Appendix A Geophysical Survey Report FINAL REPORT GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION DUNDALK MARINE TERMINAL BALTIMORE HARBOR, MD OSI Project No. 06ES101 Prepared for: CH2M Hill 1700 Market Street, Suite 1600 Philadelphia, PA 19103 Prepared by: Ocean Surveys, Inc. 91 Sheffield St. Old Saybrook, CT 06475 12 May, 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................i 1.0 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................1 2.0 PROJECT SUMMARY............................................................................................................................1 2.1 Survey Objectives and Background......................................................................................................1 2.2 Summary of Field Survey and Equipment ............................................................................................3 2.2.1 Horizontal and Vertical Control ....................................................................................................4 2.2.2 Survey Vessel and Equipment .......................................................................................................5 3.0 PROCESSING, REVIEW, and DATA PRODUCTS...............................................................................7 4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................................8 4.1 Hydrographic Data ...............................................................................................................................8 4.2 Subbottom Data ....................................................................................................................................9 5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................18 APPENDICES 1 Equipment Operations and Procedures 2 Equipment Specification Sheets 3 Data Processing and Analysis Summary 4 Push Probe Results 5 Subbottom Profiles along CH2M Hill Sample Transects Final Report – Geophysical Investigation Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore MD Page i FINAL REPORT GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION DUNDALK MARINE TERMINAL BALTIMORE HARBOR, MD 1.0 INTRODUCTION During the period 13 December to 20 December 2006, Ocean Surveys, Inc. (OSI) conducted an integrated hydrographic and geophysical survey in Baltimore Harbor adjacent to the Dundalk Marine Terminal (DMT) in Baltimore, MD. These investigations were subcontracted to OSI by CH2M Hill (CH2M) working under contract to Honeywell International Inc. and represent the first and second tasks of a multi-task program designed to characterize the adjacent Patapsco River and Colgate Creek prior to the proposed surface water and sediment sampling. 2.0 PROJECT SUMMARY 2.1 Survey Background and Objectives DMT is a major marine terminal operated by the Maryland Port Administration and located approximately 5 miles southeast of Baltimore’s Inner Harbor (Figure 1). The DMT encompasses approximately 560 acres of land and includes thirteen piers along three pier faces. The facility’s northwest piers face Colgate Creek and the Seagirt Marine Terminal while the southern piers face the Patapsco River. Residential property abuts the southeastern corner of the DMT. During construction in the late 1950’s, approximately 120 acres of the marine terminal was constructed on fill composed primarily of COPR. It has been reported that deteriorated storm drains on the property may provide a path for impacted groundwater to be transported into the river from selected storm drains. CH2M has been tasked with conducting investigations to characterize the extent of COPR beneath and surrounding the DMT. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 1 Figure 1: Site Location map of DMT and survey area. (taken from NOAA Chart No. 12281 entitled “Baltimore Harbor”, (Nov. 2004). The purpose of Tasks 1 and 2 (described herein) was to document existing hydrographic and subbottom conditions in the harbor surrounding the DMT to a distance of approximately 2,000 feet offshore of the facility as illustrated in Figure 2. OSI Tasks 3 and 4 will focus on acquiring water and sediment samples along nine transects laid out by CH2M (shown in red in Figure 2). These samples will be used to characterize the near surface benthic habitats surrounding the DMT. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 2 Figure 2: Location map showing the planned Task 1 and 2 survey lines (green) and pre-defined CH2M sampling transects (red). 2.2 Summary of Field Survey and Equipment Prior to the start of the field program, a survey trackline design was constructed as illustrated in Figure 2. The survey plan included the acquisition of hydrographic and subbottom profile data along a series of 50-foot spaced tracks oriented parallel to the DMT terminal faces. The survey plan also included the acquisition of data along the nine sampling transect lines provided by CH2M (herein referred to as T1-T9) and four “tielines”. The tielines were oriented perpendicular to the navigation channels as part of the QA/QC plan for the hydrographic data. In total, approximately 80 nautical miles (nm) of tracklines were planned Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 3 for investigation. Hydrographic and subbottom data were collected simultaneously along all tracklines where safe and practical. Upon arrival on-site for the field investigation, the OSI field team met with the CH2M representative and on-site project coordinator, Mr. McCarthy and discussed field investigation strategies and the survey trackline layout. Mr. McCarthy remained with the OSI field team during the course of the survey investigation to provide project direction and logistical support. 2.2.1 Horizontal and Vertical Control Positioning of the survey vessel was accomplished using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) installed on the vessel. Prior to commencement of the field investigation, the DGPS system accuracy was verified by occupying a survey control monument provided by CH2M (see below for coordinates). Once system accuracy was verified, a second point was established at the marina for a daily navigation check conducted at the beginning and end of each field day. Project horizontal coordinates are referenced in feet to the Maryland State Plane Coordinate System (1900), NAD83. SURVEY CONTROL MONUMENT Designation Easting* Northing* Vertical (NAVD88) PT-709 1444618.19 573046.89 7.36 feet * Coordinates are in feet and referenced to the Maryland State Plane Coordinate System (1900), NAD83 The OSI field team installed two electronic water level recorders (a primary and secondary recorder for backup and quality control) on-site to continuously document tidal variation during the investigation. The water level recorders were referenced to North American Vertical Datum (NAVD 1988) and provided a means to adjust water depth data to the datum. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 4 2.2.2 Survey Vessel and Equipment Survey operations were conducted by a 40-hour trained and certified (in accordance with OSHA CFR 1910.120) field team consisting of a geologist/geophysical specialist and a navigator/support technician onboard OSI’s customized survey vessel, R/V Willing II. Specific equipment installed on the survey vessel and used to complete the investigation include a DGPS positioning system, a precision survey-grade depth sounder, and a subbottom profiling system. The table below summarizes the primary instrumentation used for this survey and briefly describes the operation of each system. A complete discussion of this equipment, along with the operational procedures for data collection, can be found in Appendix 1. Equipment specification sheets are included in Appendix 2. Equipment System Function Coastal Leasing, Inc. water level recorder Digital data logger which measures and records changes in pressure and temperature over time (directly related to fluctuations in water level above the instrument). Instrument is deployed to correct sounding data for tidal variation. Satellite positioning system that tracks up to eight satellites at a time and applies position correction factors relayed to it via radio link from a nearby DGPS Coast Guard Beacon to provide reliable, precision (+/-3 feet) positioning. The Trimble system outputs position fixes at a rate of 1 per second. Navigation software operating on a data logging computer that provides real time trackline control (helmsman steerage for survey lines), digital data recording, and position interfaces for all equipment systems. This package allows the simultaneous acquisition of data from multiple systems correlating all by vessel position and time. An inertial sensor designed to provide real-time heave, pitch, and roll measurements to survey grade depth sounders and data logging programs allowing depth data to be compensated for boat motion in rough sea conditions An electronic fluxgate compass with better than 0.5 degree accuracy and an automated compensation system. The compass provides means for digital data output to the motion sensor and data logging platform to aid in post processing. Microprocessor controlled, high resolution, survey-grade depth sounder with a 200 kilohertz, 8° beam transducer. The Model 448 recorder provides precise, high-resolution depth records using a solid-state thermal printer and digital data output, which allows integration with the navigation software.. Trimble 4000 Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and beacon reciever HYPACK MAX navigation and data logging software package TSS-DMS2-05i motion sensor KVH AutoComp 1000 digital fluxgate heading sensor Innerspace Model 448 single beam echosounder Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 5 Equipment System Function EdgeTech XStar “chirp” subbottom profiler equipped with a SB216 tow vehicle Subsurface profiler that generates an intense, short duration acoustic pulse in the water column in the range of 2 to 16 kilohertz. The high acoustic frequencies used by this system are intended for increased resolution of layers in the nearsurface. The “chirp” system generates a profile view of seismic reflectors below the bottom, which is then interpreted to develop a geologic cross section under the trackline surveyed. Figure 3 shows the basic equipment configuration onboard the survey vessel the vessel. Both the hydrographic and subbottom equipment sensors were aligned on the starboard side of the vessel, as close to the DGPS receiver as possible, in order to ensure that both sensors collected data as close to the planned tracklines as possible. highat R/V Willing II (not drawn to scale) Figure 2. Schematic of instrument configuration during onsite operations. Shallow site conditions (water depths less than 20 feet) in some regions of the survey area allowed the onboard geologist to perform push probes while the survey vessel was on-line acquiring data to characterize the nearsurface sediments. These probes were accomplished by pushing (by hand) a 1-inch diameter, thick-walled aluminum pipe into the bottom and interpreting the “feel” of the sediments through the probe. By advancing the probe into the riverbed, the scientist was able to gain information about the near-surface sediments (i.e. degree of compaction, presence of sand, silt, clay, etc.). During each attempt, position Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 6 information, texture classification, and description of the “feel” was logged. The texture classification adheres to the following scheme: 1 = soft material, 2 = Mixture of sand and mud, 3 = Soft material over a hard impenetrable material, 4 = Sand over a hard impenetrable material, 5 = hard impenetrable material. 3.0 PROCESSING, REVIEW, and DATA PRODUCTS Following completion of the field investigation, all survey records were brought back to OSI’s Old Saybrook, CT office for processing and interpretation. Appendix 3 details the processing methods for each data set. Results are presented on two plan view drawings at a horizontal scale of 1 inch = 400 feet. A third drawing includes representative profiles that provide an overview of subbottom data throughout the site. The plan view drawings are referenced to the project horizontal datum, Maryland State Plane (1900), NAD83 and provided at the back of this volume. The hydrographic data are referenced to NAVD88. The following table summarizes the final products generated for this project. Drawing Description 1 Hydrographic contour map with 2 foot interval (1 inch = 400 feet) Representative subbottom profiles illustrate the variation in records collected across the site. (vertical exaggeration 16:1) Subbottom data summary including survey tracklines, location of push probes, and a classification based on subbottom penetration. (1 inch = 400 feet) 2 3 Several appendices are also included with this report to present project data and provide a more detailed discussion of the equipment and procedures used for this investigation. The following table summarizes the data presented in each appendix. All paper records generated during the course of the investigation have been annotated and will be archived at OSI along with all digital files. The subbottom profiles for all nine sampling transects are provided in Appendix 5 to aid the planning of sediment core sampling. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 7 Appendix 4.0 Data Presentation 1 Equipment Operations and Procedures 2 Equipment Specification Sheets 3 Data Processing and Analysis Summary 4 Push Probe Results 5 Subbottom Profiles along CH2M Hill Sampling Transects DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION The following sections present a summary of findings based on an integrated hydrographic and geophysical survey performed during December 2006. Water depths discussed in the hydrographic data section are below NAVD88, while depths presented in the subbottom data section are measured below the riverbed. It should be noted that seasonal variations, storm events and/or man’s influence since this investigation may alter the conditions reported herein. Refer to OSI Project Drawings 1-3 presented with this report while reviewing the subsequent sections. 4.1 Hydrographic Data Hydrographic data acquired during the course of the investigation provided sufficient information to document water depth within the project limits. Figure 4 and OSI Drawing 1 present a shaded relief bathymetric image using color to denote depth. The data document a network of steep sided navigation channels that allow shipping access to the DMT from the Fort McHenry navigation channel and the Seagirt Marine Terminal. The channels encompass nearly half of the area surveyed and are a minimum of 39 feet deep, although some spots are as deep as 48 feet. The channel bottom is variable, a likely artifact of past dredging operations. The shoalest region of the channel network, appears to be an area encompassing approximately 10.5 acres with an average depth of 42 feet, approximately 4 feet less that the surrounding channel. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 8 Figure 4: Hydrographic data presented in plan view using color to represent depth (vertical datum: NAVD88). Water depths measured outside the channels were generally less than 20 feet. Four prominent shallow water areas were identified. The only major bottom feature detected outside the navigation channels was an approximate 1,500-foot elongate depression (1-3 feet deep). This feature was detected in the southeastern sector of the survey area approximately 1,500 feet south of the DMT’s southeastern pier face. The bottom topography in these shallow areas appears less variable than the channel topography. 4.2 Subbottom Data Chirp data acquisition achieved limited penetration and was generally restricted to the upper 10 feet. In some areas no penetration was achieved, while elsewhere reflectors were observed to depths as great as 50 feet. The observation of reflectors at depth indicates that Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 9 the subbottom profiling system was functioning properly but that site conditions played a significant role in the ability of the system to achieve penetration. OSI project Drawing 2, Sheets 1-3 provide examples of the subbottom data collected and illustrate the variation in subbottom reflections. The limited penetration across much of the site is believed to be a result of several factors, including the presence of gaseous sediments in the near-subsurface sediments and the disturbance of the surficial sediments during past dredging activity in the area. Gases produced by the decomposition of naturally occurring organic material in the sediment, impede acoustic propagation and thus prevent imagery of subbottom reflectors deeper than the layer containing the gases. The high reflection coefficient of the sediment/gas interface causes a strong signal to be reflected back toward the surface then off the water/air interface producing “multiple” reflections on the subbottom record. Gaseous sediments are often encountered in upland rivers, bays, and estuaries just as irregular riverbeds are often encountered in dredging areas. Irregular morphology can disperse acoustic energy and prevent it from penetrating the riverbed, thereby producing subbottom records with a diffuse appearance. Consequently, the limited subbottom penetration achieved throughout the survey area is expected. After analyzing the subbottom profiler records and reviewing the data along with the push probe results, subbottom data have been delineated into five categories to better understand their distribution throughout the project area. This classification is defined primarily based on the characteristics of subbottom reflectors detected and the depth of penetration achieved. The five categories are summarized in the following table along with the color hatch pattern used to represent them on project Drawing 2 and 3. Figures 5-7 provide examples for each of the categories. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 10 Table of Subbottom Data Classification Type Description 1 No subbottom penetration achieved below the riverbed. Generally associated with the navigation channels. Due to depth limitations – no push probes were conducted in these areas. 2 3 4 5 Color/Hatch Pattern Used Limited subbottom penetration achieved. Subbottom reflectors are observed in the upper 10 feet of the riverbed and terminate abruptly. Reflectors are generally horizontal and closely spaced approximately 1 foot apart. The one push probe (p01) conducted in this type area encountered a mix of sand and mud. Shallow subbottom penetration achieved. Continuous subbottom reflector detected several feet below riverbed. Subbottom reflector detected appears to be related to the upper surface of a gaseous sediment horizon. Sediments overlying the detected reflector appear acoustically transparent suggesting that they may have a high water content. Probes conducted in these areas primarily encountered soft sediments. Shallow subbottom penetration achieved. Minimum of one subbottom reflectors detected within approximately ten feet of the riverbed. Subbottom reflectors may be discontinuous but at least one of them appears to be related to the upper surface of a gaseous sediment horizon. Probes in these areas encountered soft sediments as well as mud intermixed with sand. Deep subbottom penetration achieved. Several continuous subbottom reflectors detected to a depth of as much as 50 feet below the riverbed. Probes in these areas encountered a wide variety of sediment types from soft mud to coarse sand and gravel. In general, the delineation of the five acoustic classes seems to be correlated to their geographic distribution. For example, Type 1 and Type 2 data are encountered mainly within the dredged navigation channels, while Type 3 data are typically associated with the three distinct shallow water areas located on the north and west sides of the DMT. Type 4 and Type 5 data are associated with the shallow areas south and southeast of the DMT. Figure 8 and OSI Project Drawing 3 provide an overview of the distribution of acoustic characteristics identified in the project site. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 11 Type 1 Type 2 Type 1 Type 2 15 ft. 30 ft. Water Column Subbottom Reflectors Subbottom Reflectors Riverbed 45 ft. ~ 250 feet 60 ft. Figure 5: Reproduced section of chirp profile record depicting subbottom data classification Types 1 and 2. These profile categories are representative of the shipping channels. Type 1 refers to areas where no subbottom penetration was observed. Type 2 refers to areas of generally horizontal and closely spaced reflectors that terminate abruptly. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 12 Type 1 Type 3 Type 3 0 ft. Acoustically Transparent Sediment (High Water Content) Upper Surface of Gaseous Sediment 15 ft. 30 ft. Water Column Acoustically Transparent Sediment (High Water Content) Upper Surface of Gaseous Sediment Riverbed Riverbed Multiple SHIPPING CHANNEL Riverbed Multiple ~ 250 feet 45 ft. Figure 6: Reproduced section of chirp profile record depicting subbottom data classification Types 1 and 3. Note the thin layer (~2-3’) of acoustically transparent sediments that blanket the riverbed in Type 3 areas. The acoustically transparent sediments are generally associated with highly aqueous silts. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 13 Type 5 0 ft. Deep Subbottom Reflectors Type 4 Subbottom Reflectors Riverbed Type 5 Water Column Upper Surface of Gas-rich Sediment Deep Subbottom Reflectors 15 ft. Reflector Multiples 30 ft. ~ 250 feet 45 ft. Figure 7: Reproduced section of chirp profile record depicting subbottom classification Types 4 and 5. Type 4 is characterized by a minimum of one subbottom reflector, which generally overlies a gas-rich sediment horizon. Type 5 is associated with deep subbottom penetration and the detection of multiple subbottom reflectors. Note the abrupt transition from Type 4 to Type 5 and the lack of deep subbottom reflectors in the Type 4 data. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 14 N Subbottom Data Classifications SEAGIRT MARINE TERMINAL Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 DUNDALK MARINE TERMINAL Type 4 Type 5 PATAPSCO RIVER Figure 8: Overview of subbottom data classification types identified throughout the project site. The diversity of acoustic response throughout the survey area is an indication of the variation in surficial sediments present. The water depths across much of the survey area were too deep to conduct push probe investigations while underway, although additional information may be obtained in a later phase of the investigation. The uniformity of subbottom data within Types 1-4 suggest that near-surface sediments may not change dramatically within each area. While we can only speculate about sediment types across much of the deep regions of the site, an abundance of push probe data is available in the Type 5 region. A variety of hard (impenetrable) materials were encountered in this area ranging from compact clay to coarse sand and gravel. In most cases, a layer of softer material typically less than 3 feet thick was “felt” above the hard bottom. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 15 The elongate depression previously described in the hydrographic section is clearly evident on several of the subbottom profiles collected along CH2M defined sampling transects (provided in Appendix 5 – Specifically T1 - T4). The acoustic data associated with the depression are characterized as Type 4. Push probes performed in the feature suggest it is infilled with soft sediments, while probes performed directly adjacent to the depression encountered sand. The stark contrast in sediment type, subbottom data, and the unusual morphology of the depression suggest that the feature may be of man-made origin and could be an artifact of dredge operations. The deep subbottom penetration attained within the Type 5 area; mapped in the southeastern region of the site, allowed for the detection of a series of steeply dipping reflectors as illustrated by the two intersecting profiles presented in Figure 9. The deepest reflector identified in the profiles (at least 50 feet below the riverbed) appears to form a subsurface mound. Based upon a review of subbottom data, it is unclear what the mound is composed of. Push Probe #61 was performed at the intersection of the two representative profiles shown in Figure 9, where the subsurface mound is exposed on the riverbed. This probe encountered a mix of sand and mud. Several overlying reflectors indicate on-lapping sediments, which appear to thicken away from the apex of the mound. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 16 Intersection with B-B’ 0 ft. A 15 ft. Subbottom Reflectors Riverbed A’ Riverbed multiple N Subsurface Mound ~ 150 feet 30 ft. Riverbed 0 ft. B Upper surface of Gaseous Sediments DMT Intersection with A-A’ Subbottom Reflectors B A’ B’ A B’ 15 ft. Subsurface Mound ~ 150 feet 30 ft. Figure 9: Reproduced sections of chirp subbottom profile records depicting unusual subsurface mound identified in the southeastern margin of site. Sections of two orthogonal profiles intersecting at the apex of several steeply dipping subbottom reflectors illustrate the asymmetry of an unusual subbottom feature. Location map illustrates the position of each profile in the survey area. The images have an approximate vertical exaggeration of 16:1. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 17 5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS An integrated hydrographic/geophysical survey was completed in Baltimore Harbor in the waters immediately adjacent to the DMT. This survey, conducted by OSI for CH2M, represents the first and second task of a multi-task program designed to characterize the water and sediments surrounding the DMT to a distance of approximately 2,000 feet offshore of the facility. Completed simultaneously, the specific purpose of the Task 1 and 2 surveys (described herein) was to document existing hydrographic and subbottom conditions in the project area. Upcoming OSI investigations will focus on acquiring water and sediment samples in the project area under the direction of CH2Ml representatives. Hydrographic data clearly document a network of steep sided navigation channels traversing the project area that allow shipping access to the DMT from the Fort McHenry navigation channel and the Seagirt Marine Terminal. The channel system varies from 39 to 48 feet below NAVD88. Four prominent shallow water areas were identified within the project area outside the shipping channels. Depths in these areas generally average less than 25 feet below NAVD88. The most northern of the shallow water areas, situated adjacent to the Seagirt Marine Terminal, is identified as a ‘Spoil Area” on the NOAA chart. Subbottom profiling coupled with push probing observations made during the course of the survey investigation provided data to characterize the surficial sediments and shallow subsurface stratigraphy underlying the project area. In general, the acquired data sets indicate variability in the surface and subsurface sediments in the site, both horizontally and vertically. To better understand this variability, subbottom returns were characterized into five classes (referred to as Types 1-5), which were mapped throughout the project area. This characterization scheme is primarily based on the depth of penetration attained by the subbottom profiler and the characteristic of the subbottom reflectors observed on the records. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 18 Acoustic Types 1-4 characterize the majority of the area investigated and are generally associated with near surface deposits of soft, often aqueous sediment varying in thickness but generally greater than 1-foot thick. Type 5 data were isolated to a small shallow area in the southeastern corner of the survey site and are associated with a wide variety of surficial sediments varying from muds to coarse sands and gravel. Subbottom imagery can be greatly affected by the acoustical properties of near-surface material. As a result, overlying layers can mask subbottom layers that would otherwise be represented by acoustic reflectors. One of the primary goals of this investigation was to provide CH2M with data to aid in designing a strategy for sampling that will be followed during upcoming tasks. Currently, CH2M plans to acquire samples along nine transects located around the DMT within the survey area (designated T1-T9). During the current investigation, subbottom data were acquired along these transects. Annotated subbottom profile records for each of the nine transects are included in Appendix 5 of this report and should be reviewed to identify sampling locations. In general, sediment sampling performed along transects T1 to T4 will recover a wide variety of surficial sediment types, where as sediment samples acquired along transects T5 to T9 will most likely encounter soft, often highly aqueous, sediment types intermixed with sand. Upcoming sediment sampling investigations should consider variations in sampling methodologies to recover these varying sediment types. With regard to sediment sampling the following general recommendations are provided: • Collect sediment samples within each of the different acoustic classification areas to better understand the data and the distribution of sediments within the survey area. • Collect sediment at survey line grid nodes (intersection of survey lines); to compare with subbottom data acquired along two survey profiles. • Collect several sediment samples in the vicinity of the subsurface mound feature identified in the southeastern region of the survey site to better understand the nature and composition of the mound. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 19 Existing riverbed conditions were documented during this investigation and can be used as a baseline for future studies and comparative analyses. Mapping programs in the future should consider the use of side scan sonar imagery. Side scan sonar is a surface mapping tool and can provide a comprehensive map of the textural changes existing throughout the survey area, which are typically associated with variations in sediment type and benthic habitats. In addition, side scan sonar imagery can be used to identify features present within the site that could potentially impact the project and might otherwise have gone undetected utilizing the current instrumentation. Future investigation might also consider the acquisition of marine magnetometer data within the project site. Magnetometer data could provide information about the presence of undetected ferrous objects present in the site. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Page 20 APPENDICES 1 EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES 2 EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEETS 3 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS SUMMARY 4 PUSH PROBE RESULTS 5 SUBBOTTOM PROFILES ALONG CH2M HILL SAMPLING TRANSECTS Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD APPENDIX 1 EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Coastal Leasing Micro-Tide Recorder Trimble 4000 GPS with Differential Probeacon Receiver HYPACK MAX Navigation Software TSS-DMS2-05i Motion Sensore KVH AutoComp 1000 Digital Fluxgate Heading Sensor Innerspace Model 448 Single Beam Echosounder EdgeTech XStar “chirp” Subbottom Profiler Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Coastal Leasing Micro-Tide Recorder Continuous water level measurements were recorded during the survey by installing a Coastal Leasing Micro-Tide recorder in the vicinity of the survey area. The Micro-Tide recorder contains an advanced microprocessor capable of the sampling, averaging, and internal storage of pressure data as well as providing options for telemetry or networking. The tide recorder/gauge is a self-contained, fully submersible instrument with a cylindrical stainless steel housing less than 13 inches long, 5.5 inches in diameter, and weighs under 20 pounds. The unit is typically mounted to the end of a wood board which is attached to the backside of a piling away from heavy vessel traffic and preferably in a protected basin or other calm area. The tide recorder was referenced to the temporary bench mark previously established for this project as provided by the client. The instrument may be set to record pressure/tidal height readings at 0.5-60 minute intervals. The Micro-Tide recorder contains two pressure sensors, such that one can be submerged to collect pressure or height of water above the sensor while the second sensor can be mounted in air directly above the instrument to collect barometric pressure data. The recorder automatically makes the adjustment for barometric pressure to generate a corrected, real time tide curve. Trimble 4000 Global Positioning System Interfaced with a ProBeacon U.S. Coast Guard Differential Receiver The Trimble 4000 satellite positioning system provides reliable, high-precision positioning and navigation for a wide variety of operations and environments. The system consists of a GPS receiver, a GPS volute antenna and cable, RS232 output data cables, and ProBeacon Coast Guard receiver. The ProBeacon receiver consists of a small control unit, a volute antenna and cable, and RS232 interface to the Trimble 4000 unit. In this system configuration a position accuracy of ± 1-2 meters is reported by the manufacturer, although experience suggests it can provide consistent +/-1 meter reliability. Fully automated, the Trimble 4000 provides means for 9 channel simultaneous satellite tracking with real time display of geodetic position, time, date, and boat track if desired. The Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 1-1 Trimble unit is mounted on the survey vessel with the beacon receiver which continuously receives differential satellite correction factors via radio link from one of the DGPS United States Coast Guard beacons (1 second update rate). The Trimble 4000 accepts the correction factors and applies the differential corrections to obtain continuous, high accuracy, real time position updates. The Trimble 4000 system is interfaced to the OSI navigation system running HYPACK MAX® software for trackline control. HYPACK MAX Navigation Software Survey vessel trackline control and position fixing were obtained by utilizing an OSI computer-based data logging package running HYPACK MAX navigation software. The HYPACK navigation system processes the geodetic position data into the correct grid system, which is then used to guide the survey vessel accurately along preselected tracklines. The incoming data are logged on disk and processed in real time allowing the vessel position to be displayed on a video monitor and compared to each preplotted trackline as the survey progresses. Digitized shoreline and the locations of existing structures, buoys, and control points can also be displayed on the monitor in relation to the vessel position. The OSI computer logging system, combined with the HYPACK MAX software, thus provide an accurate visual representation of survey vessel location in real time, combined with highly efficient data logging capability and post-survey data processing and plotting routines. VT TSS DMS-05 Dynamic Motion Sensor Vessel heave, pitch and roll information was measured and logged utilizing a VT TSS’s DMS-05 Dynamic Motion Sensor. Incorporating an enhanced external velocity and heading aiding algorithm for improved accuracy during dynamic maneuvers, the solid-state angular sensor offers reliability and the highest performance of any VT TSS produced vertical reference unit. The DMS-05 motion sensor was designed for use with multibeam echosounders and incorporates advanced processing techniques and high grade inertial sensing elements to attain heave, pitch, and roll measurements with high dynamic accuracy and immunity to vessel turns and speed changes. The DMS-05 allows full utilization of all echosounder beams and survey capabilities to IHO standards. The DMS-05 has a dynamic Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 1-2 roll and pitch accuracy to 0.05° over a 30° range and dynamic heave accuracy to 5 centimeters or 5% (whichever is greater). The unit can output digital data at a rate up to 200 hertz and accepts a standard NMEA-0183 message string. Digital data are logged by the HYPACK® navigation computer. The DMS-05 permits survey operations to continue through degrading weather conditions, increasing project productivity and efficiency. KVH AutoComp 1000 Fluxgate Compass The KVH AutoComp 1000 fluxgate compass was used to measure magnetic compass headings along survey tracklines. The AutoComp 1000 incorporates next generation electronic fluxgate technology to provide 0.5 degrees accuracy and an automatic compensation system that automatically corrects for compass deviation on the vessel, without a compass adjuster. The system automatically calibrates itself after installation by steering the survey vessel in a circle so the microprocessor-controlled unit can measure, process, and compensate for the magnetic field. The unit corrects for B, C, D, E coefficient errors, while standard NMEA 0183 output provides easy interfacing with other equipment. The digital data are logged on the HYPACK® navigation computer. Innerspace Technology 448, 200 kHz Digital Depth Sounder Precision single beam water depth measurements were obtained by employing an Innerspace Model 448 digital depth sounder with a 200 kHz, 3° beam width transducer. The Model 448 recorder provides precise, high-resolution depth records using a solid-state thermal printer as well as digital data output which allows integration with the OSI computer-based navigation system. The Model 448 also incorporates both tide and draft corrections plus a calibration capability for local water mass sound speed. Sound speed calibrations were accomplished by performing "bar checks". The bar check procedure consists of lowering an acoustic target, typically a 20 pound lead disk, on a measured sounding line, to the specified project depth. The speed of sound control is adjusted such that the reflection from the disk is printed on the recorder precisely at this Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 1-3 known depth. The acoustic target is then raised to successively shallower depths and calibration readings at these depths are recorded. Variations which exist in the indicated depth at these calibration points are incorporated in the sounding data processing to produce maximum accuracy in the resulting depth measurements. Bar checks were performed at the beginning of each day to check the surface water mass sound speed in comparison with the CTD profiler. EdgeTech XStar “Chirp” Subbottom Profiler Information concerning subsurface stratigraphy was explored through use of an EdgeTech XStar “Chirp" Subbottom Profiler system operating at frequencies of 2 to 16 kilohertz. The subbottom profiler consists of three components: the deck unit (Xstar topside computer, amplifier, monitor, keyboard, and trackball), an underwater cable, and a Model SB216 towed vehicle housing the transducers. Data is displayed on a VGA monitor and EPC 1086 thermal printer while saved digitally on the topside control computer. The XStar “chirp” profiler is a versatile subbottom system that generates cross-sectional images and collects normal incidence reflection data over many frequency ranges. The system transmits and receives an FM pulse signal generated via a streamlined towed vehicle (subsurface transducer array). The outgoing FM pulse is linearly swept over a full spectrum range of 2 to 16 kilohertz for a period of approximately 20 milliseconds. The acoustic return received at the hydrophone array is cross-correlated with the outgoing FM pulse and sent to the deck unit for display and archiving, generating a high resolution image of the subbottom stratigraphy. Because the FM pulse is generated by a converter with a wide dynamic range and a transmitter with linear components, the energy, amplitude, and phase characteristics of the acoustic pulse can be precisely controlled and enhanced. The “chirp” subbottom profiler is designed for acquiring high resolution subsurface data from upper portions of the stratigraphic column (5 to 25 meters depending on site conditions). The higher end frequencies allow good resolution of subbottom layering while the lower end acoustic frequencies provide moderate penetration. This particular system is Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 1-4 capable of providing excellent acoustic imagery of the subsurface in a wide variety of marine environments. Operationally, a seismic source is used to create a swept frequency pulse or signal in the water column. This signal propagates downward to the bottom where it is partially reflected at the sediment-water interface, while the rest of the signal continues into the subbottom. As the downward propagating signal encounters successive interfaces between layers of different material, similar partial reflections occur. The characteristics of the materials which cause acoustic signals to behave in such a manner are defined primarily by the cross-product of the bulk density and the compressional wave velocity of each material, a quantity known as the acoustic impedance. As a first approximation, the percentage of an acoustic signal which is reflected from an interface is directly proportional to the change in acoustic impedance across that interface. The return signal is correlated with the outgoing pulse and the resultant trace. Ambient noise is filtered out and the signal is then amplified with overall gain and/or TVG and displayed trace-by-trace iteratively on the recorder to yield a continuous display somewhat analogous to a geologic cross section. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 1-5 APPENDIX 2 EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEETS Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD www.coastal-usa.com Coastal’s MacroTide Description: Coastal’s MacroTide and MacroTide+ record pressure levels in aquatic environments for tidal measurements using either an ICS Strain Gauge Pressure Sensor or a high-precision Paroscientific Digiquartz Sensor. Capacity: 200K standard Optional (Compact Flash Cards): 8MB, 16MB, etc. Housing: Diameter – 5.5 in. Length – 14 in. (including handle) Weight – 15 lbs. in air Material – Stainless steel and UHMW plastic housing MacroTide+ length is 15.5 in., weight is 17 lbs. in air Power: Interface: Clock: Standard: Optional: Standard, MacroTide+ Optional: User replaceable standard alkaline D cells Wizard IBM PC compatible software ASCII data files in engineering units User controlled sampling parameters and sensor functions Coastal MacroTide Exterior(above), Interior(below) Solid state real time, accuracy one minute per year Pressure, Standard – ICS Strain Gauge Temperature, Internal – YSI Thermister Pressure, High Precision – Paroscientific Digiquartz Temperature, External – YSI Thermister Additional External Pressure – ICS Strain Gauge Function Pressure, Standard Temperature Pressure, High Precision Sensor (*optional) IC Sensors Strain Gauge, piezoresistive Internal YSI Thermister Range 30, 50, 100, 250 -5° to 35° Accuracy Resolution Units 0.1% 12 bit psia 0.1° .02 typ °C *Paroscientific Digiquartz 900< 0.015% 16 bit psia Coastal Leasing, Inc. 179 Sidney Street Cambridge MA 02139-4238 p 617.497.1122 f 617.497.1188 [email protected] © 2001 Coastal Leasing, Inc. Trademarks are property of their respective owners. Specifications subject to change without notice. D Trimble MARINE 4000RSi & 4000DSi O~][p[[email protected]~[ID g DGPS Reftrence Surveyor and Differential Surveyor The worlds best real-time sub-meter demanding DGPS receiversare now twice as good! ports, harbors, along river banks, and near environments, 4000DSi Reference SurveyOr'M and Differential incorporate Surveyor~ now the latest in GPS technology, multipath processing: the patented advanced technology. This technology Maxwell processing technology, receivers provide the highest level of accuracy even when operating the most challenging in also Trimble's latest advance in offering true, real-time positioning accuracy bener than 0.5 meter. Based on Trimble's these DGPS that may interfere with satellite signals. The 4000RSi and 4000DSi incorporate field operation time &om baneries. such as sources of high radio frequency The 4000RSi rejection through enhanced signal EVERESTM eliminates multipath enor before the receiver calculates GPS measurements. When combined with Trimble's advanced carrier-aided conditions. The 4O00RSi and 4000DSi incorporate filtering and smoothing techniques applied Ttimble's Super-trak~ technology. Super-trak to exceptionally low noise CIA code enhances low power satellite signal measurements, the result is real-time acquisition, positioning accuracy on the order of a few decimeters. improves signal tracking capabilities under less than ideal conditions, and provides increased immunity jamming to signal resulting £Tom radio frequency interference. These funher are derived £Tom integrating improvements complex circuitry onto a single chip and using state-of-the-an surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter technology. Super-trak PRODUCTS increases productivity and facilirates continual operations in RF The 4000RSi for hydrographic and 4000DSi and navigation are ideal systems, The 4000RSi operates as an autonomous reference station, calculating DGPS corrections in the RTCM SG 104 format for transmission to mobile GPS recelvets. The 4000DSi is designed to use DGPS corrections in the RTCM SG 104 standard format broadcast by the 4000RSi. The 4000DSi's srandard NMEA-0l83 messages, navigation firmware, data, and IPPs outputs allow for optimal flexibility for system integration and interfacing with other instruments. During operation, and 4000DSi the 4000RSi can output binary and ASCII data for archiving or post-mission analysis. In addition, the 4000RSi can vessel tracking, dynamic positioning systems, operate as a mobile receiver with the dredging, same features, functionality and other dynamic positioning and navigation applications. Both receivers feature nine channels of continuous satellite tracking (12 channels optional); a light- weight, rugged, weatherproof housing; and low power consumption for extending as the 4000DSi. perfonnance, and options For optimum DGPS combine the receivers with any ofTtimble's data communication systems and QNQC firmware to ensure the integrity of positioning accuracy. System Integration Components StandardConfiguration Data Communications Systems Trimble offers optimized telemetry systems. The real-time DGPS data communication systems include telemetry short-range for line-of-sight "license-free" environments such as ports, rivers, and coastal regions. For midrange applications, a. Series4000 GPSreceiver(4000DSi) b. Compactdomeantenna c. 30m antennacable d. Operatingmanual e. Lemato dualBNCcable f. 5 pin Lemato DB9cable g. 7 pin Lemato DB9cable h. Dualpowerinputcable T there are proven HF, VHF and UHF systems for various conditions and licensing requirements. For long- ranges (up to 500 km), Trimble ground-wave offers MF systems. All telemetry components and accessories are tested to ensure system reliability. GPS Monitor UtilityTM The performance of the new 4000RSi/DSi with EVEREST Die ~etup Mulripath Rejection Technology is graphically displayed using the GPS Monitor WIndow Help GeodeticAntennaOption a. Groundplanegeodeticantenna b. Softcasecarryingcase TheGeodeticAntennaOptionIs standardwith the4000R51 and Is optionalfor the 4000051. Utility software program (included with the 4000RSi and 4000DSi and available separately DGPS also). accuracy has never looked so good! QA/QC Real-time The QA/QC Quality firmware option enables the user to verify the positioning time. QA/QC quality assurance of qualiry real-time displays, real-time position in real- TRIMTALKradiosareavailablein variousapplicationspecificcontigurationsfor referencesite,repeaterand mobileuse.Frequencyoptionsaretailoredto operation worldwide,includinglicense-freein manycountries. position a position quality levels, and data output relared information. unprecedented receiver's integrity includes alarm with definable TRIMTALK SeriesRadioLinkOptions Assurance It provides assurances of the accuracy so that the operator knows whether position quality the required is being met. If the accuracy falls below acceptable levels, an audible alarm notifies the operator. Universal Reference The Universal PC-based StationTM Reference Station (URSTM) is a software system that works as a dedicated, programmable ProBeacon Option TheProBeaconis designedspecificallyto receivethe differentialGPScorrectionbroadcastsfrom DGPS/MSK radiobeacons.Availabilityof thesedifferentialcorrection broadcastsis increasingrapidlyworldwide. DGPS reference station for broadcasting corrections to an unlimited number of users. URS collects data from all satellites in view, including ranges, carrier phase and ephemeris outputs the data and corrections transmission pseudo data, and for ro mobile receivers that are being used anywhere in range. URS also can also be programmed ro collect data for post- processed applications. For about additional options, contact your Trimble sales representative. Applications: PrecisionGPS Positioningon the ground, at sea and in the air. HYDRO/DGPS Trimble's HYDRO software provides a totally integrated field-to-finish product that combines your DGPS position with other survey sensors such as echosounders, sidescan compasses, sonar, tide gauges and acoustic positioning equipment. HYDRO also provides navigation and has post-processing capabilities to produce highquality plots. Additional modules include contouring, profiles, volumes and digitizing. HYDROseismic and HYDRO rig have specialized featUres for the exploration for surveying Airborne Applications Traditionally, industry's requirements and rig positioning. aerial applications have required multiple pilots as well as numerous human flaggers and associated ground crews. Using TRIMFLIGHTTM, airborne navigation and mapping be sprayed effectively a precise DGPS system, crops can and consistently-withoUt flaggers or ground assistance, providing the pilot with graphical proof of where he has sprayed. The system can also be used for a wide variety of other aerial applications, photogrammetry, such as geophysical exploration, GIS data captUre and search & rescue. TrackingTrimble's Barge Monitoring System has taken DGPS one step further by using two-way radio communications. transmitted ~ While DGPS corrections are to vessels for navigation, other statUs information are reported positions and back to the reference site for display. The system is being used ~ for environmental policing to ensure that the barges dump the material in legal dump sites. If a dump occurs oUtside these sites, the system will warn the controller. 4000RSi & 4000DSi DGPS &ference Surveyor and Differential Surveyor PhysicalCharacteristics 4000RSiFeatures Autonomous operation; filtered and carrier-smoothed RTCM differential corrections (versions 1.0 and 2X); 0,5 second measurement rate; data integrity provision; data link flow control on RTCM port; triple DC input; Ll geodetic antenna;30m antenna cable; automatic mode restoration after power-off; dual RS-232 I/O ports for data recording; low power; lightweight; Size: 9,8"W x (24,8cm 16,8"W (42,7cm Weight: 6lbs, (2,7kg) standard receiver 15lbs, (6,8kg) rack-mount receiver 0,5 lbs, (O,2kg) compact dome antenna 5,7lbs, (2,6kg) Ll geodetic antenna Power: Nominal 10,5 to 35 VDc, 7 watts Operatingtemp: -20°C to +55°C portable; environmentally protected; 1 PPS output; NMEA-0183 outputs; RTCM input and output; I-year warranty, 4000DSiFeatures 11.0"D x 4,O"H (standard receiver) x 28,Ocm x lO,2cm) x 16"D x 5,25"H (rack-mount receiver) x 40,6cm x 13,3cm) Storagetemp: -30° to +75°C EVEREST technology; real-time operation; 0,5 second measurement rate; data integrity provision; triple DC input; compact dome antenna; 30m antenna cable; automatic mode restoration after power off; extra RS-232 I/O port for data recording; low power; portable; environmentally protected; 1 PPS Humidity: 100%, fully sealed, buoyant (standard receiver) 95% non-condensing (rack-mount receiver) output; navigation firmware; NMEA-0183 outputs; weighted least-squares solution; RTCM input; I-year warranty, 4000RS! Better than 0,5 meter accuracy with Trimble 4000RSi including Options . .. . . . . . . . . . . Compatibility: and 4 years Accuracy: least 5 satellites and PDOP 12 channels Compatibility: Rack mount Event marker QA/QC firmware Extended GPS receivers ~~ ~~ e:;eg Typically better than O,5m RMS: assumes at Ll carrier phase memory may be applied to all differential-equipped compatible 4000 OS! Firmware update service-l Internal Corrections RTCM hardware less than 4, 'g~ ~ 0 Accepts RTCM SC-1O4 correctionsVersion 1.0 or 2X 4000 RS! and 4000 OS! ~~ Tracking: ~.~ ~g;, ro 0 9 channels ofLl CIA ~j i2~ SignalProcessing: Multibit Super-trak; Maxwell architecture with EVEREST Multipath Rejection Technology; very low-noise C/ A code processing for datalogging warranty Starl-uptime: Less than 2 minutes from power-on Antenna: External antenna with 30m RG213 cable RS-232data link rates: 50-57,6K baud 30m antenna cable extension, with in-line amplifier RTCMmessage output: Types 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 16 Office support module: OSM II (CE MARKED) NMEA-O183: Receiver transport case TRIMTALK Series radio links Porls: 4 serial I/O ports Accessories . TechnicalSpecifications Ll Geodetic antenna ProBeacon MSK receiver §~ ""w ~~ to tracking -g ~ ~~ i~ ii 1"= ALM, BWc, GGA, GLL, GSA, GSV, RMB, RMc, VTG, WPL, XTE, ZDA i ~== " '" -"'~ Dual serial; Triple power inputs; Antenna; I"~ f'O." .;<t "'<i and IPPS output Display: Backlit LCD with four lines of forty alphanumeric characters; Large, easy-to-read characters-2,8mm 4,9mm; Total viewing area: 32cm2; Adjustable ~~ x Jj <tB backlight and viewing angle Keyboard: Alphanumeric, function, -g.., .~ ~ and sofi:key entry ~] !~. ~.i ~~ ~ij gof'O «~ Specifications D Trimble TrimbleNavigationLimited MarineDivision 485 PotreroAvenue Sunnyvale,CA94086 1-800-545-7762in NorthAmerica +1-408-481-8940 +1-408-481-7744Fax http://www.trimble.com and descriptions subject to change without TrimbleNavigationEuropeLimited TrimbleHouse MeridianOtticePark OsbornWay Hook,HampshireRG279HX ENGLAND +441256-760-150 +441256-760-148Fax ~~ ~E 8'" g)g notice. TrimbleNavigationSingapore PTELimited 300 BeachRoad #34-05TheConcourse Singapore199555 SINGAPORE +65-296-2700 +65-296-8033Fax """":"" Ji' /! ~\ ~<>". . "f} ""'G"~ TRIMBLE DSMPRO INTEGRATED DGPS/MSK RECEIVER GENERAL DESCRIPTION The DSMPro offers the DGPS user a fully integrated DGPS/MSK receiver based upon leading technology in both Differential GPS and MSK receivers. FEATURES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8 Channel GPS Receiver Combined L1 GPS and MSK H field loop antenna Sub-meter accuracy Real time processing 10 Hz maximum position and velocity update rate Positioning based on carrier-phase filtered L1 pseudo-ranges. Two RS-422 serial ports NMEA-0183 output TSIP interface protocol I/O RS-232 MSK control port 1PPS Output DSM Software toolkit Operation manual 15m antenna cable L1 C/A code and instantaneous carrier-phase outputs Equipment specifications cannot form any part of a contract to supply equipment. www.ashtead-technology.com TRIMBLE DSMPRO INTEGRATED DGPS/MSK RECEIVER TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS GPS Receiver General Update Rate Accuracy Time to first fix NMEA messages 8 Channel, parallel tracking, L1 C/A code with carrier phase filtering and instantaneous carrier phase measurements. 10Hz Maximum (Maximum 8 satellites tracked for a update rate of greater than 5Hz.) Typically less than 1m RMS; Assumes at least 5 satellites, PDOP<4 and RTCM SC-104 standard format broadcast from a Trimble DSM Reference station, 4000RS or equivalent reference station. <30 seconds, typical ALM, GGA, GLL, GSA, GSV, VTG, ZDA. MSK Receiver Frequency Range Channel Spacing MSK Modulation Signal Strength Dynamic Range Channel Selectivity Frequency Offset 3rd Order Intercept Power Operating Temperature Humidity 283.5 kHz to 325.0 kHz. 500Hz 25, 50, 100 & 200 bits/second 10 µV/meter minimum 100dB 60dB @ 500 Hz offset 10ppm maximum (200 bits/ second) 40ppm maximum (100, 50 & 25 b/s) +15dB @ RF input (min. AGC setting) 7.5 watts typical, 10 to 32VDC -20° to +60°C (Combined Antenna -30° to +65°C) 95% non-condensing (Combined Antenna 100% fully sealed) WEIGHTS GPS/MSK Receiver 4.0lbs (1.8Kg) with mounting plate Combined Antenna 2.15lbs 15cm Dia. x 15.5cm H Equipment specifications cannot form any part of a contract to supply equipment. DIMENSIONS 17cm x 9cm x 25.5cm www.ashtead-technology.com HYPACK, Inc. 56 Bradley St. Middletown, CT 06457 Phone: 860-635-1500 Web: www.hypack.com Sales: [email protected] INNERSPACE THERMAL DEPTH SOUNDER RECORDER MODEL 448 DESCRIPTION The Innerspace Technology Model 448 Thermal Depth Sounder Recorder provides survey precision, high resolution depth recordings using SOLID STATETHERMAL PRINTING. The lightweight, portable unit is designed for use in small boat surveying as required for nautical chart production, engineering surveys, harbor and channel maintenance, pre and post dredge surveys, etc. The Model 448 TDSR uses a thermal printing technique pioneered by Innerspace for depth sounding which provides the high resolution and accuracy required by groups such as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, dredging companies, survey companies, port administrations, etc. The state of the art design allows integration into portable hydrographic survey systems. 1.wI/NNERSPACE TECHNOLOGY, INC. 36 INDUSTRIALPARK, WALDWICK, NJ 07463 (201) 447-0398 FAX (201) 447-1919 OPERATION The Model 448 TDSR utilizes the highest resolution, solid state, fixed thermal print head available for depth sounding. Blank white, high contrast thermal paper is used to print the selected range scale along with the depth. The depth is always read directly from the scale printed, thereby avoiding the possible confusion encountered when examining outmoded, preprinted, multi-scaled charts. Built-in chart annotation is standard and includes printing of numerical values for Speed of Sound, Tide and Draft. Time and event marks are numerically annotated and the chart is automatically labeled FEET or METERS as determined by the MODE switch. Operator controls are provided on a gasketed, splashproof front panel. Thumbwheel switch settings are behind a splashproof access cover on the front panel, and the digitizer controls and display are provided on a front panel plug in module, The microprocessor controlled sounder !recorder utilizes plug in printed circuit boards, a modular plug in power supply and plug in modular digitizer. Minimum wiring connections help provide an extremely reliable and serviceable unit. A preprogrammed test routine and diagnostic LED indicators provide valuable assistance for the operator and / or electronics technician. The single package portable unit may be used vertically or horizontally and can be powered from either an AC or DC source. FEATURES .. COST .. PRINTINGfixed head .. QUIEToperation - no rotating stylus, no arcing .. CHARTstandard format- high resolution .. BLANK PAPERis high contrast black on white and low in cost PORTABLE and lightweight for small boat operation . MICROPROCESSOR controlled .. SCALESELECTEDis the only one printed . . ANNOTATION of all parameters appear on recordings in chart margin Speed of Sound, Tide, Draft, Event, Time and Mode of Operation . TVG(time micro varied gain) minimizes gain adjustments .. INTERNAL controlled depth digitizer EXTERNAL depth digitizer connector on rear panel . NOADJUSTMENTSfor zero line or call line are required LOW RELIABLE THERMAL CLEANoperation-no carbon - no stylus to replace dust residue ODORLESSoperation - no burned paper LARGEVIEWING area with sliding window LARGE FEET or METERS operation - switch selectable THUMBWHEELSETTINGS for speed of sound, tide and draft OPTIONS CUSTOM LOGO - Programs recorder to repetitively print, in the lower chart margin, customer specified information such as user's logo, name, address, etc, FREQUENCY- Choice of either 208 kHz or 125kHz POWER-Allows operation from either 110/120, 220/240 VAC .. t' .. Iud" 112 SPECIFICATIONS-SINGLE FREQUENCY TDSR MODEL 448 PRINTING Thermal solid state fixed head thick film CHART PAPER 8-% inches x 200 feet PAPER SPEEDS .5,1,2,4 or 8 inches/min. DEPTH RANGES 0 to 335 feet or 0 to 80 meters. 6 overlapping phases of 60 feet or 15 meters A x 2 SWITCH multiplies each range by a factor of 2 and A x .5 SWITCH multiplies each range by a factor of .5 ACCURACY :t .1 foot or meter timing and printing resolution SPEED OF SOUND Thumbwheel switch selectable 4550 to 5050 feet/sec. or 1350 to 1550 meters/ sec. Precision crystal referenced frequency synthesizer using a phase locked loop provides exact (Depends on scale selected) calibration. TIDE ' Thumbwheel switch selectable from 0 to DRAFT Thumbwheel meters switch selectable from 0 to + 99.9 feet or EVENT MARK Front panel switch or remote, increments TIME Internal clock with battery backup SOUNDER FREQUENCY 208 kHz or 125kHz TRANSDUCERS 208 kHz 8 degree beamwidth meters :t 25.0 feet or internal counter standard or others optional at- 3db 208 kHz 3 degree beamwidth at - 3db (optional) 125 kHz 14 degree beamwidth at -3db (optional) PULSE LENGTH .15 to .6 ms. Automatically depth range selected PULSE POWER 250 watts RMS SOUNDING RATE 1,200 soundings per minute max TIME VARIED GAIN (TVG) Automatically compensates for spreading loss and attenuation over depth range GAIN CONTROL Provides manual gain adjustment STANDBY MODE Allows transceiver and digitizer (if used) to operate without running chart paper OUT OF PAPER SENSOR Indicated by blinking front panel light. Paper motion stops, but sounding continues. RAPID PAPER ADVANCE Front panel switch allows for the rapid advance of blank paper ANNOTATION The numerical value of Speed of Sound, Tide, Draft, Time and Event are permanently recorded above the chart record periodically determined by frequency and DIGITIZER OUTPUT In addition to the built in depth digitizer, Start/Stop pulses are available for use with external digitizers such as Innerspace Models 410, 412 and 445. POWER Either 12, 24 V DC or 120, 240 V AC (Must be specified AC or DC) DIMENSIONS 17 in. W x 17 % in. H x 9 % in. D WEIGHT 45 pounds ENCLOSURE Coated aluminum, corrosion resistant and splashproof. Sliding window for chart access and settings door for easy access to thumbwheel switches. SPECIFICATIONS-INTERNAL MICROPROCESSOR DIGITIZER OPERATING MODES Either a DIRECT, GATED/AUTO or MANUAL mode may be chosen DIRECT No gate present GATED Gate width doubles, then quadruples automatically to reacquire the bottom reply AUTO Gate width doubles, quadruples then goes to non-gated automatically to reacquire the bottom reply MANUAL Fixed gate as preset on initial depth thumbwheel GATE WIDTH Selectable 2, 4, 8, 20, 40 or 80 via rotary switch. Gate width in feet or meters, determined by the recorder MODE switch setting MISSED REPLIES REPLY switch selects 2, 4, 8 or 16 missed replies, before reacquisition of bottom reply, in AUTO mode. DISPLAY Four digit LCD 7 segment. Resolution to 0.1 feet or meters, determined by the recorder MODE switch setting. INDICATORS Three LED's representing BAD DATA, REPLYand depth GATE INITIAL DEPTH Three station thumbwheel depth gate position ALARM A switched audible alarm indicates loss of track OUTPUTS BCD-8421 switch allows entry of an initial TTL compatible 5V positive logic. Buffered outputs with data hold, inhibit, strobe and flag lines. IEEE488 GPIB-4 digits with proper protocol and selectable address switches (optional) EIA RS232C-4 digits with selectable baud rates (optional). A bad data flag is available and can optionally set the output number to all zeros. 189 I/NNERSPACE TECHNOLOGY, INC. 36 INDUSTRIALPARK, WALDWICK, NJ 07463 (201) 447-0398 FAX (201) 447-1919 FULL SPECTRUM TM SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER Sub-Bottom Profiler Shallow Tow System X-STAR is a high resolution wideband Frequency Modulated (FM) sub-bottom profiler utilizing EdgeTech’s proprietary FULL SPECTRUM™ CHIRP technology. The system transmits a FM pulse that is linearly swept over a full spectrum frequency range (for example 2-16 kHz for 20 milliseconds.) The acoustic return received at the hydrophones is passed through a pulse compression filter, generating high resolution images of the sub-bottom stratigraphy in oceans, lakes, and rivers. Unequalled images that combine good penetration and high resolution. 20-30 dB improved SNR over conventional systems by using Full Spectrum (FM) Pulses. Because the FM pulse is generated by a digital to analog converter with a wide dynamic range and a transmitter with linear components, the energy, amplitude, and phase characteristics of the acoustic pulse are precisely controlled. This precision results in high repeatability and signal definition required for sediment classification. Several stable, low drag tow vehicles are available that contain wide band transmitter arrays and sensitive line array receivers that can operate in water depths up to 300 meters. The selection of tow vehicle depends on the subbottom characteristics and resolution required. Full Spectrum Benefits FM pulses have been used in radar for over 30 years and are sometimes called chirp or swept frequency pulses. Its application in sonar systems has come with the availability of high speed Digital Signal Processors (DSP). • EEZ resource development • Geo-technical surveys • Hazard surveys • Environmental site investigations • Geological studies • Sediment classification • Buried object location • Search and recovery • Locate and map buried pipelines and cables • Mining and dredging surveys • Bridge and shoreline scour surveys ® ® THE SOUND SOLUTION 1141 Holland Drive, Suite 1, Boca Raton, FL 33487 Tel: (561) 995-7767 • Fax: (561) 995-7761 E-mail: [email protected] • Website: www.edgetech.com FULL SPECTRUM TM SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER Full Spectrum signal processing technology uses a proprietary matched filter to process wideband signals. This matched filter uses special amplitude and phase weighting functions for the transmitted pulse and a pulse compression filter that maximizes the Signal to Noise Ration (SNR) of the acoustic images over a wide band of operating frequencies. These X-STAR signal processing features provide a significant SNR improvement in the acoustic image generated by other impulse and chirp sonars with band limiting components that are limited in dynamic range. One of the outstanding aspects of Full Spectrum signal processing is the use of a broad bandwidth transmitting pulse that sweeps out over a range of frequencies. This generates a great deal of acoustic energy in the water. Instead of trying to operate with one very sharp acoustic peak pulse, like conventional CW systems, the Full Spectrum sonar spreads the transmission out over a long time duration. In addition, to the resolution improvement, the process of correlation processing achieves a signal processing gain over the background noise. To equal the typical performance of the Full Spectrum sonar pulse, conventional pulsed sonar would have to operate at a peak pulse power 100 times higher than the Full Spectrum pulse. Normally, when using long pulses the resolution of the seabed is lost. Resolution of the seabed is regained after correlation processing the received signal. This is because the output of the correlation is a very sharp wavelet that has duration of the order of the inverse of the sweep bandwidth. Thus, the more bandwidth used, the sharper this pulse will become. Another important feature, which enhances the ability of the Full Spectrum Sub-bottom Profiler system to classify sediments, is realized by the built-in de-convolution of the system response from the output pulse. The sonar’s system impulse response is measured at the factory and is used to design a unique output pulse that will prevent the source from ringing. In addition to this, the Full Spectrum wavelet is weighted in the frequency domain to have a Gaussian like shape. As the Gaussian shaped spectrum is attenuated by the sediment, energy is lost but its bandwidth is preserved. Thus, even after being attenuated by 20 meters of sand, the Full Spectrum pulse has approximately the same resolution as a non-attenuated pulse. The Full Spectrum Sonar side lobes are greatly reduced in the effective transducer aperture. The wide bandwidth of the sweep frequency smears the side lobes of the transducer and thus achieving a beam pattern with virtually no side lobes. The effective spatial beam width obtained after processing the Full Spectrum sub-bottom pulse is typically 20 degrees measured to the -3db points.This feature is clear when inspecting the Full Spectrum records. Since the transmitted pulse is highly repeatable and its peak amplitude is precisely known, the sediment reflective values can be estimated from the peak pulse amplitude measurements of the bottom returns. Use different tow vehicles for desired penetration and resolution. The topside portion remains the same. The FM pulse is user selected based on the sub-bottom conditions at the survey site and the type of sub-bottom features that need to be imaged. FULL SPECTRUM TM SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER FS-SB Full Spectrum Signal Processor Topside Processor Towfish Model SB-424 SB-216S SB-0512 Frequency Range Pulse Type Standard Pulse Bandwidths / Length (other custom pulses available) 4-24 kHz FM 3-24 kHz / 10 ms 4-24 kHz / 10 ms 4-20 kHz / 10 ms 4-16 kHz / 10 ms 2 - 16 kHz FM 2-15 kHz / 20 ms 2-12 kHz / 20 ms 2-10 kHz / 20 ms 400 Hz - 8 kHz FM 1.5-10 kHz / 20 ms 1-7 kHz / 40ms 1-6 kHz / 40 ms 0.7-4.5 kHz / 40 ms 0.6-3.0 kHz / 40 ms 0.4-2.4 kHz / 40 ms Vertical Resolution 4 cm / 4-24 kHz 6 cm / 4-20 kHz 8 cm / 4-16 kHz 6 cm / 2-15 kHz 8 cm / 2-12 kHz 10 cm / 2-10 kHz 500 Hz - 12 kHz FM 2-12 kHz / 20 ms 2-10 kHz / 20 ms 2-8 kHz / 40 ms 1.5-7.5 kHz / 40 ms 1-6 kHz / 40 ms 1-5 kHz / 40 ms 0.5-5 kHz / 40 ms 8 cm / 2-12 kHz 12 cm / 1.5–7.5 kHz 19 cm / 1- 5 kHz 2 40 6 80 20 200 40 300 16° / 4-24 kHz 19° / 4-20 kHz 23° / 4-16 kHz 1 2 77L x 50W x 34H 22 82 L89 x W64 x H54 3 shielded twisted pairs (5 used) 300 Yes 17° / 2-15 kHz 20° / 2-12 kHz 24° / 2-10 kHz 1 2 105L x 67W x 46H 44 122 L115 x W79 x H59 same 16° / 2-12 kHz 24° / 1.5–7.5 kHz 32° / 1- 6 kHz 4 4 210L x 134W x 46H 186 288 L172 x W137 x H58 same 10° / 1.5 kHz-10 kHz 14° / 1-7 kHz 37° / 0.4-2.4 kHz 2 8 249 L x 214W x 91 364 consult factory 300 Yes 300 No Penetration (typical) in coarse calcareous sand in clay Beam Width (depends on center frequency) Transmitters Receive Arrays Size (centimeters) Weight (kilograms) Shipping weight (kg.) dimension (cm.) Cable Requirements Max Depth (meters) GeoStar Interface SB-0408 9 cm / 1.5 kHz-10 kHz 15 cm / 1-6 kHz 37 cm / 0.4-2.4 kHz 3 shielded twisted pairs (all used) 300 No Other System Specifications Tow Speed MaximumTow Fish Operating Depth Optimum tow height Calibration 3-5 knots optimal, 7 knots maximum safe operational 300 meters (1,000 feet) 3 to 5 meters above seafloor Each system is acoustic tank tested to calibrate for reflection coefficient measurements FULL SPECTRUM TM SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER FS-SB Full Spectrum Processor EdgeTech Topside Display Processor Main Processor Intel CPU with high speed PCI bus Main processor SPARC Workstation Digital Signal Processor TMS320 Operating System UNIX Memory 32 MB RAM Display 17” Color Monitor Storage Hard drive, CD-ROM, floppy disk Operator Controls Operating System Windows 98 I/O to Topside Processor Ethernet A/D Gain, Two Stage TVG, Bottom Tracking, Digital Gain, Preamplifier Gain, Horizontal and Vertical Zoom, Direct Path Suppression, Swell Filter, Annotation A/D Analog Input, 16 bit resolution, 200 kHz max. sampling rate Video Displays D/A Analog Output,16 bit resolution, 200 kHz max. sampling rate Bottom Tracking, Reflection Coefficient, Signal Amplitude, Navigation Map, Scale Lines, Track Lines Navigation Pulse Type Full Spectrum (Frequency Modulated with amplitude and phase weighting) NMEA 0183, X/Y, N/E, Navigation I/O Utility, Track lines, Event/Fix Marks, Sediment Classification Color vs. Echo Strength Pulse Trigger Internal or External Annotation Keyboard, RS232 Port Pulse Repetition 0.5 to 12 Hz Event Mark Via Keyboard, Switch Closure, RS232 Port Trigger In TTL negative edge triggered (Middle BNC) Printer Support Trigger Out TTL negative edge triggered. Minimum 5ms long pulse (Lower BNC) EPC Models 9800, 8300, 1086, HSP-100, ODECO Model 850 & 1200F, Alden Model 9315 CTP, Ultra Model 183/200 Sampling Rate Typically 20, 25, 40, or 50 kHz depending on the pulse upper frequency Mass Storage DAT I/O Ports Acoustic Power 212 dB ref 1mPa peak at center frequency of system Ethernet, Serial, SCSI, Parallel, Event Mark, Keyboard, Trackball, External Trigger In, Trigger Out, Heave Compensation Input Input Power 120 or 220 VAC Auto Sensing Power 105-125VAC or 210-250VAC, selectable, 47-63 Hz Power Amplifier Type: Two channel, Gain: 33dB per channel, Power output: 2000 Watts peak, Power input: 110-120V/60Hz or 220-240 V/50Hz Manually Switchable Enclosure Portable steel case suitable for transit. May be removed from cases and installed in 19-inch rack. Size: 50.3W x 50.3D x 15.3H cm. (19.8 x 19.8 x 6 in.), Weight: 32 kg (71 lbs.) EdgeTech, CODA Technologies Ltd., Sea Corp., TEI Inc. Environment Temperature: Operating 5ºC to 40ºC Non-operating -40ºC to 45ºC. Humidity: Operating 20% to 80% relative humidity, non-condensing. Non-operating 5%-95%. Vibration: Normal ship environment. Options Spare Parts Kit, Replay Software, Ethernet Output of Data, Dual Mass Storage, Software Services Agreement Topside Display Processors w/ Support ® Environment Temperature: 0 to 40ºC, Humidity: 5% to 95% relative, Vibration: Normal ship environment Enclosure Portable steel case suitable for transit. Unit can be removed from case and mounted in a 19” rack. Size: 50W x 60D x 33H cm. (19.5x23.5x13 in), Weight: 46 kg (102 lbs.) Shipping Containers Size: 109L x 79W x 71H cm. (43x31x28 in), Weight: 150 kg (330 lbs.) Material: Sealed high impact polyurethane case Options Diagnostics Kit (Video Display, Keyboard, Mouse), Spare Parts Kit, Optional Pulses ® ® THE SOUND SOLUTION Specifications subject to change without notice. 1141 Holland Drive, Suite 1, Boca Raton, FL 33487 Tel: (561) 995-7767 • Fax: (561) 995-7761 E-mail: [email protected] • Website: www.edgetech.com APPENDIX 3 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS SUMMARY Navigation and Hydrographic Data Subbottom Profile Data Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS SUMMARY Navigation and Hydrographic Data During the field investigation, vessel navigation files were continuously processed and entered into AutoCAD drawings to verify survey coverage and assist with the onsite interpretation of geophysical data. Tracklines with position fixes allow preliminary positioning of large obstructions or subbottom features for distribution to the project team, if necessary. Upon completion of the field work, the depth sounding data was processed using the HYPACK MAX single beam editor. The depth data were referenced to project datum by correcting for tidal levels measured and logged at a known benchmark throughout the survey. Tidal levels were measured using digital pressure gauges mounted near the benchmark. The height of water above or below the project datum was subtracted from the depth measurements to reference elevations. The digital depth data were checked against the graphic sounding records for verification of depth quality. Erroneous digital depths caused by floating and drifting debris, air bubbles from passing ship’s wake, or fish in the water column were filtered out of the data. The digital files containing vessel position and hydrographic data were then processed to correct for field calibrations and adjust the sounding data to the required vertical datum. The processed x, y, z data for the survey area was then contoured at an appropriate interval and presented in a final drawing format. QuickSurf digital terrain modeling (DTM) software was used to generate the depth contours and surfaces using the TIN-GRID method. QuickSurf imports processed survey data points into an AutoCad format drawing and generates surface models from these data. A number of contouring methods are available for different data applications and site specific conditions. A suite of sophisticated tools allows the user to manipulate modeled surfaces into high quality finished maps and perform a variety of engineering computations. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 3-1 Subbottom Profile Data Digital files were collected and processed using the Edgetech Discover 3.35 software package. Digital files were converted to JPEG format after the completion of the field operation. Based on review of the subbottom records, a classification scheme was devised to highlight the diversity of acoustic penetration observed across the survey area. Classifications were based on the depth of the deepest reflector and the number of reflectors observed. The spatial extent of each category was mapped using the event marks generated during data collection. The overview map of subbottom types was constructed using AutoCAD 2004. Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 3-2 APPENDIX 4 PUSH PROBE RESULTS Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Probe # p01 Easting1 1442486.4 Northing1 575171.3 Group2 Field Comment/description 2 p02 Soft Mud - Pole penetrates seabed with relative ease There may be a sand layer ~1' beneath - Two sediment colors identified on pole when brought to surface. Green and black sediment. Green is coarser than black both are silt with fine grained sand. No Probe p03 1444434.1 570867.9 1 p04 p05 p06 1448614.0 1448669.8 1448757.1 572382.9 572245.2 572073.8 5 2 2 p07 1449231.3 572287.2 3 p08 1448803.7 572047.2 1 p09 1448747.0 571969.8 3 p10 p11 p12 p13 p14 p15 p16 p17 1448552.2 1448573.1 1447850.5 1446840.0 1448387.8 1446577.5 1446575.9 1447863.3 571781.0 572587.0 572279.1 571835.0 572709.4 573305.9 573249.4 573815.2 5 2 5 1 4 2 2 2 p18 1443130.8 573878.7 2 p19 p20 p21 p22 p23 p24 p25 p26 p27 p28 p29 p30 1443342.9 1448635.7 1447986.3 1445582.2 1445787.4 1447096.6 1448462.3 1445120.8 1447861.6 1448060.0 1447819.6 1447422.9 573667.4 573914.7 573634.2 572542.7 572529.5 573090.5 573678.9 572198.1 573311.7 573339.4 573238.0 573066.7 1 3 3 3 1 4 3 2 5 3 3 4 Black mud. No evidence of reflector observed in the sub bottom record. Strong odor when probe came to surface. Hard Packed - Can't Penetrate Silty Sand Black mud with fine sand Thin layer of mud (~6 inches) over a coarse - hard packed layer. Beach has coarse gravel. Soft Mud - Pole penetrates seabed with relative ease Thin layer of mud (~1 foot) over a coarse - hard packed layer. Beach has coarse gravel. Dense packed bottom. No penetration with probe. Silty Sand Gravel Black mud Coarse sand over compact sand Thin sand layer (0.5 feet) with mud beneath Thin sand layer (0.5 feet) with mud beneath Mix of sand and mud Sand over mud over sand - all loosely consolidated, sand is fine to medium grained. Mud Hard packed - ~.3-.5 feet of penetration 6 inches of soft material over hard packed sand 6 inches of soft material over hard pack Very soft and easy to penetrate ~6 inches of sand layer on top of soft mud 6 inches of soft material over hard packed sand Thin veneer of sand over mud Hard packed ~2 inches of mud over hard packed ~6 inches of mud over hard packed Sand over coarser sand (penetration changes) Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 4-1 Probe # p31 p32 p33 p34 Easting1 Northing1 1447172.0 572962.6 1446497.6 572672.7 1445983.4 572447.5 1447585.6 572866.9 Group2 5 1 1 4 p35 1447780.5 572954.3 4 p36 p37 p38 p39 p40 p41 p42 p43 1443664.1 1443877.5 1443935.6 1444006.2 1442213.8 1443330.8 1446045.4 1447445.9 579539.0 579421.6 579395.3 579351.8 577029.7 573140.1 572098.3 572691.6 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 2 p44 1447749.0 572827.0 4 p45 p46 p47 p48 p49 p50 1448104.8 1448338.1 1447727.1 1447744.3 1447973.3 1448597.0 572984.8 573075.5 572589.7 572501.0 572600.3 572862.2 3 3 1 4 3 4 p51 1447941.7 572199.4 4 p52 1447951.9 572100.4 4 p53 p54 1448031.9 572576.8 4 p55 1448347.0 573644.0 4 p56 1447977.7 572596.7 4 p57 1448443.7 572358.5 4 p58 p59 p60 p61 p62 p63 1448713.4 1448113.0 1447843.9 1447736.7 1447580.5 1447734.3 572421.1 572165.3 572746.5 572980.7 573331.3 573726.0 3 3 1 2 3 5 Field Comment/description Hard Packed Soft mud at least 3 ft down Soft mud at least 3 ft down Thin veneer of sand over hard packed layer ~6 inches of silty sand over hard packed layer which is very clear on the sub bottom record as a reflector that comes up abruptly from deep. Very soft and easy to penetrate (black) Mud - more stiff than p36 Hard packed sand Hard packed Very soft Very soft black mud Soft mud - easy penetration Silty mud harder to penetrate and sticky Thin layer of sand above mud above an hard packed layer Hard packed layer is ~ 2 feet down Hard packed layer ~1 foot down Very soft ;gray green color; 3-4 feet thick at least Medium grained sand ~6 inches of penetration ~1 foot of thick silty mud over an hard packed layer Fine sand only about 3 inches of penetration ~6 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed sand layer ~3 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed sand layer No Probe Fine sand - stiff - over inpentrable layer ~3 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed sand layer ~1-2 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed sand layer 2 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed sand layer Dense silty mud ~2-3inches of penetration Dense silty mud ~1 foot of penetration Black mud easy penetration Mix of sand and mud Soft mud ~3 feet down to hard packed layer Hard packed Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 4-2 Probe # Easting1 Northing1 Group2 Field Comment/description p64 1447797.9 573591.5 3 p65 1447874.5 573416.7 1 p66 1447975.3 573192.5 4 p67 p68 p69 p70 p71 p72 p73 p74 p75 1448098.9 1448157.2 1448198.1 1448297.8 1447611.4 1447319.4 1446687.9 1446755.8 1447002.3 572908.6 572767.0 572668.3 572444.1 572682.4 573331.7 572928.6 572744.5 572202.6 4 1 4 2 4 2 1 1 3 p76 1447056.9 572047.0 3 p77 1445712.5 572360.1 1 p78 1443158.5 572300.7 1 p79 1444633.1 571382.9 1 ~1 foot of very unconsolidated mud over an hard packed layer ~3 inches of unconsolidated mud over more dense penetrable mud - layers can be felt ~3 feet of sand/mud mixture down to impenetrable layer. ~1-2 feet of sandy mud down to hard packed layer Black very soft mud Sandy mud ~6 inches down to hard packed layer Dense sandy mud - can feel layers. ~ 2 inches of coarse sand over hard pack Sandy mud - max penetration Soft mud - max penetration Soft mud - max penetration ~3-4 feet of mud over an impenetrable layer ~2 feet of soft mud over sticky hard packed layer (might be clay) Soft mud easy to penetrate At least 15 feet of soft mud - thin sand layer felt near the surface At least 15 feet of soft mud 1. Coordinates are in feet and referenced to the Maryland State Plane Coordinate System (1900), NAD83 2. Probes were separated into one of five categories: 1 = soft sediment 2 = sand and mud mix 3 = mud over hard material 4 = sand over hard material 5 = hard material Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 4-3 APPENDIX 5 SUBBOTTOM PROFILES ALONG CH2M HILL SAMPLING TRANSECTS Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal, Baltimore Harbor, MD Appendix 5 is available upon request.
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