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M O T O R C ONTROL S OFTWARE E X AM P L E S
1. Introduction
Small motors, less than 300 W, are found in a wide
variety of applications. These include automobiles,
printers, copiers, paper handlers, factory automation,
test equipment, robotics, space & military, and many
others. The most popular small motors types are DC,
Brushless DC, and Stepper motors. The quantity of
motors produced is roughly inversely proportional to the
power level. Small motors are produced in much higher
quantities than larger motors.
Motor-control-specific DSPs are designed primarily to
address the requirements of large off-line motors. Offline motors are typically AC induction or Brushless DC
motors operating from 110 to 480 VAC and ranging
from 1/4 to 100 HP. Motor-control-specific DSPs are
often too costly for small motors control systems.
The C8051F3xx series of small form-factor
microcontrollers is well suited for the control of small
motors. These microcontrollers have several features
that are very useful in motor control systems. In addition
to the standard 8051 timers, the C8051F3xx series also
features a programmable counter array (PCA). The
PCA has several operating modes. The 8-bit PWM
mode is ideally suited for most small motor control
applications. The high-speed output mode can be used
to generate multiple center-aligned PWM signals with
dead-time. The digital crossbar on the C8051F3xx
family can be used to select which port pin receives the
PWM signal. The crossbar can also be used to
eliminate the need for an external multiplexer.
temperature. These types of measurements and
protection features are prevalent in motor drive
systems.
The C8051F3xx family of microcontrollers feature a twowire C2 interface that permits Flash programming and
debugging. The On-Chip debug circuitry facilitates full
speed, non-intrusive in-system debugging. When the
MCU hits a breakpoint, the pins are effectively frozen in
time. While this behavior is generally desirable, it can
leave the PWM outputs in the active state. The
suggested debug procedure is to always disconnect the
motor leads when single stepping code or using
breakpoints.
The purpose of this application note is to provide
software examples using the ‘F3xx MCUs to control
various types of motors. All examples are relatively
simple, but demonstrate effective solutions for the
various motor types. A typical motor control system
requires additional features and higher complexity.
These software examples may be used as a starting
point for the development of more complex motor drive
systems.
The code listings for the software examples are found in
the appendices starting on page 17. The source code
may also be downloaded from the Silicon Laboratories
web site www.silabs.com.
The code accompanying this application note was
originally written for C8051F30x devices. The code can
also be ported to other devices in the Silicon Labs
microcontroller range.
The ADC of the C8051F3xx MCUs can be used to
measure the motor current, supply voltage, back-emf,
and temperature of the motor. The analog multiplexer
and differential measurement capability are very useful
in measuring bidirectional motor currents and
differential phase voltages. The differential mode and
the programmable window detector are used in
"Example 3—DC Motor with Soft Reversing‚" on page 6.
The ADC is used to measure the position of a speed
control potentiometer in most of the software examples.
The standard 8051 timers T0 and T1 provide a useful
second time-base in addition to the PCA. The T0 and
T1 timers can be used to control commutation or update
rate while the PCA is used for PWM.
The analog comparators can be used to measure zero
crossing,
over-current,
over-voltage,
or
over-
Rev. 1.1 7/13
Copyright © 2013 by Silicon Laboratories
Silicon Laboratories Confidential. Information contained herein is covered under non-disclosure agreement (NDA).
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2. Example 1—DC Motor
DC motors are the most common and least expensive
of all the small motors. There are several varieties of
DC motors. In this application note the term “DC Motor”
refers more specifically to a brush-commutated
permanent-magnet DC motor. DC motors are used in a
wide range of applications in the automotive, consumer
and industrial market segments. Brushless DC (BLDC)
motors promise improved reliability, reduced noise, and
potentially lower cost. However, BLDC motors have only
supplanted conventional DC motors in a few specialized
high volume applications—disk drives and computer
fans.
wheeling diode D1 is connected across the DC motor.
When the MOSFET is turned off, the current through the
motor inductance will continue to flow. The MOSFET
drain voltage will rise to one diode-drop above the motor
supply voltage. The current will then flow through the
free-wheeling diode. The current will normally continue
to flow until the transistor turns on again. Most lowvoltage motor drive circuits employ Schottky power
rectifiers for the free-wheel diode. Schottky rectifiers
have a low forward voltage and a very fast reverse
recovery time. Both are important factors in a motor
drive application.
+12 V
The characteristics of a DC motor make it the easiest
motor to use in a variable-speed system. The torque
speed characteristics of a DC motor are shown in
Figure 1. The no-load speed of a DC motor is
proportional to the voltage applied across the motor.
The voltage-speed characteristics of a DC motor driving
a constant-torque load, linear-load or exponential-load
are also continuous, positive-slope, and predictable.
Thus, in most cases it is feasible to use open-loop
control. By simply varying the voltage across the motor,
one can control the speed of the motor. Pulse width
modulation (PWM) can be used to vary the voltage
applied to the motor. The average voltage applied to the
motor is proportional to the PWM duty cycle (ignoring
the second order effects of the motor inductance and
discontinuous operation).
‘F300
D1
DC
Motor
Q1
P0.0/
CEX0
VDD
P0.6/
ADC0P
Speed
Control
Torque
Figure 2. DC Motor Drive Circuit
The power MOSFET is driven by an inverting gate
driver connected to P0.0. The port pins of ‘F300 are
configured by default as inputs with a weak 100 k
pullup enabled. The port pins will remain high until the
port is configured and the crossbar and peripherals are
enabled. The port pins will also be configured as inputs
with the weak pullup enabled while the reset pin is held
low. By using an inverting driver, the power transistor
will be off in the default state. If a non-inverting driver is
used, a 10 k pulldown resistor should be connected
between the port pin and ground.
Mo
tor
12 volta
V
ge
10
V
8 V
6 V
Line
Load
4 V
Speed
Figure 1. DC Motor Characteristics
Example 1 provides simple speed control of a DC motor
using the ‘F300. This example reads the position of a
potentiometer using the ADC on P0.6 and outputs a
corresponding PWM signal using the PCA 8-bit PWM
mode on P0.0. The hardware configuration for software
Example 1 is illustrated in Figure 2. A single N-channel
Power MOSFET Q1 is used to drive the DC motor. The
Power MOSFET should be chosen for the particular
motor voltage and current requirements. A free-
2
The gate driver should have a 3 V compatible input level
threshold for use with a 3 V microcontroller. If the motor
voltage is between 5 V and 15 V, the gate drive can be
powered directly off the motor supply voltage. If the
motor voltage is higher that 15 V, a separate gate drive
supply voltage is needed, typically 5 V or 12 V. The
Maxim Integrated Products MAX626 or TC426 has a
3 V compatible input, 5–20 V supply range, and 1.5 A
peak drive current capability. A logic-level power
MOSFET should be used when working with a gate
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drive supply voltage below 10 V.
The software for Example 1 is very simple. The main()
function initializes the clock, ports, and peripherals and
enters the while(1) loop. The while(1) loop reads the
value of the potentiometer voltage using the avgADC()
function and outputs the value to the PCA0 8-bit PWM
by writing to the PCA0CPH0 special function register
(SFR).
The PORT_Init() function configures the port I/O,
peripherals, and enables the digital crossbar. The PCA0
CEX0 output is enabled by setting the appropriate bit in
the XBR1 SFR. The CEX0 output is used for the 8-bit
PWM. The pin skip SFR XBR0 is cleared so that no pins
will be skipped. This configures the PCA0 output on
P0.0. Clearing XBR0 is not strictly required, as this is
the default state. P0.0 is configured for push-pull output
by setting bit 0 in the P0MDOUT SFR. P0.6 is
configured as analog input by clearing bit 6 in the
P0MDIN SFR. Lastly, the crossbar is enabled by setting
bit 6 in the XBR2 SFR.
The system clock, SYSCLK, is configured to operate at
the maximum speed of 24.5 MHz. Programmable
counter array, PCA0, is configured to use SYSCLK
divided by four as a time-base for the 8-bit PWM. This
yields a counter clock period of 160 ns and an 8-bit
PWM frequency of 24 kHz (24.5 MHz/4/256 = 24 kHz).
99.6% on the MOSFET gate. A duty cycle of 100% may
be achieved by clearing the ECOM0 bit in PCA0CPM0
SFR. All software examples in this application note
using 8-bit PWM are limited to 99.6% PWM for
simplicity.
There are some cases where a 100% duty cycle is
desirable. A 100% duty-cycle will effectively eliminate
switching losses. Since the MOSFET never turns off,
there are no switching losses in the MOSFET and no
losses in the diode. The only power losses are
conduction losses in the power MOSFET. If the motor is
expected to run at full-speed most of the time, a
maximum duty cycle of 100% is desirable.
In some motor control systems a maximum duty cycle of
somewhat less that 100% is actually desirable. If a
cycle-by-cycle current limit is used, a short low-time is
necessary to reset the over-current latch. When using a
high-side driver with a bootstrap driver, a short low
pulse is needed to recharge the bootstrap capacitor.
When using a transformer isolated gate driver, a DC
signal is not permitted.
PCA0 module 0 is configured for 8-bit PWM mode by
writing 0x42 to the PCA0CPM0 SFR. The PCA0
interrupt is not used in this example.
The ADC in Example 1 is used in the polled mode. The
ADC0_Init() function configures the ADC for polled
mode by clearing the ADC0CN SFR. P0.6 is selected as
the input for a single-ended measurement by writing
0xf6 to the AMX0SL SFR. The ADC gain is set to 1 and
a conservative frequency of 1 MHz is chosen for the
ADC clock. It is important to remember to also initialize
the voltage reference and configure the ADC to use VDD
for full-scale by writing 0x0a to the REF0CN SFR.
The function readADC() reads the voltage on P0.6 one
time using polled mode and returns the ADC value. The
function avgADC() calls the readADC() function and will
return the average value of 64 samples. Averaging the
ADC reading minimizes the effects of noise and reduces
jitter in the PWM output.
When using the PCA 8-bit PWM mode, a value of 0x00
corresponds to a duty cycle of 100% and a value of
0xFF corresponds to a duty cycle of 0.39% at the CEX0
output. A duty cycle of 0% may be achieved by clearing
the ECOM0 bit in PCA0CPM0 SFR.
When using an inverting driver, the relationship is
reversed. A value of 0x00 corresponds to a 0% duty
cycle and a value of 0xFF corresponds to a duty cycle of
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‘F300
P0.2
+12V
Q3
+12V
DC
Motor
Q1
Q4
Q2
P0.0/CEX0
P0.1/CEX0
P0.3
VDD
P0.6/ADC0P
Speed
Command
P0.5
Reverse
Command
Figure 3. DC Motor Full-Bridge Circuit
3. Example 2—DC Motor with Reversing
Permanent-Magnet DC Motors are often used in
applications that require the ability to reverse the
direction of the motor. To reverse the direction of
rotation, it is necessary to reverse the polarity of the
voltage on the motor. This requires the use of an HBridge. An H-Bridge has four transistors as shown in
Figure 3. When driving the motor in the forward
direction, Q4 is turned on and a PWM signal is applied
to transistor Q1. To drive the motor in the reverse
direction, Q3 is turned on and a PWM signal is applied
to Q2. In this example, the lower transistors are used for
PWM speed control and the upper transistors are used
for steering. Using this topology, it is possible to provide
variable speed control in both directions.
In Figure 3, N-channel power MOSFETs are used for
the low-side transistors and P-channel power MOSFETs
are used for the high-side transistors. Using
complementary power MOSFETs is very cost effective
solution for DC motor drives below 20 V. As shown in
Figure 3, the low-side gate drivers are inverting and the
high-side gate drivers are non-inverting. The gate driver
polarities are chosen to ensure that the power
transistors are off while the port pins are in the reset
configuration with the weak pullups enabled. A suitable
gate driver IC is the TC428. The TC428 has one
4
inverting and one non-inverting gate driver, 3 V
compatible inputs, and a 5–20 V supply range.
In most applications, the crossbar is configured once
and then never modified. However it is possible to
modify the contents of the crossbar registers after
initialization. In this example the digital crossbar is used
as a PWM multiplexer by writing to the pin skip SFR
XBR0 “on the fly”. This technique is also used in
software examples 3 and 4. Extreme care should be
used when writing to the pin skip register in this fashion.
Changing the crossbar configuration may affect the
states of other I/O pins.
The software for this example builds on the code of
Example 1. The main loop now includes an if statement
that checks the state of the reverse switch SW1. When
the reverse button is pressed, the PWM is disabled and
all of the P0 outputs are disabled by writing 0xFF to P0.
When the button is released the motor will reverse
directions.
The initialization functions are similar to Example 1,
except that P0.0-3 are configured as push-pull outputs
and P0.3 is initially high.
The reverse() function is called to reverse the
direction of the motor. A flag bit Fwd is used to save the
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state of the motor. The Fwd bit is toggled and then used
to determine which outputs to activate.
The general procedure to safely modify the crossbar is
to first disable the crossbar by clearing the XBARE bit to
zero. Then the crossbar is re-configured by writing to
the crossbar registers, pin skip registers, and port
configuration registers as necessary. Once reconfigured, the crossbar is enabled by setting the
XBARE bit to 1.
In this example, the PWM is first disabled by writing
0x00 to PCA0CPM0 and then all outputs are forced high
by writing 0xFF to P0. This ensures that all outputs are
forced high before reconfiguring the crossbar. The
crossbar is then re-configured using the procedure
described above. First the crossbar is disabled by
clearing the XBARE bit to zero. The new pin skip value
for the ‘F300 is written to the XBR0 SFR. The new P0
state is written to P0. The values written to XBR0 and
P0 depend on the state of the Fwd bit. Once XBR0 and
P0 are re-configured, the XBARE bit is set to 1 to
enable the crossbar. The 8-bit PWM mode is then
enabled by writing 0x42 to PCA0CPM0.
There is a potential problem reversing the motor in this
manner. While the reverse switch SW1 is held down the
motor may continue to spin for some time due to the
+12 V
Q3
OFF
Q1
PWM
+12 V
Q4
ON
‐ 6V +
a) forward
Q2
OFF
inertia of the motor. While the motor is turning, it will
generate a back-emf proportion to the speed of the
motor. If the reverse button is released before the motor
stops spinning, the motor back-emf will be shorted out
by the upper transistors as described below.
Referring to Figure 4, suppose Q4 is initially on and the
motor is turning in the forward direction. Assume the
motor is turning and the back-EMF is about 6 V. Now
the switch is pressed and all four transistors are turned
off. The right side of the motor will be 6 V higher than
the left side of the motor. Then the switch is released
and Q3 is turned on. The left side of the motor is pulled
up to the supply voltage and the back-emf of the motor
is shorted by the internal diode of Q4.
The end result is that the motor stops and all energy
stored in the mechanical inertia of the motor is dumped
into Q4. This could easily damage the upper transistors
during reversal. In some applications with a large
frictional load, a fixed delay may be adequate to ensure
the motor has time to stop. In other applications, the
motor may take several seconds to come to a complete
stop. A universal solution to this problem is
demonstrated in "Example 3—DC Motor with Soft
Reversing‚" on page 6.
+12 V
Q3
OFF
Q1
OFF
+12 V
Q4
OFF
‐ 6V +
Q2
OFF
+12 V
Q3
ON
Q1
OFF
b) coast
+12 V
Q4
OFF
‐ 6V +
Q2
PWM
a) reverse
Figure 4. DC Motor Reversing Hazard
Rev. 1.1
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VDD
P0.6/ADC0P
P0.7
‘F300
VDD
Speed
Reverse
+12 V
P0.2
+12 V
DC
Motor
P0.0/CEX0
P0.4/ADC0P
P0.5/ADC0N
P0.1/CEX0
P0.3
Figure 5. DC Motor Drive with Voltage Sensing
4. Example 3—DC Motor with Soft
Reversing
This software example for a DC motor builds on
Example 2 and provides soft reversing. To safely
reverse a DC motor it is necessary to determine if the
motor is still in motion.
A simple and effective method to determine if the motor
is still spinning is to measure the differential voltage
across the motor terminals. The ADC on the ‘F3xx
family can be configured to measure the differential
voltage between any two inputs of the analog
multiplexer. The programmable window detector may
also be used to determine if the differential voltage has
fallen within preset limits. In this software example, the
motor will reverse after the differential motor voltage
remains below 3% of full scale for 100 ms.
The software builds on Example 2. The main loop has
been modified to detect motor stop. The detectStop()
function first configures the ADC to measure the
differential voltage between P0.5 and P0.4 by writing
0x54 to the AMX0SL SFR. The ADC and window
detector are both used in polled mode. If the ADC value
is within the preset window a counter is incremented. A
10 ms delay using timer T0 sets the sample time. Any
sample outside the window will reset the counter. It will
take 10 consecutive samples within the window before
exiting the while loop. The detectStop() function will
re-configure the ADC to measure the speed
potentiometer before returning to the main loop.
The preprocessor macros VWINDOW, DTIME, and
GSAMP are used to set the voltage window, delay time,
and number of good samples required. These constants
may be modified to suit a particular motor system.
The hardware for this example is similar to Example 2
except for the addition of two resistor dividers
connected to the motor terminals, as shown in Figure 5.
The sense voltage outputs from the resistive dividers
are connected to P0.4 and P0.5. The reverse switch is
now on P0.7.
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VDD
P0.7/ADC0P
P0.0
P0.1
P0.2
VDD
Speed
+12 V
Hall‐Effect
Sensors
+12 V
‘F330
BLDC
Motor
+12 V
Q4
P1.4
Q1
+12 V
Q5
Q6
Q2
Q3
P1.0/CEX0
P1.5
P1.1/CEX0
P1.6
P1.2/CEX0
Figure 6. Brushless DC Motor Drive
5. Example 4—Brushless DC Motor
Brushless DC (BLDC) motors offer some advantages
over conventional brush-commutated DC motors. The
electronics and sensors effectively replace the role of
the brushes, offering long life, reduced maintenance,
and no brush noise. The torque-speed characteristics of
a properly commutated BLDC motor are identical to the
DC motor as shown in Figure 1. Thus, Brushless DC
motors exhibit the same desirable qualities that make
DC motors so well suited for variable speed control.
This example provides simple open-loop control of a
BLDC motor using Hall-effect sensors to control the
motor commutation. The speed of the BLDC motor is
controlled using a simple potentiometer. The
characteristics of the BLDC motor controlled in this
manner are similar to the DC motor in Example 1.
The hardware required for this example is illustrated in
Figure 6. The C8051F330 was chosen for this example
due to the requirement for at least 10 I/O pins. The
motor is driven by six power transistors in a three-phase
bridge configuration. The lower transistors Q1–3 are Nchannel power MOSFETs. The upper three transistors
are P-channel power MOSFETs. This simplifies the gate
drive arrangement. Again, complementary gate drivers
are used so that the power transistors are off in the
default state. The gate drivers for the lower transistors
Q1-3 are connected to P1.0–P1.2. and the upper
transistors are connected to P1.4–P1.6. The analog
speed input is on P0.7.
The Hall-Effect sensors are connected to P0.0–P0.2.
Hall-Effect sensors have open-collector outputs and
require pullup resistors. Check the motor specifications
to ensure the Hall-effect sensors are configured
properly. The open-collector outputs are usually 3 V
compatible. However, the Hall-effect sensors also
require a bias supply that typically requires more that
3.0 V. In most systems, the Hall-effect sensors can be
powered off the motor supply voltage or the gate drive
supply voltage.
When the MCU hits a breakpoint, the pins are effectively
frozen in time. While this behavior is generally
desirable, a breakpoint may leave the PWM outputs in
the active state. A brushed DC motor will operate at fullspeed when this occurs. However, a BLDC motor will
Rev. 1.1
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stall with full voltage across one winding. The BLDC
motor stall current is only limited by the internal
resistance of the winding. This will most likely damage
the power MOSFETs. The recommended procedure is
to always disconnect the motor leads before single
stepping code or using breakpoints. With the motor
wires disconnected there is no path for current to flow.
The software for the BLDC motor example contains
many new elements. A single PCA0 module is used in
the 8-bit PWM mode. The crossbar is used as an output
multiplexer to apply the PWM signal to P1.0, P1.1, or
P1.2 as needed. The upper transistors are controlled by
writing to P1.
The PORT_Init() function configures the crossbar and
output pin assignments. The crossbar special function
registers names and functionality for the ‘F330 are
different than the ‘F300. The programmable counter
array CEX0 output is enabled by writing 0x01 to the
XBR1 SFR. The crossbar is configured to skip all P0
pins by writing 0xFF to the P0SKIP SFR. The P1SKIP
SFR is initialized to output the CEX0 signal on P1.0.
The P1SKIP SFR will be used later to multiplex the
CEX0 signal to P1.0, P1.1, or P1.2. P1.0–P1.2 and
P1.4–P1.6 are configured as push-pull outputs. P0.7 is
configured as an analog input.
The programmable counter array time-base is
configured to use SYSCLK/4, and the counter is started.
However, the Module 0 mode SFR is not initialized for
8-bit PWM. The CEX0 signal, initially on P1.0, will
remain high until the Hall-effect position is determined.
The main() function first initializes everything and sets
the start flag bit. The main loop first checks the
position of the Hall-effect sensors using the
hallPosition() function. If the start flag bit is set or
the Hall position has changed, the motor is commutated
by calling the commutate() function. Next the speed
input is read and the speed setting is written to the
PWM output.
The hallPosition() first reads the Hall-effect code by
calling the readHalls() function described above. The
Hall code pattern is stored in the constant array
hallPattern[]. A single line for loop with post
decrement is used to find the corresponding index for
the matching Hall-effect code. The hallPosition()
function returns a value 1 through 6 if it finds a matching
pattern. If no match is found the hallPosition()
function returns a zero value.
The commutate() function first disables the PWM by
writing 0x00 to the PCA0CPM0 SFR. The upper
transistors are also disabled by writing 0xff to P1. The
commutate() function uses the index obtained from the
hallPosition() function. Two constant arrays,
skipPattern[] and P1Pattern[], are used to store
the patterns for the P1SKIP and P1 sfrs. The new
values are written to the P1SKIP and P1 sfrs using the
pattern index. Lastly, the 8-bit PWM is enabled by
writing 0x42 to the PCA0CPM0 SFR.
The commutate() function is used to initialize the
outputs on start-up, to change the state of the outputs
when the Hall position changes, and to restart the motor
after a Hall error has been corrected.
The patterns stored in hallPattern[], skipPattern[]
and P1Pattern[] may need to be modified to suit a
particular motor system. There is no universal standard
for the Hall-effect pattern or the commutation pattern.
Consult the motor manufacturers data sheet for the
particular motor you are using. Carefully check both
patterns against the manufacturers data sheet. It may
be necessary to swap the bit patterns for phase A and
phase C to obtain the desired bit pattern. Also, check
the correspondence between the Hall-effect pattern and
the commutation pattern. It may be necessary to
change the offset between the two patterns. The
patterns listed are for a Pittman N2311A011 BLDC
motor.
The hallPosition() function returns a zero on an
error condition. This occurs if the Hall-effect inputs are
all high or all low. If an error occurs, the main loop
disables all outputs by calling the coast() function. The
start bit is also set on an error condition to force a
commutation on the next valid Hall position reading.
The readHalls() function reads and debounces the
Hall-effect code on the Hall-effect input port pins. This
function waits for three consecutive identical readings.
This reduces the likelihood of an erroneous reading
while the Hall-effect code is changing. The number of
consecutive samples required for a good reading can
be modified for a particular system by changing the
GSAMP preprocessor macro.
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AC
Motor
V DD
P0.6/ADC0P
Speed
VM
VM
VM
Gate Drive with Dead‐time
Gate Drive with Dead‐time
Gate Drive with Dead‐time
‘F300
P0.0/CEX0
P0.1/CEX1
P0.2/CEX2
Figure 7. AC Induction Motor Drive
6. Example 5—AC Induction Motor
The previous examples have focused on small low-voltage motors. DC motors and BLDC motors offer
competitive solutions for low-voltage motor drive systems. AC Induction motors are typically used only in offline applications. The C8051F3xx family may be used to
provide a cost-effective solution for constant V/Hz control of Fractional Horsepower motors. Fractional
Horsepower motors range from 1/4 to 3/4 horsepower
and normally have an operating voltage of 110 VAC to
240 VAC.
control may be used to provide a high-performance
motion control system that meets or exceeds the
performance of a DC servo drive. Vector control
normally requires the use of a DSP to perform complex
matrix algebra transforms. The intellectual appeal of
Vector control tempts engineers to use vector control in
applications that do not really require the performance.
However the cost-conscious system designer will
appreciate much lower cost of the constant V/Hz
system.
At the other end of the performance spectrum, vector
High-Voltage ICs may be used to provide a simple, low
parts count, cost-effective gate drive. Dead-time is
AC Induction motors can be used for a wide range of
applications with radically different performance
requirements. The simplest control method is called
constant V/Hz control. This control methodology is used
for variable speed or adjustable speed AC induction
motor drive systems. AC inductions motors using
constant V/Hz control can be used for fans, blowers, air
handlers,
pumps,
submersible
pumps,
and
compressors. A C8051F3xx MCU can be used to
provide a low-cost solution for these applications.
The simplified schematic for Example 5 AC Induction
motor is shown in Figure 7. A three-phase transistor
bridge is used to drive the AC Induction motor. The
power transistors might be power MOSFETs or
insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). IGBTs will
usually provide lower power losses for 230 VAC
applications greater than 1/4 HP. P0.0, P0.1, and P0.3
are used to control the gate drive of the three-phase
bridge.
Rev. 1.1
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required to prevent cross-conduction and increased
power losses. The switching time is limited by the
performance of the power transistors and the circuit
parasitics. The dead-time must also account for any
mismatch in the turn-on and turn-off delay of the
system. High-voltage ICs are available with built in
dead-time for little or no additional cost.
weak pullups by default. Pulldown resistors are used
force the output low at start-up. This turns on the lower
transistors and charges the bootstrap supply used for
the high-side gate drive. The PCA is initialized before
the crossbar is enabled. When the crossbar is initialized
a 50% waveform will appear on outputs P0.0 through
P0.2.
The IR2103S is a 600 V half-bridge gate driver with a
fixed dead-time of 520 ns and 3 V compatible inputs.
The IR2104S provides the same features plus an active
low shut-down that disables both outputs. The shutdown feature is very useful in more complex systems for
both start-up and fault protection.
The main loop reads the ADC using averaging and
stores the value in the global variable Volts. All sine
wave generation and updating is done using interrupts.
This example provides simple open loop V/Hz control
for AC Induction motors using the C8051F300 MCU.
The MCU reads the value of a speed control
potentiometer and generates the three-phase sine wave
PWM required to drive the power transistors. Three
PCA modules configured for 8-bit PWM are used to
generate three-phase PWM. The three-phase PWM
waveforms are shown in Figure 8.
Timer T0 is configured for 16-bit counter mode 1. The
timer uses the 24.5 MHz SYSCLK divided by four. The
timer is started and TF0 is set to a 1 to force an initial
interrupt.
The Timer Interrupt Service Routine Timer_ISR() is
used to generate a periodic interrupt with a period of
about 1 ms. After setting up the next interrupt, the
Timer_ISR() will call the Update() function.
The Update() function updates the three PWM duty
cycles based on a sampled sine wave. The value of
theta is calculated based on the relationships illustrated
in Equation 11. First the global variable Volts is copied
to the local variable omega. The variable omega is scaled
so that a value of 0x04 corresponds to a sine frequency
of about 1 Hz. The value of omega is integrated by
adding omega to the global variable Sum. Sum is a 16-bit
unsigned int data type. The upper byte of Sum is copied
into theta.
V
 =
  dt
 = 
Sum = Sum + omega
theta = Sum / 256
Figure 8. Three-Phase PWM
Equation 1. Equation 1
PCA0 outputs CEX0, CEX1, and CEX2 are enabled by
writing 0xC0 to the XBR1 SFR. The XBR0 SFR is
cleared to not skip any pins. This configures the PCA0
outputs on P0.0, P0.1, and P0.2. The first three outputs
P0.0–P0.2 are configured as push-pull outputs by
writing 0x07 to the P0MDOUT SFR. P0.6 is configured
as input for the analog speed control. When the
crossbar is enabled this will enable the three outputs.
The 8-bit variable theta is passed to the sineWave()
function. The value returned from the sineWave()
function is stored in PCA0CPH0. This sets the duty
cycle of CEX0. The other two PWMs are updated using
theta plus 0x55 and theta plus 0xAA. This generates
three sine modulate PWM signals 120º apart.
All three PCA modules are configured for 8-bit PWM
mode by writing 0x42 to their respective capture/
compare mode registers. The PWM high times are
initialized to 50%.
At startup, P0.0–P0.2 will be initially pulled high by the
10
The sineWave() function uses the sine[] look-up table
containing 256 signed 8-bit values. The sine[] value
corresponding to theta is multiplied by the Volts
variable. The most significant byte of the product stored
in an 8-bit variable. An offset of 0x80 is added to the
output value to provide a sine wave centered about
50%.
Rev. 1.1
AN191
7. Example 6—PWM using HighSpeed Output Mode
The 8-bit PWM mode of the PCA provides sufficient
resolution for most small motor drive applications. The
PWM frequency is normally chosen to be just above the
audible range. The optimum PWM frequency for small
motors is in the range of 16 to 24 kHz. IntegralHorsepower AC Induction motors often employ lower
switching frequencies to reduce switching losses. The
24 kHz frequency is suitable for most small motor
drives.
The 8-bit PWM frequency can be set to 8, 24, or 96 kHz
when operating from a system clock frequency of
24.5 MHz. An 8-bit PWM frequency of 16.0 or 19.1 kHz
may be obtained by using T0 overflow as the PCA clock
source.
Some applications may require more resolution than 8
bits. Higher resolution may be required to achieve
speed regulation of better than 1% using DC or BLDC
motors. AC Induction motor systems that require
greater than 100 to 1 speed range may also require
higher resolution.
Higher resolutions and arbitrary PWM frequencies can
be obtained by using the high-speed output (HSO)
mode of the programmable counter array to generate a
PWM signal. The HSO mode can be used to generate
PWM waveforms with up to 16-bit resolutions and 40 ns
edge timing. This corresponds to an effective resolution
of 10.25 bits or 0.0816% at 20.0 kHz.
The trade-off is that the software latency limits the
minimum high-time and low-time. The MCU must have
sufficient time to interrupt the current process and write
the new values to the output compare registers before
the next edge is scheduled to occur. The latency can be
minimized by assigning the PCA0 to high priority,
caching the edge timing data, and using an alternate
register set for the interrupt service routine. The CPU
expends a significant portion of its available processing
capability servicing the frequent PCA interrupts.
track of which edge is to occur next. Since the HSO
mode will toggle the output, a software flag bit is
required. Using a flag bit is more robust than polling the
output pin state because it is independent of compare
matching.
The preprocessor macro LATENCY is set to a value just
greater than the update latency to provide reliable
operation. Preprocessor macro calculations are used to
calculate PERIOD and HTSPAN. The high-time span
HTSPAN is the PERIOD minus two times LATENCY.
The main loop polls the ADC using averaging. The
value from the ADC is multiplied by the desired hightime span HTSPAN. The product is then incremented by
adding LATENCY. The final result is then stored in a
global variable HiTime. Temporary variables x and y are
used to calculate the intermediate values. The scaling
operation requires a long int data type. The final
result is 16-bits. The global variable HiTime should not
be used for intermediate calculations. The interrupt
service routine might pickup the new value at any time
and would use nonsensical values for the PWM. The
PCA0 interrupt is also temporarily disabled during the
HiTime update to ensure that an interrupt does not
occur until both bytes have been updated.
The PCA interrupt service routine PCA0_ISR() first
updates the PCA0CPx0 registers and then clears the
PCA0 Module 0 capture/compare flag CCF0. Once the
flag has been cleared, it is safe for the next interrupt to
occur. Depending on the state of the cycle bit, the
NextEdge is incremented by HiTime or Period minus
HiTime.
A comparison of the HSO PWM is shown versus the 8bit PWM in Figure 9. The frequency for the HSO PWM
is exactly 20 kHz and the minimum high time is 1.8 µs.
The frequency for the 8-bit PWM is 24 kHz and the
minimum high-time is 160 ns.
The software for Example 6 reads the value of the
speed control potentiometer and outputs a 20.0 kHz
PWM waveform on P0.0. The system clock, ADC, and
port initialization are identical to Example 1. The
PCA0_Init() function configures the PCA to use the
system clock and configures Module 0 for high-speed
output mode. The PCA initialization also schedules the
first PCA interrupt.
Two global variables NextEdge and cycle are used by
the PCA0 Interrupt service routine. NextEdge is used to
cache the edge timing data one edge ahead of time to
reduce latency. The global bit cycle is used to keep
Rev. 1.1
11
AN191
Bottom
Dead-Time
Center
Top
Center
Dead-Time
high. Both top and bottom signals are inactive during
the dead-time.
Period
Figure 10. Center-Aligned PWM Signals
Figure 9. Minimum High-Time Comparison
8. Example 7—Center-aligned PWM
This example demonstrates how to use the PCA highspeed output mode to generate center-aligned PWM
waveforms with dead-time. Center-aligned PWM with
dead-time may be used for DC, BLDC, or AC induction
motors. DC and BLDC motors that require active
braking must use a PWM scheme that alternatively
turns on the top and bottom transistors. Motors that
provide positive and negative torque control in both
forward and reverse directions are called servo motors
or four-quadrant drives. Servo motors also require
pulse-width modulating both upper and lower
transistors. AC Induction motors always use this type of
PWM scheme to generate sine waves. When pulsewidth modulating both upper and lower transistors,
dead-time is required between the activation of the
upper and lower transistors. The dead-time function
may be performed by the MCU or integrated into the
gate drive.
Using center-aligned PWM has benefits. It is very easy
to generate the required dead-time. The complementary
PWM signal with dead-time may be obtained by adding
a small number to the high-time of the first signal and
inverting. Using center-aligned waveforms also has the
benefit of doubling the frequency between phases and
reducing the ripple current. This is particularly important
for large motors with low inductance.
The desired center-aligned waveforms are illustrated in
Figure 10. The period is measured with respect to the
center of the high-time of the top PWM signal. When
multiple PWM channels are used, all signals are aligned
with respect to the center of the waveforms. The top
and bottom PWM signals shown in Figure 10 are active
12
Three PCA modules are used to generate the desired
waveforms. One module is used as a master. The
master module is the only module that generates
interrupts. The master channel generates 50% duty
cycle waveform. The center of the high-times and lowtimes of the other channels are aligned with the rising
and falling edges of the master channel as shown in
Figure 11.
The F300 port I/O and pin assignments are similar to
Example 5. The pin skip SFR XBR0 is cleared and no
pins are skipped in the priority crossbar assignments.
The XBR1 SFR is initialized to output CEX0, CEX1, and
CEX2. The value 0x07 is written to P0MDOUT to
configure P0.0, P0.1, P0.2 as push-pull outputs.
The main loop is identical to Example 6. The
PCA0_Init() function initializes all three channels for
high-speed output mode. The interrupt is enabled only
on Module 0. The PCA initialization function schedules
the first interrupt and next edges for a 50% duty cycle.
The relative polarities of all signals are defined by the
initialization. P0.2 is inverted because it does not have
an edge scheduled for the first half-cycle.
The PCA interrupt service routine PCA0_ISR() is similar
to Example 7. Three 16-bit PCA0CP compare special
function registers must by updated before the interrupt
flag is cleared. The LATENCY macro value must be
increased to account for the extra instructions.
The NextEdge global variables are calculated for all
three modules. The calculations are different depending
on the state of the cycle bit.
The center-aligned module’s next edge values are
calculated relative to the master module. If cycle is 1,
the center-aligned NextEdge1 and NextEdge2 are
calculated by first incrementing NextEdge0, then adding
Rev. 1.1
AN191
or subtracting the Hitime from NextEdge0, and then
adding or subtracting the dead-time. If cycle is 0,
NextEdge1 and NextEdge2 are calculated by adding or
subtracting the Hitime from NextEdge0, adding or
subtracting
the
dead-time,
and
incrementing
NextEdge0. The minimum pulse width is reduced by
adding half the LATENCY. This shifts the center-aligned
waveforms slightly so that the edges are aligned with
the master channel at the minimum high-time
conditions.
‘F300
P0.1/CEX1
+12 V
+12 V
Q1
DC
Motor
Q2
P0.2/CEX2
VDD
P0.6/ADC0P
Speed Command
Figure 12. Half-Bridge DC Drive
One I/O pin can be saved by moving the master
channel to CEX2 and configuring the crossbar to output
only CEX0 and CEX1. The master module output is
useful for debugging purposes, but may not be required
in some systems.
Figure 11. Center -Aligned PWM Waveforms
The measured center-aligned PWM waveforms are
shown in Figure 11. The top waveform is the master
channel output on P0.0. The scope is triggered off the
master channel. The middle and bottom waveforms are
P0.1 and P0.2. These signals may be used to drive the
upper and lower transistors of a half-bridge. The deadtime is configured for inverting gate drivers. P0.1 and
P0.2 are never low at the same time. There is a finite
dead-time between the rising edge of P0.1 and the
falling edge of P0.2.
The F310 has 5 PCA modules and may be used to
generate four center-aligned PWM waveforms with
dead-time. Four center-aligned PWM waveforms may
be used to drive the DC servo motor as shown in
Figure 13.
The F300 has three PCA modules and may be used to
provide two complementary center-aligned waveforms
with dead-time. Two complementary PWM waveforms
are sufficient to drive a DC motor using a half-bridge.
This provides active braking and synchronous
rectification. A simplified diagram of a half-bridge motor
drive is shown in Figure 12.
Rev. 1.1
13
AN191
‘F310
P1.0/CEX1
+12 V
+12 V
Q1
Q3
DC
Motor
Q2
Q4
P1.1/CEX2
P1.2/CEX3
P1.3/CEX4
Figure 13. DC Servo Drive
14
Rev. 1.1
AN191
9. Example 8—Quadrature Decode
Closed-Loop speed control requires position feedback.
There are many different kinds of position sensors.
Common examples are optical encoders, Hall-effect
encoders, tachometers, and potentiometers.
This software example demonstrates a low-cost solution
for the most common position sensor: the optical
quadrature encoder. An optical encoder uses a
semiconductor photo-detector and LED to detect slots
in a disc or dark bands on a reflective wheel. Single
channel optical encoders provide speed feedback but
cannot detect which direction the motor is turning. Twochannel quadrature encoders are capable of providing
both speed and direction.
The quadrature decode software can be combined with
the DC motor control software used in Example 2 or the
Center aligned PWM used in Example 7 for servopositioning applications. This provides an integrated
solution for closed loop motor control to reduce external
parts count and reduce system cost.
The two outputs of a quadrature encoder, CHA and
CHB, are 90º out of phase as shown in Figure 14. If the
motor is turning in the forward direction, CHA will be
leading CHB. If the motor is turning in the reverse
direction, CHB will be leading CHA. The direction of
rotation may be detected by taking the exclusive OR of
the two signals. The results of taking the exclusive OR
of CHA and CHB is indicated by the letters T and F in
Figure 14. When the motor is turning in the forward
direction, immediately after any edge detection on CHA,
the XOR of CHA and CHB will be true. Immediately after
any edge detection on CHB, while turning in the forward
direction, CHA XOR CHB will be false.
CHA leading CHB
T
T
T
CHA
CHB
F
F
F
F
Reverse
CHB leading CHA
F
F
F
CHA
F
CHA XOR CHB = T or F
Forward
T
CHB
T
T
T
T
Figure 14. Quadrature Decoder Operation
Using this information a simple algorithm can be
obtained using edge triggered interrupt events. On CHA
edge interrupts, the position should be incremented if
CHA XOR CB is true, or decremented if false.
Conversely, on CHB edge interrupts the position should
be incremented if CHA XOR CHB is false, or
decremented if true.
The hardware configuration for software Example 8
requires that quadrature encoder CHA be connected to
P0.0 and CHB be connected to P0.1. Pullup resistors
are typically required for most quadrature encoders.
Some encoders are specified to source only a few
microamps. These will also require pullup resistors. The
default weak pullups on P0 are typically not strong
enough to drive the encoder signals high with an
appropriate rise time.
Ensure that the quadrature encoder is compatible with
3 V CMOS logic. The open-collector outputs of most
encoders should work with a pullup resistor to 3 V. The
pullup resistor value should be decreased to keep the
sink current approximately the same value. The
encoder also requires a voltage power supply for the
LEDs and internal circuitry. Some encoders may require
a regulated 5.0 V supply. However, the open-collector
outputs can still be used with pullups to a 3 V supply.
The software for Example 8 uses the UART with an
ASCII terminal to display the position of the quadrature
encoder. The position is stored in the global variable
Position. The position is updated by two interrupt
service routines for external interrupts INT0 and INT1.
The UART is enabled and P0.4 is configured for pushpull output. P0.0 and P0.1 are skipped as a
precautionary measure. This will be required if any
other peripherals are enabled in the crossbar.
The
external
interrupt
initialization
function
EINT_Init() configures INT0 and INT1 to use P0.0
and P0.1 respectively. Both INT0 and INT1 are
configured for edge activated interrupts. The initial
trigger polarity for each channel is determined by polling
P0.0 and P0.1. The external interrupts are configured
for high priority and enabled.
The external interrupt service routines are identical
except for respective change in the interrupt flag,
polarity bit, and count direction. First the trigger polarity
bit is toggled. Then a nested if...else statement is
used to test the state of both polarity bits. For INT0, if
both polarity bits are true or both polarity bits are false,
the position will be incremented. Otherwise, the position
will be decremented. For INT1, if both polarity bits are
true or both polarity bits are false, the position will be
decremented. Otherwise, the position will be
incremented. This is the equivalent of a logical
exclusive OR function. This implementation uses simple
bit tests and is very code efficient.
Rev. 1.1
15
AN191
Figure 15. Quadrature Decode Measurements
The measured waveforms for a quadrature encoder are
shown in Figure 15. This type of quadrature decode
using interrupts is a viable solution up to speeds of
about 50,000 counts per second. The number of counts
per second is four times the number of pulses per
second. There are four edges in each pulse. This is
suitable for a medium-speed motor (<8000 RPM) with a
low-resolution encoder (100 ppr) or a low-speed motor
(<1500 RPM) with a high-resolution encoder (500 ppr).
This performance range covers many consumer and
automotive applications. High-performance industrial
servo drives typically require much higher count rates
up to 1 million counts per second. These types of
applications will require a hardware based quadrature
decoder interface.
16
Rev. 1.1
AN191
A PPENDIX A—DC M O T O R C ODE
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Example 1
// DC Motor Control
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Copyright 2004 Silicon Laboratories Inc.
//
// AUTH: KAB
// DATE: 12MAR04
//
// This program provides simple DC motor control using the PCA 8-bit PWM Mode.
// The ADC is used to read the potentiometer voltage on P0.6. The ADC uses
// polled mode and 64 sample averaging. The 8-bit PWM is configured to operate
// at 24 kHz. The PWM high-time varies from a minimum of 160 ns to a maximum of
// 100%.
//
// Target: C8051F30x
//
// Tool chain: KEIL Eval ‘c’
//
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Includes
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#include <c8051f300.h>
// SFR declarations
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Function PROTOTYPES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void);
// Initialize SYSCLK
void PORT_Init (void);
// Initialize XBR and Port Pins
void PCA0_Init (void);
// Initialize PCA0
void ADC0_Init (void);
// Initialize ADC
unsigned char readVin(void);
// read ADC using polling
unsigned char avgVin(void);
// returns avg ADC reading
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MAIN Routine
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void main (void)
{
PCA0MD &= ~0x40;
// Disable Watchdog Timer
}
SYSCLK_Init ();
PORT_Init ();
ADC0_Init();
PCA0_Init ();
//
//
//
//
EA = 1;
// enable global interrupts
while (1)
{
PCA0CPH0 = avgVin();
}
Initialize system clock
Initialize crossbar and GPIO
Initialize ADC for polled mode
PCA0 for 8-bit PWM
// get avg reading and output to PWM
Rev. 1.1
17
AN191
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// SYSCLK_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// This routine initializes the system clock to use the internal 24.5MHz
// oscillator as its clock source. Also enables missing clock detector reset
// and the VDD Monitor.
//
void SYSCLK_Init (void)
{
OSCICN = 0x07;
// configure internal oscillator for
RSTSRC = 0x06;
// enable missing clock detector
// and VDD Monitor.
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PORT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Configure the Crossbar and GPIO ports.
// P0.0 - /PWM - active low PWM signal
// P0.1 // P0.2 // P0.3 // P0.4 // P0.5 // P0.6 - Analog Input
// P0.7 - C2D
//
void PORT_Init (void)
{
XBR0
= 0x00;
// don’t skip any pins
XBR1
= 0x40;
// Enable CEX0 on P0.0
P0MDOUT = 0x01;
// Enable P0.0 as a push-pull output
P0MDIN
= ~0x40;
// Configure P0.6 for analog input
XBR2
|= 0x40;
// Enable crossbar
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
//
void PCA0_Init (void)
{
}
18
PCA0MD = 0x02;
// PCA uses sysclk/4, no PCA interrupt
PCA0CPM0 = 0x42;
// Module 0, 8-bit PWM Mode
PCA0L = 0x00;
PCA0H = 0x00;
PCA0CPL0 = 0x00;
PCA0CPH0 = 0x00;
CR = 1;
// reset the timer
// Initialize to minimum duty
// Start PCA0 timer
Rev. 1.1
AN191
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// ADC0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void ADC0_Init (void)
{
ADC0CN = 0x40;
}
AMX0SL = 0xf6;
ADC0CF = 0x81 ;
REF0CN = 0x0a;
EIE1 &= ~0x04;
AD0EN = 1;
unsigned char readVin(void)
{
AD0INT = 0;
AD0BUSY = 1;
while (!AD0INT);
return ADC0;
}
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Low-power tracking mode;
ADC0 conversions are initiated
on writes to AD0BUSY;
select P0.6, single-ended
AD0SC=4 gain =1
ADC uses Vdd for full scale
disable ADC0 EOC interrupt
enable ADC
// clear ADC0 end-of-conversion
// initiate conversion
// wait for conversion to complete
unsigned char avgVin(void)
{
unsigned char i, result;
unsigned int sum;
}
sum = 0;
for (i = 64; i != 0; i--)
{
sum += readVin();
}
result = (unsigned char)(sum>>6);
return result;
// repeat 64 times
// read ADC and add to sum
// divide by 64 and cast to uchar
// return average reading
Rev. 1.1
19
AN191
A PPENDIX B—DC M O T O R WITH R EVERSING C OD E
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Example 2
// DC Motor Control with Reversing
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Copyright 2004 Silicon Laboratories Inc.
//
// AUTH: KAB
// DATE: 12MAR04
//
// This program provides DC motor control with hard reversing using the PCA
// 8-bit PWM Mode. A single PCA module is used to generate an 8-bit PWM. The
// pin skip register XBR0 is used to multiplex the PWM between two outputs
// P0.0 and P0.1. These two outputs are used to drive the lower transistors in
// an H-Bridge configuration. P0.2 and P0.3 are used to drive the upper
// transistors.
//
// The ADC is used to read the poteniometer voltage on P0.6. The ADC uses polled
// mode and 64 sample averaging.
//
// When the pushbutton is pressed and held the PWM duty cycle will be set to
// zero and all transistors will be turned off. This will allow the motor to
// coast. Releasing the switch will cause the motor to reverse. If the switch
// is released before the motor comes to a complete stop, the motor will
// abruptly stop and reverse directions.
//
// Target: C8051F30x
//
// Tool chain: KEIL Eval ‘c’
//
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Includes
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#include <c8051f300.h>
// SFR declarations
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Function PROTOTYPES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void);
// Initialize SYSCLK
void PORT_Init (void);
// Initialize XBR and Port Pins
void PCA0_Init (void);
// Initialize PCA0
void ADC0_Init (void);
// Initialize ADC
unsigned char readVin(void);
// read ADC using polling
unsigned char avgVin(void);
// returns avg ADC reading
void coast (void);
void reverse (void);
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Global Variables
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------bit Fwd;
sbit SW1 = P0^5;
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MAIN Routine
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void main (void)
20
Rev. 1.1
AN191
{
PCA0MD &= ~0x40;
// Disable Watchdog Timer
SYSCLK_Init ();
PORT_Init ();
ADC0_Init();
PCA0_Init ();
Fwd = 1;
EA = 1;
//
//
//
//
//
//
while (1)
{
if(SW1)
{
}
}
PCA0CPH0 = avgVin();
}
else
{
coast();
while(!SW1);
reverse();
}
Initialize system clock
Initialize crossbar and GPIO
Initialize ADC for polled mode
PCA0 for 8-bit PWM
start in forward direction
enable global interrupts
// if not pressed
// get avg reading and output to PWM
// if pressed, coast
// wait for button to be released
// reverse directions
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// SYSCLK_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// This routine initializes the system clock to use the internal 24.5MHz
// oscillator as its clock source. Also enables missing clock detector reset
// and the VDD Monitor.
//
void SYSCLK_Init (void)
{
OSCICN = 0x07;
// Configure internal oscillator for
// highest frequency.
RSTSRC = 0x06;
// Enable missing clock detector
// and VDD Monitor.
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PORT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Configure the Crossbar and GPIO ports.
// P0.0 - /Abot - active low PWM signal drives bottom transistor
// P0.1 - /Bbot - active low PWM signal drives bottom transistor
// P0.2 - /Atop - active low signal drives top transistor
// P0.3 - /Abot - active low signal drives top transistor
// P0.4 // P0.5 - Switch
// P0.6 - Vin
// P0.7 //
void PORT_Init (void)
{
Rev. 1.1
21
AN191
}
XBR0
= ~0x01;
XBR1
= 0x40;
P0MDOUT = 0x0f;
P0MDIN = ~0x40;
P0
= ~0x08;
XBR2
|= 0x40;
//
//
//
//
//
//
skip all except P0.0
Enable CEX0 on P0.0
P0.0 - P0.3 are push-pull outputs
Configure P0.6 for analog input
P0.3 low
Enable crossbar
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
//
void PCA0_Init (void)
{
PCA0MD = 0x02;
// PCA uses sysclk/4, no interrupt
PCA0CPM0 = 0x42;
// Module 0, 8-bit PWM Mode
PCA0L = 0x00;
PCA0H = 0x00;
PCA0CPL0 = 0x00;
PCA0CPH0 = 0x00;
CR = 1;
// reset the timer
// Initialize to minimum duty
// Start PCA0 timer
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// ADC0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void ADC0_Init (void)
{
ADC0CN = 0x40;
}
AMX0SL = 0xf6;
ADC0CF = 0x81;
REF0CN = 0x0a;
EIE1 &= ~0x04;
AD0EN = 1;
unsigned char readVin(void)
{
AD0INT = 0;
AD0BUSY = 1;
while (!AD0INT);
return ADC0;
}
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Low-power tracking mode;
ADC0 conversions are initiated
on writes to AD0BUSY;
select P0.6, single-ended
AD0SC=4 gain =1
ADC uses Vdd for full scale
disable ADC0 EOC interrupt
enable ADC
// clear ADC0 end-of-conversion
// initiate conversion
// wait for conversion to complete
unsigned char avgVin(void)
{
unsigned char i, result;
unsigned int sum;
22
Rev. 1.1
AN191
}
sum = 0;
for (i = 64; i != 0; i--)
{
sum += readVin();
}
result = (unsigned char)(sum>>6);
return result;
void coast(void)
{
PCA0CPH0 = 0;
P0 = 0xff;
}
void reverse (void)
{
Fwd=!Fwd;
CR = 0;
PCA0CPH0 = 0;
PCA0CPM0 = 0;
P0 = 0xff;
XBR2 &= ~0x40;
if (Fwd)
{
XBR0 = ~0x01;
P0
= ~0x08;
}
else
{
XBR0 = ~0x02;
P0
= ~0x04;
}
XBR2 |= 0x40;
PCA0CPM0 = 0x42;
CR = 1;
}
// repeat 64 times
// read ADC and add to sum
// divide by 64 and cast to uchar
// return average reading
// disable PWM
// force all outputs high
//
//
//
//
//
//
toggle direction flag
Stop PCA0 timer
clear duty cycle
disable PWM
force all outputs high
disable Crossbar
// don’t skip P0.0
// P0.3 low
// don’t skip P0.1
// P0.2 low
// enable Crossbar
// Module 0, 8-bit PWM Mode
// restart PCA0 timer
Rev. 1.1
23
AN191
A PPENDIX C—DC M O T O R WITH S OFT R EVERSING C OD E
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Example 3
// DC Motor Control with Soft Reversing
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Copyright 2004 Silicon Laboratories Inc.
//
// AUTH: KAB
// DATE: 12MAR04
//
// This program provides dc motor control with reversing control using the PCA
// 8-bit PWM Mode. A single PCA module is used to generate an 8-bit PWM. The
// pin skip register XBR0 is used to multiplex the PWM between two outputs
// P0.0 and P0.1. These two outputs are used to drive the lower transistors in
// an H-Bridge configuration. P0.2 and P0.3 are used to drive the upper
// transistors.
//
// The ADC is used to read the potentiometer voltage on P0.6. The ADC uses
// polled mode and 64 sample averaging.
//
// The ADC is also used to sense the motor voltage during reversal. When the
// Reverse pushbutton is pressed, the PWM duty will be set to zero. The
// differential voltage across the motor is measured. The once this voltage
// drops below a limit, the upper transistors are reversed and the PWM will be
// applied to the other phase.
//
// Target: C8051F30x
//
// Tool chain: KEIL Eval ‘c’
//
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Includes
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#include <c8051f300.h>
// SFR declarations
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Typdefs
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------typedef union
{
struct
{
unsigned char hi;
unsigned char lo;
} b;
unsigned int w;
}udblbyte;
// union used for writing to TL0 & TH0
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MACROS
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#define VWINDOW (5*256/100)
24
// set window to +/- 5%
Rev. 1.1
AN191
#define DTIME (245000/48)
#define GSAMP 10
// set delay time to 10 ms per sample
// stop for 10 good samples (100ms)
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Function PROTOTYPES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void);
void PORT_Init (void);
void PCA0_Init (void);
void ADC0_Init (void);
void Timer_Init (void);
unsigned char readVin(void);
unsigned char avgVin(void);
void coast (void);
void detectStop(void);
void reverse (void);
void delay(unsigned int);
//
//
//
//
Initialize
Initialize
Initialize
Initialize
SYSCLK
XBR and Port Pins
PCA0
ADC
//
//
//
//
read ADC using polling
returns avg ADC reading
disable PWM and outputs
wait for motor to stop
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Global Variables
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------bit Fwd;
sbit SW1 = P0^7;
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MAIN Routine
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void main (void)
{
PCA0MD &= ~0x40;
SYSCLK_Init ();
PORT_Init ();
ADC0_Init();
PCA0_Init ();
Timer_Init();
Fwd = 1;
EA = 1;
// Disable Watchdog Timer
//
//
//
//
Initialize system clock
Initialize crossbar and GPIO
Initialize ADC for polled mode
PCA0 for 8-bit PWM
// enable global interrupts
while (1)
{
if(SW1)
{
}
}
PCA0CPH0 = avgVin();
}
else
{
coast();
while(!SW1);
detectStop();
reverse();
}
// get avg reading and output to PWM
// wait for button
Rev. 1.1
25
AN191
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// SYSCLK_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void)
{
OSCICN = 0x07;
RSTSRC = 0x06;
}
// configure internal oscillator for
// enable missing clock detector
// and VDD Monitor.
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PORT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Configure the Crossbar and GPIO ports.
// P0.0 - /Abot - active low PWM signal drives bottom transistor
// P0.1 - /Bbot - active low PWM signal drives bottom transistor
// P0.2 - /Atop - active low signal drives top transistor
// P0.3 - /Abot - active low signal drives top transistor
// P0.4 - VA
// P0.5 - VB
// P0.6 - Vin
// P0.7 - Switch
//
void PORT_Init (void)
{
XBR0
= 0x70;
XBR1
= 0x40;
P0MDOUT = 0x0f;
P0MDIN
= ~0x70;
XBR2
= 0x40;
P0
= ~0x08;
//
//
//
//
//
//
skip P0.4, P0.5, & P0.6
Enable CEX0 on P0.0
P0.0 - P0.4 are push-pull outputs
Configure P0.6 for analog input
Enable crossbar
P0.3 low
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void PCA0_Init (void)
{
PCA0MD = 0x02;
// PCA uses sysclk/4, no interrupt
PCA0CPM0 = 0x42;
// Module 0, 8-bit PWM Mode
PCA0L = 0x00;
PCA0H = 0x00;
PCA0CPL0 = 0x00;
PCA0CPH0 = 0x00;
CR = 1;
// reset the timer
// Initialize to minimum duty
// Start PCA0 timer
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// ADC0_Init
26
Rev. 1.1
AN191
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void ADC0_Init (void)
{
ADC0CN = 0x40;
// Low-power tracking mode;
// ADC0 conversions are initiated
// on writes to AD0BUSY;
AMX0SL = 0xf6;
// select P0.6, single-ended
ADC0CF = 0x81 ;
// AD0SC=4 gain =1
REF0CN = 0x0a;
// ADC uses Vdd for full scale
EIE1 &= ~0x04;
// disable ADC0 EOC interrupt
AD0EN = 1;
// enable ADC
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Timer_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void Timer_Init (void)
{
CKCON = 0x02;
// T0 uses sysclk/48
TMOD = 0x01;
// T0 mode 1, 16-bit counter
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// read_Vin()
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------unsigned char readVin(void)
{
AD0INT = 0;
// clear ADC0 end-of-conversion
AD0BUSY = 1;
// initiate conversion
while (!AD0INT);
// wait for conversion to complete
return ADC0;
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// detectStop()
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void detectStop(void)
{
unsigned char g;
AMX0SL = 0x54;
g = 0;
while (g < GSAMP)
{
AD0INT = 0;
AD0WINT = 0;
AD0BUSY = 1;
while (!AD0INT);
if(AD0WINT)
g++;
else
g=0;
delay(DTIME);
}
// select P0.4 - P0.5
// wait for GSAMP good samples
//
//
//
//
clear ADC0 end-of-conversion
clear window detector
initiate conversion
wait for conversion to complete
// count number of good samples
// start over if outside window
// wait 10 ms
AMX0SL = 0xf6;
// select P0.6, single ended
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// avgVin()
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rev. 1.1
27
AN191
unsigned char avgVin(void)
{
unsigned char i, result;
unsigned int sum;
sum = 0;
for (i = 64; i != 0; i--)
{
sum += readVin();
}
result = (unsigned char)(sum>>6);
return result;
// repeat 64 times
// read ADC and add to sum
// divide by 64 and cast to uchar
// return average reading
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// coast()
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void coast(void)
{
PCA0CPH0 = 0;
// disable PWM
P0 = 0xff;
// force all outputs high
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// reverse()
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void reverse (void)
{
Fwd=!Fwd;
CR = 0;
PCA0CPH0 = 0;
PCA0CPM0 = 0;
P0 = 0xff;
XBR2 &= ~0x40;
if (Fwd)
{
XBR0 = ~0x01;
P0
= ~0x08;
}
else
{
XBR0 = ~0x02;
P0
= ~0x04;
}
XBR2 |= 0x40;
PCA0CPM0 = 0x42;
CR = 1;
}
//
//
//
//
//
Stop PCA0 timer
clear duty cycle
disable PWM
all high
disable Crossbar
// don’t skip P0.0
// P0.3 low
// don’t skip P0.1
// P0.2 low
// enable Crossbar
// Module 0, 8-bit PWM Mode
// restart PCA0 timer
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// delay()
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void delay(unsigned int d)
{
udblbyte t;
TR0 = 0;
// stop Timer0
t.w = -d;
// take 2’s complement
TL0 = t.b.lo;
// write lo byte first
TH0 = t.b.hi;
// write hi byte second
28
Rev. 1.1
AN191
}
TF0 = 0;
TR0 = 1;
while(!TF0);
TR0 = 0;
//
//
//
//
clear overflow flag
start Timer0
wait for overflow
stop timer
Rev. 1.1
29
AN191
A PPENDIX D— B RUSHLESS DC M O T O R C ODE
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Example 4
// BLDC Motor Control
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Copyright 2004 Silicon Laboratories Inc.
//
// AUTH: KAB
// DATE: 12MAR04
//
// This program provides Brushless DC motor control using the PCA 8-bit PWM
// Mode. A single PCA module is used to generate an 8-bit PWM. The pin skip
// register XBR0 is used to multiplex the PWM between three outputs P1.0,
// P1.1, & P1.2 These three outputs are used to drive the lower transistors in
// an 3-Phase Bridge configuration. P0.4, P0.5, & P0.6 are used to drive the
// upper transistors.
//
// The ADC is used to read the potentiometer voltage on P0.6. The ADC uses
// polled mode and 64 sample averaging.
//
// P0.0, P0.1, and P0.2 are used for hall effect sensor inputs. This pins are
// polled to determine the rotor position. The readHalls() function requires
// three identical samples and returns the hall code. The corresponding state
// of the motor is found from the HallPattern. This state is then used to
// commutate the motor.
//
// It is safe to single-step and use breakpoints ONLY with the motor wires
// disconnected. Do not single step through the code with the motor wires
// connected! The PWM outputs may remain active while the CPU is stopped.
// In particular do not single step past the lines that enable the PWM.
// These lines are marked with comments in ALL CAPS.
//
// Target: C8051F33x
//
// Tool chain: KEIL Eval ‘c’
//
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Includes
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#include <c8051f330.h>
// SFR declarations
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MACROS
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#define GSAMP 3
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Hall-effect and commutation patterns
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------const unsigned char code hallPattern[7]=
{ 0x00, 0x01, 0x03, 0x02, 0x06, 0x04, 0x05};
const unsigned char code skipPattern[7]=
{~0x01,~0x01,~0x01,~0x02,~0x02,~0x04,~0x04};
30
Rev. 1.1
AN191
const unsigned char code P1Pattern[7]=
{~0x00,~0x20,~0x40,~0x40,~0x10,~0x10,~0x20};
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Function PROTOTYPES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void);
void PORT_Init (void);
void PCA0_Init (void);
void PCA0_ISR (void);
void ADC_Init (void);
unsigned char readVin(void);
unsigned char avgVin(void);
unsigned char readHalls(void);
unsigned char hallPosition(void);
void commutate(unsigned char);
void coast(void);
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MAIN Routine
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void main (void) {
unsigned char h,p;
bit start;
PCA0MD &= ~0x40;
// Disable Watchdog Timer
SYSCLK_Init ();
// initialize system clock
PORT_Init ();
PCA0_Init ();
ADC_Init();
// initialize i/o
// configure PCA0 to 8-bit PWM
// initialize i/o
EA = 1;
// enable global interrupts
p = 0;
start = 1;
// clear p
// set start bit
while (1)
{
h = hallPosition();
if(h)
{
if ((h != p)||(start))
{
p = h;
commutate(p);
start = 0;
}
PCA0CPH0 = avgVin();
}
else
{
// h equals hall position
// if good position
// if new position or start
//
//
//
//
update p
DO NOT SINGLE-STEP PAST THE NEXT
LINE WITH MOTOR WIRES CONNECTED!!!
commutate motor, enables PWM
// get avg reading and output to PWM
Rev. 1.1
31
AN191
}
}
coast();
start = 1;
// coast until good reading
// set start bit to restart motor
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// SYSCLK_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void)
{
OSCICN = 0x83;
}
// configure for 24.5 MHz
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PORT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Configure the Crossbar and GPIO ports.
// P0.0 - HA
// P0.1 - HB
// P0.2 - HC
// P0.3 // P0.4 // P0.5 // P0.6 // P0.7 - Vin - analog input
//
// P1.0 - Abottom - push-pull output
// P1.1 - Bbot - push-pull output
// P1.2 - Cbot - push-pull output
// P1.3 // P1.4 - Atop - push-pull output
// P1.5 - Btop - push-pull output
// P1.6 - Ctop - push-pull output
// P1.7 //
void PORT_Init (void)
{
XBR0
= 0x00;
// enable nothing on XBR0
XBR1
= 0x01;
// enable PCA CEX0
P0SKIP
= 0xFF;
// skip all pins on P0
P0MDIN
=~0x80;
// P0.7 analog input
P1SKIP
=~0x01;
// skip all except P1.0
P1MDOUT = 0x77;
// enable P1 outputs
XBR1
|= 0x40;
// enable crossbar
P1
= 0xff;
// P1 all high
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void PCA0_Init (void)
{
PCA0MD = 0x02;
32
// PCA uses sysclk/4, no CF int
Rev. 1.1
AN191
}
PCA0CPM0 = 0x00;
PCA0L = 0x00;
PCA0H = 0x00;
PCA0CPH0 = 0x00;
CR = 1;
// clear mode, pin high
// reset the timer
// initial to 0%
// START PCA0 timer
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// coast function
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void coast(void)
{
PCA0CPM0 = 0x00;
P1 = 0xff;
}
// disable PWM
// disable upper transistors
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// readHalls function
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// reads and debounces Hall-Sensor inputs
unsigned char readHalls(void)
{
unsigned char g,h,i;
g = 0;
h = 0;
while (g<GSAMP)
{
i = P0 & 0x07;
if (h == i)
g++;
else
g = 0;
h = i;
}
return h;
}
// while less that 3 good samples
// read halls
// if the same
// one more good
// else start over
// update h
// return good hall code
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// hallPosition function
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------unsigned char hallPosition (void)
{
unsigned char h,p;
h = readHalls();
}
// get debounced hall reading
// find corresponding pattern index
for (p=6;(h != hallPattern[p])&&(p!=0);p--);
return p;
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// hallPosition function
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void commutate (unsigned char i)
{
Rev. 1.1
33
AN191
PCA0CPM0 = 0x00;
P1 = 0xFF;
XBR1 &= ~0x40;
P1SKIP = skipPattern[i];
P1 = P1Pattern[i];
XBR1 |= 0x40;
}
PCA0CPM0 = 0x42;
// disable PWM
// disable crossbar
//
//
//
//
enable crossbar
DO NOT SINGLE-STEP PAST THE NEXT
LINE WITH MOTOR WIRES CONNECTED!!!
enable 8-bit PWM mode
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// ADC functions
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void ADC_Init(void)
{
AMX0P
= 0x07;
AMX0N
= 0x11;
ADC0CF
= 0xC4;
ADC0CN
= 0x80;
REF0CN
= 0x08;
//
//
//
//
//
positive input P0.7
single ended mode
1MHz clock, left justified
configure ADC for polled mode
use Vdd as ADC full scale
}
unsigned char readVin(void)
{
AD0INT = 0;
AD0BUSY = 1;
while (!AD0INT);
return ADC0H;
}
// clear ADC0 end-of-conversion
// initiate conversion
// wait for conversion to complete
unsigned char avgVin(void)
{
unsigned char i, result;
unsigned int sum;
}
34
sum = 0;
for (i = 64; i != 0; i--)
{
sum += readVin();
}
result = (unsigned char)(sum>>6);
return result;
// repeat 64 times
// read ADC and add to sum
// divide by 64 and cast to uchar
// return average reading
Rev. 1.1
AN191
A PPENDIX E—AC I NDUCTION M O T O R C ODE
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Example 5
// AC Motor Control
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Copyright 2004 Silicon Laboratories Inc.
//
// AUTH: KAB
// DATE: 12MAR04
//
// This program provides AC Induction motor control using the PCA 8-bit
// PWM mode. Three PCA channels are used to generate three-phase PWM.
// The three PWMs are output on P0.0-0.2. The falling edge of the three
// PWM signals are edge-aligned. Each PWM has a frequency of 24 kHz and
// a low-time that varies independently from 160ns to 100%. These
// signals can be used to drive a induction motor using a three-phase
// bridge. A gate drive with built in dead-time is required.
//
// A potentiometer is connected to P0.6. The value of the Pot controls
// the speed of the motor. The speed is controlled using a constant V/
// Hz profile. The sine wave frequency varies from DC up to 60 Hz. The
// modulation depth varies from zero to 100%.
//
// Target: C8051F33x
//
// Tool chain: KEIL Eval ‘c’
//
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Includes
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#include <c8051f300.h>
// SFR declarations
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Macros
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#define DTIME 5981
// delay time 1 ms update rate
// 24500000/4/1024
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Typdefs
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------typedef union
// union used for writing to TL0 & TH0
{
struct
{
unsigned char hi;
unsigned char lo;
} b;
unsigned int w;
}udblbyte;
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Function PROTOTYPES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void);
void PORT_Init (void);
void PCA0_Init (void);
Rev. 1.1
35
AN191
void ADC0_Init (void);
void Timer_Init(void);
unsigned char readVin(void);
unsigned char avgVin(void);
unsigned char sineWave(unsigned char);
void Timer_ISR (void);
void Update(void);
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Sine Wave Table
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------const signed char code sine[256]=
{
0x00, 0x03, 0x06, 0x09, 0x0C, 0x10,
0x25, 0x28, 0x2B, 0x2E, 0x31, 0x34,
0x47, 0x49, 0x4C, 0x4E, 0x51, 0x53,
0x62, 0x64, 0x66, 0x68, 0x6A, 0x6C,
0x76, 0x77, 0x78, 0x79, 0x7A, 0x7B,
0x7E, 0x7F, 0x7F, 0x7F, 0x7F, 0x7F,
0x7C, 0x7C, 0x7B, 0x7A, 0x79, 0x78,
0x70, 0x6E, 0x6C, 0x6B, 0x69, 0x67,
0x59, 0x57, 0x54, 0x52, 0x50, 0x4D,
0x3B, 0x38, 0x35, 0x32, 0x2F, 0x2C,
0x17, 0x14, 0x11, 0x0E, 0x0B, 0x08,
0xF2, 0xEF, 0xEC, 0xE9, 0xE6, 0xE3,
0xCE, 0xCB, 0xC8, 0xC5, 0xC3, 0xC0,
0xAE, 0xAC, 0xA9, 0xA7, 0xA5, 0xA3,
0x95, 0x94, 0x92, 0x90, 0x8F, 0x8E,
0x86, 0x85, 0x84, 0x84, 0x83, 0x83,
0x81, 0x81, 0x81, 0x82, 0x82, 0x82,
0x87, 0x88, 0x89, 0x8A, 0x8C, 0x8D,
0x98, 0x9A, 0x9C, 0x9E, 0xA0, 0xA2,
0xB2, 0xB4, 0xB7, 0xB9, 0xBC, 0xBE,
0xD2, 0xD5, 0xD8, 0xDB, 0xDE, 0xE1,
0xF7, 0xFA, 0xFD, 0x00
};
0x13,
0x36,
0x56,
0x6D,
0x7B,
0x7F,
0x77,
0x65,
0x4B,
0x29,
0x05,
0xE0,
0xBD,
0xA1,
0x8C,
0x82,
0x83,
0x8E,
0xA4,
0xC1,
0xE4,
0x16,
0x39,
0x58,
0x6F,
0x7C,
0x7F,
0x76,
0x63,
0x48,
0x27,
0x02,
0xDC,
0xBB,
0x9F,
0x8B,
0x82,
0x83,
0x90,
0xA6,
0xC4,
0xE7,
0x19,
0x3C,
0x5A,
0x70,
0x7D,
0x7E,
0x75,
0x61,
0x45,
0x24,
0xFE,
0xD9,
0xB8,
0x9D,
0x8A,
0x81,
0x84,
0x91,
0xA8,
0xC7,
0xEA,
0x1C,
0x3F,
0x5C,
0x72,
0x7D,
0x7E,
0x74,
0x5F,
0x43,
0x20,
0xFB,
0xD7,
0xB5,
0x9B,
0x89,
0x81,
0x85,
0x93,
0xAA,
0xCA,
0xED,
0x1F,
0x42,
0x5E,
0x73,
0x7E,
0x7D,
0x72,
0x5D,
0x40,
0x1D,
0xF8,
0xD4,
0xB3,
0x99,
0x88,
0x81,
0x85,
0x94,
0xAD,
0xCC,
0xF0,
0x22,
0x44,
0x60,
0x74,
0x7E,
0x7D,
0x71,
0x5B,
0x3D,
0x1A,
0xF5,
0xD1,
0xB0,
0x97,
0x87,
0x81,
0x86,
0x96,
0xAF,
0xCF,
0xF4,
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Global Variables
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------unsigned char Volts;
// output voltage
unsigned int Sum;
// integral of omega
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MAIN Routine
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void main (void)
{
36
PCA0MD &= ~0x40;
// disable watchdog timer
SYSCLK_Init ();
PCA0_Init ();
PORT_Init ();
ADC0_Init();
Timer_Init();
//
//
//
//
//
initialize
initialize
initialize
initialize
initialize
Rev. 1.1
system clock
PCA0 for 8-bit PWM
crossbar and GPIO
ADC for polled mode
T0 for update timebase
AN191
EA = 1;
// enable global interrupts
Sum = 0;
// clear 16-bit integral of omega
while (1)
{
}
}
Volts = avgVin();
// set output voltage to pot setting
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// SYSCLK_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void)
{
OSCICN = 0x07;
// configure for 24.5 MHz
RSTSRC = 0x06;
// enable missing clock detector
// and VDD Monitor.
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PORT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Configure the Crossbar and GPIO ports.
// P0.0 - !PWMA - phase A PWM signal - push-pull output
// P0.1 - !PWMB - phase B PWM signal - push-pull output
// P0.2 - !PWMC - phase C PWM signal - push-pull output
// P0.3 // P0.4 // P0.5 // P0.6 - Analog Input
// P0.7 //
void PORT_Init (void)
{
XBR0
= 0x00;
// skip nothing
XBR1
= 0xc0;
// enable CEX0-2
P0MDOUT = 0x07;
// P0.0-2 push-pull output
P0MDIN = ~0x40;
// P0.6 analog input
XBR2
= 0x40;
// enable crossbar
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void PCA0_Init (void)
{
PCA0MD = 0x02;
PCA0L = 0x00;
PCA0H = 0x00;
// use SYSCLK/4 for 24kHz PWM
// clear PCA Counter/Timer Low Byte
// clear PCA Counter/Timer High Byte
//Module 0
PCA0CPM0 = 0x42;
// module 0 8-bit PWM no interrupts
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PCA0CPL0 = 0x80;
PCA0CPH0 = 0x80;
// initialize for 50%
// initialize for 50%
//Module
PCA0CPM1
PCA0CPL1
PCA0CPH1
1
= 0x42;
= 0x80;
= 0x80;
// module 1 8-bit PWM no interrupts
// initialize for 50%
// initialize for 50%
//Module
PCA0CPM2
PCA0CPL2
PCA0CPH2
2
= 0x42;
= 0x80;
= 0x80;
// module 2 8-bit PWM no interrupts
// initialize for 50%
// initialize for 50%
PCA0CN
= 0x40;
// enable PCA0
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Timer_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void Timer_Init (void)
{
CKCON = 0x01;
TMOD = 0x01;
TR0 = 1;
ET0 = 1;
TF0 = 1;
// T0 uses sysclk/4
// T0 mode 1
// enable timer
// enable interrupts
//force interrupt
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Timer_ISR
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void Timer_ISR(void) interrupt 1
{
udblbyte t;
TR0 = 0;
t.w = -DTIME;
TL0 = t.b.lo;
TH0 = t.b.hi;
TF0 = 0;
TR0 = 1;
Update();
}
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
stop Timer0
2s complement delay-time
write lo byte first
write hi byte second
clear overflow flag
start Timer0
update sinewave
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Update function
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void Update (void)
{
unsigned int omega;
unsigned char theta;
omega = Volts;
38
// angular frequency
// sine wave angle
// constant V/Hz control
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omega <<=4;
// scale omega for 1 ms update rate
Sum += omega;
// integrate omega
theta = Sum >>8;
// theta is upper byte
PCA0CPH0 = sineWave(theta);
// output sinewaves
PCA0CPH1 = sineWave(theta + 0x55);
}
PCA0CPH2 = sineWave(theta + 0xaa);
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// sineWave function
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------unsigned char sineWave(unsigned char q)
{
signed char s;
// signed sine
unsigned char o;
// output value
unsigned int p;
// 16 bit product
}
s = sine[q];
// get value from table
p = Volts * (signed int)s;
// multiply by v
o = p>>8;
// throw away low byte
o += 0x80;
// center sinewave at 50%
return o;
// return sinewave value
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// ADC functions
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void ADC0_Init (void)
{
ADC0CN = 0x40;
// Low-power tracking mode;
// ADC0 conversions are initiated
// on writes to AD0BUSY;
AMX0SL = 0xf6;
// select P0.6, single-ended
ADC0CF = 0x81 ;
// AD0SC=4 gain =1
REF0CN = 0x0a;
// ADC uses Vdd for full scale
EIE1 &= ~0x04;
// disable ADC0 EOC interrupt
AD0EN = 1;
// enable ADC
}
unsigned char readVin(void)
{
AD0INT = 0;
AD0BUSY = 1;
while (!AD0INT);
return ADC0;
}
// clear ADC0 end-of-conversion
// initiate conversion
// wait for conversion to complete
unsigned char avgVin(void)
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{
}
40
unsigned char i, result;
unsigned int sum;
sum = 0;
for (i = 64; i != 0; i--)
{
sum += readVin();
}
result = (unsigned char)(sum>>6);
return result;
// repeat 64 times
// read ADC and add to sum
// divide by 64 and cast to uchar
// return average reading
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APPENDIX F—PWM USING HIGH-SPEED OUTPUT MODE CODE
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Example 6
// PWM using PCA High Speed Output Mode
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Copyright 2004 Silicon Laboratories Inc.
//
// AUTH: KAB
// DATE: 12MAR04
//
// This example demonstrates using the High Speed Output (HSO) mode to
// generate a PWM signal.
//
// The program reads the value of a potentiometer connected to P0.6 and uses
// this value to set the duty Cycle of the PWM. This example could be used
// to drive a dc motor.
//
// Target: C8051F30x
//
// Tool chain: KEIL Eval ‘c’
//
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Includes
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#include <c8051f300.h>
// SFR declarations
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// typedefs
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------typedef union
{
struct
{
unsigned char hi;
unsigned char lo;
} b;
unsigned int w;
}udblbyte;
// union used for writing to TL0 & TH0
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MACROS (all caps)
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#define SYSCLK
24500000
// SYSCLK frequency in Hz
#define PERIOD (SYSCLK/20000)
#define DEADTIME 25
// desired Dead-Time in clocks
#define LATENCY 45
// worst case latency in clocks
#define HTSPAN (PERIOD - 2*LATENCY)
// high-time span
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Global Variables
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------unsigned int HiTime;
unsigned int NextEdge;
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bit Cycle;
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Function PROTOTYPES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void);
void PORT_Init (void);
void PCA0_Init (void);
void PCA0_ISR (void);
void ADC0_Init (void);
unsigned char readVin (void);
unsigned char avgVin (void);
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MAIN Routine
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void main (void) {
unsigned long x;
unsigned int y;
PCA0MD &= ~0x40;
// Disable Watchdog Timer
SYSCLK_Init ();
// Initialize system clock to
// 24.5MHz internal oscillator
// Initialize crossbar and GPIO
PORT_Init ();
PCA0_Init ();
ADC0_Init();
EA = 1;
}
while (1)
{
x = avgVin();
x *= HTSPAN;
y = x>>8;
y += LATENCY;
EIE1 &= ~0x08;
HiTime = y;
EIE1
|= 0x08;
}
// enable global interrupts
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
get avg. ADC reading
multiply by span
through away low byte
add minimum latency
disable PCA interrupt
coherent update of global hitime
enable PCA interrupt
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// SYSCLK_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void)
{
OSCICN = 0x07;
RSTSRC = 0x04;
}
// configure for 24.5 MHz
// enable missing clock detector
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PORT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Configure the Crossbar and GPIO ports.
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// P0.0 - PWM - CEX0 - push-pull output
// P0.1 // P0.2 // P0.3 // P0.4 // P0.5 // P0.6 - Analog Input
// P0.7 //
void PORT_Init (void)
{
XBR0
= 0x00;
//
XBR1
= 0x40;
//
P0MDOUT = 0x01;
//
P0MDIN
= ~0x40;
//
XBR2
|= 0x40;
//
skip nothing
Enable CEX0 on P0.0
enable CEX0 as a push-pull output
enable ADC input on P0.6
enable crossbar
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void PCA0_Init (void)
{
udblbyte output;
PCA0MD
=
PCA0CPM0 =
PCA0L
=
PCA0H
=
output.w =
PCA0CPL0 =
PCA0CPH0 =
NextEdge =
EIE1
|=
EIP1
|=
}
0x08;
0x4D;
0x00;
0x00;
PERIOD/2;
output.b.lo;
output.b.hi;
PERIOD;
0x08;
0x08;
CR = 1;
// PCA uses sysclk, no CF int
// High Speed Output Mode, enable ECCF0
// reset the timer
// schedule first interrupt
// initialize NextEdge
// enable PCA0 interrupts
// set PCA to high priority
// start PCA0 timer
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_ISR
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void PCA0_ISR (void) interrupt 9 using 1
{
static bit cycle = 0;
udblbyte output;
output.w = NextEdge;
PCA0CPL0 = output.b.lo;
PCA0CPH0 = output.b.hi;
PCA0CN &= ~0x87;
if (cycle)
{
NextEdge += PERIOD;
NextEdge -= HiTime;
}
else
// write lo byte first
// write hi byte second
// clear all PCA flags
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{
}
NextEdge += HiTime;
}
cycle = !cycle;
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// ADC functions
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void ADC0_Init (void)
{
ADC0CN = 0x00;
}
AMX0SL = 0xf6;
ADC0CF = 0x81 ;
REF0CN = 0x0a;
EIE1 &= ~0x04;
AD0EN = 1;
unsigned char readVin(void)
{
AD0INT = 0;
AD0BUSY = 1;
while (!AD0INT);
return ADC0;
}
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
normal tracking mode;
ADC0 conversions are initiated
on writes to AD0BUSY;
select P0.6
AD0SC=4 gain =1
ADC uses Vdd for full scale
disable ADC0 EOC interrupt
enable ADC
// clear ADC0 end-of-conversion
// initiate conversion
// wait for conversion to complete
unsigned char avgVin(void)
{
unsigned char i, result;
unsigned int sum;
}
44
sum = 0;
for (i = 64; i != 0; i--)
{
sum += readVin();
}
result = (unsigned char)(sum>>6);
return result;
// repeat 64 times
// read ADC and add to sum
// divide by 64 and cast to uchar
// return average reading
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A PPENDIX G — C ENTER A LIGNED PWM C ODE
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Example 7
// Center-Aligned PWM with Dead-Time
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Copyright 2004 Silicon Laboratories Inc.
//
// AUTH: KAB
// DATE: 12MAR04
//
// This program reads the voltage at P0.6 and outputs center-aligned PWM
// with dead-time on P0.1 and P0.2.
//
// Target: C8051F30x
//
// Tool chain: KEIL Eval ‘c’
//
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Includes
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#include <c8051f300.h>
// sfr declarations
typedef union
// union used for writing to PCA0CPxx
{
struct
{
unsigned char hi;
unsigned char lo;
} b;
unsigned int w;
}udblbyte;
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Macros
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
SYSCLK
24500000
PERIOD (SYSCLK/20000/2)
DEADTIME 25
LATENCY 45
HTSPAN (PERIOD - 2*LATENCY)
// SYSCLK frequency in Hz
// desired dead-time in clocks
// worst case latency in clocks
// high-time span
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Global Variables
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
int
int
int
int
HiTime;
nextEdge0;
nextEdge1;
nextEdge2;
//
//
//
//
global PWM high-time
CEX0 next edge time
CEX1 next edge time
CEX2 next edge time
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Function PROTOTYPES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void);
Rev. 1.1
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void PORT_Init (void);
void PCA0_Init (void);
void PCA0_ISR (void);
void ADC0_Init (void);
unsigned char readVin(void);
unsigned char avgVin(void);
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MAIN Routine
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void main (void)
{
unsigned long x;
unsigned int y;
PCA0MD &= ~0x40;
SYSCLK_Init ();
// 24.5MHz internal oscillator
PORT_Init ();
PCA0_Init ();
ADC0_Init();
EA = 1;
}
while (1)
{
x = avgVin();
x *= HTSPAN;
y = x>>8;
y += LATENCY;
EIE1
&= ~0x08;
HiTime = y;
EIE1
|= 0x08;
}
// Disable Watchdog Timer
// Initialize system clock to
// Initialize crossbar and GPIO
// enable global interrupts
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
get avg. ADC reading
multiply by span
through away low byte
add minimum latency
disable interrupt while updating
coherent update of global hitime
re-enable interrupt
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// SYSCLK_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void)
{
OSCICN = 0x07;
RSTSRC = 0x04;
}
// 24.5MHz internal oscillator
// enable missing clock detector
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PORT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Configure the Crossbar and GPIO ports.
// P0.0 - CEX0
// P0.1 - CEX1
// P0.2 - CEX2
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//
//
//
//
//
//
P0.3
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
- Analog Input
- C2D
void PORT_Init (void)
{
XBR0
= 0x00;
XBR1
= 0xC0;
P0MDOUT |= 0x07;
P0MDIN
= ~0x40;
XBR2
= 0x40;
//
//
//
//
//
skip nothing
Enable CEX0-2 on P0.0-2
enable CEX0-2 as a push-pull output
configure P0.6 for analog input
Enable crossbar
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void PCA0_Init (void)
{
udblbyte output;
// used to write to PCA0CPxx
PCA0MD = 0x08;
PCA0CN = 0x00;
// use system clock
// clear PCA control register
//Module
PCA0CPM0
output.w
PCA0CPL0
PCA0CPH0
0
=
=
=
=
0x4D;
PERIOD;
output.b.lo;
output.b.hi;
// HSO mode, enable interrupts
// schedule first low-high transition
// for one full period
//Module
PCA0CPM1
output.w
PCA0CPL1
PCA0CPH1
1
=
=
=
=
0x4C;
(PERIOD/2+DEADTIME);
output.b.lo;
output.b.hi;
//
//
//
//
HSO mode, disable interrupts
schedule first low-high transition
before CEX0 sets polarity to
low on CEX0 H-L transition
//Module
PCA0CPM2
output.w
PCA0CPL2
PCA0CPH2
2
=
=
=
=
0x4C;
(2*PERIOD);
output.b.lo;
output.b.hi;
//
//
//
//
HSO mode, disable interrupts
schedule first low-high transition
after CEX0 sets polarity to
high on CEX0 H-L transition
HiTime = PERIOD/2;
nextEdge0 = (2*PERIOD);
nextEdge1 = (3*PERIOD/2-DEADTIME);
nextEdge2 = (3*PERIOD/2+DEADTIME);
//
//
//
//
init
init
init
init
PCA0L
PCA0H
// clear PCA Low Byte
// clear PCA High Byte
= 0x00;
= 0x00;
HighTime to 50%
next CEX0 to 50
next CEX1 and subtract DT
next CEX1 and add DT
EIP1 |= 0x08;
EIE1 |= 0x08;
// set PCA to high priority
// Enable PCA0, interrupts
CR = 1;
// start PCA0 timer
Rev. 1.1
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}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PCA0_ISR
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void PCA0_ISR (void) interrupt 9 using 1
{
static bit cycle = 0;
udblbyte output;
unsigned int t ;
}
output.w = nextEdge1;
PCA0CPL1 = output.b.lo;
PCA0CPH1 = output.b.hi;
output.w = nextEdge2;
PCA0CPL2 = output.b.lo;
PCA0CPH2 = output.b.hi;
output.w = nextEdge0;
PCA0CPL0 = output.b.lo;
PCA0CPH0 = output.b.hi;
PCA0CN &= ~0x87;
// output next edge on CEX1
cycle = !cycle;
if (cycle)
{
nextEdge0 += PERIOD;
t = nextEdge0 - HiTime;
nextEdge1 = t + (LATENCY/2
nextEdge2 = t + (LATENCY/2
}
else
{
t = nextEdge0 + HiTime;
nextEdge1 = t + (LATENCY/2
nextEdge2 = t + (LATENCY/2
nextEdge0 += PERIOD;
}
// toggle Cycle
// output next edge on CEX2
// output next edge on CEX0
// clear all PCA flags
// pre-increment nextEdge0
// calculate next edges
+ DEADTIME);
- DEADTIME);
// calculate next edges
- DEADTIME);
+ DEADTIME);
// post increment nextEdge0
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// ADC functions
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void ADC0_Init (void)
{
ADC0CN = 0x00;
AMX0SL = 0xf6;
ADC0CF = 0x81 ;
REF0CN = 0x0a;
EIE1 &= ~0x04;
AD0EN = 1;
}
unsigned char readVin(void)
{
AD0INT = 0;
AD0BUSY = 1;
48
//
//
//
//
//
//
use polled mode
select P0.6, single ended
AD0SC=4, gain =1
ADC uses Vdd for full scale
disable ADC0 EOC interrupt
enable ADC
// clear ADC0 end-of-conversion
// initiate conversion
Rev. 1.1
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}
while (!AD0INT);
return ADC0;
// wait for conversion to complete
// return reading
unsigned char avgVin(void)
{
unsigned char i, result;
unsigned int sum;
}
sum = 0;
for (i = 64; i != 0; i--)
{
sum += readVin();
}
result = (unsigned char)(sum>>6);
return result;
// repeat 64 times
// read ADC and add to sum
// divide by 64 and cast to uchar
// return average reading
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A PPENDIX H— Q UADRATURE D ECODE C OD E
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Example 8
// Quadrature Decode
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Copyright 2004 Silicon Laboratories Inc.
//
// AUTH: KAB
// DATE: 12MAR04
//
// This example provides a quadrature decode interface using the
// external interrupts INT0 and INT1. The external interrupts are
// assigned to P0.0 and P0.1.
//
// The interrupt service routines first complement the appropriate
// interrupt polarity bit and then increment or decrement the global
// variable Position as needed. A nested if...else statement is used
// to determine the appropriate action depending on the status of
// the polarity bits.
//
// The Position variable is output on the UART each time the Position
// changes. The Position can be monitored using a standard Terminal
// application such as Hyperterm. The Terminal should be configured
// for 9600 bps.
//
// Target: C8051F30x
//
// Tool chain: KEIL Eval ‘c’
//
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Includes
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#include <c8051f300.h>
// sfr declarations
#include <stdio.h>
// printf()
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Macros
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------#define SYSCLK
#define BAUDRATE
24500000
9600
// sysclk frequency in Hz
// baud rate of UART in bps
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Function PROTOTYPES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void
void
void
void
void
void
void
main (void);
SYSCLK_Init (void);
PORT_Init (void);
UART0_Init (void);
EINT_Init (void);
INT0_ISR (void);
INT1_ISR (void);
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
50
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// Global VARIABLES
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------unsigned int Position;
// position of quadrature encoder
sbit CHA = P0^0;
// quadrature channel A pin state
sbit CHB = P0^1;
// quadrature channel B pin state
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// MAIN Routine
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void main (void)
{
unsigned int p;
// last position
PCA0MD = 0x00;
// disable watchdog timer
PORT_Init ();
SYSCLK_Init ();
EINT_Init();
UART0_Init ();
//
//
//
//
Position = 0;
// clear initial position
EA = 1;
// enable global interrupts
while (1)
{
while(p == Position);
// do nothing until moved
p = Position;
}
}
printf(“%u
initialize
initialize
initialize
initialize
GPIO and Crossbar
System Clock
External Interrupt
UART
// update p
\r”, p);
// display position
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// Initialization Subroutines
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// SYSCLK_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void SYSCLK_Init (void)
{
OSCICN = 0x07;
RSTSRC = 0x04;
}
// configure for 24.5 MHz
// enable missing clock detector
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// PORT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Configure the Crossbar and GPIO ports.
// P0.0 - INT0 - CHA input
// P0.1 - INT1 - CHB input
// P0.2 // P0.3 // P0.4 - UART TX - push-pull output
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// P0.5 - UART RX
// P0.6 // P0.7 - C2D
//
void PORT_Init (void)
{
XBR0
= 0x03;
XBR1
= 0x03;
P0MDOUT = 0x10;
XBR2
|= 0x40;
//
//
//
//
skip P0.0 & P0.1
enable uart
TX output
enable crossbars
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// EINT_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------void EINT_Init (void)
{
IT01CF = 0x10;
// INT0=P0.0, INT1=P0.1
if(CHA==0)
// check CHA state
IT01CF|=0x08;
// if low, trigger high
if(CHB==0)
// check CHB state
IT01CF|=0x80;
// if low, trigger high
TCON
|= 0x05;
// set IT0 & IT1 for edge trigger
TCON
&= ~0x0a;
// clear IE0 and IE1 flags
IP
|= 0x05;
// INT0 and INT1 high priority
IE
|= 0x05;
// Enable INT0 and INT1
}
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// INT0_ISR, INT1_ISR
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// These two interrupt service routines occur when the respective encoder
// channel changes state. The interrupt service routines are identical
// except for the respective change in the interrupt flag, polarity bit, and
// count direction. The nested if...else statement performs the logical
// equivalent of an exclusive OR function using the polarity bits as the
// quadrature state.
//
void INT0_ISR (void) interrupt 0
{
IT01CF ^= 0x08;
}
52
if ((IT01CF&0x08)==0x08)
if((IT01CF&0x80)==0x80)
Position--;
else
Position++;
else
if((IT01CF&0x80)==0x80)
Position++;
else
Position--;
// toggle edge select trigger
// if both decrement
// if different increment
// if different increment
// if neither decrement
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void INT1_ISR (void) interrupt 2
{
IT01CF ^= 0x80;
}
if ((IT01CF&0x08)==0x08)
if((IT01CF&0x80)==0x80)
Position++;
else
Position--;
else
if((IT01CF&0x80)==0x80)
Position--;
else
Position++;
// toggle edge
select trigger
// if both increment
// if different decrement
// if different decrement
// if neither increment
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------// UART0_Init
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// Standard UART0 Init from software examples
//
void UART0_Init (void)
{
SCON0 = 0x10;
// SCON0: 8-bit variable bit rate
//
level of STOP bit is ignored
//
RX enabled
//
ninth bits are zeros
//
clear RI0 and TI0 bits
if (SYSCLK/BAUDRATE/2/256 < 1) {
TH1 = -(SYSCLK/BAUDRATE/2);
CKCON |= 0x10;
// T1M = 1; SCA1:0 = xx
} else if (SYSCLK/BAUDRATE/2/256 < 4) {
TH1 = -(SYSCLK/BAUDRATE/2/4);
CKCON &= ~0x13;
// T1M = 0; SCA1:0 = 01
CKCON |= 0x01;
} else if (SYSCLK/BAUDRATE/2/256 < 12) {
TH1 = -(SYSCLK/BAUDRATE/2/12);
CKCON &= ~0x13;
// T1M = 0; SCA1:0 = 00
} else {
TH1 = -(SYSCLK/BAUDRATE/2/48);
CKCON &= ~0x13;
// T1M = 0; SCA1:0 = 10
CKCON |= 0x02;
}
}
TL1 = TH1;
TMOD &= ~0xf0;
TMOD |= 0x20;
TR1 = 1;
TI0 = 1;
// init Timer1
// TMOD: timer 1 in 8-bit auto-reload
// START Timer1
// Indicate TX0 ready
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CONTACT INFORMATION
Silicon Laboratories Inc.
400 West Cesar Chavez
Austin, TX 78701
Tel: 1+(512) 416-8500
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Please visit the Silicon Labs Technical Support web page:
https://www.silabs.com/support/pages/contacttechnicalsupport.aspx
and register to submit a technical support request.
Patent Notice
Silicon Labs invests in research and development to help our customers differentiate in the market with innovative low-power, small size, analogintensive mixed-signal solutions. Silicon Labs' extensive patent portfolio is a testament to our unique approach and world-class engineering team.
The information in this document is believed to be accurate in all respects at the time of publication but is subject to change without notice.
Silicon Laboratories assumes no responsibility for errors and omissions, and disclaims responsibility for any consequences resulting from
the use of information included herein. Additionally, Silicon Laboratories assumes no responsibility for the functioning of undescribed features or parameters. Silicon Laboratories reserves the right to make changes without further notice. Silicon Laboratories makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Silicon Laboratories assume any
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Other products or brandnames mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
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