Appendix A Geophysical Survey Report

Appendix A Geophysical Survey Report
Appendix A
Geophysical Survey Report
FINAL REPORT
GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION
DUNDALK MARINE TERMINAL
BALTIMORE HARBOR, MD
OSI Project No. 06ES101
Prepared for:
CH2M Hill
1700 Market Street, Suite 1600
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Prepared by:
Ocean Surveys, Inc.
91 Sheffield St.
Old Saybrook, CT 06475
12 May, 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................i
1.0 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................1
2.0 PROJECT SUMMARY............................................................................................................................1
2.1 Survey Objectives and Background......................................................................................................1
2.2 Summary of Field Survey and Equipment ............................................................................................3
2.2.1 Horizontal and Vertical Control ....................................................................................................4
2.2.2 Survey Vessel and Equipment .......................................................................................................5
3.0 PROCESSING, REVIEW, and DATA PRODUCTS...............................................................................7
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................................8
4.1 Hydrographic Data ...............................................................................................................................8
4.2 Subbottom Data ....................................................................................................................................9
5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................18
APPENDICES
1 Equipment Operations and Procedures
2 Equipment Specification Sheets
3 Data Processing and Analysis Summary
4 Push Probe Results
5 Subbottom Profiles along CH2M Hill Sample Transects
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore MD
Page i
FINAL REPORT
GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION
DUNDALK MARINE TERMINAL
BALTIMORE HARBOR, MD
1.0
INTRODUCTION
During the period 13 December to 20 December 2006, Ocean Surveys, Inc. (OSI) conducted
an integrated hydrographic and geophysical survey in Baltimore Harbor adjacent to the
Dundalk Marine Terminal (DMT) in Baltimore, MD.
These investigations were
subcontracted to OSI by CH2M Hill (CH2M) working under contract to Honeywell
International Inc. and represent the first and second tasks of a multi-task program designed to
characterize the adjacent Patapsco River and Colgate Creek prior to the proposed surface
water and sediment sampling.
2.0
PROJECT SUMMARY
2.1
Survey Background and Objectives
DMT is a major marine terminal operated by the Maryland Port Administration and located
approximately 5 miles southeast of Baltimore’s Inner Harbor (Figure 1).
The DMT
encompasses approximately 560 acres of land and includes thirteen piers along three pier
faces. The facility’s northwest piers face Colgate Creek and the Seagirt Marine Terminal
while the southern piers face the Patapsco River. Residential property abuts the southeastern
corner of the DMT.
During construction in the late 1950’s, approximately 120 acres of the marine terminal was
constructed on fill composed primarily of COPR. It has been reported that deteriorated storm
drains on the property may provide a path for impacted groundwater to be transported into
the river from selected storm drains. CH2M has been tasked with conducting investigations
to characterize the extent of COPR beneath and surrounding the DMT.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 1
Figure 1: Site Location map of DMT and survey area. (taken from NOAA Chart No. 12281 entitled
“Baltimore Harbor”, (Nov. 2004).
The purpose of Tasks 1 and 2 (described herein) was to document existing hydrographic and
subbottom conditions in the harbor surrounding the DMT to a distance of approximately
2,000 feet offshore of the facility as illustrated in Figure 2. OSI Tasks 3 and 4 will focus on
acquiring water and sediment samples along nine transects laid out by CH2M (shown in red
in Figure 2). These samples will be used to characterize the near surface benthic habitats
surrounding the DMT.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 2
Figure 2: Location map showing the planned Task 1 and 2 survey lines (green) and pre-defined
CH2M sampling transects (red).
2.2
Summary of Field Survey and Equipment
Prior to the start of the field program, a survey trackline design was constructed as illustrated
in Figure 2. The survey plan included the acquisition of hydrographic and subbottom profile
data along a series of 50-foot spaced tracks oriented parallel to the DMT terminal faces. The
survey plan also included the acquisition of data along the nine sampling transect lines
provided by CH2M (herein referred to as T1-T9) and four “tielines”. The tielines were
oriented perpendicular to the navigation channels as part of the QA/QC plan for the
hydrographic data. In total, approximately 80 nautical miles (nm) of tracklines were planned
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 3
for investigation. Hydrographic and subbottom data were collected simultaneously along all
tracklines where safe and practical.
Upon arrival on-site for the field investigation, the OSI field team met with the CH2M
representative and on-site project coordinator, Mr. McCarthy and discussed field
investigation strategies and the survey trackline layout. Mr. McCarthy remained with the
OSI field team during the course of the survey investigation to provide project direction and
logistical support.
2.2.1
Horizontal and Vertical Control
Positioning of the survey vessel was accomplished using a differential global positioning
system (DGPS) installed on the vessel. Prior to commencement of the field investigation, the
DGPS system accuracy was verified by occupying a survey control monument provided by
CH2M (see below for coordinates). Once system accuracy was verified, a second point was
established at the marina for a daily navigation check conducted at the beginning and end of
each field day. Project horizontal coordinates are referenced in feet to the Maryland State
Plane Coordinate System (1900), NAD83.
SURVEY CONTROL MONUMENT
Designation
Easting*
Northing*
Vertical (NAVD88)
PT-709
1444618.19
573046.89
7.36 feet
* Coordinates are in feet and referenced to the Maryland State Plane Coordinate System (1900),
NAD83
The OSI field team installed two electronic water level recorders (a primary and secondary
recorder for backup and quality control) on-site to continuously document tidal variation
during the investigation. The water level recorders were referenced to North American
Vertical Datum (NAVD 1988) and provided a means to adjust water depth data to the datum.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 4
2.2.2
Survey Vessel and Equipment
Survey operations were conducted by a 40-hour trained and certified (in accordance with
OSHA CFR 1910.120) field team consisting of a geologist/geophysical specialist and a
navigator/support technician onboard OSI’s customized survey vessel, R/V Willing II.
Specific equipment installed on the survey vessel and used to complete the investigation
include a DGPS positioning system, a precision survey-grade depth sounder, and a
subbottom profiling system. The table below summarizes the primary instrumentation used
for this survey and briefly describes the operation of each system. A complete discussion of
this equipment, along with the operational procedures for data collection, can be found in
Appendix 1. Equipment specification sheets are included in Appendix 2.
Equipment System
Function
Coastal Leasing, Inc. water
level recorder
Digital data logger which measures and records changes in pressure and
temperature over time (directly related to fluctuations in water level above
the instrument). Instrument is deployed to correct sounding data for tidal
variation.
Satellite positioning system that tracks up to eight satellites at a time and
applies position correction factors relayed to it via radio link from a nearby
DGPS Coast Guard Beacon to provide reliable, precision (+/-3 feet)
positioning. The Trimble system outputs position fixes at a rate of 1 per
second.
Navigation software operating on a data logging computer that provides
real time trackline control (helmsman steerage for survey lines), digital data
recording, and position interfaces for all equipment systems. This package
allows the simultaneous acquisition of data from multiple systems
correlating all by vessel position and time.
An inertial sensor designed to provide real-time heave, pitch, and roll
measurements to survey grade depth sounders and data logging programs
allowing depth data to be compensated for boat motion in rough sea
conditions
An electronic fluxgate compass with better than 0.5 degree accuracy and an
automated compensation system. The compass provides means for digital
data output to the motion sensor and data logging platform to aid in post
processing.
Microprocessor controlled, high resolution, survey-grade depth sounder
with a 200 kilohertz, 8° beam transducer. The Model 448 recorder
provides precise, high-resolution depth records using a solid-state thermal
printer and digital data output, which allows integration with the navigation
software..
Trimble 4000 Differential
Global Positioning System
(DGPS) and beacon reciever
HYPACK MAX navigation
and data logging software
package
TSS-DMS2-05i motion
sensor
KVH AutoComp 1000
digital fluxgate heading
sensor
Innerspace Model 448
single beam echosounder
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 5
Equipment System
Function
EdgeTech XStar “chirp”
subbottom profiler equipped
with a SB216 tow vehicle
Subsurface profiler that generates an intense, short duration acoustic pulse
in the water column in the range of 2 to 16 kilohertz. The high acoustic
frequencies used by this system are intended for increased resolution of
layers in the nearsurface. The “chirp” system generates a profile view of
seismic reflectors below the bottom, which is then interpreted to develop a
geologic cross section under the trackline surveyed.
Figure 3 shows the basic equipment configuration onboard the survey vessel the vessel. Both
the hydrographic and subbottom equipment sensors were aligned on the starboard side of the
vessel, as close to the DGPS receiver as possible, in order to ensure that both sensors
collected data as close to the planned tracklines as possible. highat
R/V Willing II
(not drawn to scale)
Figure 2. Schematic of instrument configuration during onsite operations.
Shallow site conditions (water depths less than 20 feet) in some regions of the survey area
allowed the onboard geologist to perform push probes while the survey vessel was on-line
acquiring data to characterize the nearsurface sediments. These probes were accomplished
by pushing (by hand) a 1-inch diameter, thick-walled aluminum pipe into the bottom and
interpreting the “feel” of the sediments through the probe. By advancing the probe into the
riverbed, the scientist was able to gain information about the near-surface sediments (i.e.
degree of compaction, presence of sand, silt, clay, etc.). During each attempt, position
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 6
information, texture classification, and description of the “feel” was logged. The texture
classification adheres to the following scheme: 1 = soft material, 2 = Mixture of sand and
mud, 3 = Soft material over a hard impenetrable material, 4 = Sand over a hard impenetrable
material, 5 = hard impenetrable material.
3.0
PROCESSING, REVIEW, and DATA PRODUCTS
Following completion of the field investigation, all survey records were brought back to
OSI’s Old Saybrook, CT office for processing and interpretation. Appendix 3 details the
processing methods for each data set. Results are presented on two plan view drawings at a
horizontal scale of 1 inch = 400 feet. A third drawing includes representative profiles that
provide an overview of subbottom data throughout the site. The plan view drawings are
referenced to the project horizontal datum, Maryland State Plane (1900), NAD83 and
provided at the back of this volume. The hydrographic data are referenced to NAVD88. The
following table summarizes the final products generated for this project.
Drawing
Description
1
Hydrographic contour map with 2 foot interval (1 inch = 400 feet)
Representative subbottom profiles illustrate the variation in records
collected across the site. (vertical exaggeration 16:1)
Subbottom data summary including survey tracklines, location of push
probes, and a classification based on subbottom penetration. (1 inch =
400 feet)
2
3
Several appendices are also included with this report to present project data and provide a
more detailed discussion of the equipment and procedures used for this investigation. The
following table summarizes the data presented in each appendix. All paper records generated
during the course of the investigation have been annotated and will be archived at OSI along
with all digital files. The subbottom profiles for all nine sampling transects are provided in
Appendix 5 to aid the planning of sediment core sampling.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 7
Appendix
4.0
Data Presentation
1
Equipment Operations and Procedures
2
Equipment Specification Sheets
3
Data Processing and Analysis Summary
4
Push Probe Results
5
Subbottom Profiles along CH2M Hill Sampling Transects
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
The following sections present a summary of findings based on an integrated hydrographic
and geophysical survey performed during December 2006. Water depths discussed in the
hydrographic data section are below NAVD88, while depths presented in the subbottom data
section are measured below the riverbed. It should be noted that seasonal variations, storm
events and/or man’s influence since this investigation may alter the conditions reported
herein. Refer to OSI Project Drawings 1-3 presented with this report while reviewing the
subsequent sections.
4.1
Hydrographic Data
Hydrographic data acquired during the course of the investigation provided sufficient
information to document water depth within the project limits. Figure 4 and OSI Drawing 1
present a shaded relief bathymetric image using color to denote depth. The data document a
network of steep sided navigation channels that allow shipping access to the DMT from the
Fort McHenry navigation channel and the Seagirt Marine Terminal.
The channels
encompass nearly half of the area surveyed and are a minimum of 39 feet deep, although
some spots are as deep as 48 feet. The channel bottom is variable, a likely artifact of past
dredging operations. The shoalest region of the channel network, appears to be an area
encompassing approximately 10.5 acres with an average depth of 42 feet, approximately 4
feet less that the surrounding channel.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 8
Figure 4: Hydrographic data presented in plan view using color to represent depth (vertical datum:
NAVD88).
Water depths measured outside the channels were generally less than 20 feet.
Four
prominent shallow water areas were identified. The only major bottom feature detected
outside the navigation channels was an approximate 1,500-foot elongate depression (1-3 feet
deep). This feature was detected in the southeastern sector of the survey area approximately
1,500 feet south of the DMT’s southeastern pier face. The bottom topography in these
shallow areas appears less variable than the channel topography.
4.2
Subbottom Data
Chirp data acquisition achieved limited penetration and was generally restricted to the upper
10 feet.
In some areas no penetration was achieved, while elsewhere reflectors were
observed to depths as great as 50 feet. The observation of reflectors at depth indicates that
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 9
the subbottom profiling system was functioning properly but that site conditions played a
significant role in the ability of the system to achieve penetration. OSI project Drawing 2,
Sheets 1-3 provide examples of the subbottom data collected and illustrate the variation in
subbottom reflections.
The limited penetration across much of the site is believed to be a result of several factors,
including the presence of gaseous sediments in the near-subsurface sediments and the
disturbance of the surficial sediments during past dredging activity in the area. Gases
produced by the decomposition of naturally occurring organic material in the sediment,
impede acoustic propagation and thus prevent imagery of subbottom reflectors deeper than
the layer containing the gases. The high reflection coefficient of the sediment/gas interface
causes a strong signal to be reflected back toward the surface then off the water/air interface
producing “multiple” reflections on the subbottom record. Gaseous sediments are often
encountered in upland rivers, bays, and estuaries just as irregular riverbeds are often
encountered in dredging areas.
Irregular morphology can disperse acoustic energy and
prevent it from penetrating the riverbed, thereby producing subbottom records with a diffuse
appearance.
Consequently, the limited subbottom penetration achieved throughout the
survey area is expected.
After analyzing the subbottom profiler records and reviewing the data along with the push
probe results, subbottom data have been delineated into five categories to better understand
their distribution throughout the project area. This classification is defined primarily based
on the characteristics of subbottom reflectors detected and the depth of penetration achieved.
The five categories are summarized in the following table along with the color hatch pattern
used to represent them on project Drawing 2 and 3. Figures 5-7 provide examples for each of
the categories.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 10
Table of Subbottom Data Classification
Type
Description
1
No subbottom penetration achieved below the riverbed. Generally
associated with the navigation channels. Due to depth limitations –
no push probes were conducted in these areas.
2
3
4
5
Color/Hatch
Pattern
Used
Limited subbottom penetration achieved. Subbottom reflectors are
observed in the upper 10 feet of the riverbed and terminate abruptly.
Reflectors are generally horizontal and closely spaced approximately
1 foot apart. The one push probe (p01) conducted in this type area
encountered a mix of sand and mud.
Shallow subbottom penetration achieved. Continuous subbottom
reflector detected several feet below riverbed. Subbottom reflector
detected appears to be related to the upper surface of a gaseous
sediment horizon. Sediments overlying the detected reflector appear
acoustically transparent suggesting that they may have a high water
content. Probes conducted in these areas primarily encountered soft
sediments.
Shallow subbottom penetration achieved.
Minimum of one
subbottom reflectors detected within approximately ten feet of the
riverbed. Subbottom reflectors may be discontinuous but at least one
of them appears to be related to the upper surface of a gaseous
sediment horizon. Probes in these areas encountered soft sediments
as well as mud intermixed with sand.
Deep subbottom penetration achieved.
Several continuous
subbottom reflectors detected to a depth of as much as 50 feet below
the riverbed. Probes in these areas encountered a wide variety of
sediment types from soft mud to coarse sand and gravel.
In general, the delineation of the five acoustic classes seems to be correlated to their
geographic distribution. For example, Type 1 and Type 2 data are encountered mainly within
the dredged navigation channels, while Type 3 data are typically associated with the three
distinct shallow water areas located on the north and west sides of the DMT. Type 4 and
Type 5 data are associated with the shallow areas south and southeast of the DMT. Figure 8
and OSI Project Drawing 3 provide an overview of the distribution of acoustic characteristics
identified in the project site.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 11
Type 1
Type 2
Type 1
Type 2
15 ft.
30 ft.
Water
Column
Subbottom Reflectors
Subbottom Reflectors
Riverbed
45 ft.
~ 250 feet
60 ft.
Figure 5: Reproduced section of chirp profile record depicting subbottom data classification Types 1 and 2. These profile categories
are representative of the shipping channels. Type 1 refers to areas where no subbottom penetration was observed. Type 2 refers to
areas of generally horizontal and closely spaced reflectors that terminate abruptly.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 12
Type 1
Type 3
Type 3
0 ft.
Acoustically Transparent Sediment
(High Water Content)
Upper Surface of
Gaseous Sediment
15 ft.
30 ft.
Water
Column
Acoustically Transparent Sediment
(High Water Content)
Upper Surface of
Gaseous Sediment
Riverbed
Riverbed
Multiple
SHIPPING CHANNEL
Riverbed
Multiple
~ 250 feet
45 ft.
Figure 6: Reproduced section of chirp profile record depicting subbottom data classification Types 1 and 3. Note the thin layer (~2-3’) of
acoustically transparent sediments that blanket the riverbed in Type 3 areas. The acoustically transparent sediments are generally
associated with highly aqueous silts.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 13
Type 5
0 ft.
Deep Subbottom
Reflectors
Type 4
Subbottom
Reflectors
Riverbed
Type 5
Water
Column
Upper Surface of
Gas-rich Sediment
Deep Subbottom
Reflectors
15 ft.
Reflector Multiples
30 ft.
~ 250 feet
45 ft.
Figure 7: Reproduced section of chirp profile record depicting subbottom classification Types 4 and 5. Type 4 is characterized by a
minimum of one subbottom reflector, which generally overlies a gas-rich sediment horizon. Type 5 is associated with deep subbottom
penetration and the detection of multiple subbottom reflectors. Note the abrupt transition from Type 4 to Type 5 and the lack of deep
subbottom reflectors in the Type 4 data.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 14
N
Subbottom Data
Classifications
SEAGIRT
MARINE
TERMINAL
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
DUNDALK
MARINE
TERMINAL
Type 4
Type 5
PATAPSCO
RIVER
Figure 8: Overview of subbottom data classification types identified throughout the project site.
The diversity of acoustic response throughout the survey area is an indication of the variation
in surficial sediments present. The water depths across much of the survey area were too
deep to conduct push probe investigations while underway, although additional information
may be obtained in a later phase of the investigation. The uniformity of subbottom data
within Types 1-4 suggest that near-surface sediments may not change dramatically within
each area. While we can only speculate about sediment types across much of the deep
regions of the site, an abundance of push probe data is available in the Type 5 region. A
variety of hard (impenetrable) materials were encountered in this area ranging from compact
clay to coarse sand and gravel. In most cases, a layer of softer material typically less than 3
feet thick was “felt” above the hard bottom.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 15
The elongate depression previously described in the hydrographic section is clearly evident
on several of the subbottom profiles collected along CH2M defined sampling transects
(provided in Appendix 5 – Specifically T1 - T4). The acoustic data associated with the
depression are characterized as Type 4. Push probes performed in the feature suggest it is infilled with soft sediments, while probes performed directly adjacent to the depression
encountered sand. The stark contrast in sediment type, subbottom data, and the unusual
morphology of the depression suggest that the feature may be of man-made origin and could
be an artifact of dredge operations.
The deep subbottom penetration attained within the Type 5 area; mapped in the southeastern
region of the site, allowed for the detection of a series of steeply dipping reflectors as
illustrated by the two intersecting profiles presented in Figure 9. The deepest reflector
identified in the profiles (at least 50 feet below the riverbed) appears to form a subsurface
mound. Based upon a review of subbottom data, it is unclear what the mound is composed
of. Push Probe #61 was performed at the intersection of the two representative profiles
shown in Figure 9, where the subsurface mound is exposed on the riverbed. This probe
encountered a mix of sand and mud.
Several overlying reflectors indicate on-lapping
sediments, which appear to thicken away from the apex of the mound.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 16
Intersection with B-B’
0 ft. A
15 ft.
Subbottom Reflectors
Riverbed
A’
Riverbed
multiple
N
Subsurface
Mound
~ 150 feet
30 ft.
Riverbed
0 ft.
B
Upper surface
of Gaseous
Sediments
DMT
Intersection with A-A’
Subbottom Reflectors
B
A’
B’
A
B’
15 ft.
Subsurface
Mound
~ 150 feet
30 ft.
Figure 9: Reproduced sections of chirp subbottom profile records depicting unusual subsurface mound identified in the southeastern margin
of site. Sections of two orthogonal profiles intersecting at the apex of several steeply dipping subbottom reflectors illustrate the asymmetry
of an unusual subbottom feature. Location map illustrates the position of each profile in the survey area. The images have an approximate
vertical exaggeration of 16:1.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 17
5.0
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
An integrated hydrographic/geophysical survey was completed in Baltimore Harbor in the
waters immediately adjacent to the DMT. This survey, conducted by OSI for CH2M,
represents the first and second task of a multi-task program designed to characterize the
water and sediments surrounding the DMT to a distance of approximately 2,000 feet offshore
of the facility.
Completed simultaneously, the specific purpose of the Task 1 and 2 surveys (described
herein) was to document existing hydrographic and subbottom conditions in the project area.
Upcoming OSI investigations will focus on acquiring water and sediment samples in the
project area under the direction of CH2Ml representatives.
Hydrographic data clearly document a network of steep sided navigation channels traversing
the project area that allow shipping access to the DMT from the Fort McHenry navigation
channel and the Seagirt Marine Terminal. The channel system varies from 39 to 48 feet
below NAVD88. Four prominent shallow water areas were identified within the project area
outside the shipping channels. Depths in these areas generally average less than 25 feet
below NAVD88. The most northern of the shallow water areas, situated adjacent to the
Seagirt Marine Terminal, is identified as a ‘Spoil Area” on the NOAA chart.
Subbottom profiling coupled with push probing observations made during the course of the
survey investigation provided data to characterize the surficial sediments and shallow
subsurface stratigraphy underlying the project area.
In general, the acquired data sets
indicate variability in the surface and subsurface sediments in the site, both horizontally and
vertically. To better understand this variability, subbottom returns were characterized into
five classes (referred to as Types 1-5), which were mapped throughout the project area. This
characterization scheme is primarily based on the depth of penetration attained by the
subbottom profiler and the characteristic of the subbottom reflectors observed on the records.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 18
Acoustic Types 1-4 characterize the majority of the area investigated and are generally
associated with near surface deposits of soft, often aqueous sediment varying in thickness but
generally greater than 1-foot thick. Type 5 data were isolated to a small shallow area in the
southeastern corner of the survey site and are associated with a wide variety of surficial
sediments varying from muds to coarse sands and gravel.
Subbottom imagery can be greatly affected by the acoustical properties of near-surface
material. As a result, overlying layers can mask subbottom layers that would otherwise be
represented by acoustic reflectors.
One of the primary goals of this investigation was to provide CH2M with data to aid in
designing a strategy for sampling that will be followed during upcoming tasks. Currently,
CH2M plans to acquire samples along nine transects located around the DMT within the
survey area (designated T1-T9). During the current investigation, subbottom data were
acquired along these transects. Annotated subbottom profile records for each of the nine
transects are included in Appendix 5 of this report and should be reviewed to identify
sampling locations. In general, sediment sampling performed along transects T1 to T4 will
recover a wide variety of surficial sediment types, where as sediment samples acquired along
transects T5 to T9 will most likely encounter soft, often highly aqueous, sediment types
intermixed with sand.
Upcoming sediment sampling investigations should consider
variations in sampling methodologies to recover these varying sediment types. With regard
to sediment sampling the following general recommendations are provided:
•
Collect sediment samples within each of the different acoustic classification areas to
better understand the data and the distribution of sediments within the survey area.
•
Collect sediment at survey line grid nodes (intersection of survey lines); to compare
with subbottom data acquired along two survey profiles.
•
Collect several sediment samples in the vicinity of the subsurface mound feature
identified in the southeastern region of the survey site to better understand the nature
and composition of the mound.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 19
Existing riverbed conditions were documented during this investigation and can be used as a
baseline for future studies and comparative analyses. Mapping programs in the future should
consider the use of side scan sonar imagery. Side scan sonar is a surface mapping tool and
can provide a comprehensive map of the textural changes existing throughout the survey
area, which are typically associated with variations in sediment type and benthic habitats. In
addition, side scan sonar imagery can be used to identify features present within the site that
could potentially impact the project and might otherwise have gone undetected utilizing the
current instrumentation. Future investigation might also consider the acquisition of marine
magnetometer data within the project site. Magnetometer data could provide information
about the presence of undetected ferrous objects present in the site.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Page 20
APPENDICES
1
EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES
2
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEETS
3
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS SUMMARY
4
PUSH PROBE RESULTS
5
SUBBOTTOM PROFILES ALONG CH2M HILL SAMPLING
TRANSECTS
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
APPENDIX 1
EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES
Coastal Leasing Micro-Tide Recorder
Trimble 4000 GPS with Differential Probeacon Receiver
HYPACK MAX Navigation Software
TSS-DMS2-05i Motion Sensore
KVH AutoComp 1000 Digital Fluxgate Heading Sensor
Innerspace Model 448 Single Beam Echosounder
EdgeTech XStar “chirp” Subbottom Profiler
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES
Coastal Leasing Micro-Tide Recorder
Continuous water level measurements were recorded during the survey by installing a Coastal
Leasing Micro-Tide recorder in the vicinity of the survey area. The Micro-Tide recorder
contains an advanced microprocessor capable of the sampling, averaging, and internal storage
of pressure data as well as providing options for telemetry or networking. The tide
recorder/gauge is a self-contained, fully submersible instrument with a cylindrical stainless
steel housing less than 13 inches long, 5.5 inches in diameter, and weighs under 20 pounds.
The unit is typically mounted to the end of a wood board which is attached to the backside of a
piling away from heavy vessel traffic and preferably in a protected basin or other calm area.
The tide recorder was referenced to the temporary bench mark previously established for this
project as provided by the client. The instrument may be set to record pressure/tidal height
readings at 0.5-60 minute intervals.
The Micro-Tide recorder contains two pressure sensors, such that one can be submerged to
collect pressure or height of water above the sensor while the second sensor can be mounted in
air directly above the instrument to collect barometric pressure data. The recorder
automatically makes the adjustment for barometric pressure to generate a corrected, real time
tide curve.
Trimble 4000 Global Positioning System Interfaced with a ProBeacon U.S. Coast Guard
Differential Receiver
The Trimble 4000 satellite positioning system provides reliable, high-precision positioning and
navigation for a wide variety of operations and environments. The system consists of a GPS
receiver, a GPS volute antenna and cable, RS232 output data cables, and ProBeacon Coast
Guard receiver. The ProBeacon receiver consists of a small control unit, a volute antenna and
cable, and RS232 interface to the Trimble 4000 unit. In this system configuration a position
accuracy of ± 1-2 meters is reported by the manufacturer, although experience suggests it can
provide consistent +/-1 meter reliability.
Fully automated, the Trimble 4000 provides means for 9 channel simultaneous satellite
tracking with real time display of geodetic position, time, date, and boat track if desired. The
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 1-1
Trimble unit is mounted on the survey vessel with the beacon receiver which continuously
receives differential satellite correction factors via radio link from one of the DGPS United
States Coast Guard beacons (1 second update rate). The Trimble 4000 accepts the correction
factors and applies the differential corrections to obtain continuous, high accuracy, real time
position updates. The Trimble 4000 system is interfaced to the OSI navigation system running
HYPACK MAX® software for trackline control.
HYPACK MAX Navigation Software
Survey vessel trackline control and position fixing were obtained by utilizing an OSI
computer-based data logging package running HYPACK MAX navigation software. The
HYPACK navigation system processes the geodetic position data into the correct grid
system, which is then used to guide the survey vessel accurately along preselected tracklines.
The incoming data are logged on disk and processed in real time allowing the vessel position
to be displayed on a video monitor and compared to each preplotted trackline as the survey
progresses. Digitized shoreline and the locations of existing structures, buoys, and control
points can also be displayed on the monitor in relation to the vessel position. The OSI
computer logging system, combined with the HYPACK MAX software, thus provide an
accurate visual representation of survey vessel location in real time, combined with highly
efficient data logging capability and post-survey data processing and plotting routines.
VT TSS DMS-05 Dynamic Motion Sensor
Vessel heave, pitch and roll information was measured and logged utilizing a VT TSS’s
DMS-05 Dynamic Motion Sensor. Incorporating an enhanced external velocity and heading
aiding algorithm for improved accuracy during dynamic maneuvers, the solid-state angular
sensor offers reliability and the highest performance of any VT TSS produced vertical
reference unit. The DMS-05 motion sensor was designed for use with multibeam
echosounders and incorporates advanced processing techniques and high grade inertial
sensing elements to attain heave, pitch, and roll measurements with high dynamic accuracy
and immunity to vessel turns and speed changes. The DMS-05 allows full utilization of all
echosounder beams and survey capabilities to IHO standards. The DMS-05 has a dynamic
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 1-2
roll and pitch accuracy to 0.05° over a 30° range and dynamic heave accuracy to 5
centimeters or 5% (whichever is greater). The unit can output digital data at a rate up to 200
hertz and accepts a standard NMEA-0183 message string. Digital data are logged by the
HYPACK® navigation computer. The DMS-05 permits survey operations to continue
through degrading weather conditions, increasing project productivity and efficiency.
KVH AutoComp 1000 Fluxgate Compass
The KVH AutoComp 1000 fluxgate compass was used to measure magnetic compass
headings along survey tracklines. The AutoComp 1000 incorporates next generation
electronic fluxgate technology to provide 0.5 degrees accuracy and an automatic
compensation system that automatically corrects for compass deviation on the vessel, without
a compass adjuster. The system automatically calibrates itself after installation by steering
the survey vessel in a circle so the microprocessor-controlled unit can measure, process, and
compensate for the magnetic field. The unit corrects for B, C, D, E coefficient errors, while
standard NMEA 0183 output provides easy interfacing with other equipment. The digital
data are logged on the HYPACK® navigation computer.
Innerspace Technology 448, 200 kHz Digital Depth Sounder
Precision single beam water depth measurements were obtained by employing an Innerspace
Model 448 digital depth sounder with a 200 kHz, 3° beam width transducer. The Model 448
recorder provides precise, high-resolution depth records using a solid-state thermal printer as
well as digital data output which allows integration with the OSI computer-based navigation
system. The Model 448 also incorporates both tide and draft corrections plus a calibration
capability for local water mass sound speed.
Sound speed calibrations were accomplished by performing "bar checks". The bar check
procedure consists of lowering an acoustic target, typically a 20 pound lead disk, on a
measured sounding line, to the specified project depth. The speed of sound control is
adjusted such that the reflection from the disk is printed on the recorder precisely at this
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 1-3
known depth.
The acoustic target is then raised to successively shallower depths and
calibration readings at these depths are recorded. Variations which exist in the indicated
depth at these calibration points are incorporated in the sounding data processing to produce
maximum accuracy in the resulting depth measurements. Bar checks were performed at the
beginning of each day to check the surface water mass sound speed in comparison with the
CTD profiler.
EdgeTech XStar “Chirp” Subbottom Profiler
Information concerning subsurface stratigraphy was explored through use of an EdgeTech
XStar “Chirp" Subbottom Profiler system operating at frequencies of 2 to 16 kilohertz. The
subbottom profiler consists of three components: the deck unit (Xstar topside computer,
amplifier, monitor, keyboard, and trackball), an underwater cable, and a Model SB216 towed
vehicle housing the transducers. Data is displayed on a VGA monitor and EPC 1086 thermal
printer while saved digitally on the topside control computer.
The XStar “chirp” profiler is a versatile subbottom system that generates cross-sectional
images and collects normal incidence reflection data over many frequency ranges. The
system transmits and receives an FM pulse signal generated via a streamlined towed vehicle
(subsurface transducer array). The outgoing FM pulse is linearly swept over a full spectrum
range of 2 to 16 kilohertz for a period of approximately 20 milliseconds. The acoustic return
received at the hydrophone array is cross-correlated with the outgoing FM pulse and sent to
the deck unit for display and archiving, generating a high resolution image of the subbottom
stratigraphy. Because the FM pulse is generated by a converter with a wide dynamic range
and a transmitter with linear components, the energy, amplitude, and phase characteristics of
the acoustic pulse can be precisely controlled and enhanced.
The “chirp” subbottom profiler is designed for acquiring high resolution subsurface data
from upper portions of the stratigraphic column (5 to 25 meters depending on site
conditions). The higher end frequencies allow good resolution of subbottom layering while
the lower end acoustic frequencies provide moderate penetration. This particular system is
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 1-4
capable of providing excellent acoustic imagery of the subsurface in a wide variety of marine
environments.
Operationally, a seismic source is used to create a swept frequency pulse or signal in the
water column. This signal propagates downward to the bottom where it is partially reflected
at the sediment-water interface, while the rest of the signal continues into the subbottom. As
the downward propagating signal encounters successive interfaces between layers of
different material, similar partial reflections occur. The characteristics of the materials which
cause acoustic signals to behave in such a manner are defined primarily by the cross-product
of the bulk density and the compressional wave velocity of each material, a quantity known
as the acoustic impedance. As a first approximation, the percentage of an acoustic signal
which is reflected from an interface is directly proportional to the change in acoustic
impedance across that interface.
The return signal is correlated with the outgoing pulse and the resultant trace. Ambient noise
is filtered out and the signal is then amplified with overall gain and/or TVG and displayed
trace-by-trace iteratively on the recorder to yield a continuous display somewhat analogous
to a geologic cross section.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 1-5
APPENDIX 2
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEETS
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
www.coastal-usa.com
Coastal’s MacroTide
Description:
Coastal’s MacroTide and MacroTide+ record pressure
levels in aquatic environments for tidal measurements
using either an ICS Strain Gauge Pressure Sensor or a
high-precision Paroscientific Digiquartz Sensor.
Capacity:
200K standard
Optional (Compact Flash Cards): 8MB, 16MB, etc.
Housing:
Diameter – 5.5 in.
Length – 14 in. (including handle)
Weight – 15 lbs. in air
Material – Stainless steel and UHMW plastic housing
MacroTide+ length is 15.5 in., weight is 17 lbs. in air
Power:
Interface:
Clock:
Standard:
Optional:
Standard,
MacroTide+
Optional:
User replaceable standard alkaline D cells
Wizard IBM PC compatible software
ASCII data files in engineering units
User controlled sampling parameters and sensor functions
Coastal MacroTide
Exterior(above), Interior(below)
Solid state real time, accuracy one minute per year
Pressure, Standard – ICS Strain Gauge
Temperature, Internal – YSI Thermister
Pressure, High Precision – Paroscientific Digiquartz
Temperature, External – YSI Thermister
Additional External Pressure – ICS Strain Gauge
Function
Pressure,
Standard
Temperature
Pressure,
High Precision
Sensor (*optional)
IC Sensors Strain Gauge,
piezoresistive
Internal YSI Thermister
Range
30, 50,
100, 250
-5° to 35°
Accuracy
Resolution
Units
0.1%
12 bit
psia
0.1°
.02 typ
°C
*Paroscientific Digiquartz
900<
0.015%
16 bit
psia
Coastal Leasing, Inc. 179 Sidney Street Cambridge MA 02139-4238
p 617.497.1122 f 617.497.1188 [email protected]
© 2001 Coastal Leasing, Inc. Trademarks are property of their respective owners. Specifications subject to change without notice.
D Trimble
MARINE
4000RSi & 4000DSi
O~][p[[email protected]~[ID
g
DGPS Reftrence Surveyor and Differential Surveyor
The worlds best real-time sub-meter
demanding
DGPS receiversare now twice as good!
ports, harbors, along river banks, and near
environments,
4000DSi
Reference SurveyOr'M and
Differential
incorporate
Surveyor~
now
the latest in GPS technology,
multipath
processing:
the patented
advanced
technology.
This technology
Maxwell processing
technology,
receivers provide the highest
level of accuracy even when operating
the most challenging
in
also
Trimble's latest advance in
offering true, real-time positioning accuracy
bener than 0.5 meter. Based on Trimble's
these DGPS
that may
interfere with satellite signals.
The 4000RSi and 4000DSi
incorporate
field operation time &om baneries.
such as
sources of high radio frequency
The 4000RSi
rejection through enhanced signal
EVERESTM
eliminates
multipath enor before the receiver calculates
GPS measurements. When combined
with Trimble's advanced carrier-aided
conditions.
The 4O00RSi and 4000DSi incorporate
filtering and smoothing
techniques
applied
Ttimble's Super-trak~ technology. Super-trak
to exceptionally
low noise CIA code
enhances low power satellite signal
measurements,
the result is real-time
acquisition,
positioning accuracy on the order of
a few decimeters.
improves signal tracking
capabilities under less than ideal conditions,
and provides increased immunity
jamming
to signal
resulting £Tom radio frequency
interference.
These funher
are derived £Tom integrating
improvements
complex
circuitry onto a single chip and using
state-of-the-an
surface acoustic wave
(SAW) filter technology.
Super-trak
PRODUCTS
increases productivity
and facilirates continual operations in
RF
The 4000RSi
for hydrographic
and 4000DSi
and navigation
are ideal
systems,
The 4000RSi operates as an
autonomous reference station, calculating
DGPS corrections in the RTCM SG 104
format for transmission
to mobile GPS
recelvets.
The 4000DSi is designed to use
DGPS corrections in the RTCM
SG 104 standard format broadcast by
the 4000RSi. The 4000DSi's srandard
NMEA-0l83 messages, navigation
firmware, data, and IPPs outputs
allow for optimal flexibility for system
integration and interfacing with other
instruments.
During
operation,
and 4000DSi
the 4000RSi
can output
binary and
ASCII data for archiving or post-mission
analysis. In addition,
the 4000RSi
can
vessel tracking, dynamic positioning systems,
operate as a mobile receiver with the
dredging,
same features, functionality
and other dynamic
positioning
and navigation applications. Both receivers
feature nine channels of continuous satellite
tracking
(12 channels
optional);
a light-
weight, rugged, weatherproof
housing;
and low power consumption
for extending
as the 4000DSi.
perfonnance,
and options
For optimum
DGPS
combine the receivers with
any ofTtimble's data communication
systems and QNQC
firmware to ensure
the integrity of positioning
accuracy.
System Integration
Components
StandardConfiguration
Data
Communications
Systems
Trimble offers optimized telemetry systems.
The real-time DGPS data communication
systems include
telemetry
short-range
for line-of-sight
"license-free"
environments
such
as ports, rivers, and coastal regions. For midrange applications,
a. Series4000 GPSreceiver(4000DSi)
b. Compactdomeantenna
c. 30m antennacable
d. Operatingmanual
e. Lemato dualBNCcable
f. 5 pin Lemato DB9cable
g. 7 pin Lemato DB9cable
h. Dualpowerinputcable
T
there are proven HF,
VHF and UHF systems for various conditions and licensing
requirements.
For long-
ranges (up to 500 km), Trimble
ground-wave
offers MF
systems. All telemetry
components
and accessories are tested to
ensure system reliability.
GPS Monitor UtilityTM
The performance of the new 4000RSi/DSi
with EVEREST
Die ~etup
Mulripath Rejection
Technology is graphically displayed using
the GPS Monitor
WIndow Help
GeodeticAntennaOption
a. Groundplanegeodeticantenna
b. Softcasecarryingcase
TheGeodeticAntennaOptionIs standardwith the4000R51
and Is optionalfor the 4000051.
Utility software program (included with
the 4000RSi and
4000DSi and available separately
DGPS
also).
accuracy has
never looked so good!
QA/QC
Real-time
The QA/QC
Quality
firmware
option enables the user
to verify the positioning
time. QA/QC
quality
assurance
of qualiry
real-time
displays,
real-time
position
in real-
TRIMTALKradiosareavailablein variousapplicationspecificcontigurationsfor referencesite,repeaterand
mobileuse.Frequencyoptionsaretailoredto operation
worldwide,includinglicense-freein manycountries.
position
a position
quality
levels, and data output
relared information.
unprecedented
receiver's
integrity
includes
alarm with definable
TRIMTALK
SeriesRadioLinkOptions
Assurance
It provides
assurances
of the
accuracy so that the
operator
knows whether
position
quality
the required
is being met. If the accuracy
falls below acceptable
levels, an audible
alarm notifies the operator.
Universal
Reference
The Universal
PC-based
StationTM
Reference
Station
(URSTM) is a
software system that works as a
dedicated,
programmable
ProBeacon Option
TheProBeaconis designedspecificallyto receivethe
differentialGPScorrectionbroadcastsfrom DGPS/MSK
radiobeacons.Availabilityof thesedifferentialcorrection
broadcastsis increasingrapidlyworldwide.
DGPS reference
station for broadcasting corrections to an
unlimited number of users. URS collects data
from all satellites
in view, including
ranges, carrier phase and ephemeris
outputs
the data and corrections
transmission
pseudo
data, and
for
ro mobile receivers that are
being used anywhere
in range. URS also can
also be programmed
ro collect data for post-
processed
applications.
For
about additional
options, contact your Trimble sales representative.
Applications:
PrecisionGPS Positioningon the ground, at sea and in the air.
HYDRO/DGPS
Trimble's HYDRO software
provides a totally integrated field-to-finish product
that combines your DGPS position with other
survey sensors such as echosounders,
sidescan
compasses,
sonar, tide gauges and acoustic positioning
equipment. HYDRO also provides navigation and
has post-processing capabilities to produce highquality plots. Additional modules include contouring, profiles, volumes and digitizing.
HYDROseismic and HYDRO rig have specialized
featUres for the exploration
for surveying
Airborne
Applications
Traditionally,
industry's
requirements
and rig positioning.
aerial
applications have required multiple pilots as well as
numerous human flaggers and associated ground
crews. Using TRIMFLIGHTTM,
airborne
navigation
and mapping
be sprayed effectively
a precise DGPS
system,
crops can
and consistently-withoUt
flaggers or ground assistance, providing the pilot
with graphical proof of where he has sprayed. The
system can also be used for a wide variety of other
aerial applications,
photogrammetry,
such as geophysical
exploration,
GIS data captUre and search &
rescue.
TrackingTrimble's
Barge Monitoring System has
taken DGPS one step further by using two-way
radio communications.
transmitted
~
While DGPS corrections are
to vessels for navigation,
other statUs information
are reported
positions
and
back to the
reference site for display. The system is being used
~
for environmental policing to ensure that the barges
dump the material in legal dump sites. If a dump
occurs oUtside these sites, the system will warn the
controller.
4000RSi & 4000DSi
DGPS &ference Surveyor and Differential Surveyor
PhysicalCharacteristics
4000RSiFeatures
Autonomous
operation; filtered and carrier-smoothed
RTCM
differential corrections (versions 1.0 and 2X); 0,5 second
measurement
rate; data integrity provision; data link flow
control on RTCM port; triple DC input; Ll geodetic antenna;30m antenna cable; automatic mode restoration after power-off;
dual RS-232
I/O ports for data recording;
low power; lightweight;
Size:
9,8"W x
(24,8cm
16,8"W
(42,7cm
Weight:
6lbs, (2,7kg) standard receiver
15lbs, (6,8kg) rack-mount receiver
0,5 lbs, (O,2kg) compact dome antenna
5,7lbs, (2,6kg) Ll geodetic antenna
Power:
Nominal 10,5 to 35 VDc, 7 watts
Operatingtemp:
-20°C to +55°C
portable; environmentally
protected; 1 PPS output; NMEA-0183
outputs; RTCM input and output; I-year warranty,
4000DSiFeatures
11.0"D x 4,O"H (standard receiver)
x 28,Ocm x lO,2cm)
x 16"D x 5,25"H (rack-mount receiver)
x 40,6cm x 13,3cm)
Storagetemp:
-30° to +75°C
EVEREST technology; real-time operation; 0,5 second
measurement
rate; data integrity provision; triple DC input;
compact dome antenna; 30m antenna cable; automatic mode
restoration after power off; extra RS-232 I/O port for data
recording; low power; portable; environmentally
protected; 1 PPS
Humidity:
100%, fully sealed, buoyant (standard receiver)
95% non-condensing (rack-mount receiver)
output; navigation firmware; NMEA-0183
outputs; weighted
least-squares solution; RTCM input; I-year warranty,
4000RS!
Better than 0,5 meter accuracy with Trimble 4000RSi
including
Options
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Compatibility:
and 4 years
Accuracy:
least 5 satellites and PDOP
12 channels
Compatibility:
Rack mount
Event marker
QA/QC firmware
Extended
GPS receivers
~~
~~
e:;eg
Typically better than O,5m RMS: assumes at
Ll carrier phase
memory
may be applied to all differential-equipped
compatible
4000 OS!
Firmware update service-l
Internal
Corrections
RTCM
hardware
less than 4,
'g~
~ 0
Accepts RTCM SC-1O4 correctionsVersion 1.0 or 2X
4000 RS! and 4000 OS!
~~
Tracking:
~.~
~g;,
ro 0
9 channels ofLl CIA
~j
i2~
SignalProcessing: Multibit Super-trak; Maxwell architecture with
EVEREST Multipath Rejection Technology;
very low-noise C/ A code processing
for datalogging
warranty
Starl-uptime:
Less than 2 minutes from power-on
Antenna:
External antenna with 30m RG213 cable
RS-232data
link rates:
50-57,6K baud
30m antenna cable extension, with in-line amplifier
RTCMmessage
output:
Types 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 16
Office support module: OSM II (CE MARKED)
NMEA-O183:
Receiver transport case
TRIMTALK Series radio links
Porls:
4 serial I/O ports
Accessories
.
TechnicalSpecifications
Ll Geodetic antenna
ProBeacon MSK receiver
§~
""w
~~
to tracking
-g ~
~~
i~
ii
1"=
ALM, BWc, GGA, GLL, GSA, GSV, RMB,
RMc, VTG, WPL, XTE, ZDA
i
~==
" '"
-"'~
Dual serial; Triple power inputs; Antenna;
I"~
f'O."
.;<t
"'<i
and IPPS output
Display:
Backlit LCD with four lines of forty alphanumeric
characters; Large, easy-to-read characters-2,8mm
4,9mm; Total viewing area: 32cm2; Adjustable
~~
x
Jj
<tB
backlight and viewing angle
Keyboard:
Alphanumeric,
function,
-g..,
.~ ~
and sofi:key entry
~]
!~.
~.i
~~
~ij
gof'O
«~
Specifications
D Trimble
TrimbleNavigationLimited
MarineDivision
485 PotreroAvenue
Sunnyvale,CA94086
1-800-545-7762in NorthAmerica
+1-408-481-8940
+1-408-481-7744Fax
http://www.trimble.com
and descriptions subject to change without
TrimbleNavigationEuropeLimited
TrimbleHouse
MeridianOtticePark
OsbornWay
Hook,HampshireRG279HX
ENGLAND
+441256-760-150
+441256-760-148Fax
~~
~E
8'"
g)g
notice.
TrimbleNavigationSingapore
PTELimited
300 BeachRoad
#34-05TheConcourse
Singapore199555
SINGAPORE
+65-296-2700
+65-296-8033Fax
"""":""
Ji'
/!
~\
~<>".
. "f}
""'G"~
TRIMBLE DSMPRO
INTEGRATED DGPS/MSK RECEIVER
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The DSMPro offers the DGPS user a fully integrated DGPS/MSK receiver based upon leading
technology in both Differential GPS and MSK receivers.
FEATURES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8 Channel GPS Receiver
Combined L1 GPS and MSK H field loop antenna
Sub-meter accuracy
Real time processing
10 Hz maximum position and velocity update rate
Positioning based on carrier-phase filtered L1 pseudo-ranges.
Two RS-422 serial ports
NMEA-0183 output
TSIP interface protocol I/O
RS-232 MSK control port
1PPS Output
DSM Software toolkit
Operation manual
15m antenna cable
L1 C/A code and instantaneous carrier-phase outputs
Equipment specifications cannot form any
part of a contract to supply equipment.
www.ashtead-technology.com
TRIMBLE DSMPRO
INTEGRATED DGPS/MSK RECEIVER
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
GPS Receiver
General
Update Rate
Accuracy
Time to first fix
NMEA messages
8 Channel, parallel tracking, L1 C/A code with carrier
phase filtering and instantaneous carrier phase
measurements.
10Hz Maximum (Maximum 8 satellites tracked for a
update rate of greater than 5Hz.)
Typically less than 1m RMS; Assumes at least 5
satellites, PDOP<4 and RTCM SC-104 standard
format broadcast from a Trimble DSM Reference
station, 4000RS or equivalent reference station.
<30 seconds, typical
ALM, GGA, GLL, GSA, GSV, VTG, ZDA.
MSK Receiver
Frequency Range
Channel Spacing
MSK Modulation
Signal Strength
Dynamic Range
Channel Selectivity
Frequency Offset
3rd Order Intercept
Power
Operating Temperature
Humidity
283.5 kHz to 325.0 kHz.
500Hz
25, 50, 100 & 200 bits/second
10 µV/meter minimum
100dB
60dB @ 500 Hz offset
10ppm maximum (200 bits/ second)
40ppm maximum (100, 50 & 25 b/s)
+15dB @ RF input (min. AGC setting)
7.5 watts typical, 10 to 32VDC
-20° to +60°C (Combined Antenna -30° to +65°C)
95% non-condensing (Combined Antenna 100% fully sealed)
WEIGHTS
GPS/MSK Receiver
4.0lbs (1.8Kg) with mounting plate
Combined Antenna
2.15lbs 15cm Dia. x 15.5cm H
Equipment specifications cannot form any
part of a contract to supply equipment.
DIMENSIONS
17cm x 9cm x 25.5cm
www.ashtead-technology.com
HYPACK, Inc.
56 Bradley St.
Middletown, CT 06457
Phone: 860-635-1500
Web: www.hypack.com Sales: [email protected]
INNERSPACE
THERMAL DEPTH SOUNDER RECORDER
MODEL 448
DESCRIPTION
The Innerspace Technology Model 448 Thermal Depth Sounder Recorder provides survey precision, high resolution depth recordings using SOLID STATETHERMAL PRINTING.
The lightweight, portable unit is designed for use in small boat surveying as required for
nautical chart production, engineering surveys, harbor and channel maintenance, pre and
post dredge surveys, etc. The Model 448 TDSR uses a thermal printing technique
pioneered by Innerspace for depth sounding which provides the high resolution and
accuracy required by groups such as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, dredging companies, survey companies, port administrations, etc. The state of the art design allows
integration into portable hydrographic survey systems.
1.wI/NNERSPACE
TECHNOLOGY, INC.
36 INDUSTRIALPARK, WALDWICK, NJ 07463
(201) 447-0398
FAX (201) 447-1919
OPERATION
The Model 448 TDSR utilizes the highest resolution, solid state, fixed thermal print head
available for depth sounding. Blank white, high contrast thermal paper is used to print
the selected range scale along with the depth. The depth is always read directly from the
scale printed, thereby avoiding the possible confusion encountered when examining outmoded, preprinted, multi-scaled charts. Built-in chart annotation is standard and includes
printing of numerical values for Speed of Sound, Tide and Draft. Time and event marks
are numerically annotated and the chart is automatically labeled FEET or METERS as determined by the MODE switch.
Operator controls are provided on a gasketed, splashproof front panel. Thumbwheel switch
settings are behind a splashproof access cover on the front panel, and the digitizer controls and display are provided on a front panel plug in module,
The microprocessor controlled sounder !recorder utilizes plug in printed circuit boards,
a modular plug in power supply and plug in modular digitizer. Minimum wiring connections help provide an extremely reliable and serviceable unit. A preprogrammed test routine and diagnostic LED indicators provide valuable assistance for the operator and / or
electronics technician. The single package portable unit may be used vertically or horizontally and can be powered from either an AC or DC source.
FEATURES
.. COST
..
PRINTINGfixed head
.. QUIEToperation - no rotating stylus, no arcing
..
CHARTstandard format- high resolution
.. BLANK
PAPERis high contrast black on white and low in cost
PORTABLE
and lightweight for small boat operation
. MICROPROCESSOR
controlled
.. SCALESELECTEDis the only one printed
.
. ANNOTATION
of all parameters appear on recordings in chart margin
Speed of Sound, Tide, Draft, Event, Time and Mode of Operation
. TVG(time micro
varied gain) minimizes gain adjustments
.. INTERNAL
controlled depth digitizer
EXTERNAL
depth digitizer connector on rear panel
. NOADJUSTMENTSfor zero line or call line are required
LOW
RELIABLE
THERMAL
CLEANoperation-no
carbon
- no stylus to replace
dust residue
ODORLESSoperation - no burned paper
LARGEVIEWING area with sliding window
LARGE
FEET or METERS operation
- switch
selectable
THUMBWHEELSETTINGS for speed of sound, tide and draft
OPTIONS
CUSTOM LOGO - Programs recorder to repetitively print, in the lower chart margin, customer specified information such as user's logo, name, address, etc,
FREQUENCY- Choice of either 208 kHz or 125kHz
POWER-Allows
operation from either 110/120,
220/240
VAC
..
t'
..
Iud"
112
SPECIFICATIONS-SINGLE
FREQUENCY TDSR MODEL 448
PRINTING
Thermal solid state fixed head thick film
CHART PAPER
8-% inches x 200 feet
PAPER SPEEDS
.5,1,2,4 or 8 inches/min.
DEPTH RANGES
0 to 335 feet or 0 to 80 meters. 6 overlapping phases of
60 feet or 15 meters
A x 2 SWITCH multiplies each range by a factor of 2 and
A x .5 SWITCH multiplies each range by a factor of .5
ACCURACY
:t .1 foot or meter timing and printing resolution
SPEED OF SOUND
Thumbwheel switch selectable 4550 to 5050 feet/sec. or
1350 to 1550 meters/ sec. Precision crystal referenced frequency synthesizer using a phase locked loop provides exact
(Depends on scale selected)
calibration.
TIDE
'
Thumbwheel
switch selectable from 0 to
DRAFT
Thumbwheel
meters
switch selectable from 0 to + 99.9 feet or
EVENT MARK
Front panel switch or remote, increments
TIME
Internal clock with battery backup
SOUNDER FREQUENCY
208 kHz or 125kHz
TRANSDUCERS
208 kHz 8 degree beamwidth
meters
:t
25.0 feet or
internal counter
standard or others optional
at- 3db
208 kHz 3 degree beamwidth at - 3db (optional)
125 kHz 14 degree beamwidth
at -3db
(optional)
PULSE LENGTH
.15 to .6 ms. Automatically
depth range selected
PULSE POWER
250 watts RMS
SOUNDING RATE
1,200 soundings per minute max
TIME VARIED GAIN (TVG)
Automatically compensates for spreading loss and attenuation over depth range
GAIN CONTROL
Provides manual gain adjustment
STANDBY MODE
Allows transceiver and digitizer (if used) to operate without
running chart paper
OUT OF PAPER SENSOR
Indicated by blinking front panel light. Paper motion stops,
but sounding continues.
RAPID PAPER ADVANCE
Front panel switch allows for the rapid advance of blank
paper
ANNOTATION
The numerical value of Speed of Sound, Tide, Draft, Time
and Event are permanently recorded above the chart record
periodically
determined
by frequency and
DIGITIZER OUTPUT
In addition to the built in depth digitizer, Start/Stop pulses
are available for use with external digitizers such as Innerspace Models 410, 412 and 445.
POWER
Either 12, 24 V DC or 120, 240 V AC (Must be specified
AC or DC)
DIMENSIONS
17 in. W x 17 % in. H x 9 % in. D
WEIGHT
45 pounds
ENCLOSURE
Coated aluminum, corrosion resistant and splashproof. Sliding window for chart access and settings door for easy
access to thumbwheel switches.
SPECIFICATIONS-INTERNAL MICROPROCESSOR DIGITIZER
OPERATING MODES
Either a DIRECT, GATED/AUTO or MANUAL mode may be
chosen
DIRECT
No gate present
GATED
Gate width doubles, then quadruples
automatically to reacquire the bottom
reply
AUTO
Gate width doubles, quadruples then
goes to non-gated automatically to reacquire the bottom reply
MANUAL
Fixed gate as preset on initial depth
thumbwheel
GATE WIDTH
Selectable 2, 4, 8, 20, 40 or 80 via rotary switch. Gate
width in feet or meters, determined by the recorder MODE
switch
setting
MISSED REPLIES
REPLY switch selects 2, 4, 8 or 16 missed replies, before
reacquisition of bottom reply, in AUTO mode.
DISPLAY
Four digit LCD 7 segment. Resolution to 0.1 feet or meters,
determined by the recorder MODE switch setting.
INDICATORS
Three LED's representing BAD DATA, REPLYand depth GATE
INITIAL DEPTH
Three station thumbwheel
depth gate position
ALARM
A switched audible alarm indicates loss of track
OUTPUTS
BCD-8421
switch allows entry of an initial
TTL compatible 5V positive logic. Buffered outputs with data hold, inhibit, strobe and flag lines. IEEE488
GPIB-4 digits with proper protocol and selectable address
switches (optional)
EIA RS232C-4
digits with selectable baud rates (optional).
A bad data flag is available and can optionally set the output number to all zeros.
189
I/NNERSPACE
TECHNOLOGY, INC.
36 INDUSTRIALPARK, WALDWICK, NJ 07463
(201) 447-0398
FAX (201) 447-1919
FULL SPECTRUM
TM
SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER
Sub-Bottom Profiler
Shallow Tow System
X-STAR is a high resolution wideband Frequency
Modulated (FM) sub-bottom profiler utilizing EdgeTech’s
proprietary FULL SPECTRUM™ CHIRP technology. The
system transmits a FM pulse that is linearly swept over a
full spectrum frequency range (for example 2-16 kHz for 20
milliseconds.) The acoustic return received at the
hydrophones is passed through a pulse compression filter,
generating high resolution images of the sub-bottom
stratigraphy in oceans, lakes, and rivers.
Unequalled images that combine good penetration and high
resolution. 20-30 dB improved SNR over conventional systems
by using Full Spectrum (FM) Pulses.
Because the FM pulse is generated by a digital to analog
converter with a wide dynamic range and a transmitter with
linear components, the energy, amplitude, and phase
characteristics of the acoustic pulse are precisely
controlled. This precision results in high repeatability and
signal definition required for sediment classification.
Several stable, low drag tow vehicles are available that
contain wide band transmitter arrays and sensitive line
array receivers that can operate in water depths up to 300
meters. The selection of tow vehicle depends on the subbottom characteristics and resolution required.
Full Spectrum Benefits
FM pulses have been used in radar for over 30 years and
are sometimes called chirp or swept frequency pulses. Its
application in sonar systems has come with the availability
of high speed Digital Signal Processors (DSP).
• EEZ resource development • Geo-technical surveys • Hazard
surveys • Environmental site investigations • Geological studies
• Sediment classification • Buried object location • Search and
recovery • Locate and map buried pipelines and cables • Mining
and dredging surveys • Bridge and shoreline scour surveys
®
®
THE SOUND SOLUTION
1141 Holland Drive, Suite 1, Boca Raton, FL 33487
Tel: (561) 995-7767 • Fax: (561) 995-7761
E-mail: [email protected] • Website: www.edgetech.com
FULL SPECTRUM
TM
SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER
Full Spectrum signal processing technology uses a
proprietary matched filter to process wideband signals. This
matched filter uses special amplitude and phase weighting
functions for the transmitted pulse and a pulse compression
filter that maximizes the Signal to Noise Ration (SNR) of the
acoustic images over a wide band of operating frequencies.
These X-STAR signal processing features provide a
significant SNR improvement in the acoustic image
generated by other impulse and chirp sonars with band
limiting components that are limited in dynamic range.
One of the outstanding aspects of Full Spectrum signal
processing is the use of a broad bandwidth transmitting
pulse that sweeps out over a range of frequencies. This
generates a great deal of acoustic energy in the water.
Instead of trying to operate with one very sharp acoustic
peak pulse, like conventional CW systems, the Full
Spectrum sonar spreads the transmission out over a long
time duration. In addition, to the resolution improvement, the
process of correlation processing achieves a signal
processing gain over the background noise. To equal the
typical performance of the Full Spectrum sonar pulse,
conventional pulsed sonar would have to operate at a peak
pulse power 100 times higher than the Full Spectrum pulse.
Normally, when using long pulses the resolution of the
seabed is lost. Resolution of the seabed is regained after
correlation processing the received signal. This is because
the output of the correlation is a very sharp wavelet that has
duration of the order of the inverse of the sweep bandwidth.
Thus, the more bandwidth used, the sharper this pulse will
become.
Another important feature, which enhances the ability of the
Full Spectrum Sub-bottom Profiler system to classify
sediments, is realized by the built-in de-convolution of the
system response from the output pulse. The sonar’s system
impulse response is measured at the factory and is used to
design a unique output pulse that will prevent the source
from ringing. In addition to this, the Full Spectrum wavelet is
weighted in the frequency domain to have a Gaussian like
shape. As the Gaussian shaped spectrum is attenuated by
the sediment, energy is lost but its bandwidth is preserved.
Thus, even after being attenuated by 20 meters of sand, the
Full Spectrum pulse has approximately the same resolution
as a non-attenuated pulse.
The Full Spectrum Sonar side lobes are greatly reduced in the
effective transducer aperture. The wide bandwidth of the
sweep frequency smears the side lobes of the transducer and
thus achieving a beam pattern with virtually no side lobes. The
effective spatial beam width obtained after processing the Full
Spectrum sub-bottom pulse is typically 20 degrees measured
to the -3db points.This feature is clear when inspecting the Full
Spectrum records. Since the transmitted pulse is highly
repeatable and its peak amplitude is precisely known, the
sediment reflective values can be estimated from the peak
pulse amplitude measurements of the bottom returns.
Use different tow vehicles for
desired penetration and resolution.
The topside portion remains the
same. The FM pulse is user selected
based on the sub-bottom conditions
at the survey site and the type
of sub-bottom features that need
to be imaged.
FULL SPECTRUM
TM
SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER
FS-SB Full Spectrum
Signal Processor
Topside Processor
Towfish Model
SB-424
SB-216S
SB-0512
Frequency Range
Pulse Type
Standard Pulse Bandwidths /
Length (other custom pulses
available)
4-24 kHz
FM
3-24 kHz / 10 ms
4-24 kHz / 10 ms
4-20 kHz / 10 ms
4-16 kHz / 10 ms
2 - 16 kHz
FM
2-15 kHz / 20 ms
2-12 kHz / 20 ms
2-10 kHz / 20 ms
400 Hz - 8 kHz
FM
1.5-10 kHz / 20 ms
1-7 kHz / 40ms
1-6 kHz / 40 ms
0.7-4.5 kHz / 40 ms
0.6-3.0 kHz / 40 ms
0.4-2.4 kHz / 40 ms
Vertical Resolution
4 cm / 4-24 kHz
6 cm / 4-20 kHz
8 cm / 4-16 kHz
6 cm / 2-15 kHz
8 cm / 2-12 kHz
10 cm / 2-10 kHz
500 Hz - 12 kHz
FM
2-12 kHz / 20 ms
2-10 kHz / 20 ms
2-8 kHz / 40 ms
1.5-7.5 kHz / 40 ms
1-6 kHz / 40 ms
1-5 kHz / 40 ms
0.5-5 kHz / 40 ms
8 cm / 2-12 kHz
12 cm / 1.5–7.5 kHz
19 cm / 1- 5 kHz
2
40
6
80
20
200
40
300
16° / 4-24 kHz
19° / 4-20 kHz
23° / 4-16 kHz
1
2
77L x 50W x 34H
22
82
L89 x W64 x H54
3 shielded twisted
pairs (5 used)
300
Yes
17° / 2-15 kHz
20° / 2-12 kHz
24° / 2-10 kHz
1
2
105L x 67W x 46H
44
122
L115 x W79 x H59
same
16° / 2-12 kHz
24° / 1.5–7.5 kHz
32° / 1- 6 kHz
4
4
210L x 134W x 46H
186
288
L172 x W137 x H58
same
10° / 1.5 kHz-10 kHz
14° / 1-7 kHz
37° / 0.4-2.4 kHz
2
8
249 L x 214W x 91
364
consult factory
300
Yes
300
No
Penetration (typical)
in coarse calcareous sand
in clay
Beam Width (depends on
center frequency)
Transmitters
Receive Arrays
Size (centimeters)
Weight (kilograms)
Shipping weight (kg.)
dimension (cm.)
Cable Requirements
Max Depth (meters)
GeoStar Interface
SB-0408
9 cm / 1.5 kHz-10 kHz
15 cm / 1-6 kHz
37 cm / 0.4-2.4 kHz
3 shielded twisted
pairs (all used)
300
No
Other System Specifications
Tow Speed
MaximumTow Fish Operating Depth
Optimum tow height
Calibration
3-5 knots optimal, 7 knots maximum safe operational
300 meters (1,000 feet)
3 to 5 meters above seafloor
Each system is acoustic tank tested to calibrate for reflection coefficient measurements
FULL SPECTRUM
TM
SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER
FS-SB Full Spectrum Processor
EdgeTech Topside Display Processor
Main Processor
Intel CPU with high speed PCI bus
Main processor
SPARC Workstation
Digital Signal Processor
TMS320
Operating System
UNIX
Memory
32 MB RAM
Display
17” Color Monitor
Storage
Hard drive, CD-ROM, floppy disk
Operator Controls
Operating System
Windows 98
I/O to Topside Processor
Ethernet
A/D Gain, Two Stage TVG, Bottom Tracking,
Digital Gain, Preamplifier Gain, Horizontal
and Vertical Zoom, Direct Path Suppression,
Swell Filter, Annotation
A/D
Analog Input, 16 bit resolution, 200 kHz
max. sampling rate
Video Displays
D/A
Analog Output,16 bit resolution, 200 kHz
max. sampling rate
Bottom Tracking, Reflection Coefficient,
Signal Amplitude, Navigation Map, Scale
Lines, Track Lines
Navigation
Pulse Type
Full Spectrum (Frequency Modulated
with amplitude and phase weighting)
NMEA 0183, X/Y, N/E, Navigation I/O Utility,
Track lines, Event/Fix Marks, Sediment
Classification Color vs. Echo Strength
Pulse Trigger
Internal or External
Annotation
Keyboard, RS232 Port
Pulse Repetition
0.5 to 12 Hz
Event Mark
Via Keyboard, Switch Closure, RS232 Port
Trigger In
TTL negative edge triggered (Middle BNC)
Printer Support
Trigger Out
TTL negative edge triggered.
Minimum 5ms long pulse (Lower BNC)
EPC Models 9800, 8300, 1086, HSP-100,
ODECO Model 850 & 1200F, Alden Model
9315 CTP, Ultra Model 183/200
Sampling Rate
Typically 20, 25, 40, or 50 kHz depending
on the pulse upper frequency
Mass Storage
DAT
I/O Ports
Acoustic Power
212 dB ref 1mPa peak at center frequency
of system
Ethernet, Serial, SCSI, Parallel, Event Mark,
Keyboard, Trackball, External Trigger In,
Trigger Out, Heave Compensation Input
Input Power
120 or 220 VAC Auto Sensing
Power
105-125VAC or 210-250VAC, selectable,
47-63 Hz
Power Amplifier
Type: Two channel, Gain: 33dB per channel,
Power output: 2000 Watts peak, Power
input: 110-120V/60Hz or 220-240 V/50Hz
Manually Switchable
Enclosure
Portable steel case suitable for transit.
May be removed from cases and installed
in 19-inch rack. Size: 50.3W x 50.3D x
15.3H cm. (19.8 x 19.8 x 6 in.), Weight:
32 kg (71 lbs.)
EdgeTech, CODA Technologies Ltd., Sea
Corp., TEI Inc.
Environment
Temperature: Operating 5ºC to 40ºC
Non-operating -40ºC to 45ºC. Humidity:
Operating 20% to 80% relative humidity,
non-condensing. Non-operating 5%-95%.
Vibration: Normal ship environment.
Options
Spare Parts Kit, Replay Software, Ethernet
Output of Data, Dual Mass Storage,
Software Services Agreement
Topside Display
Processors w/ Support
®
Environment
Temperature: 0 to 40ºC, Humidity: 5% to 95%
relative, Vibration: Normal ship environment
Enclosure
Portable steel case suitable for transit. Unit
can be removed from case and mounted in a
19” rack. Size: 50W x 60D x 33H cm.
(19.5x23.5x13 in), Weight: 46 kg (102 lbs.)
Shipping Containers
Size: 109L x 79W x 71H cm. (43x31x28 in),
Weight: 150 kg (330 lbs.) Material: Sealed
high impact polyurethane case
Options
Diagnostics Kit (Video Display, Keyboard,
Mouse), Spare Parts Kit, Optional Pulses
®
®
THE SOUND SOLUTION
Specifications subject to change without notice.
1141 Holland Drive, Suite 1, Boca Raton, FL 33487
Tel: (561) 995-7767 • Fax: (561) 995-7761
E-mail: [email protected] • Website: www.edgetech.com
APPENDIX 3
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS SUMMARY
Navigation and Hydrographic Data
Subbottom Profile Data
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS SUMMARY
Navigation and Hydrographic Data
During the field investigation, vessel navigation files were continuously processed and
entered into AutoCAD drawings to verify survey coverage and assist with the onsite
interpretation of geophysical data. Tracklines with position fixes allow preliminary
positioning of large obstructions or subbottom features for distribution to the project team, if
necessary.
Upon completion of the field work, the depth sounding data was processed using the
HYPACK MAX single beam editor. The depth data were referenced to project datum by
correcting for tidal levels measured and logged at a known benchmark throughout the survey.
Tidal levels were measured using digital pressure gauges mounted near the benchmark. The
height of water above or below the project datum was subtracted from the depth
measurements to reference elevations. The digital depth data were checked against the
graphic sounding records for verification of depth quality. Erroneous digital depths caused
by floating and drifting debris, air bubbles from passing ship’s wake, or fish in the water
column were filtered out of the data.
The digital files containing vessel position and
hydrographic data were then processed to correct for field calibrations and adjust the
sounding data to the required vertical datum.
The processed x, y, z data for the survey area was then contoured at an appropriate interval
and presented in a final drawing format. QuickSurf digital terrain modeling (DTM) software
was used to generate the depth contours and surfaces using the TIN-GRID method.
QuickSurf imports processed survey data points into an AutoCad format drawing and
generates surface models from these data. A number of contouring methods are available for
different data applications and site specific conditions. A suite of sophisticated tools allows
the user to manipulate modeled surfaces into high quality finished maps and perform a
variety of engineering computations.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 3-1
Subbottom Profile Data
Digital files were collected and processed using the Edgetech Discover 3.35 software
package. Digital files were converted to JPEG format after the completion of the field
operation. Based on review of the subbottom records, a classification scheme was devised to
highlight the diversity of acoustic penetration observed across the survey area.
Classifications were based on the depth of the deepest reflector and the number of reflectors
observed. The spatial extent of each category was mapped using the event marks generated
during data collection.
The overview map of subbottom types was constructed using
AutoCAD 2004.
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 3-2
APPENDIX 4
PUSH PROBE RESULTS
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Probe #
p01
Easting1
1442486.4
Northing1
575171.3
Group2 Field Comment/description
2
p02
Soft Mud - Pole penetrates seabed with relative ease There may be a sand layer ~1' beneath - Two sediment
colors identified on pole when brought to surface.
Green and black sediment. Green is coarser than black both are silt with fine grained sand.
No Probe
p03
1444434.1
570867.9
1
p04
p05
p06
1448614.0
1448669.8
1448757.1
572382.9
572245.2
572073.8
5
2
2
p07
1449231.3
572287.2
3
p08
1448803.7
572047.2
1
p09
1448747.0
571969.8
3
p10
p11
p12
p13
p14
p15
p16
p17
1448552.2
1448573.1
1447850.5
1446840.0
1448387.8
1446577.5
1446575.9
1447863.3
571781.0
572587.0
572279.1
571835.0
572709.4
573305.9
573249.4
573815.2
5
2
5
1
4
2
2
2
p18
1443130.8
573878.7
2
p19
p20
p21
p22
p23
p24
p25
p26
p27
p28
p29
p30
1443342.9
1448635.7
1447986.3
1445582.2
1445787.4
1447096.6
1448462.3
1445120.8
1447861.6
1448060.0
1447819.6
1447422.9
573667.4
573914.7
573634.2
572542.7
572529.5
573090.5
573678.9
572198.1
573311.7
573339.4
573238.0
573066.7
1
3
3
3
1
4
3
2
5
3
3
4
Black mud. No evidence of reflector observed in the
sub bottom record. Strong odor when probe came to
surface.
Hard Packed - Can't Penetrate
Silty Sand
Black mud with fine sand
Thin layer of mud (~6 inches) over a coarse - hard
packed layer. Beach has coarse gravel.
Soft Mud - Pole penetrates seabed with relative ease
Thin layer of mud (~1 foot) over a coarse - hard packed
layer. Beach has coarse gravel.
Dense packed bottom. No penetration with probe.
Silty Sand
Gravel
Black mud
Coarse sand over compact sand
Thin sand layer (0.5 feet) with mud beneath
Thin sand layer (0.5 feet) with mud beneath
Mix of sand and mud
Sand over mud over sand - all loosely consolidated, sand
is fine to medium grained.
Mud
Hard packed - ~.3-.5 feet of penetration
6 inches of soft material over hard packed sand
6 inches of soft material over hard pack
Very soft and easy to penetrate
~6 inches of sand layer on top of soft mud
6 inches of soft material over hard packed sand
Thin veneer of sand over mud
Hard packed
~2 inches of mud over hard packed
~6 inches of mud over hard packed
Sand over coarser sand (penetration changes)
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 4-1
Probe #
p31
p32
p33
p34
Easting1 Northing1
1447172.0 572962.6
1446497.6 572672.7
1445983.4 572447.5
1447585.6 572866.9
Group2
5
1
1
4
p35
1447780.5
572954.3
4
p36
p37
p38
p39
p40
p41
p42
p43
1443664.1
1443877.5
1443935.6
1444006.2
1442213.8
1443330.8
1446045.4
1447445.9
579539.0
579421.6
579395.3
579351.8
577029.7
573140.1
572098.3
572691.6
1
1
5
5
1
1
1
2
p44
1447749.0
572827.0
4
p45
p46
p47
p48
p49
p50
1448104.8
1448338.1
1447727.1
1447744.3
1447973.3
1448597.0
572984.8
573075.5
572589.7
572501.0
572600.3
572862.2
3
3
1
4
3
4
p51
1447941.7
572199.4
4
p52
1447951.9
572100.4
4
p53
p54
1448031.9
572576.8
4
p55
1448347.0
573644.0
4
p56
1447977.7
572596.7
4
p57
1448443.7
572358.5
4
p58
p59
p60
p61
p62
p63
1448713.4
1448113.0
1447843.9
1447736.7
1447580.5
1447734.3
572421.1
572165.3
572746.5
572980.7
573331.3
573726.0
3
3
1
2
3
5
Field Comment/description
Hard Packed
Soft mud at least 3 ft down
Soft mud at least 3 ft down
Thin veneer of sand over hard packed layer
~6 inches of silty sand over hard packed layer which is
very clear on the sub bottom record as a reflector that
comes up abruptly from deep.
Very soft and easy to penetrate (black)
Mud - more stiff than p36
Hard packed sand
Hard packed
Very soft
Very soft black mud
Soft mud - easy penetration
Silty mud harder to penetrate and sticky
Thin layer of sand above mud above an hard packed
layer
Hard packed layer is ~ 2 feet down
Hard packed layer ~1 foot down
Very soft ;gray green color; 3-4 feet thick at least
Medium grained sand ~6 inches of penetration
~1 foot of thick silty mud over an hard packed layer
Fine sand only about 3 inches of penetration
~6 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed
sand layer
~3 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed
sand layer
No Probe
Fine sand - stiff - over inpentrable layer
~3 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed
sand layer
~1-2 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed
sand layer
2 inches of mix of sand and mud over an hard packed
sand layer
Dense silty mud ~2-3inches of penetration
Dense silty mud ~1 foot of penetration
Black mud easy penetration
Mix of sand and mud
Soft mud ~3 feet down to hard packed layer
Hard packed
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 4-2
Probe #
Easting1
Northing1 Group2 Field Comment/description
p64
1447797.9
573591.5
3
p65
1447874.5
573416.7
1
p66
1447975.3
573192.5
4
p67
p68
p69
p70
p71
p72
p73
p74
p75
1448098.9
1448157.2
1448198.1
1448297.8
1447611.4
1447319.4
1446687.9
1446755.8
1447002.3
572908.6
572767.0
572668.3
572444.1
572682.4
573331.7
572928.6
572744.5
572202.6
4
1
4
2
4
2
1
1
3
p76
1447056.9
572047.0
3
p77
1445712.5
572360.1
1
p78
1443158.5
572300.7
1
p79
1444633.1
571382.9
1
~1 foot of very unconsolidated mud over an hard packed
layer
~3 inches of unconsolidated mud over more dense
penetrable mud - layers can be felt
~3 feet of sand/mud mixture down to impenetrable
layer.
~1-2 feet of sandy mud down to hard packed layer
Black very soft mud
Sandy mud ~6 inches down to hard packed layer
Dense sandy mud - can feel layers.
~ 2 inches of coarse sand over hard pack
Sandy mud - max penetration
Soft mud - max penetration
Soft mud - max penetration
~3-4 feet of mud over an impenetrable layer
~2 feet of soft mud over sticky hard packed layer (might
be clay)
Soft mud easy to penetrate
At least 15 feet of soft mud - thin sand layer felt near the
surface
At least 15 feet of soft mud
1. Coordinates are in feet and referenced to the Maryland State Plane Coordinate System
(1900), NAD83
2. Probes were separated into one of five categories:
1 = soft sediment
2 = sand and mud mix
3 = mud over hard material
4 = sand over hard material
5 = hard material
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 4-3
APPENDIX 5
SUBBOTTOM PROFILES ALONG
CH2M HILL SAMPLING TRANSECTS
Final Report – Geophysical Investigation - Dundalk Marine Terminal,
Baltimore Harbor, MD
Appendix 5 is available upon request.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement