Audio July 1961
JULY, 1961
RCA TUbes fot
ilioStage and Circuit-
For Preamplification Quiet as Nightfall
for Versatility in Intermediate Stages
Two superlative low-noise high-mu twin triodes:
RCA-7025- the tops in preamplifier tubes. Specially designed with
new materials and short, rugged cage structure for low noise, hum,
and microphonics.
RCA-6EU7- excellent performance with low noise in preamplifier
stages. New base pin arrangement facilitates design of a stereo
preamplifier using the two triode units with good isolation between
the two channels.
RCA-7199-low-noise medium-mu triode- sharp cutoff pentode. Can
be used as a phase splitter, driver, input or tone control amplifier
in lOW-level or intermediate stages. Pentode unit can function as a
high-gain voltage amplifier while triode section operates independently as a phase splitter.
For Power to Spare in Output Stages
RCA-6973- compact, powerful 9-pin miniature beam power tube.
Four 6973 's in class AB1 push-pull service can deliver up to 24
watts per stereo channel (or 48 watts monophon ic) with total
harmonic distortion of only 2%.
RCA-7027-A- glass octal beam power tube for very high power output. Four in AB1 push-pull service can del iver up to 76 watts pe:
channel with only 2% distortion!
Enjoy the best sound
your stereo system can deliver.
Be sure the tubes are RCA!
For the Best in l ow-Cost Stereo
RCA-50FE5- THE tube for stereo circuits that are long on power
and short on cost. With only three tubes : two SOFES's and one
12AXl, you have a complete stereo amplifier capable of delivering
5.6 watts of audio power per channel (or 11.2 monophonic).
RCA-50EHS- a l-pin miniature power pentode with extremely high
transconductance (14,600 micromhos), and high power sensitivity
at very low plate and screen voltages. Superb for low-cost stereo
amplifiers, radios and l·tube phonographs.
RCA Electron Tube Division, Harrison, New Jersey
The Most Trusted Name in Sound
J UL Y, 1961
Successor to
. VOL. 45, No. 7
Est. 1917
Editor and Publisher
Managing Editor
Production Manager
Bill Pattis & Associates,
6316 N. Lincoln A ve.,
Chicago 45, Ill.
James c. Galloway,
6535 Wilshire Blvd.,
Los Angeles 48, Calif.
Business Manager
Advertising Director
Circulation Director
Contributing Editors
AUDIO Articles
The Line Radiator 19
Sub·Marine Sonics
A Synchronous Oscillator FM-Stereo Adapter
More About Recording Perspective 28
To Phase O r Not To Phase 32
Jazz and All That
R . J. Pawlowski
Victor Brocinn
Leonard Feldman
WiUiam C . Dilley
E. A . S1Ulp e III
AUDIO Reviews
Light Listening 8
Record Revue 40
Chesler SemI Oil
Edward T alnall Canby
the S-8000
64 watts $2-99 50
only for those
who want the ultimate. , .
Charles A . Robertson
AUDIO Profiles
Jensen Speaker System 38
Sony AM-FM Portable 38
Dynatuner Tuner Kit
Roberts T ape Recorder
Letters 6
Audio ETC 12
Editor's Review 16
This Month's Cover 51
About Music 52
Model FM-l
Model 990
Model T F-3
Model TFM-1 21
Joseph C iovcmelli
EdUJat'd TCllnall Canby
H arold La'wrence
N ew Products 54
Industry Notes 63
Advertising Index 64
AUDIO (tlUe registered U. S. Pat. Off. ) 111 publ11lhed monthly by nadia Magazines, Inc., Henry A. Schober, President; C. O. McProud, Secretary. Executl••
and Editorial Omces, 204 Front St., Mineola, N. Y. Subscription rates-U. S.,
Possessions, Canada, and Mexico, $4. 00 tor one year, $7.00 tor two years ; aU
other countries $5.00 per year. Single caples 50; . Printed In U.S. A• • t 10
McGovern Ave.. LanCAst er, Pa. AU rights reserred. Entire cont ents copyrighted
1 961 hy Radio Magazines, I nc. Second Class postage paid at LanCAster, Pa.
Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to AUDIO, P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
JULY, '1961
At last, Stereo Multipl ex is here . . .
and , once again , Sherwood is first ...
ready immediately with a brilliant
combination of Sherwood's " high rated "
FM tuner design plu s all circuitry
necessary to receive the new
FCC-approved FM multiplex stereo ...
two 32-watt amplifiers, two phono/ tape
pre-amplifiers and all controls
necessary for pl aying records, tape or
TV. The S-8000 Receiver need s only
the addition of speakers to complete a
basic system for FM stereo listening
enjoyment. Overall size, just 16 x 4 x 14
inches deep.
Sherwood' s dramatic Correlaire
Furniture Modules are the perfect
setting for your Sherwood hi fi
components. Choose from sixtee n
interchangeable modules, styled with a
contemporary flair in hand-rubbed
Walnut and Pecan wood s. Have truly
fle xible room arrangements. A bea utiful
four-color brochure is yours for the
asking. Sherwood Electronic
Laboratories: Inc., 4300 N. California
Ave., Chicago 18, Illinois.
For Complete Tech~ical Details Write Dept. 7 A
Fixed Bias Stabilization
DM-192 type Dynamic Microphone is equippe.d with remote control or ""
switch and featured for the use of transistor
amp and communicating instrument.
Response: 100·9,000 ops. ± 8 DB
Impedance: 600 fl 50k n
Sensitivity : ·77 DB at 600 n
Size: Height 75 x Width 48 x27mm (Thickness)
Weight: 178 gr.
Switch capacity: Volt: 24v DC
Currency: lA DC
.Response : 20·17 .000 cps.
Isoration : -24 DB at 1,000 cis
Channel Balance: ± 1 DB
Output: 9mV 5cm/ Sec.
Suitable load resistance: 70k n
Suitable stylus pressure : 3-4 gr.
' +=t=t±±:J
Frequency ( Ci s)
Q. Some time ago I constructed a dual
power amplifier quite similar to the one
by C. G. McProud as described in August,
1958, AUDIO except for the tube complement. Cathode bias as shown in the abovementioned article was used. Results were
satisfactory. I recently decided to change
to fixed bias (for no very good reason ) .
The results this time were not so satisfactory.
My problem is that the grid No, 1 voltage is not steady but swings back and forth
over the scaZe as 'much as 10 or 15 volts
making it i1npossible to adjust bias or to
balance to any accurate setting. A Simpson 20,000-ohm-per-volt VOM was used in
all measurements.
Tub es, components, and circuitry have
been thoroughly checked. The sound output is slightly greater but it is not as clean
as when cathode bias was used. I am using
a common bias supply. The same conditions
of fluctuation exist whether this is feeding
either one or both amplifiers.
What is causing this condition? R. W.
Robinson, North Hollywood, California.
A. The characteristic common to output
tubes is that, under fixed bias conditions,
high-resistance grid returns cannot be used.
For example, a circuit operating with cathode bias, can function successfully with
a grid return resistor of 0.5 megohm. The
same circuit, however, operating with fixed
bias, will probably function improperly
with grid r eturns whose values exceed
100,000 ohms .
The reason for this situation is that
contact potentials developed between grid
and cathode cannot leak off quickly enough
when high values of grid-return resistances
are used. Of course, these contact potentials are present when cathode bias is used,
but the cathode resistor acts as a servomechanism, or governor.
When the grid tends to swing negative
as a result of these potentials, the current
through the cathode resistor decreases.
This decrease, however, causes a decrease
in voltage between cathode and ground.
This, in turn, results in the grid swinging
somewhat more positive.
The reverse would be true if the contact
potentials were such that the grid tended
to swing positive.
I n fixed bias circuits, the cathode is di·
"3420 Newkirk Ave., Brooklyn 3, N. Y .
rectly grounded. Hence, circuits of this
type are deprived of this means for stabilization.
When the size of the grid-return resistor is decreased, the value of the coupling
capacitors must be increased in proportion
to the amount of decrease of the grid-return resistor. Failure to follow this procedure will cause a degradation in low-frequency r espouse.
Distortion in FM Receivers
Q. I have a question concerning FM
stations. On two stations here I not'ice that
when the announcers take over, the "S's"
are distorted. What causes this? All the
other stations available to me show no
voice distortion at all. James C. Valestin,
St. Louis, Missouri .
A. First of all, I should point out that
this type of distortion is not at all uncommon. When you notice this kind of thing
on the "S's", you also often notice it on
cymbal crashes, brass passages, and the '
like. If you do not, then it would appear
that the stations involved use more deviation on their spoken announcements than
they do on their music portions, and this
is indeed sometimes done to increase the
effective coverage of the co=ercial messages.
This "S" distortion is usually caused by
the FM stations signal deviation being
larger than the bandwidth of the tuner's
Lf. bandpass. Such a situation can be
caused in at least three ways:
1. lfirst, assume that the tuner is not
properly aligned. Some tuners are of the
"staggered" type. If the Lf.'s ar e p eaked
on such a tuner, their bandpass will be
r educed to a point which will result in
clipping of the modulation envelope. A
very strong station may be received with
enough strength to thoroughly saturate
the limiters and thus broaden the response
curve sufficiently to allow the signal to be
heard more or less normally. This, however,
is not too likely a situation.
2. Second, it is possible that the two
stations to which you refer are overmodulating. Even if your tuner is properly
aligned, a station which is overmodulating
can have a deviation of the carrier frequency beyond the capability of the tuner's
Lf. strip.
3. Third, perhaps the signals of the two
stations in question are weak compared
to the ones which sound normal to you.
JULY, 1961
Outsells - because it
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8 months of rising acceptance ••• rising demand ..• rising
acclaim by satisfied, enthusiastic owners and critical, knowledgeable dealers throughout the country .•. this is the background for the unmatched success of this unique instrument.
Never before has there been a record playing unit with so
much to offer. Now thoroughly proven in use, the Type A
remains the first and only one of its class ... the step be.
yond the changer • .. the step beyond the turntable ... the
realization of everything desired in a record playing device.
Garrard, with over 40 years of manufacturing experience,
and with its highly developed production and quality.control
procedures, holds the Type A to precision tolerances, pro.
viding positive assurance of excellent performance. See the
Type A at your dealer. Ask him to reserve one for you. $79.50
What makes the Type A unique? Please read these features:
The Type A tone arm is
the only true dynamically.
balanced 'arm on an auto·
matic unit It has a sliding counterweight and a built·in
calibr~ted ·scale. to set and insure correct stylu.s tracking
force. 'to~ fflay use any cartridge, whether deslgna.ted as
profession~1 .91 otherwise, with assurance that thIS arm
will track ·tl1e stereo grooves perfectly at the lowest
pressu[e r,ec"qmmended by the cartridge manufacturer.
The turntable is full·
s 'ized, heavily
weighted (6 Ibs.), bal·
anced, cast and po!·
ished. It is actually two turntables
balanced together- a drive table inside
and ·a"non·ferrous cast table o'utsideand separated by a resilient foam bar·
rier to damp out vib!,ation.
The new laboratory
Series Motor is a
completely shielded
4·pole shaded motor
developed by Garrard especially 'for
the Type A turntable system. It in·
sures true musical pitch and clear
sustained passages without wow.
flutter, or magnetic hum.
A great plus feature is
automatic play - with·
' out compromise.
Garrard's exclusive
pusher platform changing mechanism
makes the Type A fully automatic, at
your option, and affords the greatest
convenience, reliability in operation
and protect,ion to records available.
; (Q~YQur_~opyy,f1\lj .comparator guide, write Dept. GG·ll . Garrard Sales Corp., Port Washington, N. Y.
world's finest
% :.;
Tile weaker tile r~celved signal, the narrower the response of the i.f. is likely to
be. Even when your tuner is properly
aligned. A point can finally be reached
where tlie response of the tuner is too
narrow for good sound reproduction.
Mobile FM Reception
Q. I would like to convert an FM t1tner
for mobile use in 1ny Volkswagon. (This
is a 6-volt system.) My Eico tuner seems
suitable because of its sensitivity and a_g .c.
Do you consider s1wh a conversion practical? If so, wottld you suggest a suitable
power supply and audio ci?' uit? It would
seem that impedance 1natching of the vertical, 50-oh'ln a1tto antenna to the 'usual
300-ohln balanced tune?' i?~fut would be
important. How does one accomplish this?
Raymond HaTdy, Ellicott City, Maryland.
No stere~'cartridge in the world"outperforms the"-
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CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY. Listen again! We challenge you to tell
the difference. Experts have tried . . . in dozens of A-B listening tests. And, in every single one, Sonotone's "VELOCITONE"
performed as well as or better than the world's best magnetic.
Listen! . . perfectly flat response in the extreme highs and lows
than many of the largest-selling magnetics ) .
Listen! .. ~xcellent chanl}el separation-sharp, crisp definition.
Listen! . . highest compl;~ce-considerablY superior tracking ability.
Listen! . . absolutely no magnetic_hum-quick, easy, direct attachment to
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Listen! . . remarkable performance characteris.tics unexcelled anYwhere.
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N ow listen to the price. Only $23_50 . .. about one-half the
price of a good stereo magnetic cartridge. Yet Sonotone's
"VELOCITONE" stereo ceramic cartridge system cannot be outperformed by a ny magM~ic-regardless of price.
A. I believe that it is practical to convert your Eico tuner for mobile use. I have
a friend who did just that with admirable
If your car is already equipped with an
AM radio, your problem is comparatively
simple. Use the audio strip and power supply of this radio_ Work out a switching
system so arranged that, in the first position of this switch, the auto radio will
work as usual. In the second switch position, the filament power and B+ to the r.f.
aJd i.f. portions of the radio will be disconnected and will be diverted to the appropriate portions of your Eico tuner.
If the B+ provided for the r.f. and i ..£
sections of the receiver is quite low and
filtered by too much decoupling, it would
be better to permit this voltage to remain
on the r.f; and i.f. portions of the auto .
Instead, the B+ requirements for the
tuner should be derived at the point from
which the audio output stage obtains its
The audio input of the auto radio should
at this time be switched from the AM detector to the audio output of the Eico. B+
should be applied to the Eico at the cathode of its rectifier tube. If the B+ voltage
is somewhat low but is well filtered, the
voltage may be applied at the output side
of the filter system in the tuner. The 6.3volt secondary of the power transformer
should be disconnected from the filament
circuit. The rectifier tube should be reo
moved from its socket.
(With careful attention to the wiring
of associated cables and plugs, it will be
an easy matter to remove the Eico from
the car and install it in your home music
system if it is s~ desired.)
If your Volkswagon is not equipped with
an auto radio, a power supply and audio
amplifier must be supplied. Va rious manufacturers construct power supplies suitable for this purpcJse. Remember that the
B+ voltage and current ratings must be
eq ual to the needs of both the tuner and
the amplifier. The, amplifier itself need not
be elaborate. A pair of 6AQ5's in pushpull, driven by a 12AX7 voltage amplifier
and phase splitter will probably meet your
requirements_ In fact, the two 6AQ5's
could be easily replaced by a single 12BH7 ..
(Contin ued on page 6
JULY, 1961
ALNICUS ... broadens the
scope of magnet use for
the Military and all industries.
For example-with commerciaUy
produced. ALNICUS it is now
possible to have higher magnetic
energy with no increase in unit size or
weight ... or, retain the same magnetic
.energy with a smaller, lighter unit.
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ALNICUS is a new kind of permanent
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For complete information Address inquiries to Dept. 7A
on your company letterhead.
JULY, 1961
266 Glenwood Avenue, Bloomfield, N. J.
The June Issue
Silky Tone
First, my sincere congratulations on a
most informative issue_ The articles on
the new system of FM Stereo were extremely well written and easy to understand.
However, one small item does have me
a little confused_ On page 21, the article
by Mr. von Recklinghausen is accompanied
by a figure showing the basic waveforms.
By my calculations, the drawing of the
channel B output has part of the positive
position of the waveform missing. I would
appreciate knowing if this is but a simple
mistake by the printers or if I am missing
the point somewhere along the line.
Once again, let me congratulate you on
what I feel to be one of your best issues.
Moving Magnet Type Stereo
Transmitter Engineer, WIRL,
Peoria, TIl.
(And congratulations to you, Mr . Markley, fOl' your recognition of an error by
the draftsman-this is one we can't blame
on the printer-but we should have caught.
it, regardless of whose elTor it was. The
fourth vertical space from the left should
show a wavefol'm similal' to that of the
sixth space, though at a st eeper angle. We
regret, as always, such an err01', and we
shall correct the drawing before reprinting
the article in the 1961-1962 AUDIO GUIDE
-see page 16. ED.)
New type 4-coil Moving Magnet
Stereo cartridge with smoothest
response from 30 eps_ to 20_000 eps.
and it has more tha n 25 dB channel
separation from 1000 eps. to 10.000
High Output Voltage, high compliance, low mass plus exclusive symmetrical push- pull design for the
minimum recording weariness and
the lowest distortion.
Stereo Adapter Problem
Professional Ste reo 121/ Tone Arm
Engineered for resonace-free tracing
at 1-12 gr. stylus force. Plug-in heads
have 4 terminal-tips so that any
type of cartridge can be mounted.
Professional 4 Speed Turntable
This r emarkable 4 speed turntable,
with synchronous hysteresis motor,
guarantees optimum performance
of stereo reproduction.
Specification :
Turntable; 12 diamet er
aluminum diecasting
Power consumption.; 15 watts
SIN; 45 db, minimum
Wow; 0.25% maximum
4-1chome. Kanda. Hatago-cha, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo. Japan
As an audiofan who has saved his pennies to purchase the finest component8
possible, I was quite happy to rea~ ~n the
New York Times of the F.C.C. deClslOn to
permit stereophonic broadcasting.
I took great care in selecting my tuner,
which has all the necessary knobs and settings with gain controls on the back for
channels A and B-so all I should need
was a $15 adapter and, according to the
manufacturer's booklet, remove the two
screws holding a plate on the chassis, attach the adapter and plug in, and I would
be ready for the long-awaited multiplex. '
I paid over $150 for my tuner, and now
the manufacturer of it brings out an
adapter for more than half that, and the
new adapter duplicates all the knobs on
my present tuner, the only exception being
in the indicator lights. And, having a
cnstom-made cabinet of walnut, there will
have to be additional expense in altering
the cabinet.
The manufacturers are taking andiofans
for a sleigh ride in the month of June.
The whole situation brings up unpleasantries which will not be easily forgotten by
myself and friends of mine who are on
the same sleigh.
As a subscriber, I believe you should
take an active part against this deception
on the part of these component makers. I
have repeatedly read where we who are
subscribers to AUDIO and other magazines
are the sounding board to the manufacturers. Well, let's sound off.
3467 Eastchester Rd.,
New York 69, N. Y.
(Considering that the F.C.C. decision was
announced on April 20, we feel that the
manufacture.l·s who have put any adapter
on the market in a ShOl·t time have
done a remarkable job. It is more than
likely that adaptable adapters will be offered to fit in t~bners sold with built-in accommodations for th em as soon as these
manUfacturers can get around to it. If
they don't, we would be the first to agree
with you. But as to the figure of $15--we
th'ink that was a little too optimistic, and
was probably colored by a large manuf.actU1'er's claim that its adapter could be had
f01' around $8, which was undoub tedly
based on being built into a tuner. We
should think that a figure of, say,
$40 should be reasonable as a unit to be
installed in places designed into t1bners
pl'eviously sold, but not for c01nplete selfpowered adapters. ED.)
Current Flow Again
Having read both Mr. Nissen's letter in
the March issue and Mr. Goeller's letter
in the April issue, I'd like to add a few
thoughts of my own on this controversy
regarding current flow. These are:
1. The so-called "conventional current
flow" (as opposed to electron flow ) is
based on the old discarded notion of electricity as a "mysterious fluid." In short,
it is based on the "juice" concept of current flow dating from before the days of
l3enjamin Franklin.
2. The fact that most engineering text
books r epresent current flow from positive
to negative, and from plate to cathode in
a tube, just proves to me that they are
old-fashioned. To add to the merry confusion, these same books define the ampere as "6.28 x 10lB electrons flowing past
a point in one second." Incidentally, I
have always marvelled that it comes out
exactly 2Jt x 10lB electrons.
3. I was taught the "conventional flow"
myself a long time back, but I soon gave
it up when I began to teach electronics
(Continued on page 50)
(from p.age 4)
The resulting 1.5 watts of output will be
adequate for your car.
The use of the 12BH7 will reduce tb
power supply requirements of the amplifier.
I do not recommend that you use the
conventional auto radio antenna. The antenna system normally used for auto reception of AM stations cannot be used
with your FM tuner because this antenna
is vertically polarized. FM stations employ
horizontal polarization.
Instead, make a small folded dipole.
Place it on a part of the windshield where
it will be free from surrounding metal and
in a position where it is or its lead-in will
not obstruct driving vision. Conventional
twinlead can be used to feed your tuner_
Shielded twinlead is preferable for suppression of ignition noise. Ground one end
of this shield at the tuner. This antenna
will have to be a compromise between the
optimum length for such a dipole and the
length you must actually use in accordance
with the space available to you.
Ignition noise can sometimes be further
suppressed by the use of suppressors on
both the generator and spark plugs. The
generator should be tried first.
The foregoing antenna procedure is
satisfactory for use with your Volkswagon
because its engine is in the rear. Had the
engine been located in the front, it would
be better to locate the dipole on the rear
JULY, 1961
The MX-l11 Straight Line Mixer Control is a highly developed slide-wire
unit using resistances in a ladder configuration to afford unusual facility
in operation on control consoles. It is used to blend signals of various
origin for music scoring, re-recording, high quality public address, radio
and TV broadcasting. It requires only 1V2" of horizontal panel space
(1 W' with alternate escutcheon) and is
6V2" long. It is the most compact unit of this type available, and extends only 2%" below the top
of the mounting surface. Several units can be operated with one hand
when mounted adjacent.
1. Smooth, Silky Operation for Easy Control- Most important to the operator is the overcoming of friction in the mixer control. In the MX-l11
precision-built mixer, a nylon bearing rides along a longitudinally honed,
hardened chrome-plated shaft. Smooth operation is the result of the exceedingly low coefficient of friction; only 2 grams of pressure is required to overcome the inertia and bearing friction of the control assembly.
2. Low Contact Noise for Clean, Clear Signal - A single contact brush fabricated of the same material as the resistance wire prevents generation of
thermal voltages, contact oxidation and consequent noise. This brush is
connected to the input circu it by a beryllium copper spring strip, eliminating
the need for additional noise inducing brushes.
3. Exclusive Dirt and Lint Barricade for Trouble-Free Performance - An
accessible lint and dirt trap over the windings eliminates the cleaning
nuisance formerly associated with this form of control. In addition, the
contact portion of the winding itself is upside down, so that the tendency of
foreign matter is to falloff rather than on.
4. Plug-in Design for Easy Maintenance - Connections are made by an
integral plug to the connecting cable socket. This permits rapid disassembly
for inspection and cleaning.
S. Friction Adjusting Screw for Angle or Vertical Mounting - For those
recording engineers who desire less freedom of movement in the controi, or
for the designers who wish to incorporate a steep or vertical slope to the
control panel, a friction adjusting screw on the gu ide shaft is accessible
through the front slot on the control in which the knob assembly rides.
Circuit, ladder; Frequency Response, Fl at, within ±.5 db at all settings from 0
to 20 kc ; Accuracy of Resistors, ± 2%; Input Level, Maximum: 1 watt or 25 volts
rms ; Slider Pressure, 20 grams; Static Friction, Within 2 grams of sliding friction ;
Insertion Loss, 6 db; Total Excursion, 4'18"; Impedance, Standard 600/ 600 ohms.
Special impedance of 150/ 150 ohms may be obtained on order; Knob, Supplied
with red knob as standard; Dimensions, 61/4" ·long by 15/ 16" wide by 2'14" high.
Height with knob: 3'14"; Escutcheon Plate Dimensions, 1'12" or 11/4" wide by 7"
long by 3/ 16" th ick; Panel Finish, Engraved bl ack anodized dural ; Multiple Mount·
ing, 1'12" or 11/4 " centers between adjacent units according to escutcheon used.
Model MX-lll Straight Line Mixer Control with red knob, cable socket and plug,
complete with escutcheon. Weight, net, '12 lb., 1 lb. shpg. Price, Net Each $44.00
MX-III-2 2-Gang Mixer
MX-111-3 3-Gang Mixer
MX-111-4 4-Gang Mixer
Price Net With
Price Net With
Price Net With
Escutcheon $92.50
Escutcheon $135.50
Escutcheon $181.00
AVAILABLE IN 2, 3,4, AND 6 GANGS FOR STEREO - For stereophonic controls the MX-l11 is available
in 2, 3, 4 and 6 gang assemblies operating from a single knob. This vastly simplifies console controls.
"Over thirty-five years of audio progress"
liD{~wn *...,
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Equipment Catalogue covering Low-Level Amplifiers, Limiters,
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Instrument Switches and compl ete line of new Langevin Altenuators, Pan-Pots, Straight Line and Rotary Mixers, VU Range
Extenders and many others.
JULY, 1961
MX-111-6 6-Gang Mixer
Price Net With
Escutcheon $271.50
s ignals in each channel sounded "Irtually
The tape version of this show (MGM STC3946) h as adequate spread of stereo and the
lyrics a re more easily understood. Unfortunately, the reel I r eceived .for· r evie'." had
instances of severe distortion m the sibilants.
La Dolce Vif.a (Original Sound Track Recording)
RCA Victor FSO-l
The symbol 0 ind icates th e Un ited
Ste reo Tapes 4- tra ck 7 1j2 ips t a pe
Arthur Lyman: Percussion Spe ctacu'la r
Hi Fi Record L 1004
It's been common kn owledge fo r som e time
that aood recordings of percussion instrum ents" provide a criti cal test of a playback
system. Unfortunately, during the ear.lY
months of the stereo disc, most of u.s dIScovered t hat . this theory was rather dIlticult
to apply. What seemed like dis tortion, l ow
output, and limited frequency res~o n se 011
most reco rd s, percuss ion or otherwIse, t emporarily m ade stereo discs a poor so urce of
lIlusical test material. Actually, wh en considered in retrospect, our d ep ri vat~o n was
not so severe !!.S It seemed at t he tIme. We
1I0W know that d tsto rtion, l ow output, and
limited fr equ en cy res pon se in the first stereo
cartridges preseu ted a problem of equal proportions. In point of time, some t hree. ye~rs
were to go by before pickups could d~ Ju stIce
to the material that was engraved, III s?mc
of the early stereo di scs. If you don t belIeve
me aet a copy of an ea rly stereo reco rd that
wa~ "ahead of its time in audio quality and
plllY it with the best of today's pickups.
Arthllr Lyma n's latest stereo job prompted
til e to do just that. Listening to this. "Percussion Spectacular" with its exceptIOn ally
crisp s ound I beglln to wonder how som e of
the pionee r stereo discs would stack up
a"ain st this one. Recallin g that a few stereo
r:cords had sounded quite impressive when
t he first moving magnet cartridges made t h eir
initial appearance on t he market, I proceeded
to dig back in my fil es all the way back to
the year 1957. Many of the r ecords of that
vintage n ow sound fine when played wi th a
stereo pickup t h at made its fir st a ppearance
at t h e 1960 New York High Fidelity. Show.
~'he greatest surprise was Concert DISC CS21. Already a ra rity today, it was titled "RePercussion" an d featured an ensemble und er
the direc tion of Dick Schor y. Thi s, of course,
was made som e time before RCA hired h im
for tbe famous series in Chicago's Orchestra
Lyman's four-man group juggles its d ozens
of instruments in a succession of t unes with
So ut h Sea flavoring. It's a highly international lineup h e features in t his r elease.
~' h e combination isn't easy to imagine yet
here is a musical group whi ch appears nigh tly
in t he Shell Bar of the Hawa iian Village
Hotel pla ying A n-ivederoi Ra nta, American
folk son gs, Rayel's Bolm"oJ and a trad it ional
Hebrew folk song Hava h N a(Jilah.
The Virtuoso Band
Vangua rd VSD 2093
If yo u happen t o own one of t he truly
great band recordin gs in st er eo, Vang uard 's
"Queen's Birthc1ay Salute" (VSD-2011), you'll
know what to expect in this r elease by the
Royal Artillery Band. While it doesn't have
a 21-gun salu te a nd the rumble of horsedrawn artillery, this latest record by the band
deserves equally extensive circulation. The
* 12 FMest Ave., Hastings-on-Hudson,
emph asis here is on the talen ts of th~ ba nd's
soloists. Side one displays the tradItion of
virtuosity in Elngland's oldest and largest
military band. It h as a history that goes
back to the 1760's. To set the pace, Major
S. V. Hays opens with a fiery specialty for
three trumpets and ba nd th at will really set
you back on your h eels. Oth er hi ghligh ts a r e
a trombone trio and solos for tubaphone,
eu phonium, and coach horn. The second Si?e
of the disc features the massed band m
medleys of French , Germ a n, and Sousa
m a rch es. This one will bring yOU up to date
on wh at the stereo di sc ca n c10 with a topnotch band.
Carnival (Orig inal Cast)
M-G-M SE 3946
Many listeners will go along with the
cho ice of " Carni val" as the best musical of
the current Broadway season by members
of the N. Y. Drama Criti cs Circle. Only
" Camelo t ," among thi s year's shows, sh ares
Ca rnival's immedia te melodic appeal. Few
recent productions rival it in tas~eful application of profession al know-how m buildin u up t h at special magic fo und only in the
bette r shows. Althou gh the fact is not mentioned anywhere on the jacket of 1I1-G-M's
original cast r ecording, "Carnival" has an
ex cell en t head sta rt because it is based on
th e story of the hit movie "LiIi." (There's
a switch. ) Ann a Maria Alberg hetti portrays
with radiant con viction the waif-with-bighat made famous by Leslie Ca ron. H er s inging, now that s he has a part to play, is far
more effecti ve than it was in previo us recorded efforts. It's certainly t he most touchin g
element In the litt le Fren ch circus depicted
in th e show. The highlights of the sco re are
LUi's hom e-town memories in Mira as the
show opens and h er una ffected yet moving
treatment of Love Makes the World Go Round,
a theme that runs thro ugh the entire production. Ou tstanding also, are the three wonderfully zany ditties she sings with the puppets. Of t hese, t h e Spanish castanet n umber,
Ymn, T 'icl,y, T i.okV, T um, Tu1lt lasts for mu ch
too bri ef a time on the r eco rd.
As for the other members of the cast,
Kaye Ballarc1, la st seen in "Golden A.P!lle,,"
has the leadin " comedy role as a magIcIan s
assistant. No r~cordin g can possibly do just ice
to t h e circumstances of 1I1iss Ballard's big
scen e in t he show. One of the more uno rth odox opportunities for h er speciali zed
talen ts comes in h er duet with Marco the
Magn ificent- delivered within the magielan's
box as be pierces it with swo rd s.
Th e en tertainment values of this a lbum
leave no r oom for qu estion. Quite a noth er
matter is t he lack of stereo in the particular
stereo ver sion of the recorc1lng I happened
to obtain for r eview. My first reaction was
under standable in this day of genera lly
trou ble-free stereo discs. When the r ecord
star ted, I fo und myself thinking that my
pickup bad suddenly lost all its above-average
stereo separ ation. This h ad never happened
to any of m y cartridges yet there was the
bulk of the Sig nal all huddled at a point
midway between the speakers. After checking
out the cartridge and finding i t up to par on
normal ster eo discs, I tried the rest of th"
hands on the r ecord. Listen ing to one channel
at a time a nd switchin g rapidly from one to
the other, I was fo rced to conclude that the
I am not prepared to argue that t h e most
t alked-about Italian film in years has att ained fame on the basis of its sound-track
music. Federico Fellini's de piction of ultra high living in modern Roman cafe society
has already racked up enormous receipts
prior t o its American prem iere. Since t h er e
is every indi cation that the film will be
equally successful in this country, it Is easy
to see why RCA Victor decided to r evi ve
their international la bel in o rder to present
this con tin ental attraction in proper style.
Whatever impact this Nino Rota score has
on records, it will r egister fully only with
those who see t he film. Tied together by a
surpriSingly bland theme that crops up
throug hout the picture, the musical back" round Is a mixture of Italian and American
idiom. Several of our tunes are twisted in to
new shape for use here, including a wry
treatment of J in(J l e Bells. I haven't h eard
t he mono ver sion but the dubbed sound of t h e
stereo disc is quite poor. But t h en, after
you've spent umpteen million s on a movie,
you've got to economi ze somewhere.
Mantovani: Song Hi ts froin The atre land
London 0 LPM 70044
When this r ecording first a ppeared on disc
some three years a go, lI1antovani rooters were
regaled with a group of some of th e very
best Broadway tunes. T op shows of the past
two decades by Cole Porter, Rodgers and Hammerstein Frank Loesser, Lerner and Loewe,
and Irvi~g Berlin were re presen ted. The basic
value of the collection a nd the r ecent vintage
of London 's sound ma de this one of the mos t
attractive t heatre pa ckages ever turned out
on the Mantovani assembly line. It's easy
to see why UST selected this particular
album for r elease on t ape. Anyone in the
process of building a tape library that calls
fo r some show mu s ic with a high degree
of poli sh will have to consider this item.
Les Elga rt: Ha lf Sa ti n- Half Latin
Columbia 0 CQ 362
Wa rren Covington: It Ta kes Two to
Cha Cha
Decca 0 ST7-8980
The release of these two reels i nd icates
that tape fan s are still interested in the uame
value of a band even wh en shopping for a
Latin beat. Th e orchestras on these tapes do
not depend on La tin music to maintain a
r eputation with dancers. Yet the record companies seem to have discovered that nn unknown band from South America with an
impeccable beat is not as easy to sell in this
country as our own n ame bands. L es Elgart,
in the fi r st of these r eels, r ewo rks several
standard domestic tunes into a Latin format.
His arra ngements are pretty fa r out in relation to Covington's. It isn't every day that
one h ears a theme from the ba llet "Slaughter
on T enth Avenue" in L atin tempo . Track
two con tain s stan dard dance fare with pron oun ced exchanges between the saxes on the
left aud brasses on the right. Reverber ation
is a factor to be considered bu t a moderate
amoun t of juggling of bass contr ols should
bring it under control.
Warren Covington leads th e Tommy Dorsey
orch estra in a program m ade up of Latin
tunes. Alth ou gh the percen tage of So uth
American favorites is much high er than in
t he Ellgart album, the ba nd is not as smooth
an d t h ere is more than a su spicion of gropin g for L a tin style in some of the selections.
Coving ton 's sound is realistic an d uncluttered
but party throwers may wish to sear ch
furth er if they're looking for the r eal thing
in Latin tempo.
Stan Frebe rg Presents the United States
of America
Capitol W 1573
One of the earlier hnmori sts on r eco rds
JULY, 1961
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JULY, 1961
has embarked on a lengthy and cool spoofing
of the leading events in American history.
Stan Freberg, who first wo n disc fame with
his "St. George and the Dragonet", offers
in this release the first volume of a projected four-album series for Capitol tbat
should unnerve the sturdiest historian. A
large cast of actol's, singers and musicians
falls in with the redoubtable Freberg in songs
and sketches of a revue especially created
for records.
The impetus for this proj ec t came from
the CBS radio show Freberg did in 1957, a
ser ies still remembered for its sly reappraisal
of Washington, Lincoln, Paul Revere, and
General Custer. As usual, Stan is all over the
place. Besides acting in the juiciest roles In
t he skits, he collaborated with Billy May In
the music and K enneth Sullet, a Los Angeles
advertising man, in the concoction of the
book and lyrics, This volume ("The Early
Years") takes us from Columbus to the
Battle of Yorktown. Some of the sharper
barbs are encountered in Benjamin Franklin's
r eluctance to sign the Declaration of I ndependence and haggling by Washington over
the price of a boat rental before braving the
Delaware. Freberg fans a re going to be very
happy with this one. The stereo version gives
the actors far more space for their tableaux
but the comedy lines (punch and otherwise)
are adequately served in the mono disc.
The Music of Frank Loesse r
RCA Victor LSC 2486
now available for home use!
It took five years of painstaking research and uncompromising design
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Arthur Fiedler and t he Boston Pops Orchestra take the ir turn in saluting one of
today's more indiVidual-sounding tunesmiths.
Some of these songs taken from five Loesser
shows sound more inviting in the Pops treatmen t than they did in the original cast recordings. Ste reo is not the only reason for
this happy state of affairs. The size of the
pit bands heard in the cast records does not
a pproach the nearly hundred figure we take
for gran ted in the Pops productions. Another
significant difference is the acoustical setting. The cas t of a show invariably assembles
In a studio when recreating a stage performa nce. In this recording, as in mos t of the
recent Pops sessions in Boston 's Symphony
Hall, the player s a re deployed on the fiat
fioor of the auditorium. In this way, full advantage can be taken of the hall's uuique
acoustics .. Starting with the opening " Guys
and Dolls" medley, there's no mista king the
fact that this is' show music In a new dimension. Other Loesser shows covered are "Most
Happy Fella", "Greenwillow", "Where's Charley?", and "Hans Christian Andersen". Jack
Mason and Richard Hayman share th e arranging honors.
The bright numbers tell us that the Pops
group hasn 't lost the supple rhythm that sets
it apart from our other large orches tras. The
mu sical instinct of Fiedler 's Bostonians makes
it easy to spot the areas where Frank Loesser
has ext ended the boundaries of the American
musica l stage. A r elease such as this more
than makes up for the dozens of r ecords of
indifferent character that try to enter the
market each month.
you achieve a freshness and fid e lity of sound that defies duplication by
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Mort Sahl: The Ne w Frontie r
Reprise R 5002
Who says our politically·oriented comedian s
are unable to change wi th the times? Mort
Sahl is introduced at t h e beginning of thi s
recorded a ppearance at the "Hungry i" as
Am erica's youngest statesman among comedians. Sahl came to power, as he him self
might put it, during a n a dministratio n som~ ­
what different from th e one currently in
Washngton. Yet here he is in his latest release, la mbas tin g the Democrats with the
same ferocity h e once used on the Republicans. The r apid-fire deli ver y hasn't changed
as he disgresses from his own digressions,
with the audience at his heels all the way.
His comments are by no means limited to
politics. Television, films , and nir travel are
still conSidered topics but th e emphasis Is
on the foibles of the Kennedy admin istration.
As Sahl is quick to point out in the course
of his monologue, with a new "group" in
Washington, his current barbs are finding
favor with a new audience.
(Continued on page 61)
JULY, 1961
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JULY, 1961
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edward latnaliCanby
"Your Favorite Music-Indoors or Out
-Even In Your Car-At One Touch of a
Button" . . . Take a good guess at what
that could be. You'll probably come up
with the right one. "Just drop in the cart·
ridge, push one button, and enjoy one hour
of continuous music," the ad continues.
And in case you think that's all there is to
it, there's this: "Choose from an extensive
library of the world's finest music, cl assical
and popular, all on compact Westrex Tape
Cartridges." It costs $89.94 and you can
get it at Macy's, b attery-oper ated and
portable. For $149.94 (call it $150) you
can have AM-FM-Short Wave radio too.
Quite a package. Just keep this in mind
in case you think the issue of r eeled tape
vs. the tape magazine is settled for good.
Not quite.
There's nary a word, at this early writing, from that other giant, CBS, concerning the famed t ap e cartridge--magazine
-that appeared briefly last year in preview and was to be further developed
before a potential launching on the market
-if and when. But it was about now that
it was due and possibly you'll know all
about it by the time you read this. Could
be. I h ave heard of at least one other
tape magazine syst em under development,
unlaunched as yet, and I suspect there are
more of th em hiding here and there in the
commercial underbrush or the developmental underground. The magazine t ape
system is still obviously looking for a niche,
big or little, in our music repro ducing entertainment. Chances are it will find it.
I'll stick my neck 'way out at this stage
and suggest th a t magazined tape is not
going to replace anything. It won't replace
the disc r ecording by any stretch of my
imagination or yours. Not even vi a waferthin long·play midgets that change automatically on a t ape player, just like discs
-that's the CBS system.
And I very much doubt if any magazine
development can stop the 4-track reel-toreel tape business, either, at this late date.
Tape of that sort, I'd say, has very nicely
found its niche, worked out a going relationship with the larger disc field (offering the same stereo musical r ecor din gs, or
some of th em, in convenient sizes up to the
"Twin-Pak" reels that contain music from
two standard LP stereo records) . The
playing machines are now widely available
and the newer ones, with stereo r ecoTCling
as well as playback, offer an added boost of
versatility to the 4-track t ap e system.
Don't think that this versatility isn't
going to be heightened by stereo on the
air. That final link in the main stereo
system should do wonders for the home
tape business. What~-You think that
maybe p eople will just record their stereo
music off the air and refuse to buy t apes i
No sir. I think it has already b een made
clear that already-recorded tape can live
ver.y nicely alongside of home-made t apes
th at are copied from other people's LP's
or taken off the air. So can discs. What
may seem to be a serious "leak" of musical
material for free is actually not a serious
The very f act that if you want you m ay
get your music for nothing but tape cost
via a considerable amoun t of home work
and with many a doubt as to quality, timing for t ape length, and editing-this pot ential bonanza seems merely to cr eate new
confidence in the t ape user. Gives him the
f eeling he can do as he pleases in all sorts
of ways. And he's ready to buy more recorded t ape, str angely enough, because of
that very confideuce, that feeling that he
doesn't have to if he doesn't want to.
The magazine, then, is going to have to
fit in and around present f acilities, which
are not going to b e pushed off the map.
That's my guess. I suspect it was Columbia's too, when that company introduced
its magazine system with such unusually
careful reservations as to its ultimat e exploitation , in contrast to RCA's joyfully
jubilant all-out launching of its unhappy
t ape cartridge.
If I guess right, Columbia'S planner s
have been doing very sober market research
(while t echnical development of the new
machine and its new tape continued) into
every niche and cr anny that seems likely
to support coexistence.
That would also be the thinking behind
the Westrex development, above. Note that
the machine is deliberately launched in a
very speci al and limited category, the
miniature portable form, bat tery run. No
home r ecord players mentioned. No consoles, no hi fi attachments. Nothin g bigger
than half the size of the smallest disc 01'
t ape player now available. Where else, I
ask, could a m agazine t ape player find so
little competition in its way~ No mention
of stereo. I gather that Westrex isn't even
going to try to buck that market -and
probably with goo d sense, given a beach style portable! After all, mono music still
has a few common-sense advantages. After
all, too, most of us are now reaching a
common-sense feeling th at you can't have
ster eo everywhel'e, all the time, and maybe
it should be kept in its proper place, which
is plenty good. Not in the beach portable,
nor in the automobile, please.
Columbia's magazine does offer ster eo;
it has three tracks, in case there's a need.
That t hird track could do all sorts of
things over and aside from st ereo. Synchronizing signals would go ver y nicely on
it and-boom I- you have a whole galaxy
of new uses built around home movies, slide
projectors and so on . Also, mind you, a
very impressive professional and technical
potential quite aside from the entertainment market. No telling where there's an
end to all this.
It seems to me, therefore, that the magazine tape promoter is likely to face a
rather special sort of choice, when a decision is ripe, when it becomes necessal'Y
to decide how and when and where. It is
mainly this: shall our magazine tape fill
one niche and fill it well and calculatedly'
Or shall we aim for many niches, each
perhaps a speci alty area, requiring special
adaptation and/ or special sales and distribution ~
It's a tough sort of choice to make and
any company with co=on sense in its
management would pref er at least at the
beginning to concentrate on one niche
alone, or a f ew r elated niches, and push
hard for a big place in the market. This
could explain the Westrex deal ver y nicely.
A special niche has been chosen, cannily.
Just one-port able music, miniaturized. If
there are others, Macy's isn't t elling
Gimbel's, nor you and me.
The trouble with any special niche is
that it is likely to have inherent limitations
as to sales volume. Maybe not for a smaller
or middle-sized outfit. But when a big oper ator lil,e CBS gets into something, it
must sell, astronomically, or fail. Something tells me that CBS would not be
willing to subsist on beach portables alone,
aR a vehicle f or a Columbia t ape magazine.
It has to be bigger-much bigger.
But if the magazine, as is now clear, i s
unlikely to push the existing syst ems off the
market, if coexistence is going to be the
rule, then th ere seems to be only one
possible answer-the multi-niche answer.
And that is a very problematical one at
best, full of dangers for anybody.
The multi-niche approach involves what
I might call fluid assets-not financial
ones but t echnical. Wh at I mean is econ omical interchangeability, the same mechanism for all the niches with as small a
yariation as can be managed.
Ju st make the one device, in the millions,
lo ad it up and fire it off in many directions at once, in the thousands niche by
niche. Scatter your fire, but aim car efully,
choose hittable targets.
TIllS, you see, could e:l>.-plain Columbia's
cagey close-to-the-chest game duriug th ese
last months since the exist euce of the CBS
basic development was revealed. They had
the central device, all right. (An d t hey
wanted us to know it, to give RCA's more
conventional cartridge a needed co~,p-cle­
grace,. or so I've figured for myself.) But
they were not at all sure yet what ought
to be doue with it. They merely had -plans
- many plans, many possible lines of developmeut. Rumor said, for instance, that
CBS has been tinkering with a 15/16-ips
speed, to t ake advaut age of the r elatively
improved p erformance-versus-speed that is
inher ent in the new t ape and small-gap
h eads. N ow what would that be fo d Not
for music, I'll wager. Might be used f or
all sorts of things, with the sky the limit.
Compact information filing. Dictation.
Talking books-hours of speech on each
wafer· sized magazine plus
changing of a st ack of t hem.
Yes, the potential niches for the CBS
b asic tape magazine, in conjunction with
the 3M organization at th e t ape end, are
r eally staggerin gly plentiful. III fact it is
conceivable that the propagation of r ecorded music might never show up at all,
or turn up as a relatively minor side-operation. But this last seems to me unlikely,
because a company a s big as CBS just
doesn't launch a "minor" operation in the
JULY, 1961
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pact chassis. Easy·to·assemble: prewired,
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FM . Exclusive precision prewired EYE·
TRONIC® tuning on both AM and FM.
Switched AFC (Automatic Frequency Con.
trol). Sensitivity: 1.5uv for 20db quieting.
Frequency Response: 20.15/000 cps±ldb.
Switched "wide" and "narrow" bandpass.
High Q filter eliminates 10 kc whistle.
Sensitivity: 3uv for 1.0V output at 20db
SIN ratio. Frequency Response: 20·9,000
cps ("wide"); 20·4,500 cps ("narrow").
includes Metal Cover and FET
Wired $129.95
OF EICO STEREO . • • • • • • • • •
BOTH AMPLIFIERS: Complete stereo cen·
ters plus two excellent power amplifiers.
Accept, control, and amplify signals from
any stereo or mono source.
ST70: Cathode·coupled phase inverter clr·
cuitry preceded by a direct·coupled volta,e
amplifier. Harmonic Distortion: less than
1 % from 25·20.000 cps within Idb . of 70
watts. Frequency Response: ±Y.db 1050,000 cps.
ST40: Highly stable Williamson·type power
amplifiers. Harmonic Distortion: less than
1 % from 40·20,000 cps within 1 db of 40
watts. Frequency Response: ±Y.db 12·
25,000 cps.
Kit $94.95
Includes Metal Cover
Over 2 MILLION EICO Instruments in use.
Most EICO Dealers offer budget terms.
Wired $149.95
Kit $79.95
Includes Metal Cover
Wired $129.95
There's an EICO for your 'every stereo/mono need. Send for FREE catalog.
-------f.} Ilil'L--········EICO, 3300 N. Blvd., L.I.C. I, N. Y.
Send free 32·page catalog & dealer's name
Send new 36·page Guidebook to HI·FI for
which I enclose 25¢ for postage & handling.
Address .. ..
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Add 5% in West.
Listen to the EICO Hour, WABC·FM, N. Y. 95.5 Me, Mon.·Fri., 7:15·8 P.M. © 1961 by EICO, 33·00 N. Blvd ., L. I. C. I, N. Y.
Export Dept., Roburn Agencies Inc., 431 Creenwic·h
JULY, 1961
New York 13, N. Y.
Listen with
a rea of recordings. It must be adequately
big to advertise vi~ the Columbia label,
(and ,vith sizeable hunks of the Columbia
music catalogue available, remember), or
it won't appear at all. I have rows of RCA
magazine tapes out of the RCA Victor
catalogue, and the boxes even have the
same cove r art as the corresponding disc
release. (Well, I have one row, anyway.
A good many of the boxes you saw on display at the hi fi shows a couple of years
ago were necessarily d=ies-indicating
how far a big company must go to make
its operation look "big" from the outset.)
Let The Cat Out
A startling achievement-an ultracompact 2-speaker system capable of
sound you'd expect from a much larger
unit_ Volume control on front. Perfect
for FM Multiplex, very low cost stereo,
other-room extensions.
X-IO 2-speaker 2-way system for use with
amplifier having 4,8, or 16 ohm qutput.
Power rating-6 watts. Adequate room
sound with I watt to speaker. 734" H,
13" W, 4%" D.
In oiled Walnut. ............. $29.95
A popularly priced full·sized 3-speaker
bookshelf system-perfect for inexpensive stereo. Recent "blindfold" tes ts by
audio experts proved a preference for
the TF-2 over " rated" systems costing
much more.
TF-2 3-speaker 2-way sys tem. Full size
Flexair* woofer for bass
response, plus two special direct radjator
tweeters giving smooth, extended highs.
13J1!" H, 23,W W, n ow D.
In oiled Walnut. ......... $79.50
Unfinished Hardwood .. $64.50
So there you hav~ my picture, which
might just possibly be the picture. Oneniche magazined tape from Westrex and
Macy's. Multi-niche magazined tape evolving-who knows where '-at Columbia.
It would be funny if CBS finally went
one-niche and, say, came out with the
Columbia Office Dictator, the littlest
dictator of them all. Or the Columbia
Audible Memo, the home filing system to
end all filing systems. Or the CBS Tape
Memory, perfect for small businesses. Or
the World Library of Great Literature.
Or the CBS-Berlitz Portable Linguaphone
-carry it in your purse. Let it do the
talking for you. Plug-in cartridges to fit
all travel situations. Good niches.
But I think I have a bigger and better
niche than any of these. This one would
be called the Columbia Automatic Household Progra=er. Wow! What an ideal
(And there goes another fortune down the
drain for me.)
All you'd do would be to plug in your
pre-set tape magazine and the day would
take care of itself, fully automated. The
roast would cook, the baby's bath would
fill up and drain, the washing machine
would go on (and turn itself off, of course).
Set your radio for a CBS-automated
wake-up alarm and for CBS go-to-sleep
music; turn up the furnace in the morning, turn off the porch light at midnight. Catch those weekly TV programs on
the dot, automatically. Start the hi fi at
cocktail time.
You could even program a set of audible
reminder-signals, at suitable moments during your busy day. Can't you hear your own
voice, around 8: 15 a.m. on a Monday morning, saying "Time to go, boy-eight minutes t? make the bus." Or "Don't forget
the haIr-dresser." Or "Today is dentist day
-remembed" (This would be the Automatic Memo feature).
You might even arrange to let the cat
out at eleven o'clock, via one of those cat
doors people have. You wouldn't need to
wind him.
Oh yes-the pay-off. Naturally, no two
days are just alike. So the CBS Automatic
Household Programmer would come with
a cartridge for each day of the week, plus
spares for holidays and emergencies. Then
all you'd have to remember would be not to
plug in the Thursday cartridge on Wednesday.
I guess what you'd really need come to
think of it, would be a cartridge 'programmer to program the cartridge. An Automated Calendar. That's my last word_
6601 S. laramie Ave ., Chicago 38, III.
In Canada: Renfrew Electric Co., ltd., Toronto
In Mexico: Universal De Mexico, S.A ., Mexico, D.F.
Now wait a minute. Maybe we could
ha,' e stereo at the beach. I shouldn't have
taU,ed so fast against it. In fact, as I muse
along, I can think of a neat system to satisfy my beach leanings and for general
picnic siestas and campside musicales of a
starry night. I don't mean the standard
"stereo" gadgetry already on the market.
I mean something that would produce the
"Sound of Music," reasonably complete
down to the musical bottom and undistor ted up to the top. I guess it takes the
s=er doldrums to make me think like
this, but _ . .
Well, I hate to prod KLH again, but
there is your nucleus-prototype for my system, in the shoe-box Model Eight speaker.
By all means, let's have one from somebody
else, too. I mean a quality speaker system
that squeezes a maximum of good sound
into an arbitrary minimum of space, via
maximum-throw small speakers and probably with the aid of a specially-curved
amplifier output.
I don't mean anything "Ultimate"-but
I do mean the very best in sound tha t is
now possible under these circumstances.
Bass, more or less fiat, down, say, to 100
cycles of fundamental. (A wild guess, but
this would do nicely.) Top tailored to fit
(a slight droop), but clean all the way out.
Acoustic output big enough to fill up a
.small room loudly and to be heard in the
unrefiected Great Outdoors-that means a
lot of acoustical wallop. KLH has it already.
My beach stereo would need two such
speakers and it's obvious that the power
amplifiers should be built right into the
case, transistorized, minus heavyweight
output transformers. (Definitely not with
lightweight ones!). If you can get an amplifier into the arm of a pair of hearingaid spectacles, then you can put a bigger
one with more transistor power into a shoebox speaker. With batteries-of course.
Alternative line-voltage plug would be desirable, as always in such portable transistorized equipment, though maybe not too
necessary if the current drain is low
Then we'll want one of those battery
record player gadgets, one that runs well
and folds up well too. It'll play 33 rpm's
only. It'll take a 12-inch LP, somehow or
other. That's not so easy to manage, I'll
admit, but it is essential. For the seveninch tYP!3 of music, we can now count Oil
the "compact 33" platters.
Guess the tone arm would have to be
foldable too. Why noU It ought to be
featherweight, anyhow, and you could fold
it on itself with the cartridge inside and
thus protect the stylus in transit. The whole
player would, in my way of seeing things,
fold slimly into a small handbag.
Of course there would have to be a preamp, unless your music is to come from a
ceramic stereo cartridge. I'd be inclined to
go along with the better ceramics now
available, though you could build in a
stereo preamp if you really had to. However, I suspect that if it were small enough
and transistorized, the noise problem might
be so serious as to overshadow any quality
advantage of the magnetic cartridge.
(Noise in a preamp is of course enormously
harder to control than in a power amplifier
such as those built into my hypothetical
speaker boxes. )
Radio' Well, I'd be inclined to leave this
to the portables already available, but by
all means I would suggest a pair of inputs
on our little system to take a radio signal
~n stereo or mono. Let's not limit ourselves
unduly. Many of the better miniature
radios now have provision for an output to
external amplifier-speaker systems, or might
be jiggered a bit, with care, to do so. You'd
have to bypass the built-in power amplifier
on many models, of course, unless yo u
power your little external speakers directly
out of the radio amplifier, for so-so sound
by any stretch of the imagination. We're
talking big, remember. Big in a relative
(Continued on page 51)
JULY, 1961
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JULY, 1961
OST READERS are familial' with the traditional
August issue of Audio which features a complete buyers' guide to the high fidelity equipment which will be on the dealers' shelves during the
fall and, presumbaly, for the coming year. 1'his
particular issue is printed in much greater volume
than the average and will be continuously available
throughout the entire year, and it is one which is
treasured by the enthusiastic audiofan during i.ts entire season, even though he knows that he can gf't
another at any of the high fidelity shows for a year
after its original issue. However, since we have bad.
the "something new has been added" ingredient in
the past two issues and will continue to have more
in the August issue-and that something new is, of
course, FM stereo- we have decided to r eprint all of
the FM stereo articles in the form of a book which will
be available September First. And to make the book
more valuable to every audiofan in the country, 'we
will include the buying guide section of th e August
issue in its entirety so you can pore over these pages
without wearing out the regular issue of the magazine. In those instances where you are called upon to
loan the buyers' guide issue to some friend, you can
offer him the book and not disrupt your complete me
of the magazine.
We feel that our coverage of FM stereo in the June
issue was just about as complete as could have been
accomplished in the time between the F .C.C. announcement and the deadline for closing the issue.
And just in case anyone wonders, let it be said here
and now that no one-to the best of our knowledgeknew in advance either when the decision would be
handed down or what it would be, although some of
the better informed radio engineers in Washington
offered some educated guesses-which is engineerese
for estimate-as early as the February hi-fi show
there. While it is not often that a monthly magazine
gets the opportunity to act like a daily newspaper and
create a scoop, that is just exactly what we did in our
June issue (if we may be permitted a small amount
of "horn blowing" on our own behalf). While the
magazine actually went to press on the 15th of May,
its usual deadline, the Csicsatka-Linz article reached
our office on the 11th, and Mr. Saslaw's comprehensive recapitulation of the entire FM stereo picture
was completed around noon of the 12th, we were able
to bring our readers some technical information about
a subject over which they had been speCUlating for
over a year.
We feel sure that the average reader-and, in fact,
most audiofans-will want to retain this information
indefinitely. We know that it is accurate (except for
a minor error in one of the drawings in Mr. von R ecklinghausen's article, as pointed out in a letter on page
6, and which will be corrected in the 1961-62 AUDIO
GUIDE), and we feel that this material may well be
considered a primer in the whole art of FM stereo.
The material in this issue, and that to follow in the
August issue will all be included in the book, making
it a r eal reference on the entire subject.
The book will be announced commercially-that is,
with a coupon inviting readers to forward a dollar each
for their individual copies-in the August issue. But,
in the meantime, just remember that if you may have
loaned the June issue to one of your friends permanently, all is not lost-you will still be able to have
the information for your permanent files. So be one
of the first ito order a copy-better still, order ten
copies in case you have ten friends whose book-borrowing propensities exceed their book-returning ones.
It is not often that we ask a favor of our readers,
since we feel that the normal correspondence keeps
us in touch with their likes and dislikes, but this
month we are making an exception to the rule. The
Reader Service Card, which usually appears following
the last page of the inside section and just before the
third cover, normally contains a "bingo" card (which
has lots of numbers and offers readers the opportunity
of acquiring further information about our adverti.sers' products and about equipment profiled or described as a new product without any more effort
than circling a few numbers, adding your name and
address, cutting out the card and dropping it into
the mailbox, and which normally contains also a subscription card for the benefit of those newsstand
buyers who have decided that it is easier to get AUDIO
in their own mailboxes than on the stands, is changed
for this month only. Instead of the subscription card
there is a questionnaire about tape recorders on which
we seek to determine readers' preferences for the
characteristics of machines as well as an inquiry into
the characteristics of the machines they now own.
Since we have not asked anyone to sign his name or
give his address, it is obvious that we have no ulterior
motive like getting names onto a mailing list. We just
want to know. And we are willing-even anxious-to
pay the foul' cents just to get your cards back with
the appropriate boxes checked. If everyone of these
cards were to be returned we would even be happy,
because it is the experience of surveys of this type
that a ten per cent return is high, four per cent about
average. However, we believe that our readers are
of higher caliber than those of most magazines, and
consequently we expect about twenty five per cent.
Incidentally, the bingo card is still there, and the subscription card will be back in August, but for this
month we have a special request to make.
And anyway you look at it, the magazine does lie
open better after you cut out the cards and return
them-and furthermore, that's what they are there
for-and another thing, this month's card is different .
JULY, 1961
Only the Stanton Fluxvalve
can provide the exclusive
and patented features
which make it the
finest pickup available.
T he significance ofconferring
a document '. .. a
rights and privileges on an individual to
manufacture and vend an invention both
new and useful . . . further signifies a
most important responsibility upon that
Endowed with this responsibility,
PICKERING & COMPANY pioneeredthrough their outstanding participation
in stereophonic development - the
first (and only) stereo cartridge incorporating the revolutionary T-GUARD stylus.
But this was only the beginning-through
continued development-major advances
in stereo pickup design were brought
about by the use of PICKERING & COMPANY'S long experience ... special skills
and exclusive techniques.
his heirs
'J%.X:<'1l:"'l·U"~ O·J 'H ..:ns l<~~Q'"
S ·.l.,~n·:s_
S,t tAU.tNG, "'..". ,."."
Thus; less than one year after the introduction of the stereo record, PICKERING
& COMPANY introduced the MODEL 380
few short months, the 380 earned its
reputation from the experts as"The finest stereo pickup ever tested".
Isn't it time you found the true answer
to stereo as it was meant to be?
urge you to go to your dealer for
WaE 380
we know you will find its quality of performance almost beyond belief.
mo~o Pickering"'"CE
for more than a decade-the world's most
expe,rienced manufacturer of high fidelity
pickups ... supplier to the recording industry.
The Stanton FIuxvalve and Stereo Fluxvalve are patented
(and patents are pending) in tho United States, Great
Britain, Canada. Japan and other countriet throughout the
In such an open field as this Dr. Karl Jansky of Bell
Laboratories opened the way to radio astronomy. His
search for a mysterious source of radio noise led him-and
us-to the stars for our answer.
Today Bell scientists continue their pioneering in many
fields-among them the transmission of human voices on
beams of coherent light. Bell Laboratories' revolutionary
.Optical Maser foreshadows the use of light as a whole
new medium of telephone, TV and data communications.
These are but two of the many fundamental
advances which have come from breaking fresh
ground at the world center of communications
research and development.
The Line Radiator
The line radiator provides limited vertical distribution of sound thus reducing acoustical feedback in theatres and other places where live performances are addressed to a live audience. The result is enhanced realism.
REENFORCEMENT, particularly
where speakers and microphones are
used in close proximity, presents a
difficult problem for the sound engineer.
The purpose of this article is to convey
information obtained from research and
development of a new concept in publicaddress speakers designed specifically
to reduce the feedback problem as well
as to provide the realism of a live source.
The prime purpose of a sound system
is, of course, to provide those in the audience with the illusion that no such system exists-that all sound they hear is
reaching them direct from its original
Providing this illusion can be difficult
and costly. However, new techniques
* Engineer,
chanan, Mich.
"0 11
Fig. 2. Geometry of column loudspeaker: (A) "0" = distance between speakers,
"L" = effective column length; (B) Vertical polar distribut io n with dotted line curve
indicating result of increasing "0".
discovered during the development of
the line radiator loudspeakers can
greatly simplify the most difficult problems and provide fine quality sound
coverage at a modest cost. Further, these
small, compact loudspeakers ease mounting problems for any installation.
The information presented below is
the result of over one year of research,
both in the laboratory and in field testing to confirm the theory which evolved
as work proceeded.
Acoustic Feedback
Fig. 1. Sound distributi o n of column loudspeakers in typical theatre: (A) Floor plan
with dark area indica ting horizontal coverage at 5000 cps; (B) Elevation with dark
area indicating vertical coverage; (C) Horizontal polar distribution (-500 cps,
······5000 cps); (D) Vertical polar distribution (--500 cps, ······1500 cps).
JULY, 1961
Acoustic feedback is a major problem
when performers are working at great
distances from the microphones. Poor
acoustic properties in large rooms such
as theatres, amphitheatres, gymnasiums,
and churches are among the many conditions that cause or add to acoustical
feedback. By a brief discussion of existing installations, we will illustrate the
reasons behind the development of these
new loudspeakers.
One of the most common methods of
installation is to strategically locate a
number of cone or horn-type loudspeakers throughout the area to be covered.
There are several disadvantages to this
type of installation. Sound which is projected from the ceiling or from the side
walls causes fatigue and is distracting
because the eyes focus on one point while
the ears attempt to focus on another.
In large areas time delay causes phase
distortion and becomes a problem which
is difficult to correct. Installations ill
which the microphones are required to
pick up voices at distances of ten or
fifteen feet completely rule out this
speaker arrangement.
A second common type of installation
utilizes horn-type loudspeakers with
wide-range response, placed in the vicinity of the stage, platform, or pulpit.
The loudspeaker widely used in this type
of installation is the multicellular horn
which is usually located in the proscenium arch. The greatest advantage of
this arrangement is the effect of realism.
This is an important point, for nothing
is more pleasing than attending a theatre where all the sound appears to come
from the actual source of the sound. The
great disadvantage, however, is that
acoustic feedback between speaker and
microphone limits working distance to
the microphone. Because of this, satisfactory coverage of a stage is often
limited or impossible.
The acoustic properties of the room
are also a controlling factor. Where
acoustics are poor, the combination of
reflected and direct sound will cause
feedback. With the use of directional
microphones, feedback can be controlled.
However, wbere microphone working
distance is ten feet or more, this arrangement will not be satisfactory.
The third type of speaker system
which is relatively new in this country
but which has been used widely in
Europe for many years, is known as the
columnar loudspeaker. This loudspeaker
assembly consists of a number of cone
type loudsp eakers stacked vertically, one
above the other, in a long narrow cabinet. In fact, some column installations
exist where a cabinet is not used, and
tbe loudspeakers are oriented somewhat
as the stripes on a barber pole. This is
required to obtain wider spread of the
high frequen cies. Because such installations are both unique and of questionable value, we will limit our discussion
to speakers stacked vertically in a cabinet and facing in one direction.
Tbe characteristics tbat make columns
advantageous are efficiency that approaches that of a horn loudspeaker,
enhanced horizontal distribution, and
narrow vertical distribution. (About 30
deg. is normal.) Vertical distribution
will vary with column length; the longer
tbe column, the more narrow the vertical distribution. However, this can be
overdone, and the speaker tends to become too directional to provide full audience coverage.
Columnar speakers properly installed
near the source of sound, at the stage
or pulpit, provide the advantage of realism. The quality of the reproduced sound
can be far superior to that of publicaddress loudspeakers of approximately
the same size and cost.
The inherent disadvantage of the column is the presence of lobes in the vertical plane of distribution caused by
characteristics of tbe column itself. This
is a major cause of acoustic feedback .
Before discussing these loudspeakers
further, we sball briefly review the polar
distribution patterns involved. (A) and
(B) in Fig. 1 illustrates a typical floor
plan and elevation of a theatre. (C)
270·1--+--+l-+-ll<H-tI-+--i 90 •
270· f-+-+-f+~H~f-+--;
Fig. 3. Vertical polar distribution at frequencies above 4 wavelengths of: (A)
Typical column speaker; (B) Straight line
Fig. 4. Theatre installation of line radiator with microphone in low intensity
area .
and (D) in Fig. 1 are the polar patterns
of horizontal and vertical distribution
of a typical colUlllll loudspeaker . Zero
db is the reference level determined by
the sensitivity rating of the loudspeaker.
This information is extremely important to the sound system engineer,
Examination of (C ) in Fig. 1 reveals
that at a frequency of 5000 cps, the
angle of coverage is mu ch smaller than
at 500 cps. The energy at 90 and 270
deg. is 5 db lower at 500 cps and 15 db
lower at 5000 cps in reference to the
energy directly in front of the loudspeaker. This fact is contrary to much
published information on column loudspeakers, but it is easily proved in the
laboratory or on an actual installation .
This point is extremely important; a
columnar loudspeaker does not have low
intensity areas at 90 or 270 deg. in its
horizontal plane of distribution at any
frequ ency.
The polar distribution in the vertical
plane [(D) Fig. 1] is completely different from that of other loudspeakers
since the output t ends to beam. This is
caused by the characteristics of loudspeakers mounted in a line." The CUl'ves
shown in F ig. 1 through 6 are not theoretical, but are those actually measured
in an anechoic sound chamber in the
Electro-Voice laboratory.
E xtensive research into the action of
columnar speakers disclosed the two
characteristics most important to proper
design which are the length of the line
and the distance of separation between
the speakers. As D increases, (A) Fig.
2, a point is reached where the column
ceases to act as a line SOUl'ce and becomes
a series of point sources. This introduces
lobes at 90 and 270 deg. with intensities
almost equal to that at 0 deg . [See (B)
Fig. 2.] The horizontal distribution pattern is essentially unchanged.
Since the main purpose of these systems is to suppress feedback, investigations were made to determine the maximum distance possible between speakers
which would allow them to operate as a
line source in the desired fr equency
r ange. The information gained in this
research made possible the development
of a series of improved columnar speakers which operate as a tr ue line source.
The line source has one undesirable
characteristic which must be eliminated
to make it best serve OUl' purpose. When
the length of the line source is four
wavelengths or more compared to the
frequency reproduced, lobes again become a problem as shown in (A) of
Fig. 3.
To eliminate these lobes, a filter' was
designed to roll off the output of groups
of speakers at the extremities of the column at predetermined frequencies, which
effectively shortens the length of the
line source. In essence, the speaker has
an acoustical length that varies inversely
with frequency.
The advantage of this design is shown
in (B) Of Fig. 3, In this example the
line source is one wavelength long at
230 cps. The line is four wavelengths
long at 920 cps, (Wavelength is inversely
Wolff & Malter, IRE J ournal, 1930; p,
Electro-Voice P atents P ending
JULY, 1961
270"/--I----.1f-T--t--t:llH---:.I'--t..----+----i 90'
Fig . 5 . (A) ElectroYoice curved line
radiator; (B) Yertical polar distribution of curve d
line radiator (-- )
as compared to
straight line radiator (------).
proportional to frequency.) The filter
is designed to cut off half the speakers
at the frequency corresponding to four
wavelengths of the line. The line now appears two wavelengths long at this frequency, and the vertical distribution
pattern will become essentially a two
wavelength pattern.
In conjunction with suppressing the
lobes, an area of low intensity occurs at
90 and 270 deg. This is a great advantage, since the microphones will normally be placed in this area, and feedback caused by direct so un d is
substantially reduced. This allows more
satisfactory coverage of the area in
which the loudspeaker is used.
The correct installation of a system
utilizing straight line loudspeakers and
microphones in close proximity is shown
in Fig. 4. This was determined both by
theory and practical installations made
in theatres, churches, gymnasiums and
auditoriums. One particular test was
made to compare a line radiator with
and without a filter. The loudspeaker
was mounted as shown in Fig. 4 and the
line radiator was placed at twenty feet
above the microphone. The filter in the
line radiator was switched in and out of
the circuit. Levels were adjusted to a
point just under the feedback threshold
and a person standing fifteen feet from
the microphone spoke at a conversational level. The output obtained with
filter was noticeably greater. This conclusively confirmed the laboratory findings .
Previously, it was stated that narrow
vertical distribution could be a disadvantage. This was found to be true of one
particular theatre used for field test
work. Four straight line radiators were
needed for adequate coverage. Two were
directed under the balcony and two into
the balcony. As can · be seen, straight
line radiators must be mounted low, and
they do have the disadvantage of losing
sound level because of absorption by the
audience. This reduces available level in
JULY, 1961
the extreme rear of the room involved.
Since the verticle distribution of
sound provided by the stmight line radiator (or a conventional columnar
speaker) is quite restricted, more than
one column will be required to cover a
large theatre, church or any long room.
This is brought about both from the
standpoint of power requirements and
the fact that the speaker assemblies
must be positioned at various angles to
adequately cover the audience. These
problems can be greately reduc e d
through the use of a curved line radiator.
The Curved Line Radiation
diator can be seen in Fig. 6. Its placement is now higher than that permitted
by the straight-line type. When mounting in this manner, two factors become
important: (1) The distance from the
speaker to the microphone is increased.
This added distance along with low vertical intensity becomes more effective
in controlling feedback. (2) The added
height directs the sound to the entire
audience without loss due to absorbtion.
Tests made in one large theatre resulted in placement of two curved-line
radiators on the proscenium arch. The
center of the loudspeakers, directed at
the first balcony, covered the entire
theatre with excellent sound reenforcement. Two curved-line r adiators' · were
used in place of the four straight line
radiators. Five microphones were used in
the footlights of the stage. Stage coverage was excellent to its full depth, a distance of 30 f eet from the microphones.
With the arrangement shown in F ig. 6,
every seat was the "best seat in the
The "line radiator" is a sophisticated
and improved sound column which is
an invaluable tool for the sound t echnician which will provide excellent sound
if the following points are kept in mind
during installation:
1. To obtain the best possible performance from the system, the microphone(s)
must be located in low intensity areas
of the line mdiator polar distribution
2. The straight-line and curved-line
units must be mounted differently to obtain maximum coverage.
3. Movement of the line source vertically causes little change in direction of
sound, while a small horizontal movement is very noticeable.
4. The polar distribution of line r adiators tends to beam the sound vertically,
but have side coverage horizontally. They
are not "dead" off the sides and must
not be mounted in the same horizontal
plane as the microphone.
The curved line radiator" was developed to simplify sound installation
and increase realism of the performance.
One loudspeaker if this type will replace
two or more straight line radiators, yet
maintain the advantages mentioned
above. Maintenance of the low intensity
area in the vertical pattern of the
straight line radiator is the principal
factor in the control of acoustic feedback. This characteristic is maintained
even though the vertical angle of coverage is increased. To accomplish this, the
line radiator was formed into a concave
curve as shown in (A) of Fig. 5.
If these points are followed, instalIn this configuration, the radius of
the curvature is critical as is the dis- lations which have given borderline retance between the speakers within the sults and those which have been conline. Polar distribution in the horizontal sidered impossible may now give explane is · essentially the sanie as the cellent results with a minimum of cost,
straight line radiator. The polar distri- time, and labor.
bution in the vertical plane, however, is r-----~-----------"11
quite different as shown in (B) of Fig.
5. The angle of spread is at least twice
that of the straight line. Sound intensity
at 90 and 270 deg. is still quite low
when comp ared to intensities within the
angle of distribution. An even more
important characteristic is that the lobe
characteristic of the conventional columnar speaker is entirely eliminated.
The advantage of the curved line ra- .....F-i-9-. -6-.-Y-e-r-t-ic-a-'-d-i-s-tr-ib-u-t-i-o-n-o-f-cu-r-v-e-d-li"""ne
Electro-Voice Patents Pending
radiator in theatre.
Sub-Marine Sonies
A speaker with a 2-in. diaphragm, underwater, can produce sound
equal in quality to a good 12-in. speaker in free air. The reason for this
is the much higher acoustic resistance of water as compared with air.
of background music, hi-fi,
stereo, audio-visual teaching, and
aural work instructions, we are
literally surrounded by sound. And we
think of this sound almost exclusively as
vibrations of air. Let anyone mention
underwater sound, and most people's
thoughts turn to sonar, to sonic depth
finders, and the like. It may come as a
surprise that a field of application has
been steadily developing for underwater reproduction of voice and music.
Formation swimming and underwater
ballets are performed to music. The
music the audience hears cannot penetrate the water at all, and is unheard by
the performers. Special means must be
provided to enable them to hear the
music to which they must keep time. As
an example of the extent to which one
application has been standarized, the
Synchronized Swimming Rules of the
American Athletic Union of the U. S.
specifically state: "The organization
holding the competition is responsible
for-providing an underwater speaker."
Similarly, skin divers are cut off from
communication with the rest of the
world, except through visual signals and
such crude sonic means as tapping
metallic objects together. This makes
instruction particularly difficult and im-
* Manager of Engineering, University
Loudspeakers, White Plains, N. Y.
pedes efforts at group action. Here,
again, underwater sound restores the
vital missing link of aural transmission
of intelligence.
With the current increase in outdoor
living and the accompanying popularity
of swimming pools, there is also widespread use of "patio" speakers-weatherproof speakers to bring outdoors hi-fi
music and other program material.
Among these who like to take music with
them are swimmers. Normally, a coolplunge into the depths of a pool brings
virtual silence except for the swirl and
bubbling of the water. But today one's
reaction need no longer be "Who turned
off the music~" Music in the water is
becoming almost as common as music
in the air.
Now let us take a look at the underlying theory of sound reproduction in
1. Mass
2. Elasticity
3. Low internal friction or viscosity
A comparison of water with air in
respect to these properties is interesting.
Water has a density 780 times that of
air. Water decreases in volume one part
AIR: 22,006/0
WATER: 92,000/ 0
R .. water
= 780 x 4.2 = 3300
R .. air
Eq. (2)
To transmit sound, a medium must
have the following attributes:
R .. = pc
Eq. (1)
where p = density
and c = speed of sound
Sound in Water
WATER, 138,000 OHMS/ CM 2
in 20,000 per atmosphere of external
pressure. Air decreases in volume by
one-half when the normal pressure is
increased by one atmosphere. The velocity of sound is determined by these two
factors. In air it is 344 meters per second. In water, it is 1440 meters per second, or 4.2 times as great.
Considering the wide differences in
these properties between the two media,
it is not surprising to find that they also
differ in their specific acoustic resistance,
in the ratio of 3300 to 1. This is derived
from the data already given, since, for
plane waves, specific acoustic resistance:
Fig. 1. Variation of
acoustic resistance
with frequency
for both air and
It will be recalled that specific acoustic
resistance, multiplied by the area of a
vibrating surface is the mechanical resistance, RMA, which is a measure of the
power transferred to the medium for a
given velocity v .
PA =RMA.· V·
Eq. (3)
Radiating surfaces whose dimensions
are large compared to a wavelength produce plane waves, and the power radiated is easily calculated from Eq. (3).
As the source decreases in size, the
wave tends to become spherical; as a
result of its divergence, the value of RM ..
decreases as the square of the frequency
(inversely as the square of the wavelength), for radiation from a piston in
an infinite baffle. The variation of R ..
with frequency is shown in Fig. 1 for
both air and water.
Calculations on Underwater Speakers
Since the value of R .. is so large, compared to air, it should be possible to use
a fairly small radiating area in an underwater speaker. For a 2-inch (5-cm) diaphragm, the transition point, II} or the
"bend" in the radiation resistance curve,
occurs at 18,600 cps. This means that,
over the useful r ange, operation will
take place on the sloping portion of the
curve. This means that the speaker must
be mass-controlled, that is, resonance
JULY, 1961
40 50
10, 000
20, 000
Fig. 2. The high value of the mass load pushes the primary resonance down to
155 cps.
must occur at the lower end of the frequency range.
Practical considerations dictate that
the speaker be enclosed in a compact
housing. Consequently, it will radiate
into a full sphere--4Jt steradians. For
full spherical radiation:
1t CO. P D4
= ----:---
Eq. (4)
where co = 21t1
p = density of water
D = diameter of piston
c =speed of sound in water
This equation of the straight, sloping
portion of the curve in Fig. 1.
In simplified form:
R .IA = 2.15 f' D4 x 10-4 Eq. (5)
For a 2-in. (5-cm) diameter diaphragm
at 1000 cps
RJI.< = 13}450 mechanical ohms
In air, the same piston would have a
radiation resistance of only 88 ohms at
1000 cps. The comparison would lead
one to think that a great deal more efficiency could be obtained in water than
in air. There is, of course, a difficulty.
In either medium, a certain mass of
the medium itself moves as .if it were
attached to the diaphragm. This "mass
load" creates a mismatch of impedances
between the piston and the medium. In
water, as can r eadily be believed, the
mass load is very great. Quantitatively:
where D
Eq. (6)
of the diaphragm,
M A = mass in grams
For the 5-cm diaphragm we have been
considering, M A= 63 grams. This is many
times the mass of the voice coil and diaphragm taken together. At 1000 cps the
r eactance of the mass load
MA = 26}900 ohms
which is double the radiation resistance.
For an efficient magnetic structure
with a flux density in the gap of about
13,000 gauss, the efficiency comes out
something under 2 per cent. This is
quite comparable to the efficiency of a
high-quality 12-inch speaker used in air.
The high value of mass load is helpful in one respect: it pushes the primary
resonance of the 2-in. diaphragm down
to 155 cps (Fig . 2) providing good bass
reproduction. As for the high end, a 2in. rigid piston in water should radi~te
well up to 11 (Fig. 1) which we already
calculated as 18,600 cps. Weare quite
justified in calling this a hi-fi speaker.
Directivity and sound distribution are
determined, first, by the fact that the
diaphragm diameter is small compared
to a wavelength even at the highest
frequencies of interest, and by the
"closed-box" effect of a swimming pool.
The second point requires some explanation.
When a sound wave travels from one
medium to the other, the amount of reflection is determined by the ratio of the
"characteristic impedances" of the two
media. The values of interest are as follows:
Specific Acoust.ic Resistance (mechanical
ohms/ em")
Brick, Rock, Concrete,
Tile, Marble
These figures tell us that a sound
wave in water will be reflected at least
80 per cent when encountering a wall,
and, surphisingly, that the reflection at
the water-air interface is over 99.9 per
cent. The result is that the pool acts
like an exceedingly live room in which
reverberation is high. This ' distributes
the sound quite uniformly throughout
the water and greatly increases the
average sound-pressure level.
Construction of the Speaker
33/ 8 (APPROX.)
Fig . 3. Cross section of University MM-2FUW underwater speaker.
JULY, 1961
For a direct radiator of 2-in. diameter,
a domed diaphragm offers advantages
in rigidity and ease of fabrication. Such
a diaphragm is integral with its supporting surround, that is, the entire assembly
is molded in one piece, which facilitates
design of a watertight assembly. Diaphragms of this type are used in public
provided for grounding the case of the
speaker. The entire section containing
the terminals is coated with waterproofing compound.
An interesting feature of the design
is its simplicity. Sufficient rigidity is
incorporated into the diaphragm assembly to enable it to withstand the pressUl'e of several feet of water without
any complicated pressure-compensating
means, and a simple and r eliable device
is used to insure that the coil is properly
centered axially in the magnetic field,
with the modest variations in water
pressure encountered in various applications.
Use of the Underwater Speaker
mel'. Preferred operating depth is 2
It will be necessary for the user to
make a mounting ring for the "built-in"
typ e of sp eaker, since there is no standardization in the size of wet niches in
swimming pools. This adapter may be
made of marine plywood 01' cut from
sheet aluminum 1/32-in. to 1/16-in.
thick, 2S 01' 3S alloy, 1f2 H to H hardness. The inner diameter of the mounting ring is 6-in., and the wet niches must
be sufficiently large so that screws to
mount the ring do not interfere with
those which mount the speaker. Stainless steel, aluminum, or zinc-coated
steel bolts may be used, but not brass.
It is also desirable that there be enough
space in the niche to accommodate a
sufficient length of cable, coiled neatly
in the niche behind the speaker, to p ermit removal of the unit from the water
in the event that servicing should be
required, without the necessity of drawing the cable down through the conduit,
re-installing it after r epairs are completed, and so on.
The speaker for ah'eady constructed
pools may be mOlmted to the side of
the pool by means of the integral adjustable bracket. The exact hardware
required to do this is selected by the
user, but will usually take the form of
wood screws, which are driven into rawl
plugs inserted into holes in the concrete
made with a masonry drill. It should not
be mounted in a location where it might
be used as a step .
An easy alternative to the above
method of mounting involves the use
of a special adapter such as the University SPA Adapter. The adapter is substituted for the triangular base that
comes with the speaker, and screwed to
the end of a V2-in. threaded IPS pipe.
This pipe may be cut to the desired
length, bent, and hung over the edge of
the pool or drainage gutter.
The case of the speaker should be
grounded to a grounding lug in a junction box, if one is involved in the installation, or some other earth ground.
The frequency range of the J\lLM-2UW
is 100-10,000 cps, its impedance is 16
ohms, and it will handle 30 watts of integrated program material lmder water.
It distributes sound almost uniformly
address as well as hi-fi compression
throughout the pool in which it is used,
driver units for use with horns, and are
although for larger pools, or for cases
lllOSt often made of phenolic-impregsuch as swimming instruction classes in
nated cloth, 01' of aluminum alloy. The
which there is a high level of turbulence
latter is much too delicate and subject
in the water, several units should be
to corrosion to be used in continuous
used. Not only will the noise level in the
contact with water. One would expect the
water be more effectively overcome, but
phenolic type to be ideal for this appli- ,
each speaker can be operated at a lower
catIOn, since it is used in weather-resistlevel, avoiding excessive sound intensi~nt, ou~door speakers. Unfortunately,
ties in the immediate vicinity of the
It was dIscovered that impregnated cloth
units. F or example, two speakers would
practically dissolves after prolonged imbe recommended for a pool 30 x 60 feet ;
4 units would be recommended for the
~fter a long period of experiment, a
sUItable material named "Unilar" was same pool if it is expected that there
will be a good deal of turbulence or
developed for the application. It is
noise in the water.
tough, completely impervious to water
Underwater speakers come in two
and eapable of bemg molded to shape.
types: those primarily designed for inTo the last property should be added
stallation in a "wet niche" light box, in
the words "if you know how." It was
pools which are being planned or which
only after a period of intensive developare now under construction, or which
ment at University Loudsp eakers that
a satisfactory method was worked out already have wet niches of the size r efor molding the "Unilar" diaphragm. quired, as well as associated conduits
Underwater speakers usinO' these molded and watertight flush junction boxes in
diaphragms have been in ~roduction for the deck surfaces near the pool area j
and for existing pools which do not have
some time an d a great deal of field experience has indicated completely satis- these fa cilities. The Model MM-2UW is
factory preformance. A cross section of recommended for the latter type of inthe center assembly of model MM-2FUW stallation and- MM-2FUW for the fori8 show~ in Fig. 3 and a photograph of
the entIre speaker is shown in Fig . 4,
The University underwater speaker is
c?nst1'u~ted ess~ntially like a compresSIOn dnver unIt as far as mechanical
~s~em~ly is concerned. The diaphragm
IS m dIrect contact with the water on its
convex front face and is mechanically Fig. 5 . Response of
protected by a perforated stainless steel MM-2FUW speaker
grille. The back of the diaphragm has
in tank.
- 10
access to an air chamber which is her-20
~etically sealed by the watertight housmg. The enclosure is of the so-called
"infinite baffle" type. The connections to
the ~oice coil are brought through the
housmg by means of watertight terminals which have waterproof cables sol"
dered on the outside. A third lead is
Fig . 4. University model MM-2FUW underwater speaker.
JULY, 1961
A Synchronous Oscillator
FM-Stereo Adapter
This FM-stereo adapter is designed to convert most existing FM tuners
to stereo: All that is required is O.5-volt output at the FM detector. -'l!/f(j'-' I f'!
- I.
' 1· 1 f
ow l'HAT THE Federal Communications Commission hak approved a
system for stereophonic FM broadcasting, Crosby Electronics Inc. (a subsidiary of Crosby Teletronics Corporation-one of the initial proposers of
FM multiplex) set about to fill the many
requests from dealers and consumers
for a medium priced, reliable adapter
for FM-stereo. The result of this work
is the Crosby Model MX-101 (see F(g.
1). Measuring only 5% x 4V2 x 9-in.,
the Model MX-101 is a universal
fldapter, in that it will decode stereo
when connected with any tuner or receiver which provides at least 0.5-volt
total output from the multiplex output
jack of the particular receiver with
which it is to be used when total devia-
* 17ice-P1'esident, Crosby Elect1'onics, 135
Eileen Way, Syosset, N. Y.
Fig . 2. Block diagram of the MX-1 01.
tion at the transmitter occurs. This criterion renders virtually all tuners usable
with the MX-101 although there are
some tuners which have outputs lower
than 0.5 volt and therefore will not provide sufficient 19,000 cps pilot carrier to
insure "lock in" of the local oscillator.
.,X- IOI
Fig. 1. Crosby MX-1 01 FM-stereo adapter.
JULY, 1961
Circuit Block Diagram (Fig . 2)
The entire signal recovered from the
multiplex output jack of the existing
tuner or receiver is first fed to a stage
of amplification. Approximately 10 db
of over-all amplification is provided in
this stage. The amplified composite signal is then utilized in three distinct
fashions. The upper block consisting of
a low-pass (23,000 cps cut-off) filter removes everything from the composite
signal but the pre-emphasized L + R
(monophonic) signal. This signal will
be used subsequently for matrixing with
the r ecovered L-R signal.
The center block, consists of a bandpass filter which p asses frequencies
from 23,000-53,000 cps. These are the
signal elements which contain the L-R
information in the form of cal'l'ier suppressed, double sidebands. For example,
a 1000 cps L-R tone would be r epresented in the composite signal by two
sidebands, 37,00Q and 39,000 cps, the
38,000 cps sub carrier having been suppressed from the normal AM waveform.
The first lower block consists of a
19,000 cps pilot-carrier amplifier. It will
be recalled that this pilot carrier, as
prescribed in the approved system, can
have a maximum amplitude of only 10
per cent of full modulation of the main
carrier. As was noted above, a tuner
having an output of 0.5 volt for fnll
modulation would produce only 0.05
volts of 19,000-cps pilot carrier and
even this low voltage would only be
present under conditions of full limiting in the tuner or receiver. Thus, even
lower tuner outputs may be expected in
practice. For this reason, the pilot signal must be further amplified. It is this
amplified signal which is used to synchronize the normally free-running 19,000 cps local oscillator which is shown
as the next block in this lower chain.
Much thought has been given to the
importance of stability in this local oscillator. For example, let us consider an
oscillator with 0.02 per cent stability.
Well, 0.02 per cent stability of a 19,000
cps oscillator represents 3.8 cycles of
-drift under free-running conditions. The
FCC, in its report, indicates that 3 deg.
of shift is all that can be tolerated between the transmitted pilot and the 19,{JOO cps generated in the receiver itself.
Three degrees represents 1/120 of one
cycle. Obviously, such oscillator stability
could only be achieved if a crystal oseillator (probably oven controlled) were
used in home adapters. The economics
of the situation preclude such refinements. Thus, it is not so much oscillator
stability that is important here, as the
ability of the pilot carrier to effectively
lock the local oscillator to its own frequency and phase. For this reason, emphasis has been placed on adequate amplification of the 19,000 cps pilot.
The properly phased and "locked"
oscillator output is then passed through
a doubler stage, which results in a
38,000 cps output in every sense the
equal of the carrier originally suppressed at the transmitter. (This carrier
was dubbed an "exalted carrier" many
years ago by Mr. MUlTay Crosby.) The
calTier is reinserted (by passive mixing)
to the related sidebands and the conventional and familiar AM envelope
may be readily observed at point "A"
in the block diagram.
To recover the L-R content of the signal, we need merely use a conventional
AM detecting diode. Since both (L-R)
and - (L-R) will be required for algebraic matrixing, however, two such
diodes are actually used, connected in
opposite polarities.
The L + R signal (which has been
waiting patiently all this time) is now
added to (L-R) to produce 2L and to
- (L-R) to produce 2R. Because the signal derived from the tuner has as yet
not been de-emphasized, it is necessary
to pass the resultant Land R signals
through conventional 75 microsecond deemphasis networks, to restore COlTect
frequency response.
It has been universally recognized
that while the monophonic listener receives a non-degraded signal-to-noise
ratio even when stereo transmission is
in progress, the stereo listener will not
be so fortunate. Estimates of signal-tonoise degradation for the stereo listener
have been made by knowledgeable engineers at anywhere from 13 to 20 db for
a given signal strength. This means that
what was a 40 db signal-to-noise ratiofor a given condition (and therefore
quite tolerable) may now result in a 20db signal-to-noise ratio when stereo is
broadcast (recognized by one and all asquite intolerable). Of course, antenna
installation improvement may well pro- vide part of the answer. Unfortunately,..
most FM set owners are conditioned to
the idea that a "hank of wire" loosely '
thrown around the living room baseboard is all that is required in the wayof an antenna for FM reception. This ,
simply won't do for stereo. Recognizing'
that we can't change everyone's thinking overnight, we have therefore in- corporated a "noise filter" at the output of each channel which should help tocut down "hiss" in noisy areas. Caution:'
It will also cut down highs-in much thesame way that the "record scratch filter''''
on your amplifier does. It is Oul· feel-,
ing, however, that stereo without hissand with some sacrifice of high-frequency response is still better than
stereo steeped in background noise. I f
noise had been what we wanted we
could have been content with the AMFM simulcasts which we hope are seeing
their last days!
The block diagram then shows a pair
of cathode follower outputs, to enable
long cable lengths between adapter and
VI (A)
• r~f
.OOI .,F
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the MX-1 01.
JULY, 1961
amplifier with no sacrifice of highs and
no increase in hum.
Circuit Diagram of the MX-l0l
A complete circuit diagram of the
Model MX-101 is shown in Fig. 3. The
reader is cautioned that certain elements of this circuit are covered by
patent and may not be utilized for commercial purposes without a licensing
There are several points of interest
which can be seen by referring to this
schematic. One section of a 12AU7 is
used as the first amplifier of the composite signal. The other half of this
12AU7 is used as the pilot carrier amplifier. It will be noted that tuned circuits are not used in this second stage.
These were not necessary for two reasons. First, the value of coupling capacitors chosen (0.001 pi to the grid, 0.002
pi from plate to oscillator tank circuit)
are sufficiently small as compared with
their terminating impedances as to attenuate main channel (30 cps to 15,000
cps) frequencies. Secondly, both these
groups of frequencies and those associated with the L-R channel (23,000 to
53,000 cps) are sufficiently removed in
frequency from the 19,000 cps oscillator
as to cause no pulling effect on the oscillator itself. Had straight amplification of the 19,000 cps signal been used
in lieu of a local oscillator, the amplifying circuits would all require high-Q
tuned circuits throughout, to prevent
possible doubling of the higher audio
frequencies and their subsequent interference in the "exalted carrier injection"
The oscillator itself is a conventional
Hartley type, in which the synchronizing signal is applied at a centertap on
the coil of the tank circuit. Approximately 6-8 volts (of 19,000 cps) can be
measured at the top of the tank circuit
and, as a consequence, 10 volts or more
of d.c. bias will be measured at the grid
of the 6C4. It is operation at this nonlinear point of the 6C4's dynamic curves
that results in substantial doubling in
the tank circuit in the plate of the 6C4
which is, of course, tuned to 38,000 cps:
Observation of the waveform at pin 5
o~ the 6C4 by means of an oscilloscope
will show sine-wave trains in which the
first cycle is somewhat greater in amplitude than the second, with the third
cycle larger again, the fourth smaller
etc. This indicates that the signal, although predominantly 38,0000 cps, does
contain a small amount of residual 19 000 cps signal as well. The presence ~f
this residual 19,000 cps signal in no way
affects the performance of the signal as
a carrier suitable for reinserting into
the (L-R) sidebands. A .005 pi capacitor serves to couple the sub carrier to
the junction point of the two detecting
JULY, 1961
diodes, at which point all the sidebands
are also present. The choice of correct
amount of sub carrier for injection at
this point was perhaps the most difficult
decision which had to be made in the
design of the MX-101.
On the one hand, approximately 30
per cent modulation of the total envelope would lend itself to the most distortion-free AM detection and audio recovery. On the other hand, it is desirable
to recover as much audio as possible in
one fell swoop, so that no further audio
amplification would be required and so
that best signal-to-hum performance
might be obtained. To complicate the
situation further, there is absolutely no
consistency from tuner to tuner as to
the amplitude of sub carrier sidebands
that might be obtained (since this factor
is governed strictly by the design of the
given tuner) as compared with available 38,000 cps carrier (which is governed purely by the adapter itself).
It was decided, after a survey of
many existing tuners, that from 3 to 4
volts of 38,000 cps carrier should be
made available at the "insertion point"
(junction of diode detectors). The reasoning was as follows: Most tuners produce approximately 1 volt output at
their detector outputs under conditions
of 100 per cent deviation (75,000 cps).
As has been stated, the first amplifier
stag'e has an over-all gain of about 10
db, so that approximately 3 volts would
be obtained at the plate of the 12AU7.
This signal is divided by the two plate
resistors (10,000 and 33,000 ohms) by
about 3 db and then another 6 db of attenuation is provided by the action of
the filter termination (10,000 ohms) at
the junction of the diodes, so that approximately 1 volt is again present at
the junction of the diodes, for conditions
of maximum modulation. Therefore, 1
volt of AM on 3 to 4 volts of the 38,000
cps reinjected sub carrier results in an
AM envelope which is just about ideal
for best detection by the diodes. However, even double the output of L-R
sub carrier components from some particular tuner would result in less than
50 per cent AM of the total envelope
and would still not produce inordinate
distortion figures upon detection of the
waveform. Conversely, a tuner having
only 0.5 volts of output for 100 pel' cent
modulation would produce an AM envelope of nearly 20 per cent and would
result in recovered audio somewhat
lower than in the foregoing case, but
certainly adequate in terms of the sig.·
nal-to-hum capability of the adapter.
Following the L + R channel (upper
part of the schematic), it will be noted
that a 50,000-ohm potentiometer determines exactly the right amount of
L + R to be matrixed with (L-R) and
- (L-R) signals available from the
1N541 detectors. This control, normally
factory adjusted, is important for still
another reason. While the FCC permits·
equal modulation of both the main and
sub channels, it is quite possible that·
individual stations may wish to vary
that formula at the beginning. L-R in,
average musical . programming is in-·
variably less in amplitude than L + R.
Thus, to take advantage of as much
signal-to-noise capability as possible, a
station may wish to transmit (L-R) at
slightly higher relative amplitude than
L + R. The station can do this without
deviating from FCC specification, since
(L-R) normally is lower in amplitude
than L + R just by virtue of the nature
of most stereo programming. Should a
station arbitrarily elect to take advantage of this situation, it will be necessary to readjust the relationship between
L + Rand L-R at the receiving end for
optimum stereo separation. The converse
may be true at first, as well. Some stations may, because of present equipment limitations, be forced to attenuate
the L-R component with respect to the
L + R component simply because their
sub carrier equipment is not presently
capable of 90 per cent modulation of
the main carrier. In this case too the
L + R to L-R relationship may well have
to be readjusted for best stereo separation.
At first glance, the "dimension" control may appear to be a repetition of
the control just discussed. It actually
differs in two ways. First, it is a front
panel control, accessible to the user. As
such, it can be used to "touch up" separation, increasing or decreasing the
separation effect at will. For the perfectionist, however, it serves still another function. You will recall that deemphasis takes place after matrixing in
this particular design, and that this deemphasis should be 75 microseconds for
both L + Rand L-R. For the L-R segment, this de-emphasis network consists
of 22,000 ohms (nearest the diode) in
series with 50,000 ohms (one-half of the
100,000-ohm dimension potentiometer) r
followed by a 1000 p.pi capacitor to
ground. This represents 72,000 .ohms
and 1000 p.pi or 72p.s. (Actually, some
stray wiring capacity contributes the
additional few microseconds required.)
In the case of the L + R channel, the deemphasis network is made up of a 22,OOO-ohm resistor (closest to the 70 mh
low-pass filter) and the other half of
the 100,000-ohm dimension potentiometer followed by the same 1000 p.pi capacitor for a total of 72 microseconds.
Now, while the capacitor used in this
network is common to both L+R and
L-R, the resistive component is not.
Had fixed 75,000-ohm resistors been
used, instead of potentiometer-pIus-resistor combinations, even five per cent
resistors might result in a maximum of
(Continued on page 62)
More About Recording
Modern recording and rerecording techniques permit achieving perspectives
which place the listener in two or more places at once. In these cases the recording is no longer an attempt to recreate a live performance in the home.
HEN . YOU ~IT DOWN to listen to
your favorite r ecord or t ape in
the quiet of yOill' own home, do you
ever consciously evaluate your list ening
p osition in terms of sound from the r ecording itselH Does it sound like you
are close to or far from the performance ~
Ar e you listening from within the orchestra p it or are you seated in the last
seat in the top-left bal cony~ Does it
sound like you ar e in a huge concert hall
arbitrarily, as the "recording perspective."
While we have already discussed, in
general terms, certain limited aspects
of the recorded perspective, it is in
order that we fUl'ther investigate this
subject because of the increasing influence that it may have upon recorded
material. Previously, for the purpose
of standardized discussion, we defined
"recording perspective" as those im-
Fig. 1. Ma x imum
(A ) and minimum
( B) perspectives
poss ibl e w ith single microphone recording .
or in a small room ~ I s the dr um a deep
mellow sounding "boom" or do you hear
the "ping" of the tightly stretch ed skin
before and after imp act ~
Why, exactly, is this recording yOill'
f avorite choice 'I I s it because of the
musical content alone or does the r ecor ded presentation of the material influence your decision ~
It is obvious that a specific performance can be recorded in many different
ways, each of which can sound markedly
different from any other. This difference
in presentation has been · ref erred to,
"57·7 East Avery S t., S an Bernardino,
pressions received, dUl'ing tape p layback,
of: (1) size of the recOl'ding hall, (2 )
distance from the SOUl'ce, and (3) dynamic range--when divorced from additional playback acoustics (i.e. headset
listening) . It was also stated that all
possible perspectives were included between the physical limits of the orchestra
center to the f urthermost point in the
concert hall. While this is quite true for
live listening and served the purpose for
simple analysis, actual recording practices r eveal that many more perspectives
are possible. The item of interest her e
being that in addition to duplicating
perspectives as they actually exist it is
possible to C1'eate new perspectives that
have no counterpart in actuality. This
last statement warrants repetition in
different terminology : there may be no
location in the recording hall where you
can lis ten to the performance and hear
what you heard during the tape playback. The p urist might object to a recorded program pres en ted in a perspective that cann ot exist in a natural live
environment but usually he is not even
aware of the insult to his "pure" ears.
Let us take a look at the possibilities
available to the individual about to make
a tape recor ding. F r om a strictly practical standpoint, the number of perspectives obtainable is a f unction of the
amount of equipment available and so
the recording p rocess itself may be
broken down, initially, into two general
(1 ) That process which provides a
finished tape at the conclusion of the
recording session.
(2) That process which later combines
or supplements the material recorded
during the recording session.
Usually the amateur recordist operates in the realm of the firs t category and
professional recordings are made in the
second category.
Looking at the recording operation in
the first category, the number of perspectives obtainable is again f urther
limited by the number of microphones
available. Using a single microphone,
the closest p lacement will be that minimum distance that will allow a balance
of all instr uments to be attained while
the farthest microphone p lacement will
be that distance at which excessive reverberation OCCUl'S (see Fig. 1). The distance between these two points r epresents the amount of latitude available
to the recordist for obtaining a difference in perspectives. This small distance
will vary according to the microphone,
the hall, and the size and level of the
source. W hen recording a large orchestra
in a large, live hall with an omnidirectional micr oph9ne, these two points may
overlap dep ending upon what the r ecor dist considers to be excessive rever-
JULY, 1961
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Designed for indoor-outdoor use, the
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beration (see Fig. 2). It is ()bvio~ that material that has been prevIously rethe proximity effect (presence)· must· be ' ~ cordefl:;= '-.- ,.' ... 1: ......
compromised to achieve balance with
The major difference in this type of
large groups. It is also obvious that the operation is that additional mixing and
recordist is at the mercy of the hall rerecording may take place after the
acoustics with respect to reverberation. original recording is made. In addition
Some reduction in reverberation can be to being able to add uncolored reverrealized from front placement employ- beration as desired (intensity, decay
ing a cardioid microphone, but where time, or slope) ele.ctronically or acous-overhead placement is dictated and an tically, through rerecording the flexibil'Omnidirectional mike must be used, no ity of multiple track recording is avail·control exists over reverberation with- able. This allows mixing of the indi'Out adversely affecting balance and vidual tracks in the proportions (or
::proximity effect. This type of recording directions, for stereo) desired as well
represents the most limited range of as allowing reverberation effects on in'perspectives and the final perspective is dividual tracks without affecting the
:not so much chosen as dictated by the content of the other tracks.
The possibilities are many as in,size of the group to be recorded and the
'environment (size and liveness) in which dicated by the following examples: A
the recording is to be made.
common use of separate track reverb eraUsing two microphones allows much tion prior to mixing and rerecording is
more latitude in that the choice of mike that associated with the recording of
placement distances increases. It is pos- vocalists. With the voice of the vocalist
:sible to get closer while still maintain- recorded on a separate track it is pos-ing balance, and it is also possible to sible to add reverberation to this track
'l'educe or increase the recorded rever- without affecting the perspective of the
neration by this same amount of in- accompanying background music on
-creased allowable microphone movement. other tracks. Or, conversely, allow a
Multiple miking further increases the close-mike technique with the singer's
voice while adding reverberation to a
:ability to control balance, proximit~
.effect, and reverberation independentl'!)
.and it is here that it becomes possible
-to create perspectives that do not exist
-in actuality. Close mike techniques may
;'be employed utilizing as many micro;phones as desired and mixing all inputs
'p rior to the recorder-with ultimate
'balance at the discretion of the mixer Fig . 2 . Recording a
.operator. It is obvious that the balance large orchestra in
-does not have to be in the same propor- a large, live hall
Jtion as originally performed and instru- with an omnidirec·ments with very little carrying power tional microphone
forces compromise
·can be raised to dominant solo level if with proximity ef-desired. Reverberation can be increased fect to achieve
by utilizing additional microphones
[placed at increasing distances from the
,source, and, of course, !it is possible to
!have a very close perspective while still
·maintaining amOlmts of reverberation
>normally associated with a distant listenling position.
While almost any type or recording
·can be made with an abundance of background chorus on other tracks. One
microphones and mixing facilities, it recording company actually does both
lmust be remembered that the natural with a vocalist during each recording;
Teverberation of the 'h all is used in vary- the vocal track exhibits a close-mike
iing intensities ;Drom various positions, technique through part of the record,
.and that existing 'resonances, peaks, and and an extreme reverberation effect (ap.dips caused by ~loca:l fOCUSing points and proaching echo) on the chorus parts .
Stereo has made possible the technique
lhall shape may 'be 'l'ecorded a'lso.
alternating channels with the same
It would, therefore, be advantageous
ltO record in surroundings that -are free material. Another form of additive rerecording familiar to most people is
:from resonances ·and, .in fact free from
the well known sound-on-sound tech.excessive reverberation and -then, after
:the recording ,is completed, add the reNow, for a few examples of what
\verberation as desired. 'Such an ap- would be required in the way of live
'proach is practiced ,in studio recording performance listening in order to dupli:and leads us into the -second category- cate some of the perspectives that are
·that of combining ,or -su,pplementing the normally used in tape recording. To ob-
tain .the effect of a singer that has been
recorcre-d ' with" a clo'se-mike technique
and reverberation added later, you
would have to be two people: one very
close to the singer for the proximity
effect, and one much farther away (or
in another room) to receive the reflected
sound for the reverberation effect.
Neither position alone would give you
the recorded result. For the perspective
obtained from the close-miking of a
large orchestra, you would be required
to place an ear about a foot away from
each of several different locations (depending upon the number and level of
mikes used) simultaneously and, if reverberation were then added to this recording, you would again be required to
be simultaneously in another location
much farther removed from the source.
If the recording session took place in a
relatively small and well-damped studio,
there might be no location in the room
where you would be able to hear the
large amount of reverberation which
Was added electronically.
Of course, to duplicate the perspective of a single vocalist who has performed two or more parts (melody and
harmony) by sound-on-sound methods,
t .•_
a live pe,r formance would require the
services of a singer with more than one
These examples of some perspectives
which cannot occur at a live performance, are not given to prove that the
methods are bad or good. They merely
show what is being done, and what can
be done in the way of obtaining and
creating recorded perspectives.
A good engineer, when provided with
the necessary equipment, is capable of
providing almost any kind of perspective required. The difficulty of this particular problem is that very few people
are capable of defining, in standard
terminology, the impressions which they
wish to receive upon tape playback. 1£.
JULY, 1961
The Altec 250SU Stereo Console was developed
and operating well before FCC made FM Stereo
a reality. Today, many 250SU Consoles successfully serve stereo and monophonic operations in
AM, FM, TV, and Recording Studios.
If you are converting to Multiplex Stereo, let
the testimony of time help you select your new
stereo console. It's a good way to know that the
"bugs" are out . .. a good way to know that every
important feature and convenience has been
added. A few are listed below.
-------------------------------------------_ ..... _-----------• MINIATURE PLUG-IN COMPONENTS : Preamplifiers, ~ mplifiers , and utility
input devices are of the same size to readily fit the built-in pre-wired mounting trays on the Console. These units are also available separately for special
• INPUT LEVEL SELECTION : The 250SU has ten input positions, each with a
"bus" switch and mixer attenuator. Any of these positions may be used for
high level, low level, or any combination of sources by plug-in of proper Altec
input device.
.• SELECTABLE OUTPUT FUNCTIONS : The Console comes wired for universal
service with single channel, dual channel, or two/ three channel operation. The
desired functions are obtained by using the necessary number of Altec plug-in
• HIGHEST STUDIO QUALITY: 250SU performance exceeds FCC, NAB , EIA,
and all recording standards. Plug-in components are tube operated for optimum
studio quality and greatest dynamic range at lowest noise levels. The premium
tubes used are pre-aged and may be tested individually by push-button facilities.
• 1, 2, OR 2-3 CHANNEL
For Precise Balance of Stereo Pick-Up .. ,
Each Altec 6.84A Omnidirectional Studio Dynamic matches
the performance of any other 684A Microphone. This match
in performance is also inherent in Altec 685A Studio Car.dioids. Hence., any pair of 684A or 685A Microphones pro-
vides the balance essential for stereophonic operation. An
individual certified calibration curve is supplied, free of charge.
with each 684A and 685A Microphone as concrete visual proof
of this remarkable balance!
Other Altec Microphones are priced
from $36.00 to $334.00. Ask about
the exclusive Altec Microphone
Exchange Policy that permits immediate replacement of inoperative
units at a fraction of original cost.
$96.00 net
I Features uniform frequency response from 35 to 20 ,000
. cycles. Incorporates new Altec " Golden Diaphragm" and
. exclusive sintered bronze filter that bars entry of iron
dust and foreign matter. Output impedance s of 30/ 50,
150/ 250 ohms selectable .at cable plug.
Offers flat frontal response from 40 to 16,000 cycles with
average front-to-back discrimination of 20 db. Incorporates
new Altec "Golden Diaphragm" and exclusive sintered
bronze filter. Impedances of 30/ 50, 150/ 250 ohms selectable at cable plug.
For complete specifications
and t echnical details on the
AZtec 250SU Stereo Console
and match ed AZtec Microphon es. call your nearest
AZtec Distributor (listed in
your Yellow Pages) or write
A Subsidiary of Ling-Temco Electronics, Inc .
To Phase Or Not To Phase?
I I I ~'
To phase, or not to phase? That is the question faced by any audiofan in the process of setting up a
stereo system . Whether it is better to ignore an out-of-phase system, or to undergo the agony of attempting to determine proper phasing by listening tests is a problem of stereophony that requires discussion and clarification.
with the techniques of stereo sound
r eproduction has heard lip-service
paid to the importance of proper system
phasing1. The idea is to have all speaker
cones moving in the same direction at
the same time when the system is reproducing a monophonic signal. If, for
example, the speakers are out of phase;
the left speaker cone may be moving
away from you, at the same instant that
the right speaker cone is moving toward
you. The effect of out-of-phase operation
of a stereo system has been called variously: "inconsequential", a "large hole
in the middle", and a "complete collapse of the stereo curtain of sound."
In the author's eight-year acquaintance
with the vagaries of stereophonic reproduction, it has been found that the
effects of improper speaker phasing do
in truth vary from inconsequential, to a
general destruction of the stereophonic
phantom center-channel techniques will
be much degraded if playback channels
are not properly phased. Similarly, it
is very important that proper phasing
be maintained in recordings where only
two or three microphones are used for
the stereo pickup. In many popular
music recordings, however, as many as
fifteen or twenty microphones have been
used. The phase relationships of the
sounds captured by these recording
methods are generally so confused that
it matters little whether playback equipment is properly phased or not.
(2) The size and acoustics of the
listening 1'00m, and positions of the loudspealce1's ancl the listeners within the
1·00m. In certain rooms, when the listener's position is away from the stereo
center axis (see Fig. 1), the out-of-phase
mode sometimes sounds better than the
in-phase mode.
(3) The cleg1'ee of auml acuity and
curtain of sound. Factors governing the
severity, and even the very noticeability
of these effects, are :
(1 ) T he nature of the 1·ec01·ding. A
widely separated two-channel stereo recording of the "ping-pong" variety loses
very little by out-of-phase reproduction.
It is quite impossible to detect a 180degree phase reversal with many of the
ultra-widely separated recordings being
released currently. By contrast, a stereo
playback of a recording made with
* '7 528 Watson St., P hiladelphia, Pa.
'Some authorities, notably Paul Klipsch,
refer to "polarity" rather than "phase" in
this context. Mr. Klipsch's terminology is
technically correct, but for the purpose of
this article we will adhere to the more pop·
ular usage.
- -0---
Fig . 1. Three typ ical ste re o s e tups .
Dotted line indi ca tes ste reo ce nter
a x is. "X" indica tes
approxi mate position of li stener.
" Y" indi c a te s apparent posi t ion o f
pha ntom mono phonic sourc e
wh e n sys te m i s
prop e rly pha s ed
and balanced .
pe1'ception of individual listene·r . E. T.
Canby has suggested, and the author's
personal experience seems to confirm,
that listeners sensitivity to phasing varies
considerably from person-to-person, and
within any given individual over a
period of time. At certain times, attempts
to determine proper phasing of two
stereo channels for a given recording
can be absolutely frustrating, especially
if the listener is fatigued. After a night's
rest, and with all other conditions held
the same; the same listener has no
trouble in determining proper phasing.
The novice stereofan soon learns that
determination of proper phasing by
listening tests is not always as easy as
equipment instruction manuals and pop-
ular articles imply. It is likely that more
than one of us has been driven to distraction by attempting to follow the inadequate approach and sketchy instructions offered in these manuals and
The following excerpt from a stereo
amplifier instruction manual is better
than most, but still somewhat misleading
to the novice. " To check for proper phasing, playa monophonic recording so that
one signal comes from both channels.
Then move back and forth between the
speakers. If the phasing is not correct,
it can be rectified by interchanging the
leads between one of the amplifier channels and its associated speaker. There
should be no need to change the phasing
once the system is set u p properly."
Fortunately, these instructions advise
the use of a monophonic sound source.
A few instruction books blithely ignore
this fundamental necessity, and one or
two make no mention of phasing whatsoever.
Let us suppose that we are novice
audiofans in the process of checking our
newly installed stereo system. The implication of the foregoing instructions
is that by merely walking back and
forth between our stereo speakers we
will readily be able to discern whether
they are working in phase. In actual
practice, the chances of being able to do
this seem to be poorer than fifty-fifty .
Being novices, we are not sure whether
the sounds we hear emanating from our
speakers are in phase, or not. We decide
that we had better reverse the leads to
one speaker just for comparison sake.
We know that it is unwise to operate
a power amplifier without its output
load, so we carefully shut off the a.c.
power before crawling behind our loudspeaker to reverse leads.
Two minutes later , if we are lucky;
we are once more parading between our
speakers and listening for some dramatic change in the quality of the sound.
The only trouble is that we have already
forgotten how things sounded before,
and there is no obviously discernible
difference in the sound. Now is the time
for the crucial decision. To phase, or not
(Oontinued on page 58 )
JU LY, 1961
Quality Co,.trol at AB
The frequency msponse of every AR speaker is checked in an anechoic chamber befo1'e it is shipped.
(Many other tests, of course, are also made.) Acoustic Research is one of the very few companies in
the histo1'Y of loudspeake1' manufacturing, so far as we know, that have followed this rigorous pmctice.
Silvana Cannavacciuolo, AR inspector. checks a speaker response curve at one of AR's anechoic chambers. The response curves of the individual drivers
in the system he is testing have a lready b een recorded and found acceptable at the main anechoic chamber.
Th e purpose of sllch careful quality control is to make Slim, as far as is possible, that AR speakers
provide natural 1'eproduction of music, without mttles, buzzes, distortion, or pseudo-hi-fi exaggerations.
Prices are from $89. to $225.
Until now, AR speakers have been sold under a one-year guarantee covering
materials, labor, and freight to and from the factory.
On the basis of our field experience we are now able to extend this guarantee
to five years. The extension is retroactive, and applies to any AR speakers
bought since 1956.
AR speakers are on demonstration at AR Music Rooms, on the west balcony
of Grand Central Terminal in New York City, and at 52 Brattle Street in
Cambridge, Massachusetts. No sales are made or initiated at these showrooms.
JULY, 1961
24 Thorndike St.,
.. __
.. -.._
-_..---.. __
.. __.. __
...... __
.--_ .. _...
--_-- ... -__
-- .............
- -_--_.
-.. -. .---......
.........- ... .. ........ .....
Cambridge 41, Mass.
The Dynatuner FM-l is clearly the exception that proves the rule. The rule that
we are referring to is the one which decrees that any product sold to a consumer
has to be highly styled. One need only
look casually at the equipment gracing
dealers' shelves to understand that "style"
is applied to functional devices solely for
visual effect. Apparently, underlying this
rule is the belief that p erformance is not
sufficient to capture the consumer. Although this thesis has some validity, it is
obvious th at many apply styling to make
a product seem what it is not.
Figu?'e 1 clearly demonstrates that the
FM-l is an exception to the rule stated
above. It is simple, straightforward, and
unpretentious in visual appearance. The
only application of a more luxurious material, a cast plastic lens, permits the tuning indicator and the tuning dial to be
read with extra ease. Somehow, in spite
of the lack of expensive styling, the FM-l
h as a certain elegance which seems to be
innate in well-engineered devices.
Underneath its simple exterior, the FM-l
encloses an FM tuner which is clearly in
keeping with its facade. It is not th e most
sensitive tuner Ol1e can buy, nor does it
pretend to be, but it provides a level of
performance easily in the upper rank.
Also, as a kit, it builds very easily. There
is one slight fiy in the ointment (it should
really be classified as a fiea) and we shall
discuss this at length in another section.
The circuit of the FM-l consists of a
cathode-coupled tuned r .f.-amplifier stage
using a 6AQ8/ECC85 dual triode; a screencoupled oscillator-mixer stage using a
6AT8A triode-pentode; four i.f. amplifier
stages with progressive limiting using two
6BA6 and two 6AU6 tubes; balanced
wide-band ratio detector with matched
semiconductor diodes; a cathode follower
isolating the detector from the emphasis
network, and a multiplex takeoff using
one-half of a 12AX7/ ECC83; an ano de
follower, wide-band feedback audio output
stage using the other half of the 12AX7/
E CC83; a tuning indicator using a 6FG6/
EM84 "eye tube" and a power supply
utilizing a 6V4/ EZ80.
The antenna circuit includes provision
for matching either a 75-ohm unb alanced
or a 300-ohm balanced transmission line.
From the antenna, the signal enters the
cathode-coupled dual triode r.f. amplifier
circuit. The triode se~tion of the 6AT8A
is used in a "tickler f eedback" tuned-grid
oscillator circuit. The oscillator is temperature compensated, and operating pa-
rameters are chosen so as to make a.f.c.
unnecessary. The pentode section of the
6AT8A is used as the mixer. The tube is
self-biased. The oscillator is injected into
the screen circuit to provide isolation of
the oscillator tuning ci rcuit from the signal tuning circuit at the ' mixer grid. This
simplifies the adj ustment and the tracking of the front end, and also reduces
radiation of the oscillator energy into the
antenna, which would cll-use the antenna
to transmit to nearby receivers and television sets. The i.f. transformers are undercoupled for minimum phase shift across
the p ass band. This simplifies alignment
of the i.f. section since it is merely necessary to tune for maximum signal to
achieve optimum adjustment. 6BA6 variable-mu pentodes are used for the first
and second stages and GA U6 sharp-cutoff
power supply. There are approximately two
dozen wires used in addition to the printedcircuit boards. Not only does this make
for extremely easy construction but certainly it provides little variation in circuit
from kit to kit. There were a few places,
however, where holes in the circuit boards
were covered by components which had
been previously soldered in place. In addition, there were a few places which were
"extremely tight" as far as getting a
reasonably-sized iron into the correct position.
The construction manual is quite adequate for even the "uninitiated" kit
builder, although there were a few points
which might prove a little difficult for a
person with no knowledge of electronic
t erminology. For example, in one step the
builder is asked to "insert the ground
straps into each of the tube sockets." It is
quite likely that the novice builder would
be at a loss to determine which of the
many pieces of hID·dware a ground strap
might be. Other than these few understandable lapses however, the manual is
quite adequate and detailed
We did, however, run into that bugaboo
of the kit builder-defective parts The
first i.f. tube and the plate-load resistor
for the oscillator were, respectively, shorted
and open. Although constructing the kit
took a scant six hours, it took us several
more to locate the defective parts and
replace them. Of course, our part bin and
tu be stockpile was sufficient to supply the
needed parts. Most likely the average constructor would have to get his parts from
the Company, that is if he could locate
the trouble in the first place. It would
seem to us that a kit is the one place
where defective parts cannot be tolerated.
And yet, it does seem to be a fairly com-
Fig. 1. Dyn a tuner Mod el FM- 1 tune r kit.
pentodes are used for the succeeding two
stages. E ach Lf. stage acts as a limiter
when the signal input to that stage reaches
a predetermined point. The receiver is
sufficiently sensitive that the last limiter
is effective on input noise. The ratio det ector utilizes a balanced-bridge configuration which balances out noise and signal
rectification occurring in the plate circuit
of the last limiter tube. The tuning-eye
tube acts as an indicator showing when a
station is tuned properly and is connected
to the last limiter grid circuit. It will
indicate a signal as low as one microvolt,
approaches maximum closure at ten microvolts. It call't be overlapped at higher
signal strengths. The center of the channel is always indicated. The power supply
is a conventional full-wave rectifier which
provides additional power-handling cap ability for a multiplex adapter.
Constl uct ion
The Dyn atuner FM-l is an exceedingly
easy kit to construct. The primary reason
for this is that printed-circuit boards are
used for all circuits excluding only the
mon experience The last three kits that we
constructed ha d component-part errors
which would seriously vex the novice. It
is to be hoped that we are experiencing
the unu sual situation.
The FM-l is aligned in three sections:
the Lf., th e detector, and the front end.
And they are aligned in that order. Lf.
alignment is relatively simple, being merely
a process of peaking each Lf. transformer
starting from the las~ one and working
forward to the first one. The correct
"peak" is determined by loudness of the
sound or maximum closing of the tuning
The detector aligllll1ent is the area
wherein the fiea was stuck in the oiutment.
Prim arily th e procedure is to detune the
top slug of the detector tmnsformer, tune
the bottom slug, and then tune the top
slug. In tuning the bottom slug, the tuning
eye is disconnected from its normal circuit
location and connected to a point in the
circuit where it can detect the signal
through the bottom coil of the trans-
JU LY, 196-1
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No Instability wi th th e fi e ld-prove n omni a nd cardioid capsules, which perform consistently in recording
Transisto rized B 60 Power Pack makes th e C 60 ind epe ndent of AC mains. Many hours of remote service
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2 ounces li g ht includi~g internal electronics. The DC Power Supply is miniaturized for u se on shoulder
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C 60 with choice of instantly·interchangeable capsules (C 26 omnidirectional or C 28 cardioid) ,with B 60
Powe r Pack or N 60 EA AC Power Supply, and all necessa ry cables - only $259.50.
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',0' .
JULY,. 196'1
former. In order to avoid the problem of
values changing when the set is turned
off and on (due to change in temperature),
the manual recommends that this proce·
dure may be accomplished with the set
turned on if great care is exercised. In
other words, the builder is asked to solder
and unsolder connections with a "hot"
chassis. In our view, this is something
that should never be done in a kit, especially considering the fact that there
are several hundred volts within a fraction
of an inch of the soldering iron. In addition, during this procedure the soldering
iron must be held in one hand and a pair
of long-nosed pliers in the other in order
to remove the connection; a difficult procedure even under the best conditions. We
feel that it should not even be suggested
that a novice undertake this procedure
with a "hot" chassis. Granted that the
voltages and currents available are not
deadly, it is certainly sufficient to startle
a novice to the point that everything
might go flying-soldering iron, pliers,
tuner, and all.
In any case, the purpose of this procedure is to connect the tuning eye to a
point where the bottom coil can be peaked.
Then the tuning eye is again disconnected
and attached to the output of the detector,
and the top slug is adjusted until the
output is balanced.
The front end alignment is relatively
simple. First the oscillator is adjusted for
both high and low ends of the scale; then
the tuning capacitor is adjusted for maximum signal; then the r.f. coil is also tuned
to maximum signal.
Except for the "hot chassis" objection,
the alignment procedure for the FM-1
really works quite well. We were unable
to "improve" alignment with conventional
The published specifications for the
Dynatuner FM-1 are excellent and were
met in all major categories. Before going
into these, we should like to mention two
significant points which we feel deserve
mention. First of all, despite the fact that
it does not include a.f.c., this tuner did
not drift at all even after long periods of
operation-at one point it was operated
continuously for forty-eight hours (it was
left on accidentally). The second point
worthy of note is the relative absence of
inter-station noise while tuning from station to station, a usual characteristic of
ratio detectors. Although this point is not
earth-shaking in scope, it certainly is a
worthwhile tension reducer.
By IHFM standards, the FM-1 has a
usable sensitivity of 4 microvolts. This
may not be sufficient to pull in Moscow,
but it certainly pulled in all the stations
we could possibly want in our locality.
Frequency response is within 0.5 db from
10 cps to 40,000 cps. Audio output is 2
volts at 100 per cent modulation.
In summation, the Dynatuner FM-1 is
a well-engineered, excellent-performing
FM tuner, which is exceedingly easy to
construct as a kit. It should be well within
the capabilities of even the novice. It is
relatively inexpensive too!
FIg. 3. Reel drive mechanism.
The Roberts 990 is a 4-track monophonic
and sterophonic recorder and playback
machine which will also play back twotrack stereo It plays and records at both
7Jh and 3%, ips (a 15 ips changeover kit
is available as an accessory). The 990 has
separate left- and right-channel amplifiers,
each amplifier being mounted on its own
chassis and being individually removable.
A quick glance at Fig. 2 makes it immediately obvious that the Roberts 990
is all function with not one piece of unnecessary metal on the entire machine.
Looking at this machine "in the flesh," one
gets the feeling that this is one machine
that does not consist of thin sheet metal
and low-cost components and in fact, it
does not. Beneath the surface there is a
sturdy mechanism consisting of precision
mechanical parts (most of the sheet metal
is of a heavier gauge than is normally
found), and apparently good quality electronic components. Of course, insofar as
the electronic components are concerned,
we could not be sure as to their quality
because they were all manufactured in
Japan by firms with whom we have only
a slight acquaintance. We would say, however, that the Roberts 990 is unusually
well constructed for its category.
We should explain what we mean by
"its category." We usually categorize tape
recorders in to three general classes: professional, serious amatuer, and "audio
snapshot" variety. Obviously the Roberts
990 is intended for the serious amateur.
In reality we might even say the very
serious amateur because this machine is
certainly near the top of its category.
The Mechanism
Fig. 2. Roberts Model 990 tape recorder.
tice. The hysteresis-synchronous drive motor is connected to the capstan pulley by
means of a 'h eavy rubber belt. The surfaces of both the motor shaft and the
capstan pulley are crowned to give better
traction to the belt. For forward tape motion a pinch roller pushes the tape into
contact with the capstan. The pickup reel
is also in motion, thus keeping the tape
at the proper tension at all times. Motion
is imparted to the pickup reel through a
rubber idler which contacts both the motor shaft and the rearmost section of the
pickup reel. This rear section transmits
the motion to the front section (which is
in positive contact with the tape reel) by
means of a felt disc which acts as a slip
clutch so that the tape tension does not
become excessive.
Fig~t1"e 3 shows the mechanism in rest
The driving mechanism of the 990 is
relatively simple in concept and in prac-
position. For fast forward, the pickup
reel idler is raised to contact the front
section of the pickup reel, thus driving it
directly at high speed. For rewind, the two
idlers 011 the left of the motor shaft drive
the feed reel in the reverse direction.
Speed change is effected by removing
a thumb screw 011 the capstan and slipping
off the 7Jh-ips bushing. The remaining
,shaft is precision machine,d to provide the
3%,-ips speed.
In order to achieve 4-track monophonic
and stereo record and playback, and 2track stereo playback (with relatively
good-quality playback), the Roberts 990
uses mechanical means for raising and
lowering both the record and erase heads.
In reality, by means of this head-shifting
t echnique, the Roberts 990 provides head
positions which would otherwise only be
possible with a 3-head machine if the
switching were done electrically.
In operation the 990 is exceedingly effective. Tape handling is smooth and positive. We attempted to "catch" the machine
by changing direction rapidly many times
and found that it responded quickly and
without looping the tape. In addition, the
machine was noise free in operation, almost all the noise that was present emanating from the fan which cools the motor.
All controls operated easily and with a
positive feel.
The Electronics
The electronics in the 990 are typical
of its category with nary a surprise in
both chassis. During playback, low-Ievei
signals (head) are fed to the grid of an
EF86. From there it goes through the
tone control to the grid of half a 12AD7.
Then the signal goes through the volume
control to the grid of the other section of
the 12AD7, which acts as a driver for the
output tube, a 6BQ5. The bias and erase
(Continued on page 57)
JULY, 1961
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long-excursion, infinite baffle, precision speaker systems ...
infinite baffle system without peer
Sensational sight, sensational sound, remarkable bass, indetectable
crossover, incredible transient response, transparent highs,
·smoothest wide-angle projection. _. Every superlative ever used to
describe a precision transduction system has been applied to
the new JBL Olympus_ The system includes a new IS" LinearEffiCiency low frequency unit, the LEIS; new high frequency driver,
the LE8S; new slant plate acoustical lens, exponentially-tapered
horn, and new dividing network. All unite to reproduce sound
so clean, so smooth, so intact that the Olympus is destined to
establish a new standard for this type of system_ The free-standirig,
trim, beautifully-proportioned enclosure is available in all JBL
wood finishes and with choice of carved wood or fabric grille_
.t"l ~t
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Aristrocrat of bookshelf-size speaker systems, the JBL RangerMinigon provides integrated stereo through radial refraction,
the same patented method used in the fabulous JBL RangerParagon. Minigons accommodate either LE8 full -range units
or JBL Model SS two -way systems. Grille may be either the unique
louver assembly shown here or fabric.
An exquisitely-styled minimum volume enclosure, the Madison
reflects the Danish design influence and is especially popular in
oiled teak or walnut finish. Finished four sides and front for vertical
or horizontal placement. Takes the LE8 speaker or SS system .
A timeless, elegant, modern design with removable legs and
hangers on back (also on Madison) for wall mounting. Finished four
sides and front. All finishes and grille cloths available.
It is possible to offer typical JBL precision response, fine cabinet ·
craftsmanship, and lasting-listening satisfaction at a lower price
than ever before by making a simplified enclosure, longer
production runs, limiting choice of finishes, us ing one grille, am;1
providing somewhat less flexibility. The Lancer 33 is a ducted
acoustical enclosure with an LE8 eight-inch, full range speaker.
Lancer f inishes are those most frequently asked for-tawny
walnut, oiled walnut, dark mahogany, ebony, and pumice.
Grille cloth is beige linen-weave.
Similar in appearance to the 33, the Lancer 66 is a "buttoned -up"·
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and transparent. Lancer speakers are factory installed .
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Unfinished, the Wilton is furn ished with either the LE8 or
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JULY, 1961
Jensen has been making speakers for a
long, long time. They make elaborate and
expensive speakers and systems for concert halls, public address systems, and for
the home- and they even make inexpensive
little speakers for inexpensive speaker systems. In truth, Jensen is a speaker manufacturer. If there is one thing they know
well, it is how to make speakers. The TF-3
is a good example of this. In its category
it more than holds its own.
Of course, now that we've used the word
"category," we are obliged to "place" the
TF-3 in the scheme of things. Simply
stated, the TF-3 is what is known as a
bookshelf speaker system_ It contains four
speakers in a 3-way system in a tubevented, acoustic suspension type of enclosure. In essence, this type of enclosure provides an acoustic suspension similar to the
completely sealed enclosure, while at the
same time achieving greater efficiency. It
is the type of compromise which attempts
t o derive the benefits of both systems.
The speakers include a 10-inch "Flexair"
long-travel woofer, a pair of cone-type
midrange units, and a "sonodome" high-
frequency unit. The necessary crossover
networks are built in.
To further characterize the TF-3, one
should note that it is ou the lower end of
the price scale, although by no means is
it at the lower end of the sound scale. The
units we received were unfinished utility
models with a hardwood surface. It took
a walnut stain beautifully, and we imagine
it would take other stains as well_
Thus we can see that the TF-3 is in a
category which encompasses book-shelf
speaker systems which are very moderately
priced. As we noted before, the TF-3 more
than holds its own in this category.
Pe rform ance
Often when reviewing speaker systems
we are very careful to note that our comments are weighted by personal preference.
Here, of course, we were referring to the
listening tests. In addition to personal
preference, we should also add that the
listening room influences our decisions considerably. For example, when we first heard
the TF-3's in our own home, we were unable to install them in the room wherein
we normally did our major listening. Therefore we set them up in another room
(actually in a section of our workshop)
Fig _ 4. J e nse n TF-3 s peaker syste m .
If we appear to be unduly interested in
some of the recently introduced "consumer" type merchandise employing transistors, it is only because the actual performance of the equipment is comparable,
f rom a quality standpoint, with conventional tUbe-type equipment. And while the
average audiofan may feel that there are
no "hi-fi" qualities to these units, it is
probable that he has not listened to them
except with their own audio amplifiers and
the small loudspeakers that the case size
However, some of these miniaturized sets
are equipped with detector output jacks,
and that in it self indicates that someone
might possibly want to employ the unit to
f eed a conventional (or trallsistorized)
component amplifier and a good loudspeaker.
When the detector output is plugged
into a good amplifier and f ed to a highquality loudspeaker system, the FM sound
quality compares favorably with one 'of the
better known FM tuners. For actual listening, we are forced to admit that on A-B
t est it would be difficult to t ell the difference on local stations. With a published
and proceeded to listen away. After a considerable length of time we began to get
somewhat disturbed because the sound emanating from the speakers was somewhat
"boxy." There was a distinct "mountain"
in the mid-range (it could be heard in
voice, trombones, and other such instruments) . Subsequently it became possible
for us to install the speakers in our normal
listening area, and 10 and behold the mountain became a molehill. Yes, it still existed,
we could still hear the "bump" in the midrange, but nowhere near as pronounced as
we had previously experienced and perhaps
even this slight bump was "room effect,"
not the speaker. The moral of this story
is that loudspeakers, in co=on with
people, are affected by environment.
Finally, when we were able to give the
TF-3 a fair listening test, we discovered
that it has a good high and low end with
a slight rise in the mid-range (f) and an
exceedingly smooth over-all sound. We especially enjoyed the high end.
For those with limited space and budget
the TF-3 is an excellent choice. For those
with a mid-range budget it is still an excellent choice. It is a good choice for anyone who wants a wide-range speaker system
in a small enclosure.
Fig. 5. Sony TFM-121 AM-FM portable .
sensitivity of only 19 Ikv, the TFM-121
will obviously not compare as a distance
getter, but for local reception it can serve
very well as an FM tuner source for any
hi-fi system. If there is any drawback, it
is the relatively low output signal of
around 0.1 volts, but most modern preampR
have adequate gain to overcome this objection.
Even on AM the quality is satisfactory
-rather better than the average "clock
model" AM set that graces so many kitchen
counters and bedrooms_ The AM section
consists of a mb:er-oscillator stage followed by two Lf. amplifier stages, detector, and a three-stage audio amplifier, all
feeding the 3 x 5 in. oval loudspeaker. The
"detector" takeoff fo llows the volume control and cuts out the built-in audio amplifier.
The FM section cOllsists of an untuned
r .f. amplifier stage, mixer, oscillator, three
Lf. stages, followed by a discriminator,
audio-a.f.c. amplifier, and the three-st age
output amplifier. The first two i.f. stages
are common with th e AM section. The
a.f.c. voltage is fed from an amplifier
stage following the discriminator to the
base of the oscillator transistor to vary
the frequency in the proper direction to
hold the station in tune.
The audio amplifier consists of two RC
coupled stages with the latter transformer
coupled to a pair of transistors in Class
B, which are in turn coupled to the loudspeaker circuit by another transformer.
One jack is provided for the discriminator
output, one for the output from the arm
of the volume control, and two i'l the
speaker circuit- one simply paralleling the
external circuit with the internal loudspeaker and the other cullnecting the external circuit and disc(lllnellting the internal speaker.
The set operates on four size "0" flash light batteries with a zero-signal current
drain of around 18 rna on FM and 14 ma
on AM. Total current drain dopends on
audio output, since the :final stage is Class
B. Operating life on one set of batteries
averages about 150 hours 011 AM, 100 on
A slide switch 011 the front directly
under the tuning cOlltrol serves to reduce
treble response in the audio amplifier stage
when desired. The AM-FM switch is at
t he right side of the case, and the power
switch is combined with the volunle control at the upper left of the panel. A jack
is provided to connect an external AM
(Continued on page 57 )
JULY, 1961
OTl Stereo Am plifter
The PIONEER is prepared to make available to
and mid-range . products are concerne.d.
you high-impedance speakers in so far as woofers
Specifications Of the SM-W203
10-inch 3-way high-impedance
speaker system
Tubes Useq
Powet Output
Frequency Response :
Tuners: Cha nnell :
Cha nnel 2 :
SM-W203 contains no output transformer which was absolutely necessary for conventional amplifiers. A single-ended push-pull circuit has
been adopted and the matching impedance is taken at 400-900 ohms .
Consequently, if a h igh-impedance spea ker operating in this range is
connected, the vacuum tube circuit of the amplifier and the voice coil
of the speaker are directly coupled , and the a mplifier output is led
into the speaker without loss or distortion . The greatest merit of
SM-W203 lies in the superb bass and treble characteristics and
distortion-free reproduction even at full power application.
In SM-W203, all likelihood of hum generation is removed by DC
ignition of the preamplifier, and consideration has been taken to
achieve the best possi ble listening condition through provision of highcut and low-cut filters as well as a loudness control.
Simultaneously with the offering of SM-W203 on the market, highimpedance speaker system CS-252S, which is made to match the stereo
amplifier perfectly, is offered .
CS-252S is a 3-way speaker system using a lO-inch woofer. It amply
proves how superior the OTL system is as a reproduction system.
The stereo system combining SM-W203 and CS-2.52S is absolutely
guaranteed to satisfy you completely since you are desirous of the
highest tone quality.
JULY, 1961
21 tubes a nd 4 diodes
11 wa tts per channel
10-120.000 cps
AM medium wave
AM medium wave and FM
: 400-900 ohms for s peaker,
for recording ta pes, for
Specifications Of The CS-252S
Spea kers
: 10 inch woofer 5 inch midr a nge speaker Horn type
Impeda nce
: 400 ohms
Frequency Response : 40-16,000 cps.
Power Inputs
: 15 watts
: 102 db/ watt
A Bach Program at Royal Festival Hall,
London . Fernando Germani.
Capitol SG 7225 stereo
A trn"eling organist is like no other mu sician, for he plays on individual instruments
no two of which are more than remotely alike
in detail-the difference is much greater than,
say, the difference between the drive and
"feel" of the many brands of automobile that
a licensed driYer supposedly can operate.
Germani is a ranking or ganist out of Italy,
the titular organist at ' Saint Peter's in Rome
(where he probably seldom plays) and an aUround virtuoso who has managed to cope
with a very large number of existing important orgapq in his constant recital tours. I
last h ear eJ, him on a famous old Dutch organ,
in Alkmaar; here he is on the newest of the
new, rel atively sp~aking, the big poly-purpose
"classic" organ in Britain's recent Festival
Hall . He does his u sual serviceable joh.
It's the organ that counts most here, and
it's a very British one, I'd say. Remember, the
British have been conservative in organsthey didn 't even get to use pedal boards until
comparatively recently. They still have a
heal thy con tempt for the "screaming whistles"
of the new neo-Baroque organs (and the old
ones that have been so handily restored) and
most organ playing in England sounds now
mu ch as it has in the past, ever so dignified
and proper, very traditional and a bit stodgy
on the whole.
Granted that this is a gross generalization;
in any case, the Festival organ is one of those
newall-purpose jobs that theoretically can
play anything from Buxtehude to bop, though
on this one both styles would be tempered
with proper cautiou. It's a very dignified
SOll nd, colored jus t enough to 11ft Bach out
of tbe French-organ sea of late Romanticism,
situated in a hall that has just enough reverberation not to sound overly dead. Moderation in all things is the rule, and somehow, even an Ita lian or ganist like Germani
cau't make this rather l arge organ sound
other than pure British.
Handel: L'Allegro ed i\ Pense rosa. Pears,
Morison, Watts, Harwood, Alan; St. Anthony Singers, Philomusica of London,
Thurston Dart.
L'Oiseau-Lyre SOL 60025/6 (2) stereo
In such music as this, out of a period when
the details of vocal sound can only be guessed
at, the practical effect of an otherwise good
performance becomes a matter of nationalistic
style as of today. This is first of all a very
British performance; whereas Decca's excellen t version reviewed in December, was in the
best "New York" s tyle, which generally means
a cooperation of variously trained musicians
from asso r ted backgrounds.
It's mostly singing, of course, this Handelian s uccession of solo pieces with chorus
thrown in here and there, alternately heaping
praise on melancholy and on gaiety. This recording features a brace o~ typically British
solo voices-the best-with a typically British chorns as The orchestra is prop-
* 780 Greenwich St., New York 14, N.Y.
Don't Miss This
Wagner: Tristan und Isolde, complete.
Nilsson, Uhl, Resnik, Krause, Van Mill;
Vienna Philharmonic, Solti.
London OSA 1502 (5) stereo
What a huge undertaking, to record all
of this four-hour marathon-opera into one
package! And what a show it makes in
'l'be albnm is a true spectacular, i.e.
wi t h all the m'bdern trimmings, a complete libretto , to follow the story word
by word, a wealth of printed and pictorial
mate rial concerniug the opera and its performers . But tllis one has an "extra" (no
charge) in the form of a whole LP record,
"Proj ect Tristan," devoted to a stereo
account of the actnal rehearsals and recordings sessions for the s tereo opera.
Two complete sides. I fo und it the best
show of its type I've h eard yet, as well as
the lon gest, giving a superb look-hear into
the complex process of stereo opera recordi ng as well as enjoyable glimpses of
the principals involved, the conductor,
singers Nil sson, and Resnik, the recording
director. '.rheir mixed gabble of German
and English (mostly German) i s amusing
and for those who can't follow it there is
a complete printed translation! That's a
neat touch. Excellent use of the stereo
medium, the rehearsals i n one speaker, the
commentator in the other, the finished
takes sampled now and then in full stereo
for contrast.
As London points out, this "Tristan" in
stereo is not intended as a literal reproduction of an opera hon se performance,
but rather an imaginative re-creation in
a medium nnknown to 'Vaguer. I am
heartily in favor of such thinking. About
time it came out in the open, to replace
all the guff a bout "bes t seat in the concert hall, " etc.
London's re-creation is rather special.
The big Wagnerian orchestra is spread out
close to ~'ou and very widely; its impa ct
throughout is tremendous. You'll hear all
erly authentic. British voices? Hard to describe, but I can mention a certain nervous
whiteness of tone, a taut, somewhat breathy
delivery, sincere a nd very "," often
to the detriment of smooth production. And,
of course, a very British accent. In any case,
you'll recognize the sound in five seconds fiat.
The Decca recording features the voice of
soprano Adele Addison, a negro voice utterly
u nli ke that of the British Elsie Morison. Both
are tops, but you'll have to choose yonr voicetype to snit yourself, here as in the other
parts. Even Decca's chorus is as American
(f ull of wobbles and not well blended) as
L'Oiseau-Lyre's is British (minns vibrato,
somewhat chaste but with perfect diction and
attack) .
Now if the musicologists would just tell us
how we should train our voices, starting at,
say, ten years of age, to produce t h e vocal
sorts of things you never heard before.
a nd they are good things musically. (All
bi g music is over-optimistically .fuller of
meaning than anyone performance can
project.) The playing under Solti is taut,
eXllressive, beautifnlly phrased.
Tbe singers are a bigger problem and
stereo hasn't yet reaily fo nnd what to do
with them_ In mono days, opera singers
came closer and closer, ·seemed mostly at
arm's length, in front of an accompanying
orchestra. Now, stereo has reversed the
trend. London's voices are never really
closer than the orchestra itself and very
often a re so distant as to seem actually
well behind it, especially In places that ask
for "off-stage" entrances. The effect is
rather "off-mike" at first, though not to
the real detriment of the musical impact.
We'U get u sed to this sound. I found less
satisfactory a kind of boxy, closed-in feeling in those passages where the voices are
nearer at hand. Isolation booths? More
likely a matter of a second mike setup
in a separate part of the hall (the stage),
for the singers, with the sin gers' and the
orchestra's reverberation slightly at odds
as superimposed one on the other in the
final result.
Nilsson's I sol de is the best since Flagstad, and reminiscent of hers too, but
F lagstad had a greater classic dignity, less
persistent vibrato, h eavenly qniet tones.
Nilsson is a fine actress, romantic rather
than classic. Her big voice gets wobblier
as the passion mounts. Her ear and her
pitch are both infallible but the dramatic
wobble tends to confuse things at the high
points_ (If you don't care what pitch she
si ngs, it doesn't matter.)
Uhl, like so many recen t Tristans, lacks
the real Tri stan metal though he is mnsical, a good styli st and a fine singer. This
is a matriarchal "Tristan und Isolde"
again, thongh the secondary males are
up -coming and excellent-yonng Krause
and that big basso (Markel. Arnold Van
sou nd that old Handel actually expected In
lvis time ... well, we might begin by turning
Oll t It few cast"ati, to fill the soprano roles.
Buxtehude: Suites XIV, XIX (harpsichord);
Solo Cantata "Singet dem Herrn"; Magnificat. Musica Sonora Ensemble, Nolte.
Musica Sonora Record No. One.
(P.O. Box 87, Evanston, 111.)
This Chicago-area performing group begins
here a series of Buxtehude recordings, presnma bly paralleli ng performances in concert.
On side 1 of this first disc are two fine keyboard suites-which might well be taken for
Bach: the somewhat stylized and complex
"dance suite" format, allemand, courante,
sarabande, gigue, is very like that of the familia r keyboard suites of Bach and Handel
JULY, 1961
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JULY, 1961
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land far remoyed from any actual dance
music) . Buxtehude is at his most formal here,
appropriately for the music, which is more
"chamber" (a s we'd say) than his popular
organ works and cantatas, composed fo r the
people at la r ge. This Is solidly competent
playing on a la rge harpsichord (recorded at
high level , much louder than the l arge ensembles ou the other side). Donald Isaak Is
the performer.
The Cantata and the Magnificat are less
successful, If more ambitions. In the Cantata, the solo soprano does a heartfelt if
somewhat amateurish job, her voice not
steady nor well controlled in r apid passages,
her pitch nervously a bit sharp, with a waver.
The companion violin Is firm ly didactic rather
than poetic.
The more elaborate Magnificat's two sopranos do very nicely together as a team, bu t
the three other soloi sts are of the church choir
sort, loud, WObbly, unstyled and indifferent in
their pitch. The choru s siugs with attention
and enthu siasm but with many a vibrato and
not mu ch en semble.
Becau se thi s group is sincere and In earnes t , Buxtehude' s intentions are generall y well
rea lized , in spite of my criticisms. The spirit
is excelIe nt. But the more modest German
performers on the Barenrelter Musicaphon
Buxtehude disc reviewed in last month's issue
cau sing and play rings around th ese people.
Dimensions in Organ Sound. ("The
King of Instruments"). Catharine Crozier,
Aeolian-Skinner organ Opus 1309 (1959).
Washington SWAS XIV stereo
(mono: WAS XIV)
Did you know that organs had opus num-
bers? This i s the fourteenth r ecord In AeolianSkinner's series "The King of Instruments,"
offering professional programs played on the
company 's products, in this ca 'e a 1959 model.
lIIusic is of course the primary vehicle. But
the organ itself is the first though t , the perfo rm er the second. The performers ,tre the
big pros in the fiel d: the mu sic Is the stuff
they us uall y play, which runs often to narrowness of interest (for the non·orga nist
music lover) and equally often to narrowness
in the in trepre tation. If 'yOU are no orgallist,
you 'd better pick carefully among these discs,
though they'll all satisfy you In the fi.
Crozier is a poten t lady organist who reminds me, somehow, of the gal who drives an
Olds 98 and beats the traffic lights. After all,
it takes only a will and a know-how; the
motive power is a ll there, whether you ' re
man or woman! Her masterful playing of the
enormous, unique big-Romantic sonata by the
24-year,0Id genius Reubke (he died at that
age) shows how far towards high-Romanticism the organ had already gone in 1858,
'way back. Reubke kn ew what it should do,
this monster transfiguration of the Romantic
orchestra into pipe-organ terms, with its
thunders, its swells and pianissimos, Its
gr andiloquent crescendos and dyings-away.
You ' d think he had borrowed from Cesar
Fran ck: bu t Franck wrote many year s later
,wd It was Liszt and Wagner who inspired
the Reubke concept.
Like most Roman tic organ music, this piece
is for us much too long and far too moody on
a giant scale. It roars and rants, whispers,
admonishes, pants and moans, for a whole
side and a half of LP-a lot. (The rest Is a
brace of coloristic little modern French pieces,
tricky hut nothing very much .) You'lI do best
with it, as I did, by turning on your bi ggest
wattage in stereo. The hou se will shake its
foundations In the loud parts but the soft
sections will at least be audibl e without tiptoeing.
Schuller: Seven Studies on Themes of Paul
Fetler: Contrasts for Orchestra. Minneapolis Symphony, Dorati.
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So many foundation-commissioned recordin gs of contemporary music now appear that,
paradoxically, few reviewers can hope to cope
with them all , not to mention few listeners.
This one Isn't the most important of the year,
but It surely offers a recordful of interesting
and pleas urable sounds from two agreeably
forceful personali ties. That's a lot. Both composers are old pros with orchestral effects,
immensely knowing in their use of sheer
sound. Both are· pretty darned clever, moreover, in their knowledge of the musical language, each in his own modern dialect. The
communication, with Mercury's skilled assistance, is optimum .
Gunther Schull er, age 36, has burst forth
from a mere horn player (Metropolitan Opera) Into a highly assured young man of all
sorts of musical and literary talents, whose
music is both arrestingly avan t-garde and reassuringly "square." Schuller's music is music
for the millions, not the precious few; but
t he millions will have to take It or leave it
on his t erms, which are tough ones, let me
tell you. Tou gh and i nteresting, combining
modern jazz, violent dissonance, serialism
(twelve-tone composing). Arab folk music
and what-have-you. Music Is music, to Schuller, wherever he may find it. You'll find yourself gOing along by sh eer force of his persollality- he' s a determined young man who
knows how to say what he wants.
Clever idea, to do a series of miniatures to
paintings of Paul Klee. Good public relations
and good musical Inspiration, too, just enough
contact between the visual Klee and the musical Gunther to set the Gunther wheels gOing,
without fanciful poetizing or elaborate muslcpainting symboli sm. (Paul Klee, unlike many
artists, was an arden t and r eally knowing
music lover.)
The famed "Twittering Machine" of 1922
(on the record album cover) produces fabulous twItterings in the orchestra-machin e.
"Abstract Trio"-Klee used many a musicprone title-is played by an abstract trio
JULY, 1961
here, numerou s assorted in s truments but
never more tha n three a t a time. The "blocklike . b a p es" of ilAntique H a rJllOnies" are re-
defined by Schuller i n to musical blo cks, as
SchulIer says, "on a da rk, den se ba ckground
. . . r eaching a climax in the brighter yellow
of trumpets a nd s trings." A fine bit of mu sical
jazz blues, a cutely modern, portrays "Little
Blu e ' DevU"- it's a tour de fo r ce of ingenious
writing, you'll h a ve to admit.
On t he r ever se we h ave a very different
piece, a somewha t glibly conventional modern
semi-symphony, ma de extremely lis tena ble by
two elemen t s, an expert u se of the orchestra
a nd a ligh t-hearted, fancifull y ski ttish sen se
of humor. Not a very Importa nt work, this
"Contrast s," but you will be a mu sed t o hear
the multi plicity of "influences" in It, ranging
fr om Sibelius to Bartok and on to Robert
Ru ssell Bennett, a ll very n eatly blended and
homogenized with plenty of orchestral foam .
Bartok's " Concerto for Orchestra" keeps
appearing-and, Indeed, that orch es tral work
was a ctu ally Bartok's own "Contras t s" for
orchestra; h e wrote the only other piece with
thi s n ame that I know of, "Contra sts" for
violin , cla rinet and pia no, a nd could have
nam ed hi s la r ger work simila rly on the basis
of Mr. F etler's own idea, contras ts of every
sort within a n orchestral piece.
I fo und only the l as t movement hard to
ta ke, becoming overblown a nd noisy ; the first
three movements a r e charmin gly spa r e and
ver y enter taining a s sheer organi ze d stereo
s()und .
ma tic a s a ny by B ach him self. It can be
h eard-but of ten isn 't. Yo u ca n play th e
not es without having t h e f aintest idea w h a t
is going on.
But if you do h ear wha t ' s h a ppenin g, a s
Prevln does, the mu sic ma kes sense in the
list ening. Of course !
The H i ndemlth "Sona ta' 'is as uncompromisingly tbick a nd Germa nic as it ou ght to be,
a s uncompromisingly full of fu gues, moti va l
ideas, counterpoint a nd all th e r est tha t Is of
the Germa nic tra dition. But the Hindemith
sp a rkle is ther e, too. As for Sa mu el Ba rber,
his "Excursion s" t a ke us Into a brace of
American s t yles, from a gentle boogie to a
folk-like tune for va ria tion s a nd-the finale
- a ba rn da nce. Nice, skillf ully written, mild.
Ma rtin 's somewha t h eavyweight "Prelude"
shows the old Swi ss predeJiction for the
Wagneria n, nea tl y wrapped up in a small
modern package. J sort of got los t In It.
Reger: Piano Concerto, in F Minor, Op.
114. Rudolf Serkin; Philadelphia Orch .,
Columbia MS 6235 stereo
(mono: ML 5635)
Thi s is a l a bor of per s uasion; but not ma ny
of us will be persuaded.
Big mu sicia ns often get this wa y. Sir
'.rhoma s Beecha m never ga ve up urgi ng Delius
upon his list eners. Bruno Walter espouses
Mah ler. Na dia Boula nger push es Faure. K oussevitsky used to promote Rou sell, up in Bost on. Wh en you get t o be mu sically importa nt
enough to choose your own programs a nd to
plug your own genuin e loves, you will be
bound to do thi s sort of thing unl ess you are
di shonest with yourself.
Serkin espou ses R eger a s a grea t cultural
co mpatriot a nd Indeed the ma n was a top In-
Hindemith: Three Sonatas for Organ. E.
Power Biggs, Flentrop organ, Harvard.
Columbia MS 6324 stereo
(mono: ML 5634)
I'm a great a dmirer of Mr. Biggs, Am erica's
organis t, a nd I know that his unfl a ggi ng advocacy of the classic-type, or "B aroque,"
organ has had much to do with Its renaissan ce into wide popula rity. Biggs h as now
run throu gh mos t of his Ba roqu e re pertory
on r ecord s; he has been turning elsewhere of
late, both t o th e Roma ntic school a nd to t hose
modern s tha t can be played on hi s own t ype
of organ.
The new Flentrop, his home in s trum ent, i s
all-mech a nical, as of the Seventeenth century,
with no swell boxes and no electronics, minus
high pressur e air and minus "nicked" pipes
(for softened sound) . It's good for Hindemlth,
who writes thickly and needs cla rity.
H owever , sometimes I think the Biggs enthu siasm ou tdoes the Biggs playin g. In this
fairly rigorou s contrapuntal mu sic, Biggs
plays compe tently but not, I'd say, with much
mu sical subtlety in phrasing. Even so, and
with such clean orga n color and a rticulation,
the solidly expressive and often humorous
Hlndemith gets through nea tly. This isn't
"sacred" organ music, of course, just music
for organ, to be played a s mnsic, a nd the less
sanctimoniou s the better. It'd be fun on a
Mighty Wurlitzer, with side drum s.
Hindemith: Sonata No.3 for Piano (1936).
Barber: Four Excursions, Op. 20.
Martin: Prelude No.7. Andre Previn,
Columbia MS 6239 stereo
(mono: ML 5639)
'.rhe most strildng thing a bout this som ewhat erudite di sc of modern pi a no mu sic Is
thn t its performer , Andre Previn , is a jazznm n, not t o speak of conductor, pop s arra nger,
film ·score writer ( E lrn e,' Gantry), etc. This i s
th e modern wa y-f rom jazz to super-cl assical , from twelve-ton e back to blu es, a nd the
trend i s quite serious : these ma n y oncesepa rate a r eas of mu sic a r e comin g together
more a nd more widely as time goes on, a s
peop le h ear each other, teach each other, influ ence each ot her.
He' s a better pia nist for being a jazz-man
and a rran ger, let me tell you. I have always
ha d a di sconcerting feeling that though a
"classical" pia ni st m ay get by via sheer finger
dexterity, a jazz ma n must bear wbat he
does, wh atever It may be. This shows up nowhere better than in s uch music as Hindemlth's, which Is actually very " sensible" music
in Its con strnction, as thorough and syste-
JULY, 1961
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The First Book of its Kind-No Other Like It!
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rived systems and equipment specifications.
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Complete procedures are given for: Planning,
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Debussy: La Mer; Danses Sacree et Profane.
Roussel: Bacchus et Ariane, Suite #2.
Lamoureux Orch ., Markevitch.
Deutsche Gramm. DGS 712040 stereo
Beethoven: Overtures (Coriolan, Leonore
#3, Consecration of the House, Egmont).
Lamoureux Orch . Markevitch.
Deutsche Gr·a mm. DGS 712019 stereo
Here i s Deutsche Grammophon's French
department hard at work, one record allFrench a nd the other all German. Fair division .
Markevitch, one of the last of the emigre
Russia n s t o join that amazing Franco-Russian
school of activl ty that centered a roun d the
great ballet impresario Diaghilev, is a bril·
lian t con du ctor of French music and his own
Lamoureux orchestra does a tau t, tasteful
job on the Debussy and Rou ssel. As for Roussel, it's no coincidence that another FrancoRussian, Koussevi tsky, used t o play that
composer regularly in Boston, which is almost the only American place where he is
Imown well. Rousell seems to be one of
France's lost-cause composers (in t he outside
world), as Delius is in England. For all his
impeccably stylish writing, most of us find
Roussel competently long-winded, though
technically interesting via pungent and effective orchestral writing.
The Debussy Danses, composed on order to
show off the then-new chromatic harp (it
could play anythin g), are as we now see t)1em
pretty derivative--fr om other Debussy. He
wasn't above that sort of thing by any means,
when opportunity offer ed, and he did it well .
'l'he h arp n ever sounded so harpy; but the
music is dated.
As fo r the other disc, the r everse-twi st
Beethoven (German music by a French playing ensemble for a German record company),
it is a fine example of the best French treatment of that composer-and it will sound
pretty f un ny to non-French lis t euers. Someh ow, French Beethoven is blatty, tinny, thin
a nd over-tense, minus the fi ne German dignity
th a t we (whoever we a r e) think it must have.
The French worship Beethoven just as we do ;
but they like him in th eir own style.
Part of it is in the F rench wind instrumen t s, notably t h e blatty, wobbling horn~
(with vibr ato-utterly unthinkable in Beeth oven). But there's more to it than that. Best
thing is just to li sten and get u sed to thinking like a Frenchman; then this Beethoven
will r eveal its considerable s trengths to you.
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 1, No. S.
Vienno Phiarmonic, Monteux.
RCA VICTOR LSC 2491 stereo
Post OffIce Box 629
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A6kft1 __________________________________
CIIr _______ lon. _
f1uence in the mu sical world of the early Nineteen Hundreds. But he was a then-conservative--he ch ampioned the old concept of "pure"
mu sic as opposed to "program" music when
tha t idea was pretty much dead except in
music appreciation classes. It was by 1910,
a nyhow, when this huge, h eavyweight post·
Romantic "pu re" concerto was first heard.
No program. No s tory attached.
I suppose it is a significant work, a nd I
r espect Serkin's mid-European judgment in
bringing It forth; I a lso like his playing,
which pu ts the bounce of fervent energy a nd
enthusiasm into a turgidly dated mass of
sound. But ugh !-do I have to like evel"1Jthing that is worthy?
A second and a third try would proba bly
bring me a r ound, but I'm not going to go
through with i t. You will, of course, if you
are attuned to big, spectacular, old-fashioned
heavyweight concerto playing, at length.
Slole _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
RCA Victor h as one of the world's oldest
and best all-around maestros by the tail here,
and I wish they would pin him down to recordi ng mo re often-he's caught now and
t hen on t he fly, in Vienna, Boston, even Paris,
as a so r t of guest performer. This one would
seem to result from RCA's a rrangement with
English Decca (London), which normally reo
cords the Vienna Philharmonic. (Interesting
qu es tion: is thi s, then, RCA Living Ffss?)
The prognosis is good here for a workable
co mbination, the great hom e orchestra of
Beethoven's own city with the dynamism of
JULY, 1961
Monteux' French background. He's big enough
not to be provincial In an over-French way.
The big concepts a re excellent, the mu sic
lean and lively, the s tyle never forced. Even
so, I felt, there was some roughness in the
playing; I would guess that the somewhat
sluggishly comfortable Viennese performance
has here been h epped up and speeded up, and
the Viennese players haven't yet quite adjusted to Monteux' way of doing things. But
they're with him most of the time.
Mendelssohn: Scotch Symphony; Scherzo
from the Octet, Op. 20. Boston Symphony,
Munch .
RCA Victor LSC 2520 stereo
It's getting so I r eally don't know what to
say about the many Boston Symphony r ecordings with Munch tha t keep coming a long.
I h ad expected, confidently, that this would
be something special; the companion recording of the "Reformation" Symphony was absolutely superb, to my great delight. (But the
"Italian" on its reverse side struck me as
dull as dishwater.) Instead, though there are
tlashes of the marvelous music-making of the
"Refor mation" r ecording, this one mainly
settles on the usual Munch-Boston t ype of
performing; expert an d impeccably tailored
but somehow listless, dull, surprisingly t ast eless. It happens again and again a nd it must
be Munch. He evokes our enthu siasm mainly
in French works and notably in BerliOZ, whom
he champions as Walter champions Mahler.
To mix metaphors, the current BSO playing
is to me like tasteless velvet. It looks good,
it's polished, beautiful to behold, in the best
of taste, yet minus musical tlavor. The difference is in a mllllon details and, If I 'm
right, in a single pair of musical ear s, that
somehow do not r equire the BSO to play 1I/'uBically In the deepest sense. Munch's ears. Wlio
P.S. And why that tired old orchestral arrangement of the sparkllng Mendelssohn
"Octet," the Scherzo, that gets u sed for every
recording, ever y performance that n eeds a
quick few minutes of "fill," to time! Th e
BSO doesn't need to show off Its playing skill ;
imaginative programming would have found
something better.
a sDgnilicant advance
in high-fidelity reproduction
Thomas Schippers Conducts Opera Over·
tures. Columbia Symphony.
Columbia MS 6238 stereo
(mono: ML 5638)
This Is a good opportunity to assess the
talent and character of this conductorial
wonderboy who has reached top pro status
and isn't yet 30. (Conductors really begin to
go at 75.) The record is decidedly reveallng.
First, of course, Schippers is tlashy and
professional-who wouldn't be in his position
at such an early age? He knows he i s good,
always did, is assured even when he's wrong.
You can hardly expect a young conductor to
work with the mellowness and wisdom of,
say, a Bruno Walter.
Second, the man is excellent a t the warhorse sort of Italian opera material, as here
represented by Verdi and Rossini. (He conducts at the Met now.) He's good, too, at such
special material as the D'Indy impressionism
of one obscure French opera here, and at the
modern conser vatism of hi s mentor, Menottl
("Amelia Goes to the Ball"). An expert and
efficient conductorial workman, Mr . Schippers.
But, third, he is impetuously narrow, still .
His Mozart "Marriage of Figaro" overture is
a coarse desecration of a sensitive and bea utif ul score. It is a war horse, too, but not this
kind, please.
All In all, it looks as though Menotti is a
hot man for Nineteenth century repertory,
with a Franco-Italian slant.
The String Quartets of Franz Joseph
Haydn. (a) Op. 71 . #3; Op. 74, #2, #3.
(b) Op. 71, #1, #2; Op. 74, #3. Griller
String Quartet.
Vanguard VSD 2033, 2044 stereo
(also mono)
Haydn : String Quartets Op. 54, # 1 and
# 2. Amadeus String Quartet.
Angel 45024
(Note: Here'B what 80meti1ltes happens to
(Continued on page 61)
JULY, 1961
Complete including cover, $79.95 kit; $99.95 semi.kit; $119 .95 factory wired and tested
Dynakit specifications are always based
on reality rather than flights of fancy,
so our Dynatuner specification of 4
microvolt (IHFM) sensitivity appears
somewhat archaic when practically all
competing tuners imply greater sensitivity in their advertising. Performance
is what counts, however, so we invite
you to compare the DYNATUNER
directly with the most expensive, most
elaborate FM tuners available.
We know you will find lower distor·
tion, lower noise, and clearer reception
of both weak and strong signals than
you ever expected. You will find new
pleasure in FM listening free of distortion and noise.
Sli9htly higher in the West.
Best of all, the amazing performance
of the Dynatuner is achieved in actuai
home use-and maintained for many
years, since it can be completely aligned
for optimum performance without external test facilities. Thus, after shipment or after tube change, or after any
other source of changing operating
characteristics, the Dynatuner can be
re-instated to peak performance.
Naturally, the Dynatuner includes
provision for an internal multiplex'
adaptor. The FMX-3 will be available
soon and can be added at any time
for full fidelity stereo FM receptionyour assurance that DYNAKIT always
protects you against obsolescence.
Write for d'e tal'ed Informallon on this and other Dynaklts.
DYNACO, INC., 3912 Powelton Avenue, Philadelphia 4, Penna. '
Dave Pell: The Old South Wails
Capitol 5T1512
Leaders of the young modernist groups no
longer n eed look scornful or apologetic, depending upon whether or not the person asking happens to hold the purse strings, when
turning down requests for When The Sa;" ts
Go Marching In, and other standard Dixieland fare . One of Dave Pell's side lines involves publishing stock a r rangements to many
of his a lbums, and the latest one is design ed
to make a dozen two-beat classics palatable
to soft-swin g octets. No less than six top
California arrangers were hired for the job,
and the old tunes receive gentle treatment
at the hands of Marty Paich, Bill Holman,
Med Flory, Bob Florence, Harry Betts, and
Johnny Williams. The leader's tenor sax Is
always soothing, while Jack Sheldon contributes a few lively moments on trumpet. Dixielund stalwarts may not approve, but they
must admit something new has finally happened to the Saint8. Drummer Frankie Capp
sets the right tempos fo r dancers, and the
stereo version sounds quite saint ly.
New Orleans: The living Legends
Riverside 9356/9357
New Orleans jazz never soun ds quite the
same away from its birthplace, and this twoa lbum set is the first in an ambitious series
that was recorded last winter in the French
Quarter. Not only did Riverside dispatch a
c~ew and equipment to record the musicians
on home grounds, but the veterans selected
are tbose who remained in the city for most
of their careers and all play in a style unadulterated by outside infiuences. The American Federation of Musicians recognized t he
historic importance of the project and set
a side union rules so that members and nonmembers appear together for the first time.
Among the twenty-seven men are several
never recorded on modern equipmen t before,
including Louis Cottrell, president of the
Negro musician's local and a sterling clarinetist in his own right. Eight different groups
are represented on the introductory set by
numbers not scheduled for repetition in subsequent volumes, and t h e complete series is
bound to win many new f riends for traditional jazz, besides giving future musicologists a more accurate insight into jazz origins.
Because other commitments prevented
Riverside's Bill Grauer a nd Orrin Keepnews
f r om making the trip, r esponsibility for carr ying out the project was turned over to Chris
Albertson, th e newest member of the producing staff. H erb Friedwald, a young New
Yorker and recent gradnate of Tulane Un iversi ty, acted as his assistant on the ven tu reo
He went down a week in advance to prepare
a recording schedule and line up the hall.
Starting out in a January snowstorm on a
nonstop drive to New Orleans might not be
every engi neer's idea of a good time, bu t to
Dave .Tones it was the "ideal assignment" he
* 732 The PaTkway, MamaToneck, N.Y.
46 ,
had always wanted. In fact, It was the attraction of traditionai jazz that started him
more than a decade ago toward his presen t
career as free-lance engineer. Jones was a lso
called in to work with Riverside'S Ray 'Fowler on the engineering of location dates at
the Five Spot Cafe and Thelonious Monk's
Town Hall concert. When Fowler was unable
to go to New Orleans, Jones gladly loaded
his portable equipment into a station wagon,
picked up Albertson, and made the trip in
less than two days. His two Ampex 350- 2
tnpe reco rders are spring mounted on iron
frames to withstand the jolting of country
roads, and a pair of AR-3 speakers go a long
fo r playback. The best of the old Empirical
recordings boast an open-hall sound that is
em inently suited to traditional jazz, and the
meeting hall picked for the sessions turned
out to be Idea l for achieving the same effect.
Tod ay's equ ipment, Jon es readily admits,
even allows for added improvements.
"In those days," he comments, "the choice
was between the advantages and disadvanta ges of a large hall or a small studio. I could
never see crowding a band into such small
quarters that the artificial aid of an ech o
chamber became necessary, but soloists could
be recorded with greater presence. I always
preferred the natural sound of a good hall,
but Improper balance could easily cause a
blurred, muddy effect. Better microphones,
plus the benefits of stereo, make it a great
deal safer now to record in a hall . I was able
to give Jim Robinson's trombone all the presence it needed, without masking any of the
other instl"Umen ts. I tried for a combination
of the old traditIonal sound and the closer
miking usually given modern groups. Sony
condensor mikes were used, and with Beyer
stereo headphones I rarely needed to listen
to a playback over speakers."
"The hall, which belongs to the Society of
Young Friends, was all I could ask for," Jones
states, "and the mu sicians felt right at h ome.
Albertson gave considerable thought to pickIng numbers not recorded too often before,
if at all, even taking along a few collector's
items he hoped might bring back old memories.
Our orders were to make five albums, but
the music is still there and we came back
with enough material for eight or more. My
only regret is to have missed the bands which
marched for two hours at Alphonse Picou's
funeral a week after we left. Bill Russell a nd
Dick Allen, his assistant on the Tulane Archives proj ect, dropped in to watch us record,
and I thInk R ussell is satisfied that I didn't
fo llow his advice about not getting mixed up
in the recording business."
The sound of the ancient hall, together
with the sharp detail of expert stereo miking,
contribute to the finest recording ever given
New Orleans veter ans, and tbey live up to it
in every way. SInce the local musician's union
withheld its blessing from most recent recording projects, Louis Cottrell's playing is
relatively unknown and jazz encyclopedias
omit the name, even though his father was
the drummer who developed the press roll
and taught Zutty Sin gleton. The son studied
clarinet under Loren zo Tio, who was a lso
Barney Bigard's teacher, and his mellifillous
tone and phrasing are in the same great tra-
dition . His work wi t h Jim Robinson's band
impressed Albertson enough to sch edule an
extra trio session, and ant"icipation for the
r est of t he set rises to fever pitch wih Cottrell's solo on his own You Don't Love Me.
Among other find s uncovered in union
ranks is seventy-year-old "Sweet Emma"
Barrett, a pianist whose only previous reco rdin g with Celestin's Original Tuxedo Orchestra dates from 1925. Known for her custom of wearing red silk garters and ca p
udorned with tinkling bells, she still possesses
remarkable vocal prowess and drives the band
furiously on Sweet E'ln1na' S Blues. Also Em. manuel Sayles, who rec.orded last in 1929 with
the Jon es a nd Collins Astoria Hot ]]igh t, returns to spark t hree separate groups on banjo
or guitar. Albertson hoped to u se Emil Bn rnes,
but the venerable clarinetist was still too
weak after a recent stroke. To make th is
cross-section com plete, Barnes is heard playing in good form with Kid Thom as and his
Algiers S tompers, as recorded by Russell an d
Friedlander l ast summer at Tulane,
With such names as WIllie and Percy
Humphrey, Peter Bocage, Charlie Love, Albert Jiles, Alcide Pavageau and Albert Burbank, the r emainder of the roster reads like
a Who's Who of New Orleans jazz, and topping the list are Billie and Dede Pierce with
their own F1'eight T1-ain Moanin/ Blues. If
futu re volum es fu lfill the promise shown here,
the entire series will comprise an authoritative do cu ment of a music tbat is a lso a way
of life. As reco rdings presented only a partial
view of New Orleans jazz until now, writers
of jazz histol"ies can get ready to revise the ir
estimates of traditional jazz and add a new
chapter on people they never heard before.
But history books have yet to claim the music, and this introd uctory set is a live and
exhilarating listening experience.
Big Miller: Revelations And The Blues
Columbia C58411
After appearing at the Monterey Jazz Festival last year, Big Miller headed for Hollywood where he worked at Shelly Manne's
club and turned out this a lbum of n ewlyminted blues. Miller prepared all the numbers
to order for the date, excepting Lucky Millinder's leisurely Sltt1nber Song, which has Ben
Webster crooning a lullaby on tenor sa." In
t h e background. Tll.e latest developm ents
among local mu sicians in the mar riage of
gospel fervor with the blues shout are covered,
and Miller receives the 'brotherly aId of such
distinguished deacons as Red Mitchell, J im
Hall, P las Johnson, Ernie Freeman, and Ike
I saacs. On The Monterey Story, a collaboration with T eddy Edwards, the singer tells all
about the recen t events further up the coast
and extends an invita tion for everyon e to
come back this year. A rare stereo treat t akes
place when Miller picks up tambourine to
mark the beat with Frank Butler, who again
proves himself as the drummer to hear. The
two hit it oft' just right rhythmically, and
the h efty blues Singer never sounded better.
AI Hirt: Swing in' Dixie
Audio Fidelity AFSD5927
Recent television appearances have introduced Al Hirt to a great many people who
never heard the New Orleans trumpeter before, and some undoubtedly wonder if the
burly, bearlike figure of a man cou ld be Peter
Ustinov in a new disguise. Others simply marvel that such an uninhibited personality and
so much brazen brass ever got on television
in the first place. The majority quickly fall
under the spell of his forcefu l and exci ting
sound, a nd quite a few go out to buy hi s r ecords the n ext day. Hirt is rapidly becoming
one of the hottest items in the stores, which
just goes to show what a little exposure at
the ri ght time can do for a dixieland leader.
Audio Fidelity has the best of Hirt already
stacked away in the catalog, and the fourth
volume presents more of the same, with fiamboyant sextet readings of snch perennial
favorites as Moonglow, D eep River, Memo,',ies
Of You, and Lonesome Road. One of Hirt's
specialties is bright, swing treatments of old
jazz standards, and he romps merrily th r ough
Sonth, Shine, and FarewelL Blues. Good stereo
spread. with Hi rt's horn corning down the
center track like a well-oiled Diesel engine.
JULY, 1961
To explain these technical
specifications to the average layman, in language
, that can be easily understood, all these figures and
curves show that the Gigolo II is more properly
suited for use in some type of professional application, where large surges of power and extreme
frequency reproduction would be needed, rather
than for use in the home.
But, for those people who feel they must impress
their audiophile friends by having the most outstanding performing system in his group, or the
700 CPS
type of person who wants to have that certain feel-
ing of psychological satisfaction which comes with
Frequency response,
29-16000 cps ±8 db
Harmonic distortion '
less than 2% 50-15000 .cps
Impedance curve
within -0% +100% of 8 OHMS
Intermodulation distortion
Free air resonance
35 ,cps
Recommended power
15-60 watts
owning that special piece of audio equipment, we
offer the Gigolo II, so you may compare and prove
this to yourself, or it may be returned on our purchase price money back guarantee.
Following test equipment was used to determine the above
Hewlit Packard 'distortion analyser
General Radio response curve recorder
Tektronix Oscilloscope
Response curve run at continuous 25 Watt .input.
THE A. E. S. GIGOLO II incorporates a newly developed 10"
free edge woofer, a 3" hard cone tweeter, and an electronic
cross-over. The enclosure is made of the finest 3/4 " select
natural birch. The baffle is of the pneumatic loaded design.
The outside dimensions are: 24" long, 13 112" high, 12" deep.
Our grille cloth is supplied by one of the country's largest
manufacturers of acoustic grille material. Your Gigolo II,
comes to you completely assembled, sanded, ready for finishing in either blond, walnut, mahogany, cherry or ebony.
All units sold on 100% MONEY BACK GUARANTEE.
$49.50 Unfinished, F.O.B. Factory
JULY, 1961
A. E. S., Inc.
3338 Payne Ave., Cleveland 14, Ohio
Gentlemen please ship , .
. , Gigolo II , $49.50 Each
I understand these units are guaranteed and if I am not
satisfied I may return for a full purchase price refund.
City and State ... , . , . , , , . , . .
Enclosed find check
. ... money order . .. . . .. . . •
Gloria Lynne; I' m Glad There Is You
Everest SDBRl126
After t urning out a string of LP's with the
backing of studio grou ps and carefully con·
structed arrangements, Gloria Lynne ventur es
on a date accompanied by the trio which has
worl,ed witll her In clubs for more than
e ighteen months. The album title recalls her
memorable television performance of the
Jimmy Dorsey tune on Harry Belafonte's
New York 19, and the fact that it draws the
post position here makes it a hard entry to
beat. Earl May, who heads the trio nnd works
out the arrangements with t he singer's help,
starts a dark horse in Birth a! The Blues,
which in revitalized form Is a sure bet for a
rainy day and muddy track. Several of t h e
songs have graced the winner's circle at one
time or another, including Young And Foolish, Old Man River, and Irving Berlin's
W"at'll I Do. Two that belong there after
this outing are Ronnel Bright's Sweet P1t1npkin', a nd Alex Wilder's Trouble Is A Man.
What lifts this program far above the or·
dinary though is the complete understanding
between Miss Lynne and the trio. May on
bass, Herman Foster on piano, and drummer
Grassella Oliphant anticipate and su btly
reinforce her every vibrant whim. Foster has
several LP's to his credit, but his exceptional
talen t for accompanying a vocalist Is revealed
here for the first time when rich, fullsome
chords fill out the stereo background.
If you're as interested in high quality as
you are in high fide lity, it mi ght be worth
your while to poke around a bit and 10Qk
beneath the shiny exterior of the
component you plan to buy.
Rene Bloch: La Pachanga
Capitol ST1S30
Note the wiring technique, for example.
Is it standard point·to·point wiring,
neat but hard·to·repair printed circuitry,
or mi litary "~ arhessed cable" wiring?
Although much more expensive to praduce,
harnessed wiring does for a tuner, for
example, exactly what it does for
space vehicle electronics- it insures
stability and maintain s perfect alignment
despite the shock and vibration
encountered in shipping.
You'll find harnessed wi ring in all
Sargent·Raym ent nigh·fidelity components.
That's one ·of the reasons S·R is able to
exceed ordinary warranty periods, offering
you a full 15 mon ths guarantee on
every S-R product.
Ask your dealer about Sargent·Rayment's
"seven steps to superior reproduction,"
and, if you're planning a component sys·
tem, ask for a copy of the S-R Hi gh Fidel ity
Planni ng Folder .
• 462 Hester Street, San Leandro 3, California
• 30 Rockefeller Plaza, Suite 3, New York 20, N.Y.
Pachanga is the name of the newest Latin·
American dance craze inspired by a popula r
song written in 1959 by Eduardo Davidson
in Havana and Is all about going to a party
or fiesta . In this country, the dance becomes
the theme, and it involves a conglomeration
of North and Sout h American steps, plus
some waving of pocket handkerchiefs. Originating at the Palladium, a Broadway dance
hall dedicated to La tin rhythms, the dance
spread across town to the fioor of El Morocco
late In the winter, was banned at the Stork
Club, and completes Its journey across the
continent In the album . Rene Bloch, a g raduate of the Perez Prado orchestra, leads his
Hollywood crew In the title tune, include.
three other Davidson compositions, and helps
fi ll ou t the set with four originals of his own.
A choral group supplies lyrics, but the liner
is bare of Instructions as to when the handkerchiefs go into action. Look for a rival
company to package both Items as standard
equipment next month. Until then, enjoy the
a lluring sound of Bloch's fiute aud play catchas-catch-can with the stereo d isplay of com·
pulsive rhythms .
Theodo re Bikel: From Bondage To
Elektra EKS7200
The Wilcox Three: The Greatest Folksongs
Ever Sung
RCA Camden CAS669
Whenever an old fo lk ditty becomes popular
nnd the hitmakers take over, fears nre ex·
pressed that the music soon will be debased
out of existence. As the music is stronger
than ever after all the punishment adminis·
tered over the last decade, it should be
evident by now that the real danger lies in
what happens to the promising young singer
or unknown artist who is suddenly discovered
and launched with all the publicity u sually
reserved for presidential candidates. Being of
show business himself, Theodore Bikel knows
just how far to go and still not alter the
basic character of a song. Bike!'s every performance is a model worth studying, and his
keen sense of theater often leads to the discovery of a new and different set of dramatic
In turn, where a song's emotional content
is concerned, Bikel is always ready to learn
from the people who first gave it meaning
and life. Germany, Israel, Scotland, Spain,
Russia, and Ireland a re among the countries
he visits this time, nnd the quest is for such
rallying cries against tyranny and oppression
us Follow The Drinking Gourd, Scot8 Wha
Hae, und Bising 01 Tile Moon. Bikel finds
th ese freedom songs shure a similarity at
emotion, stemming in many cases from the
same book as the ve rses I saiah, 41, and Ezek·
ial, 37, which he sings to Dov Seltzer 's set·
tings. Fred Hellerman directs the orchestra,
and J ohn Quinn engineered the date.
The Wilcox Three Is a n ew group from
Hawaii, a nd the name comes from the high
school dormitory where the member s fir st go t
together and entertained fellow st u dents.
They may be singing television commercials
next year, bu t a ll are teenager s n ow, full ot
pineapple juice and youthful enthusiasm.
Al ready the leader has adopted a stage name,
changing Douglas Hatlelid, as folksy a BUr·
name as anyone could want, to a showier
sounding Chip D ouglas. His teammates are
Fred Claassen a nd Steve Tilden , and together
they treat ten folk standards like newly dis·
covered toys. Darling Cory, To", Dooley, and
Goodnight, Irene have all w ithstood rough er
handling, and t h ose arranged by Douglas
skim a long as lightly as a surfboard. They
were recorded in Hollywood, and the stereo
version Is well worth the price in vitamins
a lone.
Benny Bailey: Big Bross
Candid 9011
Phil Woods: Phil Talks Wi th Qu ill
Epic BNSS4
Even those jazz fans who remain Indifferen t towards effor ts to bring back big bands
are certain to be warmly r eceptive to small
groups formed from within a band, and this
newcomer Is among t he best. Benny Bailey's
trumpet played an important part In the rise
of the Quincy J ones band, and the leader
takes frequent note of the fact on the stand
by featuring a composition of his own called
AJeet Benn'Y BaHeJJ. Fellow luminaries Phil
Woods, Julius Watkin s, Les Spann, and Buddy
Catlett combine in a septet setting to complete
the Introduction , which also serves to launch
what may be the first of a long series by
members of the band. Bailey, who visited
this country last fall after seven years adroad,
has since returned to Sweden, but the band's
next E u ropean tour should bring them to·
gether again .
Jones refers t o Bailey as a trumpet man
who has autho rity, and there Is no denying
that band experience has given him the power
and glorious tone needed to speak out in any
company. No one who has heard him with
Jones will be surprised at the assurance with
which two blues and swinging band pieces are
handled. He never becomes too domineering,
h owever, and his open and muted horn solos
fiow with gentle lyricism on the ballads, A
Kiss To Build A Drea'nt On, and Alison. The
close camaraderie of t h e Jones band is ev ident throughout, and the leader contributes
the earthy Hard Sock Dance, besides arranging Maud's Mood. Watkins delivers a
searing French horn chorus on Tipsy. Pianist
Tommy F lanagan and drummer Art Taylor
fill out the rhythm section, and Bob d'Orleans
Phil Woods turns out to be the real sur·
prise of the date, complementing Bailey perfectly with a warm, full tone and a more
direct style than he has shown before. He
plays bass cla r inet, in addition to his cusomary alto sax, and seems to have joined
Cannonball Adderley In an exploration of the
blues side of Charlie Parker. A good example
of the pre-Jones stage of the Woods sound
may be found in a stereo conversation with
a lto-saxist Gene Quill on Epic. As both men
are much alike in tone and phrasing, stereo
performs a great service here In punctuating
their remarks clearly in ensemble passages
on Domie I and II, Dear Old Stock llo!?n, and
Scrapple Frol1~ The Apple. Bob Corwin, pianist in the quintet, assists with quotation
marks of his own.
Art Blakey: A Night In Tunisia
Blue Note 5184049
Except for the commencement exercises
used as a lbum title to get thing underway
with a drum showpiece from Art Blakey, this
set consists solely of originals written and
arranged by current members of The Jazz
Messengers. A prime exhibit is Bobby Timmons' So Tired, the latest in the line of succession to the throne occupied by the pianist's
JULY, 1961
zens. This because he states that engineers suitcase-sized bundle. That would mean inare all "conventional-current-flow" men g enuity and forethought; but with some
whereas t echnicians and practical elec- tricky shaping here and there it could be
tronics men are believers in "the unso- brought off handsomely. The speakers, for
phisticated electron flow concept," and are instance, might be L-shaped instead of obtherefore not quite respectable. (What is long, to fit against each other into an obso sophisticated about conventional cur· long carrying unit. You might, furtherrent flow~)
more, fit the record player, folded up, into
Now my hat is off to the many good a SPlice betweel). the speakers when they are
design, development, and other engineers . put together. T,errific! Then, you see, you'd
in the field, but it cannot be assumed that have one single piece of luggage, shaped
all engiueers are in this classification. Too like a small suitcase and easy to tote.
many of these conventional-flow boys are
The records~ Ungh. I hadn't thought ...
mere "paper shuffiers" and "report writers" Well, you'd better plan on toting them
who have specialized so long in a narrow separaely, I guess. But we might offer a
field that they have forgotten what little handy record-tote bag, a foot square and
theory they learned in cOllege. Moreover, with an accordian pleat, for expansion to
many of these have not kept up with the as much as three inches. You could have a
state of the art through continual study. seven-inch pocket, too, inside, accordianAs for the design engineers "who de- folded against one inside wall when not
velop the glorious electronic equipment of used. Or it could snap on, inside or out,
the future, etc." (to quote Mr. Goeller), with ordinary clothes snappers. Use it
what are many of these chaps but "chief
catalog jugglers" ~ Too often they arp.
merely the boys with the largest number
of order catalogs on their desk.
However, there is hope for even these
fellows (in spite of their conventional current-flow concept), since after five or ten
years' association with good electronic
technicians they may pick up a fair electronic theory background.
Then they will no longer try (for example) to self-bias a tube to class A operation with a half-megohm cathode resistor due to a mistake made on their
slide rules.
separately if you have seven-inch records
ouly. Or buy it separately.
The snap-on feature is good; you could
have permanent snap-on fasteners on both
the big and little carriers so that as many '
as three might snap together for bigger
capacity. Carrying belts would be snapexpaudable to fit any record load; just
snap together.
'rhat's enough. I'll expect to put in a
claim for royalties when you get my portable hi fi into production for me.
P .S. WeatherprooH Now come, come!
A weatherproof exterior, plastic or otherwise, and the actual speakers would be
mounted so that their front surface would
be inside the package when packed up for
travel-also the little record player. Nope,
it wouldn't float, and I don't think you'd
be likely to use it out in the pouring rain.
Semi-weatherproof would be plenty.
GRADO IITruly the world's finest. ,,"
1133 N. Lillian Way,
Hollywood 38, Calif.
(We imagine that many engineers who
know their subject and practice it will
"have at" this teacher's letter. ED.)
This month we follow sound underwater
(rather it follows us ) by means of a University unclerwater speaker. Fo/ full details about this speaker read Brociner'.s
article entitled "Sub-marine Sonics" which
starts o'n page 22. By the way-for those
of you who do not possess a dictionarynatatoria means "places for swimming."
Also on the cover we show the stage of
Morris Civic Auditorium in South Bend,
Indiana. If one looks very closely at the
proscenium arch, he will discover two
Electro·Voice model LR4 curved line r a diators. These speakers have more virtue
than being inconspicuous-read about it
in Mr. P awlowski's al·ticle starting on
page 19.
(from page 14)
It isn't easy to set up exact quality
values for such a system, but I am thinking
quite seriously along price-no-object lines.
Well, only some object, anyhow. This system would be good, maximum-gOOd, using
every bit of ingenuity that the mind can
discover, taking advantage of our newest
technology all along the line. It might cost
$150-200 or more. It would be worth it,
and no chance for confusion with a million
"ordinary" portables, made out of plaidcovered cardboard and plywood with cheap
speakers and cheaper amplifiers for their
se-called hi fi. Not that at all. Somethin g
much better. Maybe it ought to cost $300.
All that remains, if you've followed me
this far, is to fix up the carry-ability. We
have two speaker boxes and a purse-sized
player. The idea would be to have th em
snap together, or fit together, into one little
JULY, 1961
We take extreme pride in introducing a new series of electrodynamic, moving coil stereophonic phonograph cartridges
which are destined to completely revolutionize ster~o record
From these cartridges you the . audiophile will realize the
softest, smoothest, most effortless sound you have ever heard.
The disastrous distortions due to overcut records, the harsh,
strident, plastic resonant type stereo sounds are now a thing
of the past.
These cartridges designated "THE CLASSIC SERIES" will
track the most violently complex recorded passages put ,on
records, whether they be on the inner or outer grooves.
Your records will assume a clarity of sound and lack of
distortion beyond your wildest expectations. The complete lack
of surface noise is almost eerie, the tremendous dynamic range and bass response will leave you breathless. The highs have
an infinite quality that makes you suspect a somewhat lack of
highs until they blossom forth with a smoothness that completely
defies comparison. The superb transient separation is such
that a dimensional quality is achieved even with solo recordings.
For a most .rewarding experience, listen to the truest of all
sound the . ..
audiophile net $37.50
For further information write: GRADO LABORATORIES, INC.
4614 Sevenlh Ave., Brooklyn 20, N. Y. • Export - Simonlrice, 25 Warren SI., N. Y. C.
in new high fidelity components.
~?ok beyond th~ sl1 ~Y escutcQeon on"t .
tuner, control cent~r, or amplifier you'r,e
thinking about ... check, among other
things, the distortio)1 characteristics. You
might find some sU,rprising differences .Be.
tween otherwise ~i~ilar components.":
If you should happen to check the harmonic
distortion of a Sa~gent.Rayment
"'Electronic Music-Home Style
believed that, in order
to create olectl'oljic music, a composer
must have nothing less than the sort of
intricate and costly equipment found in,
say, the Northwest German Radio Network,
or the sound laboratories of Phillips at
Eindhoven. Foundation grants, government
subsidies, and academic support all seem
to be as intimately connected to electronic
music as is the ground crew of scientists
to an interplanetary rocket ship. Neverthe·
less, some electronic music actually is made
ill the home. In New York City alone,
three examples come to mind: Edgard
Val' ese, the dean of electronic composers;
Louis and Bebe Barron, the husband-and·
wife team responsible for the score of the
science· fiction movie, Forbidden Planet
(1956); and Tod Dockstader, whose Eight
Electronic Pieces were recently released on
LP. It was refreshing to learn that another
private individual, unknown to Ford, Rock·
efeller, or Columbia University, has been
quietly at work making electronic music
for the past year and a half. His name is
Peter Glushanok, a movie director, musician, and former head of a music school.
Music and photography have been closely
intertwined in Glushanok's life for nearly
25 years. Before World War II, he was a
flute player and music school director. He
* 26 W. 9th St., New Yor7c 11, N. Y.
turned to photography in 1938, converted
the school auditorium's broom closet into
a darkroom, and soon discovered that he
had a natural affinity for pictures, both
still and moving. The war cut short his
administrative career and he obtained a
position with the O.W.I. as a lensman,
eventually becoming a topflight director.
Among his directorial achievements are
numerous films for the U.S. State Depart·
ment; a pair of Martha Graham films,
Appalachian Spring and A Dancer's World;
and Fmncesca, a film produced for the
Foster Parents Plan. In addition, Glushanok did the camera work for "Hymn of
the Nation" (starring Arturo Toscanini
and the N.B.C. Symphony), and conse·
quently earned the unique distinction of
having been the only musician (albeit nonpracticing) ever to give orders to the
Maestro during an orchestral rehearsal.
Glushanok also conducts classes in film
making at C. C. N. Y.
Glushanok lives in a sprawling, thickwalled, high-ceilinged apartment overlooking Riverside Drive. For his electronic
wOlkshop, he has appropriated a corner
room and filled it with musical instruments
and audio gear. He spends virtually all his
non-movie time here, compiling tape cells,
tinkering with his equipment, and putting
together new compositions. The rest of the
household is alive with the sounds of non·
in advance of competitive circuitry.
For engineering p'roof, note the distortiqfl
curve shown here. for listening proof, see
your S·R dealer. Ask him about Sargent·
Rayment's "seven steps to superior repro·
duction," and, if y.pIJ're planning a com·
ponent system. ask for a copy of the ,S·R
High Fidelity Planning Folder .
• 462 Hester Street, San Leandro 3, California
• 30 Rocke feller Plaza, Suite 3, New York 20, N.Y.
Fig. 1. Peter Glushanok and equipment .
(Photo by Harold Lawrence)
JULY, 1961
Fig. 2. Mr. Glushanok operating some of
his sound sources.
(Photo by Harold Lawrence)
electronic music-daughter Judy practices
the piano, son Paul plays jazz trumpet
and percussion, and wife Ruth manipulates
the FM radio dial. When all the Glush·
anoks are at home, a regular Dutch con·
cert takes place. Easily the most energetic
member of the family, 'however, is pere
Glushanok, who often works far into the
night, unmindful of time and hunger pangs.
It all started about 18 months ago with
the purchase of a tape recorder and microphone. Glushanok had always wanted to record his sister, Marusia, a folk singer who
refuses to set foot in a recording studio,
but does not mind recording at home.
Glushanok recorded two recitals of Russian
gypsy melodies, both of which were later
released on Monitor Records (565/ 6). This
recording experience aroused his musical
curiosity, and he became fascinated with
the possibilities of the tape medium. At
first, he experimented with "structurized"
sounds, slamming doors, rapping tables,
and recording voices, prepared piano, violin, and other objects and instruments, all
of which were put through the paces of
variable speed, equalization, and dynamic
change. Monophonic and single-source r ecording, however, quickly proved to be a
technical straight'jacket, and since Glushanok had by now developed a passionate
interest in electronic music, there was only
one direction to take. So, during the next
f ew months, he tramped home cradling in
his arms one audio unit after another. At
the time of this writing, Glushanok possesses the following conmponents: four
tape recorders (a Crown "Broadcaster", a
massive old Crown "Royal", a Magnecord
Model PT6AH, and a Magnecord Model
728); a Marantz 40-watt amplifier with
preamplifier; a B londer-Tongue "Audio
Baton"; a mixing panel; four microphones
(Telefunken Model CM 51, RCA Model
77DX, Electro-Voice contact-type Model
805, and Altec Model 639); a p air of E .
M.L speakers; a reverberation system; and
(Continued on page 59)
JULY, 1961
A proud new achievement! For pure playback of 2 and
4 track stereo and monaural tapes. Superb frequency
response. Installs in hi·fi systems. Has facilities for
adding erase and record heads; 2 outputs for
preamplifiers. Adaptable for language lab and industrial
Ask any owner about this magnificent instrument! In·
corporates into hi·fi systems. Records 4 track; plays
l)ack 2 and 4 track stereo and monaural tapes. Has 3
separate heads and offers Add·A.Track, Sound·On·
Sound, Direct Monitor, Silent Pause, Push Button Control. Remote control .oF" model available.
RfandbeJ'O of America, Inc., 8 Third Avenue, Pelham, N. Y.
• S tereo/ Mono 4-Track Deck. Designed for professional a nd hom e use, the
Eico Model RP-I00 tape deck h as many
th e
exp e n s iv e
models. The RP-I00 includes a 14 tra nsis tor playback a nd r ecord amplifier, electronic push-pull bias-erase oscillator, an d
full -wave rectifier ; a hysteresis-synchronous capstan drive motor, a nd two
heavy-duty, four-pole inducti on m otors
to drive the reels. The entire tra nsport
m ech a ni s m is extremely s imple. There
I't1·1 I I I 1
(» ({)
'~ .,,~
., .'
tors) to low o utpu t FM tun er s (cha r a cteristic of w ide-band r atio detectors).
Unique f eatures of the Model S3MX
a da pter are two fro nt pa n e l switches to
a dd a sharp filter at 67,000 cps (for com plete r e moval of background musical programs) and a hiss filter for u se in fringe
area r eception. Th e power on-off switch
a utom a tica lly returns the stereo adapter
to normal monophonic operation of its ass ocia t ed FM tuner. Complete interconnecting cab l es, in s truction s , and modification
parts are in cluded w ith the a d a pter to improve the stereo performance of most
o lder tuners. The Model S3MX contains
four tubes plus rectifier, and achieves a
sub carrier sensitivity of 100 mv to 2
volts. Hum and noise is 60 db below rated
o u tput, and the audio output is 2 volts at
one-ha lf p er cent distortion. P ower consumption is 20 watts. Mode l S3MX sells
for $69.50 less case. A l so a v a ilable is the
Mode l A3MX, which is similar to the
Model S3MX, but is n ot self powered, and
is designed specifically for u se within the
chassis of the Sherwood M odel s S2200 a nd
S300 0-III. It d oes n ot have t h e s eparate
hiss filt er, a nd t h e 67,000 c ps filter i s in
the c irc uit at all tim es. Th e price of the
Mode l A3MX is $49.5 0. Sherwoo d E lectronics Laboratories, Inc., 4300 N . Ca lifornia Avenue, Chi cago 18, Illinois. G-2
(i'. @®
are only three mecha ni cal link ages in the
deck. E ach head is provided with a four
point professiona l mount, a nd the r ecord
a nd pla y heads h ave la mina t e d mumeta l
pole pieces, intercha nl1e l lTIum etal shield-
ing, a nd mumetal outer shielding. Use of
separate record and playb ack h ead s and
a mplifiers permit off the tape m onitoring,
a nd selected sound-on-sound operation
without changing connections. In pla ying
or recording, a d.c. solenoid ac tuates the
pinch-roller. T ape lifter s are actu ated
by an a.c. solenoid durin g f ast winding.
Controls are a ll electric, a ll pushbutton,
and the "record" button is interlocl{ed
with the "run" button to preve nt inadvertent erasure. The frequency r esponse
at 7 'h ips is 30-15 ,000 cps plus or minus
2 db; noise is 55 db below m a.ximum recording level, and wow a nd flutte r are 0.2
p er cent. At 3 %, ips the frequency r esponse is 30-10,0 00 cps plus o r minu s 2
db, wow and flutter are 0.25 p er cent. The
RP-I00 is a vailable fully wired an d tested,
for $395.00, or as a semi-kit with the entire tape transp ort fully assembled an d
·tes ted, a nd with the electroni cs in kit
form for $289.95. Eico, 33-00 Northern
Boulevard, L ong Island City I, New York.
• AU Transistorized Professiona.l 3-Channel Beoorder. Cl aimed to be the
world 's fir s t a ll tra nsistorized studio
mode l 3-channel tape recorder using onehalf in ch t ape, the Sony Model ES-13 has
been designed fo r broadcasting, phono recordin g , and oth er r equirements for professional qua li ty of r ecording a nd reproduction. The set includes tape transport,
three inde p end ent amplifiers, amplifier
control sec tion, VU meter, cabinet, and
three monitor speaker cabin ets. The tape
transport i s driven by three motors, Is
• Ste'r eophonic Ampli1ier. Featuring comple te control of sound distribution the new Harman Kardon Model
A-500 ampli fier provides the lis t ener with
complete flexibility in adju sting his system to the particula r acou stical characteristics of his room . Specia l features of
the A -500 include a front pa nel "ambiance"
contro l for r egula ting the volum e of a
"center " c h a nnel system, or the volume
of any reverberation units; blend control
indicator la mps to show the ex act degree
of blend; a s tereo hea dphone jack on the
fr ont p a nel which automatically disengages speakers when the headphones are
plugged in, a nd an illuminated pUShbutton o n-off sw itch. It a lso has a s peaker
phas ing switch; individual b a se and treble
tone controls for each channel; a zero to
infinity bala n ce control; a blend control
to eliminate the "hole in the middle" effect by introducing varia ble blend between the two channels; a contour control
to boost the bass of both channels at low
listening levels; separate high an d low
filters to e liminate rumble or record hiss;
a nd a tape monitor switch which permits
monitoring tapes while recording. The
circuit feat ures two 7355 tubes per cha nnel; self-biased, tetrode-connected, in class
AB, operation. The A-500 amplifier .Is
priced at $159.95. It measures 15 ~ -m.
w ide by 5 7/16" h igh by 12" d eep (exc luding knobs) and h as a brushed gold
fro nt p anel. Hannan Kard on, In c. , Pla inv iew, L. I., N. Y .
• Becord Cabinets. The Rockford M o del
106 Record Cabine t is a two-shelf, freestan ding floor unit, designed to match
ot h er Rockford equipment cabinets in
appearance. Its two 20-inch-wide shelves
w ill handle records up to 12-in. in diamet er. It is available with either remova ble
ba se or legs. It is furniture crafted in
natural w a lnut, h a nd-rubbed mahogany,
b londe, or ebony. Rockford Special Furnitu,'e Gompany, 2024 Twenty-third Avenue,
Rockford, Illinois,
• I'M-St&reo Ada.pter. The new S h erwood
Model S3MX is a self-powe red, FM-stereo
a da pter designed to work with a variety
of FM tuners ranging from those with a
high multiplex signal output (such as is
possible from Foster-Seely discrimina-
provided with a stabilizer, plug-in h ead
assembly, an d a n a utomatic tape li fter
which fun ction s during fast winding. The
mode selection utilizes pushbuttons, each
with an indi cator lamp. Th e e lectronic
sec tion i s separated into six different
units , each of whi ch may b e indi vidually
remove d for service. Each Ullit is k eyed
to assure correct installa tion .' The control
panel may be turned over for easy ch ecking, a nd the tape transport can be turn ed
up 1 55 d eg. Th e built-in time indicator
shows how long th e set h as been in operation. Th e built-in voltage stabilized
power supply has a safety d evice to protect th e system when t h e vol tage sta bilizer fails to oper a te. S ony Corporation of
Ameri ca, 514 Broadway, New York 12,
N. Y.
JULY, 1961
Now an FM tuner with multiplex built-in!
NewH. H. Scott FM Stereo Multiplex Tuner
uses Wide-Band design for top performance
Here it is! No adaptor needed! The world's first Wide·Band tuner
designed specifically for multiplex! H. H. Scott's new Model 350
FM Multiplex Stereo Tuner heralds a new era in FM reception.
The FCC, in its recent acceptance of FM stereo multiplex, said
that the approved system " . . . like any multiplex transmission
system, will increase energy transmission at the edges of the chan·
nel involved. Accordingly, for optimum stereophonic reception, the
(tuner's) bandwidth . .. must be considerably greater than that of
monophonic (tuners) . ..."*
From our very first design . .. the revolutionary 310A .. . H. H.
Scott incorpora ted substantially wider IF bandwidth than conven·
tional tuners. This gave better selectivity and usable sensitivity.
The new 350 FM Multip~e x Stereo Tuner incorporates this same
exceptional circuitry allowing reception of even weak multiplex
stations with amazing clarity. You get other benefits, too - the 2
MC Wide·Band detector provides superior rejection of interference
and complete fre edom from drift. The Wide·Band design of the
IF's and detector give the new 350 a remarkable usable sensitivity
of 2.5 }.LV measured by stringent IHFM standards ... one of the
best measurements of a tuner's ability to effectively receive weak
multiplex signals.
If you are considering a new tuner, or addition of an adaptor to a
conventional narrow· band tuner, you owe it to yourself to first
listen to the new H. H. Scott Model 350 Wide·Band FM Multiplex
Stereo Tuner. Its sup eriority in so und quality . . . its ability to
receive weak multiplex signals . . . its complete fre edom from
drift . . . are so dramatically different that you will not want to
settle for less.
Impodant Technical Information
Usable (IHFM) Sensitivity: 2.5 j1.v. 10 tubes , 11 diodes. Famous H. H. Scott
silver plated front end. Tuning meter. Performance matches FCC transmission
specifications. Can receive either monophonic or stereo multiplex programs.
Special circuitry for perfect stereo tape recording . Dimensions in handsome
accessory case 15 1/2" W x 51/4"H x 131/4" 0. Matches styling of all H. H. Scott
amplifiers. $199.95, East of the Rockies.
*see paragraph 36, FCC Report and Order, Docket no. 13506 , 4/19/61. Emphasis ours.
Wide -Band Multiplex Adaptor
Important News for
H. H. Scott Tuner Owners
H. H. Scott has once again protected your
investment against obsolescence. Your tuner,
regardless of age or model, can be quickly
convert~d to multiplex with the new Mo.dei
335 Wide·Band Multiplex Adaptor. Because
of H. H. Scott's unique no-compromise Wide"
Band design, we can guarantee superior multiplex reception only when the 335 and p n. ,.
H. H. Scott tuner are used together. 5 tubes, "
8 diodes. $99.95 , case extra.
H. H. Scott, Inc. Dept. 035·07
111 Powdermill Rd., Maynard, Mass.
Please rush me full details on your Wide·
Band Multiplex Tuner and Adaptor. Include
new 1961 catalog.
Name ________________________
Address ------------ - ---------City_______ Z one~tate ______
Export: Morhan Exporting Corp., 458 Broadway, N.Y,C.
• PJa.yback CompeWla to·r . I ntended to recreate f u ll dynam ics in home playback
systems, the new Fairchild "Compander"
was developed from operating data comp iled by the professional produ cts d ivis i on of F airchild. T he "Com pander" complements in p layback many of t h e controls
placed on recordings due to the geometric
limitations of the disc an d the magnetic
limitations of tape. T he device scans the
ou tp u t of the h o m e playback amplifier,
a n d dyn amically increases h igher level
signal s in orde r t o recreate the d ynam ics
of t he stu dio or con cert h all performan ce
w h ich existed before a n y contro ls were
placed up on the recor din g. The u nit does
n ot affect l ow-level or m e d i u m -level passages. F eatu res of the unit i ncl ude a c tion
indicators w h ich v i s u a lly show operation
of the sensing device, plu s providing a n
insight into left a nd r ight i nfor mation on
a nd inpu t of the amplifier . All necessary
cables are provi d ed. The "Compa n der"
d oes not intr oduce d istortion becau se it
i s n ot in itself an amplifier, onl y a sensing
an d control device. It is d efinitely n ot a
reverb eration d evi ce. Pri ce is $75. 00. F alrc h ild Record ing E q u ipmen t Corp., 10-40
45th Avenu e, Lon g Island City 1, N. Y .
the disc or tape; threshhol d control s; and
t h e abili ty of the device to be reversed
and u sed as a level control in home tape
recording, or p u blic add ress. The "Compander" is comp lete and r equires no a .c .
so u rce. It is connected to both the output
• I'M Receiver. Desi gned to provide background m u sic for office and home, the new
Grommes Model 510 FM tuner-amplifier
should be of particular interest to doctors
and dentists, as well as other b u siness
offices w h ere backgr ou n d m u sic is desired. The Model 510 is a complete FM
tuner, preamplifier, and amplifier in one
compact attractive u nit. T he amplifier has
phono, tape, and microphone inputs. The
microphon e input e n ab les t he u nit to function as a public address system a t the
same time it is providing background
m u sic. Contro ls inclu de l oudness, bass,
and treble, and t h e t u ner section has a
three-gang tuning u nit with an e lectronic
tuning eye. The circuit consists of two
broa d-band Lf. stages, d ual limiter s, and
a r a tio detector. T he price of the Model
510 is $149.95. An enclosu re is available
for $10.00. Grommes, D ivision of Precision E lect ronics, I nc., 9101 King Avenue,
Franklin Park, Illinois.
G -7
• Thin Loudspea ker System . The n ew
"Sonoteer" speaker system introdu ced recently by A u dax, employs five speakers
b u t measures on ly four inches thick. Featuring a return to t he open baffie p r incip le, the "Sonoteer" pro duces the figureeight sound patter n u s u a lly ass ociated
with this type of speaker moun tin g . T hus
greater cover age can be achieved if this
speaker is appropriately placed. Housed
than meets the eye!
Other Amperex Tubes for Quality
High-Fidelity Audio Applications:
• Contact potential 0;8v Max. for lower dis- 6CA7/EL34: 60 w. di st r. load
20 w., pus h-pull
tortion in input stage
6BQ5/EL84: 17 w., pu sh·pull
ELB6: 25 w., high cu rrent,
• Tongue-mica clamp on cathode for major 6CW5/
low voltage
reduction in microphonics
6B M8/ ECL82: Tri ode-pentode,
8 w., push-pull
• Double helical tungsten filament for less VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS
6267/EF86: Pentode for pre-amps
hum and greater reliability
• 12AT7/ ECCB1 Twi nTriodes, low
ECC82 hum, no ise a nd
• Cleaner cathode to eliminate spurious noise 12AU7/
12AX7/ ECCB3 mic rophon ics
• €BL8/ EC F80: High gai n, triode·
• Production virtually 100% automated for pe ntode , lo w hum, noi s e 'and
• micro phonics
unrivalled tube uniformity
6V4/ EZ80: Ind irectly heaied, 90
Introduced by Amperex in 1955, the 12AX7/ECC83 easily outper·
lormed all competing tubes of its type. )lmperex continued devel6CA4/EZ81: Ind irectly heated,
opment, made further improvements and refinements. The result is
150 mA
good news lor the designer. For, in its present Amperex version,
5AR4/GZ34: Indirectly heated,
250 mA
the 12AX7/ECC83 is a rugged, super·uniform twin· triode, purged,
lor all practical purposes of hum and microphonics and available
at lully competitive prices.
Applications engineering assistance and detailed data are always
available to equipment manufacturers. Write: Ampe rex Electronic
Corporation, Spec ial Purpose Tube Division, 230 Duffy Avenue, •
, Hicksville, Long Island, New York.
about hi-fi tubes
for hi-fi circuitry
in an oil rubbed waln u t frame with a
filigreed pattern of matching wood over
the speaker c l oth, the "Sonoteer" weighs
only 18- lb. and costs $79.95. The "Sonoteer Contemporary" Model CA-70 is the
first in the Sonoteer's series which wi ll
include cabinets of tradition al, c lassic,
a n d provincial designs. Rek- O-Kut Company, I nc., Corona., N. Y.
JULY, 1961
(from page 36)
oscillator, a 6AR5 pentode, is locat ed in
the left amplifier and supplies bias and
erase, respectively, for both heads. Except
for this, both amplifiers are identical. Bias
frequency is 60,000 cps.
During recording the signal from either
a microphone, a phonograph, or a radio
tuner is fed to the grid of the 12AD7 amplifier section and from there to the 12AD7
driver section, and then to the 6BQ5. It
is then fed to the record head while at the
same time the oscillator is supplying the
appropriate bias. Separate equalization
circuits for 7% or 3%, ips are built in and
switch selected.
As previously noted, the components in
the electronic section seem to be of good
quality and are mounted on terminal
boards, which seemed rather thin in view
of the quality level established by the mecha.nical components. In this vein, the
wiring also did not seem to be of the level
one might expect from the mechanical section.
The performance of the Roberts Model
990 can be divided into two sections: mechanical and electrical. Let us consider the
mechanical performance first. Wow and
flutter is less than 0.12 per cent rms. This
puts it in a very exclusive category. Frequency response during record at 7% ips
is 40 to 13,000 cps, ± 2 db. As we noted
before, as an operational mechanism, the
Model 990 performed exceedingly well,
handling tape with gentleness and firmness,
and never losing control. The mechanism
which shifted the heads operated exceedingly well and placed the heads precisely
where they were supposed to be.
The electronic performance did not quite
measure up to the mechanical performance.
Harmonic distortion was 5 per cent at 5
watts output in the playback position of
the audio amplifier. Somehow we got the
feeling that this machine was intended
primarily as a recorder, to be played back
over a more elaborate system thaJl the one
contained beneath its wooden exterior.
In summation, the Robe·r ts 990 tape recorder is a precise, sturdy tape recorder
which should provide many, many years of
excellent service. Although it is near the
top of its category in quality, it is hardly
at the top in price. All in all, it is quite
a good buy for the serious amateur recordist.
Transformers for Transistor Circuits
Input Transfomers
Power Transformers
Output Transformers
Choke Coils
( <';:..:
••. :~r.
{iS~1'lIi'6),'1\'<. "':
L , D.
460, Izumi-cho, Suginami-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Do you know where you can find information about
the current articles in magazines about microwaves, loudspeakers, television
repairing, electronic musical instruments, traveling-wave tubes, transistor
amplifiers, oscilloscopes, or any other electronic subject?
(from page 38)
antenna, if desired, and terminals are provided inside the back cover for an external
FM antenna. For normal use, however, the
two telescoping antenna rods (which collapse and form an integral part of the
carrying handle) are sufficient. With an
external antenna, sensitivity is rated at
7 !J.v on FM. The unit, which weighs 3.2
pounds, is attractively styled with a black
plastic case and gold colored perforated
metal front.
In view of the CD recommendation that
every home should have a battery powered
radio, this one can well serve for both entertainment and Conelrad reception. To
this end, the 640 and 1240 points on the
AM dial are indicated by a red arrow.
After using the TFM-121 in a variety of
locations over a period of more than six
months, we are firmly of the belief that it
has become indispensable to us.
JULY, 1961
Not a new publication, but one which for over ten years has served engineers,
libraries, experimenters, researchers, hobbyists, radio amateurs, radio and TV
repairmen, and anyone else connected with radio or electronics. Covers radio,
television, electronics, and related subjects, and published bi-monthly as a
cumulative index throughout the year, with the last issue of the year an
Annual which may be kept as a permanent record of all electronic periodical
LECTRODEX-the electronic magazine index-has been expanded to include over twenty five publications in the radio and electronics fields. Sold
by subscription only, $3.00 for one year, $5.50 for two years. Back Annuals
are available for the years 1947, 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955,
1956, 1957, 1958 and 1959 at $1.00 per Annual Postpaid. Order your
subscription and Annuals today! ! !
P.O. Box 629,
Mineola, N. Y.
([1'om page 32)
This is our
Now you, your friends and co-workers
can save $1.00 on each subscription
to AUDIO. If you send 6 or more subscriptions for the U.S., Possessions and
Canada, they will cost each subscriber
$3 .00 each , 1f4 less than the regular
one year subscription price . Present
subscriptions may be renewed or extended as part of a group. Remittance
to accompany orders.
AUDIO is still the only publication
devoted entirely to
Broadcasting equipment
Home music systems
PA systems
Record Revues
(Please print)
Address .........•....... . . .. . .•.....
D New . ..... . . ..
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. .... ... ...... .... . .•• ••..••..
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to phase ~ We can go on rever sing leads
in this fashion "ad nauseum," or we
can decide that it is not worth the trouble
for a difference in sound so subtle as
to be almost non-apparent.
Fortunately, there are one or two
approaches to the problem that are
more sane than this.
Co I01'-coded leads. If all components
of a stereo system from source to speaker s are matched, phasing becomes easier
A very simple expedient is to use colorcoded connecting leads between the amplifier output terminals and speaker terminals. The color coding merely insures
that both speakers are connected to the
amplifier terminals in an identical fashion. If the common terminal of amplifier
channel A connects to terminal 1 of our
left sp eaker, we must similarly connect
the common terminal of amplifier channel B to terminal 1 of our right speaker.
It may reasonably be assumed that if the
speakers are attached in an identical
manner, the system is properly phased. 2
This is all well and good for completely
matched stereo channels. What about
non-matched stereo systems using components which differ from one channel
to another?
Th e phase-revm'sal switch. With nonmatched stereo systems, a listening test
is the most practical way to determine
proper phasing. A phasing switch will
make such a listening test easier and
more practical to perform; and regardless of 'w hether a system is matched, the
switch is a useful adjunct. Most r ecently marketed stereo amplifiers incorporate a phasing switch as one of the
front panel controls. While this is convenient, it is not necessarily the best
place in the system for such a switch.
An otherwise good stereo amplifier
should not be rejected merely because
it has no phasing switch. Such phase
reversal is usually accomplished between
the output transformer and the speaker,
but at least one r ecently introduced
stereo preamplifier incorporates a phaser eversal control that operates by selecting between cathode or plate output of
one of the electron-tube stages in one
stereo channel. This method of phaser ever sal opens up a whole new realm of
control possibilities for stereo, including
phantom center-chaunel output from
conventional two- channel amplifiers
null balancing of system levels, and
positive determination of program source
phasing. Discussion of this method of
phase-reversal is beyond the scope of
this article.
We can make a phase-reversal switch
of our own that will be easier to use
than the built-in variety. An inexpensive
double-pole double-throw toggle switch
wired according to F ig. 2 is all that is
needed to reverse the phase of one stereo
channel quickly and at will. The advantage of this home-made variety is that
it may be made with leads long enough
to reach the stereo center-axis where
listening t ests must be performed. In
most setups the stereo amplifier is located
at some distance from this critical listening zone, and if the phasing switch is
mounted on the amplifier it will be
necessary to enlist the aid of an assistant to ' throw the switch while you take
up a fixed listening position along the
stereo center-axis to make A-B listening
com parisions.
B alancing the system. Before the system can be phased by ear, it must be
properly balanced for levels. Although
there are numerous meters and null
devices being offered as aids in setting
stereo system balance, the best method
still involves a listening test using monophonic program fed to both channels.
In fact, nearly all meters and nullbalance devices must be initially calibrated by ear. The monophonic source can
be fed to both channeds simultaneously
or individually. It is important to sit
2 If you are unsure which is terminal 1 on
a particular speaker take a flashlight battery and attach leads to the positive and
negative terminals. Touch leads to terminals of speaker. Note which way the speaker
cone moves. Mark positive terminal. Repeat
the procedure with the other speaker, marking the positive terminal when speaker cone
moves in same direction as previous speaker.
Consider the positive t erminal as terminal 1.
( B)
Fig. 2. Wiring and schematic diagrams for
double-pole double-throw toggle switch
used to reverse polarity in one channel
of a stereo system . One pair of leads is
attached to the amplifier output terminals, the other pair to the loudspeaker
JULY, 1961
along the stereo center axis when balancing the system by ear. It will help to
have an assistant switch back and forth
between channels and adjust levels, while
you maintain a fixed position along the
axis. If you prefer to feed both channels
simultaneously rather than individually,
your assistant will merely adjust levels
at your direction until you are satisfied
that the apparent source of sound is
roughly centered between speakers, so
that neither speaker is overpowering the
other. It is suggested, that a final touchup balancing check be made from your
favorite listening chair, after the system
has been properly phased.
Proper use of the phase-?'eve?'sal
Switch. Continue to feed a monophonic
signal to both channels. It may help to
employ a substantial amount of bass
boost, being sure to boost both channels
equally. A recording of a single male
voice or solo instrument seems easier to
phase than some other program sources.
In some cases, it may even help to play
the r ecording at a slower speed. Place
yourself along the stereo center-axis and
at about the middle of its length . Switch
the phase-reversing switch back and
forth while listening carefully to the
sound. If you cannot r each the switch
from your listening position, have your
assistant switch according to your instructions. The difference between inphase and out-of-phase operation should
be readily discernible. ' The in-phase
mode will cause the sound to come from
a definite spot about half-way between
the speakers. In the out-of-phase mode I
the sound will lack this apparent single,
centrally-located source; and will float
vaguely about the room. It will seem to
come from the two speakers that it is
really coming from, rather than a single
phantom source between the two speakers. Many people find it helpful t o close
their eyes while listening for this single,
phantom-source that indicates proper
phasing. If you have trouble determining
the properly phased mode of operation;
move in or out along the cent er axis
and try again. Also, try a different
source of monophonic program. If this
fails, and you find yourself becoming
increasingly confused; it is better to
give-up temporarily and try again at a
la tel' tim e.
Chances are, however, that if you
follow the foregoing instructions you
will have little trouble in phasing your
system. Once properly phased, you will
be able to sit back and enjoy your stereo
system, f ully confident that it is not
suffering the sometimes subtle, sometimes acute degradations of inlproper
phasing. Be sure to mark the phasing
switch, or remember its normally-phased
setting. The only time you need to
change this setting will be to accommodate an odd-ball, out-of-phase stereo
program source. If you are ever in doubt
about the phasing of a particular program source, be sure to r eturn to monophonic operation when making a listening check of that source.
with University's
weatherproof high fidelity
(from page 53)
a special switching unit designed to r eplace patch b ays. As for the musical
sources, there are numerous bells, cymbals,
a Balinese gong, an African Mbira, a
Clavioline, a battered piano, and a set of
kettledrums. In a pinch, GluS'hanok also
borrows his son's percussion instruments.
All this can hardly rival the elabor ate facilities available to such composers as
Stockhausen, Schaeffer, Us sa chev sky, Luening, and Gassmann (see AUDIO, May 1961),
but it see ms to serve Glushanok's purpose
for the time being. With these tools, he
has already produced a large number of
electronic works, including a commissioned
score for Audio Productions.
It should be noted that, less than two
years ago, Glushanok was no more f amiliar
with the process of sound r eproduction
than with the insides of an IBM computer.
But, with the help of his friend, Irving
Glasgal (an ex-lawyer, now fre e-lance
audio engineer ), he h as made up for lost
time, r avenously devouring information
on audio theory and practice. Hearing him
describe the steps he has taken to secure
the b est possible signal-to-noise ratio
would warm the cockles of an engineer's
heart. Glushanok makes no show of his
newly acquired knowledge, leaving the
technical details to Glasgal, to whom he
JULY, 1961
will often say: "This is what I want. Can '
it be done ' " Glasgal accordingly built the
mixing panel and reverberation box, and
rewired so much of the other equipment
that, in some cases, only the shells remain
of the original units.
Glushanok's entry into electronic music
was no less precipitous than his plunge
into audio. He knows no electronic composers, and 'h ad heard few electronic works
until two months ago. This does not mea.n
that he was unaware of this "new la.nguag," or disinterested in other men's work.
"Self-isolation," Glushanok explained, "i s
sometinles necessary to find one's footing
in a new field. Several year s ago, I was
commissioned to shoot a film of the Buc1apest String Quartet in the Elizabeth
Sprague Coolidge Auditorium of the Library of Congress. Someone informed me
t hat another movie had been made in the
same hall with the Coolidge Quartet, and
I was asked whether I would be interested
in seeing it. I replied that I certainly
wou ld like to view the film, but only after
I ha d completed mine. I had purposely
avoided that picture because I realized
that, consciously or otherwise, it might
a ffect my own approach to the subj ect,
and I preferred to start fresh. Similarly,
when I began to write electronic music, I
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No. 124
A new compendium of AUDIO knowledge.
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Right up to date, a complete course on
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Your cost ONLY $5.00 POSTPAID
This offer expires July 31, 1961
Cood only on direct order to Publisher
CIRCLE 05100
AUDIO Bookshelf
P.O. Box 629, Mineola, New Yor~
Please send me the books I have circled below. I am enclosing the
full remittance of $ .............................. (No. C.O.D.)
All U.S.A. and CANADIAN orders shipped postpaid. Add 50¢ ror ·Foreign orders
(sent at buyer's risk).
_______________ ADDRESS _________________________
CITY__________________ ZONE--STATE
...._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
buried myself in my room, learned how to
use all my equipment, and accumulated a
large library of basic sound materials.
Now I'm eager to listen to other electronic
music, only because I've mastered the basic
techniques of my medium and produced a
respectable output of electronic works."
What direction has Glushanok taken in
his SOlitary labors' Not a pure electronic
composer, he chooses his raw material
mainly from nature, and only occasionally
from electronics. He uses no oscillators. In
fact, the only electronic source in Glush-
anok's work consists of controlled feedback. All others are electronically-treated
sonorities derived from traditional instruments, voices, and objects and instruments
i of indeterminate pitch. His use of melodic
material sets him apart from the musique
.concrete school. He really belongs to the
company of multi-source composers. Disagreeing with those electronic men who
believe that there is no life left in "traditional" music, Glushanok insists he is "not
ready to sound the death knell of 'live'
(from page 10)
Norman Luboff: Apasionada
RCA Victor LSP 2341
Mel·a chrino Strings: Music of Jerome Kern
RCA Victor LSP 2283
In its second release on this label, the
Luboff choir moves in to higher gear. Unlike
the introductory album issued some months
ago, designed for the most part to acquaint
RCA dealers and customers with the choir's
versatility, this recording finds Norman
Luboff settling down to the exploration of a
single theme. All the songs in this collection
have some sort of Latin-American background.
Real old timers such as La Paloma, aieUto
Lindo, and Ay, Ay, Ay rub shoulders with the
less well-known Apasionada and Amorita.
The engineering concept on the part of RCA's
West Coast crew fo llows accepted practice,
duplicating in the living room the normal
image of a highly-trained mixed choir.
The relaxed and seemingly effortless style
of the Melachrino Strings and Orchestra finds
an ideal outlet in the music of Jerome Kern.
As in earlier albums by this organization
that summarized the output of Sigmund Romberg and Victor Herbert, Melachrino now
concentrates on the top favorites in the
Kern treasure house. In terms of solid listening enjoyment, this gimmick-free disc should
be money in the bank for as long as you own
it. No matter how frantic becomes the search
for thansitory novelty in some segments of
the record industry, it's good to report that
most of the major labels continue to meet
their responsibilities in turning out releases
of lasting value
(from page 45)
well-intended reviews, in our ejJol·ts to fit
them into available pltblishing space. These
discs were I'eceived in late 1958, for the Angel,
ancl the sltmmer of 1959, for the Vanguards,
and I reviewed them for the September issue
-1959. But space disalZowecl, and back they
came a<l overmatter. I tr'ied agaill-and again,
this review got into the not-published category. A year ago I ,nacle up a compendiurn 01
accumulated reviews-not-used, but once more
the jina: placed this same review in the overmatter and back it came, unpublished. I tried
still again for August, 1960---1£0 luck.
Now, with the hope that it still says something, [',n trying once again, with apologies
for the delay! E.T.a.)
Haydn quartet nomenclature is painfully
hard on the eyes (as above) but the music
is good for the ears, decidedly. You're not
likely to exhaust the supply of these quartets
in you r casual listening-there are eightyodd, composed over a long span of years, and
even the very earliest, virtually the first true
string quartets ever written, are masterfully
composed. There's a little serenade movement
from one of the very first that is often heard
in restaurant and mood music form, for Instance. (It's better where it belongs, with four
solo strings.)
Vanguard's Griller Quartet is the leading
British group, mature (1928), seasoned, In
today's fast-moving musical world a pleasingly
old-fashioned quartet with a big, poetic sound,
rather lush, a reverent musical approach that
makes the most of every musical detail in relati vely leisurely fashion. The Haydn Quartets
don't suffer at all under this treatmentindeed, it avoids both the overly high-power
speed treatment and that slightly prim, overfussy sound that are often associated with
Haydn quartet playing today. Perhaps there
i~ more in tensi ty of playing to be found in
the work of other quartets"":'Budapest, for Instance--a longer line and more sublety of
phrasing; but the Grillers make up for this
in warmth, humanity, and vigor. Their playing is excellent for inquiring minds who want
to know what quartet music is like under
good home listening conditions.
Angel's Amadeus Quartet is a younger group
(tbree of them were five years old when the
JULY, 1961
Griller was founded), nominally British but
actually three-quarters Austrian; its name is
Mozart's middle name. Its playing is correspondingly more of a contemporary sort, leaner,
somewhat drier and less Romantic, with more
emphasis on over-all shape and structural details, less on leisurely melody on the loose. In
corresponding fashion, Angel's recording is
drier, closer, the string tone more edgy and
leaner than Vanguard's for the other group.
Stereo (in Vanguard) is importan t in defining the space in which the music is played,
rather than as a means for separating the
instruments. (They don't spread out · in a
straight line, in any case.) You won't worry
as to whether the cello is heard on the right
or the Jeft-it's unimportant. What counts is
the stereo room-realism. That's plenty, and it
justifies a great deal of excellent chamber
music stereo, right down to single instruments, in a realistic space.
Brahms: Intermezzi. Glen Gould, piano.
Columbia MS 6237 stereo
(mono: ML 5637)
The fabulOUS Glenn here turns his somewhat moody attention to that quiet, lush,
highly involved piano music of the old man
Brahms, the "Intermezzi" of Opus 76 (somewhat earlier) and 117, 118 and 119, composed
in the thoughtful twilight of the last years,
phySically easy to play, musically of a high
concentration with elements of the late Beethoven style transmuted into Brahms-shifted
accents, harmonies ahead of the beat, overlapping chords. It takes a big hand but no
great technical mastery to play these. It takes
an acute musical ear to sense their lateRomantic intracacies.
Gould has the ear and the sensibility for
this type of music as not too many young
pianists do. This is a fine recording principally because of that: he hears the music.
(In true turn-of-the-century style, he discovers and brings out all sorts of inner
melodic lines that most performers will not
have noticed in years of playing.)
As for styling, Gould is his moodily Romantic self, a young man's romanticism and
not really t he seasoned, introspective thinking
of the matu re Brahms. As always, he is uninhibitedly mannered. His excessive rubato
(uneven hesitations, used to ma ke an effect)
will annoy mos t pianists and many listeners .
And, in his own special style, not one of these
works is made loud and showy, not even those
which a r e occasionally given that treatment
by more impatient pianists. All is quiet and
subdued; but t he sense is highl y musical, the
comprehension acute. Can't ask for more.
(from page 27)
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• . JULY, 1961
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AUDIO UNUMITED 190-A Lexington Ave.
New York 16, N. Y.
CIRClE . 63C
Please notify our ·Circulation Department
at least 5 weeks in advance. The POlt Office
does not forward magaxines sent to wrong
destinations unless you pay additional postage, and we can NOT duplicate copies sent
to you once. To save yourself, us. and the
Post Office a headache, won't you please
cooperate? When notifying us, please give
your old address and your new address.
Circulation Department
P. O. Box 629 , Mineola, N. Y.
JULY, 1961
In a series of appointments coinciding
with the consolidation of UST functions
at the B loomfiel d, N. J. office, Herbert L.
Brown, Ampex V. P . announced the appointment of T ed Wallerstein, Dick Blase,
and John Spellman. T ed Wallerstein, formerly PreSident of Columbia Records, will
assume responsibility for the operation of
UST. Dick Blase, formerly Manager of
Felsted Division of London Records, has
been appointed National Sales Manager.
John Spellman, UST's Product Manager,
will now also manage production and
service functions. All of UST's production
and a dministrative functions will now
center in the East, except for m astering
and central accounting.
Bell Sound and Bel Canto Merga Ma.rketing'
K . L. Bishop, General Manager of Bell
Sound Division, h as been assigned the
responsibility for a ll consumer products
divisions of Thompson Ramo Wooldridge,
Inc. R. A. Molloy will continu e as Manager of Bel Canto, but Mr. Bishop will
supervise the operation. Combining the
marketing operations is intended to increase the efficiency of both divisions as
well as to strengthen their mutual positions in the tape and tape recorder industry. To make this combined effort
more effective, Bel Canto will move its
operation to the n ew Bell factory being
constructed in Worthington, Ohio. The
move is expected to be completed in December.
H a rwood P,R. Director by Shure
Formerly serving as the firm's advertising manager, H. T . Harwood has been
named to direct all phases of Shure
Brothers stepped-up promotional program,
including sales promotion, advertising,
and pub l ic relations. Prior to this new
appointment, Harwood was advertising
manager for 15 years.
Scott of AJllUI.polis renamed "Ra.venswood"
Scott, a brand name used by Annapolis
Electroacoustic Corp., wi ll be changed to
"Ravenswood" as the result of a co urt decision, according to Leon J . Knize, president of the company which has been
marketing "reflection coupler" stereo
spea k er systems.
If you enjoy compl ex tests
requi ring app li cation of advanced audio electronics
knowled ge, wou ld like to
plan, conduct and report
on assigned projects, appreciate non - commerc ial
research , suburban laboratory location, satisfac tion
of see ing your work pubIished , and if you have 5
vears minimum f' 12ctronics
experience , Consumers
Uni on (non-profit, independent testing orga nization) has cha lI eng i ng opportunity for you Sa lary
open For further information , call Mr. Na ge l, MO
4-6400, or write:
now hear this!
You are looking at the new ADC- I stereo
cartridge. It is the most effortless cartridge
available today. You'll hear subtleties of
timbre and tone you never suspected were
in yo ur discs. Hear it a t yo ur favorite dealer.
Har. Kar. A230-30W Stereo Amp _ _ $109.95
Har. Kar. T230-FM/ AM Stereo Tuner
w / cage
__ ._____ . _____._____ ___________ 119.95
Norelco AG1024-4/ Sp. Stereo Changer
Audio Empire #108 Stereo Diam . Cart
2-Jensen .. 3 Way spks. (12" woofer,
8" midrange, 3" Tweeter & Cross ..
over mounted in beautiful walnut
bookshelf cabinet) __________________________ 119.00
All Interconn.
Cables __
Send for FREE
Quotations on
Catalog Price _ $427.40
Your Package or YOUR COST _ 255.00
Save Over
Single Component You
40% _ _ $172.40
If T-230 Tuner not required, deduct $65.00.
Tes t our " We Will Not Be Undersold Policy."
7" Spools - Splice Free· Freq . Resp . 30·l5KC
3-11 12-23 24&Up
12A 1200' Acetate $1.29 $1.17 $ .99
18A 1800' Acetate
IBM 1800' Mylar
2 .49
24M 2400' Mylar
Quantity discounts on a ny assortment. Add
15¢ per spoo l postage. 10¢ 24 or more.
CANTO 2 & 4 Track. Write for Complete Catalog FREE, and Wholesale Discounts.
Reg. $8.95 Spec. $3.95
Deluxe Tape Splicer
Foam Rubber Cushioned Stere ophones with
Imp. matching un it
Reg. 24_95 Spec. 14.95
Easy Time Payment Plan 10% Down Up to 24 Mos. to Pay
Acoustic Research, Inc . . . . ... .. . ... . .
A. E. S., Inc . . .. .... .. . • . . . ..•......
Allied Radio Corp ..•.. .. . .. . . . . .. .. ..
Altec Lans ing Corporation •........ . ..
Am perex Electronics Co rp. . . ......... .
Apparat us Development Co. . . . .... . . . .
Aud io Bookshe lf • . . . . . .. . . ... . • . . . . .
Audio Dynam ics Corporation ......•...
Audio Fidelity Records .. .. . .... . ..•..
Audio Unlim ited ..• ••..•..•........•
Cl assified .. . . . . .. .... . ..• . .. . ..• . .• 62
Consume rs ' Unio n _ ................. . 63
lAFAYEnE WOOD CHANGER BASE .. ......................... .. . 3.95
COAXIAL SPEAKERS @ 29.50 EACH .. .................. ~
Regular Catalog Price 236.80
Be ll Telephone Labo ratories ......••. .. 18
British Ind ustries Corporatio n ....... . . 3
brilliance of stereo, featuring Lafayette's
remarJuitile U:250A, 50-watt stereo amplifier.
......r..,uft •• _;,.
HI-FI STEREO SYSTEM with mahogany,
walnut or blonde changer base (specify
fi nish).
HS-l0.3WX .......... 5.00 Down .......... 19~. 50
Same as HS-I03WX, plus 2 lafayette
Eliptoflex Series Bookshelf Enclosures in
mahogany, walnut, blonde or oiled walnut finish (specify fin ish)_
HS-l04WX .......... 10.00 Down ,....... 257.50
Dynaco, Inc. .. . •....... . ...•. .. . . . . 45
EICO ....... .. •..•• • • .. • . _ ...••.• ••
Electronic Applications, Inc . . ..• . . . . ...
Electro- Sonic Laboratories, Inc . . . . .•.. .
Electro-Voice, Inc .•.• •• •••• .... . .. • . .
Ele ct ro-Vo ice Sound Systems, Inc ...• . •.
Fairchild Record ing Equipment Corp . ...• 62
Fishe r Radio Corporation . . ... . . . . . • . . . 9
Fukuin Ele ct ric W orks ••...... . • . . . • •• 39
Got ham Audio Corporation • •..... . . . • 43
Grado Laboratories, Inc. • .. . . . .. . . . .• . 5 1
Hi Fidel ity Ce nter •. ..•.... .• .. •. . . •• 63
Je nsen Manufacturing Company ...... ,. 14
KT·600A In Kit Form
A new " laboratory ' Standard" dual 50-watt ampli·fier guaranteed to outperform any basic stereo
amplifier on the market. Advanced engineering
. techniques plus the finest components ensure
flawless performance. Distortion. levels so low
they are unmeasurable. Hum and noise better than
90 db below 50-watts. Complete with metal enclosure. 9J<'.xI2Jh"D_ Shpg. wt., 60·lbs.
Neat On kyo De nk i Co., Ltd. . .•.••.. . .• 6
Norted Corporation • •. .. .. . . . . . •. .. • . 42
Sansui Elect ric Co., Lt d. .. .•.. . . . ..••.
Sarge nt-Rayment Co. • • •. • . .•.. 48, 50,
Scott, H. H., Inc . • .. .•• . .•. • . . • .. . ..•
Sherwood Electronic Laboratories, Inc. . .
Shure Brothers, Inc . .. .. .. .. ...... .. .
Sonot one Corp. . .. . .. • .. . .... .• . . •. •
Superscope, Inc. •. . . . • . ... . •..•...• •
RCA Electron Tube Divi sion
• Response 5-40,000 cps ± 1 db.
• Precise ."Null" Balancing System
• Unique Stereo and Monaural Control Features
• Concentric Il19ut Level tontrols
• Easy-To-Assemble Kit For",.
Sensitivity 2.2 mv for 1 volt out. Dual low im·
pedance "plate follower" outputs 1500 ohms. less
than .03% 1M distortion, less than .1 % harmonic
distortion. Hum and noise 80 db below 2 volts.
14xl0%x41h". Shpg. wt., 16 Ibs.
Lafayette Raaio, Dept. AG-1 P.O. Box 190 Jamaica 31 , New York ~."'.
Name ________________________ _______ .. ____. _ ~------.. --... --.---_.________. . __.____ . . __ . .__.___ _
Address ____________ .____... __ .. ____.____ ____________ .. . _______ _._____ ___________.____ _.____._ ___
il~:!~~?,~f I:-~W-e;-~~--~-,--~,--~~Y-~t-at-:-R-~:-;- -~~-~-~--.~ :.:---_--::=::==;:;z:1
La fayette Radio . .• . • . ..•• . ... . ... . •• 64
Langevin, a Division of Sonotec
Incorporated . .... . ....... .. . . . .. . 7
Lansi ng, James B., Sound, Inc . . ..•. . .. , 37
Pe rfection Mica Co. • •.. . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 15
Pickering &- Company, Inc . . .. . ..•..• . • 17
P ilot Radio Corporation . .•. . . . .. Cover III
Pri mo Company, Lt d. . •.. . .......•• . • . 2
• Rated at 50-Watts per Channel
• Res'ponse from 2-100,000 cps, 0,
·fclb at 1·Watt
• -Cirilln '-Onented; Silicon Steel Transformers
• Multiple feedback Loop Design
• Easy·To·Assemble Kit Form
Key Electronics Co. • • .. . •... . . . ... . . . 63
Kie rulff Sound Corporation . ..... • . •• . 63
Tandberg of America, Inc . ... . .. . ... . • 53
Tannoy (Ame rica) Lt d . . . . • . .. . ....•.• 44
Transis-Tron ics, Inc • • .... . •• . . • Cover IV
University Loudspeakers, Inc. ..... . •. . . 59
U. S. Magnet a nd Alloy Corp.
Weathers Ind ustries .. . .•..• . •.... . •• 10
JULY, 1961
The great beauty of stereophonic music till now has been .co nfined to records or tape. NOW, with the Federal
Communications Commission ruling on April 19th, 1961, a'il this great music can be broadcas\' over the air·waves.
The Pilot 200 automatic Multiplexer is the easiest way to enjoy the new stereof Multiplex broadcasts. All
connections are external, made with jack cords that simply plug in place. No controls. All switching is done
automatically-when the tuned·to station is broadcasting stereo, the Indicator Light goes on and the Mul t iplexer
automatically switches to stereo reception . And , it will not affect reception of monaural FM . Completely self
powered . Measures 5" high x 3 " wide x 14" long. Contains three tubes plus one rectifier. Housed in
an attractive black and brass enc losure designed to match Pilot components .
Complete with enclosure
Complete ly self powered with only one operational con·
trol- a simple slide switch to put the Multiplexer into or
out of the circuit. All connections can be made exter·
nally. Contains two tubes and one rectifier . Dimensions
4'/2" high x 5" wide x 9" long in handsome black and
brass styling.
~,..,.,..-::==-_ _ _ .~_----."I
~ I~
!i>"L---... .. _._ _~~-=---...J
$49 50
Compl ete wit h enc losure
37·36 36th Street, Long Island City 1, N. Y.
Please send me complete information on both Pilot FM Multi·
plexers. I presently own a ( make & m od e /i _ _ _ _ _ __
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Tuner or Receiver.
Name ~J~
_ __
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __
Address _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ __ _-----:_ __
State _
' ---
._-- ---------------------,I- - - ---
Long awaited ... finally here ... high fidelity's fir§t a ·transistor FM
tuner is, quite naturally, from Transis -Tronics . The C FM-15 s the
most efficient tuner On the market today. Double conversion pr0vides
far superior image rejection , significantly reducing int rferenc from
unwanted signals. And because of its all-transistor cir
'tr;o, the FM-15
has no heat, no hum, no microphonics and exceptionally low
Here is a combination whic truly
obsoletes aUothers. Hearing is believing. In the meantime . . write
Transis-TrQ{l i;f;s for complete specifications On both units.
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