RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT & DEMONSTRATION Programme Overview Contents Message from Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources 03 Background Information 04 Programme Background 06 Programme Spend 07 Summary of Programme Achievements to Date 08 Current Programme Status 09 Applying for Grant Support under the Programme 12 Summary of Projects Funded to Date 13 Wind energy 15 A Wind Atlas for Ireland 17 Greenblade Project 18 Evaluation of Wind Turbine Foundation Behaviour 19 The Potential for Community Ownership of Wind Farms in Ireland 20 Investigation of the Impact of Wind Turbines on Radar 21 Study of Electricity Storage Technologies and their potential to address Wind Energy Intermittency in Ireland 22 Development of a 1.2kW Domestic Wind Turbine 23 Wind Turbine Design and Implementation for Small Irish Wind Farms 24 Definition of a Monitoring Programme for Irish Wind Farms 25 Study on Operating Reserve Requirements as Wind Power Penetration Increases in the Irish Electricity System 26 Study on Renewable Energy in the New Irish Electricity Market 27 Study on the Economic Analysis of Renewable Energy Support Mechanisms in the Electricity Generation Sector 28 Biomass energy 29 Demonstration and Monitoring of Biomass Boiler at Coillte Headquarters 31 Study for a Wood Biomass Fired Combined Heat and Power Plant (CHP) 32 An Assessment of the Renewable Energy Resource Potential of Dry Agricultural Residues in Ireland 33 Biogreen Biofuel Project 34 Quality Assurance for Rapeseed Oil as Vehicle Fuel 35 A Resource Study on Recovered Vegetable Oil and Animal Fats 36 Renewable Energy Resource: Ireland to 2010 and 2020 37 Ocean energy 39 Tidal and Marine Current Energy Resource in Ireland 41 Detailed Design of the OE Buoy Duct Device for Wave Energy Conversion 42 Wave Tank Testing of the Wavebob 43 Arch Point Wave Rider Buoy, Co Clare 44 Solar and geothermal energy 45 Geothermal Resource Map of Ireland 47 Campaign for Take-off for Renewable Heat Pumps in Ireland 48 Campaign for Take-off for Active Solar Thermal Energy in Ireland 49 Quality and Performance Certification of the Solterra 500 Irish-made Heat Pump 50 Climate change is recognised as one of the most threatening global environmental problems today. In addressing this challenge, the signatories to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreed targets for developed nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions during the period 2008 to 2012. Under the agreement, Ireland has agreed to limit its greenhouse gas emissions by 13% above 1990 levels. Ireland also has EU commitments to supply 13.2% of its gross electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2010. The energy sector is one of the primary sources of greenhouse gases and the Government is committed to reaching Ireland’s international and EU targets for greenhouse gas reductions and increased deployment of renewable and sustainable energy. We are working steadily to achieve these targets through a range of measures. Underpinning Government initiatives is an ongoing process of research, development and demonstration. Information is at the heart of all good policy formulation, and is critical to the future growth of the renewable energy industry. The Government established Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) in 2002, with a remit to promote and assist sustainable production, supply and use of energy. SEI now provides a range of programmes aimed at industry, business, the public sector and domestic energy users and provides advice to Government on sustainable and renewable energy. The Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) programme is an important element of SEI’s activities. The programme provides investment for research in low cost, high efficiency renewable energy technologies , and addresses commercial and technical barriers. €7m has already been committed to projects covering wind, biomass, solar, ocean and geothermal energies. The focus to date has been on wind and biomass, reflecting the considerable potential of these sectors. Projects funded include wind energy forecasting, blade manufacturing, interaction with the electricity network and studies to assess the full potential of Ireland’s biomass resource. Support has also been given for developers of ocean energy devices and a collaborative ocean energy research project with the Marine Institute. On heating systems, SEI has commissioned work to assess the training needs for solar and geothermal installers, as well as the market potential for these technologies in Ireland. All of these activities are detailed in this comprehensive brochure, and are being used to inform industry and support policy development. The programme will now be prioritised in the areas of wind, liquid biofuels, bioheat, ocean energy and energy storage. Among the projects anticipated are a wood pellet production plant, a large-scale prototype ocean energy device, studies on energy storage technologies, support for biofuels development and a range of onshore and offshore wind energy programmes. In focussing the RD&D programme on priority technologies, SEI is assisting Ireland in maximising the potential of its most valuable renewable energy resources. This brochure provides information on the projects funded to date and on the strategic focus for SEI’s RD&D programme going forward. I believe it will be a valuable tool to potential investors and policy makers alike and I congratulate SEI on making this resource available. Mr Noel Dempsey, TD Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview Message from Mr Noel Dempsey, TD Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources 3 Background Information Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) is Ireland’s national energy authority. The Authority promotes and assists environmentally and economically sustainable production, supply and use of energy. It also supports the implementation of sustainable energy measures by operating grant aid programmes, providing policy support, and delivering information support aimed at increasing public awareness. SEI is funded under the National Development Plan. It sets an indicative target for Ireland to produce 13.2% of its gross electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2010. Support mechanisms are directed at the use of reliable, commercially available technologies, which will enable Ireland to reach its commitments within the planned timeframe, and at least cost. 80 7 70 Kyoto Target for Ireland 4 60 6 50 5 4 % Mt CO 2 Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 40 30 3 20 2 10 1 0 0 -10 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003p Land use change & forestry Energy Industrial processes Solvent & other product use Agriculture Waste 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003p Landfill Gas Wind Hydro Fig. 1: Greenhouse gas emissions from Ireland. Kyoto limit is 60.159 Mt CO2 equivalent per annum (SEI). Fig. 2: Percentage gross electricity consumption from renewable sources. Target for 2010 is 13.2% (SEI). Arising from the EU’s ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, Ireland must meet its commitment, which requires that total emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) be limited to 13% above the levels achieved in 1990. In 2002, Ireland’s GHG emissions were 25% above its 1990 levels (see Figure 1). Also in 2002, 67% of all GHG emissions in Ireland were attributable to the energy sector. This sector has therefore been identified as a priority area for measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Figure 2 presents the development of the supply of electricity from renewable sources. In 2002, the gross electricity consumption from renewable sources in Ireland was 5.3%. The EU has introduced a number of Directives aimed at encouraging member states to increase their production of energy from clean sources such as renewable energy. The primary legislative driver for the renewables market in Ireland is EU Directive 2001/77/EC. As the graph illustrates, the supply of electricity from hydro sources varies significantly from year to year – mainly because hydro output is dependant on the amount of annual rainfall. Moreover, because demand for energy is continuing to rise and the potential for an increase in hydro generation is modest, the percentage contribution from hydro to gross electricity consumption is likely to continue to fall. Wind energy generation offers the most significant potential for growth, due to the scale of the wind resource available in Ireland and the relatively low cost of harnessing and employing this form of renewable energy. The graph in Figure 3 shows the amount of wind-generated energy added to the power system > The availability of reliable commercial wind turbine generators 400 MV > The availability of a significant wind energy resource 500 300 200 100 > The introduction of the Government’s Alternative Energy Requirement (AER) programme > The emergence of third-party access and merchant plant The AER programme is operated by the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources, and is the primary fiscal support instrument for renewable energy generation in Ireland. Wind turbine technology is now at a relatively mature stage. However, in order to ensure the continued increase in wind energy penetration on the power system, support is needed to assist the development of technical, commercial and policy solutions to issues that arise when higher levels of penetration are required. Ireland has the potential to supply energy from many other energy sources including biomass, ocean energy, solar and geothermal. However, each of these energy sources faces a variety of barriers such as lack of operating experience and/or poor commercial return. In addition, as the market for renewable energy products grows, Ireland will need access to the requisite expertise to support the development and deployment of these technologies. 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Onshore Under Construction Offshore Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 600 during the period 1992 to 2004. The increase is attributable to the following factors: Onshore Fig. 3: Growth in wind turbine generator capacity in Ireland The Government’s Green Paper of September 1999 identified the need for spending on research and development in areas that would assist in the achievement of reductions in energy related CO2 emissions. The Green Paper also stated that R&D activities could lead to improved competitiveness: this could be achieved by developing products for both Irish and international markets, which would deliver cost savings through energy-efficiency improvements. 5 Programme background The Renewable Energy Research Development and Demonstration (RE RDD) Programme was launched in July 2002 and is due to be completed in 2006. The programme has an indicative budget of €12 million. The Programme is primarily focused on stimulating the deployment of renewable energy technologies that are close to market, and on assessing the development of technologies that have prospects for the future. Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 6 It contributes to the promotion and expansion of renewable energy in Ireland by: > Accelerating the development and deployment in the Irish marketplace of competitive renewable energy products, processes and systems > Providing support for solutions that enable technical and other barriers to market uptake to be overcome > Establishing, where necessary and strengthening where possible a national capacity to access, develop and apply world-class R&D in a way that can best meet specific Irish needs on a continuing basis > Facilitating and providing guidance to policymakers With these objectives in mind, the Programme offers financial support for projects in the following categories: CATEGORY 1: Shared-Cost Demonstration (grant support of up to 25% of eligible costs) This category covers projects that have a particular renewable energy technology or application focus, which, although they are at/near commercial viability and have potential for replication, currently face market barriers due to lack of expertise, knowledge or market confidence. The objective here is to gain information which will be made available to potential replicators to encourage action without further financial support under the programme. To facilitate this, independent monitoring of the project’s cost may be required. CATEGORY 2: Shared-Cost R&D (grant support of up to 45% of eligible costs) This category covers research and development into innovative technologies, systems or marketing approaches which support the commercial exploitation of renewable energies, including applied research and development, technology transfer, adaptation and market research/feasibility studies. CATEGORY 3: Commissioned Public Good Activities (grant support of up to 100%) This category covers public good activities directed at increasing the value and impact of the RE RDD Programme results, which, ultimately, will be used to inform policy. (It is important to note that these studies are commissioned by invitations to tender only. Unsolicited proposals will not be considered). Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview Programme spend Since the RE RDD Programme was launched, SEI has approved 72 projects for grant support. The total indicative budget for the Programme is €12 million, of which €7m has been committed as of the end of 2004. The total amount of funding disbursed to date is €4.5m. Donegal The pie chart in Figure 4 illustrates the technology sectors supported to date, as a percentage of total Programme funding commitments. The biomass sector has attracted the largest amount of support which is mainly due to the number of major capital grant Demonstration projects that have received funding. The wind sector is the second largest recipient of Programme funding where the majority of activities are focused on commissioned Public Good projects addressing market and technical barriers to wind developments. Sligo Monaghan Cavan Leitrim Mayo Roscommon Louth Longford Meath Westmeath Galway Kildare Offaly Figure 5 illustrates the geographical distribution of RE RDD grant-supported projects across Ireland. In all, 56 Irish-based projects are receiving Programme support. The remaining projects are commissioned studies performed outside the Republic of Ireland. The majority of these external studies also involve the participation of Irish partners, which facilitates knowledge transfer to this country. Laois Clare Dublin Wicklow Tipperary Carlow Wexford Kilkenny Limerick Cork Waterford Kerry Fig. 5: Distribution of RE RDD Programme-supported projects across Ireland Wind 36% Biomass 39% Ocean 6% Hydro 6% Solar & Geothermal 9% Cross Sectoral Actions 4% Fig. 4: Commitments as a % of each sector. 7 Summary of Programme activities to date This section of the report provides a brief summary of activities in each of the renewable energy sectors which are receiving RE RDD Programme support. WIND Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 8 Wind turbine technology is relatively mature, with significant experience gained to date by Irish operators. One Demonstration project is currently receiving Programme support. R&D efforts include projects focused on addressing technical barriers to increased wind energy penetration into the electricity grid. Another project is designed to improve the understanding of wind turbine behaviour during periods when the electricity network is experiencing irregular voltage levels. The results of this work will improve the capability of the system operator to assess the ability of a wind farm to remain connected during network fault conditions. Increased modelling capability here will facilitate the introduction of large-scale wind farms to the electricity network. Another project, focused on improving wind energy forecasting ability, is designed to help developers secure higher levels of wind-energy penetration into the power system. In the manufacturing area, support is being provided for projects investigating new blade manufacturing techniques and small-scale wind turbine product developments. Most support in the wind turbine technology sector relates to commissioned studies/items of work that are designed to inform policy-making decisions, and improve wind integration with the electricity grid and electricity market. BIOMASS In the biomass sector, the Programme is supporting a large variety and number of demonstrations projects. As there is relatively little experience in Ireland of the use of biomass energy, the provision of support for pilot plants will provide access to critical information for other potential developers – as well as policymakers and planners – thereby increasing confidence levels with these technologies nationally. Support has also been provided for biomass resource studies, which aim to quantify Ireland’s potential to produce energy from biomass sources. OCEAN The ocean energy sector is in the early stages of development, with no products commercially available as yet. Therefore, significant opportunities exist for developers to capitalise on this new market. The ocean energy section of the RE RDD programme is primarily concerned with support for product R&D and energy resource studies. Currently, the programme is supporting two device developers. SEI is also co-operating with the Marine Institute to ensure that effective support is provided to this emerging sector. SOLAR AND GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS Programme activity in the solar and ground source heat pump (GSHP) sector is concentrated on the provision of support for product research and development. Both solar and GSHP are considered to be relatively mature renewable energy technologies. Commissioned work includes studies aimed at evaluating the potential cost of supporting these technologies and identifying the quality procedures and training methods needed to provide increased deployment of these technologies on a nationwide basis. The original RE RDD Programme strategy document outlined general areas of support available. However, following a review of the overall Programme, it was decided to revise the strategy, in May 2004, in the light of developments in relation to the range of projects already being supported, and in the context of emerging areas of interest and current EU legislation. Offshore wind energy technology is less well developed than the onshore equivalent, with only one offshore wind farm (25 MW Airtricity/GE) currently established. Ireland may be well suited to the development of offshore wind energy due to the availability of a favourable wind resource in relatively shallow waters, which is in the vicinity of both load centres and the transmission network. Some specific priorities for offshore wind energy funding include: The strategy will continue to be refined on an annual basis in order to ensure that it reflects changes in policy and changes in technology priorities. Applicants seeking funding support for projects should consult the SEI website, www.sei.ie/rerdd/strategy, where they will find the most up-todate version of the RE RDD Programme strategy document. > Organisation and management of wind turbines and farms > Integration of offshore wind energy into Ireland’s electricity infrastructure > Data monitoring The current strategy focuses on support for the following priority areas: Technology Area: Liquid Biofuels > > > > > Wind Liquid Biofuels Bioheat Ocean energy Energy storage Objective: Provide support for the establishment of the first biofuel pilot plants in Ireland. Rationale: The EU Directive on Biofuels states that member states should aim to produce 2% of all motor fuels from biofuels, or other renewable fuels, by 2005. By 2010, the proportion of motor fuels produced in this way should have increased to 5.75%. Technology Area: Wind Objective: Provide support for improved integration of wind energy. Rationale: Key issues for the development of onshore wind resources are likely to focus on the creation of appropriate conditions (i.e. electricity network and fiscal support) for the integration and further deployment of wind energy. Some specific priorities for onshore wind energy funding are as follows: > Demonstration projects of innovative wind energy applications > Data monitoring of energy production > Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems for wind farms > System modelling > Integration of large-scale wind farm energy penetration into electricity grids > Wind energy forecasting The aim of the biofuels section of the RE RDD Programme is to demonstrate the viability of the market in Ireland for indigenously produced liquid biofuel products. Key to the commercial success of biofuel production is the rate at which excise duty is charged on biofuel products. In the 2004 Finance Act, provision was made to grant excise relief to pilot demonstration plants. Decisions on excise duty remission will be made by the Department of Finance in consultation with the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources. Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview Current Programme status 9 Technology Area: Bioheat Objective: Stimulate the supply and demand for wood biomass fuel through support for wood pellet production plants and a network of biomass heating systems. Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 10 Rationale: Heating systems which burn wood pellets and wood chips are increasingly popular renewable energy technologies used successfully across Europe. Both wood pellet and wood chip production and boiler technologies are considered to be at a mature stage and are well understood. In 2001, the amount of wood biomass energy deemed to be potentially available was 1,133GWh (i.e. in excess of that already used in saw mills). 1,133GWh is sufficient to heat approximately 56,000 Irish homes. If this wood biomass technology were to directly replace oil heating, it would result in a reduction of 400,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions per year. It is expected that by 2010 there will be 2,069GWh of biomass potentially available to energy users. Wood pellets and wood chips offer the potential for economic distribution of a high-energy wood fuel for heating purposes. Currently, there is little experience in Ireland of using wood biomass in this way. SEI intends to support the introduction of a wood pellet production plant. In tandem with this development, it intends to support the establishment of biomass heating systems, in order to gain market confidence as well as stimulate market demand for wood biomass fuel. The irregularity of the sea in terms of wave height, frequency and direction makes it difficult to design a geometric device that would yield high performance efficiencies across the entire range of wave conditions. In addition to the design challenges posed by wave irregularities, structural loading on the device could rise dramatically during extreme weather events such as storms. For this reason, an extremely robust device would be required, and this could prove expensive. Additional factors to be considered include the cost of connecting the device to the electricity grid, which could be located some distance from the shore. Finally, wave-energy converters must have be highly reliable given the expense and difficulty of servicing systems offshore. Developers who may be interested in investigating this area are advised to refer to the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems document:“Development of recommended practices for testing and evaluating ocean energy systems.” A high level of research and development activity is currently underway in the UK supporting the development of both wave and tidal devices. The objective of the RE RDD Programme is to support Irish research and development in this area by making funding available for large-scale prototype devices. Technology area: Energy storage Objective: Support demonstration of energy storage systems. Technology Area: Ocean energy Objective: Support large-scale research and development work on ocean energy devices. Rationale: Ocean energy includes both wave energy and marine current tidal energy. Ireland has one of the highest wave energy resource environments in the world, with average wave energy values of 70kW/m wave front available. Given the large resource available, coupled with the rising demand for clean energy, wave energy has the potential to become a multi-billion euro industry. Rationale: As of March 2004, the Republic of Ireland had 200MW of wind power generation connected to the electricity grid. It is expected that this figure will rise rapidly within the next five years. By 2010, it is expected that up to 1,100MW of wind power could be connected to the power system in the Republic of Ireland before a significant impact on the system’s operation of reserve generation would occur. By 2010, the technical limit, at peak demand, is estimated to be 2,600MW. However, it is unlikely that this level of penetration will be achieved by then, as it would require significant curtailment of generators during low-demand periods, and would therefore be commercially unattractive for operators. Energy storage has the potential to store energy from intermittent sources such as wind and ocean energy, and supply that stored energy to the grid at an appropriately scheduled time and for a specified duration. As such, this technology may provide Ireland with the opportunity to continue to increase the supply of renewable energy to the electricity grid. The aim of this section of the RE RDD Programme is to identify the cost and configuration of energy storage options for Ireland and to propose a list of solutions and possible timeframes for the introduction of each technology.This programme of work will consist of a series of commissioned studies, including options for the demonstration of energy storage technologies in Ireland. Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview Ireland has a large wind resource and currently has limited ability to draw reserve power from other electricity networks. This is in sharp contrast to the situation that applies in Denmark, for example, which is connected to several neighbouring countries. The Irish Government has plans to develop a 1,000MW interconnector to Wales – a move that could facilitate increased wind penetration. Until such time as this interconnector is built, the majority of Ireland’s reserve power must continue to be provided by local power plants. 11 Applying for grant support under the RE RDD Programme As a first step, applicants seeking grant support are advised to read the RE RDD Programme strategy document (www.sei.ie/rerdd/strategy) in order to familiarise themselves with the technologies and categories of support available. If the proposal meets the Programme strategy criteria, and if some preliminary investigation into the project has been carried out, applicants should prepare a one-page description of the project, outlining its scope, cost and schedule. This should then be emailed to [email protected] . Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 12 SEI will provide an initial response to the query, following which, it may be appropriate for the applicant to complete the necessary grant support form. (This may be downloaded from www.sei.ie/rerdd/strategy) Depending on the size of grant requested, please allow up to three months before a formal response is delivered. It is important to note that SEI provides support for costs incurred only after a formal grant agreement has been signed. It is recommended therefore that grant applicants consider this information when preparing their project plans. For further information on the RE RDD Programme contact: Graham Brennan RE RDD Programme Manager Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Ireland Tel: 01 808 2539 Fax: 01 808 2330 Email: [email protected] This section of the report provides summaries of a selection of the projects funded to date by the RE RDD Programme. The projects presented are chosen from a wide range of renewable energy areas and illustrate the range and depth of activities supported. Examples of Shared-Cost R&D, Market Demonstration and Public Good projects are provided. The summaries are designed to inform the renewable energy sector in Ireland about the activities currently supported by the Programme. They are also aimed at informing potential applicants about the type and quality of projects that are likely to be successful in terms of securing Programme funding. Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview Summary of projects funded to date 13 Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 14 Wind Energy Wind Energy NAME OF CONTRACTORS: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: WEB ADDRESS: DOWNLOAD INFORMATION: AWS TRUEWIND SOLUTIONS INC AND ESB INTERNATIONAL €180,000 PUBLIC GOOD OCTOBER 2003 Offshore, Ireland is blessed with a vast, exploitable resource: wind speeds have been mapped to a distance of up to 25km from the Irish coast. The offshore wind resource has been constrained to exclude areas where wind energy projects will not be permitted i.e. areas where seabed cables and gas pipelines are located; where navigation channels are indicated; in Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources traffic separation/exclusion zones; in Department of Defence danger areas and near-shore anchorages. www.sei.ie/windatlas www.sei.ie/windinfo Project outcome Overview In order to support the increased development of wind energy across Ireland in the most appropriate and sensitive manner, SEI developed the Wind Atlas for Ireland. The Atlas, which provides a detailed map of Ireland’s vast wind resource, was launched at the SEI ‘Energy from Fresh Air’ conference in Sligo on 14th November 2003. The availability of this resource will facilitate a new approach to the development of wind energy projects in Ireland. The maps, displaying wind resources at three heights above ground level, integrate wind resource data, locational information relating to urban regions, and information on electricity transmission and distribution networks for the entire country. The Wind Atlas for Ireland is a valuable tool for the planning and evaluation of area wind resources by local authority planners, policymakers and prospective wind farm developers. Wind speed and power are identified at 50m, 75m and 100m above ground level. The different heights represent the hub heights of current and future wind turbine technology. The constrained wind speed maps show areas where the wind speed exceeds 7.5m per second, and where wind farms are considered commercially viable. The high-resolution maps are based on a 200m x 200m grid of the country, and display wind speeds at 0.25m/s increments. They include information on the location of the electricity network; urban areas; water bodies such as lakes and rivers both for the entire country and on a county-bycounty basis. The Wind Atlas, along with the recently-published “Attitudes towards Wind Farms in Ireland” and the recently-published Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government’s revised “Wind Farm Development: Guidelines for Planning Authorities” will provide the framework for the identification of ‘strategic’, ‘preferred’, ‘open-to-consideration’ and ‘no-go’ areas for wind energy development to be incorporated into Local Authority Development Plans. The Wind Atlas (currently available as a CD-ROM) has been distributed to all local authorities in Ireland. Copies may also be ordered from the SEI Renewable Energy Information Office online bookshop www.sei.ie/reio/reiobookshop.html. For further information contact: Paul Kellet Sustainable Energy Ireland Renewable Energy Information Office Shinagh House Bandon Co Cork Tel: 023 29193 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview A WIND ATLAS FOR IRELAND 17 GREENBLADE PROJECT NAME OF APPLICANT: GRAND AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: GAOTH TEC TEO €373,500 R&D APRIL 2005 Overview Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 18 The global wind turbine blade market is now worth close to €1 billion a year, with an annual growth rate of 10% forecast. Gaoth Tec Teo is developing a new thermoplastic composite wind turbine blade and revolutionary manufacturing methods for the wind industry, based on the expert application of superior, cost-effective materials and methods. Most wind turbine blades are manufactured from thermoset plastics which cannot be recycled once their usefulness has been expended. Moreover, significant environmental problems, such as VOC emissions, are also associated with the manufacturing of these materials. Thermoset plastics are currently favoured by the wind industry because of their relatively high strength and low weight properties. Thermoplastic materials offer higher strength-to-weight properties than thermoset plastics: this facilitates the manufacture of lighter aerofoils, which in turn translates into cheaper transport costs and reduced turret weights. Current manufacturing methods make it too expensive to use thermoplastic materials for wind turbine applications. The new Gaoth Tec manufacturing process will overcome this problem leading to shorter production times. The Greenblade is expected to meet the following performance goals: > be at least 24% cheaper than standard glass-fibre/ epoxy blades > have a production cycle time 66% less than glass-fibre/epoxy equivalents > be 10% lighter than existing blades > be 150% more impact/damage resistant than existing blades > be 100% recyclable > produce zero emissions to atmosphere during processing Current project status As part of this project, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. have provided sample blade sections to assist with the design of the aerofoil profile. Gaoth Tec have currently constructed a template blade which will be used to build a manufacturing tool. With this tool Gaoth Tec will manufacture a set of 12.5m turbine blades which will be tested by Mitsubishi on an existing wind turbine. In this way the performance of the Greenblade can be directly compared to a conventional turbine blade. For further information contact: Dr Conchúr Ó Brádaigh Gaoth Tec Teo Udaras Industrial Estate Baile an tSagairt An Spideal Co Galway Tel: 091 504 777 Email: [email protected] NAME OF APPLICANTS: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: AERTECH LTD AND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN €38,900 R&D SEPTEMBER 2005 Current project status Instrumentation has been installed successfully and has been monitored over an 18-month period. Important insights into the long-term effects of cyclic loading on the soil properties have been established. The stress applied to the ground under the full-scale structures is naturally limited; this is in order to prevent the possible occurrence of toppling failure. For this reason, a programme of field-based, scale-model testing is currently underway which is designed to examine effects such as increasing stress levels on the soil properties when subjected to cyclic loading. Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE FOUNDATION BEHAVIOUR 19 Overview Large numbers of wind farms are currently under development in Ireland. Typically, wind turbines require a 10m2 to 20m2 reinforced concrete foundation, which is laid up to 3m below ground level. As the turbine hub is located about 50-100m above ground, the foundation is subjected to extremely large horizontal wind loads. Current foundation design codes estimate foundation sizes using traditional bearing-capacity approaches derived by consideration of the limiting vertical load on a foundation; they do not explicitly consider horizontal loading. To date, the response of shallow foundations to wind loading has been mainly investigated through laboratory testing. However, these studies have not generally been supported by parallel field investigations, which are essential in order to check analytical procedures. Small-scale laboratory tests can encounter modelling difficulties, particularly with respect to representative samples of the relevant soil. University College Dublin has instigated a programme of field monitoring of full-scale foundations. The project involves the monitoring of total pressure, pore pressure, wind speed and direction sensors, and displacements of foundations on two wind farms namely Carnsore Point (County Wexford,) and Snugborough (County Cavan). The main aim of the project is to produce a rational design method for horizontally-loaded foundations, which is capable of predicting foundation displacements throughout the life of the structure. For further information contact: Dr Kenneth Gavin Department of Civil Engineering University College Dublin Tel: 01 716 7292 Email: [email protected] THE POTENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY OWNERSHIP OF WIND FARMS IN IRELAND Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 20 NAME OF CONTRACTOR: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: CSA GROUP €53,000 PUBLIC GOOD JUNE 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind Overview The Renewable Energy Partnership, comprising Brí Nua Community Wind Energy Group, Mayo Community Wind Energy Group, and the Western Development Commission carried out a study aimed at investigating the potential for communities to benefit from the establishment of wind farms in their catchment areas. Project outcome The study findings show that due to the range of technical and commercial issues currently facing developers, communities would be likely to encounter significant resource difficulties if they were to attempt to develop 100% community-owned wind energy projects. In addition, the levels of risk and uncertainty are considered to be too high for community groups to consider establishing enterprises on their own. The most promising investment option for communities would be one where they consider participating in commercial ventures once these projects have been secured by way of: > planning consent > grid connection agreement > contract for the sale of electricity The project team produced a step-by-step guide to assist community groups throughout Ireland to create their own investment vehicles for wind farm projects. The guide explains the challenges facing developers and provides examples of investment models that would be suitable for community groups. Comparisons with situations in other EU countries are also made. For further information contact: Fiona Candon Western Development Commission Dillon House Ballaghaderreen Co Roscommon Tel: 094 986 1441 Email: [email protected] NAME OF CONTRACTOR: GRANT: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: QINETIQ €93,500 PUBLIC GOOD JULY 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind Overview UK radar specialists QinetiQ were commissioned to carry out a study on the possible effects of wind turbines around four monopulse secondary surveillance radar (MSSR) sites.The impetus for this study was provided by the developers: Airtricity, Contract Renewables and Ballybane Wind Farms.The work was 100% funded by SEI. In carrying out this study, QinetiQ was assisted by the developers and by the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA). The radar sites examined were located at Dooncarton (West Mayo), Mt Gabriel (West Cork) and Woodcock Hill (South Clare). These radars are used to monitor large numbers of transatlantic flights and also provide approach services for local airports. MSSR radar is different to primary radar in that it does not listen for echo returns from a target. The MSSR radar sends out a pulse, which "interrogates" a target. The target responds to this interrogation via its on-board transponder with information about its velocity and altitude. Wind turbines can affect the propagation of information from an MSSR to an aircraft and vice versa. The nature of the interference depends on the orientation of the wind turbines, their radar cross-section, the local terrain and the position and attitude of the radar. Project outcome All the results show that the up-link (i.e. from the ground radar to the target transponder) is more sensitive to interference from reflecting objects such as wind turbines. This is because on the down-link the ground radar employs special filters to remove weak returns coming from small ranges. The areas where turbines would cause down-link interference are generally limited to a distance of approximately 5km from the ground station. Within this region, the full spectrum of interference problems is likely to occur. Outside this region, only up-link interference between the radar and the transponder is possible. If the target is within ±4 degrees of the turbine, then the critical factor as to whether interference will occur is the height of the target above the turbine. A series of maps has been produced for each MSSR site for generic 660kW and 2MW wind turbines. The maps indicate high, medium and low risks of interference for aircraft target heights of 300m, 600m and 1200m. In addition to the generic study, four case studies were evaluated. The case studies considered the potential interference effects from the proposed wind farms at GlenarghGlencarly and Barroosky (Airtricity Developments Ltd), Glanta Commons (Ballybane Wind Farms) and Inagh Valley (Contract Renewables). Assessments for each location are provided in the Final Report. The results of this study can be used to create simple guidelines for the development of wind farms around the MSSR ground stations in Ireland. This study has shown that a critical factor in the effects created by any particular wind farm is the position of the replying target. In conclusion therefore, the formulation of any guidelines will require input from the IAA in order to fully define the use of airspace around each radar site thus enabling the creation of more definitive planning guidelines. For further information contact: Graham Brennan Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Tel: 01 808 2539 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF WIND TURBINES ON RADAR 21 Economic Model of Hydrogen Wind System 6.0 NPV €Millions 4.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 0.75 10.0 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,500 1,700 System Capital Cost €/kwh 0.35 0.55 System Efficiency STUDY OF ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR POTENTIAL TO ADDRESS WIND ENERGY INTERMITTENCY IN IRELAND Renewable Energy Research Development and Demonstration Report 22 NAME OF CONTRACTOR: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: UNIVERSITY COLLEGE CORK €48,780 PUBLIC GOOD MAY 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind Overview By May 2004, the amount of wind power installed in Ireland totalled 190MW; the amount of wind power with signed connection agreements totalled 633MW; a further 749MW was in process, and potential new applications accounted for an additional 627MW. This brings the cumulative total to 2,199MW. However, the number of potential new wind farm enterprises that have secured planning permission and the requisite financial capital remains unclear. The issue of how much intermittent wind energy an isolated grid like Ireland’s is capable of supporting without impacting negatively on system security and stability is a matter of some debate. In the case of the ESB national grid, penetration levels of 5-7% are acceptable. However, some wind industry representatives consider that a penetration level of 30% would be more realistic: this view is based on various assumptions including adequate interconnection, dynamic load levelling, and short-term wind forecasting. Current concerns associated with reserve requirements include the intermittency of wind energy and the high level of variability from individual wind farms. The main aim of this study was to examine the role played by energy storage in addressing these concerns. Project outcome The assessment of the economic viability of pumped hydro and wind hydrogen energy storage systems was achieved using a financial model that considered variable cost inputs for both systems. The key advantages of pumped hydro systems and compressed air systems are technical maturity, economic viability and operational experience. As such they are viewed as a realistic and appropriate first stage in the development of an energy storage solution to wind energy intermittency. Wind hydrogen storage is potentially promising due to the feasibility of decoupling the input power, output power and storage capacity. An additional attractive feature is that it achieves zero energy emissions. However, it is not yet at a mature stage economically, and overall energy efficiency remains poor. Energy storage is central to the full integration of wind energy generation. The study proposes both a short-term and a longterm strategy for the introduction of electricity storage systems to the electricity grid. For further information contact: Dr Brian Ó Gallachóir Sustainable Energy Research Group Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University College Cork Tel: 021 490 3037 Email: [email protected] NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DUNDALK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY €54,000 R&D MAY 2006 Overview The system cost of a small wind turbine installation can be significantly reduced by grid connection. This removes the need for batteries and inverters. Reduced system cost will increase market potential. Induction generators are the most common type used on large wind turbines. They are rugged and cost-effective. This project will use an induction generator on a 1.2 kW domestic wind turbine. The project is based on experience with the successful design and installation of 1,200 small grid-connected turbines in the United States, and preliminary work on several prototypes. It is the goal of this project to successfully design and demonstrate a domestic grid-connected wind turbine in Ireland. We expect the system cost of energy to be approximately 50% that of comparable domestic wind systems. Current project status The preliminary design of the rotor and drive train have been completed. A prototype of a five-blade hub has been built and internal components have been ordered. For further information contact: Lawrence Staudt Centre for Renewable Energy Dundalk Institute of Technology Dundalk Tel: 042 937 0299 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview DEVELOPMENT OF A 1.2 KW DOMESTIC WIND TURBINE 23 Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 24 WIND TURBINE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR SMALL IRISH WIND FARMS The system models will be carefully refined with a view to then using them to optimise the grid connections of such installations to the ESB distribution networks. There will also be a comprehensive investigation of the overall site power quality and voltage control, plus the output generation, capacity-factor, and availability of the Enercon E-40 wind turbine. NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: Current project status MEENACLOUGHSPAR LTD €177,000 DEMONSTRATION FEBRUARY 2006 Overview This project proposes to research and investigate a type of wind turbine design and a method of installation suited to Irish small wind farm sites. The turbine will incorporate: 1 2 3 4 an electro-mechanical system which does not contain a gearbox an electrical system and method of grid-connection which provides high power quality and voltage control a blade diameter which is a prudent compromise between energy capture and blade reliability and high long-term reliability and maintenance back-up. Steady state and transient models will be developed for the test site installation and equipment. These models will then be verified and refined by comparison with the actual results recorded pursuant to the project’s test and monitoring phase. The wind turbine project is located at Anarget, near Donegal town in County Donegal. The proposed location is at an elevation of more than 300m above sea level on a terrain of steep slopes and undulations. The test site has a high average annual wind speed, high turbulence intensity, and a relatively weak 20 kV grid connection. The wind turbine design that will be investigated is the 600 kW version of the Enercon E-40 wind turbine. The civil engineering construction phase of the project has been substantially completed. No results have yet been obtained. For further information contact: John Brazil 3 Cranford Hall Montrose Dublin 4 Tel: (01) 283 9182 Email: [email protected] farms, in addition to identifying how this should be agreed contractually with the manufacturer.The information will be available to current and future wind farm development companies to ensure that wind farms operate to their highest technical capabilities and in a fair and transparent contractual environment. The successful implementation of a monitoring programme will have a direct economic impact: NAME OF CONTRACTOR: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: CENER (CENTRO NACIONAL DE ENERGIAS RENOVABLES), SPAIN €49,380 PUBLIC GOOD JULY 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind Overview Occasional technical faults with installed wind turbines have led to uncertainty within the Irish wind industry and to difficulties identifying patterns and similarities in faults. Because the wind industry in Ireland is relatively immature, owners and developers are not familiar with what they should expect from the associated contracts and agreements that they establish with wind turbine manufacturers and agents. Minimum conditions and requirements need to be more clearly identified for technical and performance warranties, operation and maintenance contracts, repair reserves, environmental warranties, insurance and other financial risks. The experiences of the Spanish wind industry, with over 6,000 MW of wind turbines installed by the beginning of 2004, show how important the continuous monitoring of wind farms is, in terms of both performance and operating features. > Increasing the availability of Irish wind turbines: if availability rises by 1%, additional annual revenues of between €1 million (2005) and €4 million (2010) will result for the industry > The additional electricity generated through improved performance will result in the avoidance of 12,500 tonnes of CO2 per year (2005) rising to 50,000 tonnes per year (2010) Other economic advantages, which are important but more difficult to quantify, include a reduction in insurance premiums and improved confidence from financial institutions. An ongoing Irish wind-monitoring programme could be expected to result in: > A system that allows and simplifies the comparison of performance and maintenance figures between different wind farms and different types of wind turbine generator > The control of failure of various components of the wind turbine generators, allowing for the generation of statistics and identification of serial failures; > The monitoring of warranty agreements between the customers and suppliers; > The establishment of a system that allows and supports the implementation of predictive maintenance programmes for the early detection of failures Project outcome For further information contact: The project report provides an improved basis for the ongoing monitoring and reporting of wind turbines installed, and their increased availability. It will introduce a basis for measurable quality and performance standards to the Irish wind industry and so assist with improved wind turbine reliability and performance. Paul Kellet Sustainable Energy Ireland Renewable Energy Information Office Shinagh House Bandon Co Cork A set of recommendations has been established.These are aimed at identifying what information needs to be collected and recorded both for wind farms currently operating in Ireland and new wind Tel: 023 29193 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview DEFINITION OF A MONITORING PROGRAMME FOR IRISH WIND FARMS 25 Additional cost of daily operating reserve (€/MWh) Additional cost of providing reserve vs proportion of wind generation 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 Fuelsaver dispatch Forecast dispatch Linear (forecast dispatch) Linear (fuelsaver dispatch) -1.0 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% proportion of system generation provided by wind STUDY ON OPERATING RESERVE REQUIREMENTS AS WIND POWER PENETRATION INCREASES IN THE IRISH ELECTRICITY SYSTEM Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 26 NAME OF CONTRACTOR: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: ILEX ENERGY CONSULTANTS €199,595 PUBLIC GOOD AUGUST 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind Overview This report describes the results of a study commissioned by SEI to quantify any additional requirements for operating reserve arising from the growth in wind generation, and to assess the impact any such additional operating reserve would have on costs and emissions, as well as the net environmental gain from wind generation. The study has compared the operating reserve requirements in the system under a range of future scenarios covering the years 2006 and 2010. The following system operator scheduling and dispatch strategies for managing wind generation were included: Project outcome This study indicates that the growth in wind generation will require additional operating reserve, but that this increase may not be substantial. Only very small amounts of additional fastacting (5-15 seconds) reserve are required, even for large wind penetration levels. However, over longer time horizons of 15 seconds to several hours, there is an increasing requirement for additional operating reserve as wind penetration increases. Additional benefits to grid operation of diversifying wind farm locations on the island of Ireland may be limited. It is estimated that by 2006, with over 850 MW of wind capacity connected, most of the benefits of diversity will have been realised. The results for the forecast approach are as follows: > The additional cost of operating reserve is relatively small and likely to be to less than €0.20/MWh in 2010 where there are 1,300 MW of wind or €0.50/MWh with 1,950 MW > The total capacity of conventional plant as scheduled is less than in the no wind and fuel saver cases > The total system generation required (from conventional and renewable generators) is lower than in the no wind and fuel saver cases > The total fuel burn is substantially lower than in the no wind case and also less than in the fuel saver case > Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are substantially lower than in the no wind case. In comparison with the fuel saver case however, savings are less clear-cut, due to the different mix of plant applying under the respective approaches > No wind (the base case) > The fuel saver approach, whereby the system is scheduled without wind but where, in real time, conventional units are backed off to accommodate available wind generation > A forecast approach, where the expected level of wind generation is included in the scheduling of the system For further information contact: With the help of the system operators, three sample days were chosen to study the wind scenarios and the scheduling methodologies. This study has made use of highly sophisticated modelling techniques that have been developed over a number of years at University College Dublin (UCD), Queen’s University Belfast (QUB) and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). Tel: 01 808 2073 Email: [email protected] John Mc Cann Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Limerick Mayo Donegal Rathrussan & Cavan Kerry Wexford Leitrim Galway Kings Mtn. Golagh STUDY ON RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE NEW IRISH ELECTRICITY MARKET NAME OF CONTRACTORS: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: BRATTLE GROUP AND HENWOOD ENERGY €207,830 PUBLIC GOOD AUGUST 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind Overview The Commission for Energy Regulation (CER) is working towards implementing new market arrangements for electricity (MAE) for Ireland in 2006. Against this background, SEI commissioned the Brattle Group and Henwood Energy to study the impact that MAE might have on renewable energy (RE) generators and combined heat and power (CHP) generators, and to suggest features that might appropriately improve their position. The purpose of this report is to inform the debate around RE generation in the context of the forthcoming implementation of new Market Arrangements for Electricity. Key policy areas yet to be finalised are identified, and consideration is given to the implications of different approaches to these for RE generators and CHP plants. The research is supported by sophisticated quantitative electricity market modelling and simulation. The modelling utilises Henwood’s MARKETSYMLMP Programme, utilising AC OPF unit commitment and economic dispatch. Project outcome Analysis was carried out on the following: price forecasts in the MAE interaction of RE fiscal support mechanisms, siting decisions and investment, market operations, reserves, and alternative market forms. For further information contact: Morgan Bazilian Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Tel: 01 808 2075 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview Weighted Average Monthly Price (€/MWh) Figure 1: Minimum, maximum and average monthly Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP)s for wind nodes in 2006 27 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 – Quata – FIT – Tender (50% strat. bidding) – Tender min (0% str. bidding) – Tender maz (100% str. bidding) 4 2 0 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% STUDY ON THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPORT MECHANISMS IN THE ELECTRICITY GENERATION SECTOR Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 28 GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: 20 18 16 14 12 10 – Quota. amb. cofiring – FIT. amb. cofiring – Tender (50% strat. bidding). amb. cofiring – Tender min (0% str. bidding). amb. cofiring – Tender maz (100% str. bidding). amb. cofiring 8 6 4 2 0 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Target 2020 Target 2020 NAME OF CONTRACTOR: Average premium on electricity price due to RES-E policy 200602020 (€/MWh RES-S) Average premium on electricity price due to RES-E policy 200602020 (€/MWh RES-S) Average premium costs on electricity price due to RES-E policy 2006-2010 dependent on RES-E target 2020 default scenarios and ambiguous co-firing scenario ENERGY ECONOMICS GROUP (EEG) AT VIENNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AUSTRIA €63,321 PUBLIC GOOD SEPTEMBER 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/wind > Seeks to widen understanding of the various impacts of energy policy choices in Ireland. This is implemented by application of complex simulation tools (Green-X), delivering a robust understanding of the consequences of various policy mechanisms. Over 40 scenarios were examined. > Assists the formulation and implementation of the policy. This study contributes to decisions regarding implementation of an optimal RE support mechanism by clarifying the strengths and weaknesses of each support mechanism analysed for Ireland. Project outcome The report provides general observations on support mechanisms for renewable energy in Ireland and a detailed comparison of the support mechanisms assessed. Overview For further information contact: This study was commissioned to help the Government to formulate future policies on renewable energy, while responding to the consultation document Options for future Renewable Energy Policy, Targets and Programmes, issued by the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources. Katrina Polaski Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Support mechanisms will be required to stimulate the deployment of most renewable energy technologies, until such time as they have matured and become competitive with existing energy technology options. A number of different measures can be employed to stimulate the development of renewable energy generation capacity. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effects of renewable energy support mechanisms on society and on renewable energy deployment within Ireland. In order to meet this objective the study: > Provides a detailed economic, financial, and regulatory analysis of the various market-based policy instruments that may be utilised to meet specified targets for the penetration of RE in Ireland. The primary focus is on the four direct support mechanisms currently employed in OECD countries, namely feed-in tariffs, competitive tendering, obligations with certificate trading and production tax credits. Tel: 01 808 2091 Email: [email protected] Biomass Energy Biomass Energy NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: COILLTE €91,626 DEMONSTRATION AUGUST 2005 Overview The state forestry company, Coillte, recently relocated its corporate headquarters to a 100% sustainable, timberconstructed building at Newtownmountkennedy, Co Wicklow. The installation of wood and solar heating at the new headquarters was supported by the RE RDD programme in 2004. The new two-storey structure measuring approximately 1,561m2 was constructed from timber derived from sustainable sources. Recycled paper products were used to insulate it to levels exceeding current building regulations. It is designed to encourage natural cross-ventilation, thus avoiding the need for mechanical cooling. In addition, the high insulation levels ensure very low heat demands. The primary heat source is from two arrays of solar thermal panels – a flat plate and an evacuated heat tube array. The heat is stored in a large buffer vessel, which is topped up as necessary from a wood boiler supplied by the Austrian boiler manufacturer, KWB. The boiler has a 100 kW capacity and is capable of using either wood pellets or wood chips. The cost of the boiler and automatic fuel supply auger, including installation, was €27,500. The remaining support from SEI was allocated to the solar heating system, monitoring programme and energy centre. The solar and wood heating systems are located in a purposebuilt energy centre, which is open to the public. Goals of the project include: > Demonstration of the first large-scale commercial installation of an automatic wood pellet/wood chip fuelled boiler in Ireland > Achievement of zero CO2 emissions from space heating and hot water provision > Fossil fuel substitution of 400,000 kWh per annum. > CO2 avoidance of 160 tonnes per annum > Demonstration of an outlet for Irish forestry by-products as a renewable, CO2 neutral fuel source > Training of Coillte personnel and the personnel of an Irish wood energy services company in the installation and maintenance of a wood heating system so as to ensure local service delivery > Overcoming perceived barriers of fuel cost and supply Current project status The installation of the boiler and solar heating systems is complete. The next phase of the project involves monitoring of the performance of boiler and buildings and this is due for completion in 2005, after which time a full monitoring report will be made available. For further information contact: Aine Carr Sustainable Energy Ireland Renewable Energy Information Office Shinagh House Bandon Co Cork Tel: 023 29193 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview DEMONSTRATION AND MONITORING OF BIOMASS BOILER AT COILLTE HEADQUARTERS 31 STUDY FOR A WOOD BIOMASS FIRED COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANT (CHP) The feasibility study findings indicated that the phased introduction of a CHP plant and wood pelleting plant would be a highly appropriate solution. The company decided to adopt the recommendation of a phased introduction of a CHP plant. Project outcome Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 32 NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: SWS GROUP €37,220 R&D MARCH 2003 Overview SEI has identified the wood-processing sector as a primary potential developer of wood fuels, such as wood pellets, and a prime client for biomass combined heat and power. This feasibility study, which was carried out by South Western Services for one of Ireland’s largest sawmills, Grainger’s Sawmills Ltd, examined the potential to generate heat and electricity, as well as to develop wood pellet production using wood biomass at Grainger’s Sawmills. Following completion of the feasibility study in 2003, Grainger’s Sawmills entered into a joint venture partnership with South Western Services Co-operative Society Limited (SWS Group) to allow it to proceed in the Autumn of 2003 with the construction of a wood-fired biomass CHP plant. The project represents the first biomass CHP installation to be built in Ireland. Using sawmill by-products (with a moisture content as high as 65%), the CHP plant is designed to generate both 1.83 MW of electrical energy and 3.5 MW of thermal energy in a single process. The thermal output is used for the drying of construction timber in the sawmill kilns. The 1.83 MW of green electricity will be supplied to the national grid. The project began operations in May 2004. For further information contact: The sawmill was utilising a 1.7MW boiler, fuelled by sawmill by-products, to supply its heat load for the kiln drying of timber. However, this was proving insufficient to meet peak demand and, since the sawmill was planning to expand its kiln operations, an investigation of the potential for installing a wood-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant appeared timely. Sinead Hickey SWS Energy SWS Group Shinagh House Bandon Co Cork The feasibility study examined the viability of using the sawmill’s by-products (sawdust, bark, peelings and shavings) to generate electricity and heat.The assessment addressed the following issues: Tel: 023 29164 Email: [email protected] > Detailed evaluation of the existing energy requirements > Identification of potentially technically feasible options for a CHP plant, including steam combustion technology > Detailed technical, environmental and economic assessment of the technology options > Assessment of the financial, commercial and economic aspects of the proposed options NAME OF CONTRACTOR: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: RPS - MCOS €21,425 PUBLIC GOOD DECEMBER 2003 www.sei.ie/rerdd/biomass Overview EU RES-E Directive (2001/77/EC) states that Ireland must ensure that by 2010 13.2% of its annual electricity supply is generated by renewable resources. Against this background, it is important to assess the potential contribution that the use of bioenergy could make to enabling Ireland to reach its target. Based on a review of existing studies, it was considered that dry agricultural residues (straw, poultry litter and spent mushroom compost) had not been sufficiently well explored. Consequently, SEI commissioned a resource study to look at these specific streams. sufficient quantity of excess material within a reasonably sized catchment area, the practical potential for straw in Ireland is estimated to be approximately 1.8 PJ per annum. > Poultry litter production is concentrated in County Monaghan (and County Limerick to a lesser extent), and in Northern Ireland. Having accounted for competing uses (mushroom compost and land spreading as a fertiliser) the practical resource is estimated to be approximately 0.3 PJ per annum. > Spent mushroom compost (SMC) production is concentrated in Counties Monaghan and Cavan, and in Northern Ireland. The only existing outlet for SMC is land spreading. It is likely that SMC as an energy source could only be used in conjunction with other fuels (co-firing with poultry litter, etc.). The practical potential of SMC for energy is estimated to be approximately 0.2 PJ per annum. The three resources considered in this study are judged to have useful but limited potential as sources of renewable bioenergy. In specific geographical locations, sufficient quantities of these feedstocks are available to enable some renewable electricity generation from biomass projects. Study results were circulated at a workshop held on 31st March 2004. Outputs from the report have also informed the work of the Bioenergy Strategy Group, which was set up by the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources. For further information contact: The goals of the study were to quantify the existing resources, including their geographical spread, and to assess the likely level of future supply for conversion to electricity, with due account taken of competing uses. Project outcome The main findings of the study were as follows: > The current and projected future practical energy potential for all three residue streams is limited. > Straw production is concentrated in the east and south east of Ireland. Allowing for competing uses such as animal bedding and mushroom compost, coupled with the availability of a Pearse Buckley Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Tel: 01 808 2540 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF DRY AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES IN IRELAND 33 BIOGREEN BIOFUEL PROJECT NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: BIOGREEN ENERGY PRODUCTS LTD €249,812 R&D FEBRUARY 2005 Overview Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 34 The EU Directive on Biofuels stipulates that member states should aim to produce 2% of all transportation fuels from biofuels or other renewable fuels by 2005. This figure should then be increased to 5.75% by 2010. Biofuels offer the potential to reduce CO2 emissions in the short term. No major modifications to existing engine technology are required. There are two types of liquid biofuels: those suitable for fuelling petrol engines and those for fuelling diesel engines. Petrol engine biofuels may be made from sugar beet and wheat. Ethanol can be produced and then blended up to 5% and used in standard engines. Blends of up to 85% ethanol can be used in flexible fuel vehicles. Diesel engine biofuels may be made from oilseed rape, sunflower oil, soya oil, recovered vegetable oil and tallow. Bio-diesel in Europe is mainly produced from 100% fresh rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. It is possible to add some used vegetable oil and tallow to the process. However, using increasing percentages of these cheaper feedstocks makes it difficult to attain the relevant EU standard for bio-diesel. Pure plant oil, such as rapeseed or sunflower oil, can be used in a 100% pure form. When using pure plant oil, the vehicle’s engine will need to be modified – necessitating additional costs for the vehicle owner. In the case of pure plant oil, however, the production process is cheaper and more energy-efficient than bio-diesel production. Pressed oilseed rape produces vegetable oil and a residual cake in the approximate ratio of one tonne of oil to two tonnes of cake. The cake can be sold as an animal feed supplement, replacing imported soya, and the oil may be filtered and used in vehicles which are modified appropriately. It is estimated that every tonne of oil used will result in a reduction in emissions of 2.2 tonnes of CO2. Biogreen plans to produce 600 tonnes of vegetable oil and 1,200 tonnes of animal feed supplement in 2004/05. The rapeseed will be supplied by Glanbia and local farmers. For the 2005/06 season, Biogreen plan to process 6,000 tonnes of rapeseed. The project will demonstrate the feasibility of producing and selling vegetable oil locally as a transport fuel. For this project Biogreen will modify 100 vehicles by fitting engine-conversion kits to each vehicle. As part of the project, Teagasc will perform crop and oil qualitymonitoring tasks, while the University of Limerick will conduct power and tail-pipe emissions measurements for test vehicles to determine the environmental impact of using the rapeseed oil as engine fuel. The emissions to be measured include smoke opacity, CO, CO2, O2, NO, NO2 and SO2. The Wexford Energy Management Agency will also participate in the project assisting with the promotion of the project and the search for additional participants. Current project status To date, Biogreen has completed the construction of the requisite processing and storage facilities. Appropriate modifications to ten vehicles have been carried out. The Department of Finance announced the inclusion of a pilot scheme for excise duty remission in the 2004 Finance Act. Biogreen is currently awaiting notification of excise duty remission before proceeding to modify the remaining vehicles. For further information contact: Anthony Browne Cornerstown Bridgetown Co Wexford Tel: 053 35950 Email: [email protected] Website: www.rapoleum.com NAME OF CONTRACTOR: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: TEAGASC €40,000 PUBLIC GOOD MAY 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/biomass Overview The production of pure plant oil from rapeseed in Ireland offers two possibilities for the introduction of liquid biofuels into the transport fuel mix. The pure plant oil can be used directly in modified diesel engines, or it can be supplied as a feedstock to a bio-diesel plant for conversion to bio-diesel. The use of pure plant oil in modified diesel engines is a simple, low-cost technology approach, which lends itself to small-scale, dispersed transport fuel production. However, the attendant risk is that variable quality in oil production at separate, small-scale production plants would result in variable engine performance, including, in the worst eventuality, engine failure. It was considered important, therefore, to identify critical, measurable characteristics of the product oil which could be used to determine that the oil was within a defined, acceptable range. The main aims of this study were to identify critical characteristics for acceptable oil quality use, to establish routine testing procedures for quality assurance and to construct specimen test reports which could form part of a quality assurance procedure. Project outcome The main findings of the study were as follows: > The two characteristics that were determined to be of prime importance in establishing the quality of pure plant oil for use as a vehicle fuel were: the existence of suspended solids, and acid value > Seed quality and pressing and filtering procedures were identified as being central to the control of suspended solids and acid value, and the report includes specific recommendations in this regard > Sample reports for both weekly and monthly testing were developed and included as appendices This report identifies the principle characteristics of pure plant oil which need to be monitored as part of a quality assurance procedure. It is intended that the findings in the report will guide both the production and quality assurance practices of producers of pure plant oil for vehicle fuel. For further information contact: Pearse Buckley Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Tel: 01 808 2540 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR RAPESEED OIL AS VEHICLE FUEL 35 A RESOURCE STUDY ON RECOVERED VEGETABLE OIL AND ANIMAL FATS Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 36 NAME OF CONTRACTOR: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: CLEARPOWER LTD €30,000 PUBLIC GOOD DECEMBER 2003 www.sei.ie/rerdd/biomass Overview The EU Directive on Biofuels (2003/30/EC) established nonmandatory reference targets of 2% renewable fuels in the transportation fuel mix of each member state by 2005, and 5.75% by 2010. In addressing the intent of the Directive, an option available to Ireland is the replacement of a proportion of mineral diesel fuel with bio-diesel, a fuel primarily derived in Europe from oilseed rape. However, the cost of producing biodiesel from this feedstock is high, particularly when compared to the current cost of diesel. In order to mitigate the cost of biodiesel production, residues and by-products such as recovered vegetable oil (RVO) and animal fats (tallow) could be included as supplementary feedstocks. These lower-cost materials can significantly improve the price competitiveness of bio-diesel. In this context a resource study examining RVO and tallow was deemed necessary. The main aims of the study were to quantify the existing resources, including their geographical spread, and to assess the likely level of future supply for conversion to biodiesel, with due account taken of competing uses. Project outcome The main findings of the study were as follows: > Recovered vegetable oil (RVO): Across the island of Ireland 29,000 tonnes of waste vegetable oil is produced annually. This quantity is expected to rise over the next decade, in line with population and economic growth. Currently, 14,500 tonnes is recovered as RVO, leaving a potential 14,500 tonnes surplus to be disposed of by other means. Only 5,000 tonnes of this surplus is ‘realistically’ recoverable. Of the recovered vegetable oil, until recently approximately 97% went into animal feed in Ireland or the UK. This practice is now banned. The market for Irish RVO is therefore changing, and unless attractive new local markets can be encouraged, the collected recovered vegetable oil will be sold to biodiesel processors in the UK or elsewhere in Europe. > Animal Fats (tallow): In the eight rendering plants in the Republic of Ireland 78,000 tonnes of tallow is produced annually, a volume set to fall gradually, in line with a reduction in the national herd. At present, no surplus tallow is produced, and for many grades of tallow the market in animal feed will continue. However, given current tallow market conditions and fossil fuel prices, 22,000 tonnes of low-grade non-BSE risk tallow could be diverted for use as a bio-diesel feedstock. There is an opportunity to exploit these materials for the production of bio-diesel in Ireland. It is likely that if action to bring about such development does not occur soon, alternative, overseas markets are likely to be quickly established. The study results were also circulated at workshop held on 31st March 2004. For further information contact: Pearse Buckley Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Tel: 01 808 2540 Email: [email protected] Potential CO 2 Avoidance from Land Fill Gas Accessible Resource 251,000 250,000 240,000 215,000 230,000 220,000 2010 2020 Year RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCE: IRELAND TO 2010 AND 2020 NAME OF CONTRACTORS: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: ESB INTERNATIONAL, FUTURE ENERGY SOLUTIONS, ENERGY RESEARCH GROUP (UCD) €148,769 PUBLIC GOOD OCTOBER 2004 > Application of the methodology and comparison of resulting estimates of resource against historical figures for onshore wind. > Application of the methodology to landfill gas (electricity market) and active solar thermal for the space and water heating market. > Application of a scenario approach to identifying potential market contributions under basic, maximum and minimum contributions such as would reflect a continuation of current policies; a relatively slower growth rate; and an accelerated scenario that would provide the highest reasonable levels of penetration for renewables by 2010 and 2020. www.sei.ie/rerdd/biomass Overview Project outcome The final report is available on the SEI website. This study was commissioned to assist the Government in formulating its future policies on renewable energy, while responding to the consultation document Options for future renewable energy policy, targets and programmes, issued by the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources For further information contact: The study is intended to update and extend the methodology used in earlier studies undertaken to evaluate renewable energy resources in Ireland, along with medium-term development costs, so as to provide a template for future policy options in the deployment of renewable energy resources. It is also intended that the methodology developed should constitute a consistent mechanism for future independent studies of the electricity and heat markets, investigating the use of renewable energy technologies not included in this study. Tel: 01 808 2091 Email: [email protected] Key outputs from the project included: > An extended methodology for evaluating the medium-term development potential of renewable energy resources for the years up to 2010, and then to 2020, including the likely resource/cost curve. > Estimation of a ‘selling price’, allowing for project financing and an adequate return to the developer, calculated from the production costs per unit of energy as deduced from the resource analysis. Godfrey Bevan Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview Annual CO 2 Avoidance Tonnes 260,000 37 Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 38 Ocean Energy Ocean Energy > NAME OF CONTRACTORS: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: KIRK McCLURE MORTON, QUEEN’S UNIVERSITY BELFAST, NATURAL POWER CONSULTANTS €71,000 PUBLIC GOOD DECEMBER 2004 > > www.sei.ie/rerdd/ocean > Overview This study was commissioned to assist the Government in formulating policy on renewable energy, while at the same time responding to the consultation document “Options for future renewable energy policy, targets and programmes”, issued by the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources: The goal of the study is to estimate the tidal and marine current energy resources and costs in Ireland with a view to providing medium term development potential which could be used to underpin the formulation of potential targets for future policy options in the deployment of renewables. Key outputs from the project will include: > Identification of the most promising areas for cost-effective exploitation of the tidal stream and marine current energy resource in Irish waters, using Admiralty tidal data (where available), other historical current meter records, and other classical sources of data derived from computer models where appropriate. > Analysis of the highlighted locations, using detailed computer models of tidal currents as well as estimates of the energy potential and projected production costs using currently emerging technologies for exploitation of tidal stream flow. > Validation of the models, using data from new current meter installations deployed as required, initially at a limited number of sites. Two particular locations will be earmarked > for detailed monitoring, in order to establish the flow characteristics in enhanced current regimes that will be important in the engineering of extraction devices and complexes. Evaluations of large deeper water (40m+) areas of high current velocity (if any) with a view to developing secondgeneration deep-water devices. Techno-economic evaluation of the resource, using horizontal axis, vertical axis and oscillating flap technology. A methodology or methodologies for estimating the tidal and marine current energy resource in Ireland such as would indicate medium-term development potential (or estimated contribution) for the years 2010 and 2020, including the likely resource/cost curve per unit of energy produced. A conversion of costs per unit of energy from the resource analysis to ‘selling price’ allowing for project financing and an adequate return to the developer. A comparison of the methodology and resulting estimates of the resource against those produced historically in Ireland. Project outcome The results of the study indicate that Ireland has a modest tidal current resource based on assumptions of technology costs and limitations of operation. The study reviewed the tidal resource around the whole island. In addition, 17 locations of high potential resource were examined, of these 12 sites were modelled in detail. In order to validate the numerical models, detailed measurements were taken at 2 of the 12 sites studied. For further information contact: Katrina Polaski Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Tel: 01 808 2091 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview TIDAL AND MARINE CURRENT ENERGY RESOURCE IN IRELAND 41 DETAILED DESIGN OF THE OE BUOY DUCT DEVICE FOR WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 42 NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: OCEAN ENERGY LTD €131,157 R&D JANUARY 2005 Overall project management is being handled by Ocean Energy Ltd and technical co-ordination is provided by the Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre (HMRC), Cork. Activity under this project is grouped into the following work packages, with appropriate contractors responsible for the output: > > > > Model testing – HMRC (Cork) Air turbine design – IST and Ztec Ltd, (Portugal) Electrical systems – CDGA and MES Ltd (Cork) Mooring systems – Marine Computation Services Intl (Galway) > Test site – Ocean Energy and HMRC > Hull engineering and system integration – TRITEC Ltd Naval Architects (Glasgow) Overview Ireland is located at the centre of one of the most favourable climates for ocean wave energy in the world. The resource potential has been identified by the Marine Institute as around 800 MW installed capacity.Currently, there are no commercially available wave energy converters which could be used to exploit this resource.While a number of countries are actively promoting their development, it is clear that there remains a large commercial opportunity open to a successful device developer.The Ocean Energy Buoy (OE Buoy) is referred to as a floating oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy conversion device.This device uses wave energy to compress air in a plenum chamber and pump it through an air turbine system.This isolates the power conversion system from the seawater and also provides a high-speed airflow to the turbine. The OE Buoy device is a floating system in which the mouth of the OWC faces away from the wave direction.This results in high energy efficiencies at the operating point arising from the motions of the float system relative to the waves.Interestingly, however, these efficiencies reduce as the wave power levels increase, limiting the output in extreme wave conditions.The mooring forces in extreme waves are also reduced by the motions of the system.The system has a compact shape and is amenable to conventional shipbuilding techniques.These attributes contribute to the view that this device has the potential to be a commercially viable wave energy converter. Ocean Energy Ltd is working towards the construction of a 1 MW pilot plant to be deployed and tested off the Irish coastline. Successful operation of the pilot plant will allow Ocean Energy Ltd to proceed to the commercialisation of these devices.The particular objective of this study is to finalise the preliminary engineering and costings so that the project may proceed with minimum risk to the next phase, which is construction of the pilot plant. Successful completion of this project will provide a preliminary design for the pilot plant and allow the costing to be undertaken with a high degree of confidence. The risks of proceeding to the next phase, which involves the construction of the pilot plant and relatively high investment, will therefore be greatly reduced. Current project status The 1:15 scale model has been constructed and was tested in Nantes in September 2004. Contracts have been completed with the Portuguese partners and preliminary specifications for the power take-off system have been received. A draft final report has been received from MCS International for the mooring design. Site identification is proceeding within HMRC, and discussions have been initiated with ESBI regarding the planning permissions and electrical interfacing. Preliminary hull designs have been received and Ocean Energy Ltd have had discussions with potential shipyards in relation to the costs. For further information contact: John McCarthy Ocean Energy Ltd 3 Casement Square Cobh Co Cork Email: [email protected] NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: WAVEBOB LTD €43,200 R&D JANUARY 2004 Overview The research and development of an innovative and entirely Irish wave-power device has been progressing steadily since 1998. Wavebobs are floating and self-reacting devices that can be deployed in large formations in deep offshore waters. The Wavebob is of a type known as an oscillating point absorber, meaning that most energy is absorbed when the natural period of oscillation is in tune with the incident waves; and where the width of the device is small with respect to the wave length. Sea waves vary in period and in height. A key advantage of the Wavebob is that it is fully tuneable to the prevailing wave climate. Also it has an adjustable bandwidth. Stroke length is also controllable, and this is critically important in terms of survivability and allowing a useful measure of power to be recovered from large waves. As such the Wavebob is perceived to be an ideal device for the sometimes very energetic seas off Ireland’s west coast. Linear and non-linear models have been developed in-house, based on earlier hydrodynamic analysis. These computer models have been validated using true-scale models in wave flumes and tanks, allowing for increased accuracy and greater confidence in the process of virtual testing using the computer models. The primary goal is to develop a practical and commercially licensable product. The key parameters are survivability, capital and operating costs, and average annual useful power generated. Once survival is assured, the goal is then to deliver useful and acceptable power to the grid at a competitive price. Survivability and capital and operating costs are being addressed in parallel R&D programmes, as are the detailed design and testing of the (hydraulic) power take-off and control systems. The object of the present R&D project is to measure the power produced by true-scale models in accurately generated wave spectra. Current project status The project is well advanced and the interim report has been submitted. Tests have been completed at 1/50th and 1/20th scales using the facilities of the Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre (UCC, Cork) and the large wave channel of the German Coastal Defence Centre (Hanover University and the Technical University of Braunschweig). Analysis of the results from the tank tests correspond closely with predictions from the validated numerical models. For further information contact: William Dick Wavebob Limited Blessington Co Wicklow Tel: 045 865 233 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview WAVE TANK TESTING OF THE WAVEBOB 43 ARCH POINT WAVE RIDER BUOY, CO CLARE NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 44 ESBI €47,395 R&D SEPTEMBER 2005 Overview Records from weather ships, meteorological buoys and satellites provide evidence of a substantial wave power resource in deep water to the west of Ireland. The relevant distances offshore are, however, currently too great to make power production and transmission ashore commercially viable. Proximity to the shore has other disadvantages, with the level of power diminishing as the coastline is approached, due to shallowing and seabed friction. Computer models are widely used to predict the effects of distance/depth on output. For calibration purposes it was agreed that a measurement programme conducted at a promising location, where a depth of 60m could be obtained a short (1.5km) distance from the shore, and with open exposure to the Atlantic, would be appropriate. This would allow realistic measured assessment of: > Local annual power and energy levels, with predominant frequency content of waves > Seasonal variations > Correlation with deep water buoy measurements and model predictions > Application to prototype wave power conversion systems > The experience of working on this hazardous and exposed coast The project is being carried out by ESB International and Irish Hydrodata, supported on an equal basis by ESB Power Generation and SEI under its RE RDD Programme. Current project status Measurements began in November 2003 and excellent results were obtained until early July 2004, when it became necessary to replace the buoy installed at the outset of the programme. The replacement buoy will target the 2004 Autumn/Winter conditions. For further information contact: Graham Brennan Sustainable Energy Ireland Glasnevin Dublin 9 Tel: 01 808 2539 Email: [email protected] Solar Energy Solar Energy NAME OF CONTRACTORS: SEI GRANT: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: CSA GROUP, CONODATE GEOLOGY, CORK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY €185,500 PUBLIC GOOD JULY 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/geothermal Overview This study was performed by the CSA Group, in co-operation with Conodate Geology, Cork Institute of Technology and the Geological Survey of Ireland. The goals of the study were to: > Identify potential geothermal energy resources in Ireland. > Create geothermal models of Ireland and gather the necessary thermal, geological, structural and hydrodynamic data to facilitate modelling. > Produce a GIS-linked geothermal database and, using the models, create a series of geothermal maps of Ireland. > Review the current status and utilisation of geothermal energy resources in Ireland. > Present recommendations on the potential for exploitation of geothermal resources in Ireland in the context of international best practice. The study surveyed or compiled data on warm springs and groundwater temperature trends. In order to map the subsurface temperatures, all available borehole data in the Republic of Ireland was assembled.Temperature data from 19 mineral and oil exploration holes, ranging in depth from 300m to 2500m (deepest borehole Drumkeeran (No 1), Co Leitrim), was retrieved from previous surveys. In addition to this, CSA surveyed 32 existing, open boreholes to obtain their temperature profiles.This survey examined holes ranging in depth from 40m – 810m (deepest borehole 01-541-03, Co Galway). A preliminary review of data from Northern Ireland was also included. All survey data was added to the existing temperature data compiled in earlier studies. The data is presented in the Final Report, which may be downloaded from SEI’s website. Geothermal maps have been produced for surface levels, as well as 100m, 500m, 1000m, 2500m and 5000m depths. The maps can be viewed using MapInfo software, allowing temperature plots to be examined with the accompanying geological data overlaid. Individual borehole data points with references may be interrogated. Project outcome The results of this review indicate that Ireland is particularly well suited to the use of ground source heat pumps, due to its temperate climate, along with rainfall levels that ensure good conductivity and year-round rainfall recharge. There are abundant marine and surface water geothermal resources, which could be exploited in Ireland, but they need some encouragement for their development. The two main areas of warm spring development are in north Leinster and the Mallow region. Considering the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland together, this review has indicated a regional increase in temperatures ranging from 17ºC to 19ºC in the Republic to 25ºC to 27ºC in Northern Ireland at a depth of 500m. At 2500m, the increase in temperature ranges from 28ºC to 45ºC in the South to 64ºC to 97ºC in the North. This indicates significant geothermal sources, with the potential for commercial development. Definition of the exact profile and extent of the geothermal sources, and quantification of these resources, requires additional assessment in any areas deemed to be of interest. For further information contact: Róisín Goodman CSA House 7 Dundrum Business Park Windy Arbour Dublin 14 Tel: 01 296 4667 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE MAP OF IRELAND 47 Comparison of the strategies 10000 Duration of the development strategies units sold annually 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Strategy A CAMPAIGN FOR TAKE-OFF FOR RENEWABLE HEAT PUMPS IN IRELAND NAME OF CONTRACTORS: Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 48 GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: ARSENAL RESEARCH AND FORAS AISEANNA SAOTHAIR (FAS) €49,000 PUBLIC GOOD MAY 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/solar Overview Renewable heat pumps are rapidly becoming a popular alternative to conventional technologies based on fossil fuels. Sales are growing at an accelerated rate with over 1000 heat pumps sold in Ireland in 2003. This compares with 32,000 geothermal heat pumps sold in Sweden in 2003. This success is attributable largely to their cost-effectiveness and the comfort provided, but in addition to this they contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of Arsenal Research’s study was to define a strategic plan for the development of the renewable heat pump market in Ireland, looking at the 2020 horizon. An action plan was then prepared for the period 2004-2012, which elaborates measures to be implemented in line with the strategic plan. The analysis was based on a comprehensive assessment of the historical development of the heat pump market in Ireland and other European countries, and involved extensive consultation with stakeholders in the Irish heat pump industry. Project outcome Two different strategies were proposed by Arsenal Research: > Strategy A: aimed at maximising and accelerating market growth. This would require a relatively high level of government involvement. > Strategy B: aimed at achieving balanced growth, with less government involvement and a relatively larger contribution from market players. 20 26 20 27 20 28 20 23 20 24 20 25 20 21 years 20 22 20 18 20 19 20 20 20 16 20 17 20 13 20 14 20 15 20 11 20 12 20 10 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 19 94 -20 03 0 20 04 20 05 1000 Strategy B Strategies A and B would include various levels of promotion and marketing, technical assistance for customers and professionals, financial incentives, regulatory measures, etc. The table below summarises the targets for both strategies, as well as their associated costs and benefits in terms of CO2 emissions eliminated and jobs created: Total public Annual Sales expenditure(1) by 2020 2004- 2020 (,000 euro) Strategy A 41,486 Strategy B 4,136 8,300 3,100 Annual energy savings (GWh/year) Avoided CO2 emissions (average tons/year) 482 203 127,500 53,707 (1) Cost of government support programme, including direct subsidies. Both strategy options place strong emphasis on achieving quality in the marketplace as a prerequisite for sustained growth. With the help of FAS, Arsenal Research prepared specifications for the establishment of a training and certification scheme for professionals involved in the design, installation and maintenance of renewable heat pumps systems. This very comprehensive study should play an important role in policymaking for the development of the heat pump market. For further information contact: Xavier Dubuisson Sustainable Energy Ireland Renewable Energy Information Office Shinagh House Bandon Co Cork Tel: 023 29146 Email: [email protected] Expected m 2 installed Irish solar thermal systems in scenario B 8.000 7.000 6.000 4.000 3.000 2.000 1.000 0 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 2016 2019 Accumulated 2020: 90.000m 2 CAMPAIGN FOR TAKE-OFF FOR ACTIVE SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY IN IRELAND An analysis of the strategies implemented in other EU countries helped DEA and its partners draw on the lessons learned there in its proposal for measures that would address the barriers identified above. DEA concluded by recommending a strategic plan whereby a support programme for solar thermal could be initiated by the government at a cost of €20million over a period of eight years. The programme would include: NAME OF CONTRACTORS: > A quality management scheme for professionals and equipment > Support to Irish manufacturing of solar thermal systems > Information campaigns > Financial incentives and demonstration programmes > Improvement of regulatory framework > A DIY scheme for installation GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DOWNLOAD REPORT: DANISH ENERGY AUTHORITY (DEA), DANISH ORGANISATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY (OVE) €49,400 PUBLIC GOOD MAY 2004 www.sei.ie/rerdd/solar Overview Some 12 million m2 solar thermal panels were operating in buildings across Europe by 2003, of which 1.4 million m2 were added in that year alone. Ireland has the lowest penetration level of this technology in Europe, with just 1.5m2 of panelling per thousand inhabitants, compared to almost 250m2/1,000 inhabitants in, for example, Austria. This is in spite of the many advantages provided by solar thermal systems, including comfort, savings and protection of the environment. The objective of the DEA study was to inform government policy in the context of development of the solar thermal market in Ireland. The main output of the study was to recommend a number of strategy options and to propose an action plan detailing the measures to be implemented between now and 2012. Project outcome A thorough assessment of the current status of the solar thermal industry in Ireland, involving extensive consultation with stakeholders in the solar thermal market, identified a number of barriers to the deployment of solar thermal systems in Ireland including: > > > > > A lack of public awareness High installation costs Lack of financial incentives High insurance costs for installers Fragmented nature of solar industry in Ireland The programme would target the installation of 155,000m2 of solar collectors by 2020, resulting in 70GWh energy savings, the avoidance of 32,200 tonnes of CO2 emissions per year, and the creation of 734 full-time jobs. For further information contact: Xavier Dubuisson Sustainable Energy Ireland Renewable Energy Information Office Shinagh House Bandon Co Cork Tel: 023 42193 Email: [email protected] Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 5.000 49 QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE CERTIFICATION OF THE SOLTERRA 500 IRISH-MADE HEAT PUMP Renewable Energy Research Development & Demonstration Programme Overview 50 NAME OF APPLICANT: GRANT AWARD: CATEGORY: COMPLETION DATE: DUNSTAR LTD €8,150 R&D JULY 2004 Project outcome Test units of the Solterra 500 were sent to Arsenal Research, an Austrian research centre which manages the DACH certification scheme in Austria. Performance testing of Dunstar’s heat pump demonstrated that its coefficient of performance at a brine temperature of 0°C and a water heating temperature of 35°C was 4.0. Dunstar have acknowledged that obtaining the DACH quality label for their new heat pump has been a tremendous help towards boosting consumer confidence in this innovative technology. For further information contact: Overview Ground source heat pumps are becoming a popular alternative to fossil fuel technologies for space and water heating. Over a thousand ground or water source heat pumps were sold in Ireland in 2003, three times more than in the previous year. In this context of rapid growth, quality is a very important issue in sustaining the development of the heat pump market over the long term. Testing and certification of heat pump equipment is one aspect of quality control that has received a lot of attention in Europe. Dunstar has received funding from the RE RDD programme to complete certification of its Irish-made heat pump with the DACH quality label. This quality label is common to the German, Swiss and Austrian heat pump industries and covers energy performance as well as quality, service and guarantee issues. The objectives of the project undertaken by Dunstar were to: > Carry out in-house testing of the Solterra 500 heat pump and optimise the machine’s performance. > Ensure compliance with all relevant norms and with DACH standards. > Test and certify the Solterra 500 to obtain the DACH Quality Label. Paul Sikora Dunstar Ltd 1 Kent Street Clonakilty Co Cork Tel: 023 35165 Email: [email protected] Web: www.solterra.ie design by www.reddog.ie Glasnevin Dublin 9 Ireland t f e w +353 1 8369080 +353 1 8372848 [email protected] www.sei.ie 05-RERDD-002-R/01 Sustainable Energy Ireland is funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006 with programmes part financed by the European Union.
* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project