Research Institute Leiden Observatory
(Onderzoekinstituut Sterrewacht Leiden)
Annual Report 2011
Sterrewacht Leiden
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Leiden University
Niels Bohrweg 2
2333 CA Leiden
Postbus 9513
2300 RA Leiden
The Netherlands
Galaxy clusters grow by mergers with other clusters and galaxy groups. These
mergers create shock waves within the intracluster medium (ICM) that can
accelerate particles to extreme energies. In the presence of magnetic fields,
relativistic electrons form large regions emitting synchrotron radiation, the socalled radio relics.
A prime example of these phenomena can be found in the galaxy cluster 1RXS
J0603.3+4214 (z = 0.225), recently discovered comparing radio and X-ray large
sky surveys. The deep radio image on the front cover taken with the Giant
Metrewave Radio Telescope (India) shows that this cluster hosts a spectacularly
large bright 1.9 Mpc radio relic (Courtesy: van Weeren and Röttgering, et al.).
Initial numerical simulations (Brüggen, van Weeren, Röttgering) indicate that
the 1.9 Mpc shock can be explained as originating from a triple cluster merging.
Studying such systems yield information on the physics of magnetic fields and
particle acceleration as well properties of gas in merging clusters.
An electronic version of this annual report is available on the web at
Production Annual Report 2011:
A. van der Tang, E. Gerstel, A.S. Abdullah, H.E. Andrews Mancilla, F.P. Israel,
M. Kazandjian, E. Deul
Sterrewacht Leiden
(Directie Onderzoeksinstituut)
K. Kuijken
Director of Education P. v.d.Werf
Institute Manager
E. Gerstel
Wetenschappelijk Directeur
Onderwijs Directeur
Supervisory Council
(Raad van advies)
Prof. Dr. Ir. J.A.M. Bleeker (Chair)
Dr. B. Baud
Drs. J.F. van Duyne
Prof. Dr. K. Gaemers
Prof. Dr. C. Waelkens
Part I
Chapter 1
1.1. Foreword
Chapter 2
2.1 Protoplanetary disks and Exoplanets
2.2 Protostars
2.3 Evolved Stars
2.4 Milky Way and Local Group Galaxies
2.5 Nearby Galaxies
2.6 Distant Galaxies
2.7 Large Scale Structure and Cosmology
2.8 Computational Astrophysics
2.9 Instrumentation Developments
2.10 Laboratorium Astrophysics and basic processes
2.11 The Raymond and Beverly-Sackler Laboratory Astrophysics
Chapter 3
3.1 Education
3.2 Degrees awarded in 2011
3.2.1 Ph.D degrees
3.2.2 Master degrees (Doctoraal diploma)
3.2.3 Bachelor degrees
3.3 Academic courses and pre-university programs
3.3.1 Courses taught by Observatory staff
3.3.2 Pre-university programs
3.3.3 Contact VWO
3.4 Popularizations and media contacts
3.4.1 Public lectures and media interviews
3.5 Universe Awareness program
3.6 IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for Developing World
3.7 The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F. Kaiser’
3.8 Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
Part II
Observatory staff
Committee membership
II.1 Observatory committees
II.2 Membership of university committees (non-Observatory)
III Science policy functions
IV Workshops, colloquia and lectures
IV.1 Workshops
IV.2 Endowed lectures
IV.3 Scientific colloquia
IV.4 Student colloquia
IV.5 Colloquia given outside Leiden
VI Observing time
VII Scientific publications
VII.1 Ph.D. theses
VII.2 Publications in refereed journals
VII.3 Publications in non-refereed journals and conference articles
VII.4 Popular articles
major events
major events
1. Foreword
Welcome to this annual report, covering activities at Leiden Observatory in
The year started rather unusually: first with a partial solar eclipse on January 4,
visible from Leiden, and a few days later with over 1000 professors taking part
in a national protest march and extraordinary academic session in the Hague on
January 21st to protest a new round of budget cuts facing the universities.
Whilst one may question the direct effect of either of these happenings, it is a
fact that the rest of the year was once again a very successful one for the
2011 marks the 150th anniversary of the completion of Frederik Kaiser's
observatory building, on a bulwark of the city of Leiden adjacent to the botanical
gardens. It also saw the completion of a thorough restoration of the building,
which housed our institute until 1974 and which is now a listed historical
monument. Most of the observatory building and the attached professors'
houses will now be used for teaching by the faculty of law, but the historical
telescopes on the roof and in the adjacent buildings remain in use for amateurs
and outreach activities.
As part of the building work a new exhibition space has been created, accessible
to all visitors of the botanical gardens. It contains an exhibition that shows the
beauty of the universe and the role our institute plays in astronomy. The
building and exhibition were festively opened by the Secretary of State for
higher education, Mr Halbe Zijlstra, on October 26. (On the same occasion a very
surprised Vincent Icke was granted a knighthood in recognition of his service to
astronomy and the popularization of science, two aspects that also featured
prominently in Kaiser's work.) With the completion of the restoration of the
'Oude Sterrewacht' a piece of our heritage has been returned to us, and to make
sure all astronomy students appreciate this link with the past the first-year
astronomy practicum course will be taught there, making use of a new teaching
telescope to be installed in one of the smaller domes on the roof.
Outreach saw other important activities as well. The universe awareness
programme UNAWE, which aims to educate young children, particularly
disadvantaged ones, about our place in the universe, was rewarded with a large
grant from the European Commission to develop its European activities. The
founder of UNAWE, George Miley, was honoured by the European
Astronomical Society with the award of the Lodewijk Woltjer lecture - as was
Michael Perryman, adjunct professor in Leiden until 2009, with the Tycho Brahe
Scientifically and technically the year saw many successes. A few highlights:
Rychard Bouwens led a study with the Hubble Space Telescope that turned up
the most distant known galaxy yet, at a redshift of 10 - signalling how far
observational cosmology has evolved, the surprise is not that the galaxy was
found but that there were not more seen like it. Many results continue to come
out of the Herschel satellite, including a discovery led by Kristensen and van
Dishoeck of high-speed water bullets emitted by a sun-like star, and the
discovery led by Hogerheijde of abundant water vapour in a proto-planetary
disk. Personally I spent about two months on Paranal to take part in the
commissioning of the OmegaCAM wide-field camera on the VLT Survey
Telescope; since then its suite of scientific surveys has started. Many more
scientific results from Sterrewachters are described in this annual report.
Also further afield new facilities continued to take shape: the LOFAR radio
telescope centered on Drente continued its rollout and commissioning, and the
ALMA sub-mm array started early science operations in the autumn with many
Leiden proposals winning time in a very competitive proposal round. In
October (as it happens, on the very day that the Nobel Prize for physics went to
astronomers for discovering the accelerating expansion of the universe), ESA
selected the Euclid cosmology mission for development, aiming for launch in
2019. The James Webb Space Telescope survived a rough ride in the US congress
and is slated for launch in 2018. ESO continued to inch its way towards a
decision to build the 39m European Extremely Large Telescope in Chile. With
access to facilities such as these the future looks bright!
This year's Oort professor was James Binney (Oxford), who delivered a series of
lectures related to our Milky Way Galaxy, and in particular what we may expect
to learn from the Gaia mission that is due for launch in 2013. Avi Loeb
(Harvard) spent a week at the Sterrewacht in the autumn, and delivered the
Sackler lecture on the epoch of reionization.
Sterrewacht staff were once again very successful in obtaining important
research grants, more important than ever for realizing our ambitions (over 2/3
of the Sterrewacht budget is now funded externally). Highlights are three grants
from the European research council, one Advanced Grant to Ewine van
Dishoeck and Starting Grants to Henk Hoekstra and Joop Schaye; an NWO-M
investment grant for Simon Portegies Zwart's AMUSE project; and an NWO
Graduate School pilot programme grant for the de Sitter programme, a joint
initiative between the Sterrewacht and the Lorentz Institute for Theoretical
Physics. But the greatest funding news of 2011 was the announcement that the
NOVA 'top-research school' will continue to receive direct funding for a further
five years, up to the end of 2018 at least: a vindication of the quality of the
research that takes place at the Dutch university astronomy departments, and a
consequence of the successful research assessment by a high-level visiting
committee that took place in the year of 2010.
The NOVA continuation contrasts starkly with the saddest development for
Dutch astronomy of 2011: the decision by the board of Utrecht University to
close its 370-year old astronomy institute. Together with the remaining NOVA
institutes a solution was found for relocating Utrecht staff: for Leiden this meant
the addition of the astronomical instrumentation research group led by
Christoph Keller. Both the instrumentation and exoplanet research at the
Sterrewacht are significantly strengthened as a result, and after all the upheaval
we are happy to be able to look forward to an exciting future for the new staff.
On the staff there were some other changes as well. Elena Rossi joined the
Sterrewacht at the beginning of the year, as new assistant professor. Elena is a
theoretician working mainly on the astrophysics of black holes. In 2011 Vincent
Icke, Jan Lub and Frank Israel reached retirement age, and in time-honoured
fashion are maintaining a desk at the Sterrewacht, continuing and even
reinvigorating their research. And it is a privilege to keep access to the wisdom
of senior colleagues!
I started this introduction by mentioning some worries about the future of
fundamental research and universities in the Netherlands. While there certainly
is cause for concern, looking around at the Sterrewacht the picture is far from
gloomy. Our institute continues to grow (now also encompassing the entire
fourth floor of the Huygens building), opportunities abound, major new
facilities are in the offing, bright PhD students continue to do top-notch research
and find jobs around the world. Plenty of cause for optimism that the
Sterrewacht will continue to flourish in 2012 and beyond.
Koen Kuijken
Scientific Director
2.1 Protoplanetary disks and exoplanets
Enormous reservoir of cold water in a circumstellar disk
Icy bodies may have delivered the oceans to the early Earth, yet little is known
about water in the ice-dominated regions of extra-solar planet-forming disks.
Using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on board of the
Herschel Space Observatory, Hogerheijde and his collaborators detected
emission lines of both spin isomers of cold water vapor coming from the disk
around the young star TW Hydrae. The rotational ground-state transition lines
of ortho- and para-water showed up only after a total observing time of 17
hours, illustrating the weakness of the features. Detailed model calculations
indicated that the lines detected probe a thin layer containing 0.005 Earth-oceans
of water coating the surface of the disk. This cold water vapor is most likely
originated from ice-coated solids near the disk surface, as ultraviolet photons
liberated individual water molecules from the ice matrix. Small as it may be, the
inferred amount of water vapor hints at a much larger underlying water-ice
reservoir equivalent to several thousand Earth oceans in mass. Interestingly, the
water’s ortho-to-para ratio is much lower than commonly observed in solar
system comets. Hogerheijde and his colleagues speculated that comets contain
heterogeneous ice mixtures which they collected across the entire solar nebula
during the early stages of planetary birth. This implies that primitive volatiles
can be mixed across large distances in planet-forming disks. Planned follow-up
observations with the Herschel Space Observatory will reveal if other
protoplanetary disks have water vapor reservoirs comparable to that of TW
Figure 1. Detection of the rotational ground state transitions of para-H2O (A) and
ortho-H2O (B) toward the TW Hya protoplanetary disk obtained with HIFI on-board the
Herschel Space Observatory.
Single-peaked CO emission profiles from protoplanetary disks
Protoplanetary disks generally exhibit strong line emission from the CO
fundamental J = 1-0 ro-vibrational band around 4.7 µm. The lines are usually
interpreted as being formed in the Keplerian disk. Bast and van Dishoeck, in
collaboration with Brown, Herczeg (both MPE, Germany) and Pontoppidan
(StScI, USA) investigated a set of eight disks that surprisingly do not show a
double-peaked profile but broad single-peaked emission lines instead (Fig. 2).
The data were part of a large VLT-CRIRES program to survey about seventy
disks at an unprecedented resolving power of 105. The lines are very
symmetric, have high line/continuum ratios and have small central velocity
shifts with respect to the star. The disks in this sub-sample are accreting onto
their central stars at high rates relative to the parent sample and show emission
lines from vibrationally excited states consistent with UV fluorescent excitation.
Analysis of their spatial distribution showed that the lines are formed within a
few AU of the central star. The most likely interpretation is that the broad-based
centrally peaked line profiles originate from a combination of emission from the
inner part (less than a few AU) of a disk –perhaps with enhanced turbulenceand a slow-moving disk wind, driven by either EUV emission or soft X-rays.
Figure 2. Observed VLT-CRIRES CO J=1-0 lines toward the young stars TW Hya, VV
Ser and AS 205. With a Keplerian model, good fits can be found for TW HyA and VV
Ser, but not for AS 205. This source is part of a new class of sources with broad-based
single-peaked line profiles, probably due to a slow molecular disk wind from an inclined
disk (from: Bast et al. 2011).
Embedded young circumstellar disks
Young circumstellar disks that are still embedded in dense molecular envelopes
may differ from their older counterparts. They have been difficult to study
because their lines can be confused with those from envelopes or outflows.
However, CO ro-vibrational emission is a potentially powerful probe of the disk
structure within a few AU of young protostars. Herczeg, Brown, van Dishoeck
and Pontoppidan detected CO line emission at 4.7 µm from 14 low-mass young
stellar objects (YSOs) with the CRIRES on the ESO-VLT. The observed profiles
showed a range of intensities and shapes, but could generally be classified into
contributions from a broad, warm component and a narrow, cool component.
The broad emission component exhibited many of the same properties as CO
infrared emission seen from more mature disks that arises in a disk with a slow
wind (Fig. 2). Warm CO absorption is detected in the outflows of six objects
with velocities up to 100 km/s, often occurring in discrete velocity components.
The partially molecular nature of the wind at its origin favors a disk wind rather
than a coronal or chromospheric wind.
Evolution of dust mineralogy from disks to planets
Oliveira and van Dishoeck, together with Olofsson (MPIA, Germany), Augereau
(Grenoble, France), Pontoppidan and Merin (ESAC Madrid, Spain), used Spitzer
Space Telescope measurements to study the dust grain mineralogy
(composition, crystallinity, and grain size distribution) of a complete sample of
protoplanetary disks in the young Serpens cluster. They compared their results
to those obtained for the young Taurus region and sources that have retained
their protoplanetary disks in the older Upper Scorpius and η Chamaeleontis
stellar clusters, using the same analysis technique for all samples. This
comparison allowed an investigation of the evolution with time of the grain
mineralogy for an unprecedented sample of 139 disks with ages of a few million
years. Disks in the different regions were found to have very similar
distributions of mean grain sizes and crystallinity fractions (10-20%) despite the
spread in mean age. Furthermore, there was no evidence of preferential grain
sizes for any given disk geometry nor was there any indication that the mean
cluster crystallinity fraction increases with mean age in the range of one to eight
million years. The main implication was that a modest level of crystallinity is
established in the disk surface early on (within less than one million years),
reaching an equilibrium that is independent of processes occurring in the disk
Figure 3. Mean crystallinity fraction vs. mean cluster age. Filled symbols represent
mean warm crystallinity, and open symbols represent the mean cold crystallinity. Data
are presented for the Taurus, Serpens, Upper Scorpius and η Cha clusters. No evolution
is seen in the 1-8 Myr period, whereas dust in the ISM and in solar system objects are
significantly different. This implies that the crystallinity fraction in disks is established
early, within one million years (from: Oliveira et al. 2011).
Young stellar objects in the Lupus clouds
Mortier, Oliveira and van Dishoeck conducted an optical spectroscopic survey
of a sample of 54 pre-main-sequence stars in the Lupus clouds using VLTFLAMES. All objects showed an infrared excess as discovered by the Spitzer
c2d program, and thus appeared to be surrounded by disks. With the derived
effective temperatures and luminosities, they constructed Hertzsprung-Russell
diagrams for the population. The sample consisted of mostly M-type stars, with
ten per cent K-type stars. The mean population age was found to be between 3.6
and 4.4 million years, depending on the model, while the mean mass was
determined to be about a third of a solar mass for either model. The distribution
of spectral types was similar to that in Chamaeleon I and IC 348. Emission in
the Hα line -occurring in half of the sample- was used to distinguish between
classical and weak-line T Tauri stars and to determine mass accretion rates.
No exoplanets seen
Kenworthy's collaborations with ETH Zurich are producing the first papers
using the anodising phase plate (APP) coronagraph on ESO's VLT. A search for
exoplanets around debris-disk host stars has produced upper limits of several
Jupiter masses. Kenworthy and Thalmann resolved a decades-old debate as to
whether the Sirius stellar system harbours a brown dwarf companion in a six
year orbit. It does not. Combining multi-epoch data from several telescopes
with orbital simulations conclusively ruled out this hypothesis. High contrast
imaging at large telescopes is limited by optical path differences within the
instruments. Kenworthy and Codona showed for the first time that these
optical differences can be measured and removed in post-processing, one step
on the path to removing these aberrations in real time at the telescope.
M-dwarf eclipsing binaries
Stars with less than half the mass of the Sun, namely M-dwarfs, are the key
target of many planet hunting surveys. Their smaller size, cooler temperature
and lower luminosity means that if an Earth-size planet passes in front of them
(a transit event), it blocks almost ten times more light than it would do if it
passed in front of a Sun-like star. Planet signatures are therefore much easier to
detect around M-dwarfs, making them our best chance for finding habitable
worlds beyond the Solar System. From these transiting events, we can derive the
planet's radius and even study its atmosphere. However, this characterization
depends on a precise knowledge of the its host star's mass and radius. For Sunlike stars, this information is extremely well-produced by stellar evolution
models, but for M-dwarfs, the models disagree with dynamically measured M-
dwarf radii, being too small by up to 10%. This can significantly change the
inference of any planetary companion's atmosphere, taking it from a water-rich
atmosphere, to a hydrogen-dominated envelope. Double-lined, M-dwarf
eclipsing binaries (MEBs) provide the most accurate and precise means for
measuring stellar masses and radii (~2-3%).
Figure 4. Radial velocity (RV) curve of the same M-dwarf eclipsing binary, both
components are clearly identified. Primary (more massive) star RVs shown by solid
circles and model fit shown with solid red line. Secondary star RVs shown by open
circles and the dashed green line is the best fitting model. Residuals of model the fits are
shown in lower panel. These data sets combined allow us to measure accurate masses
and radii of the component stars.
In an attempt to better constrain the models for low-mass stellar evolutionary
tracks, Jayne Birkby scoured the WFCAM Transit Survey light curves for MEBs,
finding sixteen systems in relatively short 1-5 day orbits. The WFCAM Transit
Survey (WTS) is an infrared photometric monitoring campaign of ~6,000 Mdwarfs in the Northern hemisphere, using the United Kingdom Infrared
Telescope (UKIRT). The survey operates as a poor-weather back-up program in
queue-scheduling mode, but produces high precision ground-based light
curves (3-5 mmag for 12<J<16 mag). Jayne and her collaborators performed
spectroscopic follow-up of three of these new MEBs, and were able to
characterize their masses and radii to 3-6% precision. All of these systems again
showed inflation above model radii of ~3-12%. Some research into this radius
anomaly has suggested that the strong magnetic fields found in short-period
MEBs causes an inflation of the radii, and while Jayne's analysis of the literature
data for MEB radii showed that the model discrepancies reduce at longer
periods (where the magnetic activity is expected to be less), a smaller radius
inflation still remains. It is possible that the effects of even very low-level
magnetic activity have been underestimated. Given that a significant fraction of
single M-dwarf stars in the Milky Way are magnetically active, it is clear that we
must be able to precisely account for the effects of magnetic fields on the
properties of M-dwarf stars, if we are to use them as a hunting-ground for the
next Earth.
Searching for exoplanet atmospheres
Snellen, de Mooij, Brogi, and Nefs worked on the characterization of extrasolar
planet atmospheres. They detected the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter
HAT-P-1b at 2.2 µm using the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. It was
the shallowest eclipse detected from the ground so far. In addition, they used
various telescopes around the world to observe the transit of super-Earth
GJ1214b from the optical to the near-infrared. In these observations, they
detected a hint of Rayleigh scattering at the shortest wavelengths. If real, this
would imply that GJ1214b is a mini-Neptune with a hydrogen-based
2.2 Protostars
Water vapour in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)
WISH (PI: van Dishoeck) is a guaranteed-time program using the ESA Herschel
Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI),
designed to probe the physical and chemical structures of young stellar objects
by observing emission from water vapor and related molecules, and to follow
the water abundance from collapsing clouds to planet-forming disks. About 80
sources are targeted, covering a wide range of luminosities and evolutionary
stages. The bulk of the WISH data was obtained in 2011 and ten new WISH
papers were published, including an overview of the program. Within the
international program, the Leiden team focused on low-mass protostars and
protoplanetary disks.
Kristensen, Yildiz, van Dishoeck, and the WISH team, discovered surprisingly
strong water vapor emission in 'bullets' at velocities of more than 50 km/s from
the source velocity, and associated with the molecular jet. The bullets showed
little variation with excitation in H2O profile shape. Inferred physical conditions
are a temperature well in excess of 150 K and density higher than 100.000 per cc,
similar to that of the broad outflow component. The H2O/CO abundance ratio
(0.05 to 1.0) is similar in the 'bullets' and the broad component, in spite of the
difference in origin. The high H2O abundance indicates that the bullets are rich
in molecular hydrogen. This result was highlighted in several national and
international press releases.
Figure 5. A star is born: Swirling gas and dust fall inward, spurring polar jets, shown
in blue in this illustration. Illustration courtesy NASA/Caltech.
Kristensen, van Dishoeck, Yildiz, San Jose-Garcia, Karska, Harsono and
collaborators also performed the first systematic survey of spectrally resolved
water emission in 29 low-mass (corresponding luminosities less than 40 solar
luminosities) protostellar objects using HIFI 557 GHz data. They used
complementary far-IR and sub-mm continuum data (including Herschel-PACS
data from WISH) to constrain the spectral energy distribution (SED) of each
source. The observed line profiles were complex and consisted of several
kinematic components, including inverse and normal P-Cygni profiles, and
bullets. The H2O/CO abundance ratio as a function of velocity is nearly the
same for all outflows independent of source luminosity or envelope mass. It
increases from 001 to 0.1 at velocities above 10 km/s. The different H2O profile
components showed a clear evolutionary trend: in the young Class 0 sources the
emission is dominated by outflowing gas from an infalling envelope. When
large-scale infall diminishes during the Class I phase, the outflow also weakens.
First hyper-fine-resolved FIR OH spectrum from an HII region
OH is an important molecule both in the H2O chemistry and in the cooling
budget of star-forming regions. As part of the WISH program, Wampfler (ETH),
together with van Dishoeck, Kristensen and the WISH team, obtained the first
hyper-fine-resolved high-resolution HIFI spectrum of the OH triplet at 1837.8
GHz (163.1 µm) toward the high-mass star-forming region W3 IRS5. The
Herschel data allowed a direct comparison of OH/H2O in different physical
components. The line profile showed two components: a narrow (FWHM 4-5
km/s) and a broad (FWHM 30 km/s) component. The narrow emission line
indicated an OH/H2O abundance ratio of around 0.001 for temperatures over
100 K, and around unity for temperatures below 100 K. This is consistent with
the current picture of the dense cloud chemistry with freeze-out and
photodesorption. The broad component was attributed to emission from an
outflow. Its abundance ratio of OH/H2O > 0.03 can be explained by the presence
of a fast J-type shock or a slower UV-irradiated C-type shock.
High-J CO survey of the NGC1333 low-mass protostars
The NGC1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B sources drive prominent bipolar outflows.
Most studies thus far have concentrated on the colder parts (temperature below
30 K) of these regions. Yildiz and collaborators used the new dual frequency 2×7
pixel 650/850 GHz array receiver CHAMP+ mounted on the APEX telescope to
obtain a fully sampled 4'x4' map in the 12CO J=6–5 line. APEX and CHAMP+
represent (prototype) ALMA and HIFI technology. They also collected
complementary Herschel-HIFI and ground-based measurements of CO lines
and their isotopologues, from J=1–0 up to 10–9 (upper energy level of about 300
K) at the same source positions and used these to construct velocity-resolved CO
ladders and rotational diagrams. The CHAMP+ maps beautifully revealed the
shocked gas entrained along the outflow walls, at typical temperatures of 100 K.
At other positions, the J=6–5 line profiles are narrow indicating UV excitation.
Narrow 13CO J=6-5 data directly and for the first time revealed the UV heated
gas distribution. Its mass was found to be comparable to that of the outflow,
which implies that UV-heating can affect the gas as much as the outflows.
Modelling of the C18O lines yielded evidence for a CO ice evaporation zone close
to the protostars. However, the inner abundances were determined to be below
the canonical value of CO/H2=0.0027. This indicates some degree of CO
processing into other species on the grains.
Complex molecules toward low-mass protostars
Complex organic molecules in the gas-phase are commonly detected toward
high-mass hot protostellar cores, but detections toward low-mass sources are
rare. To obtain a larger sample, Oberg (Harvard, USA), van der Marel,
Kristensen and van Dishoeck targeted three low-mass protostars in Serpens
with the IRAM 30m telescope. From infrared observations, these sources were
known to be rich in CH3OH ice. Based on the laboratory experiments by Oberg
et al., they were thus predicted to have complex organic molecules. Indeed,
CH3CHO and CH3OCH3 are detected toward all sources, HCOOCH3 toward
two sources, but C2H5OH not at all. The derived abundances varied by an order
of magnitude from source to source but the range of abundances compared well
with other beam-averaged observations of low-mass sources. Unlike in
previous studies, abundances were found to be of the same order of magnitude
toward low- and high-mass protostars, but HCOOCH3 was found to be
relatively more important toward low-mass protostars. This is consistent with a
sequential ice photo-chemistry, dominated by CHO-containing products at low
temperatures and early times.
High-mass star formation ages
In the context of the formation of high mass stars, Klaassen and collaborators
undertook a study to establish whether molecular infall and outflow tracers
could be used to determine the relative ages of different stages of high mass
protostellar evolution. They used SiO to trace recent outflow activity, and a
combination of the optically thick HCO+ with optically thin H13CO+ to trace
infall activity.
Non-detections of SiO, or improper signatures in the HCO+ isotopologues
suggested that either outflow or infall (respectively) have stopped for that
source. Their sample of 45 sources was taken to contain High Mass Protostellar
Objects (HMPOs) which have yet to form HII regions, and two groupings based
on the size of the HII region; Hyper-compact or Ultra-compact. The results of
this study indicated that the intensity of the outflow shock tracer (SiO) increases
with evolutionary stage, and that each source in the last stage with an infall
detection also shows evidence of recent outflow activity.
Methanol masers and high-mass star-formation
Torstensson and van Langevelde obtained some significant results comparing
data from the European VLBI Network (EVN) on methanol masers with the
large-scale thermal methanol distribution, using JCMT HARP data at 338 GHz.
For these sources an analysis had been made of the methanol excitation and this
was also analysed in terms of an outflow originating from the central object,
presumably where methanol is released into the gas phase. In a sub-sample with
confined (young) outflows, this outflow appeared to be along the axis of the
rings of methanol that were detected in collaboration with Bartkiewicz (Torun,
Poland). Although limited to a few sources, this result constrained the motion of
the methanol in these rings to be predominantly infall, as was earlier found for
the archetypical source Cep A.
Figure 6. The ring of methanol masers (left) of G23.389+00.185 is oriented
perpendicular to the much larger-scale outflow detected in thermal methanol lines
The methanol masers featured in several other projects by van Langevelde and
Torstensson. Together with Vlemmings (Bonn, Germany and Onsala, Sweden)
and Surcis (Bonn, Germany) they made progress in interpreting the methanol
and water maser Zeeman effect and observed linear polarization, for example in
the source NGC7538-IRS1. In addition they carried out a project with Rygl
(INAF-IFSI, Rome, Italy) and Brunthaler (MPI, Bonn, Germany) to measure
parallax distance measurements and investigated the membership of methanol
maser complexes in the Cygnus X region, demonstrating that AFGL 2591 is in
fact a background object.
2.3 Evolved stars
Circumstellar matter around on evolved stars
Amiri completed, together with van Langevelde and Vlemmings (Bonn), her
studies of the shaping of evolved stars circumstellar material using maser
observations. They processed data from a multi-epoch survey on water masers
in evolved stars. In this project six new water fountain candidates were
identified. In particular, the detection of H2O masers of the supposedly dead
OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448 are intriguing. As expected, they also found
significant variability in flux density and spectral profile for the H2O masers.
The observations suggested a good correlation between the stellar pulsation and
the H2O maser variability and led to an estimated lifetime of 60 years for the
H2O masers in the post-AGB phase.
Compact object accretion
At the centre of most local galaxies we infer the presence of a supermassive
black hole with a mass in excess of one million times the mass of our Sun. Most
of these black holes are quiescent: they do not seem to accrete mass at large,
detectable, rates. Already more than 25 years ago, it was predicted that a star
could be torn apart and feed a black hole, producing an observable flare. The
same reasoning applies to much less massive compact stellar objects in the
Milky Way. The resulting flares would flag the presence of an otherwise
quiescent compact object, and teach us about the physics of the interaction and
of the interacting bodies, and point out sources of gravitational waves.
However, until recently, there had been no significant theoretical or
observational progress. This changed at the end of 2010 and in 2011, when the
first three multiwavelengths observations of apparent tidal disruption events
were claimed.
Figure 7. GRB 101225A light curves in five energy bands: X-rays at 1 keV (black),
ultraviolet at 2030 Å (green) and 2634 Å (blue), and optical at 6400 Å (R band, red)
and 7,700 Å (I band, orange). Error bars, 1*σ*. The solid lines are the model by Lodato &
Rossi 2010. The model is valid up to the shaded violet region. The insert highlights the
early X-ray variability,which happens on a timescale consistent with the model. (from
Campana et al. 2011, Nature, 480, 69)
Rossi and a group of observers led by Campana modelled the data for one of
these events, the flare occurring on December 25, 2010 (see Fig. 7). An absolute
novelty was that they were able to fit data taken simultaneously in three bands
(optical, UV and soft X-ray). This was the first multiwavelengths fitting of a tidal
disruption event. They used the theoretical model by Rossi and Lodato (Milan,
Italy), who predicted the monochromatic light-curves produced by the accreting
matter in both the super-Eddington and sub-Eddington phases. The result was
quite surprising: if the event was Galactic, the "Christmas burst" was the caused
by a minor body (only the size of a big comet) falling onto a neutron star. The
impact of comets onto the Sun has been observed several times, but this would
be the first time that a similar event was observed outside our solar System.
However, Rossi and collaborators could not quite rule out the possibility that
the event was extra-galactic.
2.4 Milky Way and Local Group galaxies
Bayesian statistics and star-bursts in the Local Group
Martínez-Galarza, Brandl, and co-workers developed a novel approach, based
on Bayesian analysis, to fit the Spitzer infrared spectrometer measurements of
star-bursts using the spectral energy distribution (SED) models constructed by
Groves and collaborators. They demonstrated the capabilities, potential and
reliability of this novel technique using the well-known giant HII region
complexes 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud and NGC 604 in the spiral
galaxy M33. Both galaxies are low-metallicity dwarf members of the Local
Group. The in-depth analysis of these well-resolved local regions established
that important physical parameters, such as cluster mass, cluster age, interstellar
medium pressure, and covering fraction of photodissociation regions, can also
be derived for any more distant unresolved starburst region. The new technique
thus has a much more general application, of great importance to studies of the
more distant universe.
Gas and dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Israel is a member of the large scientific collaborations (S4MC, SAGE, Heritage)
studying the Magellanic Clouds in the infrared using the Spitzer and Herschel
Space Observatories. This year saw the publication of some major results on the
Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC).
The SMC is a unique laboratory for the study of the life-cycle of dust given its
low metallicity (~1/5 solar) and proximity (~60 kpc). The so-called SAGE-SMC
Spitzer Legacy program has the goals of studying the dust present in the
interstellar medium, the production of dust by evolved stars, and the
consumption of dust by star formation. The full SMC was mapped, including
the Body, Wing, and Tail in seven bands from 3.6 to 160 µm. The resulting
mosaics and point source catalogues were made available to the community.
In a comparison of the infrared colors of the SMC and those of other nearby
galaxies, it was found that the 8 to 24 µm ratio is somewhat lower and the 70 to
160 µm ratio is somewhat higher than the average. The global infrared spectral
energy distribution shows that the SMC has a three times lower aromatic
emission/PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) abundance compared to most
nearby galaxies.
This was pursued by mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping of six SMC starforming regions, yielding good detections of PAH emission in all of them, and
greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been
spectroscopically detected in the SMC. The PAH emission in the SMC is
characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 µm features relative to the 11.3 µm feature,
and weak 8.6 and 17.0 µm features. From these observations and published
laboratory studies, it was concluded that PAHs in the SMC are smaller and less
ionized than those in higher-metallicity galaxies. Analysis of PAH destruction
studies suggested that a size distribution shifted towards smaller PAHs is not
the result of ISM processing, but reflects differences in the formation of PAHs at
low metallicity. The observed PAH deficit may be a consequence of PAHs
forming with smaller average sizes thereby being more susceptible to
destruction under typical ISM conditions.
An important study involved the comparison of the atomic gas, the molecular
gas, and the recent star formation rate (SFR) inferred from H-alpha in the SMC.
The confusion of conversion factor effects and the impact of metallicity on the
formation and star formation efficiency of molecular gas was avoided by using
infrared dust emission and local dust-to-gas ratios to construct a map of the
molecular gas distribution independent of CO emission. On scales of 200 pc to 1
kpc characteristic molecular gas depletion time are of the order of ~1.6 Gyr, as is
also the case in large spiral galaxies on similar spatial scales. On much larger
scales, this depletion time decreases to ~0.6 Gyr as a consequence of the
presence of a diffuse H-alpha component, and on much smaller scales increases
to ~7.5 Gyr as the H-alpha and H2 distributions differ in detail. The systematic
uncertainties are a factor of 2-3, and the impact of metallicity on the physics of
star formation in molecular gas does not appear to be the governing factor.
The relation between the rate of star formation and the total (H 2+HI) gas surface
density is steep (with a power-law index ~2.2), which resembles that observed
in the outer disks of large spiral galaxies. At a fixed total gas surface density the
SMC has a 5-10 times lower molecular gas fraction (and star formation rate) than
large spiral galaxies. The recent models by Krumholz et al. and Ostriker et al.
applied to the observations suggest that at all spatial scales the SMC should
have a low fraction of cold, gravitationally-bound gas. A combined model that
incorporates both large scale thermal and dynamical equilibrium and cloudscale photodissociation region structure reproduces the SMC measurements and
also implies the low fraction of cold atomic gas required in the SMC.
2.5 Nearby galaxies
Molecular gas in the edge-on star-forming galaxy NGC4631
Israel is part of a team using the JCMT to obtain sub-millimeter continuum and
CO line maps of a statistically representative sample of late type galaxies. As
part of this survey, a full map of the CO (J=3-2) emission covering the disk of the
edge-on galaxy, NGC 4631 was obtained. This galaxy is known for its
spectacular gaseous halo. The strongest CO emission occurs within a radius of 5
kpc, but weaker disk emission is detected out to radii of 12 kpc. This provides
NGC4631 with the most extensive molecular component yet seen in this galaxy.
The CO (J=3-2) emission more closely follows the hot dust component, rather
than the cold dust. This is consistent with this CO transition being a good tracer
of star formation. Star formation occurs throughout the disk, and is not
particularly concentrated towards the center. At the center, excitation conditions
are typical of galaxy disks rather than of central star-bursts. The SFE suggests
long gas consumption timescales (more than a thousand million years).
The velocity field is dominated by a steeply rising rotation curve in the region of
the central molecular ring followed by a flatter curve in the disk. A very steep
gradient in the rotation curve is observed at the nucleus, providing the first
evidence for a central concentration of mass: a dynamical mass of 50 million
solar masses within a radius of 282 pc. The velocity field also shows anomalous
features indicating the presence of molecular outflows; one of them is associated
with a previously observed expanding CO shell. Consistent with these outflows
is the presence of a thick (up to 1.4 kpc) CO disk. It appears that the interaction
between NGC 4631 and its companion(s) has agitated the disk and also initiated
star formation, which was likely higher in the past than it is now. These may be
Formation of massive clusters in NGC 7552
Brandl, van der Werf and Rosenberg completed their mid-infrared study of the
nearby galaxy NGC 7552 which shows a remarkable circumnuclear ring of
starburst activity. About one in five of all spiral galaxies display star-burst
activity in nuclear rings, but little is known about the ways in which the starburst ignites and propagates within the ring, in the end leading to the formation
of massive stellar clusters. By combining observations from the VISIR and
SINFONI instruments on the VLT, from the Hubble Space Telescope and from
the Spitzer Space Telescope, they succeeded in identifying and characterizing
several massive, young, and heavily embedded star clusters. Upon
consideration of the dynamics in the nuclear region, they concluded that the
inflow of interstellar gas along the bars to the nuclear region does not directly
lead to the formation of massive clusters but that, instead, massive cluster
formation is governed by the physical conditions prevalent in the local
[FeII] emission and supernova rates in starburst galaxies
Supernovae are responsible for most of the chemical enrichment of the universe,
notably by very heavy elements, and supernova rates are tied to the recent star
formation history of a galaxy. Global supernova rates are often derived from the
non-thermal radio continuum luminosity, but correlations between nearinfrared iron ([FeII]) line emission and supernovae have also been noted.
In interstellar space, almost all iron is locked in dust grains. However, shock
waves such as those created by supernovae can shatter dust particles and thus
release the iron into the gas-phase where it is excited by the interstellar radiation
field. This makes [FeII] line emission a useful diagnostic for tracing shocks.
Nevertheless, a quantitative connection between near infrared [FeII] emission
and supernova rates has been lacking for a long time.
In particular, it was not clear how radio continuum and [FeII] line emission
could be reliably related to supernova rates. Such a relationship is desirable
because near-infrared [FeII] observations are relatively straightforward to
obtain, and could thus be used to estimate global supernova rates where
individual radio supernova remnants cannot be resolved.
To this end, Rosenberg, Van der Werf and Israel studied the bright central
regions of eleven near-by star-forming galaxies, using VLT-SINFONI
observations. They performed a pixel-by-pixel analysis of the correlation
between [FeII] emission, and supernova rates independently derived from
observed Brackett-gamma equivalent widths and luminosity's evaluated with
Starburst-99 models. The comparison of the [FeII] luminosity with these
supernova rates revealed a tight linear correlation that is quantitatively wellestablished. They also found an intriguing hint that a qualitatively similar, but
quantitatively different relation applies (U)LIRGs. This is under further
Water under extreme conditions
The ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231, showing signs of both active
black hole accretion and enhanced star formation, exhibits very strong rotational
lines of water vapor in the far-infrared. The water line strengths are comparable
to those of the CO rotational lines. High-redshift quasars also show such CO
and H2O line properties, but starburst galaxies, such as M82, lack the very
strong H2O lines although they do have show strong CO lines.
In order to understand the origin of these strong water lines, Meijerink, in
collaboration with Cazaux and Spaans (both Groningen), explored the
possibility of enhancing the gas phase H2O abundance in environments exposed
to strong X-ray emission, using bare interstellar carbonaceous dust grains as a
catalyst. The assumptions in their study were two-fold: (1) cloud-cloud
collisions cause C and J shocks, and strip the grains of their ice layers. (2) The
presence of an internally-created UV field by processing X-rays from the
accreting black hole does not allow to reform the ice.
Meijerink and co-workers first determined the formation rates of both OH and
H2O on dust grains at temperature of 10-60 K, using both Monte Carlo and rate
equation simulations, and then derived analytic expressions for the formation of
OH and H2O using bare dust grains as a catalyst. They found that oxygen atoms
arriving on the dust are released into the gas phase in the form of hydroxyl and
water vapor. This conversion is relatively efficient due to the chemistry
occurring on dust (about 30 percent for oxygen converted into hydroxyl and 60
per cent for oxygen converted into water. At temperatures above 40 K, the
efficiencies rapidly decline.
They also added the acquired formation rates to their X-ray chemistry code,
that allows calculation of the thermal and chemical structure of the interstellar
medium near an active galactic nucleus. When the gas is mostly atomic,
molecule formation on dust is dominant over the gas-phase route, which is then
quenched by the low H2 abundance. It is possible to enhance the warm (more
than 200 K) water abundance by an order of magnitude in X-ray exposed
environments. This helps to explain the observed bright water lines in nearby
and high-redshift ULIRGs and Quasars.
Mechanical heating of molecular gas in galaxy centers
Many galaxy centers are characterized by compact and bright CO emission with
a high kinetic temperature. These temperatures, and the specific excitation of
certain molecules, are not easy to explain in a satisfactory way by assuming UV
or X-ray photon heating. For this reason, Khazandjian, Meijerink, Pelupessy,
Spaans and Israel have been studying the importance of turbulent heating on
interpreting the observations and understanding the physical properties of these
galaxy centers. As a first step, they considered equilibrium models of the
interstellar medium (ISM). They modeled the ISM as a one dimensional
photodominated region, taking into account the effect of additional turbulent
energy dissipated through supernova induced shocks. They could show
convincingly that mechanical heating must always be taken into account in
interpreting basic ISM diagnostics, in any case whenever it exceeds 1% of the
UV luminosity of the starburst region. They also concluded that the water
abundance is enhanced by the high equilibrium temperatures, even to the extent
that in some cases water column densities may approach those of CO (which is
the second most abundant molecule after molecular hydrogen). Strong water
lines have been detected with Herschel in starburst galaxies such as M82, and
the observations thus confirm the idea that water can be an excellent diagnostic
for turbulence in galaxy centers.
Dwarf galaxies in clusters
The first high-resolution semi-analytical model extending well into the dwarf
regime was released in 2011. This made it possible, for the first time, to compare
the properties of dwarf galaxies in nearby clusters with models. A first basic
comparison was made by Weinmann and collaborators from China and
Germany for the nearby Virgo, Coma, Fornax and Perseus clusters. They found
that the models were in reasonable agreement with observations. Remaining
open problems were 1) a quite large dwarf-to-giant ratio and 2) a quite large red
fraction of satellite galaxies in the model. Both of these problems indicate that
despite much effort in the recent years, models are still unable to correctly
capture the evolution of satellite galaxies, perhaps hinting towards a
fundamental problem in low mass galaxy evolution.
Figure 8. The ratio between dwarf galaxies (-19<Mr<-16.7) and giant galaxies (-19>Mr)
in the Guo et al. (2011) model (black crosses), and in observations (filled and empty
AGN feedback
Holt continued to work on active galaxy nucleus (AGN) feedback in the form of
outflows in young, radio-loud AGN, in collaboration with Tadhunter
(Sheffield), Morganti (ASTRON) and Emonts (CSIRO). They presented a new
method for measuring the gas densities in these sources, along with the first
accurate calculation of the outflow energetics in a compact radio source and
ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG). Surprisingly, they had to conclude to
energies significantly lower than required by theoretical models. The project
has been extended to a larger sample of sources to determine the total energy in
AGN-feedback (so far, only the warm ionized and cold atomic gas phases had
been studied) and its dependencies on various AGN and host galaxy properties.
This project has now won a significant amount of observing time on the Hubble
Space Telescope, the ESO Very Large telescope, and the William Herschel
2.6 Distant Galaxies
High redshift sub-millimetre galaxies
Van der Werf and Rahmati carried out a comprehensive analysis of the number
counts of milometer galaxies, detected at 850 µm and shorter wavelengths. In
their parametric model, they analyzed how each parameter is constrained by
observational data. They found that the 850 µm source counts and redshift
distribution depended strongly on the shape of the luminosity evolution
function, but only weakly on the details of the spectral energy distribution of the
galaxies. Based on this observation, they derived the best-fit evolutionary model
using only the 850 µm counts and red-shift distribution as constraints. They
then compared their best-fit model to observed source counts at shorter and
longer wavelengths, and showed that their model on the one hand reproduced
the 70 and 1100 µm source counts remarkably well, but on the other hand fell
short in predicting the counts at intermediate wavelengths. Further analysis
revealed that the discrepancy arises at low redshifts, indicating that revision of
the adopted SED library towards lower dust temperatures (at a fixed infrared
luminosity) is required. This modification is equivalent to a population of cold
galaxies existing at low redshifts.
Van der Werf also collaborated with Smail (Durham, UK), Weiss (MPfIR,
Germany), Walter (MPIA, Germany) and Wardlow (Irvine, USA) to derive
photometric redshifts from 17-band optical to mid-infrared photometry of 78
robust radio, 24 µm and Spitzer IRAC counterparts to 72 of the 126 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) selected at 870 µm by LABOCA observations in the
Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S). The median photometric
redshift of identified SMGs was z = 2.2, and 11 (~15%) high-redshift (z > 3)
SMGs were identified. This confirmed that the bulk of the undetected SMGs are
coeval with those detected in the radio/mid-infrared. At most ~15% of all the
SMGs are below the flux limits of the IRAC observations and thus may lie at z >
3 and hence at most ~30% of all SMGs have z > 3. The team estimated that the
full 870 µm population brighter than 4 mJy has a median redshift of 2.5. The
median characteristic dust temperature of these SMGs is 37.4 K. The infrared
luminosity function shows that SMGs at z = 2-3 typically have higher farinfrared luminosity's and luminosity density than those at z = 1-2. This is
mirrored in the evolution of the star formation rate density (SFRD) for SMGs
which peaks at z~2. The maximum contribution of bright SMGs to the global
SFRD (~5% for 870 µm SNGs brighter than 4 mJy or 50% extrapolated to 1 mJy)
also occurs at z~2.
Water emission from a QSO at z = 3.9
Van der Werf obtained, together with Meijerink, Loenen and Berciano Alba,
Spaans (Groningen), Cox (IRAM, France), Weiss (MPIfR, Germany) and Walter
(MPIA, Germany) the first detection of water emission in a high-redshift QSO.
In total four rotational emission lines of water vapor were detected (Fig. 9).
While the lowest water lines are collisionally excited in clumps of warm, dense
gas, the excitation of the higher lines turns out to be dominated by the intense
local infrared radiation field. Since only collisionally excited emission
contributes to gas cooling, water is not a significant coolant of the warm
molecular gas. The derived excitation model requires the radiatively excited gas
to be located in an extended region of high 100 µm opacity. Locally, such
extended infrared-opaque regions are found only in the nuclei of ultra-luminous
infrared galaxies. The authors proposed a model where the infrared-opaque
circumnuclear cloud, which is penetrated by the X-ray radiation field of the
QSO nucleus, contains clumps of massive star formation where the water
emission originates. The radiation pressure from the intense local infrared
radiation field exceeded the thermal gas pressure by about an order of
magnitude, suggesting close to Eddington-limited star formation in these
Figure 9. Spectra of water emission lines from a QSO at z=3.9. The horizontal axis
shows velocity relative to z=3.911. The red curves indicate Gaussian fits to each
Dusty gravitationally lensed galaxies at high redshift
Van der Werf worked with the Herschel ATLAS team in an observational study
of gravitationally lensed high redshift galaxies discovered as part of Herschel
ATLAS. This project is the largest open-time key project carried out on the
Herschel Space Observatory, covering 570 deg of the extra-galactic sky, 4 times
larger than all the other Herschel extragalactic surveys combined, in five far-
infrared and sub-millimetre bands. A breakthrough was the first demonstration
that blind CO redshifts can be obtained for these objects with wide-band
spectrographs. This led to the detection of CO(1-0) with the Green Bank
Telescope (led by Frayer) and higher CO lines with the IRAM Plateau de Bure
Interferometer (led by Cox), as well as detection of [CII] emission with the
SPIRE FTS on the Herschel Space Observatory (led by Valtchanov) in several
Long-term monitoring of a lensed quasar
Loenen and Berciano Alba were monitoring on a long-term basis (over a period
of about 4 years) two quasar images in the gravitational lens system B1600+434
at 8.5 GHz, using the Very Large Array (VLA). They used the resulting two light
curves to determine an accurate time delay between the two images. Once the
light curves were corrected for this time delay and their inherent difference in
flux, they were used to investigate the presence of extrinsic variability. Any
difference in variability between the two light curves is caused by the different
light paths through the lens galaxy. The observed extrinsic variability can be
ascribed to either scintillation/scattering by the ISM, or to micro lensing by
massive compact objects in the lens galaxy.
Figure 10. The red and blue points show the light-curves of the two quasar images in
B1600+434. The green points represent the blue light-curve after correcting for the time
delay and flux ratio. The difference between the red and green points clearly illustrates
presence of extrinsic variability.
Distant emission line galaxies
Shirazi and Brinchmann used a very large sample of 2865 emission line galaxies
with strong nebular HeII 4686 emission in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data
Release 7 in their attempt to investigate the origin of this line emission. Current
stellar population models only yield significant HeII 4686 emission when the
extreme-ultraviolet continuum is dominated by Wolf-Rayet stars. However,
while Shirazi and Brinchmann found Wolf-Rayet emission in all metal-rich
galaxies, they discovered that at lower metallicities a steadily increasing fraction
of galaxies lacked signs of Wolf-Rayet emission. In order to understand this
puzzling result, they explored a number of possible explanations.
They speculated that at very low metallicities stellar population models may be
characterized by much higher temperatures than currently expected. This
would, for instance, be the case if some stars rotate fast enough to evolve
homogeneously. Such models might better explain the origin of the HeII 4686
line and also the metallicity trend of the He II star-forming sample better.
Nevertheless, the case is far from closed, and a more definitive explanation of
this unexpected behaviour awaits the completion of a significant follow-up
Figure 11. The fraction of objects with detected WR features in the HeII star-forming
sample as a function of gas-phase oxygen abundance. The triangles show the median
fraction in each abundance bin and the error bars the 16%-84% scatter around the
median. While essentially all high-metallicity star-forming galaxies with HeII 4686
nebular emission show WR features, this fraction drops rapidly at metallicities below 12
+ log O/H ~ 8.2. The uncertainty in this transition abundance is 0.1 dex and depends
on the metallicity calibration method adopted.
Galaxy mass functions
Giodini studied the stellar mass distribution of galaxies for 160 X-ray detected
galaxy groups in the COSMOS survey and compared it with that of galaxies in
the field, in order to investigate the effects of environment on the build-up of
stellar mass. This was the deepest mass function ever studied for galaxy groups,
describing the distribution of mass at redshift ~0.4 down to galaxy masses
comparable to that of the Small Magellanic Cloud. She highlighted, for the first
time, differences in the build-up of the passive population in the field, which
imprint features in the distribution of stellar mass of passive galaxies with total
masses less than 30 billion suns (Fig. 12). The gradual diminishing of the effect
with increasing group mass indicates that the growing influence of the
environment in bound structures is responsible for the build-up of a quenched
component at the lower group masses.
In a different vein, the stellar mass distribution of star-forming galaxies is
similar in all environments, and can be described by a single Schechter function
in groups as well as in the field. Little evolution is seen up to redshift unity.
Nevertheless, at z=0.2–0.4 low-mass groups tend to have a characteristic mass
for star-forming galaxies which is 50% above that of higher-mass groups. This
might be interpreted as a reduced effect of environmental processes in such
systems. Giodini also analyzed the distribution of specific star formation as a
function of stellar mass in groups and in the field, and found that groups
showed on average a lower SFR at z<0.8. Accordingly, she found that the
fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with red-shift in all environments, but
at a faster pace in the denser ones.
Figure 12. The build-up of the passive galaxies population in high/low mass groups and
the field, as described by their galaxy stellar mass distribution.
Double-blind Hα + [OII] study at z~1.5
Sobral has conducted the first wide and deep dual narrow-band survey to select
Hα and [OII] line emitters at z = 1.47 with the UKIRT and Subaru telescopes on
Mauna Kea, Hawaii (USA). The Hα survey detected about 200 sources over 0.7
square degree, while the much deeper [OII] survey detected about 1400 emitters
in a matched co-moving volume of 250.000 cubic mega-parsec. The combined
survey resulted in the identification of 190 simultaneous Hα and [OII] emitters.
The Hα and [OII] luminosity functions were shown to evolve significantly from
z ~ 0 in a consistent way. Sobral found a star formation rate density of the
Universe at z = 1.5 of 0.17 Msun/yr/Mpc3. Furthermore, by using a large
comparison sample at z~0.1 extracted from the SDSS, Sobral calibrated the
[OII]/Hα line ratios as probes of dust-extinction. Hα emitters at z~1.47 show on
average one magnitude of extinction, similar to the SDSS sources at z~0.
Although dust extinction and SFR are correlated, the relation evolves by about
~0.5 mag from z~1.5 to z~0, with z~0 relations over-predicting the dust
extinction corrections at high-z by that amount. Stellar mass is found to be a
much more fundamental extinction predictor, with the relation between mass
and extinction being valid at both z~0 and z~1.5.
Star formation, environment, and stellar mass at z~1 from the
HiZELS-Hα survey
Sobral studied environment and stellar mass of a large sample of star-forming
Hα emitters at z= 0.84 from the High-z Emission Line Survey (HiZELS) split
over two fields (COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS). By taking advantage of a truly
panoramic coverage of a wide range of environments, ranging from the field to
a rich cluster, he could show that both stellar mass and environment play crucial
roles in determining the properties of star-forming galaxies. Specific star
formation rates (sSFRs) decline with stellar mass in all environments, and the
fraction of Hα star-forming galaxies declines sharply from 0.4 for galaxies with
masses around 10 billion Msun to effectively zero for galaxies with masses
exceeding 300 billion Msun. This confirms that mass-downsizing is generally in
place at z~1. The fraction of star-forming galaxies also falls sharply as a function
of local environmental density from 0.4 in the field to about zero in rich groups
and clusters.
When star formation does occur in such high density regions, it is mostly
dominated by potential mergers and, indeed, if only non-merging star-forming
galaxies are considered, then the environment and mass trends are even
stronger and are qualitatively similar at all masses and environments,
respectively, as in the local Universe. The median SFR of Hα emitters at z = 0.84
increases with density for both field and intermediate (group or cluster
outskirts) densities. Interestingly, Sobral only found the relation between
median SFR and environment to be valid for low- to moderate-mass galaxies
and not for the most massive star-forming galaxies. Overall, his observations
provided a detailed view over a sufficiently large range of mass and
environment to reconcile previous observational claims: stellar mass is the
primary predictor of star formation activity at z~1, but the environment, while
initially enhancing the median SFR of (lower mass) star-forming galaxies, is
ultimately responsible for suppressing star formation activity in all galaxies
above surface densities of 10-30 per square mega-parsec (group and cluster
An elusive star-formation plateau
A recent puzzling discovery in extra-galactic astronomy was the observed
plateau in the specific star formation rate of galaxies with stellar mass of about
three billion solar masses at redshifts of 2 to 7. In collaboration with researchers
in Germany and Israel, Weinmann showed that this plateau is in disagreement
with basic predictions of semi-analytical models based on dark matter
simulations. It was shown that even if these models are tuned freely it is very
hard to reproduce the plateau, while at the same time matching other basic
constraints like the evolution in the stellar mass function. This indicates that the
plateau challenges current models at a rather basic level.
Figure 13. This figure shows the specific star formation rate plateau as observed (broad
grey band) in comparison with several simple semi-analytical models (lines).
Star formation in high redshift galaxies
Whitaker, Labbe, Franx and collaborators used a large survey with the
NEWFIRM camera on the Kitt Peak 4m telescope to reveal that galaxies nearly
always show one of two distinct behaviours: they are either forming stars at a
high rate or they are hardly forming any new stars at all. This "bi-modal"
behaviour of galaxies had been seen in today's Universe, but the new study
indicates that galaxies have behaved this way for nearly 12 billion years, or 85%
of the history of the Universe.
Spitler, Labbe, and collaborators used the first data of the Z-FOURGE survey on
Magellan to discover a distant galaxy cluster hiding in plain view. Galaxy
clusters are the urban centers of the universe and can contain thousands of
galaxies, yielding important clues on the influence of environment on galaxy
evolution. The newly found cluster is one of the earliest examples found to date.
Search for extremely young galaxies
In collaboration with other members of the HUDF09 team, Bouwens conducted
a search for z = 10 galaxy candidates using the deepest existing near-infrared
observations. He reported one probable z = 10 candidate, which likely existed
only 480 million years after the Big Bang. His team used the discovery of this
candidate to constrain the luminosity function of galaxies at redshift 10, and as a
gauge on the build-up and evolution of galaxies at early times. The discovery
appeared in press in late January in the journal Nature and received substantial
attention in the media.
Bouwens and collaborators continued work on the luminosity function of
galaxies at very high redshift. In particular, they used the new WFC3/IR
observations over the CDF-South and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to study the
faint-end slope of galaxies at z = 5-8, and explored the implications for the
reionization of the universe by galaxies. They concluded that galaxies could
probably ionizer the universe for plausible values of the escape fraction and
clumping factor. Bouwens and coworkers also used the ultra-deep WFC3/IR
observations from the HUDF09 program and the wide-area WFC3/IR
observations over the CDF-South GOODS field to study the rest-frame UV
colors of galaxies in the early universe. They characterized the dependence of
these UV colors on the red-shift and luminosity of galaxies, and found that the
UV colors become bluer at higher redshift and lower luminosity's. They then
used the derived UV color distributions to determine the approximate dust
extinction in high-redshift galaxies and to apply a correction for this dust
Figure 14. Image of a highly probable candidate galaxy found just 480 million years
after the Big Bang. Left panel shows the position of the candidate galaxy within the
Hubble Ultra Deep Field (the most sensitive near-infrared exposure ever obtained by
humanity). The right images show zoom-in images of the candidate.
Proto Clusters
One of the most successful methods to push the search for galaxy clusters
beyond z = 2 is targeting high-z radio galaxies. In the model of hierarchical
galaxy formation the massive radio galaxies should be located in dense
environments and are thus possible members of galaxy cluster progenitors.
These structures are often referred to as ’protoclusters’, because at these
redshifts galaxy clusters are likely still in the process of formation and therefore
have not yet virialised. Kuiper, Miley, Röttgering, Hatch (Nottingham) and
Venemans (Heidelberg) carried out spectroscopic follow-up observations of
Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) selected in the field surrounding the radio galaxy
MRC 0316-257 at z ~ 3.13. A combined analysis of all the data indicated that two
proto-clusters might be present in this field. Simple merger dynamics indicated
that the observed relative velocity of 1600 km/s can be reproduced if the two
structures have masses of 5x1014 solar mass and have starting separations of
around 2.5 to 3 Mpc. Kuiper, Miley, Röttgering, Hatch (Nottingham) and
Venemans (Heidelberg) and others used the recently commissioned red tunable
filter on the Gran Telescopio Canarias in the search for protoclusters galaxies in
the field centered on the z = 4.413 radio galaxy 6C0140+326. Using 3 differentt
wavelength tunings they found a total of 27 unique candidate Ly
emitters. With the 6C0140+326 field being denser by a factor of 9 ± 5 than a
blank field, this is one of few known.
The environment of the high-z radio galaxy PKS 1138-262 at z ~ 2.2 is a prime
example of a forming galaxy cluster. Kuiper, Miley, Röttering, Nesvadba (Paris),
Hatch (Nottingham) and others used deep SINFONI integral field spectroscopy
to perform a detailed study of the kinematics of the galaxies within 60 kpc of the
radio core. The velocity distribution of the confirmed satellite galaxies shows a
broad, double-peaked velocity structure with σ = 1360 ± 206 km/s. A similar
broad, double-peaked distribution was found in a previous study targeting the
large scale protocluster structure, indicating that a common process is acting on
both small and large scales. Comparison to the Millenium simulation indicates
that the protocluster velocity distribution is consistent with that of the most
massive haloes at z ~ 2.
Hatch (Nottingham), Kuiper, Miley, Röttgering, and Venemans (Heidelberg)
and others carried out a study of Hα emitters in two dense galaxy proto-clusters
surrounding the radio galaxies MRC1138-262 z = 2.2 and 4C +10.48 z = 2.35. The
star formation rate density is on average 13 times greater in the proto-clusters
than the field with the total star formation rate within the central 1.5 Mpc protocluster of the protoclusters exceeding 3000 solar mass per year. However, no
significant difference in the shape of the Hα luminosity functions were found,
implying that environment does not substantially affect the strength of the Hα
line from strongly star forming galaxies. The proto-cluster emitters are typically
0.8 mag brighter in rest-frame R continuum than field emitters, implying they
are twice as massive as their field counterparts at the same redshift. The protocluster galaxies also have lower specific star formation rates than field galaxies,
meaning the emitters in the dense environments formed more of their stars
earlier than the field galaxies. The conclusion is that galaxy growth in the early
Universe was accelerated in dense environments, and that cluster galaxies
differed from field galaxies even before the cluster had fully formed.
Colliding massive clusters: probing particle acceleration in Mpcsized shocks
Galaxy clusters grow by mergers with other clusters and galaxy groups. These
mergers create shock waves within the intracluster medium (ICM) that can
accelerate particles to extreme energies. In the presence of magnetic fields,
relativistic electrons form large regions emitting synchrotron radiation, so-called
radio relics. Behind the shock front, synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC)
losses cause the radio spectral index to steepen away from the shock front. In a
binary cluster merger, two shock waves are generated which move
diametrically outwards along the merger axis. Two radio relics can then form on
both sides of the cluster center.
Figure 15. GMRT 610 MHz image of the 1.9 Mpc shock in the the new radioselected
galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214 (z = 0.225). The beam size is 5.1`` x 4.1``
and the map noise is 26 µJy/beam.
A prime example that van Weeren et al. studied is the cluster CIZA
J2242.8+5301, where very clear spectral steepening in the downstream region is
observed. The main relic has a total extent of 1700 kpc, while its width is only 55
kpc. Together with the high observed polarization fraction, this implies the relic
is seen very close to edge-on which makes it easier to constrain the merger
geometry. van Weeren, Röttgering, Brüggen (Bremen), and Hoeft (Tautenburg)
carried out hydrodynamical simulations of idealized binary cluster mergers
with the aim of constraining the merger scenario for this cluster. From their
simulations, they find that CIZA J2242.8+5301 is probably undergoing a merger
in the plane of the sky (less then 10 from edge-on) with a mass ratio (M1 : M2) of
about 2 : 1, and an impact parameter. 400 kpc. They conclude that double relics
relics can set constraints on the mass ratios, impact parameters, timescales, and
viewing geometry of binary cluster mergers, which is particularly useful when
detailed X-ray observations are not available. Since only a few dozen diffuse
cluster radio sources are known, while models predict that a much larger
number of these sources exist, van Weeren, Röttgering, Brüggen (Bremen), and
Hoeft (Tautenburg) carried out an extensive observing campaign to create a
large sample of diffuse radio sources in galaxy clusters. They carried out radio
continuum observations with the Westerbork Synthese Radio Telescope
(WSRT), Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and Very Large Array
(VLA) of clusters with diffuse radio emission visible in NVSS and WENSS
survey images. Optical images were taken with the William Herschel and Isaac
Newton Telescope (WHT, INT). 6 new radio relics, including a probable double
relic system, and 2 radio halos were discovered. By constructing a sample of 35
radio relics they found that relics are mostly found along the major axis of the Xray emission from the ICM, while their orientation is perpendicular to this axis.
Furthermore, tentative evidence was found for an increase of the cluster’s relic
fraction with X-ray luminosity and redshift. Finally, the location and orientation
of radio relics with respect to the ICM elongation is consistent with the scenario
that relics trace merger shock waves. van Weeren, Röttgering, Intema and others
carried out detailed Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and Giant
Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) radio observations between 147 MHz and
4.9 GHz of a new radio-selected galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214 (z = 0:225).
The cluster hosts a large bright 1.9 Mpc radio relic, an elongated ~ 2 Mpc radio
halo, and two fainter smaller radio relics (See Fig. 15 and 16). The large radio
relic has a peculiar linear morphology. This relic has a clear spectral index
gradient from the front of the relic towards the back, in the direction towards
the 2 cluster center. Parts of this relic are highly polarized with a polarization
fraction of up
Figure 16. GMRT 610325 MHz spectral index map. Contour levels from the GMRT
325 MHz image are drawn at [1, 4, 16, 64, . . .] x 6σ rms and the spectral index map
has a resolution of 7.9`` x 6.2``. Pixels below 5 σ rms are blanked.
Evolution of powerful radio galaxies
Rigby, Ker, Best (Edinburgh), Röttgering and others carried out a number of
investigations related to the statistical evolution of powerful radio sources. The
CENSORS 1.4 GHz radio sample was combined with additional radio data from
the Parkes All–Sky, Parkes Selected Regions, Hercules and VLA COSMOS
samples to provide comprehensive coverage of the radio power vs. redshift
plane. The modelling reveals clear declines in comoving density at z > 0:7 for
lower luminosity sources (log P = 25-26); these turnovers are still present at log
P > 27, but move to z > 3, suggesting a luminosity–dependent evolution of the
redshift turnover, similar to the ‘cosmic downsizing’ seen for other AGN
populations. The existence of a correlation between observed radio spectral
index and redshift has long been used as a method for selecting high redshift
radio galaxy candidates. Using 9 highly spectroscopically complete radio
samples, selected at different frequencies and flux limits, the efficiency of this
method was determined. Furthermore an efficient method for selecting high-z
radio sources was presented, based purely on combining their observed radio
2.7 Large-scale Structure and Cosmology
Dark energy, dark matter, and cluster mass
To learn more about the nature of dark energy ever larger surveys are required.
Ground based projects such as the Kilo Degree Survey, which started in the fall
of the year provide an important step forward, the ultimate measurement
requires a space based telescope. Hoekstra is one of the coordinators for the
weak lensing science of Euclid, which was approved by ESA for adoption.
Although Euclid will provide the exquisite measurements needed to extract the
cosmological signal from the data, the interpretation also requires a good
understanding of the large-scale structure. Semboloni, Hoekstra and Schaye
studied the impact of baryon physics on the interpretation of the cosmic shear
signal and found that ignoring this would lead to large biases in the case of
To study the properties of the dark matter halos around galaxies, van Uitert and
Hoekstra analyzed data from the RCS2 which overlapped with the SDSS.
Thanks to the increased depth of the RCS2 the scaling relations between virial
mass and stellar mass or luminosity could be extended to higher masses.
Together with Jee (UC Davis) and others, Hoekstra completed a study of the
masses of distant clusters of galaxies which had been observed with the HST.
This work extends the red-shift range where scaling relations between mass and
X-ray properties have been measured to z~1. The results suggest only a mild
evolution with redshift. Galaxy formation and matter power spectra: a challenge
for precision cosmology.
Upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as LSST, EUCLID and WFIRST, aim to
measure the matter power spectrum with unprecedented accuracy. In order to
fully exploit these observations, models are needed that, given a set of
cosmological parameters, can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum at
the level of 1 per cent or better for scales corresponding to co-moving wavenumbers 0.1 < k < 10 h/Mpc. Van Daalen, Schaye, Booth and Dalla Vecchia
employed the OWLS simulations to investigate the effects of various baryonic
processes on the matter power spectrum. In addition, they examined the
distribution of power over different mass components, the back-reaction of the
baryons on the cold dark matter and the evolution of the dominant effects on the
matter power spectrum. They found that single baryonic processes are capable
of changing the power spectrum by up to several tens of per cent. Their
simulation that includes AGN feedback, which they consider to be their most
realistic simulation as, unlike those used in previous studies, it has been shown
to solve the over-cooling problem and to reproduce optical and X-ray
observations of groups of galaxies, predicts a decrease in power relative to a
dark matter only simulation ranging, at z=0, from one per cent at k = 0.3 h/Mpc
to 10 per cent at k = 1 h/Mpc and to 30 per cent at k = 10 h/Mpc. This
contradicts the naive view that baryons raise the power through cooling, which
is the dominant effect only for k > 70 h/Mpc. Therefore, baryons, and
particularly AGN feedback, cannot be ignored in theoretical power spectra for k
> 0.3 h/Mpc. It will thus be necessary to improve our understanding of
feedback processes in galaxy formation, or at least to constrain them through
auxiliary observations, before we can fulfill the goals of upcoming weak lensing
Improving the accuracy of measurements with Euclid
Semboloni aimed to improve the accuracy of weak lensing measurements and
predictions for ongoing and future weak lensing missions such as KiDS and
Euclid. She worked actively to show the feasibility of the Euclid mission
(selected by ESA in the autumn of 2011) which will investigate the nature of the
dark energy using weak lensing measurements. The precision of Euclid is such
that aspects that could be neglected before now have to be taken into account.
For instance, the accuracy of the shear estimation is beset by limitations that are
caused by the colour of galaxies varying across their profile (generally referred
to as "colour gradient"). This information is lost once the light is convolved with
a chromatic point spread function (PSF). The PSF deconvolution which is
necessary to estimate shear can only be done with limited accuracy. Yet, this
issue is important for Euclid as it is designed with a broad-band filter.
Semboloni studied ways to improve the quality of the interpretation of cosmic
shear statistics. In particular, she showed that a strong baryonic feedback,
which is actually supported by observations, can bias the analysis of current and
future weak lensing data-sets if not correctly modelled. She extended the halomodel approach which is generally used to forecast the power spectrum of
matter fluctuations and to predict the amplitude of cosmic shear statistics so that
it is possible to account for the modifications of an eventual baryonic feedback.
She showed that by using this model, the cosmological constraints from cosmic
shear tomography are affected by a bias which is comparable with the statistical
error of Euclid. If one ignores the feedback the bias is much higher. Semboloni
also has been studying the intrinsic alignment signal using simulations.
Although the study is still ongoing her preliminary results shows that for future
missions we need studies that are much more accurate than the ones done in the
past. This motivated her to submit a proposal, recently approved, to carry out
N-body simulations aiming to address those aspects which were ignored in
previous studies.
Why do star formation rates drop at z = 2?
The cosmic star formation rate is observed to drop sharply after redshift z = 2.
Van de Voort, Schaye, Booth, and Dalla Vecchia used two large simulations to
investigate how this decline is related to the evolution of gas accretion and to
outflows driven by AGN. They found that the drop in the star formation rate
follows a corresponding decline in the global cold-mode accretion rate density
onto halos, but with a delay of the order of the gas consumption time-scale in
the interstellar medium. In contrast to cold-mode accretion, which peaks around
z=3, the hot mode continues to increase to about z=1 and remains roughly
constant thereafter. By the present time, the hot mode strongly dominates the
global accretion rate onto haloes. Star formation does not track hot-mode halo
accretion because most of the hot halo gas never accretes onto galaxies. AGN
feedback plays a crucial role by preferentially preventing the gas that entered
halos in the hot mode from accreting onto their central galaxies. Consequently,
in the absence of AGN feedback, gas accreted in the hot mode would become
the dominant source of fuel for star formation and the drop-off in the cosmic
star formation rate would be much less steep.
Correlation structure of dark matter halo properties
Jeeson-Daniel, Dalla Vecchia, Haas, and Schaye investigated the correlation
between nine different dark matter halo properties using a rank correlation
analysis and a Principal Component Analysis for a sample of halos spanning
five orders of magnitude in mass. They considered mass and dimensionless
measures of concentration, age, relaxedness, sphericity, tri-axiality, substructure,
spin and environment, where the latter was defined in a way that makes it
insensitive to mass. They found that concentration is the most fundamental
property. Except for environment, all parameters are strongly correlated with
concentration. Concentration, age, substructure, mass, sphericity and
relaxedness can be considered a single family of parameters, albeit with
substantial scatter. In contrast, spin, environment and triaxiality are more
independent, although spin does correlate strongly with substructure and both
spin and triaxiality correlate substantially with concentration. Although mass
sets the scale of a halo, all other properties are more sensitive to concentration.
The cosmic distribution of metals predicted by simulations
Wiermsa, Schaye, and Theuns (Durham, UK) used simulations to investigate
how a range of physical processes affect the cosmic metal distribution. In all
models stars and the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) constitute the
dominant repository of metals, while for z > 2 the ISM is also important. In
models with galactic winds, predictions for the metallicities of the various
phases vary at the factor of 2 level and are broadly consistent with observations.
The exception is the cold-warm intergalactic medium (IGM), whose metallicity
varies at the order of magnitude level if the prescription for galactic winds is
varied, even for a fixed wind energy per unit stellar mass formed, and falls far
below the observed values if winds are not included. At the other extreme, the
metallicity of the intracluster medium (ICM) is largely insensitive to the
presence of galactic winds, indicating that its enrichment is regulated by other
processes. The mean metallicities of stars (about the same as that of the sun), the
ICM (about a tenth solar), and the WHIM (also about a tenth solar) evolve only
slowly, while those of the cold halo gas and the IGM increase by more than an
order of magnitude from z = 5 to 0. Higher velocity outflows are more efficient
at transporting metals to low densities, but actually predict lower metallicities
for the cold-warm IGM since the winds shock-heat the gas to high temperatures,
thereby increasing the fraction of the metals residing in, but not the metallicity
of, the WHIM. Besides galactic winds driven by feedback from star formation,
the metal distribution is most sensitive to the inclusion of metal-line cooling and
feedback from AGN. They concluded that observations of the metallicity of the
low-density IGM have the potential to constrain the poorly understood feedback
processes that are central to current models of the formation and evolution of
Galaxy redshifts from absorption by the intergalactic medium
Rest-frame UV spectral lines of star-forming galaxies are systematically offset
from the galaxies' systemic redshifts, probably because of large-scale outflows.
Rakic, Schaye, Steidel, and Rudie (both Caltech, USA) calibrated galaxy redshifts
measured from rest-frame UV lines by utilising the fact that the mean H I Ly-α
absorption profiles around the galaxies, as seen in spectra of background
objects, must be symmetric with respect to the true galaxy redshifts if the
galaxies are oriented randomly with respect to the lines of sight to the
background objects. They found that Ly-α emission and ISM absorption
redshifts require systematic shifts of about 295 km/s and 145 km/s,
respectively. For the small subset (less than 10 per cent) of galaxies for which
near-IR spectra have been obtained, their method gives consistent results.
However, they found that the the Ly-α offset is larger for this subset of galaxies,
which implies that no single number appropriately describes the whole
population of galaxies. Their method can be used to provide accurate redshift
calibrations and will enable studies of circumgalactic matter around galaxies for
which rest-frame optical observations are not available.
Gas accretion onto galaxies and their gaseous halos
Van de Voort, Schaye, Booth, Haas, and Dalla Vecchia studied the rate at which
gas accretes onto galaxies and halos and investigated whether the accreted gas
was shocked to high temperatures before reaching a galaxy. They found that gas
accretion is mostly smooth, with mergers only becoming important for groups
and clusters. The specific rate of the gas accretion onto halos is, like that for dark
matter, only weakly dependent on the halo mass. For halo masses Mhalo much
larger than 100 billion solar masses, it is relatively insensitive to feedback
processes. In contrast, accretion rates onto galaxies are determined by radiative
cooling and by outflows driven by supernovae and AGN. Galactic winds
increase the halo mass at which the central galaxies grow the fastest by about
two orders of magnitude to halo masses of about 1000 billion solar masses. Gas
accretion is bi-modal, with maximum past temperatures either of the order of
the virial temperature or less than 100.000 K. While gas accretion onto halos can
be robustly predicted, the rate of accretion onto galaxies is sensitive to uncertain
feedback processes. Nevertheless, it is clear that galaxies, but not necessarily
their gaseous halos, are predominantly fed by the gas that did not experience an
accretion shock when it entered the host halo.
Figure 17. Predicted gas over-density (first and third columns) and temperature (second
and fourth columns) in a cubic region of 1/h co-moving Mpc (first and second columns)
and 250/h co-moving kpc (third and fourth columns) centered on halos of log Mhalo/Msun
= 12.5, 12.0, and 11.5 (from top to bottom) at z = 2. The white circles indicate the virial
radii of the halos. Cold, dense streams bring gas to the centre. The temperature of the hot
gas increases with halo mass. Hot accretion dominates for high-mass halos, cold
accretion for low-mass halos. The galaxies in the centre of these halos are discs,
surrounded by cold gas. This cold gas is in clumps (top row), disrupted streams (middle
row), or smooth streams (bottom row).
Understanding scaling relations for supermassive black holes
The growth of the supermassive black holes (BHs) that reside at the centre of
most galaxies is intertwined with the physical processes that drive the formation
of the galaxies themselves. The evolution of the relations between the mass of
the BH, mBH, and the properties of its host therefore represents crucial aspects of
the galaxy formation process. Booth and Schaye used a cosmological simulation,
as well as an analytical model, to investigate how and why the scaling relations
for BHs evolve. They found that a simulation that reproduces the observed z=0
relations between mBH and the properties of its host galaxy, as well as the
thermodynamic profiles of the intragroup medium, also reproduces the
observed evolution in the ratio mBH/mstars for massive galaxies, although the
evolution of the relation with velocity dispersion was in apparent conflict with
observations. The simulation predicts that the relations between mBH and the
binding energies of both the galaxy and its dark matter halo do not evolve,
while the ratio mBH/mhalo increases with redshift. A simple, analytic model in
which the mass of the BH is controlled by the gravitational binding energy of its
host halo, quantitatively reproduces the latter two results. Finally, they could
explain the evolution in the relations between mBH and the mass and binding
energy of the stellar component of its host galaxy for massive galaxies at low
redshift (z < 1) if these galaxies grow primarily through dry mergers.
Quasar-driven winds and the over-cooling in galaxy groups and
Galaxy groups are not scaled-down versions of massive galaxy clusters. The hot
gas in groups is, on average, less dense than the intracluster medium, implying
that one or more non-gravitational processes (e.g. radiative cooling, star
formation and/or feedback) has had a relatively larger effect on groups.
McCarthy (Cambridge, UK), Schaye, and collaborators compared a number of
cosmological hydrodynamic simulations from the OWLS project to isolate and
quantify the effects of cooling and feedback from supernovae AGN on the gas.
Only runs that include AGN feedback were able to successfully reproduce the
optical and X-ray properties of groups and low-mass clusters. Interestingly, they
found that the gas that constitutes the present-day intragroup medium is that
which was not strongly heated by AGN. Instead, the low median density/high
median entropy of the gas in present-day groups is achieved by the ejection of
lower entropy gas from low-mass progenitor galaxies at high redshift (primarily
2 < z < 4). This corresponds to the epoch when super-massive black holes
accreted most of their mass, typically at a rate that is close to the Eddington limit
(i.e., when the black holes are in a 'quasar mode').
Multi-frequency, thermally coupled radiative transfer with
Pawlik and Schaye presented an extension of TRAPHIC, their method for
radiative transfer of ionizing radiation in smoothed particle hydrodynamics
simulations. The new version keeps all advantages of the original
implementation: photons are transported at the speed of light, in a photonconserving manner, directly on the spatially adaptive, unstructured grid traced
out by the particles, in a computation time that is independent of the number of
radiation sources, and in parallel on distributed memory machines. They
extended the method to include multiple frequencies, both hydrogen and
helium, and to model the coupled evolution of the temperature and ionization
balance. They tested their methods by performing a set of simulations of
increasing complexity and including a small cosmological reionization run. The
results are in excellent agreement with exact solutions, where available, and also
with results obtained with other codes. They used the new implementation to
show that close to ionizing sources the grey approximation asymptotes to the
multi-frequency result if photoheating rates are computed in the optically thin
limit, but that the grey approximation breaks down everywhere if, as is often
done, the optically thick limit is assumed.
2.8 Computational Astrophysics
The research group for Computational Astrophysics Leiden (CAstLe) studies
the universe by means of simulation. The specific areas of research in
astrophysics include the evolution of binary (and higher order multiple) stars,
the dynamical evolution of dense stellar systems and of galactic nuclei. From a
computational point of view the research group aims at simulation
environments for solving the equations for gravitational dynamics, stellar
structure and evolution, hydrodynamics and radiative transfer. Calculations are
performed on computers built by the research group, graphical processing units,
supercomputers and grid environments.
Fujii and Portegies Zwart conducted large-scale simulations of young and
massive star clusters and their role in producing high velocity OB runaway
stars. As many as one in five of all massive stars in the Milky Way have
unusually high velocities, the origin of which has puzzled astronomers for half a
century. Fujii and Portegies Zwart argued that these velocities originate from
strong gravitational interactions between single stars and binaries in the centre
of star clusters. The ejecting binary forms naturally during the collapse of a
young star cluster. Their model replicated the key characteristics of OB
runaways in our galaxy, and it explains the presence of very massive runaway
stars around young star clusters, such as R136 and Westerlund 2. The high
proportion and the distributions in mass and velocity of runaways in the Milky
Way are reproduced if the majority of massive stars are born in dense and
relatively low-mass (five to ten thousand solar mass) clusters.
Gieles and Portegies Zwart could finally, after a long decade started by Blaauw
in 1964, establish a consensus how to properly distinguish star clusters and
stellar associations. In Galactic studies, a distinction can usually be made
between (open) star clusters and associations. However, this not trivial for
barely resolved objects at distances of several mega-parsecs. Gieles and
Portegies Zwart provided an objective definition by comparing the age of the
stars to the crossing time of the stellar agglomerates. They found that a
satisfactory separation can be made where this ratio equals unity. Stellar
agglomerates for which the age of the stars exceeds the crossing time are bound,
and are referred to as star clusters. Alternatively, those for which the crossing
time exceeds the stellar age are unbound and are referred to as associations. This
definition is useful whenever reliable measurements for the mass, radius and
age are available.
Science with AMUSE
Pelupessy and Portegies Zwart examined the evolution of embedded clusters
using advanced computer simulation models, including the effects of
gravitational dynamics, hydrodynamics and stellar evolution as well as the
energetic feedback from young stars. They found that gas dynamics plays a
crucial role determining the structure and survival of stellar clusters.
The AMUSE environment was used to conduct the simulations. Version 5.1 of
the AMUSE software package (van Elteren, Pelupessy, de Vries, Marosvolgyi
and Portegies Zwart) was released on 21st of december. This release marks the
conclusion of the first development cycle of AMUSE funded by NOVA and
includes interfaces to 31 codes including 3 radiative transfer codes, the last
domain to be added in this development cycle.
2.9 Instrumentation developments
VLT adaptive optics: MUSE and ASSIST
MUSE, the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer is a second generation instrument
for ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), featuring Wide-Field, Adaptive Optics
Assisted Integral Field Spectroscopy. MUSE has been designed and
manufactured at several research institutes and companies in Europa and is
currently being integrated at the lead institute, the Centre de Recherche
Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL, France). The MUSE consortium consists of
seven institutes. NOVA, by way of Leiden Observatory, is mainly involved in
the interface between MUSE and its Adaptive Optics system (GALACSI), the
preparations for scientific operation of MUSE -- such as the Exposure Time
Calculator (ETC) and Operation, Calibration of MUSE, the MUSE observation
templates efforts, and the building of the database to handle the enormous
amounts of data that will be delivered by MUSE.
ASSIST--the Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator is the test
system for the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) and will allow for
verification of the operation of the various hardware and software systems for
the AOF without the need for--sometimes long--on-sky testing. ASSIST was
delivered to, and integrated at the ESO headquarter in Garching, Germany, with
support from NOVA-ASTRON. Initial test results show excellent performance,
although final testing will take place once integrated with ESO's Deformable
Secondary Mirror.
VLT interferometry: MATISSE and 2nd Generation Fringe
MATISSE is a 4-telescope interferometer for ESO's VLTI, capable of making
mid-infrared images with a spatial resolution of 3 milli-arcsec. Jaffe is the Dutch
Co-Principal Investigator. In 2011, MATISSE passed and important milestone:
the Optical Final Design Review. The overall Final Design Review will take
place in April 2012. After this, actual construction of MATISSE will begin,
aiming for completion in 2015.
The capabilities of the ESO interferometers can be considerably augmented with
a 4-telescope Second Generation Fringe Tracker, in some ways analogous to the
Adaptive Optics system for a single telescope. The NOVA design group, led by
Jaffe, submitted one of two design studies to ESO in October 2011. At a review
in December the NOVA design was evaluated as much more sensitive than the
competing design, but some doubts were expressed about the risks involved in
building such a novel design.
Omegacam operational at ESO!
Kuijken's research in 2011 was dominated by the commissioning of the
OmegaCAM wide-field camera on the ESO VLT Survey Telescope on Paranal,
Chile. As PI of the instrument consortium, he took part in four two-week
commissioning runs of the instrument between March and August. First light
was achieved on March 27, and commissioning completed in August ready for
ESO to incorporate the instrument and telescope into Science Operations.
OmegaCAM, which was built by a consortium of institutes (Leiden and
Groningen in the Netherlands, München, Göttingen and Bonn in Germany,
Padua and Naples in Italy, and ESO itself) is a CCD mosaic camera, which
placed at the focus of the 2.6-meter VST, records images of a square degree at a
pixel scale of 0.2 arc seconds, almost 300 million pixels in total. It is the largest
wide-field camera in the Southern hemisphere, and the only one permanently
mounted on a dedicated survey telescope. An overriding design driver for the
telescope and camera was image quality: Paranal is a superb seeing site and the
VST/OmegaCAM take full advantage. The telescope has active primary and
secondary mirrors, and the camera contains a sophisticated auto-focus system
which can be used to maintain the focus and shape of the optics so that sharp
images are obtained over the full field of view. The system is capable of
delivering images with point spread function smaller than 0.6 arc seconds over
the full field of view, with minimal ellipticity.
OmegaCAM is to be used for three large public surveys performed by different
teams. The largest of these is the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), which is led by
Kuijken, and involves astronomers in Leiden, Groningen, Bonn, Munich,
Naples, Paris, Edinburgh, Cambridge and London. The aim of KiDS, which is
closely coordinated with the VIKING survey on the VISTA near-IR survey
telescope, is to image 1500 square degrees of extra-galactic sky in 9 colours, in
order to map the (dark) matter distribution around and between galaxies using
weak gravitational lensing. The combination of the OmegaCAM/VST image
quality and the multi-band photometry will allow an unprecedented study of
the three-dimensional large-scale structure, a key probe of the cosmological
model. The first observations for KiDS were taken in the last months of 2011. By
the time the survey is completed in 2015 a total of twenty terabytes of raw image
data will have been taken with OmegaCAM for this project, and processed
using the dedicated data processing and archiving system set up at OmegaCen
at the Kapteyn Institute in Groningen. Postdoc Jelte de Jong joined the Leiden
group in May to coordinate the data taking and processing for KiDS.
The KiDS project is one of several efforts worldwide to study the cosmological
model through gravitational lensing and large scale structure. This type of
survey will culminate with the ESA Euclid mission, a dedicated satellite which
will measure gravitational lensing and near-infrared photometry for most of the
extra-galactic sky to exceptional precision and uniformity. Surveys such as KiDS
will not only be invaluable pilots towards this ultimate survey, but are also
required to provide the bulk of the colors of the galaxies needed for the final
The Leiden GAIA group, led by Brown, is involved in the preparations for the
data-processing for ESA's GAIA space mission. Scheduled for launch in 2013,
GAIA aims at providing a stereoscopic census of the Milky Way by performing
highly accurate astrometry (positions, parallaxes and proper motions),
photometry and radial velocities for one billion stars and other objects to 20th
magnitude. In 2011, work concentrated on three main themes.
First, Brown and Busso continued their work on the development of the data
processing software for the photometric instrument of GAIA in collaboration
with groups in Rome, Teramo, Cambridge, and Barcelona. The photometric data
for GAIA will be collected through low-dispersion spectrophotometry with
prisms and the group in Leiden is responsible for developing the algorithms
that extract the spectra from the raw data. During 2011, the focus was on
developing the algorithms and corresponding Java-code to the point that they
can be used in large scale-tests of the photometric processing pipeline. Busso
finished the implementation of the module which subtracts from the spectra the
astrophysical background as well as the instrumental background due to charge
release (caused by charge injections for the mitigation of the charge transfer
inefficiency). The teams in Italy worked on the development of the module that
assesses the crowding level and decides whether deblending is needed for
particular observations. They also experimented further with various
deblending algorithms.
The photometric data collected by GAIA can suffer from various problems
during the actual mission, especially in crowded fields where data can get
truncated or partially lost. Because of the extremely large number of images to
process (typically 100 billion) these problems needs to be identified and dealt
with fully automatically. Busso and Brown conducted a study of how to deal
with this problematic data in the pipeline. Their recommendations will be
implemented in the pipeline software.
Second, a major concern for the GAIA mission is the effect of radiation damage
to the CCDs (due to solar wind and cosmic-ray protons). The consequence will
be an increased level of charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) resulting in a loss of
signal as well as a distortion of the image. The latter will cause systematic errors
in the astrometry if not carefully controlled. In this context, Prod'homme
completed his PhD research on the theoretical and empirical modelling of
radiation damage effects. Prod'homme, Holl (Lund), Lindegren (Lund), and
Brown conducted two detailed studies to demonstrate that the astrometric
performance of GAIA can still be achieved in the presence of CTI. In the first
study, they showed that the image location performance of GAIA (central to the
astrometric performance) can indeed be recovered, to within about 10 per cent
of the theoretical limit, by using an approach in which the PSF image is carefully
modelled before fitting it to the data. This forward modelling approach will be a
central element in the radiation damage mitigation strategy. In the second
study, they investigated in detail how residual CTI induced errors will
propagate into the astrometric solution for GAIA. Their conclusion was that a
combination of CTI countermeasures in the hardware, the sophisticated estimate
of the image location described above, and feedback from the astrometric
solution to the PSF calibration and image location algorithms will preserve the
overall GAIA astrometric performance, again to within 10 per cent of the CTIfree case.
Seabroke (London) and Prod'homme conducted a study of the functioning of
one of the hardware countermeasures, the so-called supplementary buried
channel (SBC). This CCD feature confines electrons generated by faint sources
to a smaller volume in the CCD which leads to a mitigation of the CTI effects.
They found that the SBC may not be fully functional in a significant fraction of
the GAIA CCDs. However, they also showed that the astrometric accuracy loss
for faint sources will be no more than 10 per cent.
Finally, GAIA may reach its astrometric accuracy goals only when the spacecraft
attitude is known to the highest precision. It is thus important to incorporate a
complete physical understanding of the dynamics of a continuously rotating
space platform into the attitude modelling for GAIA. For this reason, Risquez
developed detailed simulations of GAIA's attitude, incorporating all of the
relevant physical effects, in collaboration with van Leeuwen (Cambridge) and
Keil (Bremen). In 2011, he improved the model and used it to provide realistic
simulated data to the GAIA community. These data enabled a study of the
effect of different perturbations on the astrometry. He also assessed in detail the
effect of not having access to the instantaneous spacecraft attitude due to the
finite integration time for the observations. This will lead to unmodelled noise in
the reconstructed attitude and to differences in the measured spacecraft attitude
for bright and faint stars. Risquez assessed the optimum interval for spline knots
when modelling the attitude with B-Splines.
Wavelength calibration of JWST-MIRI
Martínez-Galarza, Meyer and Brandl participated in the completion of the flight
hardware of the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) which is scheduled to fly
onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This is the successor to the
Hubble Space Telescope, and it presently scheduled for launch in 2018. The
extensive MIRI test campaigns took place on July 24, at the Rutherford Appleton
Laboratory in the UK. Martínez-Galarza and Meyer subsequently analyzed the
test data with respect to the ground calibration of the wavelength map, spectral
resolving power, wavelength stability, and spectral line shapes. Compliance
with instrument requirements was confirmed, and the results were presented to
ESA and NASA in December 2011.
2.10 Laboratory astrophysics and basic
Simulations of water ice photodesorption
Arasa and van Dishoeck, collaborating with Kroes (LIC, Leiden), Andersson
(SINTEF Norway) and Cuppen (RU, Nijmegen), investigated the UV photodissociation of amorphous D2O ice at temperatures up to 90 K using molecular
dynamics simulations and analytical potentials. As for H2O, the main processes
after UV photo-dissociation are trapping and desorption of fragments or D2O
molecules. The main processes and conclusions were the same as for H2O ice.
The average D2O photo-desorption probability is larger than that of H2O by a
factor of 1.4-2.3 depending on ice temperature. This is entirely due to a larger
contribution of the D2O kick-out mechanism because D has more momentum,
and transfers it more easily to D2O than H does to H2O ice. The total calculated
OD + D2O yield showed better agreement with experimental yields than that for
H2O ice.
2.11 The Raymond and Beverly Sackler
Laboratory for Astrophysics
The Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics has a long tradition of studying the
influence of ultraviolet-induced physical and chemical processes on interstellar
ice analogues. The initial experiments by Prof. Greenberg hinted at the solid
state formation of complex organics upon UV-irradiation of a sample
comprising most of the observed interstellar ice components. More recently,
Oberg and collaborators showed in a number of dedicated ultra-high vacuum
experiments that interstellar ice analogues efficiently photo-desorb upon UV
irradiation, explaining the presence of gas phase species at temperatures below
their accretion value. In addition, they showed that photo-dissociation in an ice
(such as CH3OH) can trigger a complex chemical network, ultimately providing
a solid state pathway to form more complex molecules as CH3OCH3 and
Photo-desorption of CO ice
This work has now been extended by a new series of experiments, focusing on
the wavelength dependence of these processes. Information on the average UV
photo-desorption yield of astrophysically important ices thus far existed only
for broad-band UV lamp experiments, emitting around Ly-α (121.6 nm). UV
fields around low-mass pre-main sequence stars, near shocks and in many other
astrophysical environments are, however, often dominated by discrete atomic
and molecular emission lines, differing from Ly-α. It is therefore crucial to also
consider the wavelength dependence of photo-desorption yields and
mechanisms. In 2011, for the first time, the wavelength-dependent photodesorption of pure CO ice between 90 and 170 nm was explored in a
collaborative experiment joining the research groups of Fillion (Paris, France)
and Linnartz (Leiden). Fayolle, Oberg, and others performed experiments at the
DESIRS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility in Paris using a mobile
ultra-high vacuum setup. SOLEIL is a unique facility that provides tunable
synchrotron radiation. In these experiments, the ice photo-desorption was
simultaneously probed by infrared absorption spectroscopy in reflection mode
of the ice and by quadrupole mass spectrometry of the gas phase. The
experimental results revealed a strong wavelength dependence directly linked
to the vibronic transition strengths of CO ice, implying that photo-desorption is
induced by electronic transition (DIET). The observed dependence on the ice
absorption spectra implied relatively low photo-desorption yields at 121.6 nm,
where CO barely absorbs, compared to the high yields found at wavelengths
coinciding with transitions into the first electronic state of CO around 150 nm;
the CO photo-desorption rates thus depend strongly on the UV profiles
encountered in different star formation environments.
These experiments move experiments on the UV photochemistry of interstellar
ice analogues into a new field. Whereas in the past only broad band applications
were studied, it has now become clear that wavelength dependent effects should
not be neglected.
Figure. 18. The logo of LASSIE, a 6.05 MEuro interdisciplinary EU training network
on laboratory astrochemistry. With 28 PhD students, 4 postdocs and 12scientific groups
as well as 6 industrial partners LASSIE stands for the worldwide largest research
network focusing on astrochemical reactions in the solid state.
These efforts are part of a larger research program focusing on the chemical
processes in interstellar ice analogues, embedding an EU FP7 interdisciplinary
training network 'LASSIE' (Laboratory Astrochemical Surface Science in Europe)
and work within the Dutch Astrochemistry Network. A major part of the work
is financed through a NWO-VICI grant (Unlocking the chemistry of the heavens,
and social events
and social events
3.1. Education
Teaching and training of students is a major priority of Leiden Observatory. In
2011, 32 freshmen started their studies in astronomy. Of this number, 7 (22%)
were women, and 16 (50%) pursued a combined astronomy/physics or
astronomy/mathematics degree. The Observatory registered a total number of
76 BSc students at the end of the year, of which 38 (52%) aimed at a combined
astronomy/physics degree or astronomy/mathematics degree; 15% of all BSc
students is female. There were 44 MSc students, including 20 (45%) women and
16 (36%) foreign nationalities. Several students from the applied physics
department of Delft Technical University took courses of the Leiden astronomy
curriculum as part of the requirements for a minor in astronomy. Twenty
students passed their pro-pedeutical exam, of which thirteen completed the
requirements in the nominal one year. There were 13 BSc exams, and 14 MSc
Pen continued as the education coordinator taking care of the daily running of
tasks. Hoekstra continued as BSc study adviser and Portegies Zwart as the MSc
study adviser. In addition to counseling by the student adviser, incoming
students were assigned to small groups meeting at regular intervals with a staff
mentor (Snellen, Brown and Hogerheijde) and a senior student mentor. In the
tutor programme, physics and astronomy freshman students were provided on
a voluntary but regular basis with coaching by senior students. As part of the
introductory astronomy course, students were taken to the Artis Planetarium in
Amsterdam for a lesson in coordinate systems, time and constellations in the sky
(Hoekstra). As part of the second-year training in practical astronomy, 9 honors
students were offered the opportunity to take part in a specially arranged
observing trip to the Isaac-Newton-Telescope on La Palma, Canary Islands (van
der Werf, Cuylle and Szomoru).
The astronomy curriculum is monitored by the ‘Education committee’
(Opleidingscommissie), which advises the Director of Studies on all relevant
matters, and which was chaired by Röttgering. Under the authority of the
Education Committee, the lecture course monitoring system was continued. In
this system, students provide feedback to lecturers during and after the course.
The quality of curriculum and exams is the responsibility of the board of
Examiners (Examencommissie) chaired by Lub. Admission to the mastercurriculum for students without a BSc in astronomy from a Netherlands
university requires a recommendation by the ‘Toelatingscommissie’
(Admissions committee) chaired by Schaye and having Portegies Zwart and
Hoekstra as members.
3.2. Degrees awarded in 2011
3.2.1. Ph.D. degrees
A total of 9 graduate students successfully defended their Ph.D. theses in 2011
and were duly awarded their Ph. D. degree: They are:
Titel thesis:
R. van Weeren
Radio Emission from Merging Galaxy Clusters
Graduation Date: 20-12-2011
Titel thesis:
K. Torstensson
Methanol Masers and millimetre lines
Van Langevelde
Graduation Date: 6-12-2011
Titel thesis:
T. Prod'homme
From Electrons to Stars: Modelling and mitigation of
radiation damage effects on astronomical CCDs
Graduation Date: 22-11-2011
N. Amiri
Titel thesis:
Developing Asymmetries in AGB Stars: Occurence,
Morphology and Polarization of Circumstellar Masers
Van Langevelde
Graduation Date: 26-10-2011
Titel thesis:
C. Kruip
Connecting the Dots - Analysis,
Applications of the SimpleX algorithm
Graduation Date: 20-10-2011
Titel thesis:
R. van Haasteren
Gravitational Wave Detection and data analysis for Pulsar
Timing Arrays
Portegies Zwart
Graduation Date: 11-10-2011
Titel thesis:
J.B.R. Oonk
Cool Gas in Brightest Cluster Galaxies
Graduation Date: 6-10-2011
Titel thesis:
E.J.W. de Mooij
Ground-Based Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres
Graduation Date: 28-09-2011
Titel thesis:
I. Martins e Oliveira
Observational Constraints on the Evolution of Dust in
Protoplanetary Disks
van Dishoeck
Graduation Date: 07-06-2011
3.2.2. Master’s degrees (Doctoraal diploma’s)
The following 14 students were awarded Master’s degrees in 2011:
Marinus Israel
Nienke van der Marel
Tiffany Meshkat
Caroline Straatman
Present position
29-03-11 PhD Leiden Observatory
12-04-11 PhD Leiden Observatory
09-06-11 PhD Leiden Observatory
22-06-11 PhD Leiden Observatory
Willem de Pous
Casper Schönau
Mehdi Lamee
Nadieh Bremer
Ainil Abdullah
Tjarda Boekholt
Reinier Janssen
Giles Otten
Joana Figuira
Jiting Hu
22-06-11 PhD Leiden Observatory
30-08-11 30-08-11 PhD University of Minnesota
30-08-11 Deloitte als Junior Consultant Advanced
31-08-11 PhD Leiden Observatory
31-08-11 PhD Leiden Observatory
30-09-11 PhD TUD
30-09-11 PhD Leiden Observatory
14-10-11 PhD Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya
22-11-11 PhD Leiden Observatory (applying)
3.2.3. Bachelor’s degrees
A total of 13 students obtained their Bachelor's degree:
Vincent Oomen
Arthur Vromans
Shannon Vlaar
Niek Kouwenhoven
Niek Wisse
Rick Vooys
Jens Hoeijmakers
Sebastiaan Smeets
Jeroen Sprangers
Jurriaan Kloek
Marijke Segers
Esther Schreuders
Cornelis Goksu
Present Position
MSc Programme, Astronomy
MSc Programme, Astronomy
MSc Programme, LION
MSc Programme, LION
MSc Programme, Astronomy
MSc Programme, Mathematics
MSc Programme, Astronomy
MSc Programme, Astronomy
MSc Programme, Astronomy
MSc Programme, LION
MSc Programme, Astronomy
MSc Programme, Mediatechnology
3.3. Academic courses and pre-university
3.3.1. Courses taught by Observatory staff
Elementary courses:
Semester Course title
Introduction astrophysics
Astronomy lab 1
Modern astronomical research
Astronomy lab 2
Observational techniques 1
Radiative processes
Bachelor research project
Introduction observatory
H. Linnartz
H. Hoekstra
M. Kenworthy
X. Tielens
P. van der Werf
B. Brandl
E. Rossi
I. Snellen & P van der Werf
E.R. Deul & P van der Werf
Advanced courses (keuzevakken; semesters 7, 8, 9, 10):
Astronomy from space
Computational astrophysics
Data Base & Data Mining
Detection of Light
IAC 2010: History of Astronomy
Large Scale Structure & Galaxy Formation
Observational Cosmology
Origin and evolution of the universe
Star Formation
Stellar structure and evolution
E. van Dishoeck
M. Fridlund
S. Portegies Zwart
J. Brinchmann
M. Kenworthy
F. Verbunt
J. Brinchmann
R. Bouwens
K. Kuijken
E. van Dishoeck
J. Schaye
3.3.2. Pre-university programmes
LAPP-Top, the Leiden Advanced Pre-University Programme for Top Students,
is aimed at enthusiastic and ambitious high-school students from the 5th and the
6th grade. Candidates are selected on the basis of their high-school grades and
their enthusiasm to participate, as shown by a letter of motivation. Students that
are selected then take part in 6 to 8 meetings from January till May, following
the programme of their own choice.
The Sterrewacht has been participating in the LAPP-TOP since its start in 2001.
In that pilot year 5 students participated, growing to 6 (2002/3), 11 (2003/4), 33
(2004/5), 17 (2005/6), 27 (2006/7), 16 (2007/8), 20 (2008/9), 10 (2009/10) and 25
The astronomy LAPP-TOP was developed by Van der Werf from 2002 onward.
From 2005-2008 the project was coordinated by Snellen. From 2008-2009 it was
coordinated by Franx. Since 2010 the project is coordinated by Lub. In eight
sessions the following subjects were covered:
Extrasolar planets
The Milky Way and other galaxies
Practicum I
Gas and Radiation
Practicum II
Black Holes
Excursion to the radio telescopes
in Westerbork and Dwingeloo
I. Snellen
J. Schaye
A. Brown
V. Icke
H. Hoekstra
P. van der Werf
After successfully completing the programme participants have been awarded
with a certificate from the University of Leiden. High-school students are
allowed to use this project as part of their final exams.
3.3.3. Contact.VWO
Contact.VWO has been in existence since May 2007. Buisman and van der
Hoorn (physics teachers in secondary schools) both work one day a week for the
Physics and Astronomy Departments in order to intensify the contacts between
secondary schools and the university.
Van der Hoorn organizes twice yearly a production and mailing of posters and
organizes three times an informative meeting for physics teachers, starting at 5
p.m. and featuring a lecture on modern developments in physics or
astrophysics, an informal dinner with extensive networking between teachers
and university workers, and after-dinner subjects dealing with the change from
secondary school to university study.
Buisman is concerned with school classes (programmes for whole-day visits as
well as individual help (assisting pupils with practical work, answering
questions by mail etc.). He also has organized a training session for the module
Measuring in Star Systems (Meten aan Melkwegstelsels) which is part of the
school curriculum track Nature, Life and Technology (Natuur, Leven en
Contact.VWO answers requests for assistance by school pupils or teachers.
Buisman also has an appointment for half a day a week as local coordinator of
the HiSPARC project, but although related, this is not a part of the activities of
Activities at Leiden University in 2011
For teachers:
04 Feb ‘Instituutsdag’ for pupils visiting CERN afterwards (preparation)
08 Feb Educational seminar
14 Mar Meeting with pupils and teachers: Einsteins Birthday. 100 participants
coming from 20 schools.
18 May Meeting with teachers. Theme: Biophysics. 42 participants.
10 Oct Regional educational seminar
01 Nov Meeting with teachers. Theme: Granular and Disordered Media. 57
For School classes:
21 Jan Ostrea, Goes
25 Mar De Populier, Den Haag
04 Apr Visser tHooft, Leiden
27 Apr Ger. Scholengem., Middelharnis
28 Apr Wateringseveld, Den Haag
18 May Hermann Wesselink, Amsterdam
07 Oct BonaVentura, Leiden
24 Oct Kings College School, Londen
11 Nov VCL Den haag
29 Nov DaVinci, leiden
19 Dec Meeting with girls (45) in the Old Observatory. Theme: Women between
the stars
Further information:
3.4. Popularization and media contacts
3.4.1. Public lectures and media interviews
van Dishoeck
‘Building planets and the ingredients for life between the stars’ (Leonardo
symposium, Delft; Mar 8)
‘Water in het heelal’ (KNVWS, Hilversum; Oct 13
‘Innovatie eist ruimte voor lange termijn’(Science Guide; Mar 16)
‘Pieken met de EL&I topgebieden?’(VSNU Cafe, Den Haag; Mar 24)
‘Verrassingen uit de ruimte’ (Goed om te weten, OC&W, p. 8-13; Apr )
‘NOVA planetarium’ (Girlsday, Amsterdam; Apr 13)
‘Astronomie in Nederland’(radio interview VPRO programma Onvoltooid
Verleden Tijd; broadcast Jan 16)
‘Wat doet een sterrenkundige?’ (Weekendschool, Den Haag; Mar 13)
‘Het onstaan van het heelal en waar gaat het heen?’(Science Cafe, Leiden; Apr
‘De donkere kant van het heelal’(De Leidsche Flesch, Leiden; Oct 5)
‘BNR nieuws’( radio interview; Apr 12)
‘Herschel Space Observatory Finds Oceans of Water in Planet-Forming
Disk Around Nearby Star’ (NASA press release 11-355)
‘Maan in aspecten’(Leraren, Space Expo, Noordwijk; Jan 15)
‘Last ride of the Space Shuttle’(VPRO Radio; Feb 24)
‘Intelligent life in the Milky Way’ (VSV Leonardo da Vinci, Delft; Mar 8)
‘De geschiedenis van de Sterrewacht’(Sterrewacht, Leiden; Oct 26)
‘Kings College’ (Oct 24)
‘Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets’ (Raad van Advies; May 16)
‘The Discovery of Extrasolar Planets’, (King's College School Visit,
Leiden; Oct 24)
‘Young star shooting water bullets’(SRON press release; May 31)
‘Star Found Shooting Water "Bullets"’ (National Geographic Daily News; June
‘Baby Star Blasts Jets of Water Into Space’ (Inside Science News Service; June 21)
‘Eerste Beelden van de VLT Survey Telescope’ (Volkskrant newspaper; June 8)
‘Gravitational Lensing: Studying the Dark Universe with Light Rays’ (BBVA
Series 'Science of the cosmos, science in the cosmos', Madrid; Dec 14)
‘El Boson de Higgs no explica la materia oscura ni, menos aun, la materia
oscura’ (ABC newspaper interview, Spain; Dec 15)
‘Los mapas del cielo del proyecto KIDs estaran llenos de joyas astronomicas’
(Agencia Sinc, interview, Spain; Dec 15)
Interview, Radio 1 (Hilversum), February
‘Scheikunde tussen de sterren’ (Studievereniging Christian Huygens, TUE Delft;
Van Lunteren
‘Galilei en de Sterrenboodschapper’(Ouderdag Leidsche Fles, Leiden; Apr 16)
‘Bouwkunst en wetenschap in de negentiende eeuw’ (Boekpresentatie ‘De
wetten van de bouwkunst?’, Spui25, Amsterdam; June 23)
‘The Fundamental Physiks Group: Hoe een handjevol hippies de fysica
Veranderde’ (Symposium De randen van de wetenschap, Leiden Nov 9)
Portegies Zwart
‘Virtual environments in science’ (KNAW)
‘Kinderen vragen’ (NEMO, Amsterdam)
‘Dag van de Sterren’ (NEMO, Amsterdam)
Interview Radio 1, Teleac Hoe?Zo!
St Bavoschool Haarlem, group 3 and 5
ter Kleefschool Haarlem group 6
‘Het heelal in een supercomputer van hier naar Tokyo’ (De Leidsche Fles,
Leiden; May 11)
‘Een wereldwijde kosmossimulatie’ (Bessensap, Den Haag; June 6)
‘A Foreign view’(Vrouwen tussen de sterren, public talk at the Old Observatory,
Leiden; Dec 19)
‘Exoplaneten en buitenaards leven’( talk, Amsterdam; Jan 17)
‘Exoplaneten’ (studium generale, Delft; Feb 2)
‘Exoplaneten’ (talk, Venlo; Mar 25)
‘Exoplaneten’ (talk, Bilthoven; Mar 29)
‘Exoplanets’ (Amsterdam; Apr 20)
‘Extraterrestrial Life’(tv – Helder; Mar 11)
‘Search for Habitable Earths’ (tv – Eenvandaag; Sep 16)
‘Yildiz Olusumu - Low-Mass Star Formation’ (14th National Stargazing Festival,
Antalya, Turkey; July 9)
3.5. Universe Awareness program
A child's early years are widely regarded to be the most important for their
development and the formation of their value systems (see article: Too Young to
Learn? ). The idea behind the UNESCO- and IAU-endorsed education program
EU Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) is to use astronomy and space sciences
to inspire children aged 4-10 years – especially those from underprivileged
communities. The goals are twofold: to encourage children to develop an
interest in science and technology and to help broaden their minds, thereby
stimulating a sense of global citizenship and tolerance.
EU-UNAWE is a 3-year program that was launched in January 2011. It was
officially presented during a public event held at the European Parliament in
Brussels, Belgium, on 24 May 2011. Six countries were chosen to build national
EU-UNAWE programs: Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom,
South Africa and Spain.
The EU-UNAWE National Project Managers (NPMs) for each of these countries
are tasked with running workshops that will give primary school educators the
ideas, resources and confidence that they need to bring astronomy and space
science topics into the classroom. Currently, more than 200 teachers have
attended EU-UNAWE workshops in five countries. Furthermore, the NPMs are
developing innovative new educational resources for engaging young children
in astronomy and space sciences. Several of these resources are already being
used in classrooms across Europe. While these resources are developed within
the FP7 Consortium, an important goal of EU-UNAWE is to create an
international network that will provide a platform for sharing ideas, best
practices and resources between educators from around the world. The EUUNAWE website, which was launched in June 2011, is the central hub for the
international network and it hosts all of the programme’s educational resources.
More information:
3.6. IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the
Developing World
As Vice President of the International Astronomical Union, Miley continued to
lead the implementation of the IAU Strategic Plan 2010 – 2020 “Astronomy for
the Developing World”. This Plan foresees a substantial expansion of programs,
and funding, together with a large increase in the number of volunteers.
Building on the IYA model, the focus will be on a demand-driven coherent mix
of sustainable activities. As is stated in the plan, the large expansion and
strategic approach will require a more suitable organisational structure.
A key component of the IAU Plan is the creation of a small IAU Office of
Astronomy for Development (OAD) to coordinate and manage the
implementation of the Plan. This office, a joint venture between the IAU and the
South African National Research Foundation hosted by the South African
Astronomical Observatory in Cape Town. The OAD began work on 1 March,
with Kevin Govender as Director and Miley as Chair of the Steering Committee.
It was inaugurated by the South African Minister of Science and Technology in
The OAD has a very active first nine months. A call for potential volunteers sent
to IAU members by Govender and Miley resulted in almost 350 pledges to
volunteer. Other activities were a successful stakeholders workshop at the OAD
in December and the preparation of an announcement of opportunity for
regional nodes that are an essential ingredient of the IAU bottom-up plan. In
addition, Miley gave several talks to committees in the European Parliament
about the importance of astronomy for capacity building and development,
particularly in Africa.
3.7. The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F.
L.A.D. 'F. Kaiser' has organized several activities in 2010 to encourage the
contacts between Astronomy students from different years. Examples are movie
nights, dinners and an excursion to ESTEC. Furthermore, over 50 people
(bachelor, master and PhD students and a few staff members) participated in
our annual soccer tournament on July 1st. At the end of August, Tiffany
Meshkat left the board. The new board (as of September 1st) consists of Bart
Bijvoets, Joris Hanse and Chris Lemmens. The new board continues the
organization of activities for all Astronomy students in 2012. In addition, it will
resume its most “stellar” activity: organizing guided tours and observation
nights in the reopened Old Observatory, just like L.A.D. 'F. Kaiser' did in the
3.8. Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
The 'Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters' (VO-S; is the
official association of Sterrewacht/Observatory (ex-)affiliates. It has been in
existence for over 15 years now and has seen another active year. As usual, the
150 members were offered a variety of activities.The activities included a social
drink prior to the Oort Lecture and an annual meeting.
This year, the annual meeting was held in Leiden and involved, among others, a
visit of the old Sterrewacht buildings in the centre of Leiden. These buildings
were recently restored and a few weeks before the official reopening the
attending members received a guided tour of the site by the architect. The
meeting was attended by 20 members. VO-S members also received a
newsletters with Sterrewacht news and were offered an electronic member
Observatory staff
Observatory staff
(As on December 31, 2011)
Names, e-mail addresses, room numbers, and telephone numbers of all
current personnel can be found on the Sterrewacht website:
Telephone extensions should always be preceded by (071) 527 …
(from inside The Netherlands) or by +31-71-527 … (from abroad)
Full Professors:
E.F. van Dishoeck
M. Franx
V. Icke (0.0)
F.P. Israel (0.0)
K. Kuijken (Director)
H.V.J. Linnartz
G.K. Miley (0.0)
S. Portegies Zwart
H.J.A. Röttgering
J. Schaye
A.G.G.M. Tielens
P.T. de Zeeuw (0.0)
Full Professors by Special Appointments:
D. van Delft*
(Museum Boerhaave, Stichting tot beheer
Museum Boerhaave)
W.J. Jaffe
(Universiteit van Amsterdam)
C.W.M. Fridlund**
(J.H. Oortfonds)
M. Garrett***
(ASTRON, Sterrewacht, Faculty W&N)
H.V.J. Linnartz
(Stichting Fysica, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
F. van Lunteren
(UL (0.5)/VU (0.3), Teijler’s Hoogleraar
* Director Boerhaave Museum
** Staff scientist ESTEC/ESA
***Director ASTRON
Associate Professors and Assistant Professors / Tenured Staff:
R.J. Bouwens
B.R. Brandl
J. Brinchmann
A. Brown
M. Haverkorn (0.0) *
H. Hoekstra
M.R. Hogerheijde
P. Katgert (0.0)
M.A. Kenworthy
H.J. van Langevelde (0.0)**
I.F.L. Labbé
Y. Levin (0.0)***
J. Lub (0.0)
R.S. Le Poole (0.0)
R. Quadri (0.0)
W.J. Jaffe
I.A.G. Snellen
R. Stuik (NOVA, Muse)
P.P. van der Werf
W.B. Burton
A.M. van Genderen
H.J. Habing
I. van Houten-Groeneveld
K. Kwee
A. Ollongren
C. Van Schooneveld
* Staff, Radboud University Nijmegen
** Director, JIVE, Dwingeloo
***Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Postdocs and Project Personnel and longterm visiting scientists:
Funded by
Funded by
J.L. Birkby
E. Meyer
L. Birzan
J.B. Bossa
M. Moerchen
F. Molster
ESO (guest)
detachering NWO
G. Busso
L.R. Carlson
J.C. Mottram
A.V. Muzzin
R.A. Crain
B.A. Devecchi
B.D. Oppenheimer NWO-VI
S.G. Patel
A. van Elteren
S. Giodini
F.I. Pelupessy
A. Petrignani
J. Guss
J. Holt
D.A. Rafferty
F.L. Raicevic
S. Ioppolo
M. Iwasawa
A. Juhasz
D. Risquez-Oneca
P.M. Rodrigues
Dos Santos Russo
M. Schmalzl
E. Semboloni
J.K. KatgertMerkelijn
T. van Kempen
D.R. Serrano Sobral NOVA
S. Taylor-Muzzin
P.D. Klaassen
L. Kristensen
S. van der Tol
N. de Vries
E. Loenen
R. Mathar
A.J. Walsh
R.J.van Weeren
S.M. Weinmann
J. Zhen
T.P.K. Martinsson NOVA
R. Meijerink (0.0)
PhD students:
Funded by
Funded by
A.S. Abdullah
M. Mosleh
H.E. Andrews
J.E. Bast
S.V. Nefs
B.B. Ochsendorf
J. Bedorf
T.C.N. Boekholt
G.P.P.L. Otten
B. Pila Diez
M Brogi
R.F.J. van der Burg
NWO Pous
A. Rahmati
D. Caputo
A.J. Richings
Y. Cavecchi
S. Rieder
N. Clementel
S.H. Cuylle
A.J. Rimoldi
M.J. Rosenberg
M.P. van Daalen
UL (Huygens)
M. Sadatshirazi
F.J. Salgado Cambiazo
E.C. Fayolle
G. Fedoseev
I. San Jose Garcia
J. van de Sande
EU-ITN Lassie
M. Fumagalli
D.S. Harsono
C. Shneider
R. Smit
M. Iacobelli
K.M. Isokoski
D.M. Smit
C.M.S. Straatman
M.P.H. Israël
A. Karska
A.H. Streefland
A. Stroe
M. Kazandjian
S. Krijt
D. Szomoru
M.L. Turner
M.A. Kulkarni
A.L.M. Lamberts
E. van Uitert
M.B.M. Velander
UL/EU-reintegr grant
X. Li
M. Velliscig
N. Lopez Gonzaga
K. Maaskant
S. Verdolini
L. Vermaas
N.v.d. Marel
C.A. Martinez
J.R. Martinez Galarza UL /NOVA
F. van de Voort
K.S. Wang
M.P.M. Weiss
F. Maschietto
W.L. Williams
UL / Teyler's
T.R. Meshkat
UL/EU-reintegration U. Yildiz
Support staff:
J.C. Drost
E. Gerstel
A. van der Tang
L. van der Veld
Management assistant
Institute manager
Programme coordinator BSc and MSc
Computer staff:
E.R. Deul
D. J. Jansen
A. Vos
N. Verbeek
Manager computer group
Scientific programmer
NOVA office:
E. van Dishoeck
W.H.W.M. Boland
K. Groen
J.T. Quist
F. Molster
Scientific director
Managing director
Financial controller
Management Assistent
Project Manager (ESFRI, NWO)
MSc Students:
Arthur Bakker
Babs Beemster
Saskia van den Broek
Axel Buddendiek
Mason Carney
Pablo Castellanos Nash
Maria Drosdovskaya
Jeroen Franse
Luc Harms
Arisa Hatagaya
Ricardo Herbonnet
Jens Hoeijmakers
James Hunter
David Huijser
Ingrid Icke
Sara Khalafinejad
Margriet van der Laan
Paul Langelaan
Carla Natario
Vincent Oomen
Paula Andrea Ortiz Otalvaro
Tjibaria Pijloo
Jaya Ramchandani
Marijke Segers
Sebastiaan Smeets
Arthur Vromans
Siebe Weersma
Sascha Zeegers
Staff changes in 2011
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
Research assistant
PhD student
PhD student
Lopez Gonzaga
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
Martinez Barbosa PhD student
Martins E Oliveira PhD student
Martins E Oliveira postdoc
Andrews Mancilla
Rodrigues Dos
Santos Russo
San Jose Garcia
Serrano Sobral
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
Tenure Track
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
PhD student
II.1. Observatory Committees
(As on December 31, 2011)
(Directie onderzoekinstituut)
K. Kuijken (director of research)
F.P. Israel (director of education)
E. Gerstel (institute manager)
Observatory management team
(Management Team Sterrewacht)
K.H. Kuijken (chair)
E.R. Deul
J. Drost (minutes)
I. Snellen (outreach)
E. Gerstel
F.P. Israel
J. Lub (advisor)
Supervisory council
(Raad van Advies)
J.A.M. Bleeker (chair)
B. Baud
J.F. van Duyne
K. Gaemers
C. Waelkens
Research committee
(Onderzoek-commissie OZ)
M. Franx (chair)
A.G.A. Brown
M. Hogerheijde
W. Jaffe
P.P. van der Werf
Research institute scientific council
(Wetenschappelijke raad onderzoekinstituut)
R. Bouwens
P. Katgert
B. Brandl
K.H. Kuijken
J. Brinchmann
H.J. van Langevelde
A.G.A. Brown
R.S. Le Poole
D. van Delft
Y. Levin
E.R. Deul
H.V.J. Linnartz
E.F. van Dishoeck
J. Lub
M Franx
F. van Lunteren
M. Fridlund
G.K. Miley
M. Garrett
S. Portegies Zwart
H. Habing
A. Quirrenbach
M. Haverkorn
H.J.A. Röttgering
H. Hoekstra
J. Schaye
M. Hogerheijde
I. Snellen
V. Icke
R. Stuik
F.P. Israel
A.G.G.M. Tielens
W.J. Jaffe (chair)
P.P. van der Werf
P.T. de Zeeuw
Institute council
E. Deul (chair)
J. Drost
W.J. Jaffe
H. Hoekstra
M. Hogerheijde
T. Pijloo
E. van Uitert
Astronomy education committee
(Opleidingscommissie OC)
E. van Uitert
M. Franx
E. van Dishoeck
J. Schaye
H. Röttgering
vacancy (minutes)
N.A. Bremer
T. Pijloo
M.C. Segers
A. Vreeker
Astronomy board of examiners
J. Lub (chair)
J. Aarts (Physics)
F.P. Israel
I. Snellen
P.P. van der Werf (until oct 1)
Oort scholarship committee
F.P. Israel
S. Portegies Zwart
J. Schaye
Mayo Greenberg Prize committee
G. Miley (chair)
E.F. van Dishoeck
P. Katgert
H.V.J. Linnartz
J. Lub
PhD admission advisory committee
H. Hoekstra
S. Portegies Zwart
review committee
(Promotie begeleidingscommissie)
X. Tielens (chair)
W. Boland
H. Linnartz
J. Schaye
Colloquia committee
J. Brinchmann
M. Kenworthy
Computer committee
A.G.A. Brown (chair)
B. Brandl
M. Smit
Library committee
W.J. Jaffe (chair)
F.P. Israel
J. Lub
Public outreach committee
F.P. Israel (chair)
V. Icke
R. van der Burg
J. van de Sande
F. van der Voort
Social committee
E. Fayolle
T. Meshkat
M. Rosenberg
A. van der Tang
N. van der Marel
R. Meijerink
I. Snellen
II.2. University Committees
(As on December 31, 2011)
Member, Faculteitsraad
Member Begeleidings Commissie ICT projecten
Chair Facultair Overleg ICT
Member Facultair Beleids Commissie ICT
van Dishoeck
Member, Raad van Toezicht, Leiden Institute of Physics (LION)
Member, Faculty Research Committee (WECO)
Director, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Foundation
Director, Leids Sterrewacht Foundation
Director, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation
Member, Board of Directors, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, Board of Directors, Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member, Board of Directors, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation
Member, Advisory Council, Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts
Member, Belvédère Committee
Member, Committee of Education Directors, School of Sciences
Member, Board of Graduate School, School of Sciences
Member, BKO review committee, UL
Chairman, board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Chairman, board of directors Oort Fonds
Member, board of directors Leidsch Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, FMD/ELD user committee
Member, laboratory user group 'FWN nieuwbouw'
Van Lunteren
Scientifc Board Scaliger Institute
Historical Committee of Leiden University
Studium Generale Committee Leiden University
Writer-in-residence Committee
Chairman, Selection Committee, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize
PRACE, member of the Scientific Steering Committee
Lorentz Center, Computational Science board member
ESF, International review commision board
ASTROSIM, representative of the Netherlands
NWO-VIDI, review committee
GAIA, member of the science advisory board
KNAW, computational science action group
MSc, Studie advisor
Huygens fellowship, Selection committee
NOVA ISC, AMUSE progress representtive
Quatar NSF, Quatar national science foundation, external advisor
IAU Member of Division VII Galactic System
IAU Member of Division VII Commission 37 Star Clusters & Associations
Huygens vervangings commissie
NWO Network3 meeting in Leiden, organizer
Member, LUF International Study Fund (LISF) committee
Member , PR committee, Faculty of Science
Van der Werf
Member Faculty Council
Organist of the Academy Auditorium
Science policy
Panel Member, Hubble Space Telescope Time Allocation Committee
PI, METIS (mid-IR instrument for the E-ELT)
Deputy co-PI MIRI (mid-IR instrument for the JWST)
Co-I KINGFISH Herschel Open Timen Nearby Galaxies Key Project
Member, NOVA Instrument Steering Committee (ISC)
Member, GranteCan/FRIDA CDR review board
Member, ESFRI board
Member, METIS Chopper CDR review board
Member, METIS cooler review board
Member, METIS immersed grating review
Member, MIRI FM test team
Legacy Science Coordinator, Euclid mission
Member, MUSE Science team
Coordinator, MUSE data management
Panel chair, Herschel Time Allocation Committee
Member, Island Observatories TAC
Member, Organizing Committee IAU Commission 8
Member, IAU Commission 37
Member, Gaia Science Team
Member, EU Marie-Curie ITN Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training
Member, Steering Committee ESF-RNP Gaia Research for European Astronomy
Training (GREAT)
van Delft
Member, National UNESCO committee
Member, History of Science committee KNAW
Member, jury Huijbrechtsenprijs, Avond van Wetenschap en Maatschappij
Member, Nederlandse Maatschappij der Letterkunde
Member, (directeur) Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen
Member, Interdisciplinary Program Board Lorentz Center / NIAS
Member, Advisory Board NWT Magazine (Natuur, Wetenschap en Techniek)
Ambassador Platform bètatechniek
Chairman, bestuur Nederlandsch Natuur- en Geneeskundig Congres
Chairman, Board Stichting Technolab, Leiden
Member, Raad van Toezicht Stichting RINO, Leiden
Member, Ondernemersfonds Leiden.
Van Dishoeck
Scientific Director, Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA)
Co-Editor, Annual Reviews of Astronomy & Astrophysics
Member, ALMA Board
Member, SRON Board
Member, National Committee on Astronomy (NCA)
Member, MPIA-Heidelberg Fachbeirat
Member, Herschel-HIFI Science team
Chair, Visiting committee, astronomy department, Harvard University
Co-PI, European JWST-MIRI consortium
Chair, IAU Working Group on Astrochemistry
Vice-president, IAU Commission 14
Coordinator, Herschel-HIFI WISH Key Program
Chair, Scientific Organising Committee, IAU Symposium 280, 'The Molecular
Universe', Toledo, Spain
Co-chair SOC, Special Session ``A new era for studying interstellar and
intergalactic magnetic fields'', General Assembly of International Astronomical
Union, Beijing, July 2012
Member SOC, conference ``Understanding Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds:
A road to success for cosmological experiments'', Zadar, Croatia, May 2011
Principal Investigator, Southern Twenty-centimeter All-sky Polarization Survey
Principal Investigator Galactic Science, Southern Polarization All-Sky Survey (SPASS)
Chair, LOFAR Galactic Science Working Group Magnetism Key Science Project
Member management team, Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array Continuum
Transit Survey
Chair, Working Group for Multi-wavelength Coordination for ASKAP Survey
Science Project POSSUM
Consortium member, Galactic Magneto-Ionic Medium Survey
Scientific referee for ApJ, ApJL, A&A, MNRAS
Member, Time Allocation Committee Island Telescopes
Member, Science Advisory Committee, Isaac Newton Group
Member, ALMA Science Advisory Committee
Member, ALMA European Science Advisory Committee
Member, ALMA European Regional Center Coordinating Committee
Project Scientist for CHAMP+/Netherlands
Co-coordinator, JCMT Gould Belt legacy Survey
Secretary/treasurer, Board of Directors Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Secretary/treasurer, Board of Directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Secretary/treasurer, Board of Directors Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds
Member, ALMA Proposal Review Committee
Member, Deutsche Forschungs Gemeinschaft Review Panel Physics
Interstellar Medium
Member at large, NL-0LOFAR Advisory CommitteeMember, IAU Comissions 28, 40 and 51
Member, Science Team Herschel-HIFI
Member, Science Team JWST-MIRI
Member, Science Team APEX-Champ+
Member, Editorial Board Europhysics News
Coordinator-NL SCUBA2 Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey
Kenworthy, reviewer, National Science Foundation
Member, Herschel User's Group (HUG)
Scientific Delegate from the Netherlands, ESO Council
Member, Scientific Strategy Working Group, ESO Council
Chair, ESO contact committee
Member and Vice-chair (since September 2011), Netherlands Committee for
Member and Chair (since April 2011), NOVA Board
Principal Investigator, ESO KiDS Survey
Principal Investigator, OmegaCAM project
Co-investigator, ESO VIKING Public Survey
Co-investigator, Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph project
Board Member, Physics Society Diligentia (the Hague)
Board Member, Kapteyn Fonds (Groningen)
van Langevelde
Member consortium board European VLBI Network
Member RadioNet Board and Executive Board
Coordinator NEXPReS (Novel EXploration Pushing Robust e-VLBI Systems),
board and management team
PI, RadioNet reserach activity ALBiUS (Advanced Long Baseline Interoperable
User Software)
Member board PrepSKA (Prepatory SKA studies)
Member European SKA Consortium
NOVA Instrumentation Steering Committee
Dutch URSI committee
Chairman board of directors Leids Kerkhoven Bosscha Fonds
Member board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member board of directors Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds
SKA klankbordgroep NL
Allegro steering committee
'SPIN' chair for Molecular Laboratory Astrophysics, LCVU.
Editor CAMOP (Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical
Physics / Physica Scripta).
External advisor, RSC/RAS Astrophysical Chemistry Group.
Member, European Task Force for Laboratory Astrophysics.
Research coordinator, FP7 ITN 'LASSIE' (Laboratory
Astrochemical Surface Science In Europe).
Theme coordinator NWO-EW/CW 'DAN' (Dutch Astrochemistry Network).
Workgroup leader, FOM group FOM-L-027.
Member, NWO-CW 'Spectroscopy and Theory'.
Member, NWO-FOM 'COMOP'' (Condensed Matter and Optical
Member, HRSMC research school.
Van Lunteren
Education and Research Board Huizinga Institute
Portegies Zwart
NWO, Advisory board national platform computational science
Key researchers NOVA (Network 3)
VPRO Noorderlicht, science advisory board
European Ambassador, Meta Institute for Computational Astrophysics,
Beta Ambassador for the Netherlands
Member of the observatory sceince team for LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray
timing) : tidal disruption and gamma-ray bursts working groups.
Member of the organizing committee for the 4th International summer School in
Astroparticle physics ``Nijmegen12”.
Member of the steering committee, Virgo Consortium for cosmological
supercomputer simulations
Co-Investigator, MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer)
Key researcher, NOVA (the Dutch research school for astronomy)
Member, MUSE science team
Member, LOFAR Epoch of Reionization science team
Member, Editorial Board, Scientific Reports
Member, astronomy program board, Lorentz Center
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, "Gas in galaxies: from cosmic web to
molecular clouds", Seeon, Germany
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, "The cosmic odyssey of baryons:
accreting, outflowing and hiding", Marseille, France
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, "The physics of galaxy formation",
Durham, UK
PI, OWLS collaboration (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations)
PI, EAGLE collaboration (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their
Member, PLATO consortium
Member, ESA ECHO science study team
Member, METIS consortium
Board member, Nederlandse Astronomen Club
Member, Telescope Allocation Committee, NASA Hubble Space Telescope - cycle
Associate member, OPTICON Key Technologies Network
Member, FP7 Network "Wide field imaging at the E-ELT: from GLAO to
diffraction limit"
Workshops, lectures
and colloquia
in Leiden
lectures and
colloquia in Leiden
IV.1. Workshops
Most of the workshops were held in the Lorentz Center, an international center
which coordinates and hosts workshops in the sciences. In 2011 the Leiden
astronomers contributed to the following workshops there:
Feb 21 - 25
Probing the Radio Continuum Universe with SKA Pathfinders
Norris, Rottgering
Feb 28 - Mar 4
Herschel and the Characteristics of Dust in Galaxies
Xander Tielens, Frank Israel
Apr 4 - 8
100th Anniversary of Superconductivity: Hot Topics and Future Directions
de Visser, Golden, Prassides, van der Marel, Zaanen
May 2 - 6
Workweek: Towards understanding imaging data from LOFAR
Huub Röttgering, Roberto Pizzo
July 25 - 29
Groups and Clusters of Galaxies: Confronting Theory with Observations
Arif Babul, Graham Smith, Christoph Pfrommer, Henk Hoekstra
Dec 5 - 9
Isotopes in Astrochemistry: An Interstellar Heritage for Solar System
Stefanie Milam, Steven Charnley, Ewine van Dishoeck, Conel Alexander
Dec 12 - 16
Modeling and Observing Dense Stellar Systems
Simon Portegies Zwart, Steve McMillan, Marco Spaans, Piet Hut, Inti Pelupessy,
Arjen van Elteren
Additional Meetings:
Jan 24-26
WISH team meeting
E. F. van Dishoeck
Dec 15-16
WISH team meeting
E. F. van Dishoeck
IV.2. Endowed Lectures
Mar 21
Oort lecture ‘ What makes spiral galaxies tick?’
James J. Binney
Nov 24
Sackler lecture ‘ The Cosmic Dawn and Reionization’
A. Loeb
IV.3. Scientific Colloquia
Jan 13
Speaker (affiliation)
Simon Lilly (ETH Zurich)
Jan 20
Erik Hog (Niels Bohr Institute,
Jan 27
Cornelis Dullemond (IfTA
Elmar Kording (Nijmegen)
Feb 2
Feb 10
Feb 11
Feb 17
Feb 24
Mar 9
Mar 3
Mar 17
Apr 14
Apr 21
Apr 28
May 12
May 26
June 8
June 9
Mass and environment as drivers of galaxy
evolution and the origin if the Schechter
Astrometry Lost and Regained: From a modest
experiment in Copenhagen in 1925 to the
Hipparcos and Gaia space missions
Planet Factories
X-ray binaries: Miniature scale models of
The Initial Mass Function in resolved young
Morten Andersen (ESTEC)
stellar clusters
Optical Spectroscopy of Interstellar and
Nadine Wehres (Leiden
Observatory/Kapteyn Astronomical Circumstellar Molecules - a combined
laboratory and observational study (PhD
Mars Express Scientific Highlights
Olivier Witasse (ESTEC)
Cool gas in Brightest Cluster Galaxies (PhD
Raymond Oonk (Leiden
UV tracers of the Hidden Side of Galaxy
Chris Martin (Caltech)
Collective Origin of Spiral Structure in Disk
Lars Hernquist (CFA Harvard)
Our Galaxy, the Local Group and the Virgo
Ben Moore (ITP Zurich)
Towards an Understanding of Gas Accretion
Guinevere Kauffmann (MPA
and Star Formation in Galaxies
Isa Oliveira (Leiden Observatory) Observational Constraints on the Evolution of
Dust in Protoplanetary Disks (PhD
Understanding the nature of Hanny's
Mike Garrett (ASTRON)
Asteroseismology of red giants with CoRoT
Saskia Hekker (UvA)
and Kepler
HST Imaging of Formalhaut: Direct detection
Paul Kalas (University of
of an extrasolar planet and Kuiper Belt
California, Berkeley)
around a nearby star
Gravitational-wave detection and pulsar
Rutger van Haasteren (Leiden
timing (PhD colloquium)
Gas, Star Formation and Resulting Gas
Fabian Walter (MPIA)
Depletion Times in Nearby Galaxies: New
Insights from HERACLES and THINGS
June 14 Ernst de Mooij (Leiden Observatory) Ground-based observations of exoplanet
atmospheres (PhD colloquium)
June 16 Olivera Rakic (Leiden Observatory Gas in the Vicinity of Star-Forming Galaxies
at z~2-2.5 (PhD colloquium)
June 23 Ralph A.M.J. Wijers (Astronomical The extreme physics of gammaray bursts
Institute 'Anton Pannekoek')
From electrons to stars: Modelling and
June 30 Thibaut Prod'homme (Leiden
mitigation of radiation damage effects on
astronomical CCDs (PhD colloquium)
Sep 1
Chael Kruip (Leiden Observatory) Analysis, development and applications of the
SimpleX algotithm (PhD colloquium)
Studying galaxy dark matter haloes with weak
Sep 15 Malin Velander (Leiden
lensing(PhD colloquium)
Small Telescopes in the Era of the ELTs
Sep 29 Alan Tokunaga (Institute for
Astronomy, Hawaii)
The dynamics of stars near massive black holes
Oct 13 Ann-Marie Madigan (Leiden
(PhD Colloquium)
Oct 17 Nikta Amiri (Leiden Observatory) Developing Asymmetries in AGB Stars:
Occurrence, Morphology and Polarization of
Circumstellar Masers (PhD colloquium)
How do Most Planets Form?
Oct 20 Markus Janson (Princeton
Radio Relics: probes of galaxy cluster mergers
Oct 25 Reinout van Weeren (Leiden
Massive stars: From the VLT to the ELT
Oct 27 Chris Evans (UK Astronomy
Technology Centre, Edinburgh)
Nov 3
(Leiden Observations of Thermal Emission and
Reflected Light from Exoplanets using
Ground-Based Telescopes
Nov 3
Nov 10
Nov 17
Nov 23
Dec 1
Dec 8
Dec 12
Dec 15
Thomas Giesen (University of Koln) High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy of
Interstellar Molecules
Standing on the shoulders of giants: star and
Mark McCaughrean (ESTEC)
planet formation with the VLT, JWST, and
the E-ELT
Simulations of galaxy formation
Thom Theuns (ICC, Durham)
Methanol Masers and millimetre and
Kalle Torstensson (Leiden
millimetre lines: a common origin in
protostellar envelopes (PhD colloquium)
Giuseppe Lodato (Dipartimento di Modeling the light curve of tidal disruption
Fisica, Milano)
Bon-thermal emission from galaxy clusters and
Gianfranco Brunnetti (INAF)
connection with cluster-cluster collisions
Weak gravitational lensing in the RCS2 (PhD
Edo van Uitert (Leiden
Charlie Conroy (Harvard
Measuring the IMF in distant galaxies
Smithsonian Center for
Astrophysics, Cambridge)
IV.4. Student Colloquia
Feb 28
Marinus Israel
Mar 21
Tiffany Meshkat
Mar 28
May 2
Nienke van der Marel
Nadieh Bremer
May 4
Caroline Straatman
May 9
Willem de Pous
May 16
May 23
May 30
Paul Langelaan
Tjarda Boekholt
Joana Figueira
June 22
Jiting Hu
June 27
Aug 22
Sep 13
Ainil Abdullah
Tjarda Boekholt
Joana Figueira
Sep 19
Caspar Schonau
Sep 20
Gilles Otten
Sep 26
Margriet van der Laan
Oct 31
Nov 15
David Huijser
Arthur Bakker
Millimeter emission from protoplanetary
HD 189733b spectroscopy: The Methane
Polarization in optical interferometry
Finding a simple tracer of halo mass for
individual galaxies
The clustering of metal lines in QSO
absorption spectra
A star formation rate dependent stellar initial
mass function in cosmological simulations
Stellar Clusters and the changing tide
High-precision core collapse in star clusters
Modeling the evolution of an hierarchical
triple stellar system
Star formation history in merger cluster
Abell 2163
Massive Black Hole in Nuclear Star Cluster
High-Precision N-body Simulations
Modeling the evolution of Xi Tauri’s inner
hierarchical triple stellar system
Young stellar objects and the distribution
and kinematics of the isotopologues C180
and 12CO in Core A of the molecular cloud
Detecting Hot Jupiters using consumer
Properties of young X-ray selected stars in
the Serpens Cloud
Solar modulation of cosmic rays
Radio source counts
IV.5. Colloquia given outside Leiden
Magnetic Fields And Developing Asymmetries In Circumstellar Masers
AAS meeting, Boston, USA; May 24
Idem, IAUS 283 meeting, Tenerife, Spain; July 27
Idem, NRAO, Socorro, USA; July 14
Idem, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA; July 15
Observations of Optical Secondary Eclipses of Transiting Hot Jupiters with the GTC
Extreme Solar Systems II
Jackson Hole, Wyoming, USA; Sep 15
What we can learn about the build-up and evolution of galaxies at early times from the
new WFC3/IR observations
University of Maryland, College Park, USA; Mar 2
Science Prospects for Euclid: The High Redshift Universe
Groningen, Netherlands; Apr 6
What we can learn about the build-up and evolution of galaxies at early times from the
new WFC3/IR observations
Groningen, Netherlands; Apr 16
Using the new WFC3/IR camera on HST to discover how the first galaxies build up and
Groningen, Netherlands; Apr 20
First Galaxies, what we can learn about the first galaxies from current observations
Marseille, France; May 3
What we can learn about the build-up and evolution of galaxies at early times from the
new WFC3/IR observations
Nijmegen, Netherlands; June 14
What we can learn about early galaxy formation from current observations
Tegensee, Germany; June 27
The First Galaxies (z>5)
Durham, United Kingdom; July 22
Galaxy Build-up and Evolution in the First 2 Gyr of the universe
Cambridge, United Kingdom; July 25
Idem, Potsdam, Germany; Sep 14
High Redshift Galaxies
Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 22
Probing Early Galaxy Build-up with CLASH
Heidelberg, Germany; Oct 17
Galaxy & AGN science with Euclid: an overview
Dutch Euclid data, Groningen, Netherlands; Apr 7
MUSE data management
MUSE consortium meeting, Aussois, France; May 20
Estimating gas masses from optical spectroscopy
Nice, France; June 7
The gas content of SDSS galaxies
Lyon Observatory, Lyon, France; June 17
The history of star formation in the Universe
Alpbach ESA summer school, Alpbach, Austria; July 19
Galaxy evolution with Euclid
Euclid consortium meeting, Bologna, Italy; Aug 5
Van Delft
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Road to Superconductivity
APS March Meeting Dallas, USA; Mar 21
History and Significance of the Discovery of Superconductivity by Kamerlingh Onnes
in 1911
2nd New York State Superconductor Technology Summit 2011, Schenectady
NY, USA; Aug 4
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Road to Superconductivity
Vortex Matter in Nanostructured Superconductors VII, Rhodes, Greece; Sep 12
The Leiden Cryogenic Laboratory and the Discovery of Superconductivity
Centenary Talk Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nov 17
Idem, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK; Nov 18
van Dishoeck
A WISH come true: water in star-forming regions with Herschel
University of Colorado, Boulder, USA; Feb 23
Idem, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; Feb 16
Idem, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Mar 29
Idem, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA; May 6
Building planets and the ingredients for life between the stars: Hewish lecture
Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK; June 15
Water in space: from pre-stellar cores to planet-forming disks
University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Oct 10
Talk ‘Radioastronomie aan de astronomen’ vroege radioastronomie in Nederland, Dutch
and Flemish PhD students history of science, Kerkrade, Netherlands; Jan 27
De geschiedenis van de voedselproductie
Museum for the history of sciences, Ghent, Belgium; May 1
Big Science, Little Science: the origin of Dutch radio astronomy
Dutch historians of science, Woudschoten, Netherlands; June 18
The relations between Dutch radio astronomers and their Soviet colleagues during the
heyday of the Cold War
University of Notre Dame, Indiana, US; July 7
Radio astronomy for the astronomers: early radio astronomy in theNetherlands
British Society for the History of Science, Exeter, UK; July 16
Early radio astronomy in Netherlands: astronomers take the lead
Huizinga Instituut, Barchem, Netherlands; Oct 7
Beyond American hegemony: Dutch radio astronomy in the early post-war period
Danish National Committee for the History and Philosophy of Science, Aarhus,
Denmark; Dec 14
Galaxy groups: the power of a multiwavelength approach
Kaptein Institute, Groeningen, Netherlands; Nov 2
Studying Galaxy Groups: a window on the assembly of visible matter in the Universe
NAC, Texel, Netherlands; May 19
Early results from diffuse spectro-polarimetry: S-PASS and LOFAR
Conference "Understanding Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds'', Zadar,
Croatia; May 23
Early MKSP Science Results: the Fan Region
LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project Meeting, Newcastle University,
Newcastle, UK; Apr 5
Extended continuum emission and the magnetic field of the Milky Way
Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India; Mar 1
Measuring masses: from galaxy clusters down to galaxies, IAP, Paris, France, Mar 4
A look at the dark side of the Universe, API, Amsterdam, March 25
idem, ICE, Barcelona, Spain, June 6
Cosmology and more with Euclid, CITA, Toronto, Canada, Oct 21
idem, University of Victoria, Canada, Nov 24
The discovery of dark energy, TU Delft, Delft, Dec 8
The LOFAR view of the Fan region
Bologna Radioastronomy Institute (IRA), Italy; Nov 25
LOFAR commissioning activities: progress and results
Bonn Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIFR), Germany; Mar 12
de Jong
Kilo Degree Survey status
Durham University, UK; Dec 5
Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets in the Thermal Infrared
Kapetyn Institute, Groningen; Apr 4
Idem, ESTEC Seminar, Katwijk; Sep 11
Adaptive Optics Astronomical Observations
Delft University; June 6
Water as tracer of the stormy stages of star formation
Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Madrid, Spain; Feb 22
Water bullets from low-mass protostars
University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Mar15
Idem, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA; Apr 5
Where is the water in low-mass young stars?
IAU Symposium 280, Toledo, Spain; May 30
Shocks and protostars: observations, models and predictions
Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA; Nov 3
GAAP: PSF Gaussianization and shear measurement
E-science institute, Edinburgh, UK; Jan 26
Introduction to the ESO telescopes
ESO-Chile, Vitacura, Chile; Aug 24
Galaxy evolution with Z-FOURGE
Pasadena, USA; Mar 15
The FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey
Pasadena, USA; Apr 28
Idem, Texas, USA; June 20
Stellar populations at the highest redshifts
United Kingdom; July 26
van Langevelde
EXPReS & NEXPReS an evolution pathway for VLBI into the SKA era
NRAO, Charlottesville; Jan 29
Recent results on Methanol masers
NRAO, Charlottesville; July 12
Progress with e-VLBI in the EVN and correlators at JIVE
URSI General Assembly, Istanbul; Aug 18
Magnetic field measurements around young and old stars using masers
JAN65, Nijmegen; Aug 26
Unlocking the chemistry of the heavens
Gothenburg, Sweden; Feb
Solid state pathways towards molecular complexity
Toledo, Spain; May/June
Exciting CO
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Netherlands; Feb 22
Idem, FIR2011: Star formation and feedback in galaxies as revealed by far
infrared and submillimeter wavelengths, London, UK; Sep 16
van Lunteren
De Christelijke wortels van de moderne natuurwetenschap
Descartes Centre, Utrecht; Feb 22
Einstein's search for a unified field theory
Descartes Centre, Utrecht; Mar 22
Natuurwetenschap als spiegel van de cultuur
Het Wereldbeeld, Amsterdam; Mar 29
Ontstaan en ontwikkeling van de bètadisciplines
Congres Disciplinevorming, Utrecht; June 9
Dutch skies, global laws, Woudschoten Conference? Locations of Knowledge?
Zeist; June 18
Science and Religion: a historical perspective
First National Congress on Science and Religion, ForumC, Amsterdam; Nov 10
De Akademie en de natuurwetenschappen
Descartes Colloquium, Utrecht; Nov 22
Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks
Penn State University, USA; May 1
Gas and Dust in the Universe
ASIAA, Taipei, Taiwan; June 10
Idem, ESO Garching, Munich, Germany; July 10
Depressions and instabilities: the dynamics of stars near massive black holes
ICRAR Perth, Australia; Jan 20
The dynamics of stars near massive black holes
Swinburne University, Australia; Mar 03
Secular stellar dynamics near massive black holes
ITC, Harvard, Boston, USA; Apr 19
Idem, UCLA, USA; Apr 27
The hazardous lives of stars near massive black holes
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven; May 19
The dynamics of stars near massive black holes
UC Santa Cruz, USA; Nov 7
Idem, UC Berkeley, USA; Nov 9
Idem, CITA, Canada; Nov 15
Idem, Northwestern, USA; Nov 17
van der Marel
Cold complex organic molecules toward low-mass protostars and outflows
ESAC, Madrid, Spain; Aug 11
Progress on the intra-cavity FT-ICR MS
FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein, Netherlands; Oct 15
The IR spectra of highly stable PAH ions at FELICE
Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Sep 26
Multi physics simulations of gas-rich star clusters
Kapteiyn Institute, Groningen, Netherlands; Sep 26
The evolution of embedded star clusters
Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 20
New horizons in computational astrophysics
Heidelberg, Germany; July 5
The Multiscale Software Environment
Cefalu, Italy; June 16
AMUSE, Radbout U. Nijmegen, Netherlands; Apr 29
AMUSE, Radbout U. Nijmegen, Netherlands; Nov 1
AMUSE + IBIS demo SuperComputer 2011, San Diego, USA; Nov 15
High-performance asatro supercomputing
ASCI, Netherlands Simulating dense stellar systems, Garching, Germany; May
The evolution of embedded star clusters, Dublin, Ireland; Apr 14-15
The formation of millisecond binary pulsars in eccentric binaries;
NWO Network3; Apr 12
High performance Computational astrophysics in Netherlands
Kobe, Japan; Aug 23-25
The Multipurpose Software Environment, Cefalu, Sicily; June 13-18
Gravity on GPUs
International Symposium "Computer Simulations on GPU" , Mainz, Germany;
June 1
Bonsai: A parallel GPU Tree-Code
Conference "Advances in Computational Astrophysics: Methods, tools and
outcomes" , Cefalu, Italy; June 17
CosmoGrid: A high-resolution cosmological simulation
CAMK, Warsaw, Poland; July 15
Black Hole recoil: the first light
Aspen Center for Physics, Aspen, USA; June, 1
Summary of my research, Amsterdam University, Netherlands; June, 17
Tidal events: the Super-Eddington phase, Oxford University, Oxford, UK; Sep 21
Gamma-Ray Bursts and Tidal disruption events
“LOFT Science Meeting”, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Oct 27
Hyper-velocity stars, Lund Observatory, Sweden; Nov 10
van de Sande
The stellar velocity dispersion of a compact massive galaxy at z=1.8 using X-Shooter
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (NAC), Texel, Netherlands; May 19
Galaxy formation in the OWLS universe
Ringberg, Germany; Apr 18-22
Modelling the gaseous cosmic web probed by QSO absorbers
Seeon, Germany; June 14-18
Conference summary
Conference “The cosmic odyssey of baryons: accreting, outflowing and hiding”,
Marseille, France; June 20-24
SPH simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxie
Durham, UK; July 18-22
Coupling galaxy formation with the evolution of the intergalactic medium
Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 21-22
Coupling galaxy formation with the evolution of the intergalactic medium
University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; Oct 5
Idem, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; Nov 22
Light deflection by large-scale structures: how to unveil the “dark” side of the Universe
Osservatorio di Monteporzio; Catone, Frascati (Roma), Italy; Nov
"Effect of baryonic feedback on cosmic shear tomography"
University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Aug
Transiting extrasolar planets
University of Toronto, Canada; Apr 29
Transiting extrasolar planets
University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Mar 18
The Star-formation History of the Universe and its Drivers
ESO, Santiago, Chile; Sep 20
The roles of galaxy mergers, mass and the environment at the peak of the cosmic star
formation history
Conference: Galaxy Mergers in an Evolving Universe, Hualien, Taiwan; Oct 25
The nature and evolution of star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyrs
NOVA Network 1 Meeting, Groningen, Netherlands; Nov 2
Tasseomancy of methanol masers - early stages of high-mass star formation
NAC, Texel, Netherlands; May 20
van Weeren
Radio relics as probes of galaxy cluster mergers
Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, UK; Aug 9
Idem, IfA, Edinburgh, UK; Aug 22
Idem, JHU, Baltimore, USA; Aug 29
Idem, CfA, Boston, USA; Aug 31
Idem, NASA Goddard, Washington DC, USA; Sep 1
Idem, NRL, Washington DC, USA; Sep 2
Idem, NRAO, Charlottesville, USA; Sep 6
Idem, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, USA; Sep 8
Star formation in cluster galaxies in the SDSS
Workshop on "Star formation in cluster galaxies", Nice, France; June
The properties of central and satellite galaxies in theory and observations
INAF Trieste, Trieste, Italy; June
The properties of satellite galaxies -- theory vs. observations
AG Meeting, Heidelberg, Germany; Sep
The trouble with sub-M* galaxies
NOVA workshop, Groningen, Netherlands; Nov
Star-Formation in the IR/submm
Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey; Apr 2
Low-Mass Star Formation and WISH, ALMA/ESO, Santiago, Chile; June 24
Marie Curie Actions, FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IEF, NATURALISM - Novel analysis
toward understanding the molecular complexity in the Interstellar medium,
€ 192,000 (together with Linnartz)
Vrije Competitie, NWO, ‘Resolving metals in intermediate redshift galaxies’,
€ 239,000
NOVA Phase-3 Instrumentation Programme, extension of 'Photometric
instrument algorithms for the Gaia mission',
€ 310,000
van Dishoeck
Vrije competitie, NWO, 'Water in star-forming regions with Herschel',
€ 209,206
Advanced ERC, EU, 'Astrochemistry and the origin of planetary systems',
€ 2,500,000
Van Gogh travel grant,
€ 2,000 (together with Linnartz)
Starting grant, ERC, ‘Analysis of the Dark Universe through Lensing
€ 1,317,000
NCF Research Grants, ‘Radiative transfer in optically active cosmic flows’, NCF,
€ 23,000
Graduate School Pilot Programme, NWO, 'The de Sitter Cosmology
€ 800,000 (together with Instituut Lorentz, LION)
Vrije Competitie, NWO, ‘Kinematic and physical evolution of protoclusters’,
€ 222,000
Portegies Zwart
Middel-groot, NWO, The Astrophysics Multipurpose software environment,
€ 480,000
Portegies Zwart / Icke
Leraar in Onderzoek, NWO, ‘Astrofysica van de Voelsprieten’(J. Neuteboom)
€ 5,000
Starting grant, ERC, 'Studying the gas around galaxies with the Multi Unit
Spectroscopic Explorer and hydrodynamical simulations',
€ 1,496,000
LUF/Gratama Fonds, 'Een moderne sterrenkijker voor studentenpractica
op de oude Sterrewacht',
€ 24,205
Observing time
VI. Observing time
Effelsberg, On the life time of H2O masers at the tip of the asymptotic
giant branch (45 hrs/3 nights)
Spitzer, CLASH: Coherent Views of the Galaxy Formation Puzzle over z~3-10
Through the Looking Glass, 70 hrs
VLT, Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Few Bright (and One Uniquely Bright) z~7
Galaxy Candidates in the CDF-South GOODS with FORS, 9 hrs
VLT, Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Sample of Bright z~6.1-6.8 Lyman
Break Galaxy Candidates in the CANDELS UDS Field with FORS2, 17 hrs
WHT, "What are the sources of He II ionising radiation in low metallicity
galaxies?", 2 nights
WHT, "Dual-AGN - pursuing parsec-scale black hole mergers - NAOMI
imaging", 5 nights in 2011A, 1 night in 2011B
WHT, "The resolved properties of emission-line Lyman-break analogs at z<0.1",
2 nights
INT, "The adaptive optics deep field", 12 nights
van Dishoeck
ALMA, Do transitional disks still contain cold gas?, 3.2 hrs
Herschel, Water in low-mass protostars: the William Herschel line Legacy, 132
APEX, Separating the wheat from the chaff: which are the truly embedded
sources?, 8 hrs
APEX, Completing the SEDs: constraining disk properties of cold disks, 9 hrs
WHT-LIRIS, The nature of star forming galaxies at z = 1 from the
3D-HST survey, 3 nights
Herschel Space Observatory, A deep HIFI search for cold para-water
vapor in three protoplanetary disks, 87.6 hrs
HST, AGN feedback in young, radio-loud AGN, 2 orbits
VLT, The impact of AGN feedback in young, radio-loud AGN, 2 nights
VLT, The impact of AGN feedback in young, radio-loud AGN, 0.5 nights
WHT, AGN feedback in young, radio-loud AGN, 2 nights
WHT, AGN feedback in young, radio-loud AGN, 2 nights
VLT, Transmission Spectroscopy of Fomalhaut’s Debris Disk, 4 hours
JCMT, HDO/H2O toward low-mass protostars in Serpens, 31h
Herschel, Disentangling energetic feedback in low-mass protostars with CO 1615, 14.1h
Herschel, Disentangling the water chemistry of the spectacular outflow BHR71,
VLT Survey Telescope, The Kilo-Degree Survey, 400 nights
Magellan, Z-FOURGE survey, 14 nights
Pico Veleta, CN: ideal diagnostic tool for extra-galactic ISM?, 20 hrs
JCMT, Radiative and mechanical feedback in Luminous IR Galaxies, 120 hrs
de Mooij
WHT, 'exoplanet atmospheres', 6 nights
WHT, 'WTS survey follow-up', 1 night
INT, 'exoplanet atmospheres', 4 nights
NTT/SofI, "The nature and evolution of luminous H-alpha emitters at z~0.82.2", 4 nights
CFHT/WIRcam, "Exploring the z~1-9 Universe and its large-scale clustering
with the widest, contiguous narrow-band survey", 2 nights
TNG/NICS, "The nature and evolution of luminous line emitters at the peak of
the star-formation history", 3 nights
Portegies Zwart
NCF Huygens, CosmoGrid data analysis, 10000 hrs
NCF Huygens, CosmoGrid data analysis, 90000 hrs
NCF Huygens, Gravitational Lensing and shear analysis, 40000 hrs
San Jose-Garcia
JCMT, Mapping CO and its isotopologues across the WISH sample of YSOs:
from Low- to High-mass, 22 hrs
JCMT, A (more) systematic search for disks around massive
YSOs (II), 34 hrs
JCMT, Characterizing the embedded YSO population in Taurus, 17 hrs
JCMT, Characterizing the embedded YSO population in Ser and CrA, 64 hrs
VII.1. Ph.D. Theses
Amiri, N.; Developing asymmetries in AGB stars : occurrence, morphology and
polarization of circumstellar Masers.
van Haasteren, R.; Gravitational Wave detection & data analysis for Pulsar Timing
Kruip, C.; Connecting the dots : analysis, development and applications of the SimpleX
de Mooij, E. J. W.; Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres.
Oliveira, I.; Observational Constraints on The Evolution of Dust in Protoplanetary Disks.
Oonk, J. B. R.; Cool gas in brightest cluster galaxies.
Prod’homme, T.; From electrons to stars : modelling and mitigation of radiation damage
effects on astronomical CCDs.
Torstensson, K. J. E.; Methanol masers and millimetre lines : a common origin in
protostellar envelopes.
van Weeren, R. J.; Radio emission from merging galaxy clusters : characterizing shocks,
magnetic fields and particle acceleration.
VII.2. Publications of refereed journals
Aalto, S., and 3 co-authors, including Meijerink, R.; H3 O
starbursts and AGNs; A&A; 2011; 527; A69
line emission from
Abdo, A. A., and 10 co-authors; Multi-wavelength Observations of the Flaring
Gamma-ray Blazar 3C 66A in 2008 October; ApJ; 2011; 726; 43
Á dá mkovics, M., and 2 co-authors, including Meijerink, R.; X-ray Ionization of
Heavy Elements Applied to Protoplanetary Disks; ApJ; 2011; 736; 143
Aielli, G., and 113 co-authors, including Lu, H., Rossi, E.; Mean Interplanetary
Magnetic Field Measurement Using the ARGO-YBJ Experiment; ApJ; 2011; 729; 113
Albrecht, S., and 4 co-authors, including Snellen, I. A. G., de Mooij, E. J. W.;
The Banana Project. III. Spin-Orbit Alignment in the Long-period Eclipsing Binary NY
Cephei; ApJ; 2011; 726; 68
Alexander, D. M., and 20 co-authors, including Rafferty, D. A.; X-Ray Spectral
Constraints for z∼2 Massive Galaxies: The Identification of Reflection-dominated Active
Galactic Nuclei; ApJ; 2011; 738; 44
Aliu, E., and 87 co-authors, including Fumagalli, M.; Multiwavelength
Observations of the Previously Unidentified Blazar RX J0648.7+1516; ApJ; 2011; 742;
Altamirano, D., and 14 co-authors, including Cavecchi, Y.; Discovery of an
Accreting Millisecond Pulsar in the Eclipsing Binary System SWIFT J1749.4-2807; ApJ;
2011; 727; L18
Altay, G., and 4 co-authors, including Schaye, J.; Through Thick and Thin—H I
Absorption in Cosmological Simulations; ApJ; 2011; 737; L37
Amiri, N., and 2 co-authors, including van Langevelde, H. J.; The kinematics
and magnetic fields in water-fountain sources based on OH maser observations;
A&A; 2011; 532; A149
Ammons, S. M., and 10 co-authors, including Bouwens, R. J.; AGN Unification
at z ∼ 1: u - R Colors and Gradients in X-Ray AGN Hosts; ApJ; 2011; 740; 3
Arasa, C., and 4 co-authors, including Cuppen, H. M., van Dishoeck, E. F.;
Molecular dynamics simulations of D2O ice photodesorption; J. Chem. Phys.; 2011; 134;
Aresu, G., and 5 co-authors, including Meijerink, R.; X-ray impact on the
protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars; A&A; 2011; 526; A163
Balogh, M. L., and 9 co-authors, including Giodini, S.; Direct observational
evidence for a large transient galaxy population in groups at 0.85 < z < 1; MNRAS;
2011; 412; 2303
Bartkiewicz, A., and 5 co-authors, including van Langevelde, H. J.; VLA
observations of water masers towards 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources; A&A; 2011;
525; A120
Bartoli, B., and 107 co-authors, including Lu, H., Rossi, E.; Long-term Monitoring
of the TeV Emission from Mrk 421 with the ARGO-YBJ Experiment; ApJ; 2011; 734;
Bast, J. E., and 4 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Single peaked CO
emission line profiles from the inner regions of protoplanetary disks; A&A; 2011; 527;
Bezanson, R., and 11 co-authors, including Franx, M., Brinchmann, J., Labbé, I.,
Quadri, R. F., van de Sande, J.; Redshift Evolution of the Galaxy Velocity Dispersion
Function; ApJ; 2011; 737; L31
Boersma, C., and 6 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Polycyclic
Aromatic Hydrocarbon Far- infrared Spectroscopy; ApJ; 2011; 729; 64
Bois, M., and 23 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T., Weijmans, A.-M.; The
project - VI. Simulations of binary galaxy mergers and the link with fast
rotators, slow rotators and kinematically distinct cores; MNRAS; 2011; 416; 1654
Boissier, J., and 6 co-authors, including Berné, O.; Massive young disks
around Herbig Ae stars; A&A;2011; 531; A50
Bolatto, A. D., and 17 co-authors, including Israel, F. P.; The State of the Gas
and the Relation between Gas and Star Formation at Low Metallicity: The Small
Magellanic Cloud; ApJ; 2011; 741; 12
Bonfield, D. G., and 30 co-authors, including van der Werf, P.; Herschel-ATLAS:
the link between accretion luminosity and star formation in quasar host galaxies;
MNRAS; 2011; 416; 13
Boogert, A. C. A., and 8 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M., van
Dishoeck, E. F.; Ice and Dust in the Quiescent Medium of Isolated Dense Cores;
ApJ; 2011; 729; 92
Boone, F., and 25 co-authors, including van der Werf, P.; Far-infrared constraints
on the contamination by dust-obscured galaxies of high-z dropout searches; A&A;
2011; 534; A124
Booth, C. M., and Schaye, J.; Towards an understanding of the evolution of
the scaling relations for su- permassive black holes; MNRAS; 2011; 413; 1158
Boquien, M., and 10 co-authors, including Israel, F., van der Werf, P.; Dust Heating
Sources in Galaxies: The Case of M33 (HERM33ES); AJ; 2011; 142; 111
Bouwens, R. J., and 11 co-authors, including Labbe, I., Franx, M.; A
candidate redshift z∼10 galaxy and rapid changes in that population at an age of
500Myr; Nature; 2011; 469; 504
Bouwens, R. J., and 10 co-authors, including Labbe, I., Franx, M.; Ultraviolet
Luminosity Functions from 132 z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 Lyman-break Galaxies in the Ultradeep HUDF09 and Wide-area Early Release Science WFC3/IR Observations; ApJ;
2011; 737; 90
Bouwman, J., and 3 co-authors, including Linnartz, H.; Photochemistry of
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cosmic water ice. I. Mid-IR spectroscopy and
photoproducts; A&A; 2011; 525; A93
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Bracco, A., and 37 co-authors, including van der Werf, P.; Herschel-ATLAS:
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Chapin, E. L., and 19 co-authors, including van der Werf, P.; A joint analysis of
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Désert, J.-M., and 41 co-authors, including Haas, M. R.; The Hot-Jupiter Kepler-17b:
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Dunne, L., and 40 co-authors, including van der Werf, P., Vlahakis, C.;
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Eisenstein, D. J., and 10 co-authors; SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of
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Giroletti, M., and 18 co-authors, including van Langevelde, H. J.; Global eVLBI observations of the gamma-ray narrow line Seyfert 1 PMN J0948+0022; A&A;
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Gordon, K. D., and 59 co-authors, including Carlson, L., Israel, F. P., Li, A.;
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field and morphology; Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae 5 Conference; 2011;
Amiri, N., and 3 co-authors, including van Langevelde, H.; Magnetic Fields And
Developing Asymmetries In Circumstellar Masers; American Astronomical Society Meeting
Abstracts #218; 2011; #219.04
Amorim, A., and 5 co-authors, including Fujii, M., Ui, T.; Pnv J18441516-1732310;
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams; 2011; 2865; 2
Arasa, C., and 4 co-authors, including Cuppen, H., van Dishoeck, E. F.; Molecular
dynamics simulations of D2O ice photodesorption; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 85P
Arasa, C., and 3 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Molecular dynamics
simulations of CO2 formation in interstellar ices; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 84P
Aresu, G., and 5 co-authors, including Meijerink, R.; X-rays in protoplanetary
disks: their impact on the thermal and chemical structure, a grid of models.; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 87P
Bagchi, J., and 8 co-authors, including van Weeren, R. J., Rö ttgering, H. J. A.,
Intema, H. T.; A deep radio and X-ray view of cluster formation at the crossroads of
filaments .; Mem. Soc. Astron. Italiana; 2011; 82;
Bartko, H., and 21 co-authors, including Levin, Y.; Massive Young Stars in the Galactic
Center; Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series; 2011; 439; 100
Bast, J., and 4 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Harsono, D.; New
Probes of the Chemistry in the Inner Regions of Planet-Forming Disks; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 89P
Bean, J., and 2 co-authors, including Brown, A., Portegies Zwart, S.; The Quest
For The Sun’s Siblings: An Exploratory Search In The Hipparcos Catalogue; Bulletin
of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43;
Beilicke, M., and 19 co-authors, including Israel, M. H.; Design and tests of the
hard x-ray polarimeter X-Calibur; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
(SPIE) Conference Series; 2011; 8145;
Benz, A. O., and 5 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tracing FUV
Radiation in the Embedded Phase of Star Formation; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 52;
Benz, A. O., and 4 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tracing X-ray and
FUV Radiation in the Embedded Phase of Star Formation; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Berné, O., and 2 co-authors; The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability as a source of
turbulence in Orion; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 52; 281
Berné, O., and 2 co-authors; The shape of Mid-IR PAH bands in the Universe;
EAS Publications Series; 2011;46;49
Bildfell, C., and 3 co-authors, including Hoekstra, H.; Resurrecting The Red
From The Dead: Optical Properties Of BCGs In X-ray Luminous Clusters;
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43;#109.06
Birkby, J., and 7 co-authors, including Snellen, I., de Mooij, E.; Observations of
Optical Secondary Eclipses of Transiting Hot Jupiters with the GTC; American
Astronomical Society, ESS meeting #2, #12.03; 2011; 2; 1203
Birzan, L., and 4 co-authors, including Rafferty, D. A.; AGN heating in
complete samples of galaxy clusters .; Mem. Soc. Astron. Italiana; 2011; 82; 573
Boissier, J., and 6 co-authors, including Berne, O.; Four Ae/Be stars map
emission at 1mm and 3mm (Boissier+, 2011); VizieR Online Data Catalog; 2011; 353;
Bourke, T. L., and 7 co-authors, including Visser, R., van Dishoeck, E.,
Hogerheijde, M.; The Mass Evolution Of Envelopes & Disks During The
Embedded Protostellar Stage; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43;
Bouwens, R., and HUDF09 Team; Galaxy Build-up And Evolution At z>=7:
Results From The Ultra- deep Wfc3/ir Observations Over The Hudf From The
Hudf09 Program; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #115.05
Bouwman, J., and 3 co-authors, including Cuppen, H. M., Linnartz, H.; VUV
photochemistry of PAHs trapped in interstellar water ice; EAS Publications Series;
2011; 46; 251
Brinch, C., and Hogerheijde, M. R.; LIME: Flexible, Non-LTE Line Excitation and
Radiation Transfer Method for Millimeter and Far-infrared Wavelengths; Astrophysics
Source Code Library, record ascl:1107.012; 2011; 7012
Brogi, M., and 10 co-authors, including de Mooij, E. J. W., Snellen, I. A. G.,
van der Werf, P.; Optical To Near-infrared Transit Observations Of Super-Earth
GJ1214b: Water-world Or Mini-Neptune?; American Astronomical Society, ESS meeting
#2, #40.09; 2011; 2; 4009
Brown, A. G. A.; ELSA and the Frontiers of Astrometry; EAS
Publications Series; 2011; 45; 365
Brown, J., and 3 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; A VLT-CRIRES 4.7
micron survey of CO emission from young protoplanetary disks; IAU Symposium;
2011; 280; 105P
Bruderer, S., and 2 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; High-J CO
emission in young stellar objects: Disks and Outflow walls! FUV or Shocks?; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 106P
Brüggen, M., and 2 co-authors, including van Weeren, R. J., Röttgering, H. J.
A.; Magnetic fields and shock waves in cluster outskirts; Mem. Soc. Astron. Italiana;
2011; 82; 627
Bureau, M., and 25 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T., Weijmans, A.; Molecular
Gas and Star Formation in Local Early-type Galaxies; IAU Symposium; 2011; 277; 55
Busso, G.; The Gaia Photometric Data Processing; EAS
Publications Series; 2011; 45; 381
Cappellari, M., and 25 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T., Weijmans, A.M.; ATLAS3D project. I. (Cappellari+, 2011); VizieR Online Data Catalog; 2011; 741;
Cardamone, C. N., and 15 co-authors, including Taylor, E., Damen, M., Saito, T.;
MUSYC optical imaging in ECDF-S (Cardamone+, 2010); VizieR Online Data Catalog;
2011; 218; 90270
Catinella, B., and 25 co-authors, including Kauffmann, G., Brinchmann, J.;
GALEX Arecibo SDSS survey (GASS) (Catinella+, 2010); VizieR Online Data Catalog;
2011; 740; 30683
Cavecchi, Y., and 8 co-authors, including Levin, Y.; Implications of Burst
Oscillations from IGR J17480- 2446; Fast X-ray Timing and Spectroscopy at Extreme Count
Rates (HTRS 2011); 2011;
Chavarria, L., and 8 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Water in
massive star-forming regions with Herschel Space Observatory; IAU Symposium; 2011;
280; 124P
Choi, Y., and 2 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Water Observations with
Herschel/HIFI toward AFGL 2591; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 128P
Clarke, T. E., and 7 co-authors, including Intema, H., van Weeren, R., Rö
ttgering, H., Oonk, R.; The curious case of Abell 2256 .; Mem. Soc. Astron. Italiana;
2011; 82; 547
Costagliola, F., and 12 co-authors, including van der Werf, P.; Molecules as Tracers
of Galaxy Evolution; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 52; 285
Cuppen, H.; Simulations of grain surface chemistry under interstellar conditions;
IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 143P
Cuylle, S. H., and 3 co-authors, including Tenenbaum, E. D., Bouwman, J.,
Linnartz, H.; UV induced Chemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in NH 3containing Interstellar Ice Analogues; IAU Symposium;
2011; 280; 144P
de Grijp, M. H. K., and 4 co-authors, including Miley, G. K., Lub, J.; Warm
IRAS sources. II. (de Grijp+, 1992); VizieR Online Data Catalog; 2011; 409; 60389
de Mooij, E., and Snellen, I.; Ground-based Detection of the Secondary Eclipse of
TrES-3b; Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series; 2011; 450; 59
de Mooij, E., and 4 co-authors, including Brogi, M., Snellen, I.; The GROUndbased Secondary Eclipse project - GROUSE; IAU Symposium; 2011; 276; 487
de Mooij, E. J. W., and 10 co-authors, including Brogi, M., Nefs, S. V., Snellen, I.
A. G., van der Werf, P. P.; Transit observations of GJ1214b (de Mooij+, 2012); VizieR
Online Data Catalog; 2011; 353; 89046
de Mooij, E. J. W., and 3 co-authors, including Nefs, S. V., Snellen, I. A. G.;
HAT-P-1b Ks-band sec- ondary eclipse (de Mooij +, 2011); VizieR Online Data Catalog;
2011; 352; 89049
de Zeeuw, T.; Obituary: Adriaan Blaauw, 1914-2010; Bulletin of the American
Astronomical Society; 2011; 43;41
de Zeeuw, T., and 2 co-authors; Adriaan Blaauw, 1914-2010; The Messenger; 2011; 143; 2
D’Odorico, S., and 3 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, T.; Obituaries: Alan
Moorwood 1945-2011; Astronomy and Geophysics; 2011; 52; 060000
Doty, S., and 6 co-authors, including Kristensen, L., Visser, R., van Dishoeck, E.;
Role of Shocks and Cavity Walls in Massive Star Envelopes; Bulletin of the American
Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #258.05
Doty, S. D., and 3 co-authors, including Visser, R., van Dishoeck, E.; Models Of
Gas-grain Chemistry In The Infalling Envelope Of Afgl 2591; Bulletin of the American
Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #258.09
Duc, P.-A., and 30 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T., Weijmans, A.;
Investigating the Merger Origin of Early-type Galaxies using Ultra-deep Optical
Images; IAU Symposium; 2011; 277; 238
Falcó n-Barroso, J., and 13 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T.; The
Fundamental Plane of Early-Type Galaxies; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 48; 411
Fayolle, E., and 6 co-authors, including Linnartz, H.; Photodesorption of interstellar
ice analogues: a wavelength-dependent study.; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 157P
Fuente, A., and 9 co-authors, including Berne, O.; The chemistry of water in
the ultracompact HII region (UC HII) Mon R2; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Gavazzi, G., and 2 co-authors, including Fumagalli, M.; Spectroscopic study of 283
AGNs in Coma (Gavazzi+, 2011); VizieR Online Data Catalog; 2011; 353; 49031
Gladysz, S., and 4 co-authors, including Jolissaint, L.; Imaging extrasolar planets
with the European Extremely Large Telescope; Research, Science and Technology of
Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets: Proceedings of an International Conference held in
Shangai on Occasion of a Total Eclipse of the Sun, Shangai, China, Edited by E.L. Martin; J.
Ge; W. Lin; EPJ Web of Conferences, Volume 16, id.07003; 2011; 16; 7003
Goicoechea, J. R., and 10 co-authors, including Berne, O.; Herschel/PACS
detection of far-IR OH emission towards the Orion Bar PDR; IAU Symposium; 2011;
Gonzalez, V., and 3 co-authors, including Labbe, I., Bouwens, R.; The
Evolution of the Galaxy Mass Functions from z 7 to z ∼4; Bulletin of the American
Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #229.06
Graham, J., and 12 co-authors, including Brinchmann, J., Patel, S.; High Metallicity
LGRB Hosts; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #141.01
Graham, M., and 5 co-authors, including Sand, D. J., Hoekstra, H.; Rates of
Type Ia Supernovae in Low-Redshift Galaxy Clusters from the CFHT Multi-Epoch
Nearby Cluster Survey; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #308.06
Guss, J. S., and 2 co-authors, including Linnartz, H.; Cavity Ring Down
Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions in the 3 µm Region; 66th International Symposium On
Molecular Spectroscopy; 2011;
Guss, J., and 2 co-authors, including Linnartz, H.; Cavity ring down
spectroscopy of molecular ions in the 3 micron region; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Harsono, D., and 5 co-authors, including Visser, R., van Dishoeck, E. F.,
Kristensen, L.; Modelling Molecular Emission from Young Embedded Disks; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 193P
Herczeg, G. J., and 8 co-authors, including Kristensen, L. E., van Dishoeck, E.
F., Visser, R., Yildiz, U.; Warm water in Herschel/PACS observations of NGC
1333 IRAS 4B: the outflow, not the disk!; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 195P
Herpin, F., and 5 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E.; Water in massive
star-forming regions with the Herschel Space Observatory; EAS Publications Series;
2011; 52; 173
Hoekstra, H.; Dark halo properties of big galaxies from weak lensing; Fornax,
Virgo, Coma et al., Stellar Systems in High Density Environments; 2011;
Hogerheijde, M., and 15 co-authors, including Brinch, C., Panic, O.,
Kristensen, L., Yildiz, U., van Dishoeck, E.; Detecting the cold water
reservoir in a protoplanetary disk.; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Hopman, C., and Madigan, A.; Mass Segregation in the Galactic Centre;
Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series; 2011; 439; 180
Icke, V.; Eta Carinae, the most brutal binary bipolar; Asymmetric Planetary
Nebulae 5 Conference; 2011;
Intema, H. T., and 3 co-authors, including van Weeren, R. J., Rottgering, H. J.
A.; Observations of NOAO Bootes field at 153MHz (Intema+, 2011); VizieR Online Data
Catalog; 2011; 353; 59038
Ioppolo, S., and 6 co-authors, including Fedoseev, G., Cuppen, H. M., van
Dishoeck, E. F., Linnartz, H.; Surface Formation Routes of Interstellar Molecules; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 204P
Isokoski, K., and 2 co-authors, including Bossa, J. B., Linnartz, H.; MATRIICES Mass Analytical Tool for Reactions in Interstellar ICES; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 205P
Israel, F. P., and Maloney, P. R.; [CII] emission from the Magellanic Clouds;
EAS Publications Series;2011; 52; 287
Israel, F. P., and Bot, C.; Anomalous dust in late-type galaxies; EAS
Publications Series; 2011; 52; 119
Jakobsen, P., and 20 co-authors, including Franx, M.; Nirspec, The Near-ir Multiobject Spectrograph For Jwst; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43;
Joblin, C., and Tielens, A. G. G. M.; PAHs and the Universe: A Symposium to
Celebrate the 25th Anniversary of the PAH Hypothesis; EAS Publications Series; 2011;
Karska, A., and 4 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Kristensen, L. E.;
Herschel/PACS observations of Class 0/I low-mass young stellar objects.; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 214P
Kristensen, L. E., and 11 co-authors, including Visser, R., van Dishoeck, E. F.,
Yıldız, U. A., van Kempen, T. A., Brinch, C.; WISHes coming true: water in low-mass
star-forming regions with Herschel; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 52; 177
Kristensen, L. E., and 8 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E., Yildiz, U., Visser,
R., van Kempen, T., Hogerheijde, M.; WISHes coming true: low-mass protostars as
chemical fountains; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Kuijken, K., and Dubinski, J.; GalactICS: Galaxy Model Building Package;
Astrophysics Source Code Library, record ascl:1109.011; 2011; 9011
Kuijken, K.; OmegaCAM: ESO?s newest imager.; The
Messenger; 2011; 146; 8
Kunder, A. M., and 15 co-authors, including Kuijken, K.; The Bulge Radial Velocity
Assay: New Observations and Results; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society;
2011; 43; #241.12
Kurczynski, P., and 12 co-authors, including van der Werf, P.; Panchromatic Estimation
of Star Formation Rates in BzK Galaxies.; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society;
2011; 43; #233.04
Lahuis, F., and 3 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; The Molecular
Universe as seen by JWST- MIRI; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 224P
Lahuis, F., and 4 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Epic changes in the
IRS46 mid-infrared spec- trum; an inner disk chemistry study; IAU Symposium; 2011;
280; 223P
Li, X., and 3 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Arasa, C.; Effects of
reagent rotation and vibration on H + OH (v, j) → O + H 2; IAU Symposium; 2011;
280; 234P
Linares, M., and 15 co-authors, including Cavecchi, Y.; RXTE detection of a
thermonuclear burst from IGR J17498-2921: distance estimate and burst oscillations;
The Astronomer’s Telegram; 2011; 3568; 1
Linares, M., and 13 co-authors, including Cavecchi, Y.; SAX J1747.0-2853:
’normal’ thermonuclear bursts resumed; The Astronomer’s Telegram; 2011; 3217; 1
Linnartz, H., and 15 co-authors, including Bossa, J.-B., Bouwman, J., Cuppen,
H. M., Cuylle, S. H., van Dishoeck, E. F., Fayolle, E. C., Fedoseev, G., Ioppolo, S.,
Isokoski, K., Tenenbaum, E., Zhen, J.; Solid State Pathways towards Molecular
Complexity in Space; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 390
Linnartz, H.; Unlocking the (solid state) chemistry of the heavens;
IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Loenen, E., and 3 co-authors, including van der Werf, P., Meijerink, R.; Star
formation and black hole accretion in nearby (U)LIRGs.; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Luetzgendorf, N., and 6 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T.; VI photometry
and velocity map of NGC 6388 (Luetzgendorf+, 2011); VizieR Online Data Catalog;
2011; 353; 39036
Madigan, A.; The Eccentric Disc Instability: Dependency on Background
Stellar Cluster; Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series; 2011; 439; 153
Magee, D. K., and 2 co-authors, including Bouwens, R. J.; WFC3RED: A HST
Wide Field Camera 3 Image Processing Pipeline; Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Conference Series; 2011; 442; 395
Marcelino, N., and 2 co-authors, including Berne, O.; Large scale CO
emission in the Orion Nebula; Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI; 2011; 479
Marcelino, N., and 2 co-authors, including Berné, O.; Large Scale CO Emission in
Orion A: Star Formation Feedback on the Molecular Gas; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Marchesini, D., and 3 co-authors, including Labbe, I.; Spectroscopic
Confirmation of Monster Galaxies at 3<z<4 with Keck- NIRSPEC; NOAO Proposal
ID #2011A-0514; 2011; 514
Mauersberger, R., and 33 co-authors, including van Kempen, T.; Commissioning
and Science Verification of ALMA; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 402P
McCoey, C., and 9 co-authors, including van Kempen, T. A., Kristensen, L.
E., van Dishoeck, E. F.; Water profiles of Intermediate Mass YSOs from HIFI; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 250P
McDermid, R., and 22 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, T., Weijmans, A.; Stellar
Populations And Star-formation Histories Of Early-type Galaxies From The Atlas3d
Survey; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #422.04
Mechtley, M., and 12 co-authors, including Rottgering, H.; WFC3 Imaging Of z=6
QSO Hosts: A Method For PSF Characterization And Subtraction; Bulletin of the
American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #142.40
Mei, S., and 52 co-authors, including Hoekstra, H.; The Next Generation Virgo
Cluster Survey: status and first results; SF2A-2011: Proceedings of the Annual meeting
of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics;2011; 153
Meijerink, R.; PDRs and XDRs; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 177
Micelotta, E., and 2 co-authors, including Tielens, A.; PAH bombardment by
energetic particles: models and astrophysical implications; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Miley, G., and 2 co-authors; Building on IYA2009: IAU Strategic
“Astronomy for the Developing World”; IAU Symposium; 2011; 277; 203
Miley, G.; Astronomy for international development; IAU Symposium; 2011; 260; 539
Nota, T., and Katgert, P.; Rotation measures in the fourth Galactic quadrant
(Nota+, 2010); VizieR Online Data Catalog; 2011; 351; 39065
Nuza, S. E., and 4 co-authors, including van Weeren, R.; Radio relics in the
MareNostrum Universe.; Mem. Soc. Astron. Italiana; 2011; 82; 674
Öberg, K. I., and 7 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Ices in Starless
and Starforming Cores; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 65
Oberg, K., and 7 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E.; Ices in starless and
star-forming cores; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Okada, Y., and 9 co-authors, including Berné, O.; PDR properties and spatial structures
probed by Herschel and Spitzer spectroscopy; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 52; 293
Oklopčić, A., and 10 co-authors, including Giodini, S.; A wide-angle tail galaxy at z
= 0.53 in the COSMOS field; Mem. Soc. Astron. Italiana; 2011; 82; 161
Olczak, C., and 6 co-authors, including Harfst, S., Portegies Zwart, S.; Dynamics in
Young Star Clusters: From Planets to Massive Stars; Stellar Clusters & Associations: A RIA
Workshop on Gaia; 2011; 142
Ossenkopf, V., and 33 co-authors, including Berné, O.; The WADI key project:
New insights to photon- dominated regions from Herschel observations; EAS
Publications Series; 2011; 52; 181
Palumbo, M. E., and 8 co-authors, including Ioppolo, S.; Formation of CO 2 and
OCS after cosmic ion irradiation of icy grain mantles; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 285P
Panić, O., and 3 co-authors, including Visser, R.; Observable signatures of dust
evolution mechanisms which shape the planet forming regions; IAU Symposium; 2011;
276; 450
Paragi, Z., and 11 co-authors, including Garrett, M. A., van Langevelde, H. J.; Is
there a mildly relativistic jet in SN2007gr?; IAU Symposium; 2011; 275; 319
Patel, S., and 4 co-authors, including Franx, M.; The Star Formation Rate-Density
Relation at 0.6<z<0.9 and the Role of Star Forming Galaxies; Bulletin of the American
Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #233.06
Persson, M. V., and 2 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Origin of water
around deeply embedded low-mass protostars; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 295P
Petrignani, A., and 4 co-authors, including Berg, M.; Near-Infrared to Visible
Spectral Lines of Cold H 3ˆ+; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 299P
Pontoppidan, K. M., and 13 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E., Bast, J.;
Planet-forming Regions at the Highest Spectral and Spatial Resolution with VLTCRIRES; The Messenger; 2011; 143; 32
Prod’Homme, T.; Radiation effects on Gaia CCDs, Modelling to mitigate the
threat; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 45; 55
Rafferty, D. A., and 4 co-authors, including Birzan, L.; The AGN outburst and
merger in HCG 62; Mem. Soc. Astron. Italiana; 2011; 82; 577
Rapacioli, M., and 8 co-authors, including Berné, O.; PAH-related Very Small
Grains in photodissociation regions: implications from molecular simulations; EAS
Publications Series; 2011; 46; 223
Richards, A. M. S., and 9 co-authors, including van Langevelde, H.
Unexplained AGB asymmetries; Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae 5 Conference; 2011;
Risquez, D., and 3 co-authors, including Brown, A. G. A.; Accurate Modelling
the Attitude of the Gaia Satellite; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 45; 47
Russo, P., and 4 co-authors, including Miley, G., Schrier, W.; European
Universe Awareness; EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011; 2011; 1759
San Jose-Garcia, I., and 4 co-authors, including Kristensen, L. E., Yildiz, U.
A., van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linking high-J CO emission from low- to high-mass
protostars with Herschel-HIFI; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;326P
Santangelo, G., and 11 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Kristensen,
L.; Observing water in low-mass proto-stellar outflows: the case of L1448; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 330P
Schawinski, K., and 15 co-authors, including Garrett, M.; The Sudden Death Of
The Nearest Quasar; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #106.04
Schirmer, M., and 5 co-authors, including Hildebrandt, H.; Galaxies of J0454-0309
lensing fossil group (Schirmer+, 2010); VizieR Online Data Catalog; 2011; 351; 49060
Seabroke, G. M., and 5 co-authors, including Prod’Homme, T.; Modelling Gaia
CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 45; 433
Skibba, R. A., and 9 co-authors, including Groves, B.; Dust and Stellar
Emission of Nearby Galaxies in the KINGFISH Herschel Survey; Bulletin of the
American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #417.08
Snellen, I., and 3 co-authors, including de Mooij, E.; Lessons Learned from
Ground-based Transmission Spectroscopy of Extrasolar Planets; Astronomical Society of
the Pacific Conference Series; 2011; 450; 39
Snellen, I., and 5 co-authors, including de Mooij, E., Brogi, M.; Exoplanet
atmospheres at high spectral resolution: A CRIRES survey of hot-Jupiters; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 276; 208
Suzuki, N., and 49 co-authors, including Hoekstra, H.; Cosmology from the HST
Cluster Supernova Survey;Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society; 2011; 43; #249.09
Tasse, C., and 2 co-authors; Properties of X-ray selected AGNs (Tasse+, 2011); VizieR
Online Data Catalog; 2011; 352; 59127
Tielens, A. G. G. M.; 25 years of PAH hypothesis; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 46; 3
Tielens, A. G. G. M.; The Molecular Universe; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 3
Tielens, A. G. G. M.; The Molecular Universe: Overview; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
van der Marel, N., and 3 co-authors, including Kristensen, L., van Dishoeck, E.
F.; Complex organic molecules toward low-mass protostars and outflows; IAU
Symposium; 2011; 280; 365P
van Weeren, R. J., and 4 co-authors, including Intema, H. T., Röttgering, H. J. A.;
Low-frequency radio observations of the galaxy cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 ; Mem. Soc.
Astron. Italiana; 2011; 82; 569
Vasta, M., and 9 co-authors, including Kristensen, L.; Water emission towards
the chemical rich outflow L1157: the WISH spectral line survey.; IAU Symposium; 2011;
280; 368P
Visser, R., and 2 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Chemical History of
Molecules in Circumstellar Disks; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 138
Visser, R., and 2 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E.; Chemical History of
Molecules in Disks; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Visser, R.; The Wonderful World of Water: New Insights into Star Formation
from the Herschel Space Observatory; Midwest Astrochemistry Meeting 2011; 2011; 2
Wampfler, S. F., and 10 co-authors, including Kristensen, L. E., van Dishoeck,
E. F.; First hyperfine structure resolved OH FIR spectrum of a star-forming region;
IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 380P
Wang, K. S., and 2 co-authors, including Hogerheijde, M.; An expanding disk
around the young massive star AFGL 2591; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280; 381P
Weinmann, S. M., and 2 co-authors; The Dependence of Low Redshift Galaxy
Properties on Environment; Environment and the Formation of Galaxies: 30 years later,
Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, ISBN 978-3-642-20284-1. Springer-Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg, 2011, p. 29; 2011; 29
Weiss, L. M., and 6 co-authors, including Birkby, J. L.; Young Stars and Their
Companions in NGC 2362; American Astronomical Society, ESS meeting #2, #31.01; 2011;
2; 3101
Whitehead, A. J., and 3 co-authors, including Portegies Zwart, S.; The Effect on
Cluster Evolution of Stellar Evolution Model Choice Using AMUSE; American
Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #218; 2011;#133.10
Woods, P. M., and 57 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.; LMC point
source classification in SAGE-Spec (Woods+, 2011); VizieR Online Data Catalog; 2011;
741; 11597
Xue, Y. Q., and 7 co-authors, including Rafferty, D. A.; Color-Magnitude
Relations of Active and Non- Active Galaxies in the Chandra Deep Fields: StellarMass Selection Effects and High-Redshift Constraints; Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Conference Series; 2011; 439; 478
Xue, Y. Q., and 24 co-authors, including Rafferty, D. A.; The CDF-S survey: 4Ms
source catalogs (Xue+, 2011); VizieR Online Data Catalog; 2011; 219; 50010
Yıldız, U. A., and 8 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Kristensen, L. E.,
Visser, R., van Kempen, T. A., Hogerheijde, M. R.; Energetic processes revealed by
spectrally resolved high-J CO lines in low-mass star-forming regions with HerschelHIFI; EAS Publications Series; 2011; 52; 313
Yildiz, U. A., and 6 co-authors, including Kristensen, L. E., van Dishoeck, E. F.,
Visser, R., San Jose- Garcia, I.; High-J CO survey of low-mass protostars observed
with Herschel-HIFI; IAU Symposium; 2011; 280;
Zhao, D., and 3 co-authors, including Linnartz, H.; Rotationally Resolved Spectra
Xˆ2Π 0 0ˆ0 and µˆ2Σ
- µˆ2Σ
11 1ˆ1
T r a n s i t i o n s o f C 6 H a n d C 6 D ; 66th International Symposium On
Molecular Spectroscopy; 2011;
VII.4. Popular articles
Linnartz, H., Monthly column in 'the Vreelandbode'
van Lunteren
, Johannes Bosscha jr en het behoud van arbeidsvermogen, T. Cocquyt &
A. Maas (ed.), Verborgen Krachten: Nederlanders op zoek naar energie. Hilversum: Verloren,
van Lunteren, Informatie, Eureka!, 9 nr 34, 10-12
van Lunteren, Wetenschap als spiegel van de maatschappij, De Gids, nr 7, 853-863
van Lunteren and K. Eigner, .eds., Weimar Culture and Quantum The shackles of
causality: Physics and philosophy in the Netherlands in the interwar period, C. Carson, A.
Kojevnikov, & H. Trischler, Mechanics: Selected Papers by Paul Forman and Contemporary
Perspectives on the Forman Thesis (Imperial College Press: London 2011), 349-474
Dirk van Delft, ‘Verhinderung eines Raubes. Das Leidener Kamerlingh Onnes
Laboratorium im Zweiten Weltkrieg’, Dieter Hoffman und Mark Walker
(eds.),‘Fremde’Wissenschaftler im Dritten Reich, Wallstein Verlag, 365-383.
Dirk van Delft, Rudolph de Bruyn Ouboter, Dirk van Delft and Peter H. Kes, ‘The
Discovery and Early History of Superconductivity’, Horst Rogalla and Peter H. Kes (eds.)
100 Years of Superconductivty, CRC Press (Taylor and Francis Group), 1-28
Dirk van Delft and Peter Kes, ‘Kwik nagenoeg nul’, NWT Magazine, February, 64-70
Dirk van Delft, ‘Participating as a museum’, Tensions of Europe Newsletter, February, 7-8
Dirk van Delft, ‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Road to Liquid Helium’, 100 Years of
Superconductivity, Museum Boerhaave, 4-9
Dirk van Delft, ‘There is still plenty of development in the MRI scanner’, 100 Years of
Superconductivity, Museum Boerhaave, 16-21
Dirk van Delft, ‘Onmeetbaar weinig weerstand’, NRC Handelsblad April 9-10 Science
Section, April, 6-7
Dirk van Delft, ‘Een tweesnijdend zwaard. Het Janssenfonds voor vakopleidingbeurzen
en het ontstaan van de Leidse instrumentmakersschool’, Drieëntwintigste Jaarboek der
sociale en economische geschiedenis van Leiden en omstreken, Dirk van Eck-Stichting, 167-202
Dirk van Delft, ‘De onzichtbare technicus’, De Ingenieur (special edition) Veen,
Dirk van Delft and Peter Kes, ‘Mercury practically null: the discovery of
superconductivity’, Revista Española de Fisica, Vol. 25, no. 4, 61-63
Dirk van Delft, ‘Een dienblad met bonbons. De restauratie van de Leidse Sterrewacht’,
Studium, 2, 133-136
Dirk van Delft and Peter Kes, ‘The discovery of superconductivity’, europhysicsnews,
42, 21-25
Dirk van Delft and Peter Kes, ‘Kwik nagenoeg nul’, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor
Natuurkunde, 77, 122-125
Dirk van Delft, ’90 jaar NNV: Marc de Haas’, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde, 77,
Dirk van Delft and Peter Kes, ‘De ontdekking van de supergeleiding’, RCCK&L 104e
jaargang, voorjaarsnummer, 40-44
Dirk van Delft, ‘Van der Waals als baken voor Kamerlingh Onnes’, RCCK&L 104e
jaargang, February, 34-38
Dirk van Delft, ‘Nederlandse Nobelprijzen’, vpro gids, 41, 24-25
Dirk van Delft, ‘De laatste jaren van Paul Ehrenfest’, Ratio & Emotie, verwoord en verbeeld,
Leiden University Press, 60-74
Dirk van Delft, ‘Radiumliefde: Madame Curie in Leiden’, Tiemen Cocquyt en Ad Maas
(eds.), Verborgen Krachten; Nederlanders op zoek naar energie Verloren 2011, 73-81
Dirk van Delft, ‘The Neuro Calvinist who Discovered the ‘Homo Lobe’: Dick Swaab and
the Netherlands Brain Bank’, The Low Countries, 294-295
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