Renewable Energy, Research Development and Demonstration

Renewable Energy, Research Development and Demonstration
RENEWABLE ENERGY
RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT
& DEMONSTRATION
Programme Overview
Contents
Message from Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources
03
Background Information
04
Programme Background
06
Programme Spend
07
Summary of Programme Achievements to Date
08
Current Programme Status
09
Applying for Grant Support under the Programme
12
Summary of Projects Funded to Date
13
Wind energy
15
A Wind Atlas for Ireland
17
Greenblade Project
18
Evaluation of Wind Turbine Foundation Behaviour
19
The Potential for Community Ownership of Wind Farms in Ireland
20
Investigation of the Impact of Wind Turbines on Radar
21
Study of Electricity Storage Technologies and their potential to address Wind Energy
Intermittency in Ireland
22
Development of a 1.2kW Domestic Wind Turbine
23
Wind Turbine Design and Implementation for Small Irish Wind Farms
24
Definition of a Monitoring Programme for Irish Wind Farms
25
Study on Operating Reserve Requirements as Wind Power Penetration Increases in
the Irish Electricity System
26
Study on Renewable Energy in the New Irish Electricity Market
27
Study on the Economic Analysis of Renewable Energy Support Mechanisms in the
Electricity Generation Sector
28
Biomass energy
29
Demonstration and Monitoring of Biomass Boiler at Coillte Headquarters
31
Study for a Wood Biomass Fired Combined Heat and Power Plant (CHP)
32
An Assessment of the Renewable Energy Resource Potential of Dry Agricultural
Residues in Ireland
33
Biogreen Biofuel Project
34
Quality Assurance for Rapeseed Oil as Vehicle Fuel
35
A Resource Study on Recovered Vegetable Oil and Animal Fats
36
Renewable Energy Resource: Ireland to 2010 and 2020
37
Ocean energy
39
Tidal and Marine Current Energy Resource in Ireland
41
Detailed Design of the OE Buoy Duct Device for Wave Energy Conversion
42
Wave Tank Testing of the Wavebob
43
Arch Point Wave Rider Buoy, Co Clare
44
Solar and geothermal energy
45
Geothermal Resource Map of Ireland
47
Campaign for Take-off for Renewable Heat Pumps in Ireland
48
Campaign for Take-off for Active Solar Thermal Energy in Ireland
49
Quality and Performance Certification of the Solterra 500 Irish-made Heat Pump
50
Climate change is recognised as one of the
most threatening global environmental
problems today. In addressing this
challenge, the signatories to the 1997 Kyoto
Protocol agreed targets for developed
nations to reduce their greenhouse gas
emissions during the period 2008 to 2012.
Under the agreement, Ireland has agreed to
limit its greenhouse gas emissions by 13%
above 1990 levels. Ireland also has EU commitments to supply
13.2% of its gross electricity consumption from renewable
sources by 2010.
The energy sector is one of the primary sources of greenhouse
gases and the Government is committed to reaching Ireland’s
international and EU targets for greenhouse gas reductions and
increased deployment of renewable and sustainable energy. We
are working steadily to achieve these targets through a range of
measures.
Underpinning Government initiatives is an ongoing process of
research, development and demonstration. Information is at the
heart of all good policy formulation, and is critical to the future
growth of the renewable energy industry. The Government
established Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) in 2002, with a remit
to promote and assist sustainable production, supply and use of
energy. SEI now provides a range of programmes aimed at
industry, business, the public sector and domestic energy users
and provides advice to Government on sustainable and
renewable energy.
The Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D)
programme is an important element of SEI’s activities. The
programme provides investment for research in low cost, high
efficiency renewable energy technologies , and addresses
commercial and technical barriers. €7m has already been
committed to projects covering wind, biomass, solar, ocean and
geothermal energies. The focus to date has been on wind and
biomass, reflecting the considerable potential of these sectors.
Projects funded include wind energy forecasting, blade
manufacturing, interaction with the electricity network and
studies to assess the full potential of Ireland’s biomass resource.
Support has also been given for developers of ocean energy
devices and a collaborative ocean energy research project with
the Marine Institute. On heating systems, SEI has commissioned
work to assess the training needs for solar and geothermal
installers, as well as the market potential for these technologies
in Ireland.
All of these activities are detailed in this comprehensive
brochure, and are being used to inform industry and support
policy development. The programme will now be prioritised in
the areas of wind, liquid biofuels, bioheat, ocean energy and
energy storage. Among the projects anticipated are a wood
pellet production plant, a large-scale prototype ocean energy
device, studies on energy storage technologies, support for
biofuels development and a range of onshore and offshore wind
energy programmes.
In focussing the RD&D programme on priority technologies, SEI
is assisting Ireland in maximising the potential of its most
valuable renewable energy resources. This brochure provides
information on the projects funded to date and on the strategic
focus for SEI’s RD&D programme going forward. I believe it will
be a valuable tool to potential investors and policy makers alike
and I congratulate SEI on making this resource available.
Mr Noel Dempsey, TD
Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
Message from Mr Noel Dempsey, TD
Minister for Communications, Marine
and Natural Resources
3
Background Information
Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) is Ireland’s national energy
authority. The Authority promotes and assists environmentally
and economically sustainable production, supply and use of
energy. It also supports the implementation of sustainable
energy measures by operating grant aid programmes, providing
policy support, and delivering information support aimed at
increasing public awareness. SEI is funded under the National
Development Plan.
It sets an indicative target for Ireland to produce 13.2% of its
gross electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2010.
Support mechanisms are directed at the use of reliable,
commercially available technologies, which will enable Ireland
to reach its commitments within the planned timeframe, and at
least cost.
80
7
70
Kyoto Target for Ireland
4
60
6
50
5
4
%
Mt CO 2
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
40
30
3
20
2
10
1
0
0
-10
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003p
Land use change & forestry
Energy
Industrial processes
Solvent & other product use
Agriculture
Waste
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003p
Landfill Gas
Wind
Hydro
Fig. 1: Greenhouse gas emissions from Ireland. Kyoto limit is 60.159 Mt
CO2 equivalent per annum (SEI).
Fig. 2: Percentage gross electricity consumption from renewable sources.
Target for 2010 is 13.2% (SEI).
Arising from the EU’s ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, Ireland
must meet its commitment, which requires that total emissions
of greenhouse gases (GHG) be limited to 13% above the levels
achieved in 1990. In 2002, Ireland’s GHG emissions were 25%
above its 1990 levels (see Figure 1). Also in 2002, 67% of all GHG
emissions in Ireland were attributable to the energy sector. This
sector has therefore been identified as a priority area for
measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Figure 2 presents the development of the supply of electricity
from renewable sources. In 2002, the gross electricity
consumption from renewable sources in Ireland was 5.3%.
The EU has introduced a number of Directives aimed at
encouraging member states to increase their production of
energy from clean sources such as renewable energy.
The primary legislative driver for the renewables market in
Ireland is EU Directive 2001/77/EC.
As the graph illustrates, the supply of electricity from hydro
sources varies significantly from year to year – mainly because
hydro output is dependant on the amount of annual rainfall.
Moreover, because demand for energy is continuing to rise and
the potential for an increase in hydro generation is modest, the
percentage contribution from hydro to gross electricity
consumption is likely to continue to fall.
Wind energy generation offers the most significant potential for
growth, due to the scale of the wind resource available in Ireland
and the relatively low cost of harnessing and employing this
form of renewable energy. The graph in Figure 3 shows the
amount of wind-generated energy added to the power system
> The availability of reliable commercial wind turbine generators
400
MV
> The availability of a significant wind energy resource
500
300
200
100
> The introduction of the Government’s Alternative Energy
Requirement (AER) programme
> The emergence of third-party access and merchant plant
The AER programme is operated by the Department of
Communications, Marine and Natural Resources, and is the
primary fiscal support instrument for renewable energy
generation in Ireland.
Wind turbine technology is now at a relatively mature stage.
However, in order to ensure the continued increase in wind
energy penetration on the power system, support is needed to
assist the development of technical, commercial and policy
solutions to issues that arise when higher levels of penetration
are required.
Ireland has the potential to supply energy from many other
energy sources including biomass, ocean energy, solar and
geothermal. However, each of these energy sources faces a
variety of barriers such as lack of operating experience and/or
poor commercial return. In addition, as the market for renewable
energy products grows, Ireland will need access to the requisite
expertise to support the development and deployment of
these technologies.
0
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Onshore Under Construction
Offshore
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
600
during the period 1992 to 2004. The increase is attributable to
the following factors:
Onshore
Fig. 3: Growth in wind turbine generator capacity in Ireland
The Government’s Green Paper of September 1999 identified
the need for spending on research and development in areas
that would assist in the achievement of reductions in energy
related CO2 emissions. The Green Paper also stated that R&D
activities could lead to improved competitiveness: this could be
achieved by developing products for both Irish and
international markets, which would deliver cost savings through
energy-efficiency improvements.
5
Programme background
The Renewable Energy Research Development and
Demonstration (RE RDD) Programme was launched in July 2002
and is due to be completed in 2006. The programme has an
indicative budget of €12 million.
The Programme is primarily focused on stimulating the
deployment of renewable energy technologies that are close to
market, and on assessing the development of technologies that
have prospects for the future.
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
6
It contributes to the promotion and expansion of renewable
energy in Ireland by:
> Accelerating the development and deployment in the Irish
marketplace of competitive renewable energy products,
processes and systems
> Providing support for solutions that enable technical and
other barriers to market uptake to be overcome
> Establishing, where necessary and strengthening where
possible a national capacity to access, develop and apply
world-class R&D in a way that can best meet specific Irish
needs on a continuing basis
> Facilitating and providing guidance to policymakers
With these objectives in mind, the Programme offers financial
support for projects in the following categories:
CATEGORY 1: Shared-Cost Demonstration
(grant support of up to 25% of eligible costs)
This category covers projects that have a particular renewable
energy technology or application focus, which, although they
are at/near commercial viability and have potential for
replication, currently face market barriers due to lack of
expertise, knowledge or market confidence. The objective here is
to gain information which will be made available to potential
replicators to encourage action without further financial
support under the programme. To facilitate this, independent
monitoring of the project’s cost may be required.
CATEGORY 2: Shared-Cost R&D (grant support of up to
45% of eligible costs)
This category covers research and development into innovative
technologies, systems or marketing approaches which support
the commercial exploitation of renewable energies, including
applied research and development, technology transfer,
adaptation and market research/feasibility studies.
CATEGORY 3: Commissioned Public Good Activities
(grant support of up to 100%)
This category covers public good activities directed at increasing
the value and impact of the RE RDD Programme results, which,
ultimately, will be used to inform policy. (It is important to note
that these studies are commissioned by invitations to tender
only. Unsolicited proposals will not be considered).
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
Programme spend
Since the RE RDD Programme was launched, SEI has approved
72 projects for grant support. The total indicative budget for the
Programme is €12 million, of which €7m has been committed
as of the end of 2004. The total amount of funding disbursed to
date is €4.5m.
Donegal
The pie chart in Figure 4 illustrates the technology sectors
supported to date, as a percentage of total Programme funding
commitments. The biomass sector has attracted the largest
amount of support which is mainly due to the number of major
capital grant Demonstration projects that have received
funding. The wind sector is the second largest recipient of
Programme funding where the majority of activities are focused
on commissioned Public Good projects addressing market and
technical barriers to wind developments.
Sligo
Monaghan
Cavan
Leitrim
Mayo
Roscommon
Louth
Longford
Meath
Westmeath
Galway
Kildare
Offaly
Figure 5 illustrates the geographical distribution of RE RDD
grant-supported projects across Ireland. In all, 56 Irish-based
projects are receiving Programme support. The remaining
projects are commissioned studies performed outside the
Republic of Ireland. The majority of these external studies also
involve the participation of Irish partners, which facilitates
knowledge transfer to this country.
Laois
Clare
Dublin
Wicklow
Tipperary
Carlow
Wexford
Kilkenny
Limerick
Cork
Waterford
Kerry
Fig. 5: Distribution of RE RDD Programme-supported projects across Ireland
Wind
36%
Biomass
39%
Ocean
6%
Hydro
6%
Solar & Geothermal
9%
Cross Sectoral Actions 4%
Fig. 4: Commitments as a % of each sector.
7
Summary of Programme activities to date
This section of the report provides a brief summary of activities
in each of the renewable energy sectors which are receiving RE
RDD Programme support.
WIND
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
8
Wind turbine technology is relatively mature, with significant
experience gained to date by Irish operators. One
Demonstration project is currently receiving Programme
support. R&D efforts include projects focused on addressing
technical barriers to increased wind energy penetration into the
electricity grid. Another project is designed to improve the
understanding of wind turbine behaviour during periods when
the electricity network is experiencing irregular voltage levels.
The results of this work will improve the capability of the system
operator to assess the ability of a wind farm to remain
connected during network fault conditions. Increased modelling
capability here will facilitate the introduction of large-scale wind
farms to the electricity network. Another project, focused on
improving wind energy forecasting ability, is designed to help
developers secure higher levels of wind-energy penetration into
the power system. In the manufacturing area, support is being
provided for projects investigating new blade manufacturing
techniques and small-scale wind turbine product developments.
Most support in the wind turbine technology sector relates to
commissioned studies/items of work that are designed to
inform policy-making decisions, and improve wind integration
with the electricity grid and electricity market.
BIOMASS
In the biomass sector, the Programme is supporting a large
variety and number of demonstrations projects. As there is
relatively little experience in Ireland of the use of biomass energy,
the provision of support for pilot plants will provide access to
critical information for other potential developers – as well as
policymakers and planners – thereby increasing confidence
levels with these technologies nationally. Support has also been
provided for biomass resource studies, which aim to quantify
Ireland’s potential to produce energy from biomass sources.
OCEAN
The ocean energy sector is in the early stages of development,
with no products commercially available as yet. Therefore,
significant opportunities exist for developers to capitalise on
this new market. The ocean energy section of the RE RDD
programme is primarily concerned with support for product
R&D and energy resource studies. Currently, the programme is
supporting two device developers. SEI is also co-operating with
the Marine Institute to ensure that effective support is provided
to this emerging sector.
SOLAR AND GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS
Programme activity in the solar and ground source heat pump
(GSHP) sector is concentrated on the provision of support for
product research and development. Both solar and GSHP are
considered to be relatively mature renewable energy
technologies. Commissioned work includes studies aimed at
evaluating the potential cost of supporting these technologies
and identifying the quality procedures and training methods
needed to provide increased deployment of these technologies
on a nationwide basis.
The original RE RDD Programme strategy document outlined
general areas of support available. However, following a review
of the overall Programme, it was decided to revise the strategy,
in May 2004, in the light of developments in relation to the
range of projects already being supported, and in the context of
emerging areas of interest and current EU legislation.
Offshore wind energy technology is less well developed than
the onshore equivalent, with only one offshore wind farm (25
MW Airtricity/GE) currently established. Ireland may be well
suited to the development of offshore wind energy due to the
availability of a favourable wind resource in relatively shallow
waters, which is in the vicinity of both load centres and the
transmission network. Some specific priorities for offshore wind
energy funding include:
The strategy will continue to be refined on an annual basis in
order to ensure that it reflects changes in policy and changes in
technology priorities. Applicants seeking funding support for
projects should consult the SEI website,
www.sei.ie/rerdd/strategy, where they will find the most up-todate version of the RE RDD Programme strategy document.
> Organisation and management of wind turbines and farms
> Integration of offshore wind energy into Ireland’s electricity
infrastructure
> Data monitoring
The current strategy focuses on support for the following
priority areas:
Technology Area: Liquid Biofuels
>
>
>
>
>
Wind
Liquid Biofuels
Bioheat
Ocean energy
Energy storage
Objective: Provide support for the establishment of the first
biofuel pilot plants in Ireland.
Rationale: The EU Directive on Biofuels states that member
states should aim to produce 2% of all motor fuels from biofuels,
or other renewable fuels, by 2005. By 2010, the proportion of
motor fuels produced in this way should have increased to 5.75%.
Technology Area: Wind
Objective: Provide support for improved integration of
wind energy.
Rationale: Key issues for the development of onshore wind
resources are likely to focus on the creation of appropriate
conditions (i.e. electricity network and fiscal support) for the
integration and further deployment of wind energy. Some
specific priorities for onshore wind energy funding are as follows:
> Demonstration projects of innovative wind energy
applications
> Data monitoring of energy production
> Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems
for wind farms
> System modelling
> Integration of large-scale wind farm energy penetration into
electricity grids
> Wind energy forecasting
The aim of the biofuels section of the RE RDD Programme is to
demonstrate the viability of the market in Ireland for
indigenously produced liquid biofuel products. Key to the
commercial success of biofuel production is the rate at which
excise duty is charged on biofuel products. In the 2004 Finance
Act, provision was made to grant excise relief to pilot
demonstration plants. Decisions on excise duty remission will be
made by the Department of Finance in consultation with the
Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources.
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
Current Programme status
9
Technology Area: Bioheat
Objective: Stimulate the supply and demand for wood biomass
fuel through support for wood pellet production plants and a
network of biomass heating systems.
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
10
Rationale: Heating systems which burn wood pellets and wood
chips are increasingly popular renewable energy technologies
used successfully across Europe. Both wood pellet and wood
chip production and boiler technologies are considered to be at
a mature stage and are well understood. In 2001, the amount of
wood biomass energy deemed to be potentially available was
1,133GWh (i.e. in excess of that already used in saw mills).
1,133GWh is sufficient to heat approximately 56,000 Irish homes.
If this wood biomass technology were to directly replace oil
heating, it would result in a reduction of 400,000 tonnes of CO2
emissions per year. It is expected that by 2010 there will be
2,069GWh of biomass potentially available to energy users.
Wood pellets and wood chips offer the potential for economic
distribution of a high-energy wood fuel for heating purposes.
Currently, there is little experience in Ireland of using wood
biomass in this way. SEI intends to support the introduction of a
wood pellet production plant. In tandem with this development,
it intends to support the establishment of biomass heating
systems, in order to gain market confidence as well as stimulate
market demand for wood biomass fuel.
The irregularity of the sea in terms of wave height, frequency
and direction makes it difficult to design a geometric device
that would yield high performance efficiencies across the entire
range of wave conditions. In addition to the design challenges
posed by wave irregularities, structural loading on the device
could rise dramatically during extreme weather events such as
storms. For this reason, an extremely robust device would be
required, and this could prove expensive. Additional factors to
be considered include the cost of connecting the device to the
electricity grid, which could be located some distance from the
shore. Finally, wave-energy converters must have be highly
reliable given the expense and difficulty of servicing systems
offshore.
Developers who may be interested in investigating this area are
advised to refer to the International Energy Agency’s Ocean
Energy Systems document:“Development of recommended
practices for testing and evaluating ocean energy systems.”
A high level of research and development activity is currently
underway in the UK supporting the development of both wave
and tidal devices. The objective of the RE RDD Programme is to
support Irish research and development in this area by making
funding available for large-scale prototype devices.
Technology area: Energy storage
Objective: Support demonstration of energy storage systems.
Technology Area: Ocean energy
Objective: Support large-scale research and development work
on ocean energy devices.
Rationale: Ocean energy includes both wave energy and
marine current tidal energy. Ireland has one of the highest wave
energy resource environments in the world, with average wave
energy values of 70kW/m wave front available. Given the large
resource available, coupled with the rising demand for clean
energy, wave energy has the potential to become a multi-billion
euro industry.
Rationale: As of March 2004, the Republic of Ireland had
200MW of wind power generation connected to the electricity
grid. It is expected that this figure will rise rapidly within the
next five years. By 2010, it is expected that up to 1,100MW of
wind power could be connected to the power system in the
Republic of Ireland before a significant impact on the system’s
operation of reserve generation would occur. By 2010, the
technical limit, at peak demand, is estimated to be 2,600MW.
However, it is unlikely that this level of penetration will be
achieved by then, as it would require significant curtailment of
generators during low-demand periods, and would therefore be
commercially unattractive for operators.
Energy storage has the potential to store energy from
intermittent sources such as wind and ocean energy, and supply
that stored energy to the grid at an appropriately scheduled
time and for a specified duration. As such, this technology may
provide Ireland with the opportunity to continue to increase the
supply of renewable energy to the electricity grid.
The aim of this section of the RE RDD Programme is to identify the
cost and configuration of energy storage options for Ireland and
to propose a list of solutions and possible timeframes for the
introduction of each technology.This programme of work will
consist of a series of commissioned studies, including options for
the demonstration of energy storage technologies in Ireland.
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
Ireland has a large wind resource and currently has limited
ability to draw reserve power from other electricity networks.
This is in sharp contrast to the situation that applies in Denmark,
for example, which is connected to several neighbouring
countries. The Irish Government has plans to develop a
1,000MW interconnector to Wales – a move that could facilitate
increased wind penetration. Until such time as this
interconnector is built, the majority of Ireland’s reserve power
must continue to be provided by local power plants.
11
Applying for grant support under the
RE RDD Programme
As a first step, applicants seeking grant support are advised to
read the RE RDD Programme strategy document
(www.sei.ie/rerdd/strategy) in order to familiarise themselves
with the technologies and categories of support available. If the
proposal meets the Programme strategy criteria, and if some
preliminary investigation into the project has been carried out,
applicants should prepare a one-page description of the project,
outlining its scope, cost and schedule. This should then be
emailed to [email protected] .
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
12
SEI will provide an initial response to the query, following which,
it may be appropriate for the applicant to complete the
necessary grant support form. (This may be downloaded from
www.sei.ie/rerdd/strategy)
Depending on the size of grant requested, please allow up to
three months before a formal response is delivered. It is important
to note that SEI provides support for costs incurred only after a
formal grant agreement has been signed. It is recommended
therefore that grant applicants consider this information when
preparing their project plans.
For further information on the RE RDD Programme contact:
Graham Brennan
RE RDD Programme Manager
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Ireland
Tel: 01 808 2539
Fax: 01 808 2330
Email: [email protected]
This section of the report provides summaries of a selection of
the projects funded to date by the RE RDD Programme.
The projects presented are chosen from a wide range of
renewable energy areas and illustrate the range and depth of
activities supported. Examples of Shared-Cost R&D, Market
Demonstration and Public Good projects are provided.
The summaries are designed to inform the renewable energy
sector in Ireland about the activities currently supported by the
Programme. They are also aimed at informing potential
applicants about the type and quality of projects that are likely
to be successful in terms of securing Programme funding.
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
Summary of projects funded to date
13
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
14
Wind Energy
Wind Energy
NAME OF CONTRACTORS:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
WEB ADDRESS:
DOWNLOAD INFORMATION:
AWS TRUEWIND SOLUTIONS INC AND
ESB INTERNATIONAL
€180,000
PUBLIC GOOD
OCTOBER 2003
Offshore, Ireland is blessed with a vast, exploitable resource:
wind speeds have been mapped to a distance of up to 25km
from the Irish coast. The offshore wind resource has been
constrained to exclude areas where wind energy projects will
not be permitted i.e. areas where seabed cables and gas
pipelines are located; where navigation channels are indicated;
in Department of Communications, Marine and Natural
Resources traffic separation/exclusion zones; in Department of
Defence danger areas and near-shore anchorages.
www.sei.ie/windatlas
www.sei.ie/windinfo
Project outcome
Overview
In order to support the increased development of wind energy
across Ireland in the most appropriate and sensitive manner, SEI
developed the Wind Atlas for Ireland. The Atlas, which provides a
detailed map of Ireland’s vast wind resource, was launched at
the SEI ‘Energy from Fresh Air’ conference in Sligo on 14th
November 2003.
The availability of this resource will facilitate a new approach to
the development of wind energy projects in Ireland. The maps,
displaying wind resources at three heights above ground level,
integrate wind resource data, locational information relating to
urban regions, and information on electricity transmission and
distribution networks for the entire country. The Wind Atlas for
Ireland is a valuable tool for the planning and evaluation of area
wind resources by local authority planners, policymakers and
prospective wind farm developers.
Wind speed and power are identified at 50m, 75m and 100m
above ground level. The different heights represent the hub
heights of current and future wind turbine technology. The
constrained wind speed maps show areas where the wind speed
exceeds 7.5m per second, and where wind farms are considered
commercially viable. The high-resolution maps are based on a
200m x 200m grid of the country, and display wind speeds at
0.25m/s increments. They include information on the location of
the electricity network; urban areas; water bodies such as lakes
and rivers both for the entire country and on a county-bycounty basis.
The Wind Atlas, along with the recently-published “Attitudes
towards Wind Farms in Ireland” and the recently-published
Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local
Government’s revised “Wind Farm Development: Guidelines for
Planning Authorities” will provide the framework for the
identification of ‘strategic’, ‘preferred’, ‘open-to-consideration’ and
‘no-go’ areas for wind energy development to be incorporated
into Local Authority Development Plans. The Wind Atlas
(currently available as a CD-ROM) has been distributed to all
local authorities in Ireland. Copies may also be ordered from the
SEI Renewable Energy Information Office online bookshop
www.sei.ie/reio/reiobookshop.html.
For further information contact:
Paul Kellet
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Renewable Energy Information Office
Shinagh House
Bandon
Co Cork
Tel: 023 29193
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
A WIND ATLAS FOR IRELAND
17
GREENBLADE PROJECT
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRAND AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
GAOTH TEC TEO
€373,500
R&D
APRIL 2005
Overview
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
18
The global wind turbine blade market is now worth close to €1
billion a year, with an annual growth rate of 10% forecast.
Gaoth Tec Teo is developing a new thermoplastic composite
wind turbine blade and revolutionary manufacturing methods
for the wind industry, based on the expert application of
superior, cost-effective materials and methods.
Most wind turbine blades are manufactured from thermoset
plastics which cannot be recycled once their usefulness has
been expended. Moreover, significant environmental problems,
such as VOC emissions, are also associated with the
manufacturing of these materials. Thermoset plastics are
currently favoured by the wind industry because of their
relatively high strength and low weight properties.
Thermoplastic materials offer higher strength-to-weight
properties than thermoset plastics: this facilitates the
manufacture of lighter aerofoils, which in turn translates into
cheaper transport costs and reduced turret weights. Current
manufacturing methods make it too expensive to use
thermoplastic materials for wind turbine applications.
The new Gaoth Tec manufacturing process will overcome this
problem leading to shorter production times.
The Greenblade is expected to meet the following performance
goals:
> be at least 24% cheaper than standard glass-fibre/
epoxy blades
> have a production cycle time 66% less than
glass-fibre/epoxy equivalents
> be 10% lighter than existing blades
> be 150% more impact/damage resistant than
existing blades
> be 100% recyclable
> produce zero emissions to atmosphere
during processing
Current project status
As part of this project, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. have
provided sample blade sections to assist with the design of the
aerofoil profile. Gaoth Tec have currently constructed a template
blade which will be used to build a manufacturing tool.
With this tool Gaoth Tec will manufacture a set of 12.5m turbine
blades which will be tested by Mitsubishi on an existing wind
turbine. In this way the performance of the Greenblade can be
directly compared to a conventional turbine blade.
For further information contact:
Dr Conchúr Ó Brádaigh
Gaoth Tec Teo
Udaras Industrial Estate
Baile an tSagairt
An Spideal
Co Galway
Tel: 091 504 777
Email: [email protected]
NAME OF APPLICANTS:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
AERTECH LTD AND UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE DUBLIN
€38,900
R&D
SEPTEMBER 2005
Current project status
Instrumentation has been installed successfully and has been
monitored over an 18-month period. Important insights into the
long-term effects of cyclic loading on the soil properties have
been established. The stress applied to the ground under the
full-scale structures is naturally limited; this is in order to
prevent the possible occurrence of toppling failure. For this
reason, a programme of field-based, scale-model testing is
currently underway which is designed to examine effects such
as increasing stress levels on the soil properties when subjected
to cyclic loading.
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE
FOUNDATION BEHAVIOUR
19
Overview
Large numbers of wind farms are currently under development
in Ireland. Typically, wind turbines require a 10m2 to 20m2
reinforced concrete foundation, which is laid up to 3m below
ground level. As the turbine hub is located about 50-100m
above ground, the foundation is subjected to extremely large
horizontal wind loads. Current foundation design codes estimate
foundation sizes using traditional bearing-capacity approaches
derived by consideration of the limiting vertical load on a
foundation; they do not explicitly consider horizontal loading.
To date, the response of shallow foundations to wind loading
has been mainly investigated through laboratory testing.
However, these studies have not generally been supported by
parallel field investigations, which are essential in order to check
analytical procedures. Small-scale laboratory tests can encounter
modelling difficulties, particularly with respect to representative
samples of the relevant soil. University College Dublin has
instigated a programme of field monitoring of full-scale
foundations. The project involves the monitoring of total
pressure, pore pressure, wind speed and direction sensors, and
displacements of foundations on two wind farms namely
Carnsore Point (County Wexford,) and Snugborough
(County Cavan).
The main aim of the project is to produce a rational design
method for horizontally-loaded foundations, which is capable of
predicting foundation displacements throughout the life of
the structure.
For further information contact:
Dr Kenneth Gavin
Department of Civil Engineering
University College Dublin
Tel: 01 716 7292
Email: [email protected]
THE POTENTIAL FOR
COMMUNITY OWNERSHIP OF
WIND FARMS IN IRELAND
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
20
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
CSA GROUP
€53,000
PUBLIC GOOD
JUNE 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind
Overview
The Renewable Energy Partnership, comprising Brí Nua
Community Wind Energy Group, Mayo Community Wind Energy
Group, and the Western Development Commission carried out a
study aimed at investigating the potential for communities
to benefit from the establishment of wind farms in their
catchment areas.
Project outcome
The study findings show that due to the range of technical and
commercial issues currently facing developers, communities
would be likely to encounter significant resource difficulties if
they were to attempt to develop 100% community-owned wind
energy projects. In addition, the levels of risk and uncertainty are
considered to be too high for community groups to consider
establishing enterprises on their own.
The most promising investment option for communities would
be one where they consider participating in commercial
ventures once these projects have been secured by way of:
> planning consent
> grid connection agreement
> contract for the sale of electricity
The project team produced a step-by-step guide to assist
community groups throughout Ireland to create their own
investment vehicles for wind farm projects. The guide explains
the challenges facing developers and provides examples of
investment models that would be suitable for community
groups. Comparisons with situations in other EU countries are
also made.
For further information contact:
Fiona Candon
Western Development Commission
Dillon House
Ballaghaderreen
Co Roscommon
Tel: 094 986 1441
Email: [email protected]
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
GRANT:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
QINETIQ
€93,500
PUBLIC GOOD
JULY 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind
Overview
UK radar specialists QinetiQ were commissioned to carry out a
study on the possible effects of wind turbines around four
monopulse secondary surveillance radar (MSSR) sites.The impetus
for this study was provided by the developers: Airtricity, Contract
Renewables and Ballybane Wind Farms.The work was 100%
funded by SEI. In carrying out this study, QinetiQ was assisted by
the developers and by the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA).
The radar sites examined were located at Dooncarton (West
Mayo), Mt Gabriel (West Cork) and Woodcock Hill (South Clare).
These radars are used to monitor large numbers of transatlantic
flights and also provide approach services for local airports.
MSSR radar is different to primary radar in that it does not listen
for echo returns from a target. The MSSR radar sends out a pulse,
which "interrogates" a target. The target responds to this
interrogation via its on-board transponder with information
about its velocity and altitude.
Wind turbines can affect the propagation of information from
an MSSR to an aircraft and vice versa. The nature of the
interference depends on the orientation of the wind turbines,
their radar cross-section, the local terrain and the position and
attitude of the radar.
Project outcome
All the results show that the up-link (i.e. from the ground radar
to the target transponder) is more sensitive to interference from
reflecting objects such as wind turbines. This is because on the
down-link the ground radar employs special filters to remove
weak returns coming from small ranges.
The areas where turbines would cause down-link interference
are generally limited to a distance of approximately 5km from
the ground station. Within this region, the full spectrum of
interference problems is likely to occur. Outside this region, only
up-link interference between the radar and the transponder is
possible. If the target is within ±4 degrees of the turbine, then
the critical factor as to whether interference will occur is the
height of the target above the turbine.
A series of maps has been produced for each MSSR site for
generic 660kW and 2MW wind turbines. The maps indicate high,
medium and low risks of interference for aircraft target heights
of 300m, 600m and 1200m.
In addition to the generic study, four case studies were
evaluated. The case studies considered the potential
interference effects from the proposed wind farms at GlenarghGlencarly and Barroosky (Airtricity Developments Ltd), Glanta
Commons (Ballybane Wind Farms) and Inagh Valley (Contract
Renewables). Assessments for each location are provided in the
Final Report.
The results of this study can be used to create simple guidelines
for the development of wind farms around the MSSR ground
stations in Ireland. This study has shown that a critical factor in
the effects created by any particular wind farm is the position of
the replying target. In conclusion therefore, the formulation of
any guidelines will require input from the IAA in order to fully
define the use of airspace around each radar site thus enabling
the creation of more definitive planning guidelines.
For further information contact:
Graham Brennan
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Tel: 01 808 2539
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT
OF WIND TURBINES ON RADAR
21
Economic Model of Hydrogen Wind System
6.0
NPV €Millions
4.0
2.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
0.75
10.0
400
600
800
1,000 1,200 1,500
1,700
System Capital Cost €/kwh
0.35
0.55
System Efficiency
STUDY OF ELECTRICITY
STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES AND
THEIR POTENTIAL TO ADDRESS
WIND ENERGY INTERMITTENCY
IN IRELAND
Renewable Energy Research Development and Demonstration Report
22
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE CORK
€48,780
PUBLIC GOOD
MAY 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind
Overview
By May 2004, the amount of wind power installed in Ireland
totalled 190MW; the amount of wind power with signed
connection agreements totalled 633MW; a further 749MW was
in process, and potential new applications accounted for an
additional 627MW. This brings the cumulative total to 2,199MW.
However, the number of potential new wind farm enterprises
that have secured planning permission and the requisite
financial capital remains unclear.
The issue of how much intermittent wind energy an isolated
grid like Ireland’s is capable of supporting without impacting
negatively on system security and stability is a matter of some
debate. In the case of the ESB national grid, penetration levels of
5-7% are acceptable. However, some wind industry
representatives consider that a penetration level of 30% would
be more realistic: this view is based on various assumptions
including adequate interconnection, dynamic load levelling, and
short-term wind forecasting.
Current concerns associated with reserve requirements include
the intermittency of wind energy and the high level of variability
from individual wind farms. The main aim of this study was to
examine the role played by energy storage in addressing
these concerns.
Project outcome
The assessment of the economic viability of pumped hydro and
wind hydrogen energy storage systems was achieved using a
financial model that considered variable cost inputs for both
systems.
The key advantages of pumped hydro systems and compressed
air systems are technical maturity, economic viability and
operational experience. As such they are viewed as a realistic
and appropriate first stage in the development of an energy
storage solution to wind energy intermittency.
Wind hydrogen storage is potentially promising due to the
feasibility of decoupling the input power, output power and
storage capacity. An additional attractive feature is that it
achieves zero energy emissions. However, it is not yet at a
mature stage economically, and overall energy efficiency
remains poor.
Energy storage is central to the full integration of wind energy
generation. The study proposes both a short-term and a longterm strategy for the introduction of electricity storage systems
to the electricity grid.
For further information contact:
Dr Brian Ó Gallachóir
Sustainable Energy Research Group
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University College Cork
Tel: 021 490 3037
Email: [email protected]
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DUNDALK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
€54,000
R&D
MAY 2006
Overview
The system cost of a small wind turbine installation can be
significantly reduced by grid connection. This removes the need
for batteries and inverters. Reduced system cost will increase
market potential.
Induction generators are the most common type used on
large wind turbines. They are rugged and cost-effective. This
project will use an induction generator on a 1.2 kW domestic
wind turbine.
The project is based on experience with the successful design
and installation of 1,200 small grid-connected turbines in the
United States, and preliminary work on several prototypes.
It is the goal of this project to successfully design and
demonstrate a domestic grid-connected wind turbine in Ireland.
We expect the system cost of energy to be approximately 50%
that of comparable domestic wind systems.
Current project status
The preliminary design of the rotor and drive train have been
completed. A prototype of a five-blade hub has been built and
internal components have been ordered.
For further information contact:
Lawrence Staudt
Centre for Renewable Energy
Dundalk Institute of Technology
Dundalk
Tel: 042 937 0299
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
DEVELOPMENT OF A 1.2 KW
DOMESTIC WIND TURBINE
23
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
24
WIND TURBINE DESIGN AND
IMPLEMENTATION FOR SMALL
IRISH WIND FARMS
The system models will be carefully refined with a view to then
using them to optimise the grid connections of such
installations to the ESB distribution networks. There will also be a
comprehensive investigation of the overall site power quality
and voltage control, plus the output generation, capacity-factor,
and availability of the Enercon E-40 wind turbine.
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
Current project status
MEENACLOUGHSPAR LTD
€177,000
DEMONSTRATION
FEBRUARY 2006
Overview
This project proposes to research and investigate a type of wind
turbine design and a method of installation suited to Irish small
wind farm sites. The turbine will incorporate:
1
2
3
4
an electro-mechanical system which does not contain
a gearbox
an electrical system and method of grid-connection which
provides high power quality and voltage control
a blade diameter which is a prudent compromise between
energy capture and blade reliability and
high long-term reliability and maintenance back-up. Steady
state and transient models will be developed for the test site
installation and equipment. These models will then be
verified and refined by comparison with the actual results
recorded pursuant to the project’s test and monitoring
phase.
The wind turbine project is located at Anarget, near Donegal
town in County Donegal. The proposed location is at an
elevation of more than 300m above sea level on a terrain of
steep slopes and undulations. The test site has a high average
annual wind speed, high turbulence intensity, and a relatively
weak 20 kV grid connection. The wind turbine design that will
be investigated is the 600 kW version of the Enercon E-40
wind turbine.
The civil engineering construction phase of the project has been
substantially completed. No results have yet been obtained.
For further information contact:
John Brazil
3 Cranford Hall
Montrose
Dublin 4
Tel: (01) 283 9182
Email: [email protected]
farms, in addition to identifying how this should be agreed
contractually with the manufacturer.The information will be
available to current and future wind farm development companies
to ensure that wind farms operate to their highest technical
capabilities and in a fair and transparent contractual environment.
The successful implementation of a monitoring programme will
have a direct economic impact:
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
CENER (CENTRO NACIONAL DE
ENERGIAS RENOVABLES), SPAIN
€49,380
PUBLIC GOOD
JULY 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind
Overview
Occasional technical faults with installed wind turbines have led
to uncertainty within the Irish wind industry and to difficulties
identifying patterns and similarities in faults. Because the wind
industry in Ireland is relatively immature, owners and developers
are not familiar with what they should expect from the
associated contracts and agreements that they establish with
wind turbine manufacturers and agents.
Minimum conditions and requirements need to be more clearly
identified for technical and performance warranties, operation
and maintenance contracts, repair reserves, environmental
warranties, insurance and other financial risks.
The experiences of the Spanish wind industry, with over 6,000
MW of wind turbines installed by the beginning of 2004, show
how important the continuous monitoring of wind farms is, in
terms of both performance and operating features.
> Increasing the availability of Irish wind turbines: if availability
rises by 1%, additional annual revenues of between €1 million
(2005) and €4 million (2010) will result for the industry
> The additional electricity generated through improved
performance will result in the avoidance of 12,500 tonnes of
CO2 per year (2005) rising to 50,000 tonnes per year (2010)
Other economic advantages, which are important but more
difficult to quantify, include a reduction in insurance premiums
and improved confidence from financial institutions.
An ongoing Irish wind-monitoring programme could be
expected to result in:
> A system that allows and simplifies the comparison of
performance and maintenance figures between different
wind farms and different types of wind turbine generator
> The control of failure of various components of the wind
turbine generators, allowing for the generation of statistics
and identification of serial failures;
> The monitoring of warranty agreements between the
customers and suppliers;
> The establishment of a system that allows and supports the
implementation of predictive maintenance programmes for
the early detection of failures
Project outcome
For further information contact:
The project report provides an improved basis for the ongoing
monitoring and reporting of wind turbines installed, and their
increased availability. It will introduce a basis for measurable
quality and performance standards to the Irish wind industry and
so assist with improved wind turbine reliability and performance.
Paul Kellet
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Renewable Energy Information Office
Shinagh House
Bandon
Co Cork
A set of recommendations has been established.These are aimed at
identifying what information needs to be collected and recorded
both for wind farms currently operating in Ireland and new wind
Tel: 023 29193
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
DEFINITION OF A MONITORING
PROGRAMME FOR IRISH WIND
FARMS
25
Additional cost of daily operating reserve (€/MWh)
Additional cost of providing reserve vs proportion of wind generation
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
Fuelsaver dispatch
Forecast dispatch Linear (forecast dispatch) Linear (fuelsaver dispatch)
-1.0
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
proportion of system generation provided by wind
STUDY ON OPERATING RESERVE
REQUIREMENTS AS WIND POWER
PENETRATION INCREASES IN THE
IRISH ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
26
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
ILEX ENERGY CONSULTANTS
€199,595
PUBLIC GOOD
AUGUST 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind
Overview
This report describes the results of a study commissioned by SEI
to quantify any additional requirements for operating reserve
arising from the growth in wind generation, and to assess the
impact any such additional operating reserve would have on
costs and emissions, as well as the net environmental gain from
wind generation.
The study has compared the operating reserve requirements in
the system under a range of future scenarios covering the years
2006 and 2010. The following system operator scheduling and
dispatch strategies for managing wind generation were included:
Project outcome
This study indicates that the growth in wind generation will
require additional operating reserve, but that this increase may
not be substantial. Only very small amounts of additional fastacting (5-15 seconds) reserve are required, even for large wind
penetration levels. However, over longer time horizons of 15
seconds to several hours, there is an increasing requirement for
additional operating reserve as wind penetration increases.
Additional benefits to grid operation of diversifying wind farm
locations on the island of Ireland may be limited. It is estimated
that by 2006, with over 850 MW of wind capacity connected,
most of the benefits of diversity will have been realised.
The results for the forecast approach are as follows:
> The additional cost of operating reserve is relatively small
and likely to be to less than €0.20/MWh in 2010 where there
are 1,300 MW of wind or €0.50/MWh with 1,950 MW
> The total capacity of conventional plant as scheduled is less
than in the no wind and fuel saver cases
> The total system generation required (from conventional
and renewable generators) is lower than in the no wind and
fuel saver cases
> The total fuel burn is substantially lower than in the no wind
case and also less than in the fuel saver case
> Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are substantially lower than
in the no wind case. In comparison with the fuel saver case
however, savings are less clear-cut, due to the different mix
of plant applying under the respective approaches
> No wind (the base case)
> The fuel saver approach, whereby the system is scheduled
without wind but where, in real time, conventional units are
backed off to accommodate available wind generation
> A forecast approach, where the expected level of wind
generation is included in the scheduling of the system
For further information contact:
With the help of the system operators, three sample days were
chosen to study the wind scenarios and the scheduling
methodologies. This study has made use of highly sophisticated
modelling techniques that have been developed over a number
of years at University College Dublin (UCD), Queen’s University
Belfast (QUB) and the University of Manchester Institute of
Science and Technology (UMIST).
Tel: 01 808 2073
Email: [email protected]
John Mc Cann
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Limerick
Mayo
Donegal Rathrussan
& Cavan
Kerry
Wexford
Leitrim
Galway Kings Mtn. Golagh
STUDY ON RENEWABLE ENERGY
IN THE NEW IRISH ELECTRICITY
MARKET
NAME OF CONTRACTORS:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
BRATTLE GROUP AND HENWOOD ENERGY
€207,830
PUBLIC GOOD
AUGUST 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind
Overview
The Commission for Energy Regulation (CER) is working towards
implementing new market arrangements for electricity (MAE)
for Ireland in 2006. Against this background, SEI commissioned
the Brattle Group and Henwood Energy to study the impact that
MAE might have on renewable energy (RE) generators and
combined heat and power (CHP) generators, and to suggest
features that might appropriately improve their position.
The purpose of this report is to inform the debate around RE
generation in the context of the forthcoming implementation of
new Market Arrangements for Electricity. Key policy areas yet to
be finalised are identified, and consideration is given to the
implications of different approaches to these for RE generators
and CHP plants. The research is supported by sophisticated
quantitative electricity market modelling and simulation. The
modelling utilises Henwood’s MARKETSYMLMP Programme,
utilising AC OPF unit commitment and economic dispatch.
Project outcome
Analysis was carried out on the following: price forecasts in the
MAE interaction of RE fiscal support mechanisms, siting
decisions and investment, market operations, reserves, and
alternative market forms.
For further information contact:
Morgan Bazilian
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Tel: 01 808 2075
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
Weighted Average Monthly Price
(€/MWh)
Figure 1: Minimum, maximum and average monthly Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP)s
for wind nodes in 2006
27
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
– Quata
– FIT
– Tender (50% strat. bidding)
– Tender min (0% str. bidding)
– Tender maz (100% str. bidding)
4
2
0
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
STUDY ON THE ECONOMIC
ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
SUPPORT MECHANISMS IN THE
ELECTRICITY GENERATION SECTOR
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
28
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
20
18
16
14
12
10
– Quota. amb. cofiring
– FIT. amb. cofiring
– Tender (50% strat. bidding).
amb. cofiring
– Tender min (0% str. bidding).
amb. cofiring
– Tender maz (100% str. bidding).
amb. cofiring
8
6
4
2
0
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Target 2020
Target 2020
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
Average premium on electricity price due to
RES-E policy 200602020 (€/MWh RES-S)
Average premium on electricity price due to
RES-E policy 200602020 (€/MWh RES-S)
Average premium costs on electricity price due to RES-E policy 2006-2010 dependent on RES-E target 2020 default scenarios and
ambiguous co-firing scenario
ENERGY ECONOMICS GROUP (EEG) AT
VIENNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,
AUSTRIA
€63,321
PUBLIC GOOD
SEPTEMBER 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind
> Seeks to widen understanding of the various impacts of
energy policy choices in Ireland. This is implemented by
application of complex simulation tools (Green-X), delivering
a robust understanding of the consequences of various
policy mechanisms. Over 40 scenarios were examined.
> Assists the formulation and implementation of the policy.
This study contributes to decisions regarding
implementation of an optimal RE support mechanism by
clarifying the strengths and weaknesses of each support
mechanism analysed for Ireland.
Project outcome
The report provides general observations on support
mechanisms for renewable energy in Ireland and a detailed
comparison of the support mechanisms assessed.
Overview
For further information contact:
This study was commissioned to help the Government to
formulate future policies on renewable energy, while responding
to the consultation document Options for future Renewable
Energy Policy, Targets and Programmes, issued by the
Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources.
Katrina Polaski
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Support mechanisms will be required to stimulate the
deployment of most renewable energy technologies, until such
time as they have matured and become competitive with
existing energy technology options. A number of different
measures can be employed to stimulate the development of
renewable energy generation capacity.
The main objective of this study was to quantify the effects of
renewable energy support mechanisms on society and on
renewable energy deployment within Ireland. In order to meet
this objective the study:
> Provides a detailed economic, financial, and regulatory
analysis of the various market-based policy instruments that
may be utilised to meet specified targets for the penetration
of RE in Ireland. The primary focus is on the four direct
support mechanisms currently employed in OECD countries,
namely feed-in tariffs, competitive tendering, obligations
with certificate trading and production tax credits.
Tel: 01 808 2091
Email: [email protected]
Biomass Energy
Biomass Energy
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
COILLTE
€91,626
DEMONSTRATION
AUGUST 2005
Overview
The state forestry company, Coillte, recently relocated its
corporate headquarters to a 100% sustainable, timberconstructed building at Newtownmountkennedy, Co Wicklow.
The installation of wood and solar heating at the new
headquarters was supported by the RE RDD programme in 2004.
The new two-storey structure measuring approximately 1,561m2
was constructed from timber derived from sustainable sources.
Recycled paper products were used to insulate it to levels
exceeding current building regulations. It is designed to
encourage natural cross-ventilation, thus avoiding the need for
mechanical cooling. In addition, the high insulation levels ensure
very low heat demands.
The primary heat source is from two arrays of solar thermal
panels – a flat plate and an evacuated heat tube array. The heat
is stored in a large buffer vessel, which is topped up as necessary
from a wood boiler supplied by the Austrian boiler
manufacturer, KWB. The boiler has a 100 kW capacity and is
capable of using either wood pellets or wood chips. The cost of
the boiler and automatic fuel supply auger, including
installation, was €27,500. The remaining support from SEI was
allocated to the solar heating system, monitoring programme
and energy centre.
The solar and wood heating systems are located in a purposebuilt energy centre, which is open to the public.
Goals of the project include:
> Demonstration of the first large-scale commercial
installation of an automatic wood pellet/wood chip fuelled
boiler in Ireland
> Achievement of zero CO2 emissions from space heating and
hot water provision
> Fossil fuel substitution of 400,000 kWh per annum.
> CO2 avoidance of 160 tonnes per annum
> Demonstration of an outlet for Irish forestry by-products as a
renewable, CO2 neutral fuel source
> Training of Coillte personnel and the personnel of an Irish
wood energy services company in the installation and
maintenance of a wood heating system so as to ensure local
service delivery
> Overcoming perceived barriers of fuel cost and supply
Current project status
The installation of the boiler and solar heating systems is
complete. The next phase of the project involves monitoring of
the performance of boiler and buildings and this is due for
completion in 2005, after which time a full monitoring report
will be made available.
For further information contact:
Aine Carr
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Renewable Energy Information Office
Shinagh House
Bandon
Co Cork
Tel: 023 29193
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
DEMONSTRATION AND
MONITORING OF BIOMASS
BOILER AT COILLTE
HEADQUARTERS
31
STUDY FOR A WOOD BIOMASS
FIRED COMBINED HEAT AND
POWER PLANT (CHP)
The feasibility study findings indicated that the phased
introduction of a CHP plant and wood pelleting plant would be
a highly appropriate solution. The company decided to adopt
the recommendation of a phased introduction of a CHP plant.
Project outcome
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
32
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
SWS GROUP
€37,220
R&D
MARCH 2003
Overview
SEI has identified the wood-processing sector as a primary
potential developer of wood fuels, such as wood pellets, and a
prime client for biomass combined heat and power.
This feasibility study, which was carried out by South Western
Services for one of Ireland’s largest sawmills, Grainger’s Sawmills
Ltd, examined the potential to generate heat and electricity, as
well as to develop wood pellet production using wood biomass
at Grainger’s Sawmills.
Following completion of the feasibility study in 2003, Grainger’s
Sawmills entered into a joint venture partnership with South
Western Services Co-operative Society Limited (SWS Group) to
allow it to proceed in the Autumn of 2003 with the construction
of a wood-fired biomass CHP plant.
The project represents the first biomass CHP installation to be
built in Ireland. Using sawmill by-products (with a moisture
content as high as 65%), the CHP plant is designed to generate
both 1.83 MW of electrical energy and 3.5 MW of thermal energy
in a single process. The thermal output is used for the drying of
construction timber in the sawmill kilns. The 1.83 MW of green
electricity will be supplied to the national grid. The project
began operations in May 2004.
For further information contact:
The sawmill was utilising a 1.7MW boiler, fuelled by sawmill
by-products, to supply its heat load for the kiln drying of timber.
However, this was proving insufficient to meet peak demand and,
since the sawmill was planning to expand its kiln operations, an
investigation of the potential for installing a wood-fired combined
heat and power (CHP) plant appeared timely.
Sinead Hickey
SWS Energy
SWS Group
Shinagh House
Bandon
Co Cork
The feasibility study examined the viability of using the sawmill’s
by-products (sawdust, bark, peelings and shavings) to generate
electricity and heat.The assessment addressed the following issues:
Tel: 023 29164
Email: [email protected]
> Detailed evaluation of the existing energy requirements
> Identification of potentially technically feasible options for a
CHP plant, including steam combustion technology
> Detailed technical, environmental and economic assessment
of the technology options
> Assessment of the financial, commercial and economic
aspects of the proposed options
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
RPS - MCOS
€21,425
PUBLIC GOOD
DECEMBER 2003
www.sei.ie/rerdd/biomass
Overview
EU RES-E Directive (2001/77/EC) states that Ireland must ensure
that by 2010 13.2% of its annual electricity supply is generated
by renewable resources. Against this background, it is important
to assess the potential contribution that the use of bioenergy
could make to enabling Ireland to reach its target. Based on a
review of existing studies, it was considered that dry agricultural
residues (straw, poultry litter and spent mushroom compost)
had not been sufficiently well explored. Consequently, SEI
commissioned a resource study to look at these specific streams.
sufficient quantity of excess material within a reasonably sized
catchment area, the practical potential for straw in Ireland is
estimated to be approximately 1.8 PJ per annum.
> Poultry litter production is concentrated in County
Monaghan (and County Limerick to a lesser extent), and in
Northern Ireland. Having accounted for competing uses
(mushroom compost and land spreading as a fertiliser) the
practical resource is estimated to be approximately 0.3 PJ
per annum.
> Spent mushroom compost (SMC) production is
concentrated in Counties Monaghan and Cavan, and in
Northern Ireland. The only existing outlet for SMC is land
spreading. It is likely that SMC as an energy source could
only be used in conjunction with other fuels (co-firing with
poultry litter, etc.). The practical potential of SMC for energy
is estimated to be approximately 0.2 PJ per annum.
The three resources considered in this study are judged to have
useful but limited potential as sources of renewable bioenergy.
In specific geographical locations, sufficient quantities of these
feedstocks are available to enable some renewable electricity
generation from biomass projects.
Study results were circulated at a workshop held on 31st March
2004. Outputs from the report have also informed the work of
the Bioenergy Strategy Group, which was set up by the
Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources.
For further information contact:
The goals of the study were to quantify the existing resources,
including their geographical spread, and to assess the likely level
of future supply for conversion to electricity, with due account
taken of competing uses.
Project outcome
The main findings of the study were as follows:
> The current and projected future practical energy potential
for all three residue streams is limited.
> Straw production is concentrated in the east and south east of
Ireland. Allowing for competing uses such as animal bedding
and mushroom compost, coupled with the availability of a
Pearse Buckley
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Tel: 01 808 2540
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCE
POTENTIAL OF DRY
AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES
IN IRELAND
33
BIOGREEN BIOFUEL PROJECT
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
BIOGREEN ENERGY PRODUCTS LTD
€249,812
R&D
FEBRUARY 2005
Overview
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
34
The EU Directive on Biofuels stipulates that member states
should aim to produce 2% of all transportation fuels from
biofuels or other renewable fuels by 2005. This figure should
then be increased to 5.75% by 2010. Biofuels offer the potential
to reduce CO2 emissions in the short term. No major
modifications to existing engine technology are required.
There are two types of liquid biofuels: those suitable for fuelling
petrol engines and those for fuelling diesel engines. Petrol engine
biofuels may be made from sugar beet and wheat. Ethanol can be
produced and then blended up to 5% and used in standard
engines. Blends of up to 85% ethanol can be used in flexible fuel
vehicles. Diesel engine biofuels may be made from oilseed rape,
sunflower oil, soya oil, recovered vegetable oil and tallow.
Bio-diesel in Europe is mainly produced from 100% fresh
rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. It is possible to add some used
vegetable oil and tallow to the process. However, using
increasing percentages of these cheaper feedstocks makes it
difficult to attain the relevant EU standard for bio-diesel.
Pure plant oil, such as rapeseed or sunflower oil, can be used in a
100% pure form. When using pure plant oil, the vehicle’s engine
will need to be modified – necessitating additional costs for the
vehicle owner. In the case of pure plant oil, however, the
production process is cheaper and more energy-efficient than
bio-diesel production.
Pressed oilseed rape produces vegetable oil and a residual cake
in the approximate ratio of one tonne of oil to two tonnes of
cake. The cake can be sold as an animal feed supplement,
replacing imported soya, and the oil may be filtered and used in
vehicles which are modified appropriately. It is estimated that
every tonne of oil used will result in a reduction in emissions of
2.2 tonnes of CO2.
Biogreen plans to produce 600 tonnes of vegetable oil and
1,200 tonnes of animal feed supplement in 2004/05. The
rapeseed will be supplied by Glanbia and local farmers. For the
2005/06 season, Biogreen plan to process 6,000 tonnes of
rapeseed.
The project will demonstrate the feasibility of producing and
selling vegetable oil locally as a transport fuel. For this project
Biogreen will modify 100 vehicles by fitting engine-conversion
kits to each vehicle.
As part of the project, Teagasc will perform crop and oil qualitymonitoring tasks, while the University of Limerick will conduct
power and tail-pipe emissions measurements for test vehicles to
determine the environmental impact of using the rapeseed oil
as engine fuel. The emissions to be measured include smoke
opacity, CO, CO2, O2, NO, NO2 and SO2.
The Wexford Energy Management Agency will also participate in
the project assisting with the promotion of the project and the
search for additional participants.
Current project status
To date, Biogreen has completed the construction of the
requisite processing and storage facilities. Appropriate
modifications to ten vehicles have been carried out. The
Department of Finance announced the inclusion of a pilot
scheme for excise duty remission in the 2004 Finance Act.
Biogreen is currently awaiting notification of excise duty
remission before proceeding to modify the remaining vehicles.
For further information contact:
Anthony Browne
Cornerstown
Bridgetown
Co Wexford
Tel: 053 35950
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.rapoleum.com
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
TEAGASC
€40,000
PUBLIC GOOD
MAY 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/biomass
Overview
The production of pure plant oil from rapeseed in Ireland offers
two possibilities for the introduction of liquid biofuels into the
transport fuel mix. The pure plant oil can be used directly in
modified diesel engines, or it can be supplied as a feedstock to a
bio-diesel plant for conversion to bio-diesel.
The use of pure plant oil in modified diesel engines is a simple,
low-cost technology approach, which lends itself to small-scale,
dispersed transport fuel production. However, the attendant risk
is that variable quality in oil production at separate, small-scale
production plants would result in variable engine performance,
including, in the worst eventuality, engine failure. It was
considered important, therefore, to identify critical, measurable
characteristics of the product oil which could be used to
determine that the oil was within a defined, acceptable range.
The main aims of this study were to identify critical
characteristics for acceptable oil quality use, to establish routine
testing procedures for quality assurance and to construct
specimen test reports which could form part of a quality
assurance procedure.
Project outcome
The main findings of the study were as follows:
> The two characteristics that were determined to be of prime
importance in establishing the quality of pure plant oil for
use as a vehicle fuel were: the existence of suspended solids,
and acid value
> Seed quality and pressing and filtering procedures were
identified as being central to the control of suspended solids
and acid value, and the report includes specific
recommendations in this regard
> Sample reports for both weekly and monthly testing were
developed and included as appendices
This report identifies the principle characteristics of pure plant
oil which need to be monitored as part of a quality assurance
procedure. It is intended that the findings in the report will
guide both the production and quality assurance practices of
producers of pure plant oil for vehicle fuel.
For further information contact:
Pearse Buckley
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Tel: 01 808 2540
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR
RAPESEED OIL AS VEHICLE FUEL
35
A RESOURCE STUDY ON
RECOVERED VEGETABLE OIL AND
ANIMAL FATS
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
36
NAME OF CONTRACTOR:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
CLEARPOWER LTD
€30,000
PUBLIC GOOD
DECEMBER 2003
www.sei.ie/rerdd/biomass
Overview
The EU Directive on Biofuels (2003/30/EC) established nonmandatory reference targets of 2% renewable fuels in the
transportation fuel mix of each member state by 2005, and
5.75% by 2010. In addressing the intent of the Directive, an
option available to Ireland is the replacement of a proportion of
mineral diesel fuel with bio-diesel, a fuel primarily derived in
Europe from oilseed rape. However, the cost of producing biodiesel from this feedstock is high, particularly when compared to
the current cost of diesel. In order to mitigate the cost of biodiesel production, residues and by-products such as recovered
vegetable oil (RVO) and animal fats (tallow) could be included as
supplementary feedstocks. These lower-cost materials can
significantly improve the price competitiveness of bio-diesel.
In this context a resource study examining RVO and tallow was
deemed necessary. The main aims of the study were to quantify
the existing resources, including their geographical spread, and
to assess the likely level of future supply for conversion to biodiesel, with due account taken of competing uses.
Project outcome
The main findings of the study were as follows:
> Recovered vegetable oil (RVO): Across the island of Ireland
29,000 tonnes of waste vegetable oil is produced annually.
This quantity is expected to rise over the next decade, in line
with population and economic growth. Currently, 14,500
tonnes is recovered as RVO, leaving a potential 14,500
tonnes surplus to be disposed of by other means. Only 5,000
tonnes of this surplus is ‘realistically’ recoverable. Of the
recovered vegetable oil, until recently approximately 97%
went into animal feed in Ireland or the UK. This practice is
now banned. The market for Irish RVO is therefore changing,
and unless attractive new local markets can be encouraged,
the collected recovered vegetable oil will be sold to biodiesel processors in the UK or elsewhere in Europe.
> Animal Fats (tallow): In the eight rendering plants in the
Republic of Ireland 78,000 tonnes of tallow is produced
annually, a volume set to fall gradually, in line with a
reduction in the national herd. At present, no surplus tallow
is produced, and for many grades of tallow the market in
animal feed will continue. However, given current tallow
market conditions and fossil fuel prices, 22,000 tonnes of
low-grade non-BSE risk tallow could be diverted for use as a
bio-diesel feedstock.
There is an opportunity to exploit these materials for the
production of bio-diesel in Ireland. It is likely that if action to
bring about such development does not occur soon, alternative,
overseas markets are likely to be quickly established.
The study results were also circulated at workshop held on 31st
March 2004.
For further information contact:
Pearse Buckley
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Tel: 01 808 2540
Email: [email protected]
Potential CO 2 Avoidance from Land Fill Gas Accessible Resource
251,000
250,000
240,000
215,000
230,000
220,000
2010
2020
Year
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCE:
IRELAND TO 2010 AND 2020
NAME OF CONTRACTORS:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
ESB INTERNATIONAL, FUTURE ENERGY
SOLUTIONS, ENERGY RESEARCH GROUP
(UCD)
€148,769
PUBLIC GOOD
OCTOBER 2004
> Application of the methodology and comparison of
resulting estimates of resource against historical figures for
onshore wind.
> Application of the methodology to landfill gas (electricity
market) and active solar thermal for the space and water
heating market.
> Application of a scenario approach to identifying potential
market contributions under basic, maximum and minimum
contributions such as would reflect a continuation of current
policies; a relatively slower growth rate; and an accelerated
scenario that would provide the highest reasonable levels of
penetration for renewables by 2010 and 2020.
www.sei.ie/rerdd/biomass
Overview
Project outcome
The final report is available on the SEI website.
This study was commissioned to assist the Government in
formulating its future policies on renewable energy, while
responding to the consultation document Options for future
renewable energy policy, targets and programmes, issued by the
Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources
For further information contact:
The study is intended to update and extend the methodology
used in earlier studies undertaken to evaluate renewable energy
resources in Ireland, along with medium-term development
costs, so as to provide a template for future policy options in the
deployment of renewable energy resources. It is also intended
that the methodology developed should constitute a consistent
mechanism for future independent studies of the electricity and
heat markets, investigating the use of renewable energy
technologies not included in this study.
Tel: 01 808 2091
Email: [email protected]
Key outputs from the project included:
> An extended methodology for evaluating the medium-term
development potential of renewable energy resources for
the years up to 2010, and then to 2020, including the likely
resource/cost curve.
> Estimation of a ‘selling price’, allowing for project financing
and an adequate return to the developer, calculated from
the production costs per unit of energy as deduced from the
resource analysis.
Godfrey Bevan
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
Annual CO 2 Avoidance Tonnes
260,000
37
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
38
Ocean Energy
Ocean Energy
>
NAME OF CONTRACTORS:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
KIRK McCLURE MORTON, QUEEN’S
UNIVERSITY BELFAST, NATURAL
POWER CONSULTANTS
€71,000
PUBLIC GOOD
DECEMBER 2004
>
>
www.sei.ie/rerdd/ocean
>
Overview
This study was commissioned to assist the Government in
formulating policy on renewable energy, while at the same time
responding to the consultation document “Options for future
renewable energy policy, targets and programmes”, issued by the
Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources:
The goal of the study is to estimate the tidal and marine current
energy resources and costs in Ireland with a view to providing
medium term development potential which could be used to
underpin the formulation of potential targets for future policy
options in the deployment of renewables.
Key outputs from the project will include:
> Identification of the most promising areas for cost-effective
exploitation of the tidal stream and marine current energy
resource in Irish waters, using Admiralty tidal data (where
available), other historical current meter records, and other
classical sources of data derived from computer models
where appropriate.
> Analysis of the highlighted locations, using detailed
computer models of tidal currents as well as estimates of the
energy potential and projected production costs using
currently emerging technologies for exploitation of tidal
stream flow.
> Validation of the models, using data from new current meter
installations deployed as required, initially at a limited
number of sites. Two particular locations will be earmarked
>
for detailed monitoring, in order to establish the flow
characteristics in enhanced current regimes that will be
important in the engineering of extraction devices and
complexes.
Evaluations of large deeper water (40m+) areas of high
current velocity (if any) with a view to developing secondgeneration deep-water devices.
Techno-economic evaluation of the resource, using
horizontal axis, vertical axis and oscillating flap technology.
A methodology or methodologies for estimating the tidal
and marine current energy resource in Ireland such as would
indicate medium-term development potential (or estimated
contribution) for the years 2010 and 2020, including the
likely resource/cost curve per unit of energy produced.
A conversion of costs per unit of energy from the resource
analysis to ‘selling price’ allowing for project financing and
an adequate return to the developer.
A comparison of the methodology and resulting estimates
of the resource against those produced historically in
Ireland.
Project outcome
The results of the study indicate that Ireland has a modest tidal
current resource based on assumptions of technology costs and
limitations of operation. The study reviewed the tidal resource
around the whole island. In addition, 17 locations of high
potential resource were examined, of these 12 sites were
modelled in detail. In order to validate the numerical models,
detailed measurements were taken at 2 of the 12 sites studied.
For further information contact:
Katrina Polaski
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Tel: 01 808 2091
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
TIDAL AND MARINE CURRENT
ENERGY RESOURCE IN IRELAND
41
DETAILED DESIGN OF THE OE
BUOY DUCT DEVICE FOR WAVE
ENERGY CONVERSION
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
42
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
OCEAN ENERGY LTD
€131,157
R&D
JANUARY 2005
Overall project management is being handled by Ocean Energy
Ltd and technical co-ordination is provided by the Hydraulics
and Maritime Research Centre (HMRC), Cork. Activity under this
project is grouped into the following work packages, with
appropriate contractors responsible for the output:
>
>
>
>
Model testing – HMRC (Cork)
Air turbine design – IST and Ztec Ltd, (Portugal)
Electrical systems – CDGA and MES Ltd (Cork)
Mooring systems – Marine Computation Services
Intl (Galway)
> Test site – Ocean Energy and HMRC
> Hull engineering and system integration – TRITEC Ltd Naval
Architects (Glasgow)
Overview
Ireland is located at the centre of one of the most favourable climates
for ocean wave energy in the world. The resource potential has been
identified by the Marine Institute as around 800 MW installed
capacity.Currently, there are no commercially available wave energy
converters which could be used to exploit this resource.While a
number of countries are actively promoting their development, it is
clear that there remains a large commercial opportunity open to a
successful device developer.The Ocean Energy Buoy (OE Buoy) is
referred to as a floating oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy
conversion device.This device uses wave energy to compress air in a
plenum chamber and pump it through an air turbine system.This
isolates the power conversion system from the seawater and also
provides a high-speed airflow to the turbine. The OE Buoy device is a
floating system in which the mouth of the OWC faces away from the
wave direction.This results in high energy efficiencies at the
operating point arising from the motions of the float system relative
to the waves.Interestingly, however, these efficiencies reduce as the
wave power levels increase, limiting the output in extreme wave
conditions.The mooring forces in extreme waves are also reduced by
the motions of the system.The system has a compact shape and is
amenable to conventional shipbuilding techniques.These attributes
contribute to the view that this device has the potential to be a
commercially viable wave energy converter.
Ocean Energy Ltd is working towards the construction of a 1 MW
pilot plant to be deployed and tested off the Irish coastline.
Successful operation of the pilot plant will allow Ocean Energy Ltd to
proceed to the commercialisation of these devices.The particular
objective of this study is to finalise the preliminary engineering and
costings so that the project may proceed with minimum risk to the
next phase, which is construction of the pilot plant.
Successful completion of this project will provide a preliminary
design for the pilot plant and allow the costing to be undertaken
with a high degree of confidence. The risks of proceeding to the
next phase, which involves the construction of the pilot plant and
relatively high investment, will therefore be greatly reduced.
Current project status
The 1:15 scale model has been constructed and was tested in
Nantes in September 2004. Contracts have been completed with
the Portuguese partners and preliminary specifications for the
power take-off system have been received. A draft final report
has been received from MCS International for the mooring
design. Site identification is proceeding within HMRC, and
discussions have been initiated with ESBI regarding the
planning permissions and electrical interfacing. Preliminary hull
designs have been received and Ocean Energy Ltd have had
discussions with potential shipyards in relation to the costs.
For further information contact:
John McCarthy
Ocean Energy Ltd
3 Casement Square
Cobh
Co Cork
Email: [email protected]
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
WAVEBOB LTD
€43,200
R&D
JANUARY 2004
Overview
The research and development of an innovative and entirely
Irish wave-power device has been progressing steadily since
1998. Wavebobs are floating and self-reacting devices that can
be deployed in large formations in deep offshore waters. The
Wavebob is of a type known as an oscillating point absorber,
meaning that most energy is absorbed when the natural period
of oscillation is in tune with the incident waves; and where the
width of the device is small with respect to the wave length.
Sea waves vary in period and in height. A key advantage of the
Wavebob is that it is fully tuneable to the prevailing wave
climate. Also it has an adjustable bandwidth. Stroke length is
also controllable, and this is critically important in terms of
survivability and allowing a useful measure of power to be
recovered from large waves. As such the Wavebob is perceived
to be an ideal device for the sometimes very energetic seas off
Ireland’s west coast.
Linear and non-linear models have been developed in-house,
based on earlier hydrodynamic analysis. These computer models
have been validated using true-scale models in wave flumes and
tanks, allowing for increased accuracy and greater confidence in
the process of virtual testing using the computer models.
The primary goal is to develop a practical and commercially
licensable product. The key parameters are survivability, capital
and operating costs, and average annual useful power
generated. Once survival is assured, the goal is then to deliver
useful and acceptable power to the grid at a competitive price.
Survivability and capital and operating costs are being
addressed in parallel R&D programmes, as are the detailed
design and testing of the (hydraulic) power take-off and control
systems. The object of the present R&D project is to measure the
power produced by true-scale models in accurately generated
wave spectra.
Current project status
The project is well advanced and the interim report has been
submitted. Tests have been completed at 1/50th and 1/20th
scales using the facilities of the Hydraulics and Maritime
Research Centre (UCC, Cork) and the large wave channel of the
German Coastal Defence Centre (Hanover University and the
Technical University of Braunschweig). Analysis of the results
from the tank tests correspond closely with predictions from the
validated numerical models.
For further information contact:
William Dick
Wavebob Limited
Blessington
Co Wicklow
Tel: 045 865 233
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
WAVE TANK TESTING OF
THE WAVEBOB
43
ARCH POINT WAVE RIDER BUOY,
CO CLARE
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
44
ESBI
€47,395
R&D
SEPTEMBER 2005
Overview
Records from weather ships, meteorological buoys and satellites
provide evidence of a substantial wave power resource in deep
water to the west of Ireland. The relevant distances offshore are,
however, currently too great to make power production and
transmission ashore commercially viable. Proximity to the shore
has other disadvantages, with the level of power diminishing as
the coastline is approached, due to shallowing and seabed
friction. Computer models are widely used to predict the effects
of distance/depth on output.
For calibration purposes it was agreed that a measurement
programme conducted at a promising location, where a depth
of 60m could be obtained a short (1.5km) distance from the
shore, and with open exposure to the Atlantic, would be
appropriate. This would allow realistic measured assessment of:
> Local annual power and energy levels, with predominant
frequency content of waves
> Seasonal variations
> Correlation with deep water buoy measurements and
model predictions
> Application to prototype wave power conversion systems
> The experience of working on this hazardous and exposed
coast
The project is being carried out by ESB International and Irish
Hydrodata, supported on an equal basis by ESB Power
Generation and SEI under its RE RDD Programme.
Current project status
Measurements began in November 2003 and excellent results
were obtained until early July 2004, when it became necessary
to replace the buoy installed at the outset of the programme.
The replacement buoy will target the 2004 Autumn/Winter
conditions.
For further information contact:
Graham Brennan
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Tel: 01 808 2539
Email: [email protected]
Solar Energy
Solar Energy
NAME OF CONTRACTORS:
SEI GRANT:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
CSA GROUP, CONODATE GEOLOGY, CORK
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
€185,500
PUBLIC GOOD
JULY 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/geothermal
Overview
This study was performed by the CSA Group, in co-operation
with Conodate Geology, Cork Institute of Technology and the
Geological Survey of Ireland. The goals of the study were to:
> Identify potential geothermal energy resources in Ireland.
> Create geothermal models of Ireland and gather the
necessary thermal, geological, structural and hydrodynamic
data to facilitate modelling.
> Produce a GIS-linked geothermal database and, using the
models, create a series of geothermal maps of Ireland.
> Review the current status and utilisation of geothermal
energy resources in Ireland.
> Present recommendations on the potential for exploitation
of geothermal resources in Ireland in the context of
international best practice.
The study surveyed or compiled data on warm springs and
groundwater temperature trends. In order to map the subsurface
temperatures, all available borehole data in the Republic of
Ireland was assembled.Temperature data from 19 mineral and oil
exploration holes, ranging in depth from 300m to 2500m (deepest
borehole Drumkeeran (No 1), Co Leitrim), was retrieved from
previous surveys. In addition to this, CSA surveyed 32 existing,
open boreholes to obtain their temperature profiles.This survey
examined holes ranging in depth from 40m – 810m (deepest
borehole 01-541-03, Co Galway). A preliminary review of data
from Northern Ireland was also included.
All survey data was added to the existing temperature data
compiled in earlier studies. The data is presented in the Final
Report, which may be downloaded from SEI’s website.
Geothermal maps have been produced for surface levels, as well
as 100m, 500m, 1000m, 2500m and 5000m depths. The maps can
be viewed using MapInfo software, allowing temperature plots
to be examined with the accompanying geological data
overlaid. Individual borehole data points with references may
be interrogated.
Project outcome
The results of this review indicate that Ireland is particularly well
suited to the use of ground source heat pumps, due to its
temperate climate, along with rainfall levels that ensure good
conductivity and year-round rainfall recharge.
There are abundant marine and surface water geothermal
resources, which could be exploited in Ireland, but they need
some encouragement for their development. The two main
areas of warm spring development are in north Leinster and the
Mallow region.
Considering the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland
together, this review has indicated a regional increase in
temperatures ranging from 17ºC to 19ºC in the Republic to 25ºC
to 27ºC in Northern Ireland at a depth of 500m. At 2500m, the
increase in temperature ranges from 28ºC to 45ºC in the South
to 64ºC to 97ºC in the North. This indicates significant
geothermal sources, with the potential for commercial
development. Definition of the exact profile and extent of the
geothermal sources, and quantification of these resources,
requires additional assessment in any areas deemed to be of
interest.
For further information contact:
Róisín Goodman
CSA House
7 Dundrum Business Park
Windy Arbour
Dublin 14
Tel: 01 296 4667
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE MAP
OF IRELAND
47
Comparison of the strategies
10000
Duration of the development strategies
units sold annually
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
Strategy A
CAMPAIGN FOR TAKE-OFF FOR
RENEWABLE HEAT PUMPS
IN IRELAND
NAME OF CONTRACTORS:
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
48
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
ARSENAL RESEARCH AND FORAS
AISEANNA SAOTHAIR (FAS)
€49,000
PUBLIC GOOD
MAY 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/solar
Overview
Renewable heat pumps are rapidly becoming a popular
alternative to conventional technologies based on fossil fuels.
Sales are growing at an accelerated rate with over 1000 heat
pumps sold in Ireland in 2003. This compares with 32,000
geothermal heat pumps sold in Sweden in 2003. This success is
attributable largely to their cost-effectiveness and the comfort
provided, but in addition to this they contribute to reducing
greenhouse gas emissions.
The aim of Arsenal Research’s study was to define a strategic
plan for the development of the renewable heat pump market
in Ireland, looking at the 2020 horizon. An action plan was then
prepared for the period 2004-2012, which elaborates measures
to be implemented in line with the strategic plan. The analysis
was based on a comprehensive assessment of the historical
development of the heat pump market in Ireland and other
European countries, and involved extensive consultation with
stakeholders in the Irish heat pump industry.
Project outcome
Two different strategies were proposed by Arsenal Research:
> Strategy A: aimed at maximising and accelerating market
growth. This would require a relatively high level of
government involvement.
> Strategy B: aimed at achieving balanced growth, with less
government involvement and a relatively larger contribution
from market players.
20
26
20
27
20
28
20
23
20
24
20
25
20
21
years
20
22
20
18
20
19
20
20
20
16
20
17
20
13
20
14
20
15
20
11
20
12
20
10
20
06
20
07
20
08
20
09
19
94
-20
03
0
20
04
20
05
1000
Strategy B
Strategies A and B would include various levels of promotion
and marketing, technical assistance for customers and
professionals, financial incentives, regulatory measures, etc.
The table below summarises the targets for both strategies, as
well as their associated costs and benefits in terms of CO2
emissions eliminated and jobs created:
Total public
Annual Sales
expenditure(1) by 2020
2004- 2020
(,000 euro)
Strategy A 41,486
Strategy B 4,136
8,300
3,100
Annual
energy savings
(GWh/year)
Avoided CO2
emissions
(average tons/year)
482
203
127,500
53,707
(1) Cost of government support programme, including direct subsidies.
Both strategy options place strong emphasis on achieving
quality in the marketplace as a prerequisite for sustained
growth. With the help of FAS, Arsenal Research prepared
specifications for the establishment of a training and
certification scheme for professionals involved in the design,
installation and maintenance of renewable heat pumps systems.
This very comprehensive study should play an important role in
policymaking for the development of the heat pump market.
For further information contact:
Xavier Dubuisson
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Renewable Energy Information Office
Shinagh House
Bandon
Co Cork
Tel: 023 29146
Email: [email protected]
Expected m 2 installed Irish solar thermal systems in scenario B
8.000
7.000
6.000
4.000
3.000
2.000
1.000
0
1998
2001
2004
2007
2010
2013
2016
2019
Accumulated 2020: 90.000m 2
CAMPAIGN FOR TAKE-OFF FOR
ACTIVE SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY
IN IRELAND
An analysis of the strategies implemented in other EU countries
helped DEA and its partners draw on the lessons learned there
in its proposal for measures that would address the barriers
identified above. DEA concluded by recommending a strategic
plan whereby a support programme for solar thermal could be
initiated by the government at a cost of €20million over a
period of eight years. The programme would include:
NAME OF CONTRACTORS:
> A quality management scheme for professionals and
equipment
> Support to Irish manufacturing of solar thermal systems
> Information campaigns
> Financial incentives and demonstration programmes
> Improvement of regulatory framework
> A DIY scheme for installation
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DOWNLOAD REPORT:
DANISH ENERGY AUTHORITY (DEA),
DANISH ORGANISATION FOR
RENEWABLE ENERGY (OVE)
€49,400
PUBLIC GOOD
MAY 2004
www.sei.ie/rerdd/solar
Overview
Some 12 million m2 solar thermal panels were operating in
buildings across Europe by 2003, of which 1.4 million m2 were
added in that year alone. Ireland has the lowest penetration
level of this technology in Europe, with just 1.5m2 of panelling
per thousand inhabitants, compared to almost 250m2/1,000
inhabitants in, for example, Austria. This is in spite of the many
advantages provided by solar thermal systems, including
comfort, savings and protection of the environment.
The objective of the DEA study was to inform government
policy in the context of development of the solar thermal
market in Ireland. The main output of the study was to
recommend a number of strategy options and to propose an
action plan detailing the measures to be implemented between
now and 2012.
Project outcome
A thorough assessment of the current status of the solar thermal
industry in Ireland, involving extensive consultation with
stakeholders in the solar thermal market, identified a number of
barriers to the deployment of solar thermal systems in Ireland
including:
>
>
>
>
>
A lack of public awareness
High installation costs
Lack of financial incentives
High insurance costs for installers
Fragmented nature of solar industry in Ireland
The programme would target the installation of 155,000m2 of
solar collectors by 2020, resulting in 70GWh energy savings, the
avoidance of 32,200 tonnes of CO2 emissions per year, and the
creation of 734 full-time jobs.
For further information contact:
Xavier Dubuisson
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Renewable Energy Information Office
Shinagh House
Bandon
Co Cork
Tel: 023 42193
Email: [email protected]
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
5.000
49
QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE
CERTIFICATION OF THE SOLTERRA
500 IRISH-MADE HEAT PUMP
Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview
50
NAME OF APPLICANT:
GRANT AWARD:
CATEGORY:
COMPLETION DATE:
DUNSTAR LTD
€8,150
R&D
JULY 2004
Project outcome
Test units of the Solterra 500 were sent to Arsenal Research, an
Austrian research centre which manages the DACH certification
scheme in Austria. Performance testing of Dunstar’s heat pump
demonstrated that its coefficient of performance at a brine
temperature of 0°C and a water heating temperature of 35°C
was 4.0. Dunstar have acknowledged that obtaining the DACH
quality label for their new heat pump has been a tremendous
help towards boosting consumer confidence in this innovative
technology.
For further information contact:
Overview
Ground source heat pumps are becoming a popular alternative
to fossil fuel technologies for space and water heating. Over a
thousand ground or water source heat pumps were sold in
Ireland in 2003, three times more than in the previous year. In
this context of rapid growth, quality is a very important issue in
sustaining the development of the heat pump market over the
long term. Testing and certification of heat pump equipment is
one aspect of quality control that has received a lot of attention
in Europe.
Dunstar has received funding from the RE RDD programme to
complete certification of its Irish-made heat pump with the
DACH quality label. This quality label is common to the German,
Swiss and Austrian heat pump industries and covers energy
performance as well as quality, service and guarantee issues.
The objectives of the project undertaken by Dunstar were to:
> Carry out in-house testing of the Solterra 500 heat pump
and optimise the machine’s performance.
> Ensure compliance with all relevant norms and with DACH
standards.
> Test and certify the Solterra 500 to obtain the DACH
Quality Label.
Paul Sikora
Dunstar Ltd
1 Kent Street
Clonakilty
Co Cork
Tel: 023 35165
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.solterra.ie
design by www.reddog.ie
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Ireland
t
f
e
w
+353 1 8369080
+353 1 8372848
[email protected]
www.sei.ie
05-RERDD-002-R/01
Sustainable Energy Ireland is funded by the Irish Government
under the National Development Plan 2000-2006 with
programmes part financed by the European Union.
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