Projects 512-692

Projects 512-692
Project 526
Copyright © 2012, 2010 by Elenco® Electronics, Inc., all rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by
any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
REV-E
Revised 2012
753292
Table of Contents
Basic Troubleshooting
Parts List
About the Two-Spring Socket (?1)
MORE About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
MORE Advanced Troubleshooting
MORE DO’s and DON’Ts of Building Circuits
Project Listings
Projects 512-692
Other Fun Elenco® Products
1
2
3
4
4
5
6, 7
8 - 84
85 - 86
Basic Troubleshooting
1. Most circuit problems are due to incorrect assembly.
Always double-check that your circuit exactly
matches the drawing for it.
2. Be sure that parts with positive/negative markings are
positioned as per the drawing.
3. Be sure that all connections are securely snapped.
4. Try replacing the batteries.
5. If the motor spins but does not balance the fan, check
the black plastic piece with three prongs on the motor
shaft. Be sure that it is at the top of the shaft.
Elenco® is not responsible for parts damaged due to
incorrect wiring.
Note: If you suspect you have damaged parts, you can
follow the Advanced Troubleshooting procedure on page 4
to determine which ones need replacing.
Review of How To Use It
!
!
WARNING: CHOKING HAZARD Small parts.
Not for children under 3 years.
WARNING FOR ALL PROJECTS WITH A ! SYMBOL
Moving parts. Do not touch the motor or fan during operation. Do not lean
over the motor. Do not launch the fan at people, animals, or objects. Eye
protection is recommended.
! Batteries:
• Use only 1.5V AA type, alkaline batteries
(not included).
• Insert batteries with correct polarity.
• Non-rechargeable batteries should not
be recharged. Rechargeable batteries
should only be charged under adult
supervision, and should not be
recharged while in the product.
• Do not mix alkaline, standard (carbonzinc), or rechargeable (nickel-cadmium)
batteries.
• Do not mix old and new batteries.
• Remove batteries when they are used up.
• Do not short circuit the battery terminals.
• Never throw batteries in a fire or attempt
to open its outer casing.
• Batteries are harmful if swallowed, so
keep away from small children.
• Do not connect batteries or battery
holders in parallel.
!
WARNING: Always check your wiring before
turning on a circuit. Never leave a circuit
unattended while the batteries are installed. Never
connect additional batteries or any other power
sources to your circuits. Discard any cracked or
broken parts.
Adult Supervision: Because children’s abilities
vary so much, even with age groups, adults should
exercise discretion as to which experiments are
suitable and safe (the instructions should enable
supervising adults to establish the experiment’s
suitability for the child). Make sure your child reads
and follows all of the relevant instructions and
safety procedures, and keeps them at hand for
reference.
This product is intended for use by adults and
children who have attained sufficient maturity to
read and follow directions and warnings.
Never modify your parts, as doing so may disable
important safety features in them, and could put
your child at risk of injury.
(See page 3 of the Projects 1-101 manual for more details.)
The Snap Circuits kit uses building blocks with snaps
to build the different electrical and electronic circuits in
the projects. These blocks are in different colors and
have numbers on them so that you can easily identify
them. The circuit you will build is shown in color and
with numbers, identifying the blocks that you will use
and snap together to form a circuit.
®
Next to each part in every circuit drawing is a small
number in black. This tells you which level the
component is placed at. Place all parts on level 1 first,
-1-
WARNING: SHOCK HAZARD Never connect Snap Circuits® to
the electrical outlets in your home
in any way!
then all of the parts on level 2, then all of the parts on
level 3, etc.
A large clear plastic base grid is included with this kit
to help keep the circuit block together. The base has
rows labeled A-G and columns labeled 1-10.
Install two (2) “AA” batteries (not included) in the
battery holder (B1). The 2.5V and 6V bulbs come
packaged separate from their sockets. Install the 2.5V
bulb in the L1 lamp socket, and the 6V bulb in the L2
lamp socket.
Place the fan on the motor (M1) whenever that part is
used, unless the project you are building says not to
use it.
Some circuits use the red and black jumper wires to
make unusual connections. Just clip them to the metal
snaps or as indicated.
Note: While building the projects, be careful not to
accidentally make a direct connection across the
battery holder (a “short circuit”), as this may damage
and/or quickly drain the batteries.
Parts List (Colors and styles may vary) Symbols and Numbers
Note: There are additional part lists in your other project manuals. Part designs are subject to change without notice.
Important: If any parts are missing or damaged, DO NOT RETURN TO RETAILER. Call toll-free (800) 533-2441 or e-mail us at:
[email protected] Customer Service • 150 Carpenter Ave. • Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.
Qty.
ID
Name
r1
B2
Solar Cell
r1
r1
M3
Electromagnet
Iron Core Rod
r1
S4
Vibration Switch
r1
r1
?1
Symbol
Part #
6SCB2
6SCM3
6SCM3B
6SCS4
Bag of Paperclips
6SCM3P
Two-spring
Socket
6SCPY1
You may order additional / replacement parts at our website: www.snapcircuits.net
-2-
About the TWO-SPRING SOCKET (?1)
The two-spring socket (?1) makes it easy to connect your own
resistors (and other parts) to circuits by connecting them between
the springs:
The two-spring socket (?1) just has two springs, and won’t do
anything by itself. It is not used in any of the experiments. It was
included to make it easy to connect other electronic components to
your Snap Circuits®. It should only be used by advanced users who
are creating their own circuits.
There are many different types of electronic components and basic
parts like resistors and capacitors have a wide range of available
values. For example, Snap Circuits® includes five fixed-value
resistors (100Ω, 1KΩ, 5.1KΩ, 10KΩ, and 100KΩ). This is a very
limited choice of values, and difficult to design circuits with. Snap
Circuits® also includes a adjustable resistor (RV), but it is difficult to
set this part to a particular value. You can place your resistors in
series and parallel to make different values (as is done with the
5.1KΩ and 10KΩ in project #166), but this is also difficult with only
five values to choose from.
Many customers like to create their own circuits and asked us to
include more resistor values with Snap Circuits®. We could have
done that, but you would never have enough. And resistors are not
very exciting components by themselves. You could try to use your
own resistors, but they are difficult to connect since normal
electronic parts come with wires on them instead of snaps.
Resistor
-3-
Any component with two wires coming from it (called leads) can be
connected with the two-spring socket (?1), assuming the leads are
long enough. Usually you will connect different values of resistors
or capacitors, but other components like LED’s, diodes, or
coils/inductors can also be used. You can usually find electronic
components at any store specializing in electronics.
You can design your own circuits or substitute new parts into the
projects in the manuals. For LED’s, diodes, or electrolytic
capacitors, be sure to connect your parts using the correct polarity
or you may damage them. Never exceed the voltage ratings of any
parts. Never connect to external voltage sources. ELENCO® IS
NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY PARTS DAMAGED BY
IMPROPER CIRCUIT DESIGN OR WIRING. The two-spring
socket is only intended for advanced users.
Capacitor
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
MORE About Your
Snap Circuits® Parts
(Note: There is additional information in your other project manuals).
Our Student Guides give much more information about your
parts, along with a complete lesson in basic electronics. See
www.snapcircuits.net/learn.htm for more information.
The solar cell (B2) contains positively and negatively
charged silicon crystals, arranged in layers that cancel
each other out. When sunlight shines on it, charged
particles in the light unbalance the silicon layers and
produce an electrical voltage (about 3V). The maximum
current depends on how the type of light and its
brightness, but will be much less than a battery can
supply. Bright sunlight works best, but incandescent light
bulbs also work.
MORE Advanced Troubleshooting (Adult supervision recommended)
Elenco® is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect wiring.
If you suspect you have damaged parts, you can follow this procedure to systematically
determine which ones need replacing:
1 - 28. Refer to the other project manuals for testing steps 1-28, then continue below.
29. Solar Cell (B2): Build the mini-circuit shown
here and set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or
10mA) setting. Hold the circuit near a lamp
and the meter pointer should move.
The electromagnet (M3) is a large coil of wire, which acts
like a magnet when a current flows through it. Placing an
iron bar inside increases the magnetic effects. Note that
magnets can erase magnetic media like floppy discs.
When shaken, the vibraton switch (S4) contains two
separate contacts; and a spring is connected to one of
them. A vibration causes the spring to move, briefly
connecting the two contacts.
The two-spring socket (?1) is described on page 3.
30. Electromagnet (M3): Build the mini-circuit
shown here. Lamp (L1) must be dim, and must
get brighter when you press the press switch
(S2).
A Note on Sun Power
The sun produces heat and light on an immense scale, by
transforming Hydrogen gas into Helium gas. This
“transformation” is a thermonuclear reaction, similar to the
explosion of a Hydrogen bomb. The earth is protected from
most of this heat and radiation by being so far away, and by
its atmosphere. But even here the sun still has power, since
it can spin the motor on your kit and give you sunburn on a
hot day.
Nearly all of the energy in any form on the surface of the
earth originally came from the sun. Plants get energy for
growth from the sun using a process called photosynthesis.
People and animals get energy for growth by eating plants
(and other animals). Fossil fuels such as oil and coal that
power most of our society are the decayed remains of
plants from long ago. These fuels exist in large but limited
quantity, and are rapidly being consumed. Solar cells will
produce electricity as long as the sun is bright, and will
have an ever-increasing effect on our lives.
31. Vibration Switch (S4): Build the mini-circuit
shown here and shake the base grid. The LED
should go on and off as you shake.
-4-
MORE DO’s and DON’Ts of Building Circuits
After building the circuits given in this booklet, you may wish to experiment on your
own. Use the projects in this booklet as a guide, as many important design concepts
are introduced throughout them. Every circuit will include a power source (the
batteries), a resistance (which might be a resistor, lamp, motor, integrated circuit, etc.),
and wiring paths between them and back. You must be careful not to create “short
circuits” (very low-resistance paths across the batteries, see examples below) as this
will damage components and/or quickly drain your batteries. Only connect the IC’s
using configurations given in the projects, incorrectly doing so may damage them.
Elenco® is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect wiring.
Examples of SHORT CIRCUITS - NEVER DO THESE!!!
Placing a 3-snap wire directly
across the batteries is a
SHORT CIRCUIT.
!
!
NEVER
DO!
This is also a
SHORT CIRCUIT.
ALWAYS USE EYE PROTECTION WHEN EXPERIMENTING ON YOUR OWN.
NEVER
DO!
ALWAYS include at least one component that will limit the current through a circuit,
such as the speaker, lamp, whistle chip, capacitors, ICs (which must be
connected properly), motor, microphone, photo resistor, or fixed resistors.
When the slide switch (S1) is turned on, this large circuit has a SHORT
CIRCUIT path (as shown by the arrows). The short circuit prevents any
other portions of the circuit from ever working.
Here are some important guidelines:
ALWAYS use the 7-segment display, LED’s, transistors, the high frequency IC, the
SCR, the antenna, and switches in conjunction with other components
that will limit the current through them. Failure to do so will create a
short circuit and/or damage those parts.
ALWAYS connect the adjustable resistor so that if set to its 0 setting, the current will
be limited by other components in the circuit.
ALWAYS connect position capacitors so that the “+” side gets the higher voltage.
ALWAYS disconnect your batteries immediately and check your wiring if something
appears to be getting hot.
ALWAYS check your wiring before turning on a circuit.
ALWAYS connect ICs, the FM module, and the SCR using configurations given
in the projects or as per the connection descriptions for the parts.
NEVER try to use the high frequency IC as a transistor (the packages are similar, but
the parts are different).
!
NEVER
DO!
!
NEVER
DO!
NEVER use the 2.5V lamp in a circuit with both battery holders unless you are sure
that the voltage across it will be limited.
NEVER connect to an electrical outlet in your home in any way.
NEVER leave a circuit unattended when it is turned on.
NEVER touch the motor when it is spinning at high speed.
For all of the projects given in this book, the parts may be arranged in different ways
without changing the circuit. For example, the order of parts connected in series or in
parallel does not matter — what matters is how combinations of these sub-circuits are
arranged together.
!
-5-
Warning to Snap Rover owners: Do not connect your parts to the
Rover body except when using our approved circuits, the Rover
body has a higher voltage which could damage your parts.
You are encouraged to tell us about new circuits you create. If they are
unique, we will post them with your name and state on our website at
www.snapcircuits.net/kidkreations.htm. Send your suggestions to
ELENCO®.
Elenco® provides a circuit designer so that you can make your own Snap
Circuits® drawings. This Microsoft® Word document can be downloaded
from www.snapcircuits.net/SnapDesigner.doc or through the
www.snapcircuits.net web site.
WARNING: SHOCK HAZARD - Never connect Snap Circuits® to
the electrical outlets in your home in any way!
Project Listings
Project #
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
Description
Page #
Siren
Electronic Rain
Leaky Faucet
Lamp & Fan Independent
Drawing Resistors
Electronic Kazoo
Electronic Kazoo (II)
Water Resistor
Two-Transistor Oscillator
Diode
Rectifier
Motor Rectifier
SCR Shutdown
SCR Motor Control
Output Forms
Transistor AM Radio
Adjustable Solar Power Meter
Fan Blade Storing Energy
Antenna Storing Energy
Electromagnet Storing Energy
Transformer Storing Energy
Relay Storing Energy
Transformer Lights
Machine Siren
Hear the Motor
Back EMF
Back EMF (II)
Electronic Sound
Electronic Sound (II)
Lighthouse
Diode Wonderland
Meter Ranges
Motor Current
2.5V Lamp Current
8
8
9
9
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
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22
22
23
23
Project #
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
Description
Page #
6V Lamp Current
Combined Lamp Circuits
Rechargeable Battery
Solar Batteries
Solar Control
Solar Resistance Meter
Solar Diode Tester
Solar NPN Transistor Tester
Solar PNP Transistor Tester
Solar Cell vs. Battery
Solar Cell vs. Battery (II)
Solar Music
Solar Sounds Combo
Solar Alarm
Better Solar Alarm
Photo Solar Alarm
Solar Space War
Solar Music Alarm Combo
Solar Music Space War Combo
Solar Music Space War Combo (II)
Solar Periodic Lights
Solar Periodic Lights (II)
Solar AM Radio Transmitter
Low Light Noisemaker
Low Light Noisemaker (II)
Low Light Noisemaker (III)
Solar Oscillator
Solar Oscillator (II)
Daylight SCR Lamp
Solar Bird Sounds
Solar Bird Sounds (II)
SCR Solar Bomb Sounds
Flashing Laser LED’s with Sound
U2 with Transistor Amplifier
23
23
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
30
30
31
31
31
32
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34
34
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35
35
36
36
37
Project #
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
Description
Page #
U2 with Transistor Amplifier (II)
U1 with Transistor Amplifier
Loud Sounds
Swinging Meter with Sound
Motor Sound Using Transformer
Motor Sound with LED
Motor Sound with LED (II)
AC & DC Current
Noisemaker
AC Voltage
AC Voltage (II)
AC Voltage (III)
Noisemaker (II)
Noisemaker (III)
Pulsing Motor
Noisemaker (IV)
Noisemaker (V)
Noisemaker (VI)
Noisemaker (VII)
Noisemaker (VIII)
Noisemaker (IX)
Alarm Power
Alarm Power (II)
Night Sounds
Mega Pulser and Flasher
“E” & “S” Blinker
“2” & “3” Blinker
“9” & “0” Blinker
“3” & “6” Blinker
“c” & “C” Blinker
“O” & “o” Blinker
“b” & “d” Blinker
“H” & “L” Blinker
“A” & “o” Blinker
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
37
37
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39
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40
40
41
41
42
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44
44
44
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45
45
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47
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48
49
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50
50
-6-
Project Listings
Project #
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
-7-
Description
Open & Closed Indicator
Open & Closed Indicator (II)
Vibration Indicator
Vibration Sounder
SCR Noise Circuit
SCR & Transistor Switch
Two-speed Motor
Two-speed Motor (II)
Current Flow
AM Radio with Power LED’s
Space War IC Recording
LED Flasher
LED Flasher with Sound
LED Flasher with Sound (II)
Stepper Motor
Crazy Music IC
Stepper Motor w/ Sound
Stepper Motor w/ Light
Police Siren with Display
Oscillator Alarm
Oscillator Alarm (II)
Tapping U3
Tapping U3 (II)
Adjustable Beeper
Electronic Meow
Electronic Meow (II)
Strobe Light
AND Gate
NAND Gate
OR Gate
NOR Gate
XOR Gate
High Pitch Oscillator
Low Pitch Oscillator
Page #
51
51
51
52
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
56
56
57
57
58
58
58
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
61
61
62
62
63
63
64
64
Project #
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
Description
Page #
Low Pitch Oscillator (II)
Low Pitch Oscillator (III)
Segment Jumper
DP & Zero Flasher
Stepper Motor with Lamp & LED’s
IC Start & Stop
IC Motor Speed
Sound & Light Flasher
Electromagnet Delayer
Electromagnet Delayer (II)
Two-Lamp Electromagnet
Delayer
Electromagnet Current
Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism & Compass
Electromagnetism & Paperclips
Electromagnet Suction
Electromagnet Tower
Paperclip Compass
Adjustable Paperclip
Suspension
Adjustable Paperclip w/ Delay
Photoresistor Paperclip
Suspension
Paperclip Oscillator
Paperclip Oscillator (II)
Paperclip Oscillator (III)
Paperclip Oscillator (IV)
Paperclip Oscillator (V)
Oscillating Compass
High Frequency Vibrator
High Frequency Vibrator (II)
Siren Paperclip Vibrator
Alarm Paperclip Vibrator
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65
66
66
67
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68
68
69
69
70
70
71
71
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72
73
73
74
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75
75
76
76
76
77
77
78
78
Project #
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
Description
Page #
Machine Gun Paperclip
Vibrator
Alarm Vibrator w/ LED
Alarm Vibrator w/ LED (II)
Relay-Whistle Vibrator
Relay-Whistle Photo Vibrator
Vibration LED
Vibration Speaker
Measure the Vibration as You
Tap the Switch
Shaky Birthday Song
Vibration Detector
Out of Balance
Vibration Alarm
Vibration Space War
Vibration Light
78
79
79
80
80
81
81
81
82
82
83
83
84
84
Project #512
Siren
OBJECTIVE: To make a siren that slowly starts up and fades
away.
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and then press the press switch (S2) for
a few seconds and release. A siren starts up and then slowly fades
away as the 10μF capacitor (C3) discharges.
Project #513
Electronic Rain
OBJECTIVE: To make a low-frequency oscillator.
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1), you hear a sound like
raindrops. The adjustable resistor (RV) controls the rain. Turn it to the
left to make a drizzle and turn to the right to make the rain come
pouring down.
You can replace the 10KΩ resistor (R4) with the 1KΩ (R2) or 5.1KΩ
(R3) resistors to speed up the rain.
-8-
Project #514
Leaky Faucet
OBJECTIVE: To make a low-frequency oscillator.
Build the circuit and set the adjustable resistor (RV) control all the way
to the right. Turn on the slide switch (S1) and you hear a sound like a
faucet dripping. You can speed up the dripping by moving the
adjustable resistor control around.
Project #515
Lamp & Fan
Independent
OBJECTIVE: To show how switches allow circuits to operate
independently even though they have the same power source.
This circuit combines projects #1, #2, and #6 into one circuit.
Build the circuit and place the fan on the motor (M1). Depending on
which of the switches (S1 & S2) are on, you can turn on either the
lamp (project #1), the motor (project #2), or both together (project #6).
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
This circuit was suggested by
Luke S. of Westborough, MA.
-9-
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #516
Drawing Resistors
OBJECTIVE: To make your own resistors.
You need some more parts to do this experiment, so you’re going to
draw them. Take a pencil (No. 2 lead is best but other types will also
work), SHARPEN IT, and fill in the 4 rectangles you see below. You
will get better results if you place a hard, flat surface between this
page and the rest of this booklet while you are drawing. Press hard
(but don’t rip the paper) and fill in each several times to be sure you
have a thick, even layer of pencil lead and try to avoid going out of
the boundaries.
Shapes to be drawn.
Use a SHARP No. 2 pencil, draw on
a hard surface, press hard and fill in
several times for best results.
Actually, your pencils aren’t made out of lead anymore (although we
still call them “lead pencils”). The “lead” in your pencils is really a form
of carbon, the same material that resistors are made of. So the
drawings you just made should act just like the resistors in Snap
Circuits®.
Build the circuit shown, it is the same basic oscillator circuit you have
been using. Touch the the loose ends of the jumper wires to opposite
ends of the rectangles you drew, you should hear a sound like an
alarm. Note: You may get better electrical contact between the wires
and the drawings if you wet the metal with a few drops of water or
saliva.
Making the drawn resistors longer should increase the resistance
while making them wider should reduce the resistance. So all 4
rectangles should produce the same sound, though you will see
variations due to how thick and evenly you filled in the rectangles, and
exactly where you touch the wires. If your 4 shapes don’t sound
similar then try improving your drawings.
Be sure to wash your hands after this project.
-10-
Project #517
Electronic Kazoo
Use the same circuit as project #516, but draw a new shape. A Kazoo
is a musical instrument that is like a one-note flute, and you change the
pitch (frequency) of the sound by moving a plunger up and down inside
a tube.
As before, take a pencil (No. 2 lead is best but other types will also
work), SHARPEN IT again, and fill in the shape you see below. For best
results, SHARPEN IT again, place a hard flat surface between this
page and the rest of this booklet while you are drawing. Press hard
(but don’t rip the paper). Fill in each several times to be sure you have
a thick, even layer of pencil lead, and try to avoid going out of the
boundaries. Where the shape is just a line, draw a thick line and go
over it several times. The black ink in this manual is an insulator just
like paper, so you have to write over it with your pencil.
Take one loose wire and touch it to the widest part of this shape, at the
upper left. Take the other loose wire and touch it just to the right of the
first wire. You should hear a high-pitch sound. How do you think the
sound will change as you slide the second wire to the right? Do it, slowly
sliding all the way around to the end. The sound changes from high
frequency to low frequency, just like a kazoo. Note: You may get better
electrical contact between the wires and the drawings if you wet the
wires with a few drops of water or saliva.
Shape to be drawn.
Use a SHARP No. 2 pencil, draw on
a hard surface, press hard and fill in
several times for best results.
Project #518
Electronic Kazoo (II)
Use the same circuit as project #516, but fill in the new shape shown
here.
Take one loose jumper wire and touch it to the left circle. Take the other
loose wire and touch it to each of the other circles. The various circles
produce different pitches in the sound, like notes. Since the circles are
like keys on a piano, you now have an electronic keyboard! See what
kind of music you can play with it. Note: You may get better electrical
contact between the wires and the drawings if you wet the wires with a
few drops of water or saliva.
Now take one loose wire and touch it to the right circle (#11). Take the
other wire and touch it to the circles next to the numbers shown below,
in order:
7-5-1-5-7-7-7
5-5-5
7-7-7
7-5-1-5-7-7-7-7-5-5-7-5-1
Do you recognize this nursery rhyme? It is “Mary Had a Little Lamb”. By
now you see that you can draw any shape you like and make electronic
sounds with it. Experiment on your own as much as you like. Be sure
to wash your hands after this test.
Shape to be drawn.
1
-11-
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Use a SHARP No. 2 pencil, draw on
a hard surface, press hard and fill in
several times for best results.
Project #519
Water Resistor
OBJECTIVE: To use water as a resistor.
Use the same circuit as project #516. Take the two loose jumper wires
and touch them with your fingers. You should hear a low-frequency
sound. Now place the loose jumpers in a cup of water without them
touching each other. The sound will have a much higher frequency
because drinking water has lower resistance than your body. You can
change the sound by adding or removing water from the cup. If you
add salt to the water then you will notice the frequency increase,
because dissolving salt lowers the resistance of the water.
You can also make a water kazoo. Pour a small amount of water on a
table or the floor and spread it with your finger into a long line. Place
one of the jumper wires at one end and slide the other along the water.
You should get an effect just like the kazoo you drew with the pencil,
though the frequency will probably be different.
Project #520
Two-Transistor
Oscillator
OBJECTIVE: To make an adjustable low-frequency oscillator.
Build the circuit, turn on the slide switch (S1), and then press the press
switch (S2). Move the control lever of the adjustable resistor (RV) to
change the frequency.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-12-
Project #521
Diode
OBJECTIVE: To show how a diode works.
Turn on the slide switch (S1), the lamp (L2) will be bright and the LED
(D1) will be lit. The diode (D3) allows the batteries to charge up the
470μF capacitor (C5) and light the LED.
Turn off the slide switch, the lamp will go dark immediately but the LED
will stay lit for a few seconds as capacitor C5 discharges through it.
The diode isolates the capacitor from the lamp; if you replace the diode
with a 3-snap wire then the lamp will drain the capacitor almost
instantly.
Project #522
Rectifier
OBJECTIVE: To build a rectifier.
This circuit is based on the Trombone project #238. Turn on the slide
switch (S1) and set the adjustable resistor (RV) for mid-range for the
best sound. The LED (D1) will also be lit.
The signal from the power amplifier (U4) to the speaker (SP) is a
changing (AC) voltage, not the constant (DC) voltage needed to light
the LED. The diode (D3) and capacitor (C5) are a rectifier, which
converts the AC voltage into a DC voltage.
The diode allows the capacitor to charge up when the power amp
voltage is high, but also prevents the capacitor from discharging when
the power amp voltage is low. If you replace the diode with a 3-snap
or remove the capacitor from the circuit, the LED will not light.
-13-
Project #523
Motor Rectifier
OBJECTIVE: To show how what a rectifier does.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. Place the fan on the
motor (M1) and turn on the slide switch (S1), the meter measures the
current on the other side of the transformer (T1).
As the DC voltage from the battery (B1) spins the motor, the motor
creates an AC ripple in the voltage. This ripple passes through the
transformer using magnetism. The diode and 0.1μF capacitor (C2)
“rectify” the AC ripple into the DC current that the meter measures.
Holding down the press switch (S2) connects the 470μF capacitor
(C5) across the motor. This filters out the AC ripple, so the current
through the meter is greatly reduced but the motor speed is not
affected.
!
Project #524
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
SCR Shutdown
OBJECTIVE: To show how an SCR works.
In this circuit the press switch (S2) controls an SCR (Q3), which
controls a transistor (Q2), which controls an LED (D1). Set the
adjustable resistor (RV) control lever to the top (toward the press
switch).
Turn on the slide switch (S1); nothing happens. Press and release the
press switch; the SCR, transistor, and LED turn on and stay on. Now
move the adjustable resistor control down until the LED turns off.
Press and release the press switch again; this time the LED comes on
but goes off after you release the press switch.
If the current through an SCR (anode-to-cathode) is above a threshold
level, then the SCR stays on. In this circuit you can set the adjustable
resistor so that the SCR (and the LED it controls) just barely stays on
or shuts off.
-14-
Project #525
SCR Motor Control
OBJECTIVE: To show how an SCR is used.
SCR’s are often used to control the speed of a motor. The voltage to
the gate would be a stream of pulses, and the pulses are made wider
to increase the motor speed.
Place the fan on the motor (M1) and turn on the slide switch (S1). The
motor spins and the lamp (L2) lights. Wave your hand over the
photoresistor (RP) to control how much light shines on it, this will
adjust the speed of the motor. By moving your hand in a repetitive
motion, you should be able spin the motor at a slow and steady speed.
!
Project #526
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Output Forms
OBJECTIVE: To show the different types of output from Snap
Circuits®.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. This circuit uses all
six forms of output available in Snap Circuits® - speaker (SP, sound),
lamp (L1, light), LED (D1, light), motor (M1, motion), 7-segment
display (D7, light), and meter (M2, motion of pointer).
Place the fan on the motor, turn on the slide switch (S1), and shine
light on the solar cell (B2). There will be activity from all six forms of
output. If the motor does not spin, then give it a push with your finger
to start it, or remove the fan.
!
-15-
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #527
Transistor AM Radio
OBJECTIVE: To show the output of an AM radio.
This AM radio circuit uses a transistor (Q2) in the amplifier that drives
the speaker (SP). Turn on the slide switch (S1) and adjust the variable
capacitor (CV) for a radio station, then adjust the loudness using the
adjustable resistor (RV).
Project #528
Adjustable Solar
Power Meter
OBJECTIVE: To learn about solar power.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) for mid-range and the meter (M2) for
the LOW (or 10mA) setting. Turn on the slide switch (S1) and let light
shine on the solar cell (B2). Move the solar cell around different light
sources and adjust the adjustable resistor to change the reading on
the meter.
Place your hand to cover half of the solar cell, the meter reading
should drop by half. When you reduce the light to the solar cell, the
current in the circuit is reduced.
Place a sheet of paper over the solar cell and see how much it
changes the reading on the meter. Then add more sheets until the
meter reads zero.
-16-
Project #529
Fan Blade Storing Energy
OBJECTIVE: To show that the fan blade stores energy.
Place the fan on the motor (M1). Hold down the press switch (S2) for
a few seconds and then watch the LED (D1) as you release the press
switch. The LED lights briefly but only after the batteries (B1) are
disconnected from the circuit.
Do you know why the LED lights? It lights because the mechanical
energy stored in the fan blade makes the motor act like a generator.
When the press switch is released, this energy creates a brief current
through the LED. If you remove the fan blade from the circuit then the
LED will never light, because the motor shaft alone does not store
enough mechanical energy.
If you reverse the motor direction, then the LED will light the same way,
but the fan may fly off after the LED lights.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Project #530
Antenna Storing
Energy
OBJECTIVE: To show that the antenna stores energy.
Modify project #529 by replacing the motor (M1) with the
antenna coil (A1). Hold down the press switch (S2) and
then watch the LED (D1) as you release the press switch.
The LED lights briefly but only after the batteries (B2) are
disconnected from the circuit.
This circuit is different from the Fan Blade Storing Energy
project because energy in the antenna coil is stored in a
magnetic field. When the press switch is released, this
field creates a brief current through the LED.
Note that the energy stored in a magnetic field acts like
mechanical momentum, unlike capacitors which store
energy as an electrical charge across a material. You can
replace the antenna with any of the capacitors but the LED
will not light. Energy stored in the magnetic fields of coils
was called electrical momentum in the early days of
electronics.
-17-
This circuit was suggested by
Mike D. of Woodhaven, NY.
Project #531
Electromagnet
Storing Energy
OBJECTIVE: To show that the
electromagnet stores energy.
Turn on the slide switch (S1); nothing
happens. Turn the switch off; the LED
(D1) flashes.
When you turn on the switch, the
electromagnet (M3) stores energy from
the batteries (B1) into a magnetic field.
When you turn off the switch, the
magnetic field collapses and the energy
from it discharges through the LED.
Project #532
Transformer Storing Energy
OBJECTIVE: To show that the transformer stores electrical
energy.
Hold down the press switch (S2) and then watch the LED (D1) as you
release the press switch. The LED lights briefly but only after the
batteries (B1) are disconnected from the circuit.
This circuit is based
on one suggested by
Mike D. of
Woodhaven, NY.
Project #533
Relay Storing
Energy
This circuit is similar to the Antenna Storing Energy project, and shows
how the coils in the transformer (T1) also store energy in magnetic
fields. When the press switch is released, this energy creates a brief
current through the LED.
Project #534 Transformer Lights
OBJECTIVE: To show how the transformer works.
OBJECTIVE: To show that the
relay stores energy.
Modify project #532 by replacing
the transformer (T1) with the relay
(S3), position it with the 3-snap
sides to top and right (as in project
#341).
Hold down the press switch (S2)
and then watch the LED (D1) as
you release the press switch. The
LED lights briefly but only after the
batteries (B1) are disconnected
from the circuit.
The relay has a coil similar to the
one in the transformer, and stores
energy in the same way.
Watch the LED’s (D1 & D2) as you press or release
the press switch (S2). The red LED (D1) lights briefly
just as you press the press switch and the green LED
(D2) lights briefly just after you release it, but neither
lights while you hold the press switch down. Why?
When you press the press switch, a surge of current
from the battery charges a magnetic field in the
transformer (T1), which stays constant as the press
switch is held down. Charging the magnetic field
induces an opposing current on the other side of the
transformer, which lights the red LED until the
magnetic fields stabilize.
When you release the press switch (removing the
current from the battery), the magnetic field
discharges. Initially the transformer tries to maintain
the magnetic field by inducing a current on the other
side, which lights the green LED until the resistor (R1)
absorbs the remaining energy.
Note that this project is different from the Antenna
Storing Energy project because there is a magnetic
connection across the transformer, not an electrical
connection.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-18-
Project #535
Machine Siren
OBJECTIVE: To see how the electromagnet can change the
sound from the alarm IC.
Turn on the slide switch (S1), you hear a strange sound from the
speaker (SP). Push the press switch (S2) and the sound changes to
a high-pitch siren.
The alarm IC (U2) produces a smooth siren sound, but the
electromagnet (M3) distorts the siren into the strange sound you hear.
Adding the 0.1μF capacitor (C2) counters the electromagnet effects
and restores the siren.
Project #536
Hear the Motor
OBJECTIVE: To show how a motor works.
Place the fan on the motor (M1). Press the press switch (S2) and
listen to the motor. Why does the motor make sound?
A motor uses magnetism to convert electrical energy into mechanical
spinning motion. As the motor shaft spins around it connects/
disconnects several sets of electrical contacts to give the best
magnetic properties. As these contacts are switched, an electrical
disturbance is created, which the speaker converts into sound.
!
-19-
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
This circuit was suggested by Andrew M.
of Cochrane, Alberta, Canada
Project #537
Back EMF
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how the motor works.
The voltage produced by a motor when it is spinning is called its Back
Electro-Motive-Force (Back EMF); this may be thought of as the
motor’s electrical resistance. The motor’s Front Electro-Motive-Force
is the force it exerts in trying to spin the shaft. This circuit
demonstrates how the Back EMF increases and the current decreases
as the motor speeds up.
Place the fan on the motor (M1) and turn on the slide switch (S1). The
6V bulb (L2) will be bright, indicating that the Back EMF is low and the
current is high.
!
WARNING: Moving parts.
Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do
not lean over the motor.
Turn off the slide switch, remove the fan, and turn the slide switch back
on. The lamp is bright when the motor starts and the lamp dims as the
motor speeds up. Now the Back EMF is high and the current is low.
BE CAREFUL NOT TO TOUCH THE MOTOR WHILE IT SPINS.
Project #538
Back EMF (II)
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how the motor draws more current
to exert greater force when spinning slowly.
Place the fan on the motor (M1). Connect the photoresistor (RP) with
the jumper wires as shown, and hold it next to the 6V lamp (L2) so the
light shines on it.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and watch how the 6V lamp is bright at
first, but gets dim as the motor speeds up. By moving the
photoresistor (RP) next to or away from the 6V lamp, you should be
able to change the motor speed. To slow the motor down even more,
cover the photoresistor.
When the photoresistor is held next to the 6V lamp, transistor Q2 (with
lamp L1) will try to keep the motor at a constant speed.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
-20-
Project #539
Electronic Sound
OBJECTIVE: To make different tones with an oscillator.
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1), you hear a highfrequency tone. Press the press switch (S2) to lower the frequency by
increasing the capacitance in the oscillator. Replace the 0.1μF
capacitor (C2) with the 10μF capacitor (C3, “+” on the right) to further
lower the frequency of the tone.
Project #540
Electronic Sound (II)
OBJECTIVE: To make different tones with an oscillator.
You can also change the frequency by changing the resistance in the
oscillator. Replace the 100KΩ resistor (R5) with the 10KΩ resistor
(R4), place the 0.1μF capacitor (C2) back in the circuit as before.
Project #541
Lighthouse
OBJECTIVE: To make a blinking light.
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1), the LED (D1) flashes
about once a second.
-21-
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #542
Diode Wonderland
OBJECTIVE: To learn more about diodes.
Cover the solar cell (B2) and turn on the slide switch (S1), there should
be little or no light from the LED’s (results depend on your batteries).
Shine a bright light on the solar cell and the red (D1) and green (D2)
LED’s should be bright, along with one segment of the 7-segment
display (D7).
This circuit shows how it takes a lot of voltage to turn on a bunch of
diodes connected in a series. Since the transistors (Q1 & Q2) are
used as diodes here, there are six diodes total (D1, D2, D3, D7, Q1,
and Q2). The voltage from the batteries (B1) alone is not enough to
turn them all on at the same time, but the extra voltage produced by
the solar cell is enough to make them bright.
Now push the press switch (S2) and D7 will display “0.”, but it will be
dim unless the light on the solar cell is very bright. With S2 off, all the
current through D7 goes through segment B and makes it bright. With
S2 on, the current through D7 divides evenly between several
segments.
Project #543
Meter Ranges
OBJECTIVE: To show the difference between the low and high
current meter ranges.
Use the LOW (or 10mA) setting on the meter (M2), turn off the slide
switch (S1), and unscrew the 2.5V bulb (L1). The meter should
measure about 2, since the 100KΩ resistor (R5) keeps the current low.
Results will vary depending on how good your batteries are.
Screw in the 2.5V bulb to add the 10KΩ resistor (R4) to the circuit, now
the meter reading will be about 10.
Change the meter to the high-current HIGH (or 1A) setting. Now turn
on the slide switch to add the 100Ω resistor to the circuit. The meter
should read just above zero.
Now press the switch (S2) to add the speaker (SP) to the circuit. The
meter reading will be about 5, since the speaker has only about 8Ω
resistance.
-22-
Project #544
Motor Current
OBJECTIVE: To measure the motor current.
Use the HIGH (or 1A) setting on the meter (M2) and place the fan on the motor (M1). Press the
press switch (S2), the meter will measure a very high current because it takes a lot of power to
spin the fan.
Remove the fan and press the press switch again. The meter reading will be lower since spinning
the motor without the fan takes less power.
Project #545
2.5V Lamp Current
OBJECTIVE: To measure the 2.5V lamp current.
Use the circuit from project #544, but replace the motor with the 2.5V lamp (L1). Measure
the current using the HIGH (or 1A) setting on the meter.
Project #546
6V Lamp Current
OBJECTIVE: To measure the 6V lamp current.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Project #547
Use the circuit from project #544 but replace the motor with the 6V lamp (L2). Measure
the current using the HIGH (or 1A) setting on the meter (M2). Compare the lamp
brightness and meter reading to that for the 2.5V lamp (L1).
Combined Lamp Circuits
OBJECTIVE: To measure current through the lamps.
Use the HIGH (or 1A) setting on the meter (M2) and turn on the slide
switch (S1). Both lamps are on and the meter measures the current.
Now turn on the press switch (S2) to bypass the 2.5V lamp (L1). The
6V lamp (L2) is brighter now, and the meter measures a higher
current.
-23-
Project #548
Rechargeable Battery
OBJECTIVE: To show how a capacitor is like a rechargeable
battery.
Use the LOW (or 10mA) scale on the meter (M2) and turn the slide
switch (S1) off. Vary the current measured on the meter by moving
your hand over the solar cell (B2) to block some of the light to it. If you
cover the solar cell, then the current immediately drops to zero.
Now turn the slide switch on and watch the meter again as you move
your hand over the solar cell. Now the meter current drops slowly if
you block the light to the solar cell. The 470μF capacitor (C5) is acting
like a rechargeable battery. It keeps a current flowing to the meter
when something (such as clouds) blocks light to the solar cell that is
powering the circuit.
Project #549
Solar Batteries
OBJECTIVE: To learn about solar power.
Place this circuit near different types of lights and press the press
switch (S2). If the light is bright enough, then the LED (D1) will be lit.
Find out what types of light sources make it the brightest.
Solar cells work best with bright sunlight, but incandescent light bulbs
(used in house lamps) also work well. Fluorescent lights (the
overhead lights in offices and schools) do not work as well with solar
cells. Although the voltage produced by your solar cell is 3V just like
the batteries, it cannot supply nearly as much current. If you replace
the LED with the 2.5V lamp (L1) then it will not light, because the lamp
needs a much higher current.
The solar cell (B2) is made from silicon crystals. It uses the energy in
sunlight to make an electric current. Solar cells produce electricity that
will last as long as the sun is bright. They are pollution-free and never
wear out.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-24-
Project #550
Solar Control
OBJECTIVE: To learn about solar power.
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1). If there is sunlight
on the solar cell (B2), then the LED (D1) and lamp (L1) will be on.
This circuit uses the solar cell to light the LED and to control the lamp.
The solar cell does not produce enough power to run the lamp directly.
You can replace the lamp with the motor (M1, “+” side on top) and fan;
the motor will spin if there is sunlight on the solar cell.
!
Project #551
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Solar Resistance Meter
OBJECTIVE: To test the resistance of your components.
Place the circuit near a bright light and set the adjustable resistor (RV) so that
the meter (M2) reads “10” on the LOW (or 10mA) setting. Now replace the 3snap between points A & B with another component to test, such as a resistor,
capacitor, motor, photoresistor, or lamp. The 100μF (C4) or 470μF (C5)
capacitors will give a high reading that slowly drops to zero.
You can also use the two-spring socket (?1) and place your own components
between its springs to test them.
Project #552
Solar Diode Tester
OBJECTIVE: To learn about solar power.
Use the same circuit to test the red and green LED’s (D1 & D2), and the diode
(D3). The diode will give a higher meter reading than the LED’s, and all three
will block current in one direction.
-25-
Project #553
Solar NPN Transistor
Tester
OBJECTIVE: To test your NPN transistor.
This circuit is just like the one in project #551, but tests the NPN
transistor (Q2). The meter will read zero unless both switches (S1 &
S2) are on, then the adjustable resistor (RV) sets the current. If you
have the same light and RV setting as project #552 with the diode
(D3), then the meter (M2) reading will be higher with the transistor.
You can replace the NPN transistor with the SCR (Q3), it works the
same way in this circuit.
Project #554
Solar PNP Transistor
Tester
OBJECTIVE: To test your PNP transistor.
This circuit is just like the one in project #551, but tests the PNP
transistor (Q1). The meter (M2) will read zero unless both switches
(S1 & S2) are on, then the adjustable resistor (RV) sets the current. If
you have the same light and RV setting as project #552 with the diode
(D3), then the meter reading will be higher with the transistor.
-26-
Project #555
Solar Cell vs. Battery
OBJECTIVE: To compare the voltage of the solar cell to the
battery.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. Press the press
switch (S2) and set the adjustable resistor (RV) so that the meter
reads “5”, then release it.
Now turn on the slide switch (S1) and vary the brightness of light to the
solar cell (B2). Since the voltage from the batteries (B1) is 3V, if the
meter reads higher than “5”, then the solar cell voltage is greater than
3V. If the solar cell voltage is greater and you have rechargeable
batteries (in B1), then turning on both switches at the same time will
use the solar cell to recharge your batteries.
Project #556
Solar Cell vs. Battery (II)
OBJECTIVE: To compare the voltage of the solar cell to the
battery.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. Turn on the slide
switch (S1) and vary the brightness of light to the solar cell (B2). If the
meter reads zero, then the battery voltage is higher than the voltage
produced by the solar cell.
If the meter reads greater than zero, then the solar cell voltage is
higher. If the batteries are rechargeable then the solar cell will
recharge them until the voltages are equal.
-27-
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #557
Solar Music
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make music.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 7 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the music. When it stops, clap your hands and it should resume.
The meter is used to measure if the solar cell can supply enough
current to operate the music IC (U1).
Project #558
Solar Sounds Combo
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make sounds.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 9 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
sounds from the alarm (U2) and space war (U3) IC’s. Wave your hand
over the photoresistor (RP) to change the sounds.
The meter is used to measure if the solar cell can supply enough
current to operate the alarm and space war IC’s. This project needs
more light than project #557, since two IC’s are used here.
-28-
Project #559
Solar Alarm
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make alarm sounds.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have a bright light on the solar cell (B2) so the
meter reads 10 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the sound.
The meter is used to measure if the solar cell can supply enough
current to operate the alarm IC (U2). Some types of light are better
than others, but bright sunlight is best.
Project #560
Better Solar Alarm
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make alarm sounds.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 8 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the sound.
This circuit uses the transformer (T1) to boost the current to the
speaker (SP), allowing it to operate with less power from the solar cell.
Compare how much light it needs to project #559, which doesn’t have
a transformer.
You can change the sound from the alarm IC (U2) using the same
variations listed in projects #61-65.
-29-
Project #561
Photo Solar Alarm
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make alarm sounds.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 6 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the alarm. Cover the photoresistor (RP) to stop the alarm.
The whistle chip (WC) needs less power to make noise than the
speaker (SP), so this circuit can operate with less light on the solar cell
than projects #559 and #560. But the sound from the circuits with the
speaker is louder and clearer.
You can change the sound from the alarm IC (U2) using the same
variations listed in projects #61-65.
Project #562
Solar Space War
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make space war sounds.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 8 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the space war sounds.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-30-
Project #563
Solar Music Alarm
Combo
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make a combination of sounds.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 8 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the music.
The meter is used to measure if the solar cell can supply enough
current to operate the ICs (U1 & U2).
Project #564
Solar Music Space War Combo
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make a combination of sounds.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 8 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the music.
Project #565
Solar Music Space War Combo (II)
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to make a combination of sounds.
Use the circuit from project #564 but replace the speaker (SP) with the whistle
chip (WC). Now the light on the solar cell (B2) doesn’t have to be as bright for
this circuit to work. You can also modify this circuit by replacing the music IC
(U1) with the alarm IC (U2).
-31-
Project #566
Solar Periodic Lights
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to flash lights in a repeating pattern.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 9 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and the LED’s
(D1 & D2) will alternate being on and off.
Project #567
Solar Periodic Lights (II)
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to flash lights in a repeating pattern.
Use the circuit in project #566, except remove the 3-snap between the
music (U1) and alarm (U2) IC’s (base grid locations C2-C4) and add a
2-snap between the music IC and the 100Ω resistor (R1) (base grid
B4-C4). The circuit works the same way but the LED flashing patterns
are different.
Project #568
Solar AM Radio
Transmitter
OBJECTIVE: To use the sun to power an AM radio transmitter.
You need an AM radio for this project. Place it next to your circuit and
tune the frequency to where no other station is transmitting.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 9 or higher. Turn on the slide switch and adjust the
variable capacitor (CV) for the best sound on the radio. Cover the
photoresistor (RP) to change the sound pattern.
-32-
Project #569
Low Light Noisemaker
OBJECTIVE: To build a sun-powered oscillator circuit.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have light on the solar cell (B2) for the meter
to read at least 5 but less than 10.
Turn on the slide switch and it should make a whining sound, adjust
the amount of light to the solar cell to change the frequency of the
sound. Use a brighter light or partially cover the solar cell if there is no
sound at all.
Project #570
Project #571
Low Light Noisemaker (II) Low Light Noisemaker (III)
OBJECTIVE: To build a sun-powered oscillator circuit.
Use the circuit from project #569 but replace
the whistle chip (WC) with the 0.1μF
capacitor (C2) to lower the frequency of the
sound. The circuit works the same way.
-33-
OBJECTIVE: To build a sun-powered oscillator circuit.
Use the circuit from project #569 but replace
the whistle chip (WC) with the 10μF capacitor
(C3, “+” on the right) to lower the frequency of
the sound. The circuit works the same way
but you hear a ticking sound instead of a
whining sound.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #572
Solar Oscillator
OBJECTIVE: To build a sun-powered oscillator circuit.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch (S1)
off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the meter
to read 8 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and adjust the adjustable
resistor (RV).
You will hear a clicking sound like raindrops or a whine, depending upon
how much light there is.
Project #573
Solar Oscillator (II)
OBJECTIVE: To build a sun-powered oscillator circuit.
Use the circuit from project #572 but replace the 10μF capacitor (C3)
with the 0.02μF or 0.1μF capacitors (C1 & C2) to make the sound a
high-pitch whine.
Project #574
Daylight SCR Lamp
OBJECTIVE: To learn the principle of an SCR.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. Make sure you have
enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the meter to read 3 or higher.
Turn on the slide switch (S1), the lamp (L1) stays off. Push the press
switch (S2) and the SCR (Q3) turns on the lamp and keeps it on. You
must turn off the slide switch to turn off the lamp.
The SCR is a controlled diode. It lets current flow in one direction, and
only after a voltage pulse is applied to its control pin. This circuit has
the control pin connected to the press switch and solar cell, so you
can’t turn it on if the room is dark.
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Project #575
Solar Bird Sounds
OBJECTIVE: To build a sun-powered oscillator circuit.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 9 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the sound.
For variations on this circuit, replace the 100μF capacitor (C4) with the
10μF capacitor (C3) or replace the speaker (SP) with the whistle chip
(WC).
Project #576
Solar Bird Sounds (II)
OBJECTIVE: To build a sun-powered oscillator circuit.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 9 or higher. Now turn on the slide switch and listen to
the sound.
For variations on this circuit, install the whistle chip (WC) above the
0.02μF capacitor (C1), or install it across points A & B and remove the
speaker (SP).
-35-
Project #577
SCR Solar Bomb Sounds
OBJECTIVE: To learn the principle of an SCR.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. With the slide switch
(S1) off, make sure you have enough light on the solar cell (B2) for the
meter to read 8 or higher. Turn on the slide switch now; nothing
happens. Press the press switch (S2) and you hear an explosion of
sounds, which continues until you turn off the slide switch.
Project #578
Flashing Laser LED’s
with Sound
OBJECTIVE: To build a laser sounding circuit.
When you press the press switch (S2), the integrated circuit (U2)
should sound like a laser gun. The red (D1) and green (D2) LED’s will
flash simulating a burst of light. You can shoot long repeating laser
bursts or short zaps by tapping the press switch.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-36-
Project #579
U2 with Transistor
Amplifier
OBJECTIVE: To combine U2 with an amplifier.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and the LED’s (D1 & D2) flash as the
speaker (SP) sounds. The output pulses from U2 turns transistor Q2
on and off rapidly. As the transistor turns on, the speaker shorts to
ground and a current flows through it. The current flow through the
speaker causes it to produce a sound. The LED’s show the pulsing
signal from U2 that is turning Q2 on and off.
Project #580
U2 with Transistor
Amplifier (II)
OBJECTIVE: To combine U2 with an amplifier.
Using project #579, remove the diode (D3) to
create a different sound.
-37-
Project #581
U1 with Transistor
Amplifier (III)
OBJECTIVE: To combine U1 with an amplifier.
Using the project #579, replace U2 with U1.
The circuit will now play music.
Project #582
Loud Sounds
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and you should hear a tone from the
speaker (SP).
Project #583
Swinging Meter
with Sound
OBJECTIVE: To see and hear the output from the Space War
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) scale. In this project, you
will see and hear the output from the space war IC (U3). The power
amplifier IC (U4) amplifies the signal from U3 in order to drive the
whistle chip (WC) and meter. Turn on the slide switch (S1). The meter
deflects back and forth, as the LED (D1) flashes and the whistle chip
sounds. Replace the whistle chip with the speaker (SP) for a louder
sound. Note that the meter will deflect very little now. Almost all the
signal is across the speaker due to its low resistance.
-38-
Project #584
Motor Sound Using
Transformer
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and then rapidly turn on and off the press
switch (S2). This causes a magnetic field to expand and collapse in
the transformer (T1). The small voltage generated is then amplified by
the power amplifier IC (U4) and the speaker (SP) sounds. Replace
switch S2 with the motor (M1, leave the fan off) and you can hear how
fast the motor spins. To hear the sound better, connect the speaker to
the circuit using the red and black jumper wires (instead of the 2snaps) and hold it next to your ear.
!
Project #585
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation.
Motor Sound with LED
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
In this project, you will drive the whistle chip (WC) and LED’s using the
motor (M1) and transformer (T1). Turn the slide switch (S1) on. The
motor begins spinning and the red LED (D1) lights. Now press the
press switch (S2), the voltage generated from the transformer is now
across the whistle chip and green LED (D2). The whistle chip sounds
as the green LED lights.
Project #586
Motor Sound with LED (II)
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
!
-39-
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Modify project #585 by replacing the 6V lamp (L2) with the speaker
(SP). Now the speaker (SP) will also output sound.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #587
AC & DC Current
OBJECTIVE: Using AC and DC current.
This circuit creates an AC & DC current. Press the press switch (S2)
a few times and the LED’s flash back and forth. Turning the switch on
and off causes the magnetic field in the transformer (T1) to expand
(green LED D2 lights) and collapse (red LED D1 lights) and current
flows in two directions. Hold the switch down and the green LED
flashes once. Replace the 6V lamp (L2) with the motor (M1). Press
the press switch, the red LED flickers and the speaker sounds, due to
the small current change from the motor spinning.
Project #588
Noisemaker
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and the relay (S3) generates a buzzing
noise. Increase the voltage across the relay by pressing the press
switch (S2). The tone is higher because the relay’s contacts are
opening and closing faster.
-40-
Project #589
AC Voltage
OBJECTIVE: To use AC voltage.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on. The LED’s (D1 & D2) flash so fast that
they appear to be on, and the speaker (SP) sounds. As in other
projects, the relay’s (S3) contacts open and close rapidly. This causes
the magnetic field in the transformer (T1) to expand and collapse,
creating an AC voltage lighting the LED’s.
Project #590
AC Voltage (II)
OBJECTIVE: To use AC voltage.
You can modify project #589 by adding two light bulbs (L1 & L2).
When the slide switch (S1) is turned on, the relay (S3) sounds and the
light bulbs and LED’s (D1 & D2) flash.
-41-
Project #591
AC Voltage (III)
OBJECTIVE: To use AC voltage.
This project is similar to project #589. When the slide switch (S1) is
turned on, the relay (S3) sounds and the light bulbs (L1 & L2) and
LED’s (D1 & D2) flash. Now when the press switch (S2) is pressed,
the speaker (SP) also sounds.
Project #592
Noisemaker (II)
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and the relay (S3) generates a buzzing
noise. Increase the voltage across the relay by pressing the press
switch (S2). The tone changes because the relay’s contacts are
opening and closing faster.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-42-
Project #593
Noisemaker (III)
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and the speaker (SP) sounds as if a
motor is spinning and an alarm is running. The relay’s (S3) contacts
rapidly open and close the battery connection to the circuit causing the
alarm IC (U2) sound to be different.
Project #594
Pulsing Motor
OBJECTIVE: To create a pulsing motor circuit.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW scale. Turn on the slide switch (S1) and
now you have a pulsing motor and LED’s circuit. Replace the meter
with the 470μF capacitor (C5, “+” on right) to change the rate the LED’s
(D1 & D2) flash.
!
-43-
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Project #595
Noisemaker
Project #596
Noisemaker
(IV)
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound
circuit.
In this project, you’ll see and hear
the output of the alarm IC (U2). Turn
on the slide switch (S1), the LED’s
(D1 & D2) flash, and the speaker
(SP) sounds as the relay (S3)
chatters. Now press the press
switch (S2) and see what happens
when you remove the relay from the
circuit.
Project #597
Project #598
Noisemaker Noisemaker
(VI)
(VII)
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
Modify project #596 by replacing the
capacitor C4 with the motor (M1, position it
with the “+” on the left and don’t place the fan
on it). Turn on the slide switch (S1), the
LED’s flash, and the speaker (SP) sounds as
the relay (S3) chatters. Now press the press
switch (S2) removing the relay from the
circuit, providing a constant connection to
the battery (B1). The motor speeds up and
the sound from the speaker is not distorted.
!
WARNING: Moving parts.
Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do
not lean over the motor.
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
Modify project #597 replacing
the speaker (SP) with the whistle
chip (WC) and placing the fan
onto the motor (M1). Turn on the
slide switch (S1) and the fan
spins, lights flash, and the relay
(S3) chatters. Now try to launch
the fan by pressing the press
switch (S2) down for about five
seconds and releasing it.
(V)
OBJECTIVE:
sound circuit.
To create a
Modify the sound of project #595
by adding capacitor C4 across
points A & B (+ of C4 on right).
Project #599
Project #600
Noisemaker Noisemaker
(VIII)
(IX)
OBJECTIVE:
sound circuit.
To create a
Modify project #598 by removing
the motor (M1). Turn on the slide
switch (S1) and press the press
switch (S2) to hear the new
sound.
OBJECTIVE:
sound circuit.
To create a
Modify the sound of project #599
by replacing the whistle chip
(WC) with the meter (M2, “+”
towards right), use the LOW (or
10mA) meter setting. Turn on the
slide switch (S1) and as the
LED’s flash the meter deflects.
-44-
Project #601
Alarm Power
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
In this project, the alarm IC (U2) powers the motor (M1), meter (M2)
and LED’s (D1 & D2). Leave the fan off of the motor. Set the meter to
the LOW (or 10mA) position and turn on the slide switch (S1). The
circuit pulses the meter, motor, and LED’s.
!
Project #602
Alarm Power (II)
OBJECTIVE: To create a sound circuit.
Remove the motor (M1) from the circuit and now the circuit pulses
around 1Hz.
-45-
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the motor
during operation.
Project #603
Night Sounds
OBJECTIVE: To hear the sounds of the night.
Simulate the sound of a forest at night by replacing the motor (M1) in
project #601 with the whistle chip (WC).
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #604
Mega Pulser &
Flasher
OBJECTIVE: To power other devices using the alarm IC.
In this circuit, you will power many devices using the alarm IC (U2).
Set the meter (M2) to LOW (or 10mA) and turn on the slide switch
(S1). The LED’s (D1 & D2) and bulbs (L1 & L2) flash, the meter
deflects, the whistle chip (WC) sounds, and the motor (M1) spins.
!
Project #605
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
“E” & “S” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “E” & “S”.
This circuit alternately displays letters “E” and “S” by switching
segments “E” and “C” on and off. Segments A, D, F, and G are
connected to ground so they are always lit. Segment “C” is connected
to the base of Q2 and output of U2. The segment “E” is connected to
the collector of Q2. When the output of U2 is low, segment “C” is on
and “E” is off. When the U2’s output is high, the transistor (Q2) turns
on and segment “C” turns off. When the transistor connects the “E”
segment to ground the segment lights, displaying the letter “S”.
-46-
Project #606
“2” & “3” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “2” & “3”.
The circuit switches between numbers “2” & “3” on the display.
Place jumpers from point A to segment C and point B to segment E.
Project #607
“9” & “0” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “9” & “0”.
The circuit switches between numbers “9” and “0” on the display.
Place a jumper from point A to segment G and segment B to segment C.
-47-
Project #608
“3” & “6” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “3” & “6”.
The circuit switches between numbers “3” & “6” on the display.
Place a jumper from segment C to segment D and segment B to
point A.
Project #609
“c” & “C” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “c” & “C”.
The circuit switches between letters “c” & “C” on the display.
Place a jumper from point A to segment G and point B to segment A.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-48-
Project #610
“O” & “o” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “O” & “o”.
The circuit switches between upper case “O” and lower case “o”.
Place a jumper from point A to segment G. The DP segment will also
light.
Project #611
“b” & “d” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “b” & “d”.
The circuit switches between letters “b” & “d” on the display.
Place a jumper from point A to segment B and point B to segment F.
-49-
Project #612
“H” & “L” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “H” & “L”.
The circuit switches between letters “H” & “L” on the display.
Project #613
“A” & “O” Blinker
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to flash between “A” & “O”.
The circuit switches between letters “A” & “O” on the display.
Place a jumper from point A to segment G. The DP segment will also
light.
-50-
Project #614
Open & Closed
Indicator
OBJECTIVE: To construct a circuit that indicates if a door is
open or closed using light.
Switching from letters “O” to “C” requires turning off segments B & C.
Turn on the slide switch (S1), the display lights an “O” indicating an
open door. Cover the photoresistor (RP) with your hand (closed door)
and the letter “C” lights. The photoresistor turns Q2 on and off
depending on the amount of light. When Q2 is on (light on RP) the
voltage at the collector is low, lighting segments B & C. Covering the
RP turns Q2 off and the collector voltage is high now. Segments B &
C turn off and the letter “C” lights.
Project #615
Open & Closed Indicator (II)
OBJECTIVE: To construct a circuit that indicates if a switch is
open or closed using U4.
As in project #614, the display will light an “O” or “C” indicating if the press switch
(S2) is on or off. Turn on the slide switch (S1), the LED (D2) and letter “O” lights.
With no input to U4 the LED lights and the voltage decreases enough so segments
B & C light. Press the press switch S2, the LED turns off and the letter “C” lights.
The voltage at U4’s output increased enough turning the segments off.
Project #616
Vibration Indicator
OBJECTIVE: To construct a circuit that indicates vibration.
Modify project #615 by replacing the press switch (S2) with the whistle chip
(WC). As you tap the whistle chip, U4’s output voltage changes, lighting the
LED (D2) and changing the display from “C” to “O”.
-51-
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #617
Vibration Sounder
OBJECTIVE: To construct a circuit that indicates vibration.
As the motor (M1) spins, it generates an AC voltage amplified by U4.
The output from U4 lights the LED (D2) and makes noise from the
speaker (SP). With the fan not installed, turn on the slide switch (S1)
and you hear the high tone of the spinning motor. Now, install the fan
and hear the difference.
!
Project #618
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
SCR Noise Circuit
OBJECTIVE: To use the SCR to start a circuit.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and nothing happens. The SCR (Q3)
connects the circuit to the batteries and, until the SCR’s gate goes
high, the circuit is off. Press the press switch (S2) and the motor (M1)
spins and the LED (D2) and bulb (L2) light. Increase the sound from
the speaker (SP) by pressing the press switch.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
-52-
Project #619
SCR & Transistor
Switch
OBJECTIVE:
transistor.
Control bulbs L1 & L2 with an SCR and
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and then press the press switch (S2), both
bulbs (L1 & L2) light, but only L2 stays on when S2 is released. To stay
on, the transistor (Q2) requires a continuous voltage but the SCR only
needs a pulse. The speaker (SP) may not make any sound.
Project #620
Two-speed Motor
OBJECTIVE: Increase the speed of a motor using an SCR and
transistor.
If you turn on either switch (S1 or S2) alone, nothing happens. But if
you turn on the slide switch (S1) and then press the press switch (S2),
the lamps (L1 & L2) light and the motor (M1) spins. The SCR (Q3)
keeps the 6V lamp (L2) on and the motor spinning after you release
the press switch. If you hold the press switch down, then the 2.5V
lamp (L1) stays on and the motor spins faster.
!
-53-
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Project #621
Two-speed Motor (II)
OBJECTIVE: To decrease the speed of a motor using an SCR
and transistor.
Instead of increasing the motor’s speed as in project #620, pressing the
press switch (S2) decreases the speed. In this circuit, the transistor
(Q2) is in parallel with the SCR (Q3). Pressing S2 turns on Q2 and the
voltage across the motor (M1) decreases.
!
Project #622
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Current Flow
OBJECTIVE: To show the effects of current flow.
Set the meter (M2) to the LOW (or 10mA) position. Turning on the
slide switch (S1) connects the motor (M1), meter and 2.5V lamp (L1)
to the lower battery (B1) pack. The motor rotates clockwise and the
meter deflects right. Now turn off the slide switch and press the press
switch (S2). Now, current from the upper battery causes the motor to
rotate in the opposite direction. If you place the batteries in series by
turning on the slide switch and then pressing the press switch, only the
bulbs (L1 & L2) light.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-54-
Project #623
AM Radio
with Power LED’s
OBJECTIVE: To build an AM radio with LED’s.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the middle position and turn the slide
switch (S1) on. Tune the radio by adjusting the variable capacitor (CV).
The LED’s (D1 & D2) flicker as the sound is heard.
Project #624
Space War IC
Recording
OBJECTIVE: To record the sounds from the space war IC.
The circuit records the sounds from the space war IC (U3) into the
recording IC (U6). Turn on the slide switch (S1) and the first beep
indicates that the IC has begun recording. When you hear two beeps,
the recording has stopped. Turn off the slide switch and press the
press switch (S2). You will hear the recording of the space war IC
before each song is played. The lamp (L2) is used to limit current and
will not light.
Place the 2-snap from points A & B onto C & D. Now record a different
sound from U3.
-55-
Project #625
LED Flasher
OBJECTIVE: To construct an LED flasher.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the top position and then turn on the
slide switch (S1). The LED’s (D1 & D2) flash at a rate of once per
second. As you adjust RV’s knob down, the LED’s flash faster. When
RV is at the bottom, the LED’s turn off.
Project #626
LED Flasher with Sound
OBJECTIVE: To construct an LED flasher with sound.
You can modify project #625 by adding a transformer (T1) to drive a speaker
(SP). Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the top position and turn on the slide
switch (S1). The speaker sounds as the LED (D2) flashes several times per
second. Increase the rate by moving RV’s knob down.
Project #627
LED Flasher with Sound (II)
OBJECTIVE: To construct an LED flasher with sound.
Modify the frequency by replacing the 0.1μF capacitor (C2) with the 10μF
capacitor (C3, “+” side on the right).
-56-
Project #628
Stepper Motor
OBJECTIVE: To build a variable stepper motor.
Adjust the adjustable resistor (RV) to the middle position and turn on
the slide switch (S1). As the circuit oscillates, the motor (M1) moves a
short distance as the speaker (SP) sounds. Adjust the adjustable
resistor to different positions seeing how it affects the motor and
speaker.
!
Project #629
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Crazy Music IC
OBJECTIVE: To change the sound of the music IC.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the far left position and turn the slide
switch (S1) on. The relay’s (S3) contacts open and close shorting U1
to ground, causing the sound level to change.
-57-
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #630
Stepper Motor w/ Sound
OBJECTIVE: To add sound to a stepper motor circuit.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the middle position. Turn the slide switch (S1) on and
the motor (M1) pulses on and off as the speaker (SP) sounds. As the circuit oscillates,
the relay’s (S3) contacts open and close shorting the motor and speaker to ground. See
how much you can adjust the adjustable resistor before the motor turns off or
continuously spins.
Project #631
Stepper Motor w/ Light
OBJECTIVE: To add light to a stepper motor circuit.
Modify project #630 by removing the speaker (SP) and replacing it with the lamp (L1).
Now when you turn the slide switch (S1) on, the lamp lights as the motor spins.
!
Project #632
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Police Siren with
Display
OBJECTIVE: To display the letter “P” as the alarm IC sounds.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and the speaker (SP) sounds as the letter
“P” lights. You also hear the music IC (U1) playing in the background.
The alarm IC (U2) plays as long as the music IC is on since U2 is
connected to U1’s output. After 20 seconds, the circuit turns off for 5
seconds and then starts again.
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Project #633
Oscillator Alarm
OBJECTIVE: To control the alarm IC with an oscillator circuit.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the far left and turn the slide switch (S1) on.
The speaker (SP) sounds only once. Slowly move the adjustable resistor to the
right, the speaker momentarily sounds. As you move the adjustable resistor to
the right, the alarm is on continuously. The adjustable resistor controls the
frequency of the oscillator circuit (C3, C5, Q1, Q2) by adjusting the voltage at
Q2’s base. The relay (S3) switches the alarm IC (U2) on and off.
Project #634
Oscillator Alarm (II)
OBJECTIVE: To control the alarm IC with an oscillator circuit.
Using a single snap, connect the red LED (D1, “+” side on point A)
across points A & B. Turn the slide switch (S1) on and the circuit has
a different sound now.
Project #635
Tapping U3
OBJECTIVE: To control the space war IC with an oscillator circuit.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the middle position and turn the
slide switch (S1) on. This is another example using the oscillator that
switches the power on and off creating sound. Alter the sound by
adjusting the adjustable resistor.
Project #636
Tapping U3 (II)
OBJECTIVE: To control the space war IC with an oscillator circuit.
Connect the motor (M1) across points A & B. Set the adjustable
resistor (RV) to the middle position and turn the slide switch (S1) on.
Now you hear random noise and static from the speaker (SP). The
motor causes the random static and noise from the speaker.
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Project #637
Adjustable Beeper
OBJECTIVE: To build a simple oscillator that beeps.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and this simple oscillator circuit outputs
a beep from the speaker (SP). Change the frequency by adjusting the
adjustable resistor (RV).
Project #638
Electronic Meow
OBJECTIVE: To create the sound of a cat’s meow.
Turn off the slide switch (S1) and then press and release the press
switch (S2). You hear a “cat’s meow” from the speaker (SP). Now turn
the slide switch (S1) on and the sound is lower and lasts longer. Adjust
the adjustable resistor (RV) while the sound is fading away.
Project #639
Electronic Meow (II)
OBJECTIVE: To add the photoresistor to project #638.
Replace the 10KΩ resistor (R4) with the photoresistor (RP). Wave
your hand over photoresistor as you press down on the press switch
(S2).
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
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Project #640
Strobe Light
OBJECTIVE: To construct an LED strobe light.
This is an example of how a large strobe light works. Turn the slide
switch (S1) on and the LED (D2) flashes at a certain frequency. Adjust
the frequency by adjusting the adjustable resistor (RV). Now add
sound by replacing the 100Ω resistor (R1) with the speaker (SP). Each
time the LED lights, the speaker sounds.
Project #641
AND Gate
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the operations of the AND gate.
In digital electronics, there are two states, 0 & 1. The AND gate performs
a logical “and” operation on two inputs, A & B. If A AND B are both 1, then
Q should be 1. The logic table below shows the state of “Q” with different
inputs and the symbol for it in circuit diagrams.
A
B
Q
D7
0
0
0
“L”
1
0
0
“L”
0
1
0
“L”
1
1
1
“H”
A
Q
B
AND Gate
In the circuit, the S1 & S2 switches represent inputs A & B, and the D7
display represents output Q.
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Project #642
NAND Gate
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the operations of the NAND gate.
The NAND gate works the opposite of the AND as shown in the logic
chart.
A
B
Q
D7
0
0
1
“H”
1
0
1
“H”
0
1
1
“H”
1
1
0
“L”
A
Q
B
NAND Gate
In the circuit, the S1 & S2 switches represent inputs A & B, and the D7
display represents output Q.
Project #643
OR Gate
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the operations of the OR gate.
The basic idea of an OR gate is: If A OR B is 1 (or both are 1), then
Q is 1.
A
B
Q
D7
0
0
0
“L”
1
0
1
“H”
0
1
1
“H”
1
1
1
“H”
A
Q
B
OR Gate
In the circuit, the S1 & S2 switches represent inputs A & B, and the D7
display represents output Q.
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Project #644
NOR Gate
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the operations of the NOR gate.
The NOR gate works the opposite of the OR. In the circuit, the S1 &
S2 switches represent inputs A & B, and the D7 display represents
output Q.
A
B
Q
D7
0
0
1
“H”
1
0
0
“L”
0
1
0
“L”
1
1
0
“L”
Project #645
A
Q
B
NOR Gate
XOR Gate
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the operations of the “exclusive
or” XOR gate.
In an XOR gate the output “Q” is only high when inputs “A” or “B” is set
high (1).
Using the chart, set the switches (S1 & S2) to the different states. The
display (D7) lights the letter “H” only when either switch is turned on.
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A
B
Q
D7
0
0
0
–
1
0
1
“H”
0
1
1
“H”
1
1
0
–
A
Q
B
XOR Gate
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #646
High Pitch Oscillator
OBJECTIVE: To build a high pitch oscillator.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the top position and then turn the
slide switch (S1) on. You hear a high pitch sound and the LED (D1)
flashes at the same rate. Change the oscillator frequency by adjusting
RV.
Project #647
Low Pitch Oscillator
OBJECTIVE: To modify project #646.
Replace the whistle chip (WC) with the 0.1μF capacitor (C2). Turn the
slide switch (S1) on and now the circuit oscillates at a lower frequency.
Project #648
Low Pitch
Oscillator (II)
OBJECTIVE: To modify project #646.
Replace the 0.1μF capacitor (C2) with the 10μF capacitor (C3) placing
the “+” sign towards the top. Turn the slide switch (S1) on; now the circuit
oscillates at a lower frequency.
Project #649
Low Pitch
Oscillator (III)
OBJECTIVE: To modify project #646.
Replace the 10μF capacitor (C3) with the 470μF capacitor (C5) placing
the “+” sign towards the top. Turn the slide switch (S1) on and the circuit
oscillates at a lower frequency now.
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Project #650
Segment Jumper
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC with the 7-segment display.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on; segments A, B, and F light and then
segments C, D, and E. The two groups of segments are connected to
different voltages. As the voltage changes from high to low, the
segments toggle back and forth.
Project #651
DP & Zero Flasher
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC with the 7-segment display.
As in project #650, we use the alarm IC (U2) to flash segments and
LED’s. Turn the slide switch (S1) on and the number “0” and the green
LED (D2) flash as the speaker (SP) sounds. When they turn off, the
DP segment lights.
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Project #652
Stepper Motor with
Lamp & LED’s
OBJECTIVE: To add LED’s to a stepper motor circuit.
Set the adjustable resistor (RV) to the middle position. Turn the slide
switch (S1) on, the motor spins, the bulb lights, and then turn off as the
green LED lights.
!
Project #653
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
IC Start & Stop
OBJECTIVE:
modules.
To drive the motor and display with two IC
Turn the slide switch (S1) on. As the output from the IC (U2) drives the
transistor (Q1), the motor (M1) spins and the display (D7) lights the
letter “S” and then turns off.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
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Project #654
IC Motor Speed
OBJECTIVE: To modify project #653 so the motor slows down.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on. As the output from the IC (U2) drives the
transistor (Q1), the motor (M1) spins and the display (D7) lights.
Instead of turning off as in project #653, the motor slows down and the
red LED (D1) lights.
Modify the circuit by placing a jumper wire across points A & B. Now
the circuit pulses and then runs continuously for a short time.
!
Project #655
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Sound & Light Flasher
OBJECTIVE: To use the alarm IC to drive the motor, speaker,
LED and bulb.
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and the speaker (SP) outputs the sounds
from the alarm IC (U2). The IC also drives the transistor (Q1) causing
the motor (M1) to spin and lights to flash.
!
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WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Project #656
Electromagnet
Delayer
OBJECTIVE: To learn about the electromagnet.
Build the circuit and turn it on. After a delay of about 2 seconds, the
lamp (L2) will light, but be dim. Replace your batteries if it does not light
at all.
Why does the electromagnet (M3) delay the lamp turn-on? The
electromagnet (M3) contains a large coil of wire, and the batteries have
to fill the coil with electricity before the lamp can turn on. This is like
using a long hose to water your garden - when you turn on the water it
takes a few seconds before water comes out the other end.
Once the lamp is on, the resistance of the wire in the coil keeps the
lamp from getting bright. You can replace the 6V lamp with the 2.5V
lamp (L1), because the coil will protect it from the full battery voltage.
Project #657
Electromagnet
Delayer (II)
OBJECTIVE: To learn about the electromagnet.
Use the LOW (or 10mA) setting on the meter (M2) and turn on the
slide switch (S1). The meter shows how the current slowly rises. After
a delay of about 2 seconds, the lamp (L2) will light but be dim.
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Project #658
Two-Lamp
Electromagnet Delayer
OBJECTIVE: To learn about the electromagnet.
Build the circuit and turn it on. First the 2.5V lamp (L1) turns on, and
then the 6V lamp (L2) turns on. Both may be dim, replace your
batteries if they do not light at all.
The electromagnet (M3) stores energy, and the batteries must fill it up
before the lamps become bright. The smaller bulb turns on sooner
because it needs less current to light.
Project #659
Electromagnet
Current
OBJECTIVE: To measure the electromagnet current.
Use the HIGH (or 1A) setting on the meter (M2) to measure the
electromagnet (M3) current. Compare the meter reading to that for the
motor and lamp current in projects #544-546. Insert the iron core rod
into the electromagnet and see if it changes the meter reading.
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To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #660
Electromagnetism
OBJECTIVE:
related.
To learn how electricity and magnetism are
Put the iron core rod into the electromagnet (M3). Press the press switch (S2)
and place the electromagnet (M3) near some iron objects like a refrigerator or
a hammer, it will be attracted to them. You can use it to pick up iron objects,
such as nails.
Electricity and magnetism are closely related, and an electric current flowing in
a coil of wire has a magnetic field just like a normal magnet. Placing an iron
rod through the coil magnifies this magnetic field. Notice that when the
electromagnet is attracted to an iron object, its attraction is strongest at the
ends of the iron core rod. If you remove the iron core rod from the
electromagnet then its magnetic properties are greatly reduced – try this:
If you place the electromagnet upside down under a large object like a table,
you can suspend it there. Be careful though, since it will fall when you release
the press switch.
You can use this circuit to see which things are made of iron. Other metals like
copper or aluminum will not be attracted to the electromagnet.
Project #661
Electromagnetism
& Compass
OBJECTIVE:
related.
Magnetic Field
Compass
To learn how electricity and magnetism are
You need a compass for this project (not included). Use the circuit
from project #660, with the iron core rod in the electromagnet (M3).
You may want to use the slide switch (S1) in place of the press switch
(S2), but only turn it on as needed or you will quickly drain your
batteries.
Turn on the slide switch and move the compass around near the edges
of the electromagnet, it will point toward ends of the iron core rod. By
slowly moving the compass around the electromagnet, you can see
the flow of its magnetic field.
The earth has a similar magnetic field, due to its iron core. A compass
points north because it is attracted to this magnetic field. The
electromagnet creates its own magnetic field, and attracts the
compass in a similar way.
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Project #662 Electromagnetism & Paperclips
OBJECTIVE: To learn how electricity and magnetism are related.
Use the circuit from project #660, with the iron
core rod in the electromagnet (M3). Press the
press switch (S2) and use the electromagnet to
pick up some paperclips, they will be attracted to
both ends of the iron core rod. See how many
paperclips you can lift at once.
You can also use the paperclip to lift the iron core rod up from the
electromagnet.
Snap two 2-snaps around a paperclip and
lift them with the electromagnet, as shown
here on the left.
See what other small objects you can pick up. You can only pick up things
made of iron, not just any metal.
Project #663
Electromagnet Suction
The magnetic field created by the electromagnet occurs in a loop, and is
strongest in the iron core rod in the middle. You can see this loop with
some paperclips:
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OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can lift things using magnetism.
An electric current flowing in a coil of wire has a magnetic field, which
tries to suck iron objects into its center. You can see this using the circuit
from project #660.
Lay the electromagnet (M3) on its side with the iron core rod sticking out
about half way, and press the press switch (S2). The iron rod gets
sucked into the center.
A lighter iron object will show this better. Take a paperclip and straighten
it out, then bend it in half.
Place the bent paperclip next to the electromagnet and turn on the switch
to see it get sucked in. Gently pull it out to feel how much suction the
electromagnet has.
Try sucking up other thin iron objects, like nails.
Project #664
Electromagnet Tower
OBJECTIVE:
magnetism.
To show how electricity can lift things using
This circuit gives a dramatic demonstration of how
the electromagnet (M3) can suck up a paperclip.
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, then bend
it in half. Drop it into the electromagnet center,
and then press the press switch (S2) several
times. The paperclip gets sucked into the center
of the electromagnet and stays suspended there
until you release the press switch.
Drop in
Add two more 1-snaps under the electromagnet
to make it higher, and try this again. Then try
sucking up other thin iron objects, like nails.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
Project #665
Paperclip Compass
OBJECTIVE:
related.
To learn how electricity and magnetism are
Use the circuit from project #664, but place the iron core rod in the
electromagnet (M3). You may want to use the slide switch (S1) in
place of the press switch (S2), but only turn it on as needed or you will
quickly drain your batteries.
Slide two paperclips together, using their loops.
Turn on the switch and hold the paperclips just above the
electromagnet, without them touching the iron core rod. Watch how
the lower paperclip is drawn toward the iron core rod, and will point
towards it just like a compass.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-72-
Project #666
Adjustable Paperclip Suspension
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can lift things using magnetism.
Use the LOW (or 10mA) setting on the meter (M2). Take a
paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in half, and drop it
into the electromagnet (M3) center. Turn on the slide
switch (S1) and set the adjustable resistor (RV) control
lever all the way to the right. The paperclip gets sucked
into the center of the electromagnet and stays suspended
there.
Drop in
Now very slowly move the adjustable resistor lever to the
left, and watch the paperclip and the meter reading. The
paperclip slowly gets lower, as the meter shows the
current dropping. When the current is at zero, the
paperclip is resting on the table.
Add two more 1-snaps under the electromagnet to make
it higher, and try this again. Or try using a different iron
object in place of the paperclip.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
Project #667
Adjustable Paperclip w/ Delay
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can lift things using magnetism.
Use the LOW (or 10mA) setting on the meter (M2).
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in
half, and place it into the electromagnet (M3)
center. Turn on the press switch (S2) and set the
adjustable resistor (RV) control lever all the way to
the right. The paperclip gets sucked into the center
of the electromagnet and stays suspended there.
Now quickly slide the adjustable resistor lever all
the way to the left, and watch the paperclip and the
meter reading. The paperclip slowly gets lower, as
the meter shows the current dropping. This circuit
is similar to project #666, but the capacitor delays
the effect of changing the adjustable resistor
setting.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
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Drop in
Project #668
Photoresistor
Paperclip Suspension
Straighten and bend paperclip
Drop in
OBJECTIVE:
magnetism.
To show how electricity can lift things using
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in half, and place it into
the electromagnet (M3) center. Turn on the slide switch (S1), the
paperclip gets sucked into the center of the electromagnet and stays
suspended there.
Now move the adjustable resistor (RV) control lever around while
waving your hand over the photoresistor (RP). Depending on the
adjustable resistor setting, sometimes covering the photoresistor
causes the paperclip to fall and sometimes it doesn’t. You can also
adjust the light to set the paperclip to different heights.
Project #669
Paperclip Oscillator
OBJECTIVE:
magnetism.
To show how electricity can lift things using
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in
half, and place it into the electromagnet (M3)
center. Turn on the slide switch (S1), and set the
adjustable resistor (RV) control lever to the right.
The paperclip gets sucked into the center of the
electromagnet and stays suspended there. Move
the adjustable resistor lever to the left, and the
paperclip falls.
Drop in
Now for the fun part: Slowly slide the adjustable
resistor lever until you find a spot where the
paperclip is bouncing up and down. There will be
a clicking sound from the relay (S3).
Straighten and
bend paperclip
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Project #670
Paperclip Oscillator (II)
OBJECTIVE:
magnetism.
To show how electricity can lift things using
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in
half, and place it into the electromagnet (M3)
center. Turn on the slide switch (S1), and set the
adjustable resistor (RV) control lever to the right.
The paperclip gets sucked into the center of the
electromagnet and stays suspended there. Move
the adjustable resistor lever to the left, and the
paperclip falls.
Drop in
Now for the fun part: Slowly slide the adjustable
resistor lever until you find a spot where the
paperclip is bouncing up and down.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
Project #671
Paperclip Oscillator (III)
OBJECTIVE:
magnetism.
To show how electricity can lift things using
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in
half, and place it into the electromagnet (M3)
center. Turn on the slide switch (S1), and set the
adjustable resistor (RV) control lever to the right.
The paperclip gets sucked into the center of the
electromagnet and stays suspended there. Move
the adjustable resistor lever to the left, and the
paperclip falls.
Drop in
Now for the fun part: Slowly slide the adjustable
resistor lever until you find a spot where the
paperclip is bouncing up and down. The speaker
(SP) makes a clicking sound.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
-75-
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #672
Paperclip Oscillator (IV)
OBJECTIVE:
magnetism.
To show how electricity can lift things using
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in
half, and place it into the electromagnet (M3)
center. Turn on the slide switch (S1), and set the
adjustable resistor (RV) control lever to the right.
The paperclip gets sucked into the center of the
electromagnet and stays suspended there. Move
the adjustable resistor lever to the left, and the
paperclip falls.
Drop in
Now for the fun part: slowly slide the adjustable
resistor lever until you find a spot where the
paperclip is bouncing up and down. The LED
(D1) flashes and the speaker (SP) makes a
clicking sound.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
Project #673
Paperclip
Oscillator (V)
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can
lift things using magnetism.
Use the circuit from project #672, but replace
the 100μF capacitor (C4) with a 3-snap wire
and replace the speaker (SP) with the 6V
lamp (L2). The circuit works the same way,
but the lamp flashes like a strobe light.
Project #674
OBJECTIVE: To learn how electricity and
magnetism are related.
Oscillating
Compass
Use the circuit from project #672, but replace
the 100μF capacitor (C4) with a 3-snap wire and
replace the speaker (SP) with the 6V lamp (L2).
Place the iron core rod in the electromagnet
(M3) and don’t use the bent paperclip. Slide two
paperclips together, using their loops.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and hold the
paperclips just above the electromagnet, without
them touching the iron core rod. Watch how the
lower paperclip is drawn toward the iron core
rod. Notice that the lower paperclip is vibrating,
due to the changing magnetic field from this
oscillator circuit. Compare this circuit to project
#665 (Paperclip Compass).
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Project #675
High Frequency Vibrator
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can lift things using magnetism.
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in half, and place it
into the electromagnet (M3) center. Connect the electromagnet
to points A & B with the jumper wires and hold it about 1 inch
above the table. Slide the adjustable resistor (RV) control lever
around slowly, you will hear a clicking sound from the relay (S3).
Adjust the electromagnet height and resistor control lever until
the paperclip vibrates up and down on the table. It will vibrate at
a fast rate but will not move very high. Usually this works best
with the electromagnet about one inch above the table and the
resistor control about mid-way to the right side, but your results
may vary. See how high you can make the paperclip bounce.
Adjust the electromagnet height and resistor control lever to
change the height and frequency of the vibration.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
Project #676
High Frequency Vibrator (II)
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can lift things using magnetism.
Take a paper clip and straighten it out, bend it in half, and place it
into the electromagnet (M3) center. Connect the electromagnet to
points A & B with the jumper wires and hold it about 1 inch above
the table. Slide the adjustable resistor (RV) control lever around
slowly, you will hear a clicking sound from the relay (S3) and
speaker (SP).
Adjust the electromagnet height and resistor control lever until the
paper clip vibrates up and down on the table. It will vibrate at a fast
rate but will not move very high. Usually this works best with the
electromagnet about one inch above the table and the resistor
control about mid-way to the right side, but your results may vary.
See how high you can make the paper clip bounce.
Adjust the electromagnet height and resistor control lever to
change the height and frequency of the vibration.
Straighten and
bend paper clip
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Project #677
Siren Paperclip Vibrator
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can move things using
magnetism.
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in
half, and place it into the electromagnet (M3)
center. Turn on the slide switch (S1), and the
paperclip should vibrate.
Drop in
Now press the press switch (S2), the paperclip is
suspended in the air by the electromagnet and a
siren alarm sounds.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
Project #678
Alarm
Paperclip Vibrator
OBJECTIVE:
magnetism.
To show how electricity can move things using
Use the circuit from project #677, remove the connection between points
A & B and make a connection between points B & C (using a spacer on
point B). The sound and vibration are different now. Compare the
vibration height and frequency to project #677.
Project #679
Machine Gun
Paperclip Vibrator
OBJECTIVE:
magnetism.
To show how electricity can move things using
Now remove the connection between points B & C and make a
connection between points D & E. The sound and vibration are different
now. Compare the vibration height and frequency to projects #677 and
#678.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-78-
Project #680
Alarm Vibrator w/ LED
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can move things using
magnetism.
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in
half, and place it into the electromagnet (M3)
center. Turn on the slide switch (S1), and the
paperclip should vibrate and LED (D1) flashes.
Drop in
Now press the press switch (S2), the paperclip is
sucked up by the electromagnet and a siren
alarm sounds.
You can replace the speaker (SP) with the whistle
chip (WC) to change the sound.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
Project #681
Alarm Vibrator w/ LED (II)
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can move things using
magnetism.
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in
half, and place it into the electromagnet (M3)
center. Turn on the slide switch (S1), and the
paperclip should vibrate.
Now press the press switch (S2), the paperclip is
sucked up by the electromagnet and the LED
(D1) flashes.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
-79-
Drop in
Project #682
Relay-Whistle Vibrator
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can lift things using magnetism.
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in half, and
place it into the electromagnet (M3) center. Connect the
electromagnet to points A & B with the jumper wires and hold
it about 1 inch above the table. Slide the adjustable resistor
(RV) control lever around slowly, you will hear a clicking sound
from the relay (S3) and buzzing from the whistle chip (WC).
Drop in
Adjust the electromagnet height and resistor control lever until
the paperclip vibrates up and down on the table. The vibration
pattern may seem complex because it is due to two sources:
the whistle chip and the relay.
Adjust the electromagnet height and resistor control lever to
change the height and frequency of the vibration.
You can also replace the 10KΩ resistor (R4) with the
photoresistor (RP). Waving your hand over it will start or stop
the vibration.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
Project #683
Relay-Whistle Photo Vibrator
OBJECTIVE: To show how electricity can lift things using magnetism.
Take a paperclip and straighten it out, bend it in half, and
place it into the electromagnet (M3) center. Connect the
electromagnet to points A & B with the jumper wires and hold
it about 1 inch above the table. Slide the adjustable resistor
(RV) control lever around slowly without covering the
photoresistor (RP), you will hear a clicking sound from the
relay (S3) and buzzing from the whistle chip (WC).
Drop in
Adjust the electromagnet height and resistor control lever until
the paperclip vibrates up and down on the table. Then wave
your hand over the photoresistor. The vibration pattern may
seem complex because it is due to three sources: the whistle
chip, the relay, and the photoresistor.
Adjust the electromagnet height and resistor control lever to
change the height and frequency of the vibration. Covering
the photoresistor stops the vibration.
Straighten and
bend paperclip
-80-
Project #684
Vibration LED
OBJECTIVE: Introduction to the vibration switch.
The vibration switch (S4) contains two separate contacts; a spring is
connected to one of the contacts. A vibration causes the spring to
move briefly shorting the two contacts. This simple circuit
demonstrates how the vibration switch works. Build the circuit and the
LED (D1) does not light. Tap the vibration switch or table and the LED
lights for every tap.
The 100KΩ resistor (R5) limits the current to protect the vibration
switch while the transistors allow the vibration switch to control a large
current.
Project #685
Vibration Speaker
OBJECTIVE: To create sound with a tap of your finger.
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1). When you tap on the vibration switch
(S4), the speaker (SP) sounds. Listen closely because the sound may not be very loud.
Project #686
Measure the Vibration
as You Tap the Switch
OBJECTIVE: To use the meter with the vibration switch.
Modify project #685 by replacing the speaker (SP) with the meter (M2).
Place it with the “+” side towards R5 and use the LOW (or 10mA)
setting. Tap the vibration switch (S4) and the meter deflects to the
right. Tap harder on the switch; the switch closes longer and the meter
deflects more to the right.
-81-
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
Project #687
Shaky Birthday Song
OBJECTIVE: To turn the music IC on and off using the
vibration switch.
Connect the vibration switch (S4) to the circuit using the red and black
jumpers. Hold the vibration switch steady in your hand and the music
should not play. Now move your hand, the music should briefly play. If
you continuously shake the switch, the music keeps playing. Turn the
slide switch (S1) on and the music plays. Change the sound by shaking
the vibration switch.
Project #688
Vibration Detector
OBJECTIVE: To show the effects of horizontal and vertical
direction.
Connect the vibration switch (S4) to the circuit using the black and red
jumper wires. Place the switch horizontally on the table. Rapidly move
the switch from left to right and notice that the LED (D1) does not light.
There is not enough force to expand the internal spring to turn on the
switch. Now move the switch up and down and see that the LED easily
lights. It requires less force to move the spring back and forth.
You can replace the LED (D1) with the meter (M2), place it with the “+”
side towards R5 and use the LOW (or 10mA) setting. The meter
deflects more when you move the vibration switch up and down.
-82-
Project #689
Out of Balance
OBJECTIVE: To build an out of balance turn off circuit.
The vibration switch (S4) triggers the SCR (Q3) connecting the relay’s
(S3) coil to the battery (B1). The relay’s contacts switch, turning the
motor (M1) off, and lighting the lamp (L2). The lamp will stay lit until
the slide switch (S1) is turned off.
Turn the slide switch on; the motor starts to spin. If the motor generates
enough vibration, the switch will trigger the SCR, turning off the motor
and lighting the lamp. If the motor keeps spinning, tap on the table to
trigger the vibration switch.
!
Project #690
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do not lean over the motor.
Vibration Alarm
OBJECTIVE: To sound an alarm when something is shaken.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and shake the circuit or bang on the table;
an alarm will sound. Try banging on the table in a regular pattern, and
see if you can make the alarm sound continuously.
-83-
Project #691
Vibration Space War
OBJECTIVE: To make sounds when something is shaken.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and shake the circuit or bang on the table,
you will hear different sounds. Try banging on the table in a regular
pattern, and see if you can make the sounds continuous.
When the vibration switch (S4) is shaken, the circuit plays out one of
eight sounds.
Project #692
Vibration Light
OBJECTIVE: To build a lamp that stays on for a while.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and shake the base grid or bang on the
table. The lamp (L1) turns on when there is vibration, and stays on for
a few seconds.
To learn more about how circuits work, visit www.snapcircuits.net or page 85 to find out about our Student Guides.
-84-
®
OTHER FUN ELENCO PRODUCTS!
For a listing of local toy retailers who carry Snap Circuits®, please visit www.elenco.com or call us toll-free at (800) 533-2441. For Snap
Circuits® upgrade kits, accessories, additional parts, and more information about your parts, please visit www.snapcircuits.net.
Snap Circuits® LIGHT
Model SCL-175
Build over 175 projects!
• Infrared detector
• Strobe light
• Color changing LED
• Glow-in-the-dark fan
Contains over 60 parts
• Strobe integrated circuit (IC)
• Fiber optic communication
• Color organ controlled by iPod® or
other MP3 player, voice, and fingers.
Snap Circuits® Green
Alternative Energy Kit
Model SCG-125
Learn about energy sources and how to “think green”. Build over 125
projects and have loads of fun learning about environmentallyfriendly energy and how the electricity in your home works. Includes
full-color manual with over 100 pages and separate educational
manual. This educational manual will explain all the forms of
environmentally-friendly energy including: geothermal, hydrogen fuel
cells, wind, solar, tidal, hydro, and others. Contains over 40 parts.
If you want to enhance your Snap
Circuits® experience and get even
smarter, then try
Snap Circuits®
Student Guide
Part # 753307
For use with SC-750
Educational Series - teaches Basic Electricity
and Electronics in the everyday world using our
Learn By Doing®
concept! 80 full-color
pages, and written
with the help of
educators.
Snaptricity
Model SCBE-75
Build Over 75 Projects
Learn how electricity and magnetism can be used to make each other, learn
about magnetic fields, how the electricity in your home works, how switches
control the electricity to the lights in your home, and how series and parallel
circuits affect electricity.
Over 40 parts including: Meter, electromagnet, motor, lamps, switches, fan,
compass, and electrodes.
Educational Toy: Projects that relate to electricity in the home and magnetism
and how it is used. Build over 75 projects.
Put your circuits in motion!
Deluxe Snap Rover
®
Model SCROV-50
Introducing the next generation of the RC Snap Rover®! This version
includes a disc launcher, digital voice recorder, and music sounds.
Over 50 parts allow you to complete over 40 additional projects.
Custom Storage Case
Model SNAPCASE7
Heavy duty plastic case with 2
custom foam inserts for housing
your Snap Circuits® parts. Easy to
identify missing components. Also
includes a separate small case to
hold the smaller loose parts.
(for use with SC-750)
AC Power
Supply
Part #
AC-SNAP
Replaces the batteries in
Snap Circuits®.
• Includes 30 parts
• Build over 20 projects
• Full-color assembly
manual
• Sound effects
Elenco® provides a circuit designer so that you
can make your own Snap Circuits® drawings.
This Microsoft® Word document can be
downloaded from:
www.snapcircuits.net/SnapDesigner.doc
or through the www.snapcircuits.net web site.
-85-
®
OTHER FUN ELENCO PRODUCTS!
Project Labs No Soldering Required
Weather
500-in-1 Electronic Project Lab
Chemistry 60
Model MX-909
Model EDU-7074
Everything you need to build 500 exciting electronic
projects. Learn the basics of electronics and put
your knowledge to work creating projects that
explore amplifiers, analog and digital circuits plus
learn how to read schematic diagrams. Includes
built-in breadboard for easy wiring and connection
of components and an LCD (liquid crystal display)
which indicates the information for the experiment
in progress. Includes breadboard and spring hookup methods.
Over 30 fascinating activities all about weather and climate. Build
your own barometer, weather vane, rain gauge, and hydrometer.
Observe the weather traits
and see how they’ll affect
tomorrow’s weather. Make
a rainbow, produce clouds,
lightning, rain, and even a
thunderstorm! Requires
one (1) 9V battery.
`
Warning: This product
contains uninflated balloons.
Detectolab
`
Warning: This product
contains magnets.
My Senses
Model EDU-7080
Model EDU-7086
Investigate, analyze, decipher and solve the crime!
Over 65 activities with fingerprints, secret messages, chromatography, cipher codes,
identity detection and
more. Kit includes 30X
microscope and necessary
lab equipment.
Requires two (2) “AA”
batteries.
This kit is part of our Body Awareness Science Series, exploring the five senses:
sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Perform over 50 fascinating experiments.
Use a genuine stethoscope, make
a telescope with real lenses and
create rainbows with a prism.
Prepare perfume and stink bombs
with chemistry lab equipment.
Learn how to read and send
messages in Braille. Also includes
many activities suitable for party
games.
Educational Kits
Radio-Controlled Race Car
Model FUN-875
The purpose of this project is to expand your
understanding of basic transmitters, receivers
and electronic switching theories. Your Turbo
King Car will be built from the ground up. You’ll
learn all about gears, motors, printed circuit
boards, and integrated circuits from our
detailed assembly and training manual.
You will construct each section, explore the
circuitry and troubleshoot it.
Requires 1 9V and 4 “AA” batteries.
Model EDU-7075
Beginning chemistry set includes 60
fun activities with no chemicals.
Activities
include
threedimensional bubbles, basic
chemistry, crystal growing,
physics, magnetism, optics,
growing plants, slime &
gook, science tricks, and
chromatography.
No Soldering Required
Solar Deluxe Educational Kit
Model SK-40
By solar power, harness the power of the sun
with this environment-friendly D.I.Y. kit!
You can do a series of do-it-yourself
experiments to acquire the basic knowledge of
solar energy.
You can learn how to make an electrical
circuit, make a solar circuit, how to increase
voltage and current, and how to use solar
power to produce energy for a radio,
calculator, battery charger, and more!
-86-
ELENCO®
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com
e-mail: [email protected]
Copyright © 2005 by Elenco® Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by
any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
REV-B
Revised 2005
753293
CI-73 - READ THIS FIRST
The CI-73 is a set of 73 Snap Circuits with special
software that allows you to “see” the electrical signals
in the circuits, just like electronics engineers do using
oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers.
Requirements for your computer:
1. Windows® 95 or later.
2. A working microphone input port.
INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Insert the CI-73 CD into your computer. The Snap Circuits
menu comes up automatically, with an electronic copy of this
manual. Select Run Winscope Now. Connect the plug end of
the probe to the microphone input on the back of your personal
computer.
If the Snap Circuits menu does not appear automatically: Click
<Start> - <Run> - <Browse>, then select CI-73 in your CD
drive, then select AutorunPro and click <OK>.
If Windows asks you how to open the file (or if you have
Acrobat® Reader 3.0 or older), then you need to install
Acrobat® Reader : Click <Start> - <Run> - <Browse>, then
select CI-73 in your CD drive, then select Acrobat® Installer
and click <OK>. Follow the instructions to install, and then reinsert the CI-73 CD into your computer.
TM
TM
2. Change the default settings for Winscope by selecting
<Options>. Then select <Timing> and change Sampling to
44100 and press <OK>. Then select <Options> again, then
<Colors> - <Y1 Trace> and pick a bright color like pink. Then
select <Options>, then <Save Setup> to save these settings
as your default.
3. Follow the instructions through project PC3 before
moving on to any other circuits, since the main features
of the software are demonstrated.
If you have any questions contact:
Elenco Electronics, Inc.
®
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com • e-mail: [email protected]
-1-
WARNING:
!
SHOCK HAZARD - NEVER connect
the probe to AC power or a wall
electricity outlet for any reason since
serious injury or damage may result.
Looking at Electronic Signals using the WINSCOPE Software
Electronic engineers use specialized test equipment to
electronic signals and make performance measurements.
use an oscilloscope to look at the shape of the signal and
spectrum analyzer to look at its frequency content.
equipment is specialized and usually very expensive.
“see”
They
use a
This
The
Winscope
software
simulates this equipment using
your personal computer. The
PC-interface cable can be
connected across any 2 points in
your circuit to look at the signal.
Click on the On-Line button to turn it on. You should now get
one of the following 2 pictures, depending on whether your
microphone input is properly turned on:
On-Line
button
Example
A
WARNING:
SHOCK HAZARD - NEVER connect the probe to AC power
or a wall electricity outlet for any reason since serious injury
or damage may result.
It is usually connected to the output of a circuit, as in the circuits
shown for the CI-73. Connect the plug end of the probe to the
microphone input (pink plug) on the back of your personal
computer. Run the Winscope application (from the CI-73 menu).
It will come up in Hold mode looking like this:
Example
B
If you get the picture shown in Example B, then your microphone
input is not properly turned on. Go to the “Turning On Your
Microphone Input” section to turn it on. There may also be other
sound card controls on your computer that you need to set.
When your input is properly configured, you will get a picture like
Example A above. Touch the red and black “alligator” clips on the
PC-interface cable to each other and you should see the random
pattern on the Winscope screen change as you do so. You are
now ready to proceed with the first CI-73 experiment or you may
investigate the Winscope software on your own.
-2-
Looking at Electronic Signals using the WINSCOPE Software (continued)
You may freeze a waveform on the screen by clicking on the Hold
mode button (just to the right of the On-Line button).
Hold mode button
NOTES:
1. It is recommended that you disable or turn down the
volume to the speakers on your computer. CI-73’s use of
the microphone input port will also channel the same
signal to the speakers, and the result can be distracting.
2. It is recommended that you become familiar with the Snap
Circuits parts and assembly methods before building any
of the circuits in this manual.
Turning On Your Microphone
(For Windows® 98 or XP, other Windows® versions may be
slightly different.)
If you don’t get any signal from the PC-interface cable then
your microphone may be disabled on your computer. To turn
it on, follow these instructions which begin by pressing the
<Start> button on the lower-left corner:
WARNING: Do not “save setup” in Winscope. Many of the
buttons on Winscope control features that this manual will not be
using. If you accidentally place the Winscope software into an
unknown mode, you may always close and re-start Winscope.
Doing so will reset all settings to those described in this booklet
unless you have done a “save setup”.
1. Select <Start> - <Programs> - <Accessories> <Entertainment> (or <Multimedia>) - <Volume Control>.
2. Select <Options>.
3. Select <Properties>.
4. Select <Recording> in the “Adjust Volume For” box.
PROJECTS PC1-PC3 SHOW
HOW TO USE THE MAIN
FUNCTIONS OF WINSCOPE SO
DO THEM FIRST!
-3-
5. In the “Show the Following Controls” box, check
<Microphone>.
6. Select <OK>.
7. In the “Microphone - Volume” box, check <Select> and set
volume to about 40% of max.
Your microphone should now be turned on.
Looking at Electronic Signals using the WINSCOPE Software (continued)
IMPORTANT NOTE: The designs for the microphone input port
vary throughout the computer industry. Hence you may get
waveforms different from those shown in your manual even
though the circuit is actually performing the same way. Here are
some types of differences:
A. The gain of your microphone input may be significantly
different from that indicated on pages 8-10 (and similarly
for the other circuits). Page 4 describes how to turn on
the microphone input and adjust its volume to about 40%
of max, you may want to adjust this volume higher or
lower so that your results better match those shown. Note
that having the volume set too high may “clip off” the top
or bottom portion of a waveform.
C. The shape of waveforms may appear distorted for some
circuits, due to protection circuitry that acts as a filter. For
example:
This waveform . . .
might look like this.
And this waveform . . .
might look like this.
And this waveform . . .
might look like this.
B. The oscilloscope waveforms shown on your display may
appear upside down (“inverted”) from those shown
throughout this document. For example the waveform
shown on the top of page 10 would look like this:
If this is the case then swap the connections of the red and black
clips of the Winscope probe in all circuits.
Contact Elenco® Electronics if you have any questions about this.
-4-
Limitations of WINSCOPE and Its Interface
By using the microphone audio input and the flexible processing
power of the personal computer, we have created an inexpensive
and easy-to-use way of looking at electronic signals. However,
no electronic oscilloscope or spectrum analyzer ever made works
on all electronic signals, and similarly Winscope has limitations.
The projects in this booklet were written to minimize those
limitations.
Winscope can only measure changing signals (AC voltages, >20
Hz frequency) and cannot measure fixed voltages (DC voltages,
such as a battery), due to the design of the microphone input.
Fixed voltages are not very exciting to look at anyway. Slowchanging or transient signals (such as when you first turn on
power to a circuit) will be displayed in a distorted form.
Winscope works best on signals up to about 5kHz, since its
sampling rate is limited to 44kHz. If you attempt to measure
higher frequency signals, then you will get wrong results due to
undersampling. This is a narrow range but it covers human voice
and most (but not all) music. AM and FM radio frequencies
cannot be measured. Every measurement you make will have
some amount of random “chatter” superimposed on the signal of
interest. This chatter is due to the limited sampling rate and from
the PC-interface cable picking up energy from other electronic
instruments in the vicinity (including room lights and your
computer), hence it cannot be avoided.
Using WINSCOPE’s Full Capabilities
Winscope has 2 input channels that can be displayed at the
same time. This is commonly done by electronic engineers using
an oscilloscope, to show the relationship of one (or more) signals
to another. However, use of this requires a second microphone
input, which most computers do not have. If the sound card in
your computer has this then you may use all of Winscope
features for 2 channels, which include X-Y and correlate modes.
Use of these Winscope capabilities is beyond the introductory
level of this product, use the Help menu in Winscope for
information about using these features.
WARNING:
SHOCK HAZARD - NEVER connect the probe to AC power
or a wall electricity outlet for any reason since serious injury
or damage may result.
!
Exporting Graphs from WINSCOPE
To make a copy of the Winscope display screen, hold down the Alt button and press the PrtScn button on your
computer when Winscope is the active window. You can then paste it into word processing programs such as
Microsoft Word.
-5-
Project Listings
Project #
PC1
PC2
PC3
PC4
PC5
PC6
PC7
PC8
PC9
PC10
PC11
PC12
PC13
PC14
PC15
PC16
PC17
PC18
PC19
PC20
PC21
PC22
PC23
PC24
PC25
PC26
PC27
PC28
PC29
PC30
PC31
PC32
PC33
PC34
PC35
PC36
PC37
Description
Pitch PC
Screaming Fan PC
Hissing Foghorn PC
Light and Sounds PC
Light and Sounds PC (II)
Light and Sounds PC (III)
Light and Sounds PC (IV)
Light and Sounds PC (V)
Light and Sounds PC (VI)
Modulation
Filtering
AM Radio PC
Space War PC
Microphone
Speaker Microphone
Symphony of Sounds PC
Doorbell PC
Periodic Sounds PC
Lasting Doorbell PC
Space War Flicker PC
Buzzing in the Dark PC
Trombone PC
Sound Pulse Oscillator PC
High Pitch Bell PC
Tone Generator PC
Tone Generator PC (II)
Tone Generator PC (III)
Old-Style Typewriter PC
Transistor Fading Siren PC
Fading Doorbell PC
Police Siren Amplifier PC
Music Amplifier PC
Space War Amplifier PC
Adjustable Tone Generator PC
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (II)
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (III)
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (IV)
Page #
7
11
14
16
18
18
18
18
19
19
21
22
24
25
27
28
29
30
31
33
34
35
37
38
39
39
39
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
44
Project #
PC38
PC39
PC40
PC41
PC42
PC43
PC44
PC45
PC46
PC47
PC48
PC49
PC50
PC51
PC52
PC53
PC54
PC55
PC56
PC57
PC58
PC59
PC60
PC61
PC62
PC63
PC64
PC65
PC66
PC67
PC68
PC69
PC70
PC71
PC72
PC73
Description
Adjustable FM Radio PC
Transistor AM Radio PC (II)
Playback & Record PC
Power Amplifier Playing Music PC
Music Meter PC
Oscillation Sounds PC
Oscillation Sounds PC (II)
Oscillation Sounds PC (III)
Oscillation Sounds PC (IV)
Oscillator Sounds PC
Oscillator Sounds PC (II)
Whistle Chip Sounds PC
Whistle Chip Sounds PC (II)
Whistle Chip Sounds PC (III)
Whistle Chip Sounds PC (IV)
Bird Sounds PC
Bird Sounds PC (II)
Electronic Cat PC
Electronic Cat PC (II)
Electronic Cat PC (III)
Electronic Cat PC (IV)
Variable Oscillator PC
Variable Oscillator PC (II)
Variable Oscillator PC (III)
Variable Oscillator PC (IV)
Electronic Sound PC
Electronic Sound PC (II)
Siren PC
Drawing Resistors PC
Electronic Noisemaker PC
Electronic Noisemaker PC (II)
Bee PC
Bee PC (II)
Space War Alarm Combo PC
Space War Music Combo PC
Sound Mixer PC
Page #
44
45
45
46
47
48
48
48
48
49
49
49
50
50
50
50
51
51
51
51
51
52
52
52
52
53
53
54
55
55
56
56
57
57
58
58
-6-
Project #PC1
Pitch PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output signal from a transistor oscillator while changing the pitch of the sound.
You will now be introduced to the Winscope features, and thereby
become familiar with oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers, and
see some of the most important concepts in electronics. It is
recommended that you already be familiar with the Snap Circuits
parts and assembly methods from the other manuals.
Build the circuit shown and connect the PC-interface cable to the
microphone input on your computer. Turn on the slide switch
(S1) and vary the adjustable resistor (RV). The frequency or
pitch of the sound is changed. Run the Winscope software and
be sure your microphone input is configured properly, as
described earlier.
-7-
Click on the On-Line button if Winscope is currently in Hold mode
and you should get a picture similar to this one:
On-Line
button
Note that your picture may not exactly match this picture due to
variances in the microphone input gain between computers, which
is beyond software control. You may want to adjust the volume
control of your microphone input to compensate, see note A on
page 4 for more details. You may also disable 1:1 mode by clicking
on its button again and then adjust the gain using the Y1 control.
The gain and position control features just described enable
electronic engineers and technicians to “see” the amplitude
(voltage level) of a signal. By adjusting the settings on an
oscilloscope, they can look at both very large and very small
voltage waveforms.
The waveform peak is off the top of the screen because the scope
gain (amplification) is set too high. You may adjust this gain by
moving the Y1 gain control around (try it).
Similarly, you may adjust the position of the waveform on the
screen by moving the Y1 position control around (try it).
Move the adjustable resistor control (snap part RV) and watch how
it changes the waveform on the computer screen. Now click on the
0.5ms/div button to change the time scale on the display. (The
button to the left of it is for 5ms/div, the default.) Move the
adjustable resistor control around again. You may click on the Hold
button to freeze the waveform on the screen, then click on On-Line
to re-start.
Hold
button
0.5ms/div button
Now click on the 1:1 button to set the gain to x1 and disable the
Y1 controls. You should now have a picture similar to this one:
1:1 button
Y1 position
control
Y1 gain
control
With the time scale at 0.5ms/div and the adjustable resistor set for
middle position, you should now have a picture similar to this one.
Your picture may appear different due to variations in the
microphone input designs between computers. Although this is
beyond software control, in some cases you may be able to
compensate externally. See notes B and C on page 4 for details.
-8-
Notice that the waveform seems to be randomly dancing across the
screen, making it hard to study. We can fix this. Click on the
“trigger positive level” button and make sure the trigger bar is
in the position shown here. Notice that a small “-” appears on the
left of the display as you do so.
“Trigger positive level button
Now its time to look at your electronic signal in a different way. The
oscilloscope features you have been using show you voltage
(amplitude) vs. time, now you will see voltage vs. frequency.
Engineers use expensive instruments called spectrum analyzers to
do this, but Winscope uses a mathematical transformation called
an FFT to do this. Set the Y1 gain control back to its default
position for now. Click on the 5ms/div button to display a wider
range, then click on the FFT button. Your display should be similar
to this:
5ms/div button
FFT button
“-”
Y1 gain
control
default
position
Trigger bar
The small slash “-” represents the trigger voltage, when the signal
reaches this voltage level it activates the display. This makes it
easy to observe a stream of pulses like you have now, and also to
record a single (non-repeating) pulse.
Move the adjustable resistor control (snap part RV) and watch how
it changes the waveform on the computer screen. Now you can
see how changing the adjustable resistor changes the time
between the pulses, which changes the tone of the sound you
hear.
The waveform you see here is the voltage across the speaker, the
peaks of the pulses occur when the transistors turn on and provide
current to the speaker. Changing the amplitude of the peaks
changes the loudness of the sound, changing their separation
changes the tone or “pitch” of the sound. The time scale and
trigger control features just described enable electronic engineers
and technicians to see the relationship between parts of a
waveform on their oscilloscope.
-9-
You are seeing the frequency spectrum of your signal, up to 22kHz.
Notice that most of the energy is at the low frequencies (below
7kHz), and there is very little as you go higher.
The 1:1 gain mode does not apply to the FFT screen, so move the
Y1 gain control down to here so you can see the peak energy at
the low frequencies.
Now you can see that the tone you hear is actually a range of
related frequencies combined together. The first peak is
considered to be the main signal (and it is usually but not always
the highest), the energy at all the other peaks determine the
waveform of the signal you see on an oscilloscope.
Now modify your circuit by placing the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) on top
of the 0.02mF capacitor (C1). By increasing circuit capacitance,
you lower the oscillation frequency and your display should now
look something like this:
Y1 gain
control
level
Move the adjustable resistor control (snap part RV) and watch how
it changes the frequencies on the display.
Set the adjustable resistor control (snap part RV) to mid-range. In
addition to the 5ms/div and 0.5ms/div settings for the horizontal
scale, there is also a variable setting. See if you can set it so that
all the signal peaks line up with the grid lines, as shown.
Variable
setting
Frequency
As you can see, all the peaks are equally spaced in frequency.
Move your computer mouse directly over the first peak, the
software displays the frequency you are pointing at. Move the
mouse to the other peaks and you see they are multiples of the first
frequency.
-10-
Now adjust the horizontal scale so the peaks line up with the
gridlines as they did before.
Horizontal scale
Now you can click on the FFT box to return to oscilloscope mode
and look at the waveform with the 0.1mF capacitor in the circuit. You
can observe it with the same settings as before for comparison, but
these settings usually work best:
Notice that all the peaks went down in frequency by a
corresponding amount and many changed in amplitude, that is why
your ears hear a different sound. Notice also that in this case the
left-most frequency peak no longer is the highest in voltage (your
results may vary).
Project #PC2
Screaming Fan PC
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate storage mode.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation.
!
WARNING: Do not lean over the motor.
-11-
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch (snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown below,
and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (snap part RV)
around to change the waveform and the sound. A sample
waveform is shown here, but the pattern and shape of the pulses
depends on the adjustable resistor setting.
On-Line
button
Winscope has a mode that can display multiple scans at the same
time, called Storage mode. Set the adjustable resistor lever to a
low-middle position, place Winscope in this mode, and watch the
results.
Waveform
Without Storage Mode
Storage
mode
With Storage Mode
-12-
What you see here is the effect of timing variations on the trigger
used for synchronization. Turn off the trigger and you will see how
much variation there is without using the trigger:
You can also use storage mode when in FFT mode, so turn it on
now.
Storage mode
Trigger
You can use Storage mode on any of the other circuit waveforms if
desired.
Now turn off storage mode and turn on FFT mode to look at the
frequency spectrum, try the settings shown here.
Settings
Moving the adjustable resistor lever will change the spectrum
shown.
-13-
In this way you can show the peak energy achieved at each
frequency. But this is only useful on a stable waveform, so if you
move the adjustable resistor lever now the signal will fill the screen
as the peaks move across the display.
Most oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers have a storage mode
like this of some form.
Project #PC3
Hissing Foghorn PC
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate wait mode with multiple colors.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch (snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown on the
right, and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (snap part RV)
around to change the waveform and the sound. At some positions
there may be no sound. A sample waveform is shown here, but the
pattern and shape of the pulses depends on the adjustable resistor
setting.
On-Line
button
Settings
-14-
Place Winscope in Wait mode by clicking on the button for it, then
slowly press the On-Line button several times. Now turn off the
slide switch (snap part S1) and press On-Line again. Then turn the
switch back on. You see that in Wait mode Winscope scans
(“waits”) until it sees a waveform that exceeds the trigger level you
set, then stops. With a strong signal it will make one scan and then
stop, whereas if no signal is present it keeps scanning until it finds
one. You could use this to sense when someone has turned on the
circuit.
On-Line
button
Now your display should look something like this:
Storage mode
Wait
mode
Now you see the range of waveforms this circuit can create, all at
the same time. Engineers often do this to compare signals during
analysis.
You can use Wait mode and different colors like this on the other
circuits if you like.
You can change the color of the waveform: select <Options>, then
select <Colors>, then select <Y1 Trace>. Now select the color you
like and click <OK>.
Now we will combine the wait and storage modes to display several
waveforms that this circuit can create. You should have the circuit
on with the adjustable resistor at mid-range and Winscope in Wait
mode. Now turn on Storage mode. Now change the color of the
Y1 trace. Move the adjustable resistor control lever a little, then
press On-Line once to record another waveform. Now change the
color of Y1 again. Move the resistance control again and press OnLine once. Change the Y1 color, adjust the resistance and press
On-Line. Change the Y1 color, adjust the resistance and press OnLine. Do this several more times if you like. Note that at some
resistance settings there may be no waveform to trigger on, move
the resistance control until it does.
-15-
Now turn off storage mode and turn on FFT mode to look at the
frequency spectrum, try the settings shown here. Wait mode does
not apply in FFT mode, so it has no effect here. Moving the
adjustable resistor lever will change the spectrum shown.
Settings
Project #PC4
Light & Sounds PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output signal from a circuit that makes alarm sounds.
Build the circuit and connect the Winscope PC-interface cable as
shown, the cable should still be connected to the microphone input
on your computer.
-16-
If continuing from the previous experiment then close the Winscope
program and run it again, to reset the settings. Then use the mouse
to set it up as shown here, and turn on the switch (snap part S1).
Click on the On-Line button to activate.
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum.
Also set the amplitude and time scales (really amplitude and
frequency scales in FFT mode) to be as shown here.
Time scales
On-Line
button
Set up
You should see a waveform similar to that shown here, but it will be
constantly changing. This is because the siren sound you hear is
not a continuous tone but instead is constantly changing. Note the
differences in the waveshape for this circuit compared to the circuit
in Project PC1.
Your picture may appear different due to variations in the
microphone input designs between computers. See the notes on
page 4 for details.
-17-
Amplitude
FFT button
You should see a fuzzy spectrum similar to that shown here, but it
will be constantly changing. This is because the siren sound you
hear is not a continuous tone but instead is constantly changing
frequency, and it spends more time at some frequencies than at
others. Note the differences in the spectrum for this circuit
compared to the circuit in Project PC1.
Project #PC5
Light & Sounds PC (II)
Project #PC6
Light & Sounds PC (III)
Modify the circuit for project PC4 by connecting points X and Y on the
snap diagram. Now the sound is a machine gun, it shuts off between
bursts.
Modify the circuit by removing the connection between X and Y and
then make a connection between T and U. It makes a fire engine
sound.
Look at the waveform and frequency spectrum using the same
settings as for project PC4, and compare them to those for the siren.
Look at the waveform and frequency spectrum using the same
settings as for project PC4. The waveform slowly rises and falls in
pitch, and gives a clear spectrum that slowly rises and falls in
frequency.
Project #PC7
Light & Sounds PC (IV)
Project #PC8
Light & Sounds PC (V)
Remove the connection between T and U and then make a
connection between U and Z. It makes an ambulance sound.
Remove the connections between U and Z and between V and W,
then make a connection between T and U. It makes a water faucet
sound.
Look at the waveform and frequency spectrum using the same
settings as for project PC4. It alternates between two frequencies.
Sample Frequency Spectrum
Look at the waveform and frequency spectrum using the same
settings as for project PC4. This sound is different from the others
and seems to have little or no pattern.
Sample Frequency Spectrum
-18-
Project #PC9
Light & Sounds PC (VI)
Look at the waveform in oscilloscope mode using the same settings
as earlier in PC4. Replace the whistle chip with the speaker and
remove the lamp. Compare the waveform you see now with that
from the whistle chip. The amplitude of the waveforms are similar
but yet the sound from the speaker is much louder, since the
speaker is drawing more current.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous
experiment then close the Winscope program and run it again, to
reset the settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and
turn on the switch (snap part S1). If you press the key (snap part
S2) then you will hear a siren sound, but it will not be very loud.
Click on the 1:1 button to set the gain automatically, then talk or
hum into the microphone (snap part X1) and observe how the
waveform changes. You may freeze the waveform by pressing
the Hold button if desired.
Hold button
1:1 button
Project #PC10
Modulation
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate AM and FM modulation.
When you are quiet you just get a stream of pulses with roughly
equal height and width, as shown at left.
-19-
The waveform shown here is from humming into the microphone,
notice how the tops of the pulses show a regular pattern of dips
now.
Look ahead to the Microphone project PC14 on page ??, and note
the waveform shown there for humming into the microphone:
If you talk into the microphone now you will get different patterns
depending on what words you say, how loudly you say them, and
your distance from the microphone. Words produce a more
“random” pattern than humming, but less random than blowing into
the microphone. The waveform at left is an example of talking into
the microphone. Observe the waveforms you get and compare with
what you get in project PC14.
And so you see that your voice is being superimposed onto the
peaks of the stream of pulses, this is called Amplitude Modulation
or AM. At AM radio stations music or voice is superimposed on a
high frequency waveform (similar to the pulse stream here), filtered,
amplified, and transmitted. Doing this allows the music to be
transmitted over great distances.
Notice that you can see roughly the same pattern in the peaks of
the waveform at left. If you hum at a similar tone and at a similar
distance from the microphone, you will get similar results.
You can place Winscope into FFT mode to view the frequency
spectrum if you like, but it will be confusing to look at.
-20-
You probably noticed that the width of the pulses in the pulse
stream is constantly changing, that is because there is actually a
second type of modulation occurring here. Press the key again and
you hear a siren. A siren is not a stable tone but rather is constantly
changing in frequency. Change the time scale to 0.5ms/div and
observe the range of waveforms:
Look back at the Light & Sounds project PC4 on page 16. It shows
several different ways of configuring the alarm IC to make different
sounds, all of these are examples of frequency modulation using
different controlling signals created within the alarm IC. It also
shows examples of the frequency spectrum.
Time scale
Project #PC11
Filtering
With the same circuit as PC10 and the same settings as shown at
the end of PC10, look at the waveform again and then press the
key. Notice how the pulses become more “rounded” when the key
is pressed. The whistle chip (snap part WC) has capacitance that
filters or smoothes the output signal. Now replace the whistle chip
with the 0.02mF capacitor (snap part C1) and it should look similar
though you won’t hear any sound. You can also look at the
frequency spectrum in FFT mode like in the other projects.
The width of the pulses (or frequency of the signal) is slowly being
changed, at a regular and repetitive rate. This is an example of
Frequency Modulation, or FM. In AM you use a controlling signal
(voice or music) to vary the amplitude of a second signal, in FM you
use the controlling signal to vary the frequency of the other signal.
In this circuit the output frequency from the alarm IC is being
controlled by a signal created inside the alarm IC, but it could have
been controlled by humming like you did for the AM (you don’t have
the parts needed to do this).
-21-
Typical waveform using
whistle chip
Typical waveform using
0.02mF capacitor
Project #PC12
AM Radio PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output signal from an AM radio.
Build the circuit shown and
connect the PC-interface
cable to the microphone
input on your computer.
Turn on the slide switch
(snap part S1), tune the
variable capacitor (snap
part CV) to a local radio
station that gives good
reception, and set the
adjustable resistor (snap
part RV) to a comfortable
volume. The integrated
circuit (snap part U5)
detects and amplifies the
AM radio waves all around
you. The power amplifier
IC (snap part U4) drives
the speaker (snap part SP)
to complete the circuit.
In this project you will study
the audio signal at the
radio’s output to the
speaker. The actual AM
radio transmission is at
high
frequencies
that
cannot be viewed using
Winscope.
-22-
If continuing from the previous experiment then close the Winscope
program and run it again, to reset the settings. Then use the mouse
to set the scale to 1:1 mode. Click on the On-Line button to activate.
On-Line button
1:1 mode
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum. Set the
time scale (really frequency scale in FFT mode) and amplitude
scale to be as shown here.
FFT button
Amplitude scale
Time scale
You should see a waveform similar to that shown here, but it will be
constantly changing as the music or talking you hear is changing.
Try tuning the adjustable capacitor (snap part CV) to different radio
stations and compare the waveforms.
You should see a spectrum similar to that shown here, but it will be
constantly changing as the music or talking you hear is changing.
Try tuning the adjustable capacitor (snap part CV) to different radio
stations and compare the waveforms.
This shows you what talking or music look like in electrical form.
Every word that every person says looks different, though there are
many patterns. The waveform will be fuzzier if there is lots of static
on the station. Here are some other examples of talking and music
using the same settings above:
This shows you the frequency spectrum of talking or music. Every
word that every person says looks different, though there are many
patterns. The spectrum will be fuzzier if there is lots of static on the
station. Here are some other examples of talking and music using
the same settings above:
-23-
Project #PC13
Space War PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output signal from a circuit that
makes space war sounds.
If continuing from the previous experiment then close the Winscope
program and run it again, to reset the settings. Then use the mouse
to set it up as shown here, and turn on the switch (snap part S1).
Click on the On-Line button to activate.
On-Line
button
Time scale
Set up
Build the circuit shown and connect the PC-interface cable to the
microphone input on your computer.
Press the press switch (snap part S2) several times to step through
the eight different sounds from the space war integrated circuit.
Hold it down for a few seconds each time so you can see the
waveform representing the sound you hear.
It is also interesting to switch to the 5ms/div time scale setting to
see more of the waveform at one time. Here are some example
waveforms using the same settings as above:
-24-
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum for these
signals. For best viewing set the amplitude and time scales (really
amplitude and frequency scales in FFT mode) to be as shown here.
Time scale
FFT button
Amplitude scale
Project #PC14
Microphone
OBJECTIVE: To see what your voice looks like in electrical
form.
Build the circuit shown and connect the PC-interface cable to the
microphone input on your computer.
Press the press switch (snap part S2) several times to step through
the eight different sounds from the space war integrated circuit.
Hold it down for a few seconds each time so you can see the
frequency spectrum representing the sound you hear.
Here are sample spectrums from some of the other sounds using
the same settings as above:
-25-
If continuing from the previous experiment then close the Winscope
program and run it again, to reset the settings. Click on the On-Line
button to activate Winscope, and turn on the switch (snap part S1).
On-Line button
Y1 gain control
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum for these
signals. Try the amplitude and time scales shown here to start,
but your best settings will depend on what sounds you make, how
loud you speak, and how close you are to the microphone.
On-Line button
Talk into the microphone (snap part X1) and see what your voice
looks like after the microphone converts it to electrical energy.
Adjust the Y1 gain control to get the best view of it, since the
amplitude is greater if you talk louder or are closer to the
microphone. Notice how the waveform is different depending on
which words or tones you say.
Here are some example waveforms using the same settings as
above. Try not to blow on the microphone while you talk into it.
Blowing into
microphone
Ahhhhhh
sound
Amplitude and time scales
Notice that most women have higher-frequency voices than most men,
and so their frequency peaks are further to the right on your display.
Here are some example waveforms using the same settings as above:
Blowing into
microphone
Whistling into
microphone
Ahhhhhh
sound
Humming into
microphone
Whistling into
microphone
Humming into
microphone
The above frequency spectrum pictures correspond directly to the
waveform pictures on the preceding page. Notice that the
spectrums for the hum and whistle have only a single big peak.
Smooth, well-rounded, and repetitive waveforms (in oscilloscope
-26-
mode) have nearly all of their energy at a specific frequency like for
the hum. “Square” or “rectangular” looking waveforms (like in
Project PC1) and most music have a series of mathematicallyrelated peaks, while “random” waveforms (like from blowing into the
microphone or several people talking at the same time) have a
frequency “blob” instead of distinct peaks.
Project #PC15
Speaker Microphone
Connect the PC-interface cable directly onto the speaker as shown;
no other parts are needed here. If continuing from the previous
experiment then close the Winscope program and run it again, to
reset the settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate.
Hold the speaker next to your mouth and talk into it to see what
your voice looks like after the speaker converts it to electrical
energy. Adjust the Y1 gain control to get the best view of it.
On-Line button
Y1 gain control
OBJECTIVE: To see what your voice looks like in electrical
form.
Notice that you need to set the gain control higher here than in the
preceding project using the microphone, since speakers were not
designed to be used in the same way.
You may switch to FFT mode and view the frequency spectrum in
the same manner as for the microphone project PC14.
A speaker uses electrical energy to create mechanical vibrations.
These vibrations create variations in air pressure, called sound
waves, which travel across the room. You “hear” sound when your
ears feel these air pressure variations. But if air pressure variations
reach the speaker from another source, they will cause it to vibrate
too. This, in turn, causes the speaker to create a small electrical
signal just like a microphone does (though not very efficiently, since
speakers were not designed to be microphones).
-27-
Project #PC16
Symphony of Sounds PC
Due to the combination of sounds, the waveform is complex. Set
Winscope to the settings shown, or as you prefer.
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To see the waveforms for a complex signal.
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum for the
signal. Try the settings shown here, or as you prefer.
Settings
The Symphony of Sounds project combines waveforms from the
Music, Alarm, and Space War integrated circuits. Build the circuit
shown. If continuing from the previous experiment then close the
Winscope program and run it again, to reset the settings. Click on
the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the switch (snap part
S1). Press the press switch (S2) and wave your hand over the
photosensitive resistor (RP).
-28-
Project #PC17
Doorbell PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output of a musical circuit.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
slide switch (snap part S1). Try the settings shown here. When
the music stops, press the press switch (part S2) and it will resume.
Settings
-29-
Click on the 5ms/div time scale button and on the FFT button to
look at the frequency spectrum for the signal. The Y1 gain control
is set for high gain now, so the higher peaks are off the screen but
lots of the lower peaks are visible.
5ms/div time
scale button
FFT button
Y1 gain control
Note that the sound is music and the oscilloscope waveform has a
“square” shape, as a result the frequency spectrum has a lot of
peaks with equal spacing.
Now adjust the gain lower until you see the higher peaks.
Project #PC18
Periodic Sounds PC
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
slide switch (snap part S1). Try the settings shown here.
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output of an alternately changing
circuit.
The oscilloscope display alternates between 2 waveforms, the one
shown here and the one on the next page. This one shows some
pulses followed by a flat signal, then more pulses, then flat, then
pulses, then flat . . .
This is the second oscilloscope waveform, using the same settings.
It is a continuous series of pulses. You can use the Hold button to
freeze the display for easier viewing.
Hold button
-30-
Now change to FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrums
corresponding to the 2 waveforms above. Try the settings shown
here.
Settings
Project #PC19
Lasting Doorbell PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output of an alternately changing
circuit.
This is the spectrum for the oscilloscope waveform shown on the
preceding page, which alternates between pulses and flat.
Because of the transition between pulses and flat, the spectrum is
the irregular shape shown here.
This is the spectrum for the oscilloscope waveform shown at the top
of this page, which has a continuous series of pulses. There are
only pulses there, with no transition between pulses and flat.
Hence the frequency spectrum is very “clean”, with the energy
concentrated at a few tall peaks instead of being spread out like in
the other spectrum display.
-31-
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, turn on the switch
(snap part S1), and press the press switch (part S2). Try the
settings shown here.
Now change to FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum as the
sound fades away. Try the settings shown here.
Settings
Settings
The waveform at left shows the signal just after pressing the press
switch, the waveform below uses the same settings and shows the
waveform just before the sound stops. You see the pulses slowly
spread out as the tone of the sound changes.
The spectrum at left is for just after pressing the press switch. The
spectrum below uses the same settings and shows the spectrum
just before the sound stops. The frequencies and amplitude slowly
get lower as the sound fades away.
-32-
Project #PC20
Space War Flicker PC
OBJECTIVE: To continuously show the patterns created by the
space war IC.
Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the switch
(snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown below. The
signal from the alarm IC (snap part U2) causes the space war IC
(part U3) to step through the 8 different patterns it can create. A
sample waveform is shown here.
On-Line button
Settings
Wait mode
You can also activate Wait mode and press the On-Line button
several times to view one scan of the signal at a time, instead of
seeing continuous scans.
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here. You can see the spectrums for the different
patterns produced by the space war IC, a sample is shown here.
Settings
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings.
-33-
Project #PC21
Buzzing in the Dark PC
OBJECTIVE: To build a circuit that buzzes.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Set Winscope to the settings shown below and click on
the On-Line button to activate. A sample waveform is shown here.
Settings
The actual waveform will vary depending on how much light is
shining on the photoresistor (snap part RP). If you cover the
photoresistor then the circuit shuts off.
The waveform above is weak and
erratic, so replace the 0.02mF
capacitor (snap part C1) with the
0.1mF capacitor. A sample of the
new waveform is at left, with the
same settings.
It is lower in
frequency but higher in amplitude.
-34-
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
Project #PC22
Trombone PC
OBJECTIVE: To build a circuit that sounds like a trombone.
Now put the 0.02mF capacitor back
in place of the 0.1mF capacitor to
compare its spectrum. A sample is
on the left, with the same
Winscope settings as above. As
with the oscilloscope mode, its
spectrum is weaker and more
erratic.
-35-
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch (snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown below,
and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (snap part RV)
around to change the waveform and the sound. At some positions
there may be no sound. A sample waveform is shown here.
Settings
Note that in the above display
the Y1 Gain is set high to show
the low energy levels of the
higher frequency components of
the signal, even though the
stronger peaks of the lower
frequency components are off
the top of the display. This can
be deceiving. Now change the
Y1 Gain so that the highest
peak can be seen, this is shown
on the right. Now you see how
the main signal frequency
dominates the others.
Y1 Gain
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
-36-
Project #PC23
Sound Pulse
Oscillator PC
0.5ms/div scale
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To build a pulse oscillator.
LED (D1) is on
layer 1 directly
beneath the
speaker (SP).
You can also change to the
0.5ms/div scale to take a closer
look at one of the pulses, shown on
the right:
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
slide switch (snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown
on the upper right, and move the lever on the adjustable resistor
(snap part RV) around to change the waveform and the sound. At
some positions there may be no sound. A sample waveform is
shown on the upper right.
-37-
Project #PC24
High Pitch Bell PC
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To build a high pitch bell.
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous
experiment then close the Winscope program and run it
again, to reset the settings. Click on the On-Line button to
activate, and hold down the press switch (snap part S2). Set
Winscope to the settings shown on the upper right. A
sample waveform is shown on the upper right.
You can change some of the Winscope settings around to view the
waveform and spectrum in different ways if desired. You can also
place the 0.02mF capacitor on top of the whistle chip to lower the
frequency.
-38-
Project #PC25
Tone Generator PC
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To build a high frequency oscillator.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch. Set Winscope to the settings shown below. A sample
waveform is shown here.
Settings
Project #PC26
Tone Generator PC (II)
Modify the circuit for project PC25 by placing the 0.02mF capacitor
(C1) on top of the whistle chip (WC). Look at the waveform and
frequency spectrum using the same settings as for project PC19,
the frequency is lower now.
Project #PC27
Tone Generator PC (III)
Modify the circuit for project PC25 by placing the 0.1mF capacitor
(C2) on top of the whistle chip (WC). Look at the waveform and
frequency spectrum using the same settings as for project PC19,
but you may want to change the time scale since the frequency is
much lower now.
-39-
Project #PC28
Old-Style Typewriter PC
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To build a circuit that sounds like a typewriter.
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
Storage mode
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch. Set Winscope to the settings shown on the upper right.
Turn the motor (snap part M1) slowly with your fingers and watch
the waveforms generated. They are very erratic and unpredictable.
A sample is shown on the upper right.
You can also turn on Storage
mode to see the peaks recorded
as you turn the motor, a sample
of this is at right.
-40-
Project #PC29
Transistor Fading Siren PC
OBJECTIVE: To build a siren that slowly fades away.
This display (at the same settings)
shows the siren when it has almost
faded out. The waveform has
become weak and sometimes
erratic.
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here. The display on the left shows the signal just
after pressing the press switch and on the right shows it just before
it fades out.
Settings
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Set Winscope to the settings shown on the right. Click
on the On-Line button to activate, turn on the switch, and press the
press switch (snap part S2). You hear a siren that slowly fades
away.
Settings
Project #PC30
Fading Doorbell PC
This display shows the siren just after pressing the press switch.
-41-
Modify the circuit in PC29 by replacing the alarm IC (U2) with the
music IC (U1), use a 1-snap and a 2-snap to make a connection
across D6-E6 on top of the music IC. The music slowly fades away
and stops. Use the same settings as in PC29 to view the waveform
and frequency spectrum.
Project #PC31
Police Siren Amplifier PC
OBJECTIVE: To show the output of an amplifier.
Build the circuit shown and set Winscope to the settings shown
below. The siren sound is very loud. In most cases the waveform
will have flat edges on the top and bottom, indicating the voltage
is too high for the microphone input stage on your computer and is
being distorted. You may sometimes correct for this if you like by
reducing the volume control of your microphone input (see p. 3),
but it is recommended that you return the volume to the normal
level before doing other projects.
Settings
Flat edges
You may also make different alarm sounds by connecting the alarm
IC using the configurations shown in projects #23-26.
Project #PC32
Music Amplifier PC
Modify the circuit in PC31 by replacing the alarm IC (U2) with the
music IC (U1). Use the same settings as in PC31 to view the
waveform, you may also use the FFT button to view the frequency
spectrum.
-42-
Project #PC33
Space War Amplifier PC
Build the circuit shown and use the same settings as in PC31 to
view the waveform. Press the switch (S2) to change the sounds
and waveform.
-43-
Project #PC34
Adjustable Tone Generator PC
Build the circuit shown, and try the settings below. Move the
adjustable resistor lever to change the frequency. A sample
waveform is shown here.
Settings
Try these settings to
see the spectrum:
Project #PC38
Adjustable FM Radio PC
OBJECTIVE: To show the output of an FM Radio.
Project #PC35
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (II)
Modify the circuit for project PC34 by placing the 0.02mF capacitor
(C1) on top of the whistle chip (WC). Look at the waveform and
frequency spectrum using the same settings as for project PC34,
the frequency is lower now.
Project #PC36
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (III)
Modify the circuit for project PC34 by
placing the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) on top of
the whistle chip (WC). Look at the
waveform and frequency spectrum using
the same settings as for project PC34, but
you may want to change the time scale
since the frequency is much lower now.
Project #PC37
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (IV)
Modify the circuit for project PC34 by replacing the 10KW (R4)
resistor with the photoresistor (RP). Look at the waveform and
frequency spectrum using the same settings as for project PC34,
and wave your hand over the photoresistor to change the sound
and pattern. There will not always be sound.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and press the R button. Now press
the T button and the FM module scans for a radio station. When a
station is found, it locks on to it and you hear it on the speaker.
Press the T button again for the next radio station.
Connect the PC-interface cable as shown. Set up Winscope as
desired or use the same Winscope settings to view the waveform
and frequency spectrum as for project PC12 (AM radio), since the
output signal to the speaker is music or talking just like in PC12.
(AM and FM radio transmit the same types of information using
different modulation methods.) Adjust the volume using the
adjustable resistor (RV) so that all of the waveform is shown on the
Winscope screen.
-44-
Project #PC39
Transistor AM Radio PC (II)
Project #PC40
Playback & Record PC
OBJECTIVE: To show the output of an AM Radio.
OBJECTIVE: To show the waveforms for music and your voice.
Turn on the switch and adjust the variable capacitor (CV) for a radio
station, then adjust the loudness using the adjustable resistor (RV).
Use the same Winscope settings as for project PC12 (AM radio) to
view the waveform and frequency spectrum. The waveform will be
different from that in projects PC12 and PC38, because those
circuits use the power amplifier IC (U4) instead of the NPN
transistor for amplification.
Build the circuit shown. Turn on the slide switch (S1), you hear a
beep signaling that you may begin recording. Talk into the
microphone (X1) up to 8 seconds, and then turn off the slide switch
(it also beeps after the 8 seconds expires).
-45-
Press the press switch (S2) for playback. It plays the recording you
made followed by one of three songs. If you press the press switch
before the song is over, the music will stop. You may press the
press switch several times to play all three songs.
Use Winscope to view the waveform and frequency spectrum
when playing back your recording and music. A sample music
waveform is shown here.
Sample music waveform
Project #PC41
Power Amplifier
Playing Music IC
OBJECTIVE: To show how high amplification can distort music.
Build the circuit shown. Turn on the slide switch (S1), you hear a
beep signaling that you may begin recording. Talk into the
microphone (X1) up to 8 seconds, and then turn off the slide switch
(it also beeps after the 8 seconds expires).
Press the switch S2 for playback. It plays the recording you made
followed by one of three songs. If you press the press switch (S2)
before the song is over, the music will stop. You may press the
press switch several times to play all three songs.
-46-
This recorder IC circuit works the same as in project PC40 except
that the power amplifer IC (U4) used here makes the sound much
louder than in project PC40. If viewed with the same Winscope
settings as in PC40, then the waveform appears as shown below.
The output from the recorder IC has not changed, but the flat
edges at the top and bottom of the waveform indicate that the
higher amplification is distorting the sound.
Flat edges
Project #PC42
Music Meter PC
OBJECTIVE: To show how high amplification can distort music.
-47-
Use the LOW (or 10mA) setting on the meter (M2). Set the
adjustable resistor (RV) to the bottom position and turn on the slide
switch (S1), you will see a waveform like that shown below. Set the
adjustable resistor to the top, and the waveform looks like that
shown on the bottom left, due to lower resistance in the circuit. A
sample frequency spectrum is also shown on the bottom right.
Settings
Project #PC43
Oscillation Sounds PC
You may look at a pulse close-up by changing the time scale and
slightly adjusting the delay, as shown.
Time scale
Delay
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
You may look at the frequency spectrum on your own if desired.
Project #PC44
Build the circuit and try the settings shown here. This circuit
produces a series of pulses (shown below), representing when the
transistor is activated.
Settings
Using the circuit from PC43,
connect the whistle chip across
points C & D. Notice how the
shape of the pulse has changed
from that shown in PC43 (using the
same settings):
Project #PC45
Using the circuit from PC43,
connect the whistle chip across
points B & E. Notice how the
shape of the pulse has changed.
Project #PC46
Using the circuit from PC43, install
the whistle chip under capacitor
C2. Notice how the shape of the
pulse has changed.
Oscillation
Sounds PC (II)
Oscillation
Sounds PC (III)
Oscillation
Sounds PC (IV)
-48-
Project #PC47
Oscillator Sounds PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Project #PC48
Oscillation
Sounds PC (II)
Using the circuit from PC47, install
the whistle chip on top of capacitor
C1.
Notice how the spacing
between the pulses has changed.
Project #PC49
Whistle Chip Sounds PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown.
Settings
-49-
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. You may try other
settings to zoom in or look at the frequency spectrum.
Settings
Project #PC53
Bird Sounds PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Project #PC50
Whistle Chip
Sounds PC (II)
Connect the whistle chip (with the
PC-interface cable still connected
across it) across points B & C. The
circuit oscillates in short intervals.
Project #PC51
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. The oscillator
activates about once-a-second, sounding like a bird chirping. You
may look at the frequency spectrum if you like.
Whistle Chip
Sounds PC (III)
Settings
Connect the whistle chip (with PC cable) across points C & D using a 1snap, the sound and waveforms are different.
Project #PC52
Whistle Chip
Sounds PC (IV)
Place the 470mF capacitor C5 on top of
the 100mF capacitor C4, and connect the
whistle chip across points A & B. The
circuit oscillates in 2-second intervals.
-50-
Project #PC54
Bird Sounds PC (II)
Replace the 100mF capacitor (C4) with the 10mF capacitor (C3). The
frequency of the oscillator is the same as before (and so the pulses look
the same), but the oscillator activates in shorter intervals (so the bursts of
pulses are shorter but closer together). You could use the 470mF
capacitor to increase the oscillation interval.
Project #PC55
Electronic Cat PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Start with the
adjustable resistor set to the left but then adjust to change the tone.
The signal dies out after you release the switch.
Settings
Project #PC56
Electronic Cat
PC (II)
Connect the whistle chip across points A & B, then B & C, then C & D and
observe how the waveform changes as the sound changes.
Project #PC57
Electronic Cat
PC (III)
Remove the speaker. Connect the PC
interface cable across the whistle chip
and install the whistle chip across
points A & B, then B & C, then C & D
and observe how the waveform
changes as the sound changes. Try
different settings of the adjustable
resistor. The waveform for B & C is
shown.
Project #PC58
Electronic Cat
PC (IV)
Replace the 100mF capacitor with the 470mF capacitor and repeat projects
PC55-PC57. The signal dies out at a much slower rate now, making it easier to
observe. You can also use FFT mode to view the frequency spectrum as desired.
-51-
Project #PC59
Variable Oscillator PC
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Move the adjustable
resistor lever to change the pitch of the sound and pulse separation
in the waveform.
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Project #PC60
Variable Oscillator
PC (II)
Connect the whistle chip across points A & B, then B & C, then D & E and
observe how the waveform changes as the sound changes. Sometimes
the speaker sound and waveform are unchanged, but the whistle chip
itself makes new sound.
Project #PC61
Variable Oscillator
PC (III)
Replace the 100KW resistor R5 with the photoresistor RP, wave your hand or
a piece of paper over it and observe how the sound and waveform change.
Project #PC62
Variable Oscillator
PC (IV)
Remove the speaker. Connect the PC
interface cable across the whistle chip
and install the whistle chip across
points A & B, then B & C, then D & E
and observe how the waveform
changes as the sound changes. Try
different settings of the adjustable
resistor. The waveform for A & B is
shown.
-52-
Project #PC63
Electronic Sound PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Press the press
switch to lower the frequency of the signal by increasing the
capacitance in the oscillator. You can replace the 0.1mF capacitor
C2 with the 10mF capacitor C3 (“+” on the right) to further lower the
frequency of the tone. You may try other settings to zoom in or look
at the frequency spectrum.
Settings
Project #PC64
Electronic Sound
PC (II)
Replace the 100KW resistor R5 with the 10KW resistor R4, place the
0.1mF capacitor back in the circuit as before. Now you change the
frequency by changing the resistance in the oscillator.
-53-
Project #PC65
Siren PC
Note: Although the amplitude of the pulses appears to be varying
across the screen (the wider time scale shown below shows this
better), this is an illusion caused by the way Winscope measures
the signal. The amplitude of the pulses is not really varying.
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of a fading siren circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Flip on the slide
switch and press the press switch for a few seconds and release.
View the waveform as a siren starts up and then slowly fades away.
Winscope makes measurements using a 44kHz sampling rate,
which is fast enough to measure the frequency of this signal
(varying from 1-5kHz). However these pulses have much of their
energy spread among higher frequencies that approach the
sampling rate (see the sample spectrum plots at right), where the
amplitude measurement becomes increasingly inaccurate.
Settings
-54-
Project #PC66
Drawing Resistors PC
OBJECTIVE: To draw your own resistors.
Project #PC67
Electronic Noisemaker PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Use the circuit from the Drawing Resistors project #516, but
connect the PC-interface cable across the speaker. Use a pencil to
draw the shapes shown in projects #516-518, as per the directions
given in those projects. Use Winscope to see how the waveforms
and frequency spectrums vary as you move the jumper wires
across the shapes to change the sounds. A sample is shown here.
Settings
Next, place the loose ends of the jumper wires into a cup of water, as
per project #519. The waveforms and frequency spectrum you see
will be similar to the resistors you drew, just as the sounds are similar.
Settings
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Flip on the slide switch
and press the press switch a few times while moving the adjustable
resistor control around. View the waveform and frequency
spectrum.
-55-
Project #PC69
Bee PC
Sample frequency spectrum:
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Sample waveform:
Settings
You can replace the 0.1mF capacitor C2 with the 10mF capacitor C3
(“+” on the right) to change the sound.
Project #PC68
Electronic Noisemaker
PC (II)
Replace the 10KW resistor R4 with the 100KW resistor R5. Now you
change the frequency by changing the resistance in the oscillator.
-56-
Build the circuit and press the press switch a few times, you hear
cute sounds like a bumble bee. Use Winscope to see how the
waveform fades away after you release the switch, and try storage
mode as shown here.
Time scale
Settings
Storage mode
You may replace the 0.02mF capacitor C1 with 0.1mF capacitor C2
or 10mF capacitor C3 (“+” on the right) to change the sound, but
you may want to change the time scale.
You may also replace the 100mF capacitor C4 with the 10mF
capacitor C3 or the 470mF capacitor C5 to change the duration of
the sound.
Project #PC70
Bee PC (II)
Remove the speaker from the circuit and place the whistle chip
(WC) across the transformer at points labeled A & B on the circuit
layout, connect the PC-interface cable across the whistle chip.
Listen to the sounds and view the waveforms as you press the
press switch. Replace the 0.02mF capacitor C1 with 0.1mF
capacitor C2 or 10mF capacitor C3 (“+” on the right) to change the
sound, or replace the 100mF capacitor C4 with the 10mF capacitor
C3 (“+” on the right) or the 470mF capacitor C5 to change the
duration.
-57-
Project #PC71
Space War Alarm Combo PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of the combined outputs from
the space war and alarm integrated circuits.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Turn it on, press the
press switch (S2) several times, and wave your hand over the
photoresistor (RP) to view all the sound combinations. You may
also use FFT mode to view the frequency spectrum.
Settings
Project #PC72
Space War Music Combo PC
Project #PC73
Sound Mixer PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of the combined outputs from
the space war and music integrated circuits.
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of the music and alarm
integrated circuits.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Turn it on, press the
press switch (S2) several times, and wave your hand over the
photoresistor (RP) to view all the sound combinations. Compare
the waveform and spectrum to the alarm IC combo circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Turn it on and view
the waveforms.
Settings
Settings
-58-
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Disclaimer Information
Oscilloscope for Windows95® or newer, version 2.51.
OSCILLOSCOPE IS SUPPLIED TO YOU AS IS, AND IN
NO CASE IS THE AUTHOR OF THIS PROGRAM
RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSONAL INJURY, HARDWARE
AND/OR DATA DAMAGE, PROPERTY DAMAGE OR
PROFIT LOSS ARISING FROM USE OR INABILITY TO
USE THIS SOFTWARE.
THERE IS NO GUARANTEE IMPLIED OR OTHERWISE
TO THE FITNESS OF THIS OSCILLOSCOPE PROGRAM
FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THIS SOFTWARE
IS
NOT
INTENDED
FOR
INDUSTRIAL
OR
COMMERCIAL USE.
Elenco® Electronics, Inc.
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com
e-mail: [email protected]
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