommendations. Fill the new filters with No. 1 diesel fuel or pure
kerosene and install on the engine.
8. Operate the engine for five (5) minutes to circulate the clean fuel throughout
the engine. Be sure the engine fuel system is full.
9. Stop the engine and allow to cool. Then disconnect the fuel return line and
the inlet line at the primary filter and securely plug both to retain the fuel in
the engine.
10. Transmission: Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for prolonged
storage.
11. Power Take-Off: If equipped, follow manufacturer's recommendations for
prolonged storage.
NOTE: Failure to properly seal off the turbocharger air inlet and exhaust
outlet openings before engine storage may permit air drafts to circulate
through the turbocharger and rotate the turbine/compressor shaft without an
adequate flow of lubricating oil to the center housing bearings resulting in
severe bearing damage.
12. Turbocharger: Since turbocharger bearings are pressure lubricated through
the external oil line leading from the oil filter adaptor while the engine is
operating, no further attention is required. However, the turbocharger air inlet
and turbine exhaust outlet connection should be sealed off with moistureresistant tape.
NOTE: Do not apply oil, grease or any wax-base compound to the flywheel.
The cast iron will absorb these substances, which can sweat out during
operation and cause the clutch to slip.
All information subject to change without notice.
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Engine Storage
13. Apply a non-friction rust preventive compound to all exposed engine parts. If
convenient, apply the rust preventive compound to the engine flywheel. If
not, disengage the clutch mechanism to prevent the clutch disc from sticking
to the flywheel.
14. Drain the engine cooling system. If the engine will be exposed to freezing
temperatures, install genuine Detroit Power Cool antifreeze or an equivalent
ethylene glycol-base or propylene glycol-base antifreeze solution that
provides the required freeze, boil over and inhibitor protection. Refer to
section "Coolant Requirements"
15. Drain the preservative oil from the engine crankcase. Reinstall and torque the
3/4" – 14 square, magnetic drain plug to 45-50 N·m (33-77 lb·ft).
16. Remove and clean the battery and battery cables with a baking soda-water
solution and rinse with fresh water. Do not allow the soda solution to enter
the battery. Add distilled water to the electrolyte (if necessary) and fully
charge the battery. Store the battery in a cool (never below 0° C or 32° F) dry
place. Keep the battery fully charged and check the level and specific gravity
of the electrolyte regularly.
17. Insert heavy paper strips between the pulleys and drive belts to prevent
sticking.
18. Seal all engine openings, including the exhaust outlet, with moisture-resistant
tape. Use cardboard, plywood or metal covers where practical.
19. Clean and dry the exterior painted surfaces of the engine and spray with a
suitable liquid automobile body wax, a synthetic resin varnish, or a rust
preventive compound.
20. Protect the engine with a good weather-resistant tarpaulin and store it under
cover, preferably in a dry building which can be heated during the winter
months.
Procedure for Restoring to Service an Engine that Has
Been in Extended Storage
If an engine has been in extended storage, prepare it for service as follows:
1. Remove the covers and tape from all the openings of the engine, fuel tank
and electrical equipment. Do not overlook the exhaust outlet.
2. Remove the plugs from the inlet and outlet fuel lines and reconnect the lines
to their proper positions.
3. Wash the exterior of the engine with fuel oil to remove the rust preventive.
Do not wash electrical components.
4. Remove the rust preventive from the flywheel. Flush any soluble oil rust
inhibitor (if used) in the cooling system.
5. Remove the paper strips from between the pulleys and drive belts.
6. Fill the crankcase to the proper level with the required grade of lubricating
oil. Use a pressure lubricator to insure all bearings and rocker shafts are
lubricated.
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7. Fill the fuel tank with the required fuel.
8. Close all drain cocks and fill the engine cooling system with clean, soft water
and required inhibitors. If the engine is to be exposed to freezing
temperatures, install genuine Detroit Power Cool antifreeze or an equivalent
ethylene glycol-base or propylene glycol-base antifreeze solution which
provides required freeze, boil over, and inhibitor protection. Refer to section
"How to Select Coolant"
9. Install and connect the battery. Make sure the average specific gravity of the
battery is 1.260 or higher. Charge the battery, if necessary.
10. Service the air cleaner, if required.
11. Transmission: Follow the manufacturer's recommendations covering the
return of the transmission to service.
12. Power Take-Off: If equipped, follow the manufacturer's recommendations
covering the return of the power take-off to service.
13. Turbocharger: Remove the covers from the turbocharger air inlet and turbine
outlet connections. Reconnect piping as required. Pre-lube the turbocharger
center bearing housing. Refer to section "Lubrication System Checks"
14. Fill the cooling system. Refer to section "Cooling System Fill Procedure"
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST
To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the
engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.
15. After all preparations are completed, start the engine.
NOTE: The small amount of rust preventive which remains in the fuel
system will cause smoky exhaust for a few minutes.
NOTE: Before subjecting the engine to a load or high speed, allow it to
reach normal operating temperature.
16. Check for trouble codes.
a. If there are no codes, perform a parked regeneration.
b. If there are codes, repair what is necessary then perform a parked
regeneration.
All information subject to change without notice.
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111
Customer Assistance
Customer Assistance
Customer Assistance
The satisfaction and goodwill of the owners of Detroit™ engines are of primary
concern to Detroit™ and its distributor/dealer organizations. Contact the Regional
Support Center.
Using Road Service
If you require road service for any reason in Latin America, you may call the
Regional Support Center phone number. An operator will assist you in determining
what type of service is required. Not all problems are engine related and not all
problems are covered by engine or vehicle warranties. YOU MAY BE
RESPONSIBLE FOR REPAIR EXPENSES.
Before calling Customer Assistance, please do the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Check the coolant level.
Check the fuel level.
Check the DDEC fuses.
Check for fuel leaks.
Make sure manual shutoff valve (if installed) on the fuel filter adaptor or fuel
supply line is open.
• Check the oil level on the dipstick.
• Check the diagnostic codes.
If you call, have the following information available:
•
•
•
•
Engine serial number
Vehicle make, model, and VIN
Odometer mileage (kilometers) or hour meter hours
Vehicle owner/company name
Availability of Detroit™ Service Outlets
As the owner of a Detroit™ product, you have a complete network of Detroit™
service outlets in Latin America, plus many outlets worldwide that are prepared to
meet your parts and service needs:
•
•
•
•
•
Service by trained personnel
Sales team to help determine your specific power requirements
In many areas, emergency service 24 hours a day
Complete parts support
Product information and literature
112
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Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
We recognize however, that despite the best intentions of everyone concerned,
misunderstandings may occur. Normally, any situation that arises in connection
with the sale, operation or service of your product will be handled by the authorized
service outlet in your area (in Latin America, check the service locator at
www.demanddetroit.com for Detroit™ service outlet nearest you).
All information subject to change without notice.
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113
Detroit Genuine Coolant Engine Products
Detroit Genuine Coolant Engine Products
Maintenance of the cooling system requires the chemical makeup of the system to
be balanced.
Detroit Genuine Fully Formulated Inhibited Ethylene Glycol Coolants
The part numbers and sizes of concentrated and pre-blended 50:50 Detroit Genuine
Coolants are listed in the following Tables.
Table 14.
Detroit Genuine Fully Formulated Inhibited Ethylene Glycol Coolants
Coolant Type
Concentrated
Pre-blended 50:50
Part Number
Description
23512138
One Gallon Jug – 6 Per Case
23512139
55 Gallon Drum
23529295
330 Gallon Tote
23512140
Bulk Delivery – 1,000 Gallon Min.
23528203
One Gallon Jug – 6 Per Case
23518918
55 Gallon Drum
23528544
330 Gallon Tote
23513503
Bulk Delivery – 1,000 Gallon Min.
Detroit Genuine Supplemental Coolant Additive Need Release Filters
Detroit Genuine Supplemental Coolant Additive Need Release Filters are shown
below.
Table 15.
Detroit Genuine Supplemental Coolant Additive Need Release Filters
Coolant Type
Part Number
Description
Detroit Genuine Inhibited
Ethylene Glycol Coolant
NF2091
For 0 – 8 Gallon Systems
23516489
For 8 – 20 Gallon Systems
Detroit Genuine Cooling System Cleaners
Detroit Genuine Cooling System Cleaners are shown below.
114
All information subject to change without notice.
Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
DD Platform EuroIV Operators Manual
Table 16.
Detroit Genuine Cooling System Cleaners
Coolant Type
Part Number
Description
200164
One-Half Gallon Jug – 6 Per Case
200105
5 Gallon Pail
200155
55 Gallon Drum
201549
Twin Pack – 2 Per Case
On-Line Cleaner
Twin Pack
Detroit Genuine Fluid Analysis Products
Detroit Genuine Fluid Analysis Products are shown below.
Table 17.
Detroit Genuine Fluid Testing
and Analysis Products
Application
Part Number
Description
Indicates Nitrite, Molybdate &
Glycol Levels
23519401
3-Way Coolant Test Strips
(Single Foil Packs)
Indicates Nitrite, Molybdate &
Glycol Levels
23519402
3-Way Coolant Test Strips (Bottle
of 50)
Indicates Nitrite, Molybdate &
Glycol Levels
23522774
3-Way Coolant Test Strips (Bottle
of 10)
Complete Inhibited Ethylene
Glycol Coolant Analysis
23516921
Coolant Analysis Bottle (Carton
of 6)
Organic Coolant Analysis
23539088
Laboratory Coolant Analysis
All information subject to change without notice.
DDC-SVC-MAN-0175 Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
115
Engine Oil Capacities
Engine Oil Capacities
Consult with a Detroit distributor to obtain the proper engine oil filters.
The engine oil capacities for the DD Platform Engine On-Highway Vehicle
application are listed in the following tables. Contact your local Detroit service
center if you need more specific information.
NOTE: There are approximately 5.0 L (5.2 qts) of oil represented from the
fill mark to the full mark.
NOTICE: Overfilling the oil pan can cause engine damage.
Table 18.
Engine Oil Capacities
Truck
DD13
DD15
DD16
Total Dry Engine Oil
Volume
44.0 L (46.5 qt)
49.0 L (51.8 qt)
49.0 L (51.8 qt)
Oil and Filter Change
38.0 L (40.1 qt)
43.0 L (45.4 qt)
43.0 L (45.4 qt)
Remaining in Engine
after Oil Drain
(Includes Filter
Removal)
6.0 L (6.3 qt)
6.0 L (6.3 qt)
6.0 L (6.3 qt)
Dip Stick Min. to
Max. Range
5.0 L (5.2 qt)
5.0 L (5.2 qt)
5.0 L (5.2 qt)
Sump Oil Volume
35.0 L (37.0 qt)
40.0 L (42.3 qt)
40.0 L (42.3 qt)
Table 19.
Coach
EPA10 DD13
GHG14 DD13
Total Dry Engine Oil
Volume
51.0 L (53.8 qt)
47.0 L (49.7 qt)
Oil and Filter Change
45.0 L (47.6 qt)
40.0 L (42.3 qt)
Remaining in Engine
after Oil Drain
(Includes Filter
Removal)
6.0 L (6.3 qt)
6.0 L (6.3 qt)
Dip Stick Min. to
Max. Range
5.0 L (5.2 qt)
5.0 L (5.2 qt)
Sump Oil Volume
42.0 L (44.4 qt)
37.0 L (39.1 qt)
116
All information subject to change without notice.
Copyright © 2014 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION DDC-SVC-MAN-0175
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