Diversified Optronix DISPLACEMENT FOLLOWER 5100 User`s manual

Diversified Optronix DISPLACEMENT FOLLOWER 5100 User`s manual
Model 5100 Displacement Follower
Non-Contact
Single Axis Tracking System
Diversified Optronix Corp.
116 Quirk Road
Milford, CT 06460
www.divop.com
Table of Contents
Introduction, 1
Equipment Supplied, 1
Warnings, 1
System Assembly, 2
Theory of Operation, 3
The Lenses, 5
Lens Systems, 5
Lens Calculations, 5
Precision of the Lens Calculations, 7
Targeting, 9
Target Requirements, 9
Target Illumination, 9
Techniques of Targeting, 10
Tracking Prerequisites, 11
Focusing and System Noise, 12
High-Voltage Adjustments, 12
Equipment and Functions, 13
Front Panel Functions, 13
Model 806 Optical Head, 15
Tracking Axis Alignment, 15
Rear Panel, 15
Operating Procedures, 16
General Operating Procedure, 16
Velocity and Acceleration Measurement, 17
Calibration, 20
System Noise, 20
Common Problems, 21
System Calibration, 22
Calibration Procedure, 22
Linearity, 23
Standard Lens Set, 24
Lens Calibration Data Sheet, 25
Appendix, 26
Introduction
The 5100 Displacement Follower is a non-contact, real-time motion measurement instrument that solves measurement
problems where other instruments fail. It can measure the displacement of remote or inaccessible objects. The camera tracks
the motion of the target and provides an analog output proportional to displacement. Custom optics allow a range in the
field of view from 0.05” up to several feet.
Equipment Supplied
One Model 5100 Control Unit
One Model 806B Tracking Head
One 10’ Interconnecting Cable
One Storage/Carrying Case
One Standard Lens Set
Warnings
High Voltage
The tracking head and its power supply contain voltages dangerous to human life.
These voltages are not accessible during normal operation, but when the cover is
removed from either the tracking head or control unit, these voltages are accessible
and dangerous.
Photomultiplier
The tracking tube used in the 5000 Series Displacement Followers is susceptible to damage if subjected to high intensity
light. Using the unit outdoors in bright sunshine without stopping down the lens would be an example of use in high
intensity light. When changing a lens, avoid direct exposure of the photo tube to intense light sources. If the photo tube
should become paralyzed, store the complete tracking head in a dark room for several days. Unless the overexposure has
been extreme, the tube will regain its sensitivity.
Cable Connections
Although the system has been equipped with circuitry to protect it against internal damage, disconnecting the optical head
from the control unit while AC power is applied can produce dangerously high voltage on the housing of the optical head.
Optical Head
Important! Always remove ac power from the system before attempting to disconnect the optical head.
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System Assembly
1
Inspect the equipment for damage that might have occurred during shipment. If you find any damage, notify the
shipping company immediately.
2
Attach the interconnecting cable from the control unit to the optical head and secure with the lock ring.
3
Attach the lens systems to the optical head. The lens screws into the extension barrel, and the extension barrel
screws into the head. The thread system in the head is a standard Leica, 39mm diameter. Note that the 105mm lens
comes attached to the 72mm extension tube. The 72mm extension is factory set and should come set to the correct
length.
4
Connect the control unit to a 100-120 VAC, 50/60 Hz power source.
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Theory of Operation
The system is a non-contacting electro-optical displacement follower designed to track the motion of a target along any axis.
The moving target under study must show a sharp discontinuity in the intensity of its reflected or emitted light. The tracker
is, in fact, locking onto that light/dark interface.
The lens system focuses the image of the discontinuity onto the photo cathode of an image dissector tube. A simplified
drawing of this tube is shown in Figure 1. The backside of the photo cathode emits electrons at a level proportional to the
intensity of the projected light. These electrons are then accelerated to refocus on an aperture plate containing a small hole
or aperture. This converts the optical image to an electron image, with an electron density proportional to the original light
intensity of the target. As electrons enter the small aperture, they are amplified to produce a current output proportional to
the number of electrons entering the aperture. Moving the electron image across the aperture plate varies the number of
electrons entering the aperture.
Figure 1
The system detects change in the photo tube’s output current, and through a servo loop, causes the electron image to refocus
on the aperture. The servo loop circuit re-centers the electron image by passing current through coils creating a magnetic
field that deflects the electron beam back to its original position. Since the current needed for deflection is directly
proportional to the distance that the electron image has moved from center, it acts as a measure of displacement. The actual
interface (target) can be moved over the diameter of the aperture by adjusting the reference potential, or lock-on, in the
servo loop.
If the electron image moves so that fewer electrons are admitted through the aperture, the photo-multiplier output decreases
and changes the servo control voltage so that the electron image returns to its original locked-on position. If the image
moves in the opposite direction, letting more electrons through the aperture, the servo control is polarized, again returning
the image to its locked-on position.
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There are two possible target configurations for measuring target displacement along the vertical axis: light over dark and
dark over light. That means it must be possible to alter the phase of the current going through the deflection coils to deflect
the electron image back to its original locked-on position and not away from this center position. In the 5000 Series, the
target switch on the front panel of the control unit changes the phase. See Figure 2. Failure to set this switch to the target
configuration being tracked will cause improper deflection and render the system inoperative.
Figure 2
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The Lenses
Lens Systems
To accommodate the working distances and measurement ranges that individual applications may require, the standard lens
set supplied is appropriate for a variety of situations. Included in the set are a 105mm enlarging lens, a 50mm variable-focus
camera lens, and five different extension tubes.
The 105mm lens is capable of focusing at fourteen unique working distances and corresponding measurement ranges
depending upon how it is assembled on the tracking head with the possible combinations of extension tubes. The 50mm
lens, used with the same extensions, can focus at an infinite number of working distances and corresponding ranges of
measurement.
If the standard lens set cannot meet an application’s requirements, DE can supply alternative lens systems to meet almost
any standards. Feel free to consult the factory for assistance in selecting an appropriate system.
In determining the measurement range and working distance for the 105 mm lens in varying configurations with the
extension tubes and the 105mm lens, refer to Figure 3 and the Standard Lens Sheet on page 24. Keep in mind that the total
displacement that the tracker is to follow should be comparable to the full scale measurement range for the chosen lens
system.
Figure 3
Lens Calculations
A few simple calculations will determine the proper extension barrel and working distance associated with a particular fullscale measurement range. Please note that these calculations yield theoretical results which will differ slightly from those
obtained in actual practice.
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Figure 4
WD = Working Distance, MR = Full scale Measurement Range, fl = Focal Length of Simple Lens,
EX = Length of Extension Tube needed, D = Distance from lens to Photo Cathode,
A = Magnification (usually < 1)
To calculate the size of the extension tube needed:
1
Estimate the expected full-scale displacement for the target under study
2
Calculate the magnification
A = 0.15 in
MR in
or
A = 3.775 mm
MR mm
3
Calculate the working distance
WD = (1+1/A) fl
Focal length is most often given in millimeters, causing the calculated working distance to be in millimeters as
well. To convert the working distance from millimeters into inches, simply multiply by 0.03937: WD (in.) = WD
(mm) X 0.03937 (in/mm)
4
Calculate the distance from the lens to the photo cathode
D = (1 + A) fl
5
Calculate the length in millimeters of the extension tube needed
EX = D - 34.6 mm
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Example
The lens to be used in this example is the 105mm enlarging lens supplied with the system.
1
Assume that the object under study is expected to exhibit a peak-to-peak displacement of one inch.
2
Calculate the magnification:
A = 0.15 in. =
MR in
3
0.15 in = 0.15
1 in
Calculate the working distance,
WD = (1 + 1/A) fl = (1 + 1/0.15) X 105 mm = 805 mm
If you prefer to have the working distance in inches, multiply by 0.03937 to obtain 31.69 inches.
4
Calculate the distance from the lens to the photo cathode.
D = (1 + A) fl = (1 + 0.15) X 105 mm = 121 mm
5
Calculate the length in millimeters of the extension tube needed by subtracting the internal distance between the
photo tube and the faceplate.
EX = D - 34.6mm = 121mm - 35.6mm = 86.4mm
Precision of the Lens Calculations
Often, the calculated values for the working distance and the tube length do not correlate well with experimental results.
There are many reasons for this, ranging from the tolerances built into the lens and tubes during manufacture to the
limitations of the simple lens formulas used in the calculation. Even the best lens has a finite thickness and is mounted in
some way within a lens holder. Most single-focus lenses are made up of more than one piece of glass; the pieces of glass
combine to make one lens with the rated focal length.
Figure 5
A simplified drawing of the 105mm lens used in the previous numerical example.
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Figure 5 shows that the equivalent 105mm lens cannot be considered to be located exactly at the end of the extension tube.
Its equivalent position is, in fact, approximately 13mm further along the optical axis than the position used in the
calculations. This positioning of the lens in its diaphragm varies with different manufacturers and no one rule will solve the
problem.
It is best simply to estimate where the plane of the lens might be located on the lens holder and measure the distance from
that point to the point of attachment of the lens holder to any extension barrels used. This distance should now be included
in the length calculated for the extension barrel. Applying this to the example above, the actual barrel length to be used
would be (86.4mm-13mm) or approximately 73mm.
Working distances and full-scale measurement ranges have been calculated for the 105mm and the 50mm variable-focus
lenses. For convenience, these values have been put into a table on the Standard Lens Sheet on page 24 .
Note Since the values in the table are obtained by experiment, not from theoretical calculations, they are more realistic for
actual set-up than calculated values would be.
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Targeting
Target Requirements
The 5000 Series operates by locking onto a sharp discontinuity in the intensity of an object’s reflected or emitted light. The
target is actually the edge that can be seen at the light-dark interface and can be made up of any combination of reflected,
absorbed, or emitted light. The contrast in light intensities should be at least three to one. The greater the contrast, the easier
it is to obtain lock-on and the less system output noise is produced. In general, any target whose discontinuity can be
observed visually can also be tracked electro-optically. Select the target configuration using the Target Phase switch on the
front panel of the control unit. Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9 show some examples of possible target configurations.
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figures 6 and 7 represent targets with configurations: of light over dark and dark over light, respectively. The 5000 Series
can measure vertical displacement for both configurations.
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figures 8 and 9 represent targets with light to the left of dark, and dark to the left of light, respectively. The 5000 Series can
measure horizontal displacement for both configurations.
Target Illumination
If the light portion of the target is not bright enough, lock-on is not possible. The amount of light can be read with the builtin light measuring system. See Operating Procedures, page 16. If the light intensity of the target is beyond the adjustable
range of the lens diaphragm—either too bright or too dim—other adjustments are available. For low light conditions, the
high voltage to the image dissector tube may be increased. This adjustment is made on the back panel of the control unit
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using a small screwdriver. For high light conditions, the high voltage may be reduced, or neutral density filters can be
placed in front of the lenses.
Note The light source must be DC or the tracker will detect the 60 Hz change in light intensity.
Techniques of Targeting
There are many ways of illuminating and setting up targets. This section will deal with the two most common: front lighting
and back lighting.
Front Lighting
A target with a discrete light/dark interface can be illuminated from the front and the system can track it easily. If the object
under study does not have a built-in light/dark interface, you can tape or paint an interface onto the surface. The white
light/dark interface should be a flat, non-gloss surface. Make sure the intensity of the illumination is great enough to mask
any 60 Hz modulation from room lights, or turn down the room lights during operation of the system.
Figure 10
Back Lighting
Back lighting is best for illuminating dark or opaque targets. Placing a low-power lamp on the side of the target away from
the tracker produces a collimating or a silhouette effect. It might be necessary to place a light diffuser between the lamp and
the object to assure uniform illumination of the target. See Figure 10. Usually, the back-lit target offers a better signal-tonoise ratio, and easier tracker focusing than other target configurations and has the further advantage of requiring less light
intensity.
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Figure 11
Tracking Prerequisites
Single Axis, Vertical or Horizontal
The target and its motion should be located in the plane that is perpendicular to the optical axis. For successful lock-on, the
target’s width must be greater than 10% of the full-scale measurement range, and its location must be along the tracking
axis.
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Figure 12
The minimum target required for vertical tracking along the vertical tracking axis.
Focusing and System Noise
Once you have selected a lens system selected and placed an illuminated target in front of the tracking head, open the lens
aperture as wide as possible. Focus the target by moving either the head or the target to the proper position along the optical
axis.
The system locks onto a contrast ratio that is determined by registering the amount of light coming from both the light and
dark portions of the target. This referencing of light levels is described in Operating Procedures, page 16. In general, using
the brightest DC light source available produces the best signal-to-noise ratio at the output. A high intensity light aids in
“washing out,” and thus preventing the tracker from picking up, the 60 Hz modulation from any AC room lights. With
intense light, the lens aperture ordinarily can be stopped down until the appropriate light-level reading is achieved. Stopping
down the lens increases the signal-to-noise on the output at the rate of 3 dB per f-stop. Stopping down the lens also gives
rise to a better depth of field, which can give a sharper focus for targets that move about the optical axis.
If changing the lens aperture does not produce appropriate light-level readings, you must adjust the high voltage to the
photo tube.
High Voltage Adjustments
When the system is used for very small or for relatively large ranges of measurement, adjustment of the lens aperture is
often not sufficient to produce appropriate light levels. Such cases require adjustment to the high-voltage photo tube. For
low light conditions, increase the high voltage; for high light conditions, decrease it or place neutral density filters at the
lens system. Since much of the system’s noise results from the high voltage supply needed to operate the photo tube, the
lower the high voltage can be set, the better.
To adjust the high voltage while reading light levels, simply insert a small screwdriver into the hole located on the back
panel of the control unit. It is often advantageous to make this adjustment with the lens aperture set to something other than
wide open or completely closed. Then, future deviations in lighting can be handles with aperture adjustments instead of
additional high voltage changes.
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Equipment and Functions
Front Panel Functions
A
13
Level Meter
LOCK
3
10
B
1
.3
30
100
.1
300
2
OPERATE
.03
Diversified Optronix
Single Axis Displacement
Follower Controller
Model 5100
3
LIGHT LEVEL
CALIBRATE
Time (msec)
Acceleration
3
10
NORMAL
LT SERVO
1
.3
30
100
POWER
ON
1
12
Velocity
.1
300
.03
11
100HZ
50KHZ
10KHZ
ORTHO
4
Filter
GAIN
DISPLACEMENT
VELOCITY
ACCELERATION
INPUT
OUTPUT
5
6
7
8
9
10
Figure 13
1
Power Indicator Indicates that the system is on. The power switch on the rear panel turns the system on and off. To
avoid the possibility of electric shock, connect the control unit to the tracking head using the interconnecting
cable before you turn the system on.
2
Lock-On Adjustment Adjusts an internal reference voltage in the servo loop to allow the system to track targets of
varying contrast ratios and of varying illumination intensities. When viewing the dark portion of the target, adjust the
lock-on potentiometer for a light reading of –20. See Operating Procedures 16 on page .
3
Light/Operate Switch Operate position: allows the meter and displacement output to exhibit the position of the
target under study. Light Level position: allows the meter to read the amount of light on the aperture in the photo tube.
The unit will not track a target while reading light levels.
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4
Output Filter Switch A three-position switch that selects a low pass R/C filter at the displacement outputs. For the
best signal-to-noise ratio, select the lowest cutoff frequency possible without compromising operation.
5
Target Phase Switch Allows the system to track either a light-over-dark or a dark-over-light target as seen through
the viewer.
6
Ortho Input External orthogonal input used to sweep the tracker along the axis perpendicular to both the tracking
and optical axes. When operating, the Ortho Input is connected to the horizontal deflection coil. As displacement is
measured on the vertical axis, the horizontal deflection coil, “powered” by the Ortho Input, causes a sweep
horizontally or perpendicular to the axis of sampled displacement. A sweep current of any desired wave form or DC
potential may be connected to sweep the tracker. The DC resistance of the ortho coil is 0.6 ohms; a deflection current of
20ma is required for a full-scale sweep.
7
Gain Adjust A ten-turn precision potentiometer that adjusts the amplitude of the displacement output. This control
calibrates the range of measurement and the output voltage setting the relationship between voltage and displacement.
Consult System Calibration Data Sheet on page 22 for additional information.
8
Displacement Output Displays a DC-coupled voltage proportional to the position of a vertically displaced target.
Displacement over the full-scale range of measurement would produce ±5.00 volts or a change of 10.00 volts on the
output when properly calibrated with the output gain control.
9
Velocity Output Displays a DC-coupled voltage proportional to the velocity of a vertically displaced target.
10 Acceleration Output Displays a DC-coupled voltage proportional to the acceleration of a vertically displaced
target.
11 Acceleration Time Constant Selector A nine-position rotary switch for establishing the time constant used in
calculating vertical acceleration.
12 Velocity Time Constant Selector A nine-position rotary switch for establishing the time constant used in
calculating vertical velocity.
13 Meter Displays the relative position of a vertically tracking target within the measurement range. This meter also
displays light levels when the Light/Operate switch is selected to Light Level.
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Model 806 Optical Head
The Model 806 Optical Head is the camera that senses the position of the target. The head contains an Electron Tubes Type
9670B image dissector tube on which the lens system images the target motion. This tube converts the light motion into
electron motion. The head also contains a deflection yoke used to deflect the electron motion. A beam-splitting viewer is
provided to focus the optical head on the target during all stages of operation. The lens system attaches to the head. Other
than the f-stop aperture control on fixed focus lenses, or the f-stop and focus adjustment on variable focus lenses, no
controls are located on the head.
The Optical Head is round and rotates easily within its housing to adjust the tracking axis for non-vertical motion.. (The two
1/16” set screws on each side of the head should be loosened to allow rotation. See Figure 14).
Tracking Axis Alignment
Since the system will track only along the axis that is vertical as seen through the viewer, it is often convenient to rotate that
axis to match the application. There are two set screws located on each side of the tracking head that allow for this. By
loosening these set screws with a 1/16” Allen wrench, the inside of the head can be rotated within the outer housing.
Figure 14
Rear Panel
Vertical/Horizontal Selector Determines the direction of tracking. This is a two-position rotary switch on the rear
panel of the control unit. Turning the switch counterclockwise to Vertical selects tracking along the vertical tracking axis as
seen through the viewer. Turning it clockwise will cause the tracker to follow displacements along the horizontal tracking
axis.
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Operating Procedures
General Operating Procedure
1
Prepare the target and lighting as specified. Note that the light source should be DC to eliminate the 120 Hz intensity
modulation, and that the light intensity should be uniform over the target area to be measured.
2
Connect the optical head to the control unit with the cable supplied.
3
Connect the control unit to a 117 VAC power source.
4
Estimate the maximum displacement you expect from the target during operations.
5
From the Standard Lens Set, and using the Lens Calibration data at the end of this manual, find a lens system that will
give a range of measurement comparable to the estimated maximum displacement for the target.
6
Attach the selected lens system onto the tracking head and place the tracking head at the proper working distance from
the target. Mount the head in a way that will minimize relative motion between the head and the target.
7
Observe the target through the viewer. If the target is approximately at the specified distance from the lenses, it should
be visible in the viewer. Adjust the head position until the target is in sharp focus. The full-scale measurement range of
the target is represented in the viewer by the 0.15” square. The system is capable of tracking a 20% target to
approximately 120% full scale, although linearity cannot be guaranteed beyond the normal full-scale limits.
8
Set the vertical and horizontal gain to the values specified in the System Calibration on page 22. The gain
potentiometer simply adjusts the proportionality between target displacement and output voltage. Note that this applies
to the fixed focus 105-mm lenses only. For variable-focus lens systems, the output gain will have to be determined by
actual calibration.
9
Set the output filter to OFF (widest bandwidth).
Figure 15a
Figure 15b
10 Turn on the power. Allow for a 15-minute warm-up time.
11 Set the Light/Operate switch to Light Level. This causes the system to measure the amount of light coming from the
target area exactly in the center of the range of measurement.
12 Adjust the target position so that the small circle within the measurement range is totally within the dark area of the
target. See Figure 15a. Adjust the left-most lock-on control with a small screwdriver until the front panel meter reads –
20%.
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13 Now, move the target or tracking head so that the circle is totally within the light area of the target. See Figure 15b.
Adjust the lens aperture or light source for a reading of +20% on the front panel meter. If this reading cannot be
achieved, then the high voltage to the photo tube may need to be adjusted. See Focusing and System Noise on page12).
14 Repeat steps 12 and 13 until the light and dark readings are in range.
15 Set the Light/Operate switch to Operate.
16 Turn the rear panel Vertical/Horizontal switch counterclockwise for vertical axis tracking or clockwise for horizontal
axis tracking. Set the Target Phase switch to the type of target to be tracked, light over dark or dark over light.
Note This switch must be set properly or the normal negative feedback servo action becomes positive and the system
will not work correctly. Refer to Section 4.
17 The meter and output voltage will now indicate the position of the target. (If an equilibrium position is desired with a
corresponding zero reference voltage, then the position of the entire tracking head or the target must be adjusted.).
18 Move the target and observe that the meter deflects, showing target position. With a light-over-dark target, an upward
movement produces a negative voltage; the negative sense of the output voltage is in the direction of the light portion of
the target.
19 If the system does not appear to be locked onto the target, simply waving your hand in front of the lens may fix the
problem. See Common Problems on page 21.
20 With lock-on complete, set the filter switch to the lowest cutoff frequency applicable. The filter switch simply places a
low pass RC circuit at the displacement output BNC connectors.
21 You can connect an external monitoring device such as a digital oscilloscope, oscillograph or X-Y recorder, among
others, to the output BNC connectors. Since the output impedance of the 5100 is just under 50 ohms, loading effects by
external instrumentation will be negligible.
Velocity and Acceleration Measurement
The 5100 Control Unit is equipped with differential amplifiers for obtaining the velocity and acceleration of a target. The
position signal has been hard-wired to these amplifiers in series. This causes the vertical displacement signal to be
differential twice, yielding vertical velocity and vertical acceleration signals at the respective outputs.
Various full-scale velocity and acceleration values are determined by the two 8-position time constant selector switches.
The output velocity is equal to the full-scale displacement of the lens divided by the time indicated by the velocity time
constant switch. For example, for a one-inch range of measurement with the Velocity selector at 30ms, the full-scale (10V
P-P) velocity output would be one inch (1”) divided by 30 ms, or 33 inches per second at the peak. Standard nomenclature
of the vibration test industry has been used: displacement is read in inches double amplitude; velocity, in inches peak per
second; and acceleration in inches peak per second squared.
If the motion to be observed is varying vertically by 1”, and a 1” range of measurement lens is used, this motion has what is
called a one inch double amplitude (P-P), and the vertical position output of the 5100 would be a 10V P-P. This voltage,
which is proportional to displacement, is fed into the differential amplifier. The differential amplifier has a full-scale output
of 10V P-P which therefore equals the input displacement of 1” double amplitude divided by the Velocity Time
Constant selector switch setting of 30ms, and is 33 inches peak per second at the velocity output.
If differentiated again, a 10V P-P signal at the Vertical Acceleration output would equal the vertical velocity reading of
33 inches peak per second divided by the acceleration time constant selector setting in seconds, and would be in inches peak
per second squared.
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Velocity and Acceleration Measurement Operating Procedure
Full-scale output for velocity and acceleration are determined as follows:
1
Note the full-scale range of measurement (FOV) of the lens being used.
2
With the system in operation, that is with the target in motion, set the Velocity Time Constant to 0.03ms and
work down until you obtain velocity peaks of just under 10V P-P. Full-scale outputs are 10V P-P and the system
will clip above that.
3
When the velocity has been set for just under 10V P-P, set the Acceleration control to 0.03ms, and work down
until you obtain acceleration peaks of just 10V P-P.
4
The velocity output is calibrated using this formula:
10 volts =
5
Range of Measurement
Velocity Time
The acceleration output is calibrated using this formula:
10 volts =
Range of Measurement
Velocity Time / Acceleration Time
Use the worksheet on the next page to help in calculating information from the moving target.
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Worksheet For Parameter Measurement
1. System Field of View = FOV =
inches
2. Accel. Due to gravity = 386.4 in. / sec
2
or
= 9814 mm / sec
millimeters
2
3. Set Velocity Time for Velocity output less than 10V P-P
4. Set Accel. time for Accel. output less than 10V P-P
5. Vel Full Scale =
FOV
=
Vel Time (seconds)
in / sec
=
6. Target Vel
7. Vel Output =
Sensitivity
=
Vel Output (peak)
5
Peak Vel Output
Target Vel
8. Accel Full Scale =
mm / sec
X
=
Vel Full Scale
volts/ in / sec
2
Vel Full Scale
=
Accel Time (seconds)
in / sec ,
=
mm / sec
9. Target Accel = Accel Output (peak) X Accel Full Scale =
=
in / sec
2
mm / sec
2
2
10. Target “g”
=
Target Accel (in / sec ) English
2
386.4 in / sec
Target “g”
=
Target Accel (in / sec ) Metric
2
9814 mm / sec
11. Accel Output =
Sensitivity
2
2
Peak Accel. Output
Target Accel
Displacement Follower User’s Manual
=
volts/ g
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Calibration
Resistors and capacitors have been selected to make the full-scale values on the time constant selector fall within ±5% of the
value indicated. To calibrate the outputs further, it is necessary to move the target or sweep the tracker orthogonal to the
plane of view and at a known velocity, making the output voltage proportional to the velocity or acceleration. The chart
below shows some key frequencies for checking the velocity and acceleration outputs.
Setting
Displacement Output
Frequency
300ms
1.06 Hz
100ms
3.18 Hz
30ms
10.6 Hz
10ms
31.8 Hz
3ms
106 Hz
1ms
318 Hz
0.3ms
1060 Hz
0.1ms
3180 Hz
0.03ms
10600 Hz
Displacement Output Voltage: 4.0V P-P
Velocity Output Voltage: 4.0 V P-P
Acceleration Output Voltage: 8.0 V P-P
System Noise
Since the Velocity/Acceleration unit is a differentiator, its output voltage increases with frequency at the rate of 6 dB/octave
at the velocity output, and 12dB/octave at the acceleration output. The noise input to the differentiator is random with
essentially a flat power spectral density to the filter cut-off frequency. Thus, if the 5100 filter switch is set at OFF, and the
time constant selectors are at 300ms, the outputs will be the noisiest. To obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio, set the 5100
output filter to the lowest frequency possible without distorting the displacement waveform. Also, use a lens that is close to
the full-scale displacement expected. Always start at the 0.03ms setting and work back until you obtain approximately a
10V P-P signal. This prevents the output signals from becoming clipped or the amplifiers overloaded.
Displacement Follower User’s Manual
Version 1.4, April 19, 2004
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Common Problems
Th most common errors are:
1
Improper target phase (L/D, D/L, etc.).
2
Improper centering of tracker on target.
3
Improper illumination of target:
The light source must be DC.
The light intensity must be calibrated for (-20 Dark) and (+20 Light). See Operating Procedures, page 16 .
4
Improper focusing of tracker on target. See Operating Procedures, page 16 .
Displacement Follower User’s Manual
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System Calibration
Calibration Procedure
To calibrate the tracker, you need a digital voltmeter and a static calibrator that can accurately position a target. Since the
output impedance of the system is approximately 50 ohms, the input impedance of any readout device should be at least
10,000 ohms.
1
Set up the tracker with the lens to be calibrated and focus on the static calibrator. The working distance should be
the same as that used in practical application. See Figure 16.
2
Observe Operating Procedures described on page 16.
3
Attach the digital voltmeter to the output BNC connector on the control unit.
Figure 16
4
Move the target to the center of the range of measurement and fine adjust this position until the output reads 0
volts. Figure 17 shows this position as seen through the viewer.
Figure 17
5
Move the calibrator exactly one half of the range of measurement and record the actual distance that the calibrator
has been moved. Figure 18 show this position as seen through the viewer.
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Version 1.4, April 19, 2004
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IM1008
Figure 18
6
Adjust the output gain to obtain a reading ±5 volts and record the gain setting.
7
For future reference, record the gain setting and the full-scale measurement range in the blank calibration Data
Sheet is at the end of this manual. The full-scale measurement range equals twice the distance that the calibrator
moved from Figure 17 to Figure 18 as read on the calibrator.
After this calibration, use of the same working distance in practice means that movement over the total range of
measurement will correspond to a change in output voltage of ±5 volts. Note that for a variable-focus lens, any change in
focus before or during operation would disrupt its earlier calibration.
Linearity
The ratio of target displacement to output voltage should be linear over the full-scale measurement range. See Figure 19.
Figure 19
The linearity of the system is adjusted before the unit leaves the factory, but linearity is not a requirement for the system to
work properly. If the linearity over the range of measurement is in question, you can make a simple linearity check after
calibration.
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Standard Lens Set
Components of the Standard
Lens Set
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Item
105mm Enlarging Lens
50mm Camera Lens
72mm Extension Tube
10mm Extension Tube
15mm Extension Tube
20mm Extension Tube
30mm Extension Tube
These charts shows some of the optical parameters that can be obtained using combinations of the above components.
50mm Lens and Extension
Tubes
Lens, 50mm only
Lens + 10mm extension tube
Lens + 15mm extension tube
Lens + 20mm extension tube
Lens + 25mm extension tube
Lens + 35mm extension tube
Lens + 50mm extension tube
Lens + 75mm extension tube
Field of View
Min-Max in Inches
Working Distance
Min-Max in Inches
2.000 to inf.
0.500 to 0.800
0.400 to 0.500
0.325 to 0.400
0.250 to 0.325
0.175 to 0.200
0.150 to 0.165
0.100 to 0.105
23.500 to inf.
7.500 to 11.00
6.00 to 7.750
5.000 to 6.000
4.125 to 5.000
3.000 to 3.500
2.265 to 3.000
2.125 to 2.300
105 mm Lens and Extension Tubes
Field of View
in Inches
Working Distance
in Inches
Lens, 72mm Only
Lens + 72mm+10mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+15mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+20mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+25mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+30mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+35mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+40mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+45mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+50mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+55mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+60mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+65mm extension tube
Lens + 72mm+75mm extension tube
1.000
0.625
0.500
0.450
0.400
0.350
0.300
0.275
0.260
0.250
0.225
0.210
0.200
0.175
32.000
26.000
18.000
16.400
14.600
13.600
12.500
11.800
11.250
10.600
10.200
9.600
9.400
8.000
Displacement Follower User’s Manual
Version 1.4, April 19, 2004
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Lens Calibration Data Sheet
LENS CALIBRATION
DATA SHEET
CUSTOMER:
DATE:
PO#:
S/N:
1
2
3
4
5
4
5
LENS NUMBER:
FOCAL LENGTH:
EXTENSIONS:
WORKING DISTANCE:
RANGE OF MEASUREMENT:
GAIN SETTINGS FOR PROPER CALIBRATION
1
2
3
H
H
V
V
DIVERSIFIED ENGINEERING
283 INDIAN RIVER ROAD • ORANGE, CT • (203) 799-7875
Displacement Follower User’s Manual
Version 1.4, April 19, 2004
IM1008
Page 25
Appendix
Limited Warranty
Diversified Optronix Corp. (DivOp) warrants that the Model 5100 will be free from defects in material and workmanship
for a period of one (1) year from the date of purchase. DivOp will, at its discretion, repair or replace any part(s) found to be
defective in the Model 5100 resulting from defective workmanship, material or both. All costs for packaging and
transportation to Milford, CT, are the responsibility of the customer. DivOp will pay packaging and transportation costs to
the customer for warranty repairs. Please include a copy of the packing slip or invoice identifying all returned material along
with details of the problem or symptoms you are experiencing with Product. Before you return any items, please call or
email for instructions and authorization. Some problems can be resolved without any need for shipping the equipment.
There is no other Warranty express or implied. This warranty does not apply to any defect, failure or damage caused by
improper use or storage of Product. DivOp will not be obliged to provide warranty service for units that have been: 1)
damaged from improper use or interconnection to external equipment; 2) modified or tampered with or 3) improperly stored
or exposed to the elements.
Customer Service
Technical support and service is available from 9:00 AM to 4:30 PM, M-F, EST.
(203) 878-9540
(203) 878-9628 Fax
[email protected]
www.divop.com
Address materials to:
Diversified Optronix Corp.
116 Quirk Road
Milford, CT 06460
Copyright 1999 2004 Diversified Optronix Corp.
All rights reserved.
This publication and the information provided are subject to change, errors and omissions.
Displacement Follower User’s Manual
Version 1.4, April 19, 2004
Page 26
IM1008
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