E3Switch | DS3 | Specifications | E3Switch DS3 Specifications

E3Switch DS3 Specifications
High-Speed Ethernet to
Single/Dual DS3/E3
Network Extender V5.4
October 31st, 2011
Operating Information
Legal Preface:
COPYRIGHT & TRADEMARKS
Copyright © 2007 E3Switch LLC. All Rights Reserved.
All other product names mentioned in this manual may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective companies.
LIMITED WARRANTY
E3Switch LLC (E3Switch) guarantees that every unit is free from physical defects in material and
workmanship under normal use for one year from the date of purchase, when used within the limits set forth
in the Specifications section of this User Guide. If the product proves defective during the warranty period,
contact E3Switch Technical Support in order to obtain a return authorization number. When returning a
product from outside of the United States of America, clearly state “NOT A SALE. RETURNED FOR
REPAIR” on the commercial invoice; and failing to do so, the customer will be responsible for imposed
duties and taxes. All customers are responsible for shipping and handling charges for returned items.
IN NO EVENT SHALL E3SWITCH'S LIABILITY EXCEED THE PRICE PAID FOR THE PRODUCT
FROM DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOST PROFITS) RESULTING FROM THE
USE OF THE PRODUCT OR ITS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF E3SWITCH HAS BEEN ADVISED
OF, KNOWN, OR SHOULD HAVE KNOWN, THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. E3Switch
makes no warranty or representation, expressed, implied, or statutory, with respect to its products or the
contents or use of this documentation and specifically disclaims its quality, performance, merchantability, or
fitness for any particular purpose. E3Switch reserves the right to revise or update its products or
documentation without obligation to notify any individual or entity. Please direct all inquiries to:
E3Switch LLC
80 Coronado Ave
San Carlos, CA 94070
U.S.A.
http://www.ds3switch.com, support@ds3switch.com
TEL: +1-650-241-9941
FCC STATEMENT
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference.
2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if it is not installed and used in accordance with
the instruction manual, it may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this
equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference, in which case the user will be
required to correct the interference at his own expense.
INDUSTRY CANADA NOTICE
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus
set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
Le present appareil numerique n'emet pas de bruits radioelectriques depassant les limites applicables aux
appareils numeriques de la class A prescrites dans le Reglement sur le brouillage radioelectrique edicte par
le ministere des Communications du Canada
EUROPEAN UNION (EU) STATEMENT
This product is in conformity with the protection requirements of EU Council Directive 89/336/EEC on the
approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility. The
manufacturer cannot accept responsibility for any failure to satisfy the protection requirements resulting
from a non-recommended modification of the product.
2
This product has been tested and found to comply with the limits for Class A Information Technology
Equipment according to CISPR 22/European Standard EN 55022. The limits for Class A equipment were
derived for commercial and industrial environments to provide reasonable protection against interference
with licensed communication equipment.
Attention:
This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference in which
case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Statement
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: DESCRIPTION AND REQUIREMENTS.....................................................................................................6
CHAPTER 2: QUICK SET-UP.................................................................................................................................7
CHAPTER 3: FRONT PANEL ..................................................................................................................................8
FRONT PANEL INDICATORS ...............................................................................................................................8
CHAPTER 4: REMOTE MANAGEMENT HTTP AND SNMP .....................................................................................8
UNIT'S IP/MAC ADDRESS...............................................................................................................................8
Automatic Link-Local IP Address.........................................................................................................9
Initial Numeric IP Address....................................................................................................................9
Unknown IP Address Recovery............................................................................................................9
MANAGEMENT PASSWORDS.............................................................................................................................10
SECURITY.....................................................................................................................................................10
HTTP Interface Security.....................................................................................................................10
SNMP Security....................................................................................................................................10
HTTP MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................11
Event Log File.....................................................................................................................................11
Resetting..............................................................................................................................................11
SNMP........................................................................................................................................................11
UPGRADING FIRMWARE..................................................................................................................................11
FEATURE ACTIVATION/UPGRADE.....................................................................................................................12
CHAPTER 5: OPERATING MODES AND CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................12
TELECOM.....................................................................................................................................................12
Clock Source.......................................................................................................................................12
DS3 Circuit ID PMDL........................................................................................................................12
PACKET FLOW..............................................................................................................................................13
Packet Order and Channel Bonding/Aggregation...............................................................................13
PORT TO PORT PACKET FLOW.........................................................................................................................13
LAN-to-LAN.......................................................................................................................................14
Forwarding..........................................................................................................................................14
Loopback.............................................................................................................................................14
LAN PORT SETTINGS....................................................................................................................................14
LAN Port Speed..................................................................................................................................15
Autonegotiation Problems...................................................................................................................15
SFP Second LAN Port........................................................................................................................15
Dedicated Management/Data LAN Ports............................................................................................15
VLAN........................................................................................................................................................15
VOIP / VIDEO OR HIGH-COS PRIORITY FRAMES..............................................................................................16
PORT AUTO-DISABLE AND RETURN-TO-SERVICE DELAY....................................................................................16
DS3/E3 Return to Service delay..........................................................................................................16
LAN Auto-Disable..............................................................................................................................16
CHAPTER 6: INTEROPERABILITY.........................................................................................................................16
LAN..........................................................................................................................................................16
Autonegotiation problems...................................................................................................................17
SFP LAN Port 1..................................................................................................................................17
Pause Frames.......................................................................................................................................17
VoIP / Video or High-CoS Priority Frames........................................................................................17
TELECOM.....................................................................................................................................................17
FIBER/COPPER MEDIA CONVERTERS................................................................................................................17
ROUTERS AND SWITCHES................................................................................................................................18
CHAPTER 7: TELECOM CONNECTIONS.................................................................................................................18
FRAMING AND PHYSICAL LINK ........................................................................................................................18
TELECOM CABLING........................................................................................................................................18
CHAPTER 8: LAN CONNECTIONS AND PERFORMANCE .........................................................................................18
LAN PORTS................................................................................................................................................18
4
AUTONEGOTIATION........................................................................................................................................18
LAN CABLING.............................................................................................................................................19
LAN SEGMENTATION AND PACKET SWITCHING.................................................................................................19
LAN BUFFERING, LOADING AND FLOW CONTROL .............................................................................................19
LAN PACKET PRIORITY................................................................................................................................19
LAN PACKET ORDER...................................................................................................................................19
TCP/IP AND GENERAL PERFORMANCE TUNING ................................................................................................20
CHAPTER 9: DS3 PACKETS AND LINK TOPOLOGY ...............................................................................................20
LINK BIT-ERRORS .........................................................................................................................................20
LINK AGGREGATION......................................................................................................................................20
CHAPTER 10: TROUBLESHOOTING.......................................................................................................................20
GENERAL.....................................................................................................................................................20
LOOPBACK OF DS3.......................................................................................................................................21
Warnings.............................................................................................................................................21
Terminology........................................................................................................................................21
Limitations...........................................................................................................................................21
Alternatives to Loopback....................................................................................................................22
Initiating Loopback.............................................................................................................................22
PERFORMANCE..............................................................................................................................................23
INTEROPERABILITY .........................................................................................................................................23
LABORATORY TESTING...................................................................................................................................23
PINGING.......................................................................................................................................................23
STEP-BY-STEP DIAGNOSIS..............................................................................................................................24
CHAPTER 11: THIRD PARTY COPYRIGHT NOTICES ..............................................................................................25
ECOS LICENSE..............................................................................................................................................25
THE FREEBSD COPYRIGHT ...........................................................................................................................25
THE NET-SNMP COPYRIGHT........................................................................................................................26
THE APACHE LICENSE ...................................................................................................................................27
THE SHA2 COPYRIGHT.................................................................................................................................28
THE BZIP2 LICENSE ....................................................................................................................................28
THE ATHTTPD LICENSE ..............................................................................................................................28
CHAPTER 12: TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS.................................................................................29
5
Chapter 1: Description and Requirements
Chapter 1: Description and Requirements
The E3Switch converters described herein are used in pairs to connect two Ethernet LANs via either one or
two E3 or T3/DS3 links at up to 88Mbit/s actual user data rate per direction. The LAN interface is RJ45
100/1000BaseTX copper or SFP 1000BaseX fiber optic. The telecom link must be point-to-point and may
support either framed or unframed data. The two converters must have an E3 or T3/DS3 link between
them. Reverse topology to bridge an E3 or T3/DS3 data stream over an intermediate IP or Ethernet LAN is
not possible with this product; for that, consult our TDM over Packet documentation.
The converters must be used in pairs. Single-ended operation is not possible, i.e., connecting to a DS3/E3
PPP/HDLC backbone or ISP remote router is not supported.
For ease of installation, the converter does not require a configuration setup and will typically work
immediately upon connection of LAN and telecom cables.
The hot-swappable converter card draws a minimal amount of power and may be purchased in a variety of
chassis. Standalone, single units ship in high-reliability, fan-free 1U chassis with rackmount brackets and
are available in a 100-240VAC or a ±35-75 volt DC models. NEBS-III, redundant-power multicard
chassis are available in 6-slot/1U and 20-slot/3U versions.
Both HTTP and SNMP management of the converters is possible either in-band through the LAN or
telecom ports or out-of-band through either LAN port if the software option to enable the second LAN-SFP
port has been purchased. Firmware shipped prior to June 2007 does not support management.
Remote firmware upgrade to a converter is possible through either the LAN or DS3/E3 connection (for
converters containing firmware shipped after February 2007).
If the dual DS3/E3 option or password upgrade has been purchased, then LAN data is forwarded at twice
the single-DS3/E3 data rate across the link. The converter will monitor the telecom connection status and
automatically switch to an available link should a single DS3/E3 link fail. Firmware shipped after April
2008 has the ability to maintain strict packet order at the receiving end of dual DS3/E3 links if desired and
automatically choose the lowest-latency DS3/E3 path during transmission.
The converter will buffer data, and implements flow-control and quality-of-service mechanisms to eliminate
data loss. This model will not perform MAC address filtering to forward only required packets across the
telecom-speed link.
The converters at each end of the telecom link are identical and each can generate its own DS3/E3 transmit
clock if so configured. There is no master/slave relationship. If spare units are being purchased, only one
rather than two is required since there is not a specific master or slave unit.
The converter will pass all error-free packets unaltered which do not exceed 1650 bytes in length (or 9600
bytes with jumbo-frame upgrade). This included stacked-VLAN, QinQ frames and all modern router
protocols.
The converter has been designed with attention paid to maximum throughput, minimum latency and
minimal packet loss – containing efficient, path-bonding functionality not found in other products. The
converter is often both a cost-effective and bandwidth-efficient alternative to routers. Even when connected
to a LAN port from a router, eliminating a router telecom card can free up expensive, limited, router
backplane bandwidth .
The converter is plug-and-play and can often be installed in several minutes. Network topologies and
configuration settings of equipment connected to the converter can be complex, however, so additional time
should be allocated to achieve a properly functioning system.
6
Chapter 2: Quick Set-up
Chapter 2: Quick Set-up
Attach the converter to a power source. The front panel lights should illuminate. Green is normal; orange
indicates an error.
Attach an Ethernet UTP5 cable from your LAN equipment to the RJ-45 LAN Port 2. The converter can
perform automatic cross-over vs straight-through cable adaptation. The LAN 2 light will change from
orange to green if a properly negotiated link has been established. The network equipment attached to
the LAN port of the converter should be set for autonegotiation mode in order to allow the converter
to negotiate a 100Mbit full-duplex connection. Disabling autonegotiation or using old LAN equipment
may result in the attached LAN equipment configuring to half-duplex mode, resulting in CRC errors and
packet loss. Refer to the interoperability section of this document for more information
Attach two 75-ohm coaxial cables from either Port 1 or 2 BNC connectors of the converter to the input and
output connectors of your E3 or DS3 link. Once each converter is receiving a valid signal from the remote
partner, the DS3/E3 Port LED will change from orange to green. This indicates that the converter has
achieved proper sync lock with the remote converter. A green indicator will only be seen if a remote
E3Switch converter is connected.
Refer to the management chapter of this manual if HTTP or SNMP operating statistics are desired or to
change the default administrator password. Changing the default password is highly recommended to
allow onging configuration changes. When the password has not been changed from default,
configuration changes are prohibited for security reasons after 5 minutes after any new power cycle.
Simply power cycle again to change the password – if the unit is still in your possession and the link is
not passing important data.
There is no further configuration or setup required for the converter.
7
Chapter 3: Front Panel
Chapter 3: Front Panel
Front Panel Indicators
All Indicators:
Green indicates normal operation.
Orange indicates an error condition.
Black indicates a disabled port.
DS3/E3 1/2:
Green if the unit has synchronized to a valid carrier signal pattern from the remote unit and data can
be transferred on the link.
Flashes black each time a packet is received on this port.
Orange indicates no valid connection or loss of receive sync with remote unit.
Flashes orange/green if incoming signal is OK but either looped back or remote unit is not receiving
a valid sync from local unit.
Flashes orange/black if link is OK but waiting in a configured return-to-service delay period.
BER:
Green if OK.
Orange flash for each BPV bit error.
Orange steady for absence of DS3/E3 receive signal, loss of frame lock onto receive bit-stream,
drive-level fault on transmit cable, or excessive receive bit errors.
Note: In a dual DS3/E3 unit, the BER will reflect the status of the operational link if one fails.
LAN1/2:
Green when a properly negotiated 100/1000BaseTX Full-Duplex or SFP LAN connection exists.
Flashes black each time a packet is received on this port.
Orange indicates no valid connection.
Flashes orange/black if in a configured “down if telecom down” mode.
Chapter 4: Remote Management HTTP and SNMP
Converters shipped or upgraded with firmware after March 2007 contain an HTTP management interface.
Converters shipped or upgraded with firmware after June 2007 contain an SNMPv2c agent.
Unit's IP/MAC Address
The source Ethernet MAC address of E3Switch converters is 00:50:C2:6F:xx:xx. The converter's current
IP and MAC addresses are always both shown at the HTTP management screen.
If the unit contains a management interface, as described at the beginning of this chapter, it can be initially
contacted at either its automatic link-local IP address e3switch.local as described below or at its initial
numeric IP address described below. Note that after initial setup, an operator may have changed the contact
IP address to a new value and the initial addresses below may not work. Prior to operator reconfiguration
the unit will respond to HTTP, SNMP and ping requests to its initial IP address.
For initial communication with the converter, it may be necessary to set the network address of the host port
communicating with the converter to 169.254.xxx.xxx with subnet mask 255.255.0.0. For security, routers
are advised not to forward packets with these link-local IP addresses, so a direct connection is advised.
Once initial contact has been established with the HTTP management interface of the converter, the
converter's IP address can be set to a new, static value if desired.
If a unit's operator-configured IP address is lost or forgotten, it can be recovered as described later in this
chapter.
8
Chapter 4: Remote Management HTTP and SNMP
Other than the e3switch.local addresses described below, all IP addresses used within the converter's
management interface must be in xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx numeric format rather than a human-readable DNSresolvable hostname.
Automatic Link-Local IP Address
E3Switch converters are shipped with an initial IP address that conforms to recent zero-configuration linklocal standards. This allows multiple E3Switch converters on the same IP network to initialize with unique
IP addresses without conflict and allows simple ping/HTTP/SNMP access to the converters using
hostnames e3switch.local or e3switch-2.local,... provided that the free ZeroConf mDNS software has been
installed on the machine attempting to communicate with the converter. Do not prefix www. prior to
e3switch.local. www.e3switch.local will not work.
The converters negotiate between themselves to determine which converter is assigned name e3switch.local
and which receives e3switch-2.local and so on. Since the assigned name will not necessarily be fixed to a
particular converter after power cycles, the system manager will probably want to use/set the converter's
numeric IP address sometime during or after initial installation.
Web descriptions are available for ZeroConf mDNS and Link-local IPV4LL ip addresses. Free ZeroConf
software such as Bonjour for Windows or Avahi is available for Windows/Linux/Unix machines.
Initial Numeric IP Address
The converter can also be contacted at its initial default IP numeric address which always takes the form
169.254.aa.bbb. Units shipped after October 20th, 2007 typically have the initial IP address listed on top of
the chassis or can be initially contacted at the IP address above where aa.bbb matches the serial number
listed on the front label. For units shipped prior to November 2007, serial numbers listed on the front label
translate to IP addresses as follows:
● .51.bbb => .51.bbb
● .15.bbb => .49.bbb
● IP3.bbb => 51.bbb
● B2hh6 => .50.bbb where bbb is the base10 decimal version of the base16 hexadecimal number hh.
The converter's current IP and MAC addresses are both shown at the HTTP management screen.
Unknown IP Address Recovery
The following methods may be used to determine a converter's IP address if lost or forgotten. Note that
once determined, management communication may only be possible from the same IP network if the
converter's default router address is invalid.
For firmware dated July 9th, 2008 or later, unplug all LAN and BNC cables from the converter and power
cycle the unit. 30 seconds after powerup, the converter will begin blinking out its IP address on the leftmost
LED. Each digit is counted up as an orange blink with a pause between digits and a short blink for a 0. A
decimal in the IP address is indicated with a green blink. For example, <orange><orange><pause><shortorange><pause><green>... would be an IP address that begins “20.”
For earlier firmware or those with access to packet sniffers, upon powerup, the converter will broadcast
several gratuitous ARP packets on its network ports which can be examined with a sniffer or packet
monitoring software to determine a unit's IP address. The source Ethernet MAC address of such packets
and E3Switch converters is 00:50:C2:6F:xx:xx. Tcpdump or Wireshark are two readily available software
packages to examine network packets.
Additionally, examination of the MAC address table of an attached LAN switch or router may provide the
IP address if the E3Switch MAC address prefix (00:50:C2:6F:xx:xx) can be located.
9
Chapter 4: Remote Management HTTP and SNMP
Management Passwords
Note: In order to log in with Internet Explorer 7+ or if difficulty occurs when logging in with credentials
known to be valid, firmware prior to October 18th, 2007 must be upgraded to ameliorate a new feature
present in IE7 authentication messages. This is also the case with some versions of Opera. Contact the
factory for an upgrade or attempt to login with FireFox, Mozilla, or a browser earlier than IE7+ for
immediate resolution.
The HTTP management statistics page is initially accessible without a password. The HTTP settings page
is initially accessible within the first several minutes after powerup with username admin and no password.
If the unit has not had its default password changed, after several minutes the settings page will be locked
for security reasons. It is desirable to change the default password of the unit. For security reasons,
changing the default password of the unit must be done within the first several minutes of powerup. If the
HTTP management password is lost or forgotten, it may be reset by accessing the HTTP management
settings within the first minute after powerup and with no BNC cables attached to the unit.
SNMP statistics may initially be accessed using the read-only community name public. Write-community
names and variable access authorization may be set through the HTTP management interface.
Security
Please also refer to the password section above.
HTTP Interface Security
Access to the HTTP management interface statistics and settings pages can be selectively limited to users
knowing the HTTP management password, which is transmitted securely on the network using MD5
encoding. New values of management settings, or modifications of the administrator password are not
encrypted and are visible to users monitoring network packets, as is statistical data requested by an MD5
authorized user or any information visible on a HTTP page.
When logging out from any secure webpage, the browser window should always be closed! Browsers
typically continue to send administrator credentials continuously even after apparent logout.
SNMP Security
The converter implements SNMPv2c, which is inherently an insecure protocol; however, the converter
enhances security by implementing view-based access management (VACM), which can restrict read or
write access to specific management settings and statistics. When shipped, the converter allows read access
to “safe” SNMP statistics and prohibits read and write access to statistics and settings which could allow
determination of network topology or interfere with normal link traffic. The VACM configuration can be
updated through the HTTP management interface to meet the user's needs, and most SNMP variables can
also be set through the HTTP management interface in a more secure manner than SNMP allows.
– SNMP VACM Security Warning –
As shipped, the default “safe_ro_view” is secure but not private.
View based access model VACM for SNMPv2c provides good restriction
of access to only specified statistics but no data privacy and
minimal user authentication. When a specific variable is enabled
for reading or writing, from a security perspective it should
be considered either public for reading or public for writing.
Alternatively, most configuration parameters can be set through
the HTTP password-protected interface which is secure.
Viewing snmpd.conf exposes it and community names to visibility by
3rd party network sniffers. All SNMPv2c data on the network
is visible. All community names can be "guessed" and, when used,
become visible to sniffers. Source IP addresses of requests
can be forged. Enabling a write community should be considered
insecure with respect to the specific view variables enabled.
10
Chapter 4: Remote Management HTTP and SNMP
Variables in the groups: interface, ds3, dot3 & mau, control the
link datapath; allowing write access allows disabling the link.
Specific variables disabled for all write users are secure.
Specific statistics disabled for all read users are invisible
and secure.
HTTP Management
The converter contains a comprehensive, user-friendly HTTP management interface which allows a
manager to monitor bit-error-rates on the DS3/E3 link, lost packets, and user-friendly status messages at a
single, color-coded HTTP screen. A screenshot is available at www.e3switch.com. Most settings that can
be modified via SNMP can also be set through the HTTP interface in a more user-friendly manner.
Refer to the configuration section of this document for guidance on specific settings.
Event Log File
A timestamped log of operating status and events may be accessed at the HTTP management administration
page.
Resetting
Two options for resetting the converter may be accomplished at the HTTP management administration
page. A management software reset will reset counters, statistics, MIB variables, and management software
of the converter without interrupting data flow across the link. A hardware reset will temporarily interrupt
link data flow as if the converter had experienced a power cycle. A hardware reset is only possible with
hardware version 5.4 or greater and firmware since July 29th, 2008 as shown at the HTTP management
screen or SNMP sysDescr variable. For new functionality to take effect, a hardware reset is required after
upgrading firmware but need not be initiated immediately. A software reset is not appropriate after
upgrading firmware, as only the management CPU would be reset while the packet transfer CPU would be
operating with the older, incompatible version of firmware.
SNMP
The converter contains an SNMP agent which can respond to version 1 and version 2c requests for network
statistics from remote SNMP clients. The agent can also generate notifications of important network events
such as when network ports go up/down or experience high error rates. These trap notifications can be sent
to multiple hosts if desired, and using free or commercial software, the receiving hosts can log the
notifications or even generate email or pager messages for network managers.
SNMPv2c is inherently an insecure protocol, so the converter implements VACM to restrict access to
“safe” statistics and settings. Please refer to the security discussion section of this document.
SNMP configuration of various parameters such as community names and trap destinations is accessed
through the HTTP management interface and is implemented as a configuration file having an snmpd.conf
structure. Snmpd.conf is described by third parties in publicly available documents.
Statistics and settings accessible via SNMP are called MIB-variables and are organized in a hierarchical
tree topology. The MIB variable trees implemented by the converter include recent versions of the DS3/E3,
interface, MAU, dot3, and many of the typical IP-network MIB trees. The full list of MIB trees available is
listed by viewing the system.sysORTable of the converter. As mentioned earlier, access to certain trees or
variables is initially disabled for security reasons, but can be set as the user wishes through the VACM
settings. The converter can typically return 1000 MIB variables per second in bulk requests and support
SNMP response message sizes up to 5000 bytes.
Upgrading Firmware
For activation of additional capabilities of the converter, see the “Feature Activation” section. Feature
upgrades do not necessarily require a firmware upgrade.
11
Chapter 4: Remote Management HTTP and SNMP
Firmware upgrades may be transferred to the converter via the LAN port (or DS3/E3 port, if management of
the remote converter is enabled). A hardware reset, which will interrupt link data flow for several seconds,
will be required at some point after the transfer in order to begin using the new firmware. Instructions for
performing the TFTP transfer are included with all firmware shipments. The most common source of
problems when performing upgrades is attempting a TFTP transfer in ASCII or text mode rather than binary
or image mode, resulting in a “too large” or “out of room” type TFTP error.
Feature Activation/Upgrade
For activation of additional capabilities of the converter after initial purchase, supply the factory with the
serial number from the front of your converter (also shown at the HTTP management page for recent
firmware) and purchase an alphanumeric “factory upgrade key” which is entered at the HTTP management
screen.
Chapter 5: Operating Modes and Configuration
Telecom
There are five, low-level configuration settings for telecom ports; though, typically, the default settings are
appropriate:
● E3 vs DS3
● cable length (for long DS3 runs only)
● M13 vs C-Bit (for DS3 only)
● Circuit ID message (for C-Bit only)
● Transmit clock source
Use a “DS3” configuration setting for North America, Japan, and South Korea; otherwise, “E3” speed.
The cable length setting will transmit a slightly stronger signal on long DS3 coax runs. The M13/C-Bit
setting sets the AIC bit in DS3 frames to either 0 or 1. This bit is typically ignored by the DS3 carrier;
however DS3 carrier equipment set to autosense the incoming DS3 framing type will need this setting to be
correct.
Clock Source
The transmit clock source is typically “local” for both units. Certain DS3/E3 carrier equipment or optical
converters require the same transmit clock in each direction; this may manifest itself as frame-slip errors. In
such a case, set one unit to “loop” clock source. In very rare cases the carrier DS3/E3 equipment will
generate the clock for the entire path, and each unit should be set to “loop”. Setting both units to “loop” is
typically inappropriate and can result in transmission failure if a master clock is not being generated by
carrier equipment. Without a master clock, two units set in “loop” mode will wander to an unspecified
clock speed, which is unlikely to meet DS3/E3 specifications.
Dual-channel DS3/E3 units allow Port 2 transmit clock speed to be derived from incoming Port 1 clock
speed. This is an uncommon configuration requirement and should typically be avoided.
In the event of incoming clock loss, the transmit clock will automatically switch to a locally generated
DS3/E3 clock source.
The receive clock speeds are shown at the bottom of the unit's HTTP management statistics page to assist
timing diagnosis.
DS3 Circuit ID PMDL
Firmware since November 2009 allows DS3 Path Maintenance Data Link (PMDL) identification messages
associated with C-Bit framed DS3 links to be received and transmitted if desired. Circuit ID messages
convey human-readable, configurable, physical location information of the DS3 source equipment. These
12
Chapter 5: Operating Modes and Configuration
messages are transmitted in the C-Bits of the frame and do not decrease bandwidth available for data.
PMDL Circuit ID messages facilitate confirmation of the data source when presented with a pair of
unlabeled BNC cables.
Packet Flow
Packet Order and Channel Bonding/Aggregation
On single-telecom converters, LAN packet delivery order is guaranteed with the exception that high-priority
802.1p CoS packets may by transmitted before lower priority packets. The remainder of this section applies
to dual-telecom units only.
Dual DS3/E3 converters have three settings available for DS3/E3 utilization:
● Failover
● Load-Balancing
● Bonded (in firmware beginning March 2008)
Failover mode utilizes only one DS3/E3 channel and transmits only sync signals on the other DS3/E3
channel unless the first fails. This setting is generally not useful, as the other two settings will also revert to
a single operational channel if either fails.
The next two modes determine packet order preservation. While traveling across dual telecom links, packet
ordering can be lost as short packets arrive on one path before longer packets on the other or if telecom path
lengths differ. As an aside, to reduce latency, E3Switch converters dynamically compute telecom path
delays and attempt to use the shorter path first.
“Bonded” mode guarantees packet delivery order is preserved, although high-CoS traffic will bypass lowCoS traffic. In “load-balancing” configuration, or for firmware shipped before March 2008, packet order is
generally maintained but not guaranteed.
The optimum settings for bandwidth, latency performance or data integrity is often determined only by
trying each setting in the field. “Bonded” is preferred from a data-integrity and interoperability standpoint;
however, “load-balancing” mode will generally deliver packets to their final destination faster, especially
for very high traffic loads of consistently small packets (<128 bytes).
Link aggregation (bonding) of the telecom channels allows packets to be delivered to the remote converter's
LAN port in the same order in which they were presented to the local converter's incoming LAN port. The
E3Switch converters do this in a highly efficient manner which allows full bandwidth of both telecom
channels to be utilized. 802.3ad link aggregation is not used and is a less efficient protocol which would
segregate specific “conversations” to specific telecom links, leaving the bandwidth of the second path
unavailable for utilization by a particular “conversation.”
Maintaining strict packet order can sometimes be detrimental. The TCP protocol already has some ability
to assemble incoming packets in their correct order. In such a case, waiting to deliver packet number three
until packet two has arrived at the converter simply introduces additional latency. If a packet is lost, this
latency can grow larger until the loss is recognized. E3Switch converters have the ability to immediately
recognize packet loss if successive packets are received from the same telecom channel, and in the worst
case will not delay longer than 10ms waiting for a missing packet. Maximum packet-per-second forwarding
rates can also be impacted if the bonding mode is required to re-order packets which are consistently < 128
bytes in length.
Maintaining packet order is most useful for non-TCP traffic such as financial UDP data where some
expectation may exist for the data to arrive in the correct order.
Port to Port Packet Flow
Packets typically pass between LAN and telecom ports and are typically not filtered by MAC address.
13
Chapter 5: Operating Modes and Configuration
Packets arriving at one telecom port will not be passed out the other, so it is not possible to use one dualchannel converter in a 3-unit topology at the junction of a Y or V; use two converters at such a junction
with a LAN switch or router to properly control traffic flow to the branches of such a topology.
LAN-to-LAN
LAN-to-LAN packet flow can be enabled, if desired, in units where the second SFP/LAN port has been
enabled/purchased. LAN-to-LAN unidirectional flow for monitoring may also be configured if desired.
LAN-to-LAN flow can result in dropped packets if the destination LAN port bandwidth setting is too low.
An example would be 2x 44Mbit/s traffic from a dual-DS3 and > 12Mbit/s traffic from the other LAN port
exceeding 100Mbit/s of a 100Base-TX LAN port which was receiving both DS3 and LAN-to-LAN traffic.
The unit will attempt to preserve incoming DS3/E3 packets while dropping LAN-to-LAN packets in such
an instance.
LAN-to-LAN should be used cautiously in combination with management or data-only LAN port settings.
The blocking of a subset of traffic can result in network and spanning tree topologies which can be
inappropriate or difficult to diagnose.
Forwarding
Certain packets are not forwarded. Management unicast packets destined for the local unit are not
forwarded. Dual-LAN units can be configured for management-only LAN ports which will drop incoming
unicast packets not destined for an E3Switch MAC address. Spanning-tree packets are passed transparently
between LAN and DS3/E3 ports, but not necessarily between LAN and LAN ports.
Loopback
Packet flow from DS3 ports to LAN can be configured to automatically halt in certain situations in which
the converter is receiving loopback data. This prevents attached LAN equipment from becoming confused
or disabling ports when it receives packets containing a source-MAC-addresses identical to its own, unique
source address. For firmware shipping since August 5th, 2009, any DS3/E3 loopback can be detected. For
firmware prior to August 5th, 2009, the automatic loopback traffic disable will only occur if the local
converter has requested the remote to loopback. This occurs when an SNMP request sets the local
converter dsx3SendCode variable to dsx3SendLineCode, which requests the remote converter to loopback
DS3 data received. DS3 loopback initiated by the carrier or any source other than described above cannot
be recognized as loopback data and the setting described will be irrelevant.
LAN Port Settings
The hardware for two LAN ports exist on all converters shipped; however, entry-level models ship with
only the RJ-45 100Base-TX mode enabled. See upgrades section of this manual to enable these additional
features if required:.
●
●
●
●
GbE, GigE 1000Base-T for the RJ-45 LAN port2.
Jumbo frames (9600 bytes).
SFP LAN Port 1 which can accept optical or copper (100/1000) SFP transceivers.
If SFP port has been enabled, either LAN port can be configured as a dedicated out-of-band
management port if desired.
See the “Interoperability” section of this manual for information on packet lengths and detailed port
connection/autonegotiation discussion.
The autonegotiation mode of the converter must match the autonegotiation mode of attached LAN
equipment. If autonegotiation is enabled on the converter it must be enabled on the attached equipment. If
disabled on the converter, it must be disabled on the attached equipment. This requirement is necessary to
fulfill 802.3 standards which mandate a fallback to half-duplex operation if an autonegotiation mismatch
exists. The converters require full duplex to operate.
14
Chapter 5: Operating Modes and Configuration
LAN Port Speed
1000Mbit/s LAN speeds are only available if firmware enabling the SFP port option or GbE LAN has been
purchased.
100Mbit/s is generally preferred over 1000Mbit/s, which generates significantly more power-requirements,
heat, and radiated noise even in the absence of packet flow. 1000Mbit/s may slightly reduce path latency,
as an incoming LAN packet must be fully received before being forwarded to an outgoing port. The latency
savings to receive or transmit a 1500-byte packet at 1000Mbit/s vs 100Mbit/s speed is 0.108 milliseconds
(1500bytes/packet x 8bits/byte / (100Mbits/s) - 1500bytes/packet x 8bits/byte / (1000Mbits/s)).
1000Mbit/s LAN port speed may be desireable when one LAN port is configured to monitor the other LAN
port in addition to receiving incoming DS3/E3 data. In such a case, the data rate that the LAN port is
expected to transmit (the sum of all ports that could be a data source for the LAN port) may be greater than
100Mbit/s. The HTTP management statistics screen will show overflow errors if a port's data rates are
exceeded.
Setting more than one LAN port to 1000Mbit/s is not recommended and may result in
underflow/overflow errors in certain high packet load, memory-intensive cases.
Autonegotiation Problems
There are rare cases with older LAN equipment in which it may be necessary to disable autonegotiation. If
crc-errors or short packet errors are seen in the management statistics of the LAN port, the attached LAN
equipment has probably configured itself to half-duplex mode and colliding packets are being lost. In such
a case, autonegotiation should be disabled on both the converter and the attached LAN equipment, with
both forced to 100BaseTX full-duplex. Autonegotiation interoperability and standards were not well
understood by the industry at the inception of 100BaseTX, resulting in some older LAN equipment not
understanding the converter's autonegotiation advertisement of strictly full-duplex capability.
SFP Second LAN Port
The SFP LAN Port 1 hardware exists on all converters shipped and may be enabled as purchased or enabled
by purchasing an upgrade password. This upgrade enables out-of-band management, through either LAN
port, or fiber-optic LAN connections of 10km or more. Refer to interoperability section of this document
for compatible SFP transceivers.
Dedicated Management/Data LAN Ports
If the SFP Second LAN Port has been purchased and enabled, then either LAN port may be configured to
pass all packets to DS3/E3 or, selectively, to pass only management or only data packets when such can be
determined.
LAN-to-LAN forwarding should be used cautiously in combination with management or data-only LAN
port settings. The blocking of a subset of traffic can result in network and spanning tree topologies which
can be inappropriate or difficult to diagnose.
If a LAN port is configured for data-only packets, the unit will drop incoming management packets destined
for an E3Switch MAC address. This provides a moderate level of security. These packets and
management broadcast/multicast packets may not be forwarded to the second LAN if LAN-to-LAN traffic
is configured.
If a LAN port is configured for management-only packets, the unit will not forward, to the DS3/E3, unicast
packets destined for non-E3Switch MAC addresses. Broadcast and multicast packets will be forwarded.
LAN-to-LAN forwarding may occur if so configured.
VLAN
The converter passes all VLAN information, unaltered, between ports. VLAN configuration settings shown
at the HTTP management page apply only to communication with the converter's management entity.
15
Chapter 5: Operating Modes and Configuration
As shipped, the unit will accept management packets with any VLAN tags and attempt to respond to the
same. For more robust performance, specific VLAN tag settings can be configured. These settings only
apply to packets to and from the converter's management entity. VLAN tags in packets destined for the
DS3/E3 link are passed unaltered.
VoIP / Video or High-CoS Priority Frames
Receive queue space is reserved in the converter to allow frames with high 802.1p class-of-service (CoS)
priority settings to bypass existing frames waiting to be transmitted to the DS3/E3. This allows voice, video
and other high-priority traffic to experience low-latency transmission. Firmware shipped since July 2008
allows the “high” CoS level to be configured. Most VoIP traffic is tagged at CoS 5 or 6, so level 5 is
typically a good setting for the high-CoS value. Prior firmware has the fixed, high-CoS level set at >=6.
On such units, CoS can often be set/confirmed at 6 on the source VoIP equipment.
Port Auto-Disable and Return-to-Service Delay
In addition to manually configuring a port as disabled, the converter has the ability to delay a DS3/E3 port's
return to service for a specified period of time after it has failed or disable a LAN port if both telecom links
are down.
DS3/E3 Return to Service delay
The return-to-service delay prevents network topology thrashing if a telecom link is flapping up and down.
If the telecom link is the only path to the remote network, the return-to-service delay should probably be set
to 0. During the time that a telecom port is in a return-to-service delay, management packets will continue
to flow across the telecom link in order to allow management of the remote converter.
Some telecom carriers will interrupt service for 50msec, once per day as a link test. Firmware shipping
since August, 2010 has a configurable, failure-time setting to prevent such tests from triggering a linkdown, retun-to-service delay.
To exit the return-to-service delay, power-cycle the converter or click the button which appears on the
configuration HTTP screen of a converter that is in configuration delay.
LAN Auto-Disable
The LAN port can be configured to automatically disable itself when no telecom link exists. This setting is
useful for attached LAN equipment which requires the LAN port to go down in order to understand that the
path to the remote network is no longer available. Use this setting cautiously, as management of the
converter will also no longer be possible through a disabled LAN port.
To exit the LAN-port-disabled condition, power-cycle the converter, which will allow communication with
the converter for approximately one minute even if telecom ports are down.
Chapter 6: Interoperability
LAN
The LAN ports of the converter support, at a minimum, all 100BaseTX Full-Duplex Ethernet connections
up to maximum line lengths and are set to auto-MDI/MDIX to automatically detect/correct crossover vs
straight LAN cable and autonegotiate for full-duplex and pause frame modes with the attached LAN
equipment. Passwords may be purchased to upgrade to enhanced LAN port modes as described elsewhere
in this manual.
The converter will pass all unerrored packets which do not exceed 1650 bytes in packet length (9600 with
jumbo frames enabled). This length allows QinQ, stacked VLAN, and extended packet-length router
protocols to be passed without concern. The management agent accepts and responds with packets having
MTU of 1350 bytes in order to automatically allow room for security protocol overheads.
16
Chapter 6: Interoperability
If LAN equipment appears to disable a port connected to the converter, be aware that “sophisticated”
routers and switches will often disable a LAN port if data being sent appears similar to data or MAC
addresses being received, as is the case in telecom loopback.
Autonegotiation problems
There are rare cases with older LAN equipment in which it may be necessary to disable autonegotiation. If
crc-errors or short packet errors are seen in the management statistics of the LAN port, the attached LAN
equipment has probably configured itself to half-duplex mode and colliding packets are being lost. In such
a case, autonegotiation should be disabled on both the converter and the attached LAN equipment with both
forced to 100BaseTX full-duplex. Autonegotiation interoperability and standards were not well understood
by the industry at the inception of 100BaseTX, resulting in some older LAN equipment not understanding
the converter's autonegotiation advertisement of strictly full-duplex capability.
It is highly desireable to leave autonegotiation enabled so that changing attached LAN equipment does not
result in the new equipment defaulting to half-duplex if set to autonegotiate.
SFP LAN Port 1
This port is designed to be compatible with inexpensive, high-quality, copper or fiber-optic, SFP
transceivers from Finisar, which allows LAN connections of 10km or more. Most other industry-standard
SFP transceivers will work as well; however, fiber-optic features such as temperature and optical
transmit/receive power and alarms will only be available if using Finisar transceivers. Non-Finisar copper,
RJ45 SFP transceivers may only operate in 1000Base-T mode, while recommended transceivers from
Finisar, and possibly Avago or 3Com will operate in 100Base-TX mode as well.
Pause Frames
Unless disabled in the settings or through autonegotiation, the converter sends pause command frames to
attached LAN equipment when the converter's incoming LAN buffers become nearly full. The converter
ignores pause command frames sent to it.
VoIP / Video or High-CoS Priority Frames
Receive queue space is reserved in the converter to allow frames with high 802.1p class-of-service (CoS)
priority settings to bypass existing frames waiting to be transmitted to the DS3/E3. This allows voice, video
and other high-priority traffic to experience low-latency transmission. Firmware shipped since July 2008
allows the “high” CoS level to be configured. Prior firmware has the high-CoS level set at >=6.
Telecom
The converter can transmit over a variety of E3 or T3/DS3 links (with appropriate media converters) such
as fiber optic, microwave radio, laser, copper, satellite, or a combination; however, the attachment interface
is always via 75-ohm copper coaxial rather than optical. The point-to-point telecom link must be
unchannelized, i.e., not subdivided into T1 or E1 channels. The telecom link may be either framed or
unframed and supports both M13, M23, clear-channel, C-Bit, and G.751 framing. C-Bit framing is
suggested for DS3 links.
Be aware that during loopback testing, “sophisticated” routers and switches will often disable a LAN port if
data being sent appears similar to data or MAC addresses being received. This can cause confusion.
Fiber/Copper Media Converters
Transition Networks DS3/E3 Coax to Fiber Media Converter, SCSCF3014-100 has been reported to lack
the ability to properly maintain separate DS3/E3 transmit clock speeds in each direction and are not
recommended. This problem typically manifests itself as frame slips or loss of telecom signal lock in one
direction at a rapid, consistent periodic rate, which is proportional to the difference in clock speeds of each
telecom direction. If such media converters are already in use, setting the DS3/E3 transmit clock source of
one of the E3Switch units to “loop” may alleviate problems.
17
Chapter 6: Interoperability
Routers and Switches
Be aware that during DS3/E3 loopback testing, “sophisticated” routers and switches will often disable a
LAN port if data being sent appears similar to data or MAC addresses being received. This can cause
confusion.
Chapter 7: Telecom Connections
Framing and Physical Link
The converter can transmit the LAN data over a variety of E3, T3/DS3 links (with the appropriate media
converter) such as fiber optic, microwave radio, laser, copper, satellite, or a combination. The converter
may be used with a standard (i.e., M13, M23, clear-channel, C-Bit or G.751) framed or unframed, E3 or
T3/DS3 link with AMI and HDB3 or B3ZS encoding. The link must be unchannelized, i.e., not subdivided
into T1/E1 channels. C-Bit framing is recommended for DS3 links. Newer firmware supports PMDL
Circuit ID on C-Bit links.
Each converter generates the timing clock of its transmitted bit-stream, within E3 and T3/DS3 standards,
either locally, or locked to either port's received bit-rate. The incoming clock rates are displayed at the
unit's HTTP management page.
Telecom Cabling
For the E3 or T3/DS3 connection, two 75-ohm coaxial cables (one transmit and one receive) with BNC
connectors are required at each end. It is important that 75-ohm cable be used and not 50-ohm cable. For
long connections or in electrically noisy environments it may be important to use a high-quality 75-ohm
cable which will have more consistent shielding and conduction. The maximum length of each cable shall
be 440 meters for E3 or 300 meters for T3/DS3, but the acceptable cable lengths of equipment attached to
the converter must be met as well. For lengths over 135 meters, testing in field should be used to determine
whether bit error rates are acceptable. Long cable lengths also require careful selection of cable type and
attention to sources of external noise.
Third-party fiber to copper media converters can be used with the E3Switch converter to implement fiberoptic DS3/E3 links; however, refer to the interoperability section of this document for vendors to avoid.
Chapter 8: LAN Connections and Performance
LAN Ports
Each LAN port implements the following features to maximize LAN compatibility and link utilization and
minimize packet loss:
• Autosense/Autoconfiguration/Autonegotiation with the attached LAN.
• 100Mbit/sec data rates (1000Mbit/s if SFP or GbE upgrade purchased).
• Full-duplex LAN connection.
• Data buffering.
• Upstream pause-frame flow-control messaging.
• Quality of service high-priority queuing.
• 1650-byte packet acceptance (1350 for mgmt and 9600 for jumbo).
These features and their ramifications are discussed below in more detail.
Autonegotiation
The network equipment attached to the LAN port of the converter should be set for autonegotiation
mode in order to allow the converter to negotiate a 100Mbit full-duplex connection.
18
Chapter 8: LAN Connections and Performance
There are rare cases with older LAN equipment in which it may be necessary to disable autonegotiation. If
crc-errors or short packet errors are seen in the management statistics of the LAN port, the attached LAN
equipment has probably configured itself to half-duplex mode and colliding packets are being lost. In such
a case, autonegotiation should be disabled on both the converter and the attached LAN equipment, with
both forced to 100BaseTX full-duplex. Autonegotiation interoperability and standards were not well
understood by the industry at the inception of 100BaseTX, resulting in some older LAN equipment not
understanding the converter's autonegotiation advertisement of strictly full-duplex capability.
It is highly desireable to leave autonegotiation enabled so that changing attached LAN equipment does not
result in the new equipment defaulting to half-duplex if set to autonegotiate. Autonegotiation must always
be enabled for 1000Mbit/s links.
LAN Cabling
It is important to use the correct cabling for proper operation. Use UTP Category 5 network cable with RJ45 connectors for the LAN ports, and do not exceed 100 meters (328 feet) in length. Either a straightthrough or crossover cable may be used.
LAN Segmentation and Packet Switching
This converter does not perform MAC address filtering. This reduces system latency by removing two
steps of filtering that have already been performed by attached routers or switches.
LAN Buffering, Loading and Flow Control
This converter contains approximately 500kBytes of total packet buffer. Queue utilization can be
monitored at the converter's statistics HTTP page, and buffer overflow will appear as “Rx oflow” errors at
the same HTTP page.
If the converter's packet memory begins to fill up, the converter applies flow control techniques to the
machines connected to its LANs rather than simply dropping incoming packets. For connected
100/1000BaseTX LANs the converter uses 802.3x flow control. Flow control creates a much more
efficient network by avoiding time-out requirements for packets that would otherwise be dropped during
bursts of network traffic.
Unless disabled in the settings or during autonegotiation, the converter will transmit pause frames to
attached LAN equipment when its buffer has reached approximately 60% capacity. During autonegotiation,
the converter indicates to the attached equipment that it will ignore received pause frames. It would be
unlikely that such frames would be useful as the maximum data rate transmitted by the 100Mbit/s LAN port
of the converter is less than the incoming DS3 rate.
If overflow errors appear for a 1000Mbit/s port at the statistics management page of the converter, confirm
that the pause packet counter shown there is incrementing and that the attached LAN equipment can accept
pause packets. If the overflow errors disappear when the LAN port speed is reduced to 100Mbit/s, it is
possible that the attached LAN equipment is not receiving pause packets in time to interrupt large
1000Mbit/s traffic bursts. It may be necessary to operate at 100Mbit/s in this case, if packet loss during
bursts is unacceptable.
LAN Packet Priority
LAN packets may optionally contain class of service (CoS) information (802.1p information), which may
be used to specify packets that are time critical. Queue space is reserved in the converter to allow frames
with a “high” 802.1p CoS priority setting (configurable in firmware beginning July 2008 or >=6 on older
firmware) to bypass existing frames waiting to be transmitted to the DS3/E3. This allows voice and other
high-priority traffic to experience low-latency transmission.
LAN Packet Order
On single-telecom converters, LAN packets order is guaranteed with the exception that high-priority 802.1p
CoS packets may be transmitted before lower priority packets. On dual-DS3/E3 converters, packet
19
Chapter 8: LAN Connections and Performance
reassembly order is guaranteed (with bypass of high-CoS traffic) if configured in “bonded” mode (on
firmware beginning March 2008). For “load-balance” configuration, or on firmware shipped before March
2008, packet order is generally maintained but not guaranteed. Refer to the configuration section of this
document for further discussion.
TCP/IP and General Performance Tuning
In a TCP/IP environment, maximum performance across the E3, T3/DS3 link will be achieved by adjusting
TCP/IP communication parameters of all LAN equipment attached to the converter including equipment
attached indirectly via hubs, switches or bridges. It should be possible to achieve TCP/IP transfer rates
within 5% of the theoretical maximum of 44Mbit/s for T3/DS3 or 34 Mbit/s for E3. The most important
parameter to adjust for maximum performance is the TCP window size. A valuable TCP/IP performance
testing tool called IPERF or JPERF (graphical version) and many excellent documents for setting TCP
parameters are available online.
Dual-DS3/E3 converters will experience different throughput and latency if the “Port Bonding” parameter
is configured as “Bonded” vs “Load Balancing”. Refer to the operating modes and configuration section of
this document for more information.
Chapter 9: DS3 Packets and Link Topology
Link Bit-Errors
The converters at each end of the link will maintain synchronization with each other even at very high DS3
bit-error rates. The converter will count and drop packets with FCS/CRC and length errors.
Link Aggregation
Refer to the configuration section of this document for a thorough discussion.
Chapter 10: Troubleshooting
General
A great deal of diagnostic information is available by accessing the HTTP management interface of the
converter. Refer to the management section of this document for additional information.
The converter's front panel lights can provide useful information but are often under-utilized. They are
simple to read and can indicate where a data connection is being lost. It can be very helpful to learn their
meaning and monitor flashes as a packet is received at each port.
Incoming Circuit ID is shown at the top of the converter's HTTP management page for C-Bit DS3 links,
facilitating confirmation of the remote data transmitter when presented with a pair of unlabeled BNC cables.
The Ethernet networks to which the converter connects are complex and may contain thousands of devices,
each of which requires proper configuration and performance. As such, network configuration and
topology issues dominate when problems arise. When troubleshooting, solutions can be reached more
rapidly by remembering that the most frequent cause of problems arises from improper network
configurations.
The next most frequent source of problems can arise from the E3, T3/DS3 link configurations or faults – in
other words, the microwave radio or fiber optic link or the interface and associated configuration settings
between such equipment and the converter. It is important that the telecom link is operating in
unchannelized mode and that the circuit provider has not mixed C-Bit with M13 or auto-detect framing
among the various intermediate pieces of equipment.
20
Chapter 10: Troubleshooting
The next most frequent source of problems generally arises from faulty cabling or connectors or incorrect
cable type. Cabling must be UTP5 or better for LAN and 75-Ohm rather than 50-Ohm for telecom. If long
telecom cable runs or an electrically noisy environment exists, high-quality coaxial cable will be required.
The least frequent cause of problems will be the hardware of the converter itself. This statement is not due
to a narcissistic point of view, but rather to the simplicity of configuration features on the converter and the
low-component count. A microwave radio link, for example, has waveguides that can fill with water,
antennas that can become misaligned, foreign objects that can block the path. From a failure point of view,
the converter is a simpler device.
Loopback of DS3
The converters have the ability to loopback DS3 data in several ways, including responding to SNMP
requests and responding to FEAC loopback requests from intermediate carrier equipment. Remote loopback
is supported. Local loopback is not implemented – being of limited utility.
Warnings
•
•
•
The LAN port may become inoperable/inaccessible once loopback testing is initiated.
“Sophisticated” switches and routers monitor incoming LAN MAC addresses, and when an
incoming address matches the outgoing address being sent (as in the case of loopback), the
switch or router will often disable the LAN port as a flood-prevention measure. This can
result in an inability to further access the converter through the switch or router.
The local converter's configuration setting will affect whether LAN packets sent to the DS3
are returned to the LAN during DS3 loopback. At the web screen settings of the converter,
refer to the “Packet Flow” section and the “Loopback: Disable to LAN Port...traffic when
loopback detected” setting.
A remote converter that has been put into loopback mode will no longer be accessible for
management across the DS3 until a FEAC Reset code is sent on a C-Bit-framed DS3 link.
Terminology
•
•
•
Remote Loopback: A DS3 signal received at the “In” port of the converter is duplicated onto
the converter's “Out” port. In this case the DS3 signal has traversed the entire link in both
directions.
Local Loopback: The DS3 signal being sent at the converter's “Out” port is duplicated in
internal circuitry as if it is also being received at the “In” port.
FEAC Loopback Request: FEAC command bits in a C-Bit-framed DS3 can instruct equipment
receiving the DS3 signal to enter or leave remote loopback.
Limitations
Loopback is typically not the best way to diagnose or confirm a DS3 connection and can be misleading.
Typically, the web management screen or SNMP interface of the converter provides a less misleading and
more informative, sophisticated, detailed and user-friendly mechanism than a loopback test. Loopback
testing is most useful for a carrier who has few other tools at their disposal and simply wants to see if
sending a FEAC loopback request to something at the end of the line results in a loopback signal initiation.
The carrier, however, doesn't even know if they are actually connected to an E3Switch unit in such a case –
whether the loopback succeeds or fails.
•
•
Remote Loopback: A carrier or test equipment requesting loopback of a remote device does
not know what device they are connected to. The loopback may succeed or fail, but the
carrier may not even be on the correct DS3 line. Little information is gained. If the carrier is
receiving the E3Switch's PMDL ID signal, then the carrier has a better idea that they are on
the correct receive DS3 line, but is the converter connected to the correct DS3 cable in the
other direction? This can be better determined by examining the receive signal of the web
status screen, including the PMDL section, of the remote converter.
Local Loopback: This would mainly diagnose a broken receive DS3 path on the local
converter board. Such failures are extremely rare. A much better test would be a physical
21
Chapter 10: Troubleshooting
•
local loopback using a short DS3 cable, since connectors and cables are a much more likely
source of problems. Local loopback can also often result in LAN equipment attached to the
converter to immediately disable the LAN port as a flood-prevention measure.
FEAC Loopback Requests: All intermediate equipment on the DS3 path and the converter
must be in C-Bit mode for a FEAC request to be forwarded and acted upon.
Alternatives to Loopback
Loopback is not typically the best way to diagnose or confirm a DS3 connection. Here are some
alternatives:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Web Management: User-friendly status messages will appear at the top of the converter's web
management status page. Errors are highlighted in orange. Sophisticated error detection
status, such as frame-slip, is only available through this interface mechanism.
SNMP Management: 24 hours of historical DS3 operational data is maintained in the standard
DS3 MIB-variable of the converter and can be accessed via any common SNMP client
program.
Circuit ID: For units/paths configured as a C-Bit-framed DS3, the incoming DS3 circuit ID of
the remote sender is shown at the top of the web management status screen and details the
remote equipment type, geographical location, IP address, location in rack, and whatever text
the operator wishes to configure in the web management configuration settings of the remote
unit. This confirms that a valid, framed receive DS3 signal from the correct remote equipment
is being received.
Alarm Signals: Standard telco alarm signals are shown in orange at the top of the web
management status screen and indicate: loss of signal, loss of framing, remote loss of signal, in
loopback mode. Some alarms are also available through the standard DS3 MIB-variables.
Bit Errors: Both bit error rate and individual C-bit/P-bit and line-code error counts are shown
at the top of the web management status screen to indicate a flaky link, even if alarm signals
are OK. The error counts are also available through the standard DS3 MIB-variables. For a
sophisticated user, these counts indicate where in the path the error is occurring.
Packet Audit: The ingress/egress of every packet as it passes through the converter (or is
dropped due to an error condition) is detailed at the top of the web management status screen.
The “Clear Statistics” button zeros the values and allows a quick determination of where a link
is failing – whether configuration or physical.
Clock Frequency: High accuracy ingress/egress clock frequency statistics are shown at the
bottom of the web management status screen.
SFP Optical LAN: Receive and transmit power levels, alarms, warnings and temperature of
SFP optical modules in the SFP LAN port of the converter are displayed at the bottom of the
web management status screen. Finisar SFP transceivers are recommended as one source
capable of reporting detailed operating statistics.
Initiating Loopback
Warning: Any of the following can cause loss of communication with the local or remote converter.
•
FEAC Code Initiation: A converter that is configured for DS3 C-Bit framing will respond to
FEAC loopback commands that it receives from the incoming DS3 line. FEAC loopback
requests can be generated by a carrier's intermediate DS3 equipment or by commanding the
source converter to send a FEAC loopback request via an SNMP command as detailed below.
• SNMP Direct Initiation: First, write-access to the DS3 MIB, using VACM settings, must be
enabled as described below. RFC3896 details the DS3 MIB configuration and status values
available. The SNMP requests are issued by commonly available text or GUI SNMP-client
programs which send requests to the converter's internal SNMP agent. An SNMP request can
set the local converter's dsx3LoopbackConfig variable to dsx3LineLoop. The following
sample SNMP command might be used to set DS3 Port 2 into remote loopback:
▪ snmpset -v 1 -c public <ip-address-of-unit> .1.3.6.1.2.1.10.30.5.1.9.6 i 3
(.6 is DS3 Port 2; .5 is DS3 Port 1, matching SNMP MIB-variable interface ID values)
22
Chapter 10: Troubleshooting
▪
snmpset -v 1 -c public <ip-address-of-unit> .1.3.6.1.2.1.10.30.5.1.9.6 i 1
(terminates loopback as in dsx3NoLoop(1))
▪ snmpget -v 1 -c public <ip-address-of-unit> .1.3.6.1.2.1.10.30.5.1.9.6
(returns current loopback value of DS3 Port 2)
• SNMP FEAC Initiation: See above for VACM MIB write-access description first. An SNMP
request can set the local converter's dsx3SendCode variable to dsx3SendLineCode, which
requests the remote converter to loopback DS3 data received. The following sample SNMP
command could instruct a converter configured in C-Bit DS3 framing mode to send FEAC
loopback commands to a remote converter:
▪ snmpset -v 1 -c public <ip-address-of-unit> .1.3.6.1.2.1.10.30.5.1.7.6 i 2
(.6 is DS3 Port 2; .5 would be DS3 Port 1; dsx3SendLineCode(2) initiates FEAC loop cmd)
▪ snmpset -v 1 -c public <ip-address-of-unit> .1.3.6.1.2.1.10.30.5.1.7.6 i 4
(sends FEAC disable loopback as in dsx3SendResetCode(4) NOT dsx3SendNoCode(1))
▪ snmpset -v 1 -c public <ip-address-of-unit> .1.3.6.1.2.1.10.30.5.1.7.6 i 1
(Does nothing! Dsx3SendNoCode(1) will not terminate a loopback set up with a FEAC
loopback request, just stop sending a request to begin one. Use dsx3SendResetCode(4))
▪ snmpget -v 1 -c public <ip-address-of-unit> .1.3.6.1.2.1.10.30.5.1.7.6
(returns current value for DS3 Port 2)
• Upon successful loopback initiation, the web management status screen of the converter will
also indicate that a DS3 line is in loopback and testing administrative mode.
• VACM Settings for SNMP DS3 MIB access: The SNMP area of the web management
configuration screen of the converter allows an operator to grant write-access to specific
SNMP MIB variables. Press “Login to view sensitive SNMP community/security
information” then add the following line exactly (or a more secure one):
authcommunity read,write public default .1.3.6.1.2.1.10.30.5.1
to the “Access Rights – snmpd.conf ” section, submit changes, and confirm error-free in the
“Status – snmpd.conf ” section. Remember to remove this line when done testing to maintain
a completely secure system. This enables the configuration and loopback sections of the DS3
MIB using community name public for all IP hosts.
Performance
Performance issues are addressed in the previous chapter.
Interoperability
The interoperability section of this manual should be reviewed to ensure that appropriate equipment is
connected to the converter. Connected LAN equipment should adhere to 802.3 standards, and connected
telecom equipment should be in unchannelized mode, i.e., not broken into T1 or E1 channels.
Laboratory Testing
The converters may be tested back-to-back before introducing a complicated E3 or T3/DS3 link. To do so,
the E3, T3/DS3 output port from one converter should be connected to the input port on the second through
an appropriate 75-ohm cable. The input port on the first converter should be connected to the output port of
the second in a similar manner.
Pinging
Ping is not reliable. The protocol which ping programs use does not guarantee delivery of the data
packets. Ping programs from major software and hardware corporations are known to contain bugs,
both in packet content and function. Generally, however, nearly all of the ping packets on a test network
that is not over-loaded should get through; if fewer are received, there is probably a problem.
The ping program is a useful, simple test for a TCP/IP Ethernet network. It is a program that sends a data
packet from a source machine to a destination machine, which then returns a response packet. There is a
plethora of information about ping and the free public-domain ping utilities available. Ping is often
supplied as a standard operating system utility, and often the command “ping” followed by the destination
machine's IP address or hostname is all that is required to be typed at the source machine's command line.
23
Chapter 10: Troubleshooting
The default ping generates approximately one 64-byte packet per second. This is not a robust test. If
convenient, locate a ping program or set command line parameters to generate perhaps 50 pings per second
and try both small packets and large 1400-byte packets. Be aware that packets larger than 1400 bytes
sometimes uncover bugs in the software of ping programs.
Step-by-Step Diagnosis
This section assumes that communication between two machines at opposite ends of the E3, T3/DS3 link
(herein the link) is failing. If this is a test in the laboratory or without a telecom link present, be sure to read
the previous “Laboratory Testing” section first.
1.
If access to the HTTP management interface of the converter is possible, many useful status messages
will be displayed. Typically, any message highlighted in orange should be of concern. Error counters
are of lesser concern if they are not incrementing, and some link errors would be normal as link cables
are initially connected.
2.
The DS3/E3 BER light of the converter should be illuminated and green. This indicates that a valid,
DS3/E3 waveshape is being received without bit errors and with proper framing. Refer to the front
panel section of this document for other light colors.
The DS3/E3 port light of the converter should be illuminated and green. This indicates that a valid,
framed carrier signal and sync is being received from a remote E3Switch converter. Refer to the front
panel section of this document for other light colors.
If orange, data will not be received by the local converter and the loss of data is occurring on the link
between the converters. Check that the incoming circuit ID shown at the top of the converter's HTTP
management page matches the circuit ID being transmitted by the remote converter as shown at the
remote converter's HTTP management settings page (only applies if framing is C-Bit DS3 and
firmware since November 2009 exists in units at each end of the link).
If flashing orange/green, the link may be in loopback as indicated by the HTTP management status
page. If not in loopback,, the remote unit is not receiving a valid sync from the local unit. Check the
TX path starting at the local unit. Ensure the carrier believes the link is set up in unchannelized mode
(not subdivided into T1 or E1 channels). Either M13 or C-Bit framing is fine but the configuration
page setting of each converter should match and the carrier should have consistent framing settings on
intermediate equipment – not mixed among M13 and C-Bit or autoconfigure.
If flashing orange/black, the link is in a configured return-to-service delay mode as discussed
elsewhere.
3.
Ensure a proper LAN cable is being used. Straight-through or crossover cabling is acceptable. The
LAN light of the converter port to which any LAN is attached should be illuminated and green. If not,
ensure that the attached equipment is set for autonegotiation and can accept 100BaseTX Full-Duplex
links. Refer to front panel section of this document for other LAN light colors.
4.
The network equipment attached to the LAN port of the converter should be set for autonegotiation
mode in order to allow the converter to negotiate a 100Mbit full-duplex connection. Forcing either the
converter's or attached equipment's LAN port to 100Mbit full-duplex may not allow the proper
autonegotiation and LAN connection to occur. There are rare cases with older LAN equipment in
which it may be necessary to disable autonegotiation. If crc-errors or short packet errors are seen
in the management statistics of the LAN port, the attached LAN equipment has probably
configured itself to half-duplex mode and colliding packets are being lost. In such a case,
autonegotiation should be disabled on both the converter and the attached LAN equipment with both
forced to 100BaseTX full-duplex. Autonegotiation interoperability and standards were not well
understood by the industry at the inception of 100BaseTX, resulting in some older LAN equipment not
understanding the converter's autonegotiation advertisement of strictly full-duplex capability.
24
Chapter 10: Troubleshooting
5.
If ping is available, ping from the local machine to a machine on the same local LAN. Then ping to the
machine or router, on the same local LAN, that is directly connected to the converter. Then ping to the
machine or router, on the remote LAN, that is directly connected to the remote converter. Then ping to
another machine on the remote LAN. During pinging, attempt to generate high traffic loading on the
network.
6.
Try different types of communication with the remote machine. Some examples might be a ping, a file
transfer, a telnet connection if appropriate, a HTTP page viewing if appropriate, a “find” remote
computer if appropriate. If some work and some do not but those that do, work consistently, there is
possibly a network configuration issue.
7.
Monitor lights during packet transmission:
• With LANs attached, verify, perhaps using pings, that data packets generated by a local machine
cause the converter's light of the connected LAN port to blink. If not, determine if there is an
intermediate router or piece of equipment that is not properly forwarding the data packets to the
converter. Examine the Link/Activity light on the source machine and any intermediate machines
to ensure they behave properly (usually flicker) as well.
• If the local LAN light blinks with each packet, next verify that the packet traverses the link by
monitoring the DS3 Port light at the remote converter. If the remote DS3 Port light does not blink,
there is either a link malfunction or an interface configuration problem or failure between the
converter and the link. Perhaps change 75-ohm cables. Ensure the link is delivering
unchannelized AMI HDB3 or B3ZS data to the converter. Ensure this configuration is proper at
both ends of the link.
• If the remote DS3 Port light blinks, attempt to locate the Link/Activity light on the destination
machine. Ensure that it flickers. If not, the problem may be with an intermediate router or hub or
converter intercepting the packet.
8.
Perform the prior examinations but in the reverse direction – from the remote machine back to the local
machine.
9.
Enlist the aid of a sniffer program to view at the source and destination machines exactly what data
packets are being sent and received. Free public-domain programs such as Wireshark are readily
available.
Chapter 11: Third Party Copyright Notices
E3Switch is grateful for and contributes to open source software development which may be protected by
the following copyright notices and license terms:
eCos License
E3Switch gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the eCos developers and community. Current eCos source files are available at http://ecos.sourceware.org/ E3Switch
implementation-specific modifications to those files are available by contacting E3Switch LLC.
The FreeBSD Copyright
Copyright 1994-2006 The FreeBSD Project. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD PROJECT ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FREEBSD
PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
The views and conclusions contained in the software and documentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing official policies, either expressed or
implied, of the FreeBSD Project.
25
Chapter 11: Third Party Copyright Notices
The Net-SNMP Copyright
---- Part 1: CMU/UCD copyright notice: (BSD like) ----Copyright 1989, 1991, 1992 by Carnegie Mellon University
Derivative Work - 1996, 1998-2000
Copyright 1996, 1998-2000 The Regents of the University of California
All Rights Reserved
Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and its
documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies and
that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
supporting documentation, and that the name of CMU and The Regents of
the University of California not be used in advertising or publicity
pertaining to distribution of the software without specific written
permission.
CMU AND THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DISCLAIM ALL
WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL CMU OR
THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL,
INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING
FROM THE LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF
CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN
CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
---- Part 2: Networks Associates Technology, Inc copyright notice (BSD) ----Copyright (c) 2001-2003, Networks Associates Technology, Inc
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of the Networks Associates Technology, Inc nor the
names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote
products derived from this software without specific prior written
permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS
IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS;
OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
---- Part 3: Cambridge Broadband Ltd. copyright notice (BSD) ----Portions of this code are copyright (c) 2001-2003, Cambridge Broadband Ltd.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* The name of Cambridge Broadband Ltd. may not be used to endorse or
promote products derived from this software without specific prior
written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER ``AS IS'' AND ANY
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE
OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN
IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
26
Chapter 11: Third Party Copyright Notices
---- Part 4: Sun Microsystems, Inc. copyright notice (BSD) ----Copyright © 2003 Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara,
California 95054, U.S.A. All rights reserved.
Use is subject to license terms below.
This distribution may include materials developed by third parties.
Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo and Solaris are trademarks or registered
trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of the Sun Microsystems, Inc. nor the
names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote
products derived from this software without specific prior written
permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS
IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS;
OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
The Apache License
1. Definitions.
"License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction, and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document.
"Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the License.
"Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with that entity. For the purposes of this
definition, "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent
(50%) or more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity.
"You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity exercising permissions granted by this License.
"Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making modifications, including but not limited to software source code, documentation source, and configuration files.
"Object" form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical transformation or translation of a Source form, including but not limited to compiled object code, generated
documentation, and conversions to other media types.
"Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or Object form, made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to
the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below).
"Derivative Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source or Object form, that is based on (or derived from) the Work and for which the editorial revisions, annotations,
elaborations, or other modifications represent, as a whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes of this License, Derivative Works shall not include works that remain
separable from, or merely link (or bind by name) to the interfaces of, the Work and Derivative Works thereof.
"Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship, including the original version of the Work and any modifications or additions to that Work or Derivative Works thereof, that is
intentionally submitted to Licensor for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner or by an individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf of the copyright owner. For
the purposes of this definition, "submitted" means any form of electronic, verbal, or written communication sent to the Licensor or its representatives, including but not limited to
communication on electronic mailing lists, source code control systems, and issue tracking systems that are managed by, or on behalf of, the Licensor for the purpose of discussing
and improving the Work, but excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a Contribution."
"Contributor" shall mean Licensor and any individual or Legal Entity on behalf of whom a Contribution has been received by Licensor and subsequently incorporated within the
Work.
2. Grant of Copyright License. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royaltyfree, irrevocable copyright license to reproduce, prepare Derivative Works of, publicly display, publicly perform, sublicense, and distribute the Work and such Derivative Works in
Source or Object form.
3. Grant of Patent License. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royaltyfree, irrevocable (except as stated in this section) patent license to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import, and otherwise transfer the Work, where such license applies only
to those patent claims licensable by such Contributor that are necessarily infringed by their Contribution(s) alone or by combination of their Contribution(s) with the Work to which
such Contribution(s) was submitted. If You institute patent litigation against any entity (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Work or a Contribution
incorporated within the Work constitutes direct or contributory patent infringement, then any patent licenses granted to You under this License for that Work shall terminate as of
the date such litigation is filed.
4. Redistribution. You may reproduce and distribute copies of the Work or Derivative Works thereof in any medium, with or without modifications, and in Source or Object form,
provided that You meet the following conditions:
1. You must give any other recipients of the Work or Derivative Works a copy of this License; and
2. You must cause any modified files to carry prominent notices stating that You changed the files; and
27
Chapter 11: Third Party Copyright Notices
3. You must retain, in the Source form of any Derivative Works that You distribute, all copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices from the Source form of the Work,
excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works; and
4. If the Work includes a "NOTICE" text file as part of its distribution, then any Derivative Works that You distribute must include a readable copy of the attribution notices
contained within such NOTICE file, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works, in at least one of the following places: within a NOTICE text
file distributed as part of the Derivative Works; within the Source form or documentation, if provided along with the Derivative Works; or, within a display generated by the
Derivative Works, if and wherever such third-party notices normally appear. The contents of the NOTICE file are for informational purposes only and do not modify the License.
You may add Your own attribution notices within Derivative Works that You distribute, alongside or as an addendum to the NOTICE text from the Work, provided that such
additional attribution notices cannot be construed as modifying the License.
You may add Your own copyright statement to Your modifications and may provide additional or different license terms and conditions for use, reproduction, or distribution of
Your modifications, or for any such Derivative Works as a whole, provided Your use, reproduction, and distribution of the Work otherwise complies with the conditions stated in
this License.
5. Submission of Contributions. Unless You explicitly state otherwise, any Contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the Work by You to the Licensor shall be under the
terms and conditions of this License, without any additional terms or conditions. Notwithstanding the above, nothing herein shall supersede or modify the terms of any separate
license agreement you may have executed with Licensor regarding such Contributions.
6. Trademarks. This License does not grant permission to use the trade names, trademarks, service marks, or product names of the Licensor, except as required for reasonable and
customary use in describing the origin of the Work and reproducing the content of the NOTICE file.
7. Disclaimer of Warranty. Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, Licensor provides the Work (and each Contributor provides its Contributions) on an "AS IS"
BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You are solely responsible for determining the appropriateness of using or
redistributing the Work and assume any risks associated with Your exercise of permissions under this License.
8. Limitation of Liability. In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate
and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall any Contributor be liable to You for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of
any character arising as a result of this License or out of the use or inability to use the Work (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer
failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if such Contributor has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability. While redistributing the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may choose to offer, and charge a fee for, acceptance of support,
warranty, indemnity, or other liability obligations and/or rights consistent with this License. However, in accepting such obligations, You may act only on Your own behalf and on
Your sole responsibility, not on behalf of any other Contributor, and only if You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold each Contributor harmless for any liability incurred by, or
claims asserted against, such Contributor by reason of your accepting any such warranty or additional liability.
The SHA2 Copyright
FIPS 180-2 SHA-224/256/384/512 implementation
Last update: 05/23/2005
Issue date: 04/30/2005
*
Copyright (C) 2005 Olivier Gay <olivier.gay@a3.epfl.ch>
All rights reserved.
*
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
without specific prior written permission.
*
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.
The BZIP2 License
E3Switch gratefully acknowledges Julian Seward, Cambridge, UK. jseward@bzip.org for his selfless contribution of
bzip2/libbzip2 version 1.0.4 of 20 December 2006
The atHTTPD License
E3Switch gratefully acknowledges Anthony Tonizzo (atonizzo@gmail.com) for his selfless contribution of athttpd to the eCos community.
28
Chapter 12: Technical Specifications and Standards
Chapter 12: Technical Specifications and Standards
General
E3Switch often provides custom hardware and software solutions to meet requirements not shown below.
Indicators:
User Data Rate:
Aggregate Data Rate:
Management:
LAN:
VoIP/Video:
Firmware Upgrades:
LED – LAN Status/Rx; Telcom Status/Rx; Bit Error.
Single: DS3/T3: 43.4 Mbit/s; E3: 33.2 Mbit/s. Dual DS3/T3: 86.8 Mbit/s; E3: 66.4 Mbit/s
DS3/T3: 44.736 Mbit/s; E3: 34.368 Mbit/s.
SNMPv2c with VACM View-Based Access Control; HTTP comprehensive web interface; in-band
through any port or out-of-band with second SFP LAN port option.
100Base-TX to 1650 bytes (9600 byte and 1000Base-T options) – VLAN QinQ – 1/2MByte buffers,
SFP copper/optical available
Dedicated VoIP queue for low-latency high-CoS 802.1p VoIP/video processing
GbE/Jumbo-Frame; Dual Telco Path with aggregation & failover; Optical/Copper SFP LAN
Network/Link
Total Path Latency:
Path Throughput:
DS3/E3 Frame
Format:
DS3/E3 Waveshape
Compliance:
DS3/E3 Cabling:
DS3/E3 Frame Lock:
LAN Layer-1:
LAN Layer-2:
Packet Filtering:
Packet Priority:
Through 2 back-to-back units: 0.070ms/0.350ms (60/1518-bytes GbE) – 0.150ms/0.450ms (100BaseTX)
39,300 packets/sec simultaneously each direction, or 78,600 in asymmetric unidirectional use.
C-Bit / M13 / M23 / G.751 – HDB3/B3ZS – Unchannelized (no T1/DS1/E1) or unframed. PMDL Circuit
ID for C-Bit links.
ANSI T1.102-1993, Telcordia TR-NWT-000499 and GR-253-CORE, ITU-T G.703.
DS3/T3: 300 meters; E3: 480 meters to radio/CSU; BNC – 75ohm one rx, one tx.
250ms typical lock time. Lock maintained up to 10-2 BER typically.
100BaseTX full duplex – Autoneg/Auto-MDIX correction; 1000Base-X optical SFP and GbE options
802.3x flow-control; 802.1p CoS/priority for VoIP; 1650-byte packets (9600 for jumbo option);
Transparent VLAN; QinQ. Link aggregation for dual-channel option.
No filtering. Broad/Multicasts forwarded to link; 500kByte buffering.
Seperate high-priority queue for 802.1p priority packets (i.e. VoIP/video).
Mechanical/Electrical
Dimensions (WxLxH):
Weight:
Power:
Power Connector:
LAN Connectors:
DS3/E3 Connectors:
Standalone: 4.75” wide 1U with 19” rackmount brackets (120mm x 215mm x 38mm (4.75” x 8.5” x
1.5”);
6-slot/1U and 20-slot/3U NEBS-III redundant power chassis available.
1 kg / 2 lbs.
100-240VAC or ±35-75VDC – 6 Watts. Redundant power chassis available.
VAC: IEC connector. VDC: Screw terminal.
RJ-45 with optional SFP port.
Two 75-ohm BNC – one rx, one tx; Second optional T3/E3/DS3 channel.
Environmental
Operating Temperature:
Operating Humidity:
0° C to 50° C (30° F to 122° F); Storage Temperature: -20° C to 70° C (-4° F to 158° F)
10% to 90% – Non-Condensing; Storage Humidity: 5% to 95% – Non-Condensing
Regulations
RFI/EMI/RoHS:
FCC Part 15, Class A; EMC Directive (89/336/EEC) (CE Mark); EN55022, Class A; EN55082-1;
AS/NZS 3548 (C-Tick Mark); ICES-003, Class A; VCCI, Class A; RoHS Compliant and others.
For More Information:
UNITED STATES (Worldwide):
E3Switch LLC
80 Coronado Ave
San Carlos, CA 94070 U.S.A.
http://www.e3switch.com
specs@e3switch.com
Tel: +1-650-241-9941
29
Chapter 12: Technical Specifications and Standards
©2011, E3Switch LLC
Data is subject to change without notice. Other brand and product names mentioned herein may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective owners.
30
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising