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WILLIAM NOTES
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BOOKS BY WILLIAM NOYES
Handwork
in
VPood
^Wocd and Forest
'Design
and Construction
in
Wood
DESIGN
CONSTRUCTION
and
IN
WOOD
% WILLIAM NOYES
Assistant Professor of Industrial Arts
Teachers College, Columbia University
NEW YORK
CITY
THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS
PEORIA, ILLINOIS
COPYRIGHT
WILLIAM NOYES
1913
FOURTH EDITION,
1919
FOREWORD
The purpose of the following studies is, (I) to give
ginners in woodworking an opportunity for the acquisition
to
be-
of skill
in the handling of tools, and, (II) some practice in designing simple projects in wood.
This
I.
The
course.
series
is not offered as a hard and fast
hand does not depend upon following
of projects
training of the
a fixed order, like a course in geometry.
Many roads lead to the
a
to
be
course
claims
This
practical one because, tho congoal.
stantly changed,
it
has been a successful one.
No
tune could befall a course in handiwork than that
greater misfor-
should be stere-
Indeed, my chief misgiving in publishing the course
seem to have found final shape.
otyped.
it
it
To
obviate
this
impression, other projects
is lest
involving the same
or similar processes are suggested and illustrated.
It will be noted that the course here outlined is so planned that
1.
variety of woods is employed, each appropriate for its par-
:
A
ticular project.
They
are: cypress, whitewood, maple, white pine,
mahogany, chestnut, hickory, sweet gum, oak, and black walnut.
2. In general, the technical processes involved increase in difficulty thru the series, but esthetic considerations are not sacrificed
to this formula.
3.
as
joints
and
are employed, involving such
middle
cross-lap, doweled butt,
end-lap, rubbed, miter,
Several types of construction
:
ledge.
A
few simple processes in copper working are included because
employment considerably extends the range of useful and ornamental projects available.
5. A variety of finishes is suggested, including several methods
of staining, as well as the use of such polishes as oil, wax, and
4.
their
shellac.
In a word, the course involves a considerable variety of experience
in technical processes.
9
416033
The attempt is here made to reduce the practice of the shop to
words and pictures, in order that it may be available to those who
must work alone. The author, however, does not at all presume to
however helpful books may be to the worker, they can
the place of individual instruction and demonstration.
II. In this series all but two of the projects, the picture-frame-
believe that,
ever
fill
clamp and the mallet, are such as to invite the worker to create
his own designs.
To this end a considerable number of suggestive
illustrations are introduced.
but
it
never ends there.
Design may begin with pure imitation,
It is
dent worker proceeds thru the
design good things.
will be
Some
found in Chapter
my
hope, therefore, that as the stu-
series,
he will more and more freely
general suggestions for help in designing
II, and these are supplemented in each
succeeding chapter by concrete application of the general principles
to the project in hand.
CONTENTS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
Wood
Wood,
A
21
9
35
Picture-Frame-Clamp
59
The Mitered Picture-Frame
65
The Candlestick
<S3
Taboret
99
X.
Trays
XIII.
of Artistic Expression
Scrap-Basket
Mallet
XII.
A Medium
Equipment
IX.
XI.
13
115
123
.133
Rolling Blotter-Holder
Small Boxes
13?
Lanterns
147
.158
Index.,
11
CHAPTER
I
WOOD
and
and
there
substances,
Next
to food
clothing,
wood
is
to
man
the most useful of
no other single substance that has as great
uses.
The prosperity of any nation is largely
a variety of human
measured by its timber supply, and hence we see the extraordinary
efforts now being made by progressive nations to conserve their
forests.
Today the lumber industry is the fourth largest industry
in the United States, and any intelligent person can quickly make
a
list
is
of scores of uses to
people of the
which wood
United States
live in
is
put.
Two-thirds of the
wooden houses and half
of the
population burn wood as fuel.
One of the most useful qualities of wood, namely its combustibility for fuel, also constitutes one of its most serious disadvantages;
On the other hand, until it is actually burned
it is not fireproof.
thru, it retains its stiffness, a fact that is not true of hot steel.
It is because of its destructibility by fire, as well as by insects and
decay, that attempts are constantly made to find substitutes for it.
But even in spite of the employment of such substitutes as cement
and steel in constructive work, its use is constantly increasing.
Most of our paper is made of wood and practically all our furniture.
Its great utility
depends upon such qualities as
its size, its
strength, its lightness, its ease of working, its elasticity, its hardness
and its beauty. When wood is to be used for building or other conis of great importance, while in work
requiring only small pieces, other qualities, such as hardness, or
structive work, then its size
permanence of shape, are determining factors. The strength of wood
is shown by the fact that a hickory bar will stand more pull than a
wrought iron bar of equal length and weight, and a block of long-leaf
pine will stand nearly as
iron of
much
crushing weight as a block of cast
Hickory is so tough that no
equal height and weight.
substitutes for
it
in wheel-spokes, handles and similar articles which
have to stand constant blows, have as yet been found.
13
The hardness
CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
such woods as oak and maple make them suitable
like spruce, that is both light and strong, is
used for ladders and poles and canoe paddles.
and
elasticity of
Some wood,
for floors.
For ease of working and permanence of shape, no wood compares
with white pine, "the King of Woods," but unfortunately this speFor the making of furniture, two woods
cies is now becoming scarce.
now hold supremacy, oak and mahogany. This is due partly to their
beauty, but also to their strength. The oak is native; the mahogany
is
imported.
One of the most useful characteristics of wood
is its ease of
being
joined together by nails, screws, glue, etc. Woods differ greatly in
this respect, white pine, yellow poplar, and bass being very easy to
nail, while oak, hickory, maple, and ash are difficult to nail without
In general, the tough elastic woods
the soft brittle woods nail well.
splitting.
ing,
while
badly in nailHence, with some
split
woods, before nailing, special precautions, like boring holes, have
On the other hand, woods like oak and maple, which
to be taken.
are difficult to nail can be very securely joined together by means of
Certain woods, notable among which are mahogany and
This
white pine, can be glued together with remarkable tenacity.
susceptibility to the cohesive action of glue is a most useful characterscrews.
istic of all
our
common
woods.
Soft woods glue
much
better than hard
woods.
One
by
quality, possessed
all
wood,
is
of
serious disadvantage,
when dry and
This necessitates particular care in certain forms
of construction and in methods of finishing. The shrinkage of wood
namely
swells
is
its
when
sensitiveness
to
moisture.
It
shrinks
wet.
by its internal structure. Wood is composed of
which are long, slender tubes, thru which, during
to be explained
"cells" or fibers,
the life of the tree, the sap passes.
The cells formed during the
of
each year grow large with thin walls, and those formed
spring
in the summer grow smaller with thick walls.
layer of spring
A
wood and
summer wood
together form an "annual ring" as seen
in a cross-section of a log, or stripes, as seen in a longitudinal section.
Eunning across these up-and-down cells and radiating out
of
from the center
of the tree are other cells called "pith rays," some-
times very large, as the "silver flakes" in oak
(see
frontispiece),
sometimes very minute ^as in pine. They seive to bind the annual
rings together and offer, as in beech, sycamore and oak, add great
WOOD
Now wood
beauty to the grain of the wood.
walls of the cells which compose
For some unknown reason wood
wood
shrinks
little
very
length. This peculiarity
is
15
it
shrinks because the
become thinner
as
they dry.
so that
do not become shorter,
cells
in
made
use of in constructing doors and
in other panel constructions.
Wood
most
shrinks
cir-
cumferentially, that is, in the
direction of the annual rings,
and somewhat,
radially.
This
explains why boards often warp
as they do, that is, in the direction opposite to that of the an-
nual rings in them (Fig. 1). A
board is said to be "warped"
when one
side shrinks
more than
the other. This warping is sometimes due to the fact that one side
Boards usually warp in the diFiy. 1
rection opposite to hat of the usual rings
in
is
them.
In such a
drier than the other.
case the board can often be straightened by drying the other
(con-
vex) side. But usually the warping is due to the direction of
the annual rings in it. A "comb
grain" or "rift" board, Fig. 2,
which
is
cut radially in the log,
to
is less likely
warp than
a
"slash grain" or "bastard" board
which is cut from the side of
the log.
It is partly for this reason
that
much
fine
lumber
ter sawed," Fig. 3.
dial boards are
Fig-. 2
A,
Comb
erain board; B, Slash
grain board.
nearly radially as
is
viding
which
the
are
consistent with economy.
is
That
sawn out
log
then
into
sawed
"quaris,
ra-
first, di-
quarters
up
as
In some woods, as in
oak and sycamore, the beauty of the grain caused by the exposure
thus made of the pith rays, is an additional reason for quarter
sawing.
See frontispiece.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
16
Disadvantageous as the shrinking and swelling of wood is for
most purposes, it is sometimes made use of, as in splitting soft
stone by means of wetting wedges which have been driven into borings in the stone.
The beauty of wood depends
largely upon the "grain," a term
which means several things. Usually the grain of wood means
the pattern formed by the disbetween the spring
wood and the summer wood.
tinction
Hence, according to the "figure"
formed, wood may be straight
grained, crooked grained, wavy
grained, curly grained, or bird's
eye.
Fig-. 3.
Common method
of quartering- log.
The term "grain" may
also
refer to the appearance caused
by the presence of the "pith
rays," as in oak, (see frontisor
to
the
piece),
peculiar changing reflection of light due to cross
in
as
grain
mahogany. The terms coarse grain and fine grain may
refer
respectively
either
to
the
width of the annual rings or to
1
the presence or absence of pores
Wood is sold by the board
.
foot; that
ment
is
is,
the unit of measure-
a board, one inch thick,
one foot long, and one foot wide,
A
or 144 cubic inches, Fig. 4.
simple method of measuring is to
Fig
4>
Aboardfoot>
multiply the length in feet by the width and thickness in inches and
divide by 12. For example 1" (thick)
12=6' 8" B.M. (board measure).
X
8" (wide)
Boards
X
less
10' 0"(long)-r-
than
one
inch
Dressed lumber, that is, planed on
in thickness than sawn lumber. For ex-
thick are calculated as one inch.
both sides, comes 3/16" less
ample, boards sawn -1" thick are planed to 13/16".
For
all
*A fuller discussion of this subject will be found in the author's
and Forest, Chapter I. The Manual Arts Press, Peoria, 111.
ordin-
Wood
WOOD
17
ary purposes it is economical to buy 13/16"
2
one may have this resawn at the mill.
Following are descriptions of a few
stuff.
common
For thinner boards
varieties of wood.
As an aid
to their recognition, see the illustrations, frontispiece.
White pine has been the most useful of all trees in the United
The wood
States.
is
one of the easiest and most satisfactory to work,
uniformity of grain. For all purposes that require a
wood that shrinks and checks but little and holds its shape well,
such as molding patterns, window sashes, cores of doors and cabinet
owing
to its
work, white pine
medium
unrivaled.
is
strength, elasticity,
and
It is very light and soft, and is of
It splits easily but nails
durability.
In color it is light brown, almost cream color. The grain is
not noticeable and has no particular beauty. Hence when used for
Its former abundance made it
house trim it is usually painted.
well.
cheap and
coming
has therefore been used so recklessly that now it is beRed pine is often sold with and for white pine.
it
scarce.
M
Price in N. Y. C., 1913, $120 per
(thousand).
Cypress is a soft, easily worked wood, that does not warp badly
but is likely to contain many fine checks. It nails well and is very
durable. Hence it is much used for shingles, posts, railway ties, and
conservatory construction. As seen in slash grain boards, it is often
beautifully figured by the fine lines of summer wood between the
broader spaces of spring wood.
resin ducts.
Its beauty
makes
brown color and no
wood for interior finish
Y. C., 1913, per M. $65.
It has a reddish
it
and for many pieces of furniture.
a desirable
Price in
N".
a straight grained, strong, light, elastic, and rather
Spruce
soft wood, which shrinks and warps but little, is easy to plane and
is
saw, but hard to chisel neatly across the grain because the spring
wood is so much softer than the summer wood that it crushes before
cuts.
It nails fairly well.
It is used chiefly for construction, for
ladders, for paddles, and other articles requiring both strength and
it
lightness and, preferably, for paper pulp. It is the wood from which
sounding boards are made because it is very resonant. It can be substituted for
many
uses of pine.
rings not noticeable.
Price, in
2
N. Y.
C.,
The
color is dull
white,
Very strong, light, furniture can be
and the
made
of
it.
1913, $50 per M.
Further information about measuring lumber can be found in the author's Handwork in Wood, pp. 48 and 109.
The Manual Arts Press, Peoria, 111.
-2
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
18
White oak is now the wood most commonly used for interior finand furniture. It is very strong, quite heavy and elastic, and
hard. It is rather hard to work and to nail, and checks and warps
ish
considerably, unless carefully seasoned; but when once worked up
is without a rival on account of its strength and beauty.
The color
is a light brown.
The rings are plainly defined by pores, which
make
a pleasing pattern in slash sawn boards. Its great distinction
in the pith rays, which are broad, conspicuous, and irregular.
They are often an inch or more wide and many inches long. These
lies
rays are very hard, almost like horn.
They are brought to plainest
view in radial (or rift) boards, and hence quarter sawing, tho uneconomical, is commonly practiced to obtain the most effective
As the wood is becoming more scarce, inferior species are
mixed in, smaller trees are cut, and radial veneers are more and
more used. In staining, the pores absorb much more color than
the summer wood or the pith rays, and hence, no wood is capable
of such contrasts of grain when stained as oak.
Price in N. Y. C.,
1913, $135 per M.
White ash is a heavy, strong, elastic, hard wood, used especially
for handles of farm tools, oars, barrels, etc.
It splits badly in nailIt
is
for
used
finish
and furniture both on
inside
ing.
considerably
account of its strength and the beauty of its figure when slash sawn.
"grain."
The "grain"
is
due to the massing of the pores in the spring wood.
and best of the ashes. Black or brown ash is much
It is the hardest
easier to work,
and
is sufficiently
in N.Y.C., 1913, $85 per
strong for most furniture.
Price,
M.
Yellow poplar or white wood grows with a
tall
straight trunk
unsurpassed in grandeur by any other eastern American tree. This
furnishes clear knotless boards, often 15" to 18" broad. It is a general utility wood, largely taking the place once held by white pine,
and
is
used for cheap furniture, interior trim, and carriage bodies.
It is light, brittle, soft, easy to work, nails very well, has
strength, and does not warp badly when properly handled.
medium
The
pith
rays are quite noticeable, but are not made much use of for decorative purposes.
The rings are distinct but not prominent, and the
It is a good wood to keep in stock
and an ideal wood to carve. In the south,
magnolia is often sold with and for yellow poplar. They belong to
the same family. Price in N. Y. C., 1913, $80 per M.
color
is
greenish or yellow brown.
for all sorts of purposes,
WOOD
Sweet gum.
19
Except for one quality, sweet
It has an even texture,
the most useful Avoods.
gum would
is
be one of
comparatively easy
an ideal wood
and with a little care can be nailed well. It has a
beautiful chocolate hue varied by uneven deposits of coloring matter.
But it twists and warps more than any other common wood, and hence
to work, takes a beautiful finish
and polishes
well, is
for carving,
Fig.
5.
Clamping- up boards to keep them from warping.
for commercial purposes is largely used in veneers. For small articles
of household use, it is an excellent wood.
Price in N. Y. C., 1913,
$75 per M.
Mahogany
is
a general
which are imported.
The
name
covering a
number
of species, all of
chief varieties are Central
American ma-
hogany, African mahogany, Mexican mahogany, East Indian mahog-
any (vermillion wood or padouk), and Spanish cedar. These variesomewhat alike in color, a reddish brown, the annual rings
are inconspicuous, the pores are scattered, and few woods take glue
ties are
better.
and
They vary considerably in hardness, in difficulty of
The common uses are furniture and
in shade of color.
nailing,
interior
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
20
The grain
finish.
is
very likely to be variable, causing a very pleas-
$185 per M.
In the following studies, the woods just described will be recommended.
ing, changeable, reflection of light. Price in N.Y.C., 1913,
It is impossible to give explicit directions for laying in a supply
of wood.
Some
varieties of
wood may be
plentiful in certain places,
others may be scarce and hence expensive. Some workers may be able
to obtain the wood in nearly the sizes wanted
others may be compelled to purchase whole boards. Some may have a dry storage room
;
of
ample
size, as,
for instance,
an
attic; others
may
lumber in a damp cellar. In general
ihat one should buy only what he can take good care
store
their
quantity
of lumber
is
stored,
it
should,
if possible,
be compelled to
may be said
it
of.
Where any
be "stacked," that
each board separated from its neighbors by small cross
sticks to allow free circulation of air.
If possible, there should be a
is,
piled
flat,
weight on the top board. Where only a few boards are to be put under pressure, it is often convenient to clamp them together with
handscrews, as in Fig.
5.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Filibert Roth.
ton,
D.
D. C.
C.,
Timber. Bulletin No. 10, of the Forestry Service, Washing(May be secured from the Supt. of Documents, Washington,
for IDC.)
A
brief, accurate,
and non-technical but comprehensive
study of the structure and properties of woods, with a description of
common varieties and a key to their study.
Katherine Golden Bitting.
William Noyes.
Wood and
Woodcraft, June-Sept.
Forest.
Manual Arts
'06.
Press, Peoria,
1
II.
.
CHAPTER
II
WOOD A MEDIUM OF ARTISTIC EXPRESSION
Projects in wood that admit of artistic variation are subject to
the same fundamental principles of design that underly all the space
arts.
The constant problem of the artistic woodworker is to famil-
One way of doing this is the
iarize himself with these principles.
keen observation of their application by past and present masters in
wood. Familiarity with the masterpieces of woodwork in other ages
and interest to the application of
For instance, the hand workers in wood of Italy,
Spain, France, England, Scandinavia, and Japan, have much to
teach us in line, proportion, and construction.
and lands
will give additional zest
these principles.
The other way
of learning these principles of the space arts is
by repeated application of them in constructive work. Only in the
latter way does the worker come to realize the limitations of his own
medium.
The production of beautiful
when good taste and the
lively interest
along with manipulative
objects acquires a much more
ability to design are developed
skill in execution.
On
the other hand, the
acquisition of skill becomes of vastly greater importance if it is used
as a means of creating things of beauty.
In a word, artistic judgment and skill of hand develop best when
they develop together. Each justifies and ennobles the other.
In the making of the following projects, where ample opportunis
ity
given both to design and to construction, the meaning of beauty
as related to
suggested are
wooden structures should grow clearer as the articles
worked out. Experience here, as elsewhere, is the best
teacher.
It is. not to be inferred, however, that one can safely hope to improve thru self-criticism alone. The dangers of going off at a tangent are too great. In design, even more than in construction, the
critical
assistance of a competent teacher is invaluable.
stant appeal for help to superior artistic
to good taste.
21
judgment
is
The
con-
the surest path
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
22
The underlying
principles of the visual
arts
have been clearly
tho not in identical terms, by several writers, and as the
principles herein suggested for the woodworker are based upon the
stated,
common
broader principles
urged
to familiarize himself
to all space arts, the reader is strongly
with them.
They
are well analyzed and
illustrated in the following books:
W. Dow Composition.
Denman W. Ross: Theory of Pure
Arthur
:
Ernest A. Batchelder
Design.
Design in Theory and Practice.
George Lansing Raymond
Proportion and Harmony of Line and Color.
Lewis F. Day: The Application of Ornament.
:
:
The
properties of the particular medium thru which art is expressed present to the artist certain limitations which he must recognize.
This in no way suppresses creative expression, but rather disciplines
The
it.
following,
then,
are
within which the woodworker
the possibilities
may
and the limitations
revel:
1.
In the first place, the thing to be made should in itself appeal
to the craftsman as something worth while and interesting to make.
For instance, scrap-baskets, picture-frames, desk- trays, hanging lanterns, and such familiar objects as are frequently seen or handled,
should call forth the worker's best
The
effort.
made should be
so designed and constructed
be
is
as to
structurally sound.
completely beautiful which
Nothing
is poorly constructed.
The joints of a frame should not open with
A chair should be so convarying temperature and humidity.
2.
article to be
structed as to hold the weight and strain ordinarily expected of
hunchairs, for an indefinite time, or as long as the wood lasts.
A
dred years
is
not too long to expect a chair to be of service.
Many
last longer.
3.
The form
of the article should frankly indicate the material;
wood should not be made
to look like metal or stone.
Appropriate-
ness of shape to material should be so obvious that there would be
no mistaking a wooden candlestick for one of pottery or brass.
4.
The
structure
of
the
article
should
be recognized
or
even
emphasized, but not contradicted. In wooden structures this prinJoints may in
ciple has to do primarily with the matter of joints.
many cases be made obvious, as in the decorative use of fastenings,
WOOD A MEDIUM OF ARTISTIC EXPRESSION
so that there is
23
no mistaking the form of construction. In cases
concealed, the principle stated would demand that
where the joint
there be no pretense of a form of construction that does not
is
exist,
example, when a false keyed mortise-and-tenon joint is stuck
on where the pieces are actually doweled together. In a word, the
as, for
construction should be honest, and
be
all
the better.
5.
The
article
if it is
obviously honest,
should also be convenient for use.
The
*it
may
socket of a
candle stick should be of the proper size to hold ordinary candles.
A pen-tray should be long enough to hold pens and pencils and
should not be easily upset. A chair seat should be the right distance
from the floor, and the rail in front should be high enough to allow
the sitter to slip his feet under it and so rise easily. The requireset limitations to design.
Proportions must
ments of convenience
conform to intended
use.
interesting object has been chosen, when
construction have been determined upon,
and
sound
materials
proper
when it has been planned for convenience in use, so that the size and
6.
Lastly,
when an
shape are approximately fixed, then the sense of beauty plays, as it
were, with these possibilities, feeling for the most satisfying propor-
and parts to each other, trying one arrangement after another, studying how to secure a rhythmic repetition of
the same motive, how to break up an outline or a surface harmontion of parts to whole
iously into principal
and subordinate
parts,
and how to keep
it as
a unit well balanced.
In analyzing more particularly what
it is
with which the crafts-
man
plays in creating beauty in these little wooden structures, four
considerations are of prime importance: (1) mass, (2) line, involv-
ing light and shadow, (3) color, (4)
1. Mass.
The first consideration
as a whole.
finish.
is
the appearance of the object
an object stand-
It is to be thought of as a silhouette, as
ing between the observer and the light, so that the general proporthat is, the relation of width to height, of part to
;
and
of
whole,
part to part, including a consideration of vacant spaces
tions are obvious
as well as occupied spaces, should be clearly defined.
Seen or imagined from this point of view, the details are lost, no lights or shad-
ows are conspicuous, but only the general mass. It must have the
beauty that one sees when the trees, rocks, and hills are silhouetted
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
24
in a pattern of pleasing proportions against a twilight sky.
In other
words, the first and fundamental esthetic test and requisite
the proportions as a whole should be pleasing.
The
basket, candlestick, lantern,
and
so on,
is
that
which in the follow-
ing pages are suggested for making, are studied from this point of
view; they are planned to keep the height and width and depth in
pleasing relation each to each, and to so proportion open with closed
spaces as to secure an artistic arrangement of parts. In other words,
the composition made by placing the object against a lighter or darker surface should be pleasing in dark and light.
When
Line.
2.
these general masses
mately determined, the next step
The
is
to
and spaces are approxi-
fix
the character of their
be refined and
embellished, and
the variety that lies between that severity of
whether Scandinavian,
line found in the earlier European furniture
boundaries.
here
outlines
we may have
are to
all
Italian, Spanish or English, and the elaborateness of carved and
turned and fluted styles, such as is characteristic of the later Eliza-
bethan or Gothic furniture.
or
how
How
simple or
how
intricate,
how bold
upon the nature of
and the judgment and the taste of
delicate the lines shall be, depends partly
the material, partly
upon the skill
upon the use
the craftsman, and partly
to be
made
of the object.
The nature
of the line affects directly the high lights and shadis well lighted.
Good lines will
produce interesting notes of light and dark. They will "catch the
ows that appear when the object
and "throw shadows" at pleasing rhythmic intervals, making
3
This is the merit of artistic moldinteresting patterns in "notan"
turned
and
work,
ings,
carving,
inlay, that they make possible intricate and diversified compositions of dark and light (and in the
light"
.
case of inlay, of color), that are impossible in severe, plain styles.
On the other hand, the attractiveness of plain forms lies in their
very simplicity.
Moreover, as the plainer early European or Japan-
ese styles involve fewer elements to be spaced, the chances for the
beginner to get better designs in them is greater than in the more
elaborate styles.
So, until considerable mastery in handling space
is gained, the beginner is advised to
relations in
wooden structures
work in the
spirit of these plainer, simpler styles.
3
Notan
a Japanese term meaning dark-and-light.
WOOD A MEDIUM OF ARTISTIC EXPRESSION"
25
3.
Color. Thirdly, there is the consideration of color. The natural hues of the woods give a considerable variety, ranging from the
light yellow brown of oak, chestnut, and ash, to the reds of mahog-
any and the purples of walnut and sweet gum. All of these can be
(See
greatly modified artificially by stains or by chemical processes.
the author's Handwork in Wood, pp. 209-214.)
The problems in color, both in hue and value, is that of harmony
with surroundings. No piece of furniture, however small, should be
considered as a thing by itself. It is to be treated as one element that
will enter into the composition of a beautiful room, and upon its
harmony therewith will depend its own beauty.
As regards the color of furniture, it may be said in general that
These are all the
the esthetic tendency is away from yellow tones.
harder to avoid on account of the yellowness of the common finishes,
varnish and shellac. The best that can be done by amateurs is to
gray the yellow by fuming or staining. On the other hand, a frank
yellow tone may be appropriate and effective, as, for instance in a
blue setting.
4.
Finish.
The fourth element
of beauty in
wood
is finish.
The
simplest and oldest process is rubbing with or without oil or wax,
which only emphasizes the quality of wood as wood. The more modern finishes, varnish and shellac, succeed in "bringing out the grain,"
but at the expense of making a surface that looks, not like wood, but
like glass.
Unlike glass, however, varnish is easily marred. To keep
the shining surface perfect, demands constant protection and care,
and suggests that such pieces are made, not to use, but to look at.
It may frequently happen that in order to secure a desired effect of mass or line or color, the design or construction originally
adopted may have to be reconsidered and something else substituted
that will give a satisfying harmony. Each feature is thus to be decided tentatively, subject to such modifications as other features may
demand in securing unity of design for the structure when complete.
Altho the steps mentioned seem to give the logical procedure in
building all sorts of things, whether foot-stools, chairs, or thrones,
trussed, arched, or suspension bridges, dog-kennels, cottages, or castles,
yet a
little
reflection
and observation
will
show that one or
another of these steps has frequently been omitted. The library of
one of our famous universities is a good illustration of a beautiful
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
26
Utility is sacrificed to good
building poorly planned for its use.
On the other hand, the so-called typewriter chair is a
proportion.
model of convenience and comfort, but it will never find a place in a
museum
as a thing of beauty.
ing line
and
Utility has not yet been cast in pleas-
tone.
The following, then, is suggested as a logical method of procedure in designing simple wooden structures. In actual experience it
is not necessary to decide these points in this order, or in any order,
but in general these are the items that should receive deliberate consideration at some time between the conception and completion of an
artistic structure.
I.
The
article's
fixing of essentials, or of those points that make for an
Under this head, such matters as the
convenience in use.
following are determined:
a.
b.
The approximate or definite size.
The kind of wood to be used. Each has a quality that
makes its characteristic appeal for certain construcSee Chapter
tions.
I, also
Chapter III,
Wood and
Forest.
c.
The
construction, including:
Kind of joint or joints.
(1)
(2)
Methods of opening and shutting or locking.
moving or hanging,
and so on.
(3) Appliances for lifting or
II
The
a.
b.
c.
d.
III.
refining of proportions.
Of the mass as a whole.
Of each part to the whole.
Of each part to each other part.
Of each line within itself, if it curves or
line, or is turned on a lathe.
is
a broken
This relates to the decorative treatment of the
Decoration.
surface.
a.
Carving,
gouged
b.
c.
d.
border
or
surface
(all-over)
patterns
in
lines or modeled.
Panels, carved in, or constructed
Inlay or veneer.
Designing of accessories
cutcheons,
etc.
in.
handles, knobs, key plates, es-
WOOD A MEDIUM OF
IV.
ARTISTIC EXPRESSION
27
Finish.
a.
Stain.
b.
Paint.
c.
Oil.
d.
Wax.
e.
Shellac, including
f.
Varnish.
French
polish.
In general, the order in designing suggested above has been
fol-
lowed thruout the making of the following articles. The illustrations used are largely photographs or sketches of articles designed
and executed by
my
students.
However, the possibilities for original design that lie within the
range of these few objects of household use still invite the designer.
There is here no intention of a cut and dried series of models, but
rather such a presentation of what some of the possibilities of these
projects are, that others to whom wood appeals as a medium of arexpression will be stimulated to create
beautiful objects for our common every-day
too sure of his ability to create, the beginner
tistic
still
more varied and
life.
Or, feeling not
choose from the
may
following suggestions the ones he likes best, in itself an exercise of
artistic judgment, and copy them.
And so, little by little in the
effort to re-create others' designs that are
come
to create
is also
good designs of his own.
much, thru
this thoughtful
known
to be good, he
Or, at the very least,
may
which
copying of good things, he will be
helped in his desire to appreciate beauty in wooden structures.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
28
Fig-. 6.
A, Mortise and-tenon construction in frame of bench;
J5, Draw-bolt construction.
CHAPTER
III
EQUIPMENT
The equipment necessary for beginning to work in wood may be
It is better to begin
very inexpensive, costing not more than $25.
with a few good tools, well chosen, adding to the number others as
they are needed. The total cost of a first class equipment need not
exceed $50.00.
buy the sets already made up in cabinets, for
include
often
the
given
cheap and dispensable tools, and the
One can soon learn to make a cabiquality is apt to be not the .best.
net to fit his own tools. It is wise to consult one's local hardware
It is rarely wise to
lists
dealer before buying as well as those firms that have made a specialty of handling woodworking equipments for schools and amateurs.
The
latter
tools.
have special
for furnishing the proper
addresses of reliable firms may
facilities
The names and
high grade
be found in the advertising pages of any of the educational journals*.
The following tools are recommended for the individual equip-
ment of a beginner
The bench. The
gidity.
This
may
5
:
essential features of a
be secured in a bench
good bench are: (1) Ri-
made with
either mortise-
and-tenon-joints, Fig. 6,A, or draw-bolt construction, Fig. 6,B.
The
bench should be firmly fastened to the floor by lag-screws passing
thru the two foot pieces.
(2.)
(3)
A maple top with trough at the back.
A low tool rack, that is, one not above the
top of the bench,
which does not obscure the light and is not in the way for large work.
A good vise. The strongest, most durable, and most con(4).
venient are the rapid-acting vises, with the working parts of metal,
which require an occasional oiling.
4
For descriptions and illustrations of tools see Handwork
II.
Manual Arts Press, Peoria, 111.
5
For school equipment see Handwork in Wood, Chapter VI.
in
Wood,
Chapter
29
Hj
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
30
The jaws
Sometimes
of the vise should be faced with maple.
there are two vises, a side vise
and a
tail vise.
The
latter is exceed-
ingly convenient for certain kinds of work.
There are various benches and
on the market.
vises
good ones are those of the following firms
E. H. Sheldon
&
Co.,
The Denver model
The Omaha model
182
Nims
St.,
Among
other
:
Muskegon, Mich.
(1 rapid-acting vise), price
$ 9.50
(2 rapid-acting vises), price
14.25
A. L. Bemis, Worcester, Mass.
Sloyd Bench No. 4, price
This has an iron vise, not quick acting, and a
Richards-Wilcox Mfg. Co., Aurora,
No. 260. 1, side vise only
No. 260.
2, side
and
15.00
tail
clamp.
111.
12.00
16.00
tail vise
Hammacher, Schlemmer &
Co., 4th Av.
and 13th
St.,
New
York,N.Y.
No.
L
No.
J
12.50
No.
K
20.00
$8.50
this price are all equipped with a side and a
The rapid-acting
the last with a Toles rapid-acting vise.
vise adds about $6.00 to the cost, and by special order they may be
These benches at
tail vise,
attached to any standard bench. Among the many rapid-acting vises
on the market are the W. C. Toles, Irving Park, Chicago, 111.; The
Abernathy Vise & Tool Co., 233 W. 62d Place, Chicago, 111.; The
Herriman Co., 15 S. Canal St., Chicago, 111.; the Eichards-Wilcox
Co., Aurora, 111.
A
wood-screw
vise
may
vise,
and
cost
from $8.00
to $20.00.
tools*:
No.
5
1
Stanley jack-plane
1
Stanley block-plane No. 65 1/2
Iron spokeshave, No. 54
1
$ 1.75
80
.25
list is made up from Hammacher, Schlemmer & Co.'s catalog No.
For pictures of these tools consult any of the books mentioned in the
"This
355.
have a rapid-acting side
tail vise.
In a word, the bench and
The
to
is
very good arrangement
bibliography.
31
EQUIPMENT
Stanley "Bed Rock" smooth-plane, No. 603
s
*1 Stanley rabbet-plane and filletster, No. 78
7
1.60
1
No.
1 Disston's Crosscut-saw,
9,
1.10
22" 10 points
1.15
Disston's Rip-saw, No. 9, 22", 8 points
Disston's back-saw, No. 4, 10"
1
1
1.15
95
*1 Turning-saw in frame 14", 3/16" blade
1 Buck Bros, firmer chisel,
l", handled and sharpened.
1 Buck Bros, firmer chisel, ^", handled and sharpened.
Buck
Buck
1
1
Hammond's adze-eye hammer, No.
Round hickory mallet, No. 4.
1
*1
1
Hardened blade
1
Sloyd knife, No.
.35
.
.25
and sharpened.
handled and sharpened..
Bros, firmer chisel, j4", handled
Bros, firmer chisel, Vg",
90
.
.
45
3, 7 oz
12
try-square, No. 5J/2, 6"
1 Beech marking-gage, No. 64^, 8"
7,
2y
2
.20
.20
25
20
"
30
blade
or a good pocket knife.
1
Medium hard
05
1
Boxwood
12
lead pencil (No. 2)
rule, 2', 4-fold
*1 Disston sliding T-bevel, No. 3, 6"
*1 Pair Starrett's dividers, winged, No. 92, 8"
1 Veneer scraper, No. 80
2 Molding scrapers, No. 2
Half-round wood
1
file,
K
25
75
70
and No. 7
and F, 8", handled
15
20
K
& F, 8", handled
Slim taper triangular file, 6"
1 Disston's Back-saw in frame 14",
3/16" blade
*1 Outside-bevel gouge, Buck Bros., firmer, No. 8, handled
and sharpened, 1"
20
*1 inside-bevel gouge, regular sweep, No. 10, Y^"
*1 Addis carving tool, 3/16", No. 11, round maple handle
45
1 Rat-tail
wood
file,
1
Barber's ratchet brace, No. 33, 8" sweep
1 Miter-box, beech, 12" long, No. 00
1
7
If
90
35
.38
1.40
30
Better ones are Olmstead's Patent No. 3
miller's Fulls Co. No.
10
1.25
15#
4.50
desirable to reduce expense substitute No. 603 for both No. 5
and
No.
8
The
purchased
tools
later.
marked
* are not essential for
beginning
work and may be
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
32
Still larger
ones are the Stanley No. 240, and the Langdou
68, whi^h cost about $9.00.
Acme, No.
1
1
Set twist
(3/32", 4/32", 5/32", 6/32", 7/32")
bits,
Set Russell
Jennings auger-bits
64
(4/16", 5/16", 6/16",
1.40
7/16", 8/16")
*1 Clark's expansive
y
2
bit,
"
to l
/
l
"
57
2
y
Eose countersink, No. 10,
*1 Screwdriver-bit, J^", round blade 4" long
"
4 Bradawls, handled, 1", 1%", iy2
1
1
New
1
0. K. Nailset, 1/16"
Century screwdriver, 4"
25
16
15
1C
07
*2 Carpenter's steel bar clamps, 3'
*2 Aldrich's oiled handscrews, No. 16, 10"
3.20
80
50
*1 Glue-pot
y
"
15
1
Glue-brush,
1
Glass-cutter, No. 10
2
1 Flat varnish
27
brush, No.
54,
1^>", hard, rubber-bound,
30
(for shellac)
2 Cheap tin-bound brushes, EE, 1"
*1 Pike Peerless junior tool-grinder
10
4.00
or 1 Robertson's concave tool-grinder
Drill and Tool Co., Buffalo, N.Y.)
(The Robertson
5.00
or 1 Niagara No. 10 Carborundum tool-grinder
10.00
or 1 Empire tool-grinder (The Empire Tool Co., Albany,
9
2.80
N. Y.)
1
Carborundum
oilstone,
medium and
coarse combined, in
iron box
1
1.15
30
quire sandpaper, No. 00
1 quire sandpaper,
Supplementary
1 hand-drill,
Drills,
list
No.
30
1
of
metalworking
No. 04
Morse's, No. 17,
1 each,
tools:
40, 45, 50, 55, 60
1
Iron
"It is
vise,
1.40
Nos. 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35,
Parker's No. 30, oval slide
71
1.15
well to learn to grind one's own tools as early as possible, but ihe
may be saved if there is another available, in a
expense of the grinder
neighboring shop.
33
EQUIPMENT
1 Pair
88
end cutting nippers, No. 154, 5"
Pair Compton's metal snips, No. 12, 2"
Pair flatnosed pliers, No. 1806^, 5"
1
1
1 Mill bastard
Mill smooth
1
Wood
file,
file,
Among
Devoe
&
St.,
15
8", safe edge, handled
15
some simple
such on the market are
Craftsman Stain, dark brown, No.
cuse, N. Y.
Pulton
58
handled
It is well to begin with
Stains.
prepared.
8", safe edge,
63
2,
stain, already
:
1
quart for $1.00, Syra-
Kejmolds, Penetrating Oil Stain, 1 quart for 70c, 101
N.Y.
The Bridgeport Wood Finishing
Co.,
Penetrating Oil Stain,
1
pint, 20c, 155 Fulton St.
Wax.
The
ient prepared
easiest finish to apply
form
Bridgeport
25c a pint.
and repair
is
A
wax.
conven-
is:
Wood
Finishing Company's Old Dutch Finish, price,
Supplies. Nails, screws, etc., are now commonly put up in convenient packages, and would better be purchased as needed. Explicit
directions will be given in each lesson as to what to obtain.
A box
divided into compartments, or a set of boxes so divided, which may
be stacked in a set of drawers, will add greatly to the convenience of
handling nails and screws. Until this is provided they may be kept
in their paper packages
10
.
Glue. "Star" glue (imported) is the strongest, but it sets quickly.
Peter Cooper's White Glue is excellent, and comes in convenient form.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
William Noyes.
Handzvork
in
Wood.
Manual Arts
Press,
Peoria,
111.
Price, $2.00.
Hammacher, Schlemmer &
and I3th
Ira S. Griffith.
111.
10
Co.,
Tools, Catalogue No. 355, N. Y., 4th Ave.
St.
Essentials of
Woodworking.
Manual Arts
For descriptions of the various common fastenings,
Wood.
-5
Press,
Peoria,
Price, $1.00.
see
Handwork
in
34
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
a
Fig.
7.
Six sided baskets.
b
CHAPTER IV
A SCRAP-BASKET
In designing a scrap-basket, matters for early consideration are:
The fixing of the essentials.
Of these the size must be approximately determined at the
beginning. For ordinary purposes a waste-basket should not be more
I.
a.
than 14" high, depending
of the desk beside which
than 18" or
the size
it
is
likely
breadth,
it
less
to
may
stand.
As
so far as looks
go
upon
to
be properly be-
tween 7" and 10", depending on
The shape may be
the height.
square, Fig. 9, the easiest construction; or six sided, Fig. 7;
or eight sided; or square with
the corners cut, Fig. 8.
b.
cide
is
used.
The next point to dethe kind of wood to be
Pine
is easier
for a be-
ginner
work, but it is more
than
expensive
cypress or spruce.
Cypress is softer than spruce
to
and hence easier to work, and
has a pleasing grain.
On the
other hand, spruce is stronger.
Take it all in all, cypress answers more requirements.
The
L
more expensive and harder cabinet woods, oak and mahogany, are
Fi
all
-
9
-
scrap-basket,
right for the experienced
worker.
As
to the construction, the simplest is the best; the slats are
nailed to the flat bottom and to a frame consisting of a band of cleats
at or near the top.
If the cleat is made as in Fig. 9 this band or
c.
35
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
36
rail
may
be boxed together very strongly with an end-lap joint as
If the rail is outside the slats, a miter joint should
described below.
be used for appearance sake, Fig. 10. If the top is finished with a
nosing, as in Figs. 10 and 17, the frame will serve as a ready means
of lifting the basket.
On
the other hand, if the basket is finished
with the frame inside it is more
lifted
conveniently
wood
of
or
copper
if
or
handles
leather
are added on two opposite sides.
See Figs. 8 and 11.
II.
With these
we pass to the
Proportions.
essentials fixed,
of
refining
the
proportions.
of width to
The proportion
height should be subtle, not obThe
vious, as 1 to 2 or 2 to 3.
width
changing
slats
them.
slats
the
A
variety of designs
is
possible
by
the
the
planing which, for
is
better kept easy.
Various arrangements of
are
width of the frame.
of
spaces between
width of the
the
vary
themselves increases the
or
a beginner,
Basket with mitered
frames at top and bottom.
increased
number
To
difficulty of
Fig- 10.
be
may
shown in the
slats
illustrations.
by changing the position and
at the very top of the slats with
By putting
a mitered nosing over both slats and cleats, a neat substantial finit
If the frame is lowered, some of the slats
cut
to
be
different
may
lengths and so shaped as to make a pleasing
at
outline
top and bottom. Fig. 19. By the same method a handle
ish is obtained. Fig. 13.
may" be introduced, Fig. 15.
III.
Decoration.
Several features
may
be added for decorative
for example, feet at the corners, perhaps with a little
line carving, Fig. 9 ; lacing, instead of nailing at the corners, Fig. 7 ;
not to speak of the handles already mentioned. For those who have
purposes
as,
working in copper, well designed handles and corner
braces give an added charm to the appearance of the basket.
facilities for
A SCRAP-BASKET
37
The
use of upholstery nails, or large copper tacks (12oz.), with
the heads hammered into knobs or filed square, gives an artistic touch.
See Figs. 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 18.
IV. The Finish. The stain chosen should make the basket har-
monize with
its
Soft browns and grays are the safest.
surroundings.
Dull red or gray-green
may
the
be suitable. Finally
basket
may be
waxed or
oiled
de-
as
scribed below.
The following
direc-
makthe basket shown
tions describe the
ing of
in Fig.
9.
The
scrap basket is
chosen for the first project because it involves
much sawing and
ing, both of
plan-
which pro-
cesses it is essential to
master at
Moreover
is
the
outset.
the
planing
narrow-sur-
chiefly
face planing, which is
easier for the beginner
than
broad
-
surface
planing.
Furthermore,
when the project is successfully
is
Completed
worth having.
Fig-, ll.
it
The following
A
handle well designed for use and beauty.
materials are required
Spruce, cypress, or yellow poplar
2 pieces,
i
%"x8"xi6"
o" o"
%"x8 x8
i/
piece,
,
j
[-or
I
board,
piece heavy
pkg. wire brads, %", No. 18
16 flathead wire nails,
5/6",
No.
i
small can penetrating
tin
prepared
wax
,,
,
x8 x4 o
18.
8 doz. metalene upholstery nails,
or copper tacks, 12 oz.
i
%
2"x2^"
i
i
tin,
_/
\
brown or
oil stain,
green.
brown or green
No. 220
:
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
38
I.
Getting out material.
wood that
is
free
For
this first project select a piece of
from knots, and smoothly planed on both
The
sides.
first
step is
2
get
pieces,
16" long and 8"
to
wide. If you can
get
them exactly
16"
long
at
a
do so; ex-
mill,
perience in mak-
ing lengths will
come
better later
after
some prachandling
If
you
tice in
tools.
must get out the
lengths
proper
Fig
12.
buy one
board
0" long,
and
Slats and nail heads arranged in rhythmic order.
follows:
yourself,
4'
proceed
Select the
38
straightest
edge of the board, and with the
help of the try-square, draw a
line
pencil
this
at
right
angles to
edge far enough
end to avoid any
straight
from
one
"checks"
(splits)
that
may
be
Place the board across
there.
two boxes or other support, letting the marked end project.
Put your
board
the
with
the
flandivork
saw
off
left
knee or foot on
steady it, and
crosscut-saw
(see
in Wood, p. 64),
to
the end of the board
just outside of the mark, Fig.
20.
Be careful when you nearly
reach the end of the cut to
Support the end of the board
A SCRAP-BASKET
with your
ilar
left
hand, so that you
may
39
cut clean to the edge. In a sim
more than 16" long.
way, cut off two other pieces a little
Mark one broad surface for a "work-
ing face."
72.)
mark
in
Wood,
p.
the concave side.
The next
Planing the edges.
to plane one edge of each 16"
II.
step
Handwork
(See
If the board is slightly warped,
is
piece perfectly straight and square with
a broad surface. To do this proceed as
Put one piece in the vise, long
and
edge up,
clamp it firmly. Attend to
follows
the
:
adjustments
(See Handwork
in
of
your
jack-plane.
Wood, pp. 69-72.) Of
these, there are 3 principal ones.
*
cap (2)
to the cutter (1)
justment (7)
ment
;
3,
the
;
2,
the
lateral
1,
the
Y
ad-
adjust-
(9).
Let us
assume that the cutter
(If not, see
sharp.
p. 59).
In the
Handwork
first place,
in
is
Wood,
Fig.
the "cap" or
14.
A deep basket with
made by shortening the
feet
central
slats.
curling iron (2) should be screwed tight
to the cutter (1) so that the edge of the cap is about 1/16" back
from the edge of the cutter. Drop these two into the throat (19)
of the plane, cap up, in such a
way
that the rectangular hole in
fits over the end of the
the cap
"Y adjustment"
(4)
is
(7).
The clamp
now buttoned
over the
clamp screw (5) and the thumb
or
clamp lever (20)
pushed down tight. Now turn
over the plane and look along
piece
the "sole" as in Fig. 21, and see
that the cutter barely projects.
Fig.
of
15.
A broad substantial basket.
^hese numbers refer to the numbers
Handwork in Wood, p. 69.
Y
U Sn0uld
S6e
^ aS
a
tMn
black
of the parts as given in Fig. 101
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
40
line across the shiny surface of the sole, Fig. 22.
far,
bring
If
it
projects too
back by turning the brass set-screw (8). If one corner projects more than the other,
it
adjust
it
by means of the lever for
lateral
Now
adjustment (9).
the plane on the wood.
Grasp the
handle (11)
the
in
firmly
try
right
hand, and the knob (12) firmly in
the left hand. Place the bottom or
sole (16) on the edge of the piece
in the vise, so that only the toe (17)
(the part in front of the cutter),
rests on the wood. Press down hard
on the knob and push the plane
for-
When
ward.
the plane rests firmly
on the wood, press equally on the
knob and handle and then as the
toe passes off the wood, press only
on the handle.
Finish the stroke
with a slight upward swing of tho
Be especially careful not to
plane.
Fig-. 16. Basket with plain copper
handles and corner braces and with feet
of carved blocks.
press
down on
beginning or on the toe at the end of the stroke.
the heel (18) at the
If you do, the sur-
Test
face which you are planing will not be straight but convex.
the edge with the straight arris (the external angle formed by the
union of two surfaces) of the plane, looking to-
ward the light. (Fig. 23.) If the light does
not come evenly between the edge of the board
and the arris of the plane, plane off only the
high part.
pressing
Now
the
test the
head
of
edge for squareness,
the
try-square
against the side of the board and sliding it
until the blade just touches the edge,
Fig.
2-L
Do
this
at
than the other.
several
points
if either, arris is
If the left
hand
.1
firmly
down
the edge, noticing which,
c
t
along
higher
arris is higher,
take off a shaving along that arris using only
the right half of the cutter, that is, letting the
Fig.
17.
Neat
finish for
top of scrap-basket.
A SCRAP-BASKET
Fig.
18.
Fig.
Fig.
Basket with copper handles and
copper nails.
20.
41
Basket with copper
handles and nails.
19.
Using- a crosscut- saw.
Sighting- along the sole of the plane
to see that the cutter is properly adjusted.
Fig-. 21.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
42
left side of the sole of
right side,
and cuts
until- the edge is both straight
Right
Fig
r
3
way
A djustment of plane
1
.
the plane overhang the board more than the
let it wobble.
Repeat these tests
But do not
Fig. 25.
22.
and
square.
If the surface
Wrong way
cutter; sighting
along sole of plane, as
in Fig. 21.
ou are planing appears torn and not glossy, you are planing "across
In that case simply reverse the piece.
the grain."
cil
Eepeat this operation on the other similar 16"
mark, thus =, on this edge for identification.
piece.
Put a pen-
If you obtained your pieces from the mill exactly 16" long, and
sawed square, the next two steps
may be omitted. If you sawed
off
the two pieces yourself, their
To do
ends must be squared.
this fasten one piece in the vise,
end up. Cut
the
knife
off
or
diagonally with
chisel
the
arris
(corner) away from the ed^e
al-
l
ready planed for about /\" , as
shown in
The
ting
off
Fig. 26.
surface formed by cut-
an
arris
is
called
a
chamfer.
Set your plane a little finer
than for planing with the grain,
and plane
this
end in the
di-
rection of the arrow, observing
the same precautions as before.
Fig 23. Testing the st'aightness
an edge with the arris of the plane.
of
This end must now be tested not only for straightness and for squareness with the surface, but for squareness with the edge already planed,
A SCRAP-BASKET
43
Next measure exactly 16" from this end and, with a sharp
knife-point and try-square, draw a fine line at right angles to the finished edge. Saw off the surplus outside of this line. Cut off the arris
Fig. 27.
away from the
as
proceed
finished edge
and
before.
Finally plane the other edge,
make
taking pains to
it
perfectly
parallel to the first edge.
all these processes
Eepeat
on the other
16" piece.
III.
out
Laying
We
are
the
slats
now ready
for the
the
slais.
to lay out
basket.
This
done by drawing gage lines
on the two opposite faces of
is
To do
both boards.
ceed as follows
The
this pro-
:
drawn
Fig. 24. Testing- an edge for squareness.
shown in Fig. 28. The spin
of the marking-gage should project fiom the beam about a quarter of
an inch and should be sharpened (filed) to an edge as shown in Fig.
29, and in Handwork in Wood, Fig. 212.
By having the spur long
and turning the beam of the gage so that it rides on an arris, the
spur will mark smoothly and evenly. Holding the marking-gage in
lines
are to be
as
the left hand, and the rule in
lg
^
gggf**^
V
,
WF^"
t
the right hand (See Handwork
in Wood, Fig. 213), set the clistance from the head of the
marking
-
gage
3/16" and
thumb-screw.
?.t
gage
(Fig. 214,
in
ppur
tighten
Now hold
board with the
the
the
to
the
the
hand and
right hand
left
the
Handwork
in
Wood}.
Be careful not to grasp the
beam as if it were a handle, but
Fig. 25.
turn the wrist to the
thumb
left
so
on the beam behind the spur. Do not try to
make a scratch at first, but run the gage up and down the board
that the
presses
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
44
with the beam resting on one arris, Fig. 29, and the head sliding along
the edge of the board (as in Fig. 214, Handwork in Wood).
Now little by little roll the
beam toward you
until the spur
just begins to scratch.
ticing in this
while,
you
gage
a line
edge.
The
way
will
By
prac-
for a little
soon learn
parallel
to
with the
difficulty that
most
beginners experience comes from
trying to scratch a deep line at
once, and in not getting the
The
pressure behind the spur.
Arris chiseled off to prevent splintering in planing- end wood.
Fig-. 26.
finest line that is visible is best.
As the
and the head of the gage
you are not succeeding
the gage steadily.
If
one board, and
the result
if
distance between the upur
increases, so does the difficulty of
too bad, plane off the
well, practice
holding
on only
is
scratched
and try again and again
surface,
you can use the gage well.
(See p. 48 for broad surface planIt is better to lose one
ing.)
until
board than two.
Now
gage this 3/16" line on
both broad surfaces from the same
Then others on both
edge.
broad
from
surfaces
edge, and
then
others
the other
on
the
other 16" board in the same way.
Now
add *4" setting the gage
at 7/16"
and gage again the
Then add another
eight lines.
3/16", making ^" and gage
',
Add another %", and so
again.
on, until you have 28 3/1 6" spaces,
counting from both edges of
both boards.
F g
,
27
Testing squareness of end.
45
A SCRAP-BASKET
IV.
Ripping
off
the
slats.
When
the two boards are properly gaged, they are next to be
rip-sawed up into
slats.
Tcerfs are to be down
middle of the Y^" spaces.
saw
The
the
To
be sure of making no mistake,
it is well to draw a pencil line
where the kerfs are
To saw proceed
to be.
as follow?
:
Fasten one board in the vise as
in Fig 30, i. e., with the jaws
of the vise pressing the edges
of the board, and the board in-
Fig. 48. tiaged line* on piece to be sawed
into slats. The saw-kerfs are to be in the
middle of the %" spaces.
Eest the left hand on the top
clined back from the perpendicular.
end of the board with the thumb so held that it acts as a guide in
starting the saw. The saw to be
used
is
the rip-saw (see
Handwork
Wood, p. 63). Hold it in the
right hand so that the line of the
teeth and the surface of the board
make quite an acute angle; that
is, drop the right hand down as
low as possible. Put the saw in
in
proper position for making the
cut, and be careful to hold up the
Fig.
29.
How the beam
gage runs on
saw so that the teeth will rest
of a
marking-
on the
its arris.
arris as lightly as possi-
If these directions are followed, it will not be necessary to
ble.
by drawing the saw toward you, but the
push and
^^^^^^^^^
a false start
be
a
will cut properly.
Now
saw
first
I
away
the pencil line in
the middle of the
%"
space, watch
ing the line
closely
looking
and
on
also
the
Fig.
30.
Ripping with wood held
in vise.
make
stroke will
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
46
back to see
to "run'
7
if
the kerf
is
in the middle of the space.
If the
saw tends
to one side of the line, say the right side, pull it back nearly
to its point, twist the handle a little to the left,
strokes until the kerf
and take
a
few short
in the proper place again. If the cut is going
may be necessary to turn the board back side
is
badly on the back, it
front, until the kerf is right there.
Saw about half way thru the board, then turn the other end
and saw the other half.
After sawing
off
edge up, and plane
it
Fig. 31.
up
the strip, put the board in the side-vise, sawn
down to the next gage line, being careful not to
Device for holding- thin strips for planing.
go below it and yet to make the edge true. This is slightly more diffiThen saw off
cult than it was to plane it true in the first place.
another strip as before, plane up the edge of the board, and so on,,
number of strips (28) have been sawn off.
time one should know how to rip-saw well. By cutting 14
until the necessary
this
from each board, a part of each board
will be left
By
slats
which should be
saved to be used later for the frame.
V.
Planing up the
slats.
The
slats are
now
to be planed
on the
If your bench has a tail vise, fasten one of the
strips between the stop in the vise and the bench-stop, placed in that
side still rough.
47
A SCRAP-BASKET
hole which
is
at the right distance,
and plane
The same can be done between the
ness.
the proper thickvise-dog and the benchit to
stop in the Sheldon vise, but since the parts are of iron, special pains
To
to prevent the plane cutter from hitting the iron.
must be taken
Another
avoid this danger, put in a temporary wooden bench-stop.
device for facilitating the planing of these thin
strips,
is
shown in Fig. 31 and can be readily
made, as follows
In any convenient piece of wood, 18" or so
long, cut a dado J^" deep, and 1" from one end, just
:
wide enough to hold tightly a thin strip of wood
be J/" less
(say %" wide). Let the distance
than the length of the strips to be planed up. In-
AB
between the vise-dog and the benchthe
strip to be planed lie in the space
stop letting
A-B. Raise the vise-dog so that it will engage the
strip. Then tighten the vise just enough to hold it
sert this device
firmly.
Plane up
all
End
Fig-. 32.
the strips to the required thickness.
If any are
make
spoiJed, as is likely to be the case, in this first project,
of slat.
others,
but save the spoiled ones until the basket is done.
Next trim off the arrises (corners) at one end of each of the
see Fig. 32.
First
mark
slats,
carefully J/" from the end and then draw
the
with
diagonal
sharp
pencil
The
sliding Tee-bevel.
neatest
angle
with a
33.
at
way
is
a
and the
to cut this
by slicing
it off
see
Fig.
chisel,
Cut these angles
one end only.
VI. Making the bot-
tom.
Inasmuch
thickness
Fig-. 33.
Slicing- off
an
arris
with a chisel.
nal
of the
boards
the width
as
the
origi-
and hence
of the slats
not be exactly %", in order to find out the exact size of the bottom proceed as follows: Lay seven slats close together, side by side,
measure their total width and add six times 3/16", (the space be-
may
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
48
tween the
bottom.
j
or l /s"
in
slats)
all.
Let us assume that the
The
total is the exact size of the
slats are exactly
%"
Then
wide.
tke proper size for the bottom will be 34" x 7%" x 7j4".
This is to
be made next, and this involves
broad surface planing.
Fasten
the board flat on the bench, be-
tween the tail-vise-dog and the
bench-stop,
running
lengthwise
If -the board
bench.
Testing a planed su rf ace for flatness by using the arris of the plane.
Fig. 34.
and but very
of
grain
the
at all
is
warped, plane the convex side
first. Before beginning to
plane,
glance
plane,
cutter projects evenly
the
proper
little
down the
sole
of
the
Fig. 21, to see that the
beyond the
sole.
Test the
surface for flatness by placing the long arris of the plane on the
surface in various directions, lengthwise, crosswise, and diagonally
and looking toward the light, as in Fig. 34. If there are high places,
plane them off first. Work carefully, planing only such parts as need
it. When the surface is flat,
plane
over the whole surface from end
to
working from left to
and back again until the
end,
right,
whole surface
smoothed.
is
this surface with a single
thus
.
:
This
Mark
mark,
indicates
the
"working face." Now plane one
edge true and mark it with two
This indicates
marks, thus
=
.
the "working edge." It is important to form early this habit of
marking
Next draw
one's work.
with a sharp pencil and a straight
edge, a line 7j4" from,
lel
to the working
and paral-
edge.
Fig.
35.
Scoring with a knife
along the try-square.
Since
number of inches on the marking-gage,
the most convenient method is to measure the distance near each end,
and at right angles to the working edge, and then to rule a light
this
distance
exceeds the
A SCRAP-BASKET
49
between these two points. Next score with the knife and tryof the piece. The working
square, as in Fig. 35, a line near one end
line
now appear
as in Fig. 36.
the corner A, as in Fig. 36, put the piece end up in the
Test this end
side vise, and plane off the end to the scored line.
face will
Cut
with
off
the
square,
that it
with
try-
to
__.^^_^__^_^^_____^^^__
see
is square
both the
B
working face and
the working edge.
Then measure exactly the length,
7^4", and score it
with knife and
the
C
Cut
try-square.
off
corner
outside the width
Fig.
How
36.
the working face looks
Plane the width, 7^4"?
To
to the ruled line.
Use the
piece should now be perfectly
measurement
see
that the diagonals are equal
verify your
=
AC BD.
With the marking-gage
in length.
for
The
try-square constantly for testing.
square.
when marked
planing end AB.
and
plane
up the other end.
line,
set at
24", gage
from the working face
both edges and both ends of the board. Now plane down the other
broad surface to the line thus gaged, being very careful not to plane
any portion too much. The best way is to plane off the high places
and then by working back and forth across the board to reduce
ihe whole surface evenly. Stop when you have just split the gaged
first
line.
VII.
Making
the frame.
The next
step is to get ready
the
frame, which binds the slats together near the top. From one
of the pieces left from making the slats, dress up one piece, %"
Smooth the two broad surfaces,
thick, 1^4" wide, and 16" long.
taking as fine shavings as possible.
Plane true one edge of the piece, and gage a line 1^4" from the
Saw off the surplus and plane to the line. Now gage two
edges.
lines,
5/16" from each broad
face.
Saw between
these two lines,
and
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
50
plane up the rough surfaces. Each of the two strips should be 5/16"
thick. Cut each of these in two crosswise in the center making 4 cleats.
'The pieces made thus far may now be sandpapered. Tear a sheet
of
No. 1 sand-
paper into four
An
pieces.
way
to
easy
do this
to place
it,
is
sand
down, so that the
middle of the
sheet
lies
along
the front arris of
the bench.
the
left
With
hand
hold the part on
the bench down
With the
hand
holdright
flat.
Fig-. 37.
Tearing sandpaper.
ing
the
other
half give a quick
downward stroke which will tear the paper straight in two, Fig. 37.
Eepeat on each half. Fold one quarter neatly around a small block
Fig. 38.
Method
of making-
and
joining-
frame of waste-basket.
A SCRAP-BASKET
51
wood (say 3" wide) and with this tool, sandpaper with the grain
every surface of each piece, and also touch off the sharp arrises.
Villa. Making the frame (end lapped). First with a couple of
of
brads (1J4" No. 15) nail all four cleats together, keeping the sides
and one end perfectly flush,
and letting the heads project
so
that the brads
moved
together
can be
re-
Miter-
Then saw them
later.
miter-box
the
in
Box
to
\
exactly the length of one side
Next
of
the bottom
7?4".
measure carefully 5/16" from
Bench'
both ends and draw a line half
across
on one surface, and con-
nect with these lines two other
A B, Fig. 38.
in
bunch
the miterthe
Place
center lines as at
box again, and saw on the outside of the lines
A B,
and
fully chisel out these returns.
appear as
C
D
in
F'ig. 38.
Fig". 39.
Miter-box
in vise.
care-
Take the
Now
cleats apart
and each
will
nail the four together into a frame,
reversing two of them so that the projection of two of them will
in Fig. 38. Nail both ways.
fit into the return of the next ones as
VIII &. Making the frame (mitered).If the cleats binding the
E
slats together are fastened,
not inside of the
Fig. 10, the ends should be mitered.
Mitering is done in the miter-box.
one, fasten
it
in the vise so that
Fig. 40.
it will
slats,
but outside, as in
If you have a simple wooden
be rigid, as in Fig. 39. Place
Cross-cleats for scrap-basket.
one of the cross-cleats in the trough of the miter-box, edge up, and
with the back-saw slid into one of the 45 kerfs, cut off the cleal
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
52
Now measure accurately
outside length), put the saw in the other 45 kerf
and saw off the other ends. Each cleat will now be of the shape
near the end.
the length
Do
this for all 4 cleats.
(7%"
shown in
Fig. 40.
cleat to see that the
Test each
end
is
with the edge, and that
of the
same length.
square
all
are
If not, the
ends can be trimmed with a chisel.
is
A
convenient way to do this
shown in Fig. 41. Place the
cleat, long side down, on benchhook, the acute angle against
With
cleat of the bench-hook.
chisel pare off
Fig. 41.
Trimming a
miter.
face until
it
sawn mitered
is
true.
sur-
See that
miter at
four cleats are alike, 7]
long, and with a true 45
In order to test this, set your sliding Tee-bevel at an
each end.
angle of 45, as follows: Measure accurately both ways from the
all
corner of a
known
right angle.
Set the head of your sliding Tee-
bevel against one
edge and set the
blade so that
will
it
touch
just
these two points,
as in Fig. 42.
The
acute angle
45. If
be
will
you have an
curate
iron
ac-
mi-
cut a
ter - box,
true 45 angle on
a piece about 3"
wide,
and
your
Tee-bevel
by
.
this.
set
In case
Fig-. 42.
C
Setting a sliding- Tee-bevel to an angle of 45
the cross-cleats are mitered, as in Fig. 40, it is necessary to reinforce the joints by means of tin or copper angles.
These are made
A SCRAP-BASKET
thus:
53
With the scratch awl or a
draw a center line (di-
sharp nail
ameter) thru a piece of tin
2" X2J/2". On this center line lay
off four y%' spaces.
With the
scratch awl and sliding Tee-bevel
set at 45, draw oblique lines
both ways from the center line as
shown in Fig. 43. With the snips
(or a pair of strong scissors) cut
out the four braces in the shape
shown in Fig. 44. Each one
should be just less than 5/16"
wide. With a small nailset punch
four holes in each piece as shown
in Fig. 44. The best way to do this
lead, but a piece of
Fi ^- 43
is
hard wood will
-
Lay-out of the
tin traces.
by placing the tin on a piece of
Do
do.
bench.
not use the top of the
flatten out the tins.
Then
Next nail together the frame
by means of the tin braces and
the y' flat head nails as shown
in Fig. 45.
The joints may also
be strengthened by driving brads
(%", No. 18)
To do
Fig.
44.
Tin brace.
when the brad
just meet.
corners,
IX.
Do
and lay
is
at
ABC,
fasten
Fig. 45.
X
one piece
end up, start
firmly in the vise,
the nails A and B in the other
piece (Y). Force the end of piece
that
this
driven
home
Y
a little
beyond the end of
.Y, so
the outer arrises of the miter will
this with all the
aside.
Assembling.
The
parts
are
now ready
On
one long arris of one of the
out with a sharp pencil
to
be assembled.
r
\
slats, lay
and a
rule,
the position of the
slats as in Fig. 46.
Using
this as
a pattern, lay out the same dis-
Fig.
45.
Tin brace nailed
to cleats.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
54
tances on all the upper arrises of the bottom, and on the corresponding arrises of the frame. Next, nail the slats to the bottom piece, as
in' Fig. 47,
that one a
driving only one brad (%" No. 18) thru each slat, and
away from the center, so as not to interfere with the
little
>&
Position of slats.
Fig-. 46.
upholstery nail, which will be driven in later, and yet near enough
by the head of the upholstery
to the center so that it will be covered
The lower end
nail.
of each slat will be just flush with the lower
surface of the bottom.
The next
step is to nail the slats to the cross-cleats
which have
already been joined together into a frame.
Measure 1/4" from the top end of the four corner slats on the
Lay the basket on its side and drive brads from the inside
inside.
of the basket thru the cross-piece just far enough into the corner
hold the frame in place. Later these brads are to be removed.
slats to
See that the basket stands square in all parts. Now with upholstery
These nails
nails, nail each slat in its proper place to the frame.
should be in two rows, so disposed that the point of each nail is in
the vertical center of the slat, and half an inch from one edge of the
frame, as shown in Fig. 48.
In order to have something solid to nail against, open the vise
wide enough so that the inside of the basket can rest on the outer
Or cut a
of
wood
jaw.
stick
the
just
length
snugly between two oppoto
fit
site
and
cross-cleats,
fit
i
t
between
L
them. Or, someFig- 47.
Arrangement
of slats.
thing heavy like
a
hammer
or a flat iron,
the other drives the nail.
jects thru, clinch it; that
ceed until
all
be held inside with one hand, while
If the point of the upholstery nail pro-
may
is,
drive
the nails are driven.
it
against a piece of iron.
Pro-
A SCRAP-BASKET
The
X.
feet.
The
construction of the basket
55
may now
be con-
sidered done, but it will be improved in looks by the addition of
little feet at the four corners, see Figs. 9 and 49.
They may be
made
in
this
way: From
a
%"
board, 16" long,
saw
off
and plane
two pieces to $/'
thick. In the miter-box cut these
into 4 equal rect-
angular
\
pieces
From
7" long.
the
rectangular
end, cut out with
the back-saw and
trim
with
the
chisel returns as
A
in Fig. 49. Cut
each of these in
two in the miterbox at an angle
of 45
makino*
Fig.
48.
Arrangement of upholstery
nails.
the shape shown in Fig. 49. Holding the piece in the vise for convenience, with the veining tool, or the sharp point of a knife, cut
the long outer arris.
(See HandThese feet may now be nailed in pairs on
out the decoration and chamfer
work in Wood,
p. 184.)
Fig. 49.
off
Feet of scrap-basket.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
56
corners
the
of
the bottom, prooutside
jecting
of the slats just
the width of the
chamfer.
Fig.
XI.
Fig.
is
now ready
50.
Letter tray
to be stained.
made
of slats.
51.
Finish-
The basket
First see that all surfaces are smooth and
clean and free from pencil marks.
Fig.
ing.
See
7.
Box
Pour a
little
screed for flowerpot.
of the prepared
A SCRAP-BASKET
brown
57
and begin to apply with a brush on the inside
After staining a portion and before it dries, wipe the
with cotton waste (obtainable at a paint store) or with an
stain in a cup,
of the basket.
stain off
old
wipe
Then
24:
In this way stain
cloth.
and
the
entire
surface.
the stain thoroly dry,
hours, before waxing with
let
"Old Dutch
wax
is
ing
the
Smear
Finish."
hard, soften
it
a brush,
can
in
If
it
the
by plac-
hot
water.
over the surface with
and
let
it
dry
over
Then rub with
a piece
night.
of soft cloth, cheese cloth, for
instance.
the better
The
more
will
No more wax
is
rubbing
be the
polish.
needed.
The
first
principal processes in this
project are the sawing and
planing of a number of cleats.
Other projects involving the
Fig-. 52.
Leaf
press.
same processes are (1) the letter tray shown in Fig. 50. The slats
on the sides and bottom are rabbeted into the ends and nailed in place
with brads.
(2) The box screen in which a flower-pot may stand,
Fig. 51.
The
construction of this
(3) The
frames each made
basket.
leaf-press,
Fig.
is
52.
the same as that of the scrap
This consists of a pair of
of seven slats nailed to four cleats.
tied tight together with a
bunch of newspapers between.
These are
58
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
Fig. 53.
Picture-frame-clamp.
Round-head screw, /fe
Fig-. 54.
Picture frame-clamp.
",
/]/o.
/?.
V
CHAPTER
PICTUEE-FEAME-CLAMP
A
Design.
purpose well.
its
is
of
As shown
In Fig.
quirement.
good design when it serves
in Fig. 53, this clamp meets this re54, the details of its construction are made
picture-frame-clamp
The two long arms, A, A, by pivoting on a hinge, and by
means of a series of holes in them, make it possible to adjust the
plain.
to frames varying in proportions and sizes, while the two
small pieces, C, G, into the 90 angles of which the frame fits, are
clamp
A
made
adjustable by pivoting at these holes.
pair of these clamps
for
one
frame.
When set up as shown in Fig.
necessary
gluing up
53, the joints of the frame are pulled tight into place by means of a
is
As here designed,
handscrew.
this
will serve for
clamp
frames
from 6"x9" to 18"x24:". To
be of use it must be accurate, but
there is no necessity for making
it
over-nice.
The woods
low poplar
and easy
selected are yelFig. 55 Method of perpendicular chiseling.
(medium strength
to
work) and maple
(very strong). But
be used thruout.
if
the clamp
is
to be used often,
maple should
Finish. To prevent the glue in the picture-frame from sticking
to the clamp, a coat of boiled linseed oil is applied all over the clamp.
The following materials
are required:
Yellow poplar, or other medium strong wood, %"x6^"xi7",
Maple or oak, %"xi IA"x26",
"
8 round-head screws, i l/2 No. 12,
And
I.
a
little
Making
boiled linseed
the arms.
oil.
is sharp and
Wood, pp. 76 and 58).
be of yellow poplar and each is
First see that your plane
otherwise in good order (See
Handwork
The long
to
pieces
(arms)
are
59
in
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
60
%"x l /2 "x
l
16" in
size.
To
get
them
out,
smooth one broad
first
then plane one edge of the board straight and
a
line
from this edge, rip-saw it off, dress up the
1^"
Gage
square.
and
until
repeat,
you have the four required pieces.
edge again,
surface, if
it
needs
it,
Plane these pieces to
1^"
wide.
With the back-saw saw
off
one end
of each piece square in the mi-
With the
ter-box.
dividers, lay
out a quarter-circle on the broad
side of the other end of each
5. Next trim
piece, Fig.
off
the
waste by sawing off the corner
and then by means of "perpendicular
in
(Handwork
chiseling"
Wood, pp. 56-58). Or
chisel-
ing alone may be em ployed. Proceed as follows
Lay one of the
pieces flat on a piece of waste
:
wood
or a cutting board. Grasp
the handle of the 1" chisel, in
the right hand,
56,
72)
thumb
(Handwork
and
let
the
up, Fig.
Wood, Fig.
blade of the
between the thumb
chisel pass
and the
in
first
finger of the left
hand, which rests, back down,
on the work, and holds it in
place.
the
The
chisel
right
hand pushes
downward, and the
left hand controls its position.
Trim off the waste outside the
quarter circle, a little at a time.
If more force is required push with your chest against the end of
the chisel handle.
If still more force is needed, use the mallet in
Fig.
56.
Perpendicular chiseling.
your right hand, grasping the blade of the chisel in your left hand
(Handwork in Wood, Fig. 76). Always work around from the side
end (Fig. 75, Handwork in Wood) ; otherwise you are likely
When you have cut nearly to the line, set the
in
the vise so that the quarter circle is up, and
piece up diagonally
to the
to split the piece.
PICTURE-FRAME-CLAMP
61
shavings with the chisel, flat side down (as in Fig. 74,
The right hand pushes the chisel forward
in Wood).
while the left thumb pushes it sidewise, thus giving a diagonal
cut. Trim all the pieces
off
pare
Handwork
in
this
method
curve
Another
way.
trimming a
by means of the
of
is
This is in
spokeshave.
reality a plane with a
short sole, so
order
that
made
in
cutter
the
can follow curves.
It is
held in both hands as
in Fig. 57, and
be
either
pulled.
it
may
pushed
or
Before begin-
ning to use
the cutter
it,
see that
Fig.
57.
Using- the spokeshave.
In the kind recommended
sharp and properly set.
width
of
the
the
throat
30)
may be adjusted by means
is
above (p.
of the thumb-screw.
This also
alters
With
the depth of the cut.
this
off
trim
too]
the
circle.
quarter
By turnblade
the
ing
diagonally to the
the
direction of
will
it
cut,
found
more
to
easily
be
work
and
reliably.
Next gage a
center line from
end to end on
both broad sides
of
Fig.
Stepping- off distances with the dividers
1^" between points and beginning
and prick in this center line 7 points, Fig.
viders at
off
58.
each
Then
piece.
set the di-
at the square end, step
58.
Eepeat this process
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
62
on the other side and do it on all four pieces. Then set the compass
and starting from each point already pricked,
7
other
toward
the rectangular end. Also make a mark
prick
points
at YZ" between points
on the center line 1J4" from the other (quadrantal) end.
Now
first
bore the holes,
the 7/16" holes at
the points first pricked,
then the ^4" holes, at
the
Riahr
points
these.
Fig. 59
Shape of holes
hand the
To
J^"
from
insert the bit
in picture-f rame-clamp.
in the brace,
hold
by
upward, and revolve
the handle with the other hand until the jaws open enough to receive
the tang of the bit entire. Drop in the 7/16" bit, and reverse the
motion until the bit is firmly gripped (Fig. 186, Handwork in Wood).
the left
sleeve of the chuck, pointing it
Fasten one of the 16" pieces in the vise (Fig. 137, Handwork in
Wood) flat side up, taking care to have it parallel with the top of
the bench in order to help bore straight. Take the brace in the right
hand and the bit in the left, and insert the point of the bit in the
prick 1J^" inch from the end. Now grasp the knob of the brace in
the hollow of the left hand. Set the try-square upright near the work
Fig.
and sight from two
60.
Plane cutter and cap.
directions, at right angles to each other, so as to
perpendicular (Fig. 137, Handwork in Wood).
Revolve the handle clockwise, bore about half way thru, then bore the
1
from the first) and so on, till all the holes in one
next hole (I /*"
see that the bit
is
PICTURE-FRAME-CLAMP
63
revolutions while boring, you can
the piece over and bore in the corresponding pricks on the other side. Bore the holes in all the pieces.
Remember that unless the work is accurate, the clamp will be of no
By counting the
Turn
to stop.
side are bored.
when
quickly learn
in the brace and bore the other
use as a clamp. Then insert the
Bore a ^4" hole at the mark which is
set of holes in the same way.
%"
1J4" from quadrantal end.
l
The next step is to cut out the space between each J/" and /\"
Lay one piece
hole, making a buttonhole shaped opening, Fig. 59.
down
flat
on the cutting board.
lar chiseling (see above), cut out
Grasp the chisel as for perpendicuan opening between the two holes,
V-shaped in cross-section, but tangent to the outside
Graduof the small hole; that is, parallel to the sides of the piece.
until
Turn the piece over and repeat
you can
ally deepen this cut.
which
shall be
cut clear thru
the Y^" hole
Cut
it.
the
all
the opening is tangent to the outside of
There are 28 of these
thru, as in Fig. 59.
till
way
openings to cut.
II.
wood.
Making
They are
Next prepare the small pieces of hard
thick, 1^" wide, so plane them while they
the blocks.
all
are all in one piece.
%"
In planing this hard wood, be content with takOtherwise your plane is likely to be "choked."
ing quite fine shavings.
But
does choke, do not try to pick the shavings out of the throat
with another tool. This is likely to injure the cutter. Rather take
if it
the cutter out of the plane by first removing the clamp. If the shavings are wedged between the cutter and the cap, loosen the screw
which holds them together using the edge of the clamp as a screwdriver, and remove the shavings and reset the cap, placing the edge of
the cap quite close to the er'ge of the cutter (1/32").
See Fig. 60.
Re-insert the cutter in the plane, adjust it carefully and proceed.
When the piece is properly
planed up, saw
it
up into the
Before
fitter
5a wing
right lengths; namely, 6 pieces,
3^"
long.
Set the sliding Tee-bevel at
45
out 2
ends
(see
52)
p.
and
of
4
mark
angles on both
of the pieces, as
internal
shown in the drawing.
with the chisel a
little
Fig. 61.
Me
hod of sawing- stop blocks of
Pic ure frame camp.
1
Set these diagonally in the vise;
of the arris across the thickness,
trim
oft
and with the
back-saw, saw out the angle as accurately as possible, Fig. 61.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
64
If
an accurate miter-box
is
available (like the Stanley or
Lang-
don) these notches may be accurately cut thus: Cut a 45 angle on
a .piece of wood 4" wide, and clamp this to the fence of the miter-box
in such a position that the saw
will just rest
on the end
arris
of one of the 3^4" pieces as in
Saw to the center and
Fig. 62.
repeat.
Smooth up the
cuts with
a
sharp chisel-, testing them to
see that they are square with
the broad side and make a true
90
Fig-. 62.
Cutting- notches in
ends of blocks
angle with each other.
On
each of these four blocks
in the
1^" from
one end
and
(number stamped
on the tang), bore a hole partly thru, and screw in a round-headed
screw (l/^" No. 12) until the head is %" from the surface, as shown
locate a point
miter-box.
in the center sidewise, with a No. 5 gimlet-bit
in the drawing. You should be able to button this firmly into one of
the openings which you have made in the long pieces.
Next prepare the hinge pieces (%"xl^"x3^4"). Bore a hole
(with No. 5 gimlet-bit) )4" from each end, part way thru. Slip a
round-head screw (1^" No. 12) thru the hole at the quadrantal end
of one of the long pieces and screw it into the hole just made in the
hinge piece. The hinge piece should be screwed firmly down to the
long piece but the joint should turn easily.
Insert screws in all 4 of these holes, making two hinged parts.
oil all the parts with a coat of boiled linseed oil and wipe off
Now
with cotton waste.
Other projects involving the boring of holes are shown in Fig. 63.
b
Fig.
63.
c
Projects involving boring.
CHAPTER VI
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
I.
THE FRAMING OF PICTURES
The
first thing to do in making a picture-frame is to select the
such details as the use of a mat, the size, proportion,
because
picture,
and
decoration
of the frame, all depend upon the character of
tone,
the
picture.
framing.
To
Furthermore, the picture should be one well worth
not beautiful, is but to honor
select a picture that is
what should be ignored.
To be able to frame good pictures
well, then, is the ideal to be
make picture-frames.
suggestions here given are intended to apply only to the
selection and the framing of comparatively small pictures, such as
kept in
mind
in learning to
The
and chromolithographic reproductions and Japanese
In these days of cheap reproduction, good pictures of
are inexpensive and readily secured.
In the periodicals
photographic
color prints.
this class
are to be found excellent reproductions of the
work of some
of the
greatest living artists, such as Maxfield Parrish, Jules Guerin,
John
W. Alexander, Edwin Abbey, Frank Brangwyn, Gari Melcher, Pamela
Colman Smith, and Jessie Wilcox Smith, to mention a few. Also
Japanese color prints as well as photographic reproductions of universally recognized European and American masters may be procured at
the best art stores.
For the novice, a sufficiently safe guide to the choice of good pictures, is to select from the works of these artists.
However, a study
of Prof. Arthur W. Dow's "Composition," would go a long way
toward enabling the student to select wisely his own pictures for
framing.
When it is remembered that the frame is made for the picture
and not the picture for the frame, then it follows that the frame is
to be so designed as to set off the picture to the best advantage.
As to the adaptation of the frame to the picture, in the
place, the
mat may properly be considered
65
5
as a part of the frame.
first
It,
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
66
Whether
like the frame, is a device to give a setting to the picture.
or not a
mat
somewhat
to be included in the
framing of the picture, depends
on the location of the picture in the room, as well as the
is
idea one has in
mind
fram-
in
ing the picture,
and the character of
the
pic-
ture.
In
favor
the mat,
it is
of
to
remembered
an
that
ordi-
be
nary
mitered
frame by itself
involves the necessity of having all the margins around the picture
equal in width; whereas, by the use of a mat, this monotony can be
avoided and a subtle and pleasing variety produced, as in Fig. 64.
As to the size of the mat: If there is to be a mat it should be
Fig-. 64.
The mat makes
possible ;he introduction of interesting proportions in the framing.
A
mat that is only
large enough to be effective.
a little larger than a picture looks as tho it were
a mere device for splicing out the picture to fit
the frame.
On
the other hand the picture should
not look lost in the mat.
As to the width of the margins of the mat:
one consideration to be borne in mind is the
shape of the entire frame resulting from the introduction of a mat. As a general rule it is safe
to say that the
margins should not be such as to
produce a square frame for an oblong picture.
See Fig. 65. A little observation will show that
squareness in either picture or frame
monly avoided by artists. An oblong
monotonous
and
hence
is
com-
Fig. 65. The upper
arrangement of spaces
is good because it conforms to the proportions of the
is
less
more pleasing than a
picture.
The lower one
is
not
good because the
sqnaie frame is out of
harmony with thet
long picture.
square, just as an ellipse or other varied curve
is more pleasing than a circle.
As to the proportions of the oblong,,
simple multiples are to be avoided ; that is, the ratio of the short side
to the
long side should be not simply 1 to 2 or 2 to
subtle relation.
3,
but a more-
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
67
If the margins around a picture are
widened uniformly on all
what was originally a pleasing rectangle will lose its good
proportions, but they may be kept good by increasing the length of
the mat more than its width, Fig. 65.
It is a
safe rule for the amateur never to place a picture
sides,
D
elsewhere than in the vertical center of the mat,
nor to place a horizontal picture in a vertical
frame, as in Fig. 66.
Such arrangements are in
danger of appearing like affectations.
To secure harmonious color and value in the
These arFigr. 66.
rangements are likely
to look
tions.
like
affecta-
frame, the same tones and values that predominate in the picture
be repeated in the frame; for instance, for Maxfield Parish's
may
^^_
''An 'mini/'
_
Ip]
Fig.
The frame
67.
finished
is
in
matchyellows
ing the color in
the picture.
Or
the
de-
harmony
sired
may
be
se-
cured by the introduction of a
strong contrast,
as a blue mat for
a
picture
prein
dominating
orange. Or,
a
contrast
for
values,
are
in
photoa white
mat with
Plain oak frame, stained a grolden brown to harmonize with the predominant yellow tone of the picture.
Maxfield Parrish's "Autumn."
As
67.
to the width of a frame,
will definitely
and
it is difficult
easily solve all cases, but a
used
graphs,
as
Fig.
in
in-
where
stance
grays
for
frame
is
a black
effec-
tive.
to make any rules that
few suggestions may be
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
68
found
serviceable.
The width
of a
frame and
value bear a close
its
relation, in their effect on a picture, as follows:
wide frame finished dark is appropriate for a picture predominating in darks and massive in treatment, as in Fig. 68.
A
Or a wide frame
light in value
and
finished light (Fig. 69) sets off well a picture
broad in treatment, and so on, thru all the inter-
mediate grades from very dark to very light.
A narrow frame finished very dark, looks well around a picture
where darks are used sparingly and delicately, as in some Japanese
See
prints.
70,
Figs.
71, 72.
So, in like manner, a
narrow
frame
and very
would be
light
used
only for a picture in
a
very light key and of a
very delicate treatment,
as in
Fig. 73, 1
Where
a
mat
and
is
3.
part
of the framing of a picture, the frame and mat
vary in tone and
value, in such a way as
may
will not only not inter-
fere
with
the
picture,
still
Fig.
Wide dark frame for a picture with broad dark
masses; frame toned to dull brown of photo.
68.
the unity
but
of
will
further enhance" its
It is often posbeauty.
to unify
sible further
the picture and its frame by repeating in the frame some characteristic feature of the picture.
If severe straight lines and flat spaces
these
are
predominate,
easily reproduced in the plain unbroken sur*
face of the frame.
Sometimes the representation of carving in the
picture can be repeated in the frame, or a certain treatment or pattern in the picture may be echoed by a suitable treatment of the
Often an appropriate beading or other molding may give
the desired effect, see Fig. 74.
Sometimes a touch of bright color,
as that of the pirate's cap in Fig. 75, can be repeated with good efframe.
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
69
In a word, the frame must be conwith the color, noian, and general character of the picture.
feet in a fine line in the frame.
sistent
In selecting the wood for a picture frame, it is well for a beginner
some soft wood like white pine or yellow poplar, until he
to
used
working the necessary tools and can make the joints well.
to choose
is
These woods can be stained in a great variety of ways. Later it is
Oak is the most common.
better to make frames of hard wood.
is
Maple
for
a
good
"silver
to
gray" effect
obtained
be
staining
the water
with
stain
name.
that
of
by
Mahogany
ex-
is
cellent
where the
color
can
made
to
Care
monize.
must
not
be
har-
taken
be
to
select
woods
having
such
a
prominent "grain" as
to
divert
tion
atten-
from
picture
the
itself.
Concerning the
materials
used
for
to
be
Fig 69. Broad frame (pine), stained gray, oiled atid rubbed
with aluminum dust. Maxfield Parrish's ''Prince Agib"
mats,
"cover paper" is one of the most suitable. Ash gray will be found to
tone well with a great variety of prints. Dull toned wall paper which
has no pattern is often good.
Grass-cloth comes in various colors,
and
raw
stretched on cardboard makes a very effective
some Japanese prints.
Mounting the picture on the mat may be done in one of two
ways: (1) The picture may be pasted directly on the mat. In most
cases it will be found sufficient to fasten it in
place by means of a
this or
silk
setting especially for
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
70
line of paste, say %" wide, on
the top margin of the back of
the picture. Before pasting the
picture
carefully
on the mat, locate it
and mark its location
with fine pencil dots at the two
If the picture
be mounted on the mat
upper corners.
is
to
with paste
all
mat must
the
material to hold
this
method
should
first
over
be of
the
stiff
back,
enough
If
shape.
the
used,
picture
be dipped in water,
its
is
the surface moisture dried
off,
paste
applied uniformly over
the back, the picture carefully
laid in place and pressed unFig.
70.
(2)
A
narrow dark frame with
der weight.
gray mat.
of
size
the
the
picture,
may be cut in the mat,
opening
An
and the picture placed under this
giving a soft border line formed
by the shadow of the mat.
This "cut out" has the advantage of
The Framing of a JapThe picture chosen
II.
anese Print.
to be framed, according to the
is
following directions,
anese print, Fig. 76.
be perfectly
to
is
size of the picture is
The frame
thick.
y^'
is
a Jap-
The frame
The
plain.
9>-2"xl3^".
wide and
to be 1"
The
materials re-
quired are as follows
"White pine, %"xi"x4'o."
Picture backing, the same
:
the picture, or mat,
is
to be mounted.
comes Y%"
if
size as
the picture
The backing
thick.
i
sheet manilla paper.
1
light, picture glass,
9^2x13^".
2 doz. brads, 7/s" No. 18.
2 screw eyes, Brooks
No. 214,
"
VS (these have 4 hole).
Maple veneering, 6" square, if
Y
Fig.
71.
Narrow black frame
without mat.
available.
1
White pine
is
chosen for
first
frame because
it
is
easiest to
work accu-
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
71
Plane up the strips in two pieces, each long enough to make one
long side and one short side of the frame. To determine the length
of the
a
members
add
frame,
of
to
the length of each
dimension of the
twice the
picture
width
of
the
frame.
In
this
case there will be
needed two pieces
about
two feet
long;
thus,
(width)
The
Fig. 72.
blacks in the
print balanced by
the black in the
frame.
.i
,
M1
,-,
m
lest
,
,
,
(length)
2"
23".
=
.
pieces
+
+
Plane
per-
and the angles square, so
_
n
,
be 1 Wide and 34 thick.
,
tnat tney Will
9^"
2"
13^"
both
fectly straight
+
.,
,
.
.
Japanese print
Fig-. 74.
framed with mat and narrow
dark frame with bead.
the straightness by sighting
along
the length, as in Handwork in
Wood, Fig. 107. Be sure that the
thickness and width of both pieces is uniform thruout.
Unless the
members are accurate the frame will not come
The
together
right.
next
step
is
to
plow out a rabbet
(or
rebate)
along one arris
of each piece, to
receive the glass
and the picture
and the backing.
Ube
This should
done
with
the
(
rabbet-plane
See Handwork
in
Wood,
Fig.
73.
Japanese prints framed with mats and narrow *rames.
Wide
p.
79).
rabbet
This
and
^" deep.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
72
To
use the rab-
on
bet-plane
a
narrow piece of
wood, it is first
necessary
make
a
shown
that
like
in Fig. 77.
a piece X,
2"
On
say
wide
3"
or
and
to
device
slightly
longer than the
members
long
of
the
nail
frame,
a
strip
about
1^/2" wide,
y%'
from
edge.
one
Into the
internal
angle
formed by these
pieces and near
Fig-. 75.
Broad frame
liant
than the
in yellow, middle value, a little less bril
Maxfield Parrish's "The Pirates."
sail.
one end, drive a
small
screw
nail
so that its
in
or
head
Fig. 77)
about ^J". This device when
to be fastened on the bench be-
(.4
will project
used
is
tween a bench-stop and the tail-vise-dog.
Set the rabbet-plane so that the fence allows but y*" of the cutter to cut, and
set the depth gage so that the plane can
cut y%' deep.
The
cutter should be ad-
justed so as to cut as in an ordinary
plane. Along the right arris of the sole
is
a removeable spur which scores the
so that the cutter will not tear out
wood
but cut out the shavings clean. Before
beginning to plane see that this spur is
sharp and that the right corner of the
cutter
sole.
Black frame
match the crow.
Fig-. 76.
to
is
in
Now
line with the arris of the
cut a trial rabbet on a waste
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
73
piece of wood, which has a straight edge. At the first stroke the spur
Be careful to hold the plane flat,
will mark the width of the rabbet.
neith-
it
tilting
the right
nor to the left.
er
to
The beginner
in
his
to
effort
fence
keep
the
close
up
to
edge
is
apt
the
to
the plane to
tilt
the right.
This
makes the spur
cut in obliquely,
as
in
Fig.
114,
Handwork
in
Wood.
If
is
the
not
plane
Fig-. 77.
running
Device for holding- strips when rabbeting.
true, stop planing and with a chisel trim out the recess clean and
After
square and then proceed with the plane to the proper depth.
sufficient practice on waste pieces, plow the rabbets on the members of the frame, as in Fig. 78.
Cut the 24" piece of stock in two, so as to make
one long and one short member of the picture-
3
s
Fasten the device already made between
a bench-stop and the dog in the tail-vise.
Lay
one member of the frame, narrow edge up, in
frame.
i
End view
Fig". 78.
this device, abutting against the nail.
of
rabbeted strip.
step
end.
is
the
rabbets
in
all
four
members.
Plow out
The next
to cut the pieces to their proper lengths with a miter at each
The picture and glass are 9^" x
Fig. 79 shows the shape.
;
the frame
Fig.
is
79.
an inch wide and
the.
rabbet
j"
wide.
Rabbeted and mitered member of picture-frame.
Hence the
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
74
finished outside length of each member of the frame will be
or 1J4" greater than the length (and width) of the picture and of the
Then allow %" for play and the outside lengths of the long
glass.
members
of the frame will be
the outside length of the short
Place one
member
+
+
14%" (13^"
1%"
ys ") and
members 10%" (9^"
1J4"
%").
+
+
in the miter box, that is, so that the
front, as in Fig. 80. With the back-saw cut off one
face
up
is down and
end at an angle of 45 degrees, taking care that the side which is to
be the outside of the frame is the longer, as in Fig. 79. Do this to
one end of all the pieces. Now cut the other end of one piece in the
same way, except that the saw is
kid in the other 45 kerf of the
rabbet
miter-box. Cut the other
of equal
Molding
member
member
length, using the first
as a measure, and repeat
with the second pair. Now test
these angles with the try-square
from what will be the face side of
the
t
member when
in the finished
frame, and again test with the
bevel set at 45 degrees from what
Fig-. 80.
Position of molding- in
miter-box.
will
be the edge of the frame.
If ne(See above, page 52.)
chisel
with
the
trim
on
the
bench-hook
52),
above,
(as
page
cessary
or fasten the piece in the vise at an angle of 45 degrees and carefully
plane toward the acute angle. This acute angle may be supported by
a piece, X, also fastened in the vise, as in Fig. 81. Be sure the oppo-
members have equal
site
Now
lengths.
up the picture-frame clamp (Fig. 53), adjusting the small
their proper holes, put the members in place, face up, and
set
parts to
clamp the whole together in a handscrew. If any corners do not make
a close joint, either the angles are not square or the opposite members are of unequal lengths. Make them right before you proceed.
When
(see
everything is ready, take the frame apart, put a little glue
in Wood, p. 128) on all surfaces that are to join, and
Handwork
Test the corners with a try-square, and if they are not right
angles, adjust the handscrew by sliding one jaw sideways, one way
reclamp.
or the other, until the angles come up right. Be sure that the faces
are flush.
Leave the frame in the vise for 6 hours to dry. When
75
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
the frame
is
taken out of the vise
it
should be handled carefully, for
A common way to do this is
need to be reinforced.
the joints
with brads. If brads are used
still
it
make
a
precaution to
a
bradhole before gluing with
is a safe
awl thru one
piece.
frame in the bench
grip only one
Iding
Fasten the
vise, so as to
member
at a time,
and that vertically. Bore the
hole and drive in the brad with
great care.
A
better reinforcement
means
(see
268,
way
is
by
of a spline or slip-feather
Handwork
in
Wood, Fig.
A convenient
55).
to insert these is as follows
No.
:
Get, if possible, some maple veneer 1/28" thick and cut it with
Holding member of picture frame
Fig". 81.
in vise to trim the miter.
a knife into 8 pieces about 24"x2". Fasten the frame in the vise
diagonally, so that one corner will project, and with the back saw cut
two saw-kerfs, A and B, as in
Fig. 82 and Fig. 83. The pieces
of veneer should
fit
snugly into
If the veneer
these kerfs.
too
is
thick, scrape or sandpaper it unIf the
til it slips into the kerfs.
veneer
is
too thin, use
two pieces
with glue between them for each
thinning them if necessary.
Put glue on both sides of
kerf,
each piece of veneer, slip
place and set the frame
dry.
When
dry,
cut
it
into
away
off
to
the
superfluous veneer with a chisel
or knife.
With the plane, set
FiK.82.
*J
which
fine,
f aces that
Sand off the sharpness of
no glue showing.
the whole.
leave
sawing a kerf in
to insert a spline.
smooth up any surit, and sandpaper
need
all arrises.
Be very
careful to
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
76
The next
a simple
is
step
method
and apply with a brush.
hol;
stain are to be found in
A
good
wax.
As
to stain the frame.
of staining it
is
this
frame
is
to be black,
to dissolve a little nigrosine in alco-
Directions for a more penetrating black
in Wood, p. 211.
Handwork
finish for picture-frames,
as before directed.
Apply
Next cut the picture backing,
which are handled but
(See Handwork
little, is
in
Wood, p. 214).
that the grain will run the short
so
way
of the picture.
It can be cut
conveniently with a sharp knife
and a straight edge. If necessary, cut on both sides and then
break.
Cut enough, and in
as
large pieces as possible, so as to
cover the entire surface of the
picture and
the frame.
fit
mat as they lie
Next cut the glass
the frame, in this case
to
9^"x
13^2".
A
hardened
steel revolving disc
glass
in
with
cutter
can
It is
bought for 10 cents.
well to practice on a piece of
be
\
waste glass.
To
cut the glass,
Make marks
proceed as follows:
Fig.
83.
Kerfs cut
in
frame to rece.ve
corner of picture-
on the glass near the edges
slip feathers.
propep
edge of
wood one-eighth
of
an inch
j^^
Lfty
to the left of these
ft
at the
gtraight
marks
_
(to al-
low for the distance of the cutting disc from the face of the glass
Hold the glass cutter perpendicular, and with one firm
cutter).
Be sure that
stroke scratch the glass from edge to edge, Fig. 84.
the extreme edges are scratched. Then holding up the glass in the
hand, tap the underside of the glass near the near edge with the
Now take hold of
glass cutter, until the edge just cracks, Fig. 85.
the portion of the glass to the right of the scratch between the thumb
left
and
first finger of
the right hand, and with a slight pressure the glass
If the scratch
will break clean along the line of the scratch, Fig. 86.
near the right edge that there is not room to hold it so, as described above, with a pair of pliers, carefully snap off the waste a
is so
little
at a time, Fig. 87.
Mark and
cut the width in the same way.
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
Then wash
the glass.
An
easy
way
77
to do this is with
Bon Ami
and polished off.
soap, rubbed on with a damp cloth, allowed to dry
Now lay the frame, face down, on the bench. Place the glass in posiback on top of that,
tion, the picture on top of it, and the picture
fitting the pieces of it in place.
Fig.
J/s"
Cutting glass. (Stepl.)
84.
nail all
Fig.
85.
down
in place, using
Tapping under the scratch
in the glass to start a crack.
brads, No. 18 as follows:
point to the frame.
with the
hammer
to let the
frame
The next
of the
Now
frame
Press
sliding
it
(Step
2.)
Lay a brad flat down on the backing,
down with one finger, and tap the head
It will facilitate matters
on the backing.
rest against a bench-stop or a weight.
step is to paste a piece of Manilla paper over the back
Spread a thin film of liquid glue over
to keep out dust.
the back of the frame, near the outer edge. Dampen one side of the
Manilla paper with a wet cloth passed over it. Lay the dry side down
Fig.
86.
Breaking the glass.
(StepS.)
Fig.
Breaking off a narrow piece
of glass with the pliers.
87.
on the back of the frame, as flat as possible. When it dries it will
be stretched taut and the superfluous paper can be trimmed off with
a sharp knife.
Next
the top.
locate the screw-eyes in the back of the frame, sa> 2"
Start a hole with a brad awl, and screw
home
from
the screw-
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
78
(Brooks No. 214^2".) Stretch a flexible wire straight between
the screw-eyes, twisting it back around itself, and the frame is done.
III.
Additional Suggestions for Frames.
The frame just de-
eyes,
the plainest and simplest one possible. With but little difficulty, however, before cutting the miters, it may be considerably
scribed
is
Fig-. 88.
embellished.
Sections of moldings for picture-frames.
For examples
the front arrises of the
see Fig. 88.
members
may be rounded, as at &.
can be bevelled in or out, as at
surface
it
Chamfers can be planed on
of the frame, as at a, or the front
c
Instead of making the frame flat,
and d. This should be done with
the plane after the rabbet is plowed. A thin line may be grooved near
the inner edge so as to make it, in cross-section like e. This is done
by means of a veining tool after the frame is joined together. Draw
the line to be grooved carefully with a pencil.
Lay a straight edge
and
this
line
the
tool
with
along
veining
running along the straight
edge, cut out the groove.
Take care
to keep the depth as even as
See Fig. 176,
possible.
p. 130.
considerable variety of beads
A
means
of the Universal
costs about 75c.
Hand
and
flutings
may
be
made by
Beader, (Stanley's No. 66) a tool which
See Fig. 89.
More complicated moldings, such as that shown in Fig. 90 may be
made with a cabinet scraper, filed to the desired shape, and clamped
between a pair of blocks of wood by means of screws as shown in
Fig. 91. The two edges A and B
as
serve
guides sliding along
both edges of the molding.
A nosing may be added to the
outside of a molding, as in Fig.
88 / as follows*
Hand beader with
cutters.
l
l
Prepare thin strips of wood, say /s" thick and /s" wider than
is thick.
Eound oft3 one edge as follows: Fasten the jack
the frame
plane upside down in the vise, hold the strip at an angle and pull it
over the plane cutter so as to plane off an arris, Fig. 92. Do this for
Finish it round with sandboth the arrises on one narrow edge.
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
79
hand header, Fig. 89, or the
in Wood, Fig. 124.)
Drive thru these
so
that
the
little
several
brads,
points project slightly and fit
strips
them exactly in place on the outside of the members of the frame.
Prepare several handscrews so as to clamp these strips to the mempaper.
Or
better,
cornering tool
Fig-. 90.
A
round
this with the
(Handwork
frame with delicate moldings, in keeping- with the delicate handling- of the
painting-. See also Fig-. 91
bers, taking care to protect the inner edges of the
strips of wood, Fig. 93.
When
members by waste
ready glue the strips in place,
clamping them firmly with the handscrews. The brads will keep
them from slipping out
of place.
all is
Wipe
off
superfluous glue carefully
with a rag moistened with very hot water. When dry, remove the
handscrews and pull out the brads. The brad holes can be closed up
by wetting them and placing a hot iron on them. This, by the way,
is a
good method of closing up
themselves are not broken.
before.
all
surface bruises where the fibers
Finally cut the miters and proceed as
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
80
A
frame can be made
bet on
by plowing out a narrow rabmembers as in Fig. 88, g. This can
to look lighter
the outer edges of the
best be done before the miters are cut, but it
may
be done after as-
Scraper
Block of
Fig-. 91.
'sembling.
In this
wood
Improvised molding scraper.
case, before rabbeting take care to
chisel the arrises at the corners of the
splinter
Of
glass
off.
See above,
essentially the
bottomed
trays,
frame
trim
off
with a
so that they will not
p. 44, Fig. 26.
same construction as a picture-frame, are the
shown in Fig. 94. They are made with mitered
Brad
^Protecting 5//p
Fig-. 92.
Method of planing- off chamfer
on a thin piece of wood.
Fig.
Method of clamping- nosing- on
outside of picture molding-.
93.
molding, and the joints are mitered with a slip-feather inserted. A
Japanese stencil is laid between the two sheets of glass, fastened into
the rabbet with thin strips tacked in place.
THE MITERED PICTURE-FRAME
Fig.
6-
94.
Glass bottomed trays made with mitered frames.
81
82
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
Fig.
95.
Candlesticks.
CHAPTER VII
THE CANDLESTICK
Altho the essential features of this project set fixed limitations to
design, yet a great variety of forms and embellishments are pos-
its
The success of the design depends, primarily, on
see Fig. 95.
the harmonious unity of the parts. If the design be good, the piece
sible;
is
worth much painstaking labor.
This project consists of two parts, the copper socket and pan, and
the -wooden base supporting these.
I.
The essential features to be fixed are:
The
1.
size of the
candle to be used.
(Common
sizes are 24"
This determines the diameter of the socket.
or l/^".)
The pan,
2.
of such a shape as to catch the drip well.
This
is
to be soldered to the socket.
A
3.
base, large enough to be stable.
gested for this base is a cross-lap joint.
4.
A
convenient means of handling.
The
This
construction sug-
may
be either a loop
for the forefinger, Fig. 96, or a column to be grasped, Fig. 97.
5.
The kind of wood. The piece does not require much
and
ma-
worth while making in wood of a good species and quality.
Mahogany, black walnut, and sweet gum are not difficult to
work, can be finished handsomely and their colors harmonize well
with the copper parts.
terial
is
The refinement of the proportions. The candlestick without
column may well be quite small, each member of the joint being
not more than 4" or 5" long and 1^" or more wide.
With a column, Nos. 2, 4, 6, 8, Fig. 97, the size of the base will
II.
the
naturally increase ; the higher the column, the broader the base.
candlestick must seem as well as be stable.
The
If feet are added, Nos. 2, 7, Fig. 97, the effect of stability will
be increased.
III.
Embellishments.
modeling, Fig. 97, No.
5,
These include modifications in outlines by
chamfering, Fig. 97, No. 8, coving Fig. 98,
83
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
84
No. 8, beading, Fig. 98, No. 1, or even carving, Fig. 96.
tions for such treatment are also given in other pictures,
is
Sugges-
Whatever
done, the treatment should be harmonious thruout.
2
i
Fig-. 96.
An
Low caadlesticks.
appearance of lightness
may
be given to the column by con-
structing it as in Fig. 99.
The best finish for a candlestick that
and
is liable
to be smeared with
thoroly rubbed.
If
made
with bichromate of potash.
of
wax
may
be frequently handled
is boiled linseed oil,
or tallow,
mahogany, the
See below,
p. 92.
color
may
be darkened
HIE CANDLESTICK
85
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
THE CANDLESTICK
87
Directions for making cross-lap joint. In order not to waste
in learning how to make the cross-lap joint, it is well to
wood
good
make first a practice joint of pine or other soft wood.
Select a piece of straight grained pine, and carefully plane it to
the size, ^"xl^T'xll", finishing all surfaces. For the order of plan-
IV.
Fig-. 99.
Column
of candlestick lightened.
Handwork in Wood, page 72.) Be careful that the
uniform width and thickness thruout, and finish both ends
clean and square. Mark a point 5" from each end of the piece, score
ing surfaces, (see
piece is of
around the piece at both these points, cut a
lines, on one broad surface, (see
Handwork in Wood, page 66, and Fig. 91), saw off the waste and
trim the ends with the block-plane. Now make the half-lap joint as
with a sharp knife
little
all
groove on the waste side of the
described in
Handwork
in
Wood, page 155.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
88
Directions follow for
making
The materials required
A.
i
B.
C.
i
i
piece,
piece,
piece,
are,
mahogany
shown
in Fig. 100.
or black walnut
:
%"xi^4"xii. //
^"x2^"x8^
.
i^"xi^4"x3".
Brads #" No. 18.
Copper, gage No. 20,
One
the candlestick
i
piece
i^"xi^".
piece i"x3".
The Base. When the practice joint has been satisfactorily made,
proceed in the same way with the more valuable wood for the base.
It is better not to sandpaper the members until they are glued toPut a
gether, as an otherwise tight joint may thus be made loose.
I.
Fig. 100.
Candlestick.
little glue in the joint and clamp tight in the bench vise or in a
hand screw, protecting the surfaces by means of pieces of soft wood
When dry, clean up and dress the faces flush.
THE CANDLESTICK
With
89
a gouge of the correct
curve, carve out the coves along
the upper arrises.
Sandpaper.
The Column. If there is
to be a column, make that next.
thick
If you have no wood
of
make
it
to
enough, (1-Mj")
II.
\
a piece of %"
stock long enough so that it can
be cut in two, and the two pieces
one piece, face
off
make one.
make this a
put them to-
B
A
glued together so as to
Be very
careful to
and
close joint,
to
Fig. 101. The wav the grain should and
should not run in jointed column of candlestick.
gether so as to have the grain running in the same direction when
Dress up this piece true and square,
glued together, see Fig. 101.
To
the
taper
column
proceed
With
as follows:
the
marking-
gage, gage lines
on the upper end
as
on Fig.
and
102,
E F
On two
sides
pencil
Fig.
102.
F
Lay-out of column for candlestick.
I
G H.
opposite
rule
fine
lines,
H
and
the piece on the bench between the bench-stop and the
and
dog,
plane down to these ruled lines. Plane off from what
be the narrow end first, so as to
Clamp
as
J.
viseis to
get a surface parallel to the desired
When
line
these
as soon
as
possible.
two sides are cor-
rectly tapered, lay out the other
two sides in a similar way, drawing lines at
L J
102, and plane
and
M
to Shape.
lack of a tail-vise,
it is
K,
Fig.
If for
Fig.
p
necessary
i he
103.
Wedgf d-shaped
S ble to
vis e
h
ld the
pieces
make
tapered piecein
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
90
on two sides, sidewise in the vise,
two blocks of soft wood need to be made first, having a similar taper,
and between these the column can be held without injury in the vise
to hold this piece, already tapered
as in Fig. 103.
These blocks will also be useful
in holding the column while adding chamfers or
other embellishments.
The column is now to be jointed to the
The simplest way to do this is with a
dowel joint. Bore with a number 40 twist
estal.
Drillholes
Fig-. 104.
in pedestal for brads.
column,
fit it
exactly in place
handscrew.
with a
remove
dry,
drill
two holes in the pedestal as at A, A, Fig. 104.
Put a touch of thin glue on the large end of the
and drive two brads thru the holes A, A,
Fig. 104, letting the heads project slightly.
clamp the base tightly to the col-
umn
pedbutt
the
If the joint is not close,
When
handscrew,
gently pull out one brad, bore
a 5/16" hole in its place, work
some glue into the hole and drive
in
a
Repeat with
dowel.
the
other brad.
Trim off the ends of the dowOr the column may be mortised into the base, making what
els.
is
called a "three-way joint/'
Fig-. 105.
Cutting copper with
snips.
For directions,
see
Handwork
in
Wood,
pp. 160-161.
III.
The Capital
Fig-. 106.
simply a
flat
Ends
One
piece,
ft"xl%"l%".
If this
is
to be
of strip for socket beveled so as to butt well.
rectangular piece of wood, dress it to the proper size
it and dowel it or screw it to the column with two long
and sandpaper
THE CANDLESTICK
91
screws (!>", No. 4). See Handwork in Wood, p. 126. If the socket
and pan are to be made as in Fig. 113, the capital should have in it a
hole into which the socket
may
For a 34" candlestick, this
fit.
hole should be Ji" in diameter.
for the capital a piece of
Take
wood
The
several inches long.
extra length makes it easier to
plane, and lessens the danger of
splitting
when the
hole
is
bored.
Plane it with square edges to the
proper width and thickness and bore a
sidewise in the vise.
is
%"
This also
is
Fjg>107 Stake for hammenng
copper socket.
%"
hole into
it,
gripping
it
it.
If the piece
deep, bored with a Foerstner
bit.
Next saw off to the proper
to prevent splitting
thick the hole should be about
jj^j"
length and finish the ends of
the piece neatly with the blockIt may be glued and
plane.
screwed securely to the column,
driving the screws thru what
wood
left
is
at the
bottom of
the hole.
The
IV.
J^j"x2"x2".
of
wood
to
Feet.
pieces
the desired thick-
in this case
ness;
Four
Plane up one strip
^"
thick, 2"
8^" long, and if the
are chamfered or other-
wide and
arrises
wise shaped, this should also be
done before cutting up into
small pieces.
finish
After cutting up,
what are
to be the outside
ends of each piece harmoniously
with their sides. That is, have
the
Fig. 108. Hammering- a strip
into a cylinder.
To
continuous
around
from the underside of each foot two
No.
18, until the points just prick thru.
%",
fasten on the feet, drive
or three small brads,
shape
each lOOt.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
92
Put a little glue
just and press it
in the middle of the upper surface of each foot, adto its proper place, and drive the brads home. The
After carefully
piece is now ready to be cleaned up and finished.
sandpapering, wet the surface with water in order to "raise the grain,"
and when dry sandpaper once
more.
is
Then when
applied,
the
the water stain
grain will
not
made
ma-
rise again.
If the piece is
hogany,
may
a solution of
it
Method
109.
bichromate
of
potash crystals, to be obtained at
O
Fig.
of
be darkened with
Make a satudruggist's.
rate solution.
It dissolves read-
any
If this is apily in hot water.
plied full strength, the color of
the wood will be a dark brownish
of hammering' a cylinder
out of a strip.
red.
A
good proportion
is
one
part of the saturate solution to
three parts of water. Apply with a brush and wipe off the surface
at once with cotton waste.
If, after a little exposure to the light,
this does not
appear dark enough, another coat
Eub down
method
the surface with steel wool.
A
may
be added.
simple and effective
of finishing this piece is to oil it with a mixture of boiled
one part, and turpentine, two parts. This should be wiped
dry and rubbed hard many times with a little of the oil on a rag.
linseed
If
oil,
more
of wax.
gloss is desired, give the piece a coat
(See
Handwork
The MetalworTc.
V.
in
Wood, page 214.)
For the socket and pan
for the candlestick, sheet copper, gage No. 20,
needed.
is
To
get the proper size for the socket or
cylinder, wrap a piece of paper around the candle
to get its circumference, and add to this four
times
the
thickness
of
the
copper.
With the
snips, Fig. 105, cut a piece of copper this length,
and as wide as the depth of the socket, say 1".
flat
and square, and
in place.
Hammer the piece
File the long edges straight and
the end edges square to the side edges, but
with the mallet on the bench.
parallel
Fier. 110.
Cylinder
wired to hold joint
THE CANDLESTICK
93
with a slight bevel toward what is to be the inside of the socket, so
that when the piece is curved into cylindrical shape, the ends will
butt well, as in Fig. 106.
To hammer this strip into shape, you need a cylinder of iron ^s"
thick with flat surfaces filed at one end, as in Fig. 107, so that it can be
held firmly in the iron vise. A piece of
gas pipe, with one end crushed together
will do. For the hammering, use a small
wooden or horn mallet,
so as
not to
mar
See Fig. 108.
To curve the copper strip on this improvised anvil, hold one end of it so
the surface of the copper.
it projects slightly to one side of
the anvil, (cylinder) and hit this proPush out
jecting end with the mallet.
that
the copper a
again.
little
more and hammer
See Figs. 108 and 109.
tinue this process until
comes a cylinder.
If
the
Con-
strip
beFig". 111.
Pan
for candlestick.
any part has been
much lay that part directly on the anvil and hit there.
If any part needs bending more to make the circle perfect, lay that
part on the anvil and hit just off the point of contact. Be particularly careful to curve the extreme ends, and see that they butt exbent too
actly thruout, in order that they
may
be soldered well
later.
Now
wrap and twist a piece
of binding wire, Gage No. 24,
to hold the butted edges tight
together, Fig. 110, and solder
the joint. *A simple way to do
this is as follows
Touch the
:
joint thruout its length with a
little stick dipped in soldering
fluid.
Fig. 112.
Socket and pan wired together
for soldering.
ing
salt,
(This
prepared at a
may
be
hardware
bought
store,
either in fluid form, or as solder-
(Yager's) to be dissolved in water according to the direcmay be made by digesting zinc in muriatic acid.)
tions given, or
'See Simple Soldering, by
Edw. Thatcher.
Pub. by Spon
&
Chamberlain.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
94
the joint lay a small piece, say %" , of wire solder. By means
of a pair of pliers, hold the cylinder, joint down, over the gas flame
With a small
of a bunsen burner or gas stove, till the solder melts.
On
stick
wipe the solder back and forth in the joint and
To make
the pan proceed as follows:
set aside to cool.
With the
snips cut out
a
square of copper, l^g" square,
snip off the sharp corners, and
file
the
smooth.
fine
edges
square
See Fig. 111.
and
Use
sandpaper or emery cloth
to polish
up the
surface.
Turn
up the edges slightly all around
as follows:
Set a bar of iron,
Fig.
113.
Pan
say J4" thick and 24" wide, upright in the iron vise. File the
encircling socket.
end so that it will be slightly
rounded and smooth, and with the horn hammer, hammer the edges
over this "stake", as it is called. See Fig. Ill & for the cross-section
of the pan. Be particularly careful to make the corners all alike, and
to keep the
bottom of the pan
flat.
If it
becomes concave turn
it
down on a flat surface and tap the bottom gently with the
horn hammer.
With a twist-drill, held in a hand-drill, (see Handwork in Wood,
upside
bore and
countersink two small holes in the
2 screws, as in Fig. 111.
No.
These
jMT
holes should be inside a circle 34" in diameter at
p.
106,
Fig.
18?,)
bottom of the pan to
fit
the center of the pan, so as to be included in
the socket.
Scrape the surface to be
soldered together
the
socket
clean,
already made,
firmly to the pan with binding wire as in Fig. 112.
Cover the joint of the socket with rouge made into
bright and
and
tie
paste with water. This is to prevent
ing when the pan is heated.
its
unsolder-
Fig. 114
Lay-out for
pan shown
in Fig.113.
Apply soldering fluid to the joint from the inside of the socket,
lay a couple of pieces of wire solder next the joint, hold the pan and
socket over the gas flame just until the solder melts, and then quickly
wipe the melted solder into place, as before. If the joint is close and
THE CANDLESTICK
95
the soldering fluid is carefully
applied, the solder will hardly
show on the
it
If
outside.
can be cut
it
does,
with a sharp
off
knife.
surface with
Polish the
fine
cloth
emery
a
and then with
a cloth smeared with tripoli, or
on a buffing wheel, if that is
To
available.
solution
of
darken, dip in a
liver
of
(potassium sulphide)
with turpentine.
A
sulphur,
and coat
more difficult
Fig. 115. Using a coping-saw.
and - pan is
shown in Fig. 113. For this form, after the pan has been shaped, cut
a hole in it thus
Find the exact center of the square by drawing the
diagonals, and with the compasses draw a circle just the
slightly
form of
socket
:
outside size of the socket, as in
Drill a hole someFig. 114.
where within this
Fig. 116.
Wood
notched to hold copper
while sawing.
circle,
and
coping-saw, Fig. 115 r
saw out the circle, sawing alWhile
ways within the line.
with
a
sawing, the pan may be conveniently held over the notch of a piece
of wood cut in the shape shown in Fig. 116.
Then file the hole to
Tie the two in place witli
exactly fit the socket.
iron wire, and solder from the under side. This
socket
may also have a bottom
soldered to
it,
but
this is not absolutely necessary.
The rim
of the socket
may
be embellished
by having a ring of copper wire (%" thick)
soldered to it as shown in cross-section in Fig.
117.
The photographs given show a variety of
way to hammer out the shape shown
An
easy
and
3, is to
tack
Fig. 117. Wire ring
around edge of cup.
designs for the pans.
in Fig. 118, Nos. 1
gouge out of a block of maple a mold of the desired shape,
down with
carpet tacks the copper over this mold, as in Fig. 119-
96
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
THE CANDLESTICK
and hammer
into the
it
depression thus
mold with the peen
made may
97
of the
horn hammer.
The
be set into a corresponding depression cut
in the wood of the candlestick
and the whole fastened in place
with copper tacks, the heads of
which are
filed
square.
In some of the designs copSee
per handles are shown.
Fig. 96.
They are shaped in a
similar
to that of the cups,
way
and in some cases are screwed
wood under the rim of
the saucer, and in some cases
soldered to the socket and pan.
to
Rim pan tacked
Fig-. 119.
down over mold.
volving
the
cross-lap
Other
joint
are
Fig. 120, having either one or
Fig-. 120.
The same
the
the
two
Flowerpot-stands,
simple
flowerpot
projects
stands,
joints.
made with
half-lap joint.
joint is used in the taboret, Chapter VIII.
shown
in-
in
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
Fig. 121.
Smoking-table.
CHAPTER VIII
TABORET
In order to keep the construction of this project as simple as possible, the limitations imposed are that the frame shall consist of two
cross-lap joints made of boards under one inch thickness, to which
are butted
and doweled the
legs,
having approximately the same
thickness.
To
frame
this
is at-
tached a board top.
Even
tions,
as
under
these
great variety
shown
in the
is
limitapossible,
accompanying
photographs. The size may vary
from a tea or smoking table, Fig.
121 or 123, to a low stand, a few
inches in height, Fig. 122.
The wood suggested is chestnut or cypress, because of their
easy working qualities, but soft
mahogany or baywood may be
used with great success.
The refinement
of
propor-
tions includes the consideration
of such items as the
width and
thickness of the legs in proportion to their height, the disposition of the stretchers, whether
they shall be on
edge or
Fig.
flat,
122.
Low
taboret.
and where located, the amount of projection of the top beyond the
legs and the shape of the legs and of the top.
The attractiveness of the project depends largely upon its good
The
proportions and upon the beauty of the grain of the wood.
rounding of the dowels into projecting buttons, plainly indicating
99
100
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
the structure, the use of
chamfers, or
and
coves,
the addition of feet, as in
Figs.
121
and 123 are
The
suggested.
color
depends
largely
upon
intended environment.
its
Chestnut
beautiful
is
turns
to
brown when
a
it
ammonia
exposed to
fumes and then
oiled.
Since a taboret
is
to
be used to hold a potted
plant, the finish should
be
such
moisture
as
will
best.
boiled linseed
stand
That
is
oil.
process of makthe typ i ca l form?
The
Fig.123.
Tea-table.
ing
Fig 124, will be described first, and the changes later. The drawing
with dimensions is shown in Fig. 125. Either chestnut or cypress is
Fig. 124.
Simple type form of taboret.
TABORET
r^
e
>
Fig.
125.
Taboret.
101
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
102
Chestnut has rather a coarse texture, and is
annual rings on account of the presence of
good for this project.
the
liable to split along
many
Cypress
pores.
is likely
to contain
many
fine checks,
produced
in seasoning.
if possible wood with a pleasing grain, especially for the top.
materials necessary are as follows:
Choose
The
A.
B.
4 pieces
2 pieces
C.
2 pieces
D.
i
This
piece 24"xi3"xi3".
together, as shown later.
16 dowel-pins
4
may
made
be
of
two
pieces
jointed
5/i6"xl^4".
brass mending straps ^"x2", No. 60.
12 screws
Hs"
No.
4.
16 brads No. 13, 2^2",
Plane up four pieces, A,
No.
12.
In order to true the ends
to proper size.
may be clamped together in a handscrew and
the bench vise, and block-planed at one time. First plane one set of
Great pains must be
ends, then reverse and plane the other set.
exactly, all
four pieces
taken to keep the whole block square, or
all the pieces will not be of the same
length.
Plane up the stretchers,
a similar way,
all
Make
length.
B
and C, in
four to exactly the same
a cross-lap joint with
B
and with pieces C according to
pieces
directions given in Handwork in Wood,
p.
155.
The
pieces
Lay-out of joint of
lower stretcher with leg.
Fig-. 126.
of
B
difference between the joints in
and pieces C
edges lap, whereas
With
in
is
that in
B
the
C
the faces lap.
this difference however the process
the same, the flat joint being slightly more difficult.
Glue these joints together and leave in a handscrew to set, testing
making
is
the joint to see that it is a perfect right angle.
To fit the lower stretchers to the legs proceed thus:
All around
the legs, 3^$" from the bottom of each, draw a fine pencil line, and
on the inside of the legs, at 3/16" from the edges, mark points as in
Fig. 126.
On
this line
on the outside of
all
the legs place a
mark
TABORET
103
24" from each edge to indicate the centers of the holes for the dowelpins, with which the joints are to be fastened together. See Fig. 126.
Mark
center line on the edges of stretchat the ends, as at A B, Fig. 127.
C
To
ers
fit
the upper stretchers
B
to the
proceed as follows Draw a fine pencil line across the center of the top ends
of the legs and continue this line down
legs,
:
and inside of the
#/s
legs for
in
as
C
E, Fig. 128.
top,
On this line on the outside of the leg in"
"
dicate points
B, 2 and iy2 from the
both outside
2y
"
2
D
from the
A
r
y
top for centers of holes for the dowel-pins.
Mark center lines on the edges of the
stretchers
B
at the ends,
C D,
in
as
Fij
.
127.
Center lines
AB and
?2) marked on stretchers.
Fig. 127.
If the legs are to be shaped, as in Fig. 129 the following method
may
be used
:
Clamp two legs side by side and bore a y%' hole at the proper
point A, in Fig. 130, setting the spur of the bit directly in the crack
between the two legs.
Bore half-way
through, reverse, and finish boring. Eepeat on all the edges. The surplus wood
may then be worked out with a saw and
spokeshave or small plane.
Next prepare 16 dowel-pins, each
1^4" long and 5/16"
there are a
number
diameter.
of pins to cut
When
off, it
saves time to use a miter-box, fastening a
stop at the proper distance, (1^4" in this
case)
cut
1
Fig
.
128.
Ivay-out of joint of up-
from the
each
one
kerf,
off
and so being able
without
stopping
to
to
measure, Fig. 131.
per stretcher with leg.
Next test the size of the dowel-pins in
a 5/16" hole bored in a piece of waste wood. The fit should be snug.
If the dowel-pins are too large to drive in
easily, reduce their size by
driving them with a mallet, not a hammer, thru the 5/16" hole in the
dowel-plate, Fig. 132.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
104
Point one end of each pin with a dowel-pointer, (Handwork in
p. 83), to insure their entering the holes readily and round off
the other end into a button shape as in Fig. 133. This may be done
Wood,
conveniently with
a sharp
knife and sandpaper,
or better
still,
of
on a
course,
lathe.
Next the
and
legs
stretchers
are assembled as
follows
t
h
With
:
hand-drill
e
in
(Handwork
187), holding a
No. 40
which
twist-drill
is
slightly
than
smaller
the brad to be
used
(%y2 ", No.
bore holes
12),
thru
the legs
all
at the points in-
dicated
the
for
dowel-pins,
four
in each leg.
Take
pains to
especial
bore
at
right
the
to
angles
surface,
because
these holes
afterward
Fi*.9. Taboret with shaped
legs.
mine
will
deter-
^ ^^
Drive the brads (2^", No. 12) into
these holes so that their points just come thru.
Start the brads
tion of the holes for the dowels.
(%%", No. 12) into these
holes, and placing each leg at its proper
on
each
drive
the nails into the stretchers about }4"
stretcher,
place
and take apart. The dents thus made by the nails in the ends of the
stretchers will
make
it
easy to locate
them
in place
when gluing
up.
105
TABORET
Have ready two
carpenter's bar clamps,
(Handwork
in
Wood,
handscrews (Handwork in
p. 103), two large (Aldrich's No. 5, 18")
of
blocks
soft
wood, three or four inches
Wood, p. 101), and eight
long and just large enough to fit between each
pair of nails.
If
no clamps or handscrews are available, submay be made thus: Cut two boards and
stitutes
These improvised
two wedges, as in Fig. 134.
can
be
the
blocks which are
hooked
over
clamps
placed between the nails, and then the
driven in to draw the joints up tight.
Put a
little
A
wedges
hot glue on the end of a stretcher,
B, locate it by means of the marks already made
in it by the nails in the leg, and drive in the nails,
leaving the head of the brad projecting half an
inch, so that it can be easily
withdrawn
later.
In
C
in place to the same
way
Then nail the opposite leg to the other ends
the same
leg.
of these
nail stretcher
two
stretchers.
with the other two
Proceed in the same way
working as speedily as
in
order
that the glue may
permit
not set before the clamps are applied. The clamps
legs,
accuracy will
Pig. 130.
Method
shaping
of
legs.
are applied to these joints as shown in Fig. 135.
Test the interior
If not, adjust the clamps on a
angles to see that they are square.
slight diagonal, so as to pull
the piece into shape as in the
diagram Fig. 136, in which the
distortion is
exaggerated.
aside six hours to dry.
While the glue in
these
the
hardening,
top
be made, according to di-
joints
may
is
Set
rections given below, p. 109.
When the glue in the frame
A stop A, in miter-box for use in
cutting the dowels of equal length.
hard, take off the
clamps, pull out one nail at a
time (see Handwork in Wood, Fig. 163, p. 96) and bore with a
5/16"
bit a hole 2" deep, Fig. 137.
To gage the depth, use the auger-bitFig.
131.
gagc,
(Handwork
in
Wood,
p.
joints
is
116) or improvise one by boring a hole
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
106
lengthwise thru a piece of wood of such a length that when this piece
slipped up to the jaws of the brace, two inches of the bit will pro-
is
See Fig. 138.
As each hole is bored, work
some glue into it by means of a
trude.
small dowel-pin (say Y^" diameter) and insert one of the 5/1 6"x
1^4"
dowel
pins
already
pre-
In order to keep the work
clean put no glue on the pin it-
pared.
With
self.
a
mallet,
the pin leaving
drive
in
j/" projecting.
In order to make sure that
the pins project an equal
Driving dowel thru
Fig. 132.
next the pin as you drive
strip on the
it in,
final blow.
clear to the
is
not
made long enough
bottom of the two inch hole
is
Fig.
133.
Dowel-pin
fortaboret.
the stretcher.
it is
to drive
be-
cause the glne at the bottom of the hole may act
like a cushion, which, if the pin is driven home,
mayJ force open the Jjoint between the Jjoint and
In case
.
wood, y% thick,
so that the mallet head will hit the
The reason why the dowel pin
it
amount
/
lay a strip of
dowei-piate.
all
not convenient to round
off
the ends of the dowels
before driving them, or in case they are not driven in so that the proSaw off the protruding
jections are all equal, proceed as follows:
TABORET
Fig. 135.
Taboret, nailed, glued, and clamped.
Fig. 137.
Boring the holes for the dowels.
107
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
108
Fold a piece of sandpaper, sand side in,
it near a dowel as a buffer, and with
a chisel, bevel side down, resting on this
hold
sandpaper, slice off the arris of the projecting dowel as in Fig. 140. When the
trimmed, sandpaper the
end of the dowel into a button shape, holding the sandpaper over the thumb. Finish
arrises are neatly
Method
of squaring
angles.
Fig. 136.
up
the remaining dowels in the same manner.
Instead of shaping the protruding dowel
pins into buttons, an easier
to drive the pins flush with the face of the legs,
and drive upholstery
face,
into the
shown in
nails, Fig.
surface of each dowel.
Fig. 142
is
way
smooth
to finish is
off
the sur-
141, of the appropriate color
The
taboret
finished in this way.
If the processes so far have been neatly done,
there should be very little superfluous glue to
If there is any, clean it off with a
clean up.
and scraper. This process may sometimes
be facilitated by dampening the glue with a little
hot water on cotton waste.
Use as much heat
chisel
and
as little water as possible.
If
any bruises appear on the surface in which
wood are crushed but not cut,
the fibers of the
Fig. 138.
Im-
provised bit-gage.
wet such places, cover with a piece of paper, and
on
a
them
hot.
This
will
swell
the fibers back
flat-iron, sizzling
lay
into shape.
Finally sandpaper
all over.
Next cut out the
the
brass
Sa-w ing off
r
rejecting
end of dowel-pin.
which
is
to be fastened to the
frame,
as
This
in Fig. 125.
cut at both the ex-
is
treme
139.
recess for
with
the top
dado
Fig.
plates
ends
stretcher,
and
as
as
deep
of
is
the
each
upper
Y*" wide and
thickness
of
the plate.
fasten the plates to the frame, it is first necessary to bore
and countersink
holes, with a twist-drill, in the middle of the plates
To
109
TABOR ET
It
on the side opposite to the other countersinks.
$/s" No. 4 screws, Fig. 125.
this hole
may
then be screwed into place, using
The top is made as folAssuming that it is
to be made of two boards
together, cut them
jointed
lows:
Method of trimmingarris on dowel-pin.
Fig-. 140.
longer than wanted
slightly
(13 5/2").
If they are
warped
Fig.
141.
Upholstery
nail.
reversed in the two pieces,
joint them so that the warp will be
as in Fig. 143. Then proceed as in the directions for a rubbed joint
at
all,
given in
Handwork
the
proper
square and 34
the
following
in
Wood,
72.
dry, plane the board to
in
lay out the octa-
the
either
gon,
When
order
Handwork
p.
p. 172.
thick,
given in
To
Wood,
13"
size,
8-
square measure on the
be
steel
square may
used
in
(Handwork
Wood,
or the
108)
p.
method:
following
Draw the diagonals of
the square (13") as in
With
144.
Fig.
the
compasses take the
dis-
tance from any corner,
(say A) to the center,
E,
and
along
this
lay
A B
D,
points
F
getting
the
and F
Connect
and G'
G and
octagon
is
f
t
G'', etc.
F
and G, F'
and the
etc.,
drawn.
off the corners
may
off
A
and
be taken
Saw
and plane
off at this
Fig.
true.
142.
Dowel ends covered with upholstery
If the design calls for
time from each upper
arris.
it,
nails.
the chamfer
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
110
To
the
fasten
top
the
to
frame, lay the top, bottom side
Method
Eig.143.
that there
is
of jointing
two boards.
up^
On
the
care
taking
bench,
nothing rough on the bench to mar the top, and accuframe on it. Be sure that the grain of the wood of
rately locate the
the top
runs parallel to
one
Screw
firmly in place.
If the top has
it
become
force
warped, do not try to
screws, but
slightly
it flat
stretcher.
by means of the
it carefully in place first with handscrews and then drive the screws home.
clamp
The
taboret
now ready for staining
it is made of chestnut, a
is
and finishing. If
f
very handsome seal brown can be obtained
it up in an air tight box with
Fig 144 One method of laying
out an octagon,
one-half pint of strong ammonia (%%%)
in an open dish. Let it stand for 24 hours or more, and then oil it
with a mixture of one part boiled linseed oil and two parts of turpen-
by shutting
care-
off
Wipe
tine.
Inasmuch
fully.
the taboret
.
as
is likely
to
be used as a stand for
a flower-pot, it should
not be shellacked or
varnished, for shellac
and varnish are apt to
discolor
under
water,
should simply be
oiled and rubbed again
but
it
and
again, but
cipally rubbed.
prin-
This
can be done very easily with a buffing wheel
on a
lathe.
If
the
made
taboret
of cypress,
should
stained so as to
out
Fig.
145.
Legs doweled directly into
top.
the
be
bring
contrast
be-
tween the yellow spring
111
TABORET
wood and the red summer wood of the annual rings. See Wood and
For this purpose oil stains are the most satisForest, pp. 11 ff.
See
factory.
Handwork
in
Wood,
p.
09.
An
agreeable modification of the deabove is to set the lower
described
sign
stretchers edgewise, not flat, omit the up-
per ones, and fasten the upper ends of
the legs directly to the top, into which
they are notched, as in Fig. 145.
In this case the lower stretchers are
located in the legs by perpendicular center lines on the legs, as in Fig. 146. For
fastening the legs to the top after it is
glued up and dressed to size, if the legs
are to be perpendicular, not slanting, lay
out on the top the notches for the legs so
that the distance from opposite ones shall
Fig-. 146.
Locating- position of
end of stretcher on
leg-.
be exactly equal to the length of the lower stretchers. Do all the laying out from the working edge (Handwork in Wood, page 72). See
also Fig. 147. Lay out on both sides of the piece in order to insure
accuracy in chiseling later.
If the top is to be circular,
lay out the notches
first.
Then
lay out and cut the circle and
This
finally cut the notches.
order prevents the sides of the
notches from splitting off in
dressing up the circumference.
Lay out the circle 10^" in
diameter.
Then the top will
project slightly beyond the outside of the legs, as in Fig. 147.
The
Lay-out of taboret with legs
doweled into circular top.
Fig. 147.
circle is to be cut out
a turning-saw.
Wood,
p.
with
(Handwork
in
67,) and dressed up
with the spokeshave. To cut out the notches, use the back-saw, cutting just inside the lines, and chisel out the waste. In chiseling out
the parts that run parallel to the grain,
(A.
and 5, Fig. 147) cut
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
112
only a little at a time for fear the wood may undersplit. In chisellay the piece down
ing out the parts across the grain, (C and D)
flat on a piece of waste wood on the bench and fasten it firmly with
a handscrew or between bench-stop and vise-dog.
First place the edge of the chisel (a broad one)
exactly on the line, hold it perpendicular and tap
Then holding it
the mallet.
it lightly with
Fig. 148. Starting to
cut out the notches.
obliquely, cut out a triangular groove, as in Fig.
ou can proceed more rapidly and
about half-way thru- the piece, reverse it
and cut from the other side. Take care to keep the bench top free of
With
148.
this groove once fixed,
with heavy strokes.
When
chips or the wood will be marred.
so that the legs will fit exactly.
If arrises are to be chamfered
or rounded, do
it
7
}
Trim out the
sides of the notches
now.
In assembling, proceed as before, page 104, nailing first, and
then substituting dowels for nails.
A
more elaborate six legged
is
shown in Fig. 149.
taboret
In
this case there is
no half-lap
joint, but the legs are doweled
into two boards, top and under,
both of which are notched to receive them.
sembling
is
The
as
process of asdescribed above,
nailing with glue, extracting the
nails,
and
glued
the
substituting
figure
The one shown
was made of
stained
brown,
dowels.
and
in
cypress,
oiled
and
rubbed repeatedly.
If the legs of the taboret are
to
be
not
as
perpendicular
but
in
150, the
Fig.
Fi ff .i49. Taboret with six legs,
proper "batter" or angle at the
ends of the stretchers may be obtained by means of the steel square,
slanting,
a straight edge, and the bevel.
See Fig. 151.
Suppose the distance
TABORET
113
from the top of the upper stretcher to the bottom of the lower
stretcher to be 13" and the bottom of the lower side of each arm of
the lower stretcher to be 1" longer than the top of the upper surface
arm of the corresponding upper stretcher. Lay the steel square
of the
on a board with a straight edge, placing the 13" mark on the blade
and the 1" mark on the tongue exactly on the straight edge. With a
pencil scribe on the board the angle which the tongue makes with
Fig-. 150.
Taboret with slanting
legs.
the straight edge. This is the angle needed for the ends of the stretchers, and also the angle for the tops and bottoms of the legs.
(See
Handwork in Wood, 3rd edition, p. 201, note.) Transfer this angle by
means of the
T -bevel.
Handwork in Wood, p. 113.
made of mahogany with a woven reed
match the mahogany. The top is a frame made with
each member 3^" wide so as to give plenty of sur-
sliding
Fig. 152 shows a foot
seat, stained to
end-lap joints,
face for gluing.
-8
stool
See
114
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
Fig.
Fig
152
Obtaining the batter
lor slanting legs.
151.
Mahogany
stool with
woven reed
seat.
CHAPTER IX
MALLET
The
utility.
excellence of design in a mallet depends primarily upon its
The "fixing of essentials" is paramount in importance.
Whatever grace of form or refinement of proportions it may have are
the result of adaptation to use. In an object of such hard usage, dec-
Fig-. 153
Mallet.
must play a minor part. As to essentials, a mallet must
he of proper weight, must "hang" well in the hand; the head must
be of the hardest wood available, that will not easily split, as maple;
oration too
the handle
must be
of a tough elastic wood, as hickory,
115
and
its
form
116
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
Fi
*.
154.
Working- drawing of mallet.
MALLET
117
should be oval, so that the worker can feel, without seeing, that the
The handle should be joined
face of the head will strike square.
firmly to the head, as with
the round
mortise-and-tenon,
wedged, and there should be a
convenient method for hanging
it.
to
A
coating of shellac helps
keep the wood clean, and
improves the looks. Some prefer to have tool handles left
Maple
^
unvarnished, because of the notion that raw wood does not blister the hand. The design here given,
Figs. 153, 154, stands all these tests.
Fi
The
materials required are
155
'
block for
:
2^"x2^"x5".
hickory, ^"xi^'xii".
i
piece maple,
i
piece
The head, maple. Plane up true the working face, working edge,
the width and the thickness. With the try-square, carry a fine pencil
Fig.
fully
Boring- hole in head of mallet.
on all sides as in Fig. 155, A B C. Notice carethe annual rings run in the piece. Like most all woods,
line across the center
how
156.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
118
maple
likely to split
is less
with the annual rings than across them.
(See Wood and Forest, p. 53.) Therefore plan to make the hole for
the handle as nearly as possible along the annual rings, as in Fig. 155.
To determine the location
of the handle hole,
mark with
the
the
center
marking-gage
on
the
cross
lines
point
already
drawn, on two opposite sides.
o
Fasten the block, thus marked,
firmly in the bench vise, as in
Put a 24" auger-bit
Fig. 156.
in the ratchet-brace, hold the
knob of the brace in the hol-
low of the
the
body firmly
that
it
little as
Fig. 157.
How
the handle hole tapers out.
left
hand and hold
agains't
it
so
will
change position as
possible; with the try,T
*
..
square, see that the bit enters
wood at right angles, both horizontally and perpendicularly, and
when the hole is once started, use only a down stroke with the ratchet
brace.
The brace is thus held steadier and works easier than when
it is swept round and round.
If two persons can work together at
the
one can test the bit with the try-square, while the other
Bore half-way thru and repeat from the opposite side.
With reasonable care, the holes should meet exactly. If they do
this process,
bores.
chisel
not,
shoulders
off
inside
the
the
projecting
hole with
an inside bevel gouge (24")In order that the handle
may
be firmly held in the head
by means of a wedge, as described below,
enlarge with
is necessary to
the inside bevel
it
Lay-out of sides of mallet-head.
(24") two Sides Of the
Make
hole in the head at what is to be the outer (curved) edge.
these cuts so as to have the hole oblong in the direction of the length
of the head, that is, %" wide on the long axis arid taper it inwards
Fig-.lSS.
gOUge
for 24"-
See Fig. 157.
MALLET
Next lay
119
out, according to the dimensions given in Fig. 154, the
on the broad side. The curve for the outer edge
can be obtained by making a templet of cardboard or thin wood, thus
shape of the head
:
The curve
is
4^"
arc
of
circle
whose rad-
the
a
Set
ius is 22".
templet ex-
this
in
actly
place,
A B
at
as
Fig.
C,
and
158,
scribe the curve.
Or
one per-
let
thin
a
hold
the
place,
wood
of
spline
at
and
bend
son
proper
and
an-
other scribe with
a pencil along it.
To lay out
Fig-. 159.
Sawing- the bevel on the mallet-head
a block clamped on as a guide.
\>y
means
of
the bevel of the ends (faces) of the head, set the T-bevel at the angle
of the inner edge with the faces, and by means of this and of the trysquare, score lines all around with a sharp knife.
sawing on the outside of the bevel lines
Handwork
in
Wood,
p. 66, Fig.
BD
a groove for
and C E'/Fig. 158.
91), and saw
off
To guide
block of
edges
Make
(See
the waste.
the
saw,
another
wood with true square
may
be set along the scored
and clamped down with a
handscrew on the bench, Fig.
line
159.
ever,
Fig
160.
Block chamfered to avoid
ering-
when end
planing.
splint-
Take the precaution, howto protect the
jiece of a
bench by a
under-
board
neath the block to be sawn.
with a crosscut-saw, just outside the scored
other end.
waste
lines.
Saw
Eepeat at the
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN AVOOD
120
To plane these ends, fasten
the piece upright in the vise.
Avoid
by
cutting
chamfers at the outer
arris, as
splintering
in Fig. 160,
flat
and plane the ends
For this pur-
and smooth.
pose the jack-plane
sharpened and
I<ay-out for beveled sides.
Fig.
161.
(Seen
block-plane
is
set
is best,
well
fine.
The
too light.
from below.)
Next plane the waste off the
To rough off, plane across the grain. Finish
curved outer edge.
with the grain for smoothness, using a circular plane if handy.
Next lay out on these planed ends and on
the inner lower edge the bevels of the sides, as
A B Ct in Fig. 161, and plane off the waste.
pencil lay out the chamfers, which
on the arrises of the curved surface and
With a
%"
are
1/16" on the rest, and plane them off.
True up the piece to a
The Handle.
full.
Draw, with a pencil, a fine
^"xl^'xll",
center line on both broad sides and on the ends.
On
both broad sides lay out the plan of the
Bore a
handle, working from the center line.
y%" hole, 1" from the hand end thru the short
axis, for
convenience in hanging up the mallet.
Eip-saw off the waste, working from both
In order to start the saw on the tapering
ends.
clamp a piece of waste wood to the handle,
as A, in Fig. 162, and start the saw at B.
Save
one of the pieces thus sawn off to be used later
cut,
to
wedge the handle into the head.
Spokeshave
to the lines
Draw
drawn, keeping the piece rectangular.
center lines on both edges and on the ends.
Lay out with a sharp pencil the chamfers
to make the piece eight-sided, and on
the large end draw as exact an ellipse as poswhich are
sible.
Spokeshave
these
chamfers
and
then
Method of
saw on a taper-
Fig. 162.
starting
ing cut.
MALLET
round the small end
till it fits
121
closely the hole in the mallet head.
Be
careful in using the spokeshave to keep the piece of even diameter
In cutting the very end the
thruout.
spokeshave is likely to taper it. To avoid
this, hold the spokeshave, not at right
angles to the axis of the piece, but
diagonally.
Spokeshave
elliptical
the
section.
large
The
end
shape
to
an
should
Fi e- 163
change smoothly into the rounded small end.
-
wedge for
handle.
Scrape smooth and
sandpaper.
In the small end cut with the back-saw, a kerf 1" deep, Fig. 154.
Be careful to cut this parallel with the short axis of the ellipse
at the other end.
ceive
made
This
is
to re-
a wedge, which may be
from one of the pieces
sawn off in making the handle.
The wedge should be 24" wide,
%" at one end and tapering to
an edge, and 1" long, Fig. 163.
Fig. 164.
Method
of cutting a wedge.
pl ace one en(} O f this piece On
the bench-hook against the cross-cleat, and chisel this end to an edge.
See Fig. 164. Drive the handle in the head, letting the small end
Saw off
project y%". Dip the wedge in glue and drive it in place.
the projecting part of the wedge, clean up, and sandpaper.
Give the head a couple of coats of shellac and rub down with
steel wool.
122
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
D
Fig-. 165.
5
t>
7
8
9
Trays.
CHAPTER
X
TRAYS
most valuable projects for a beginner in woodwork to
make, looked at either from the point of view of the discipline of
technique or from that of design, is a tray for pens or cards, trinkets
or pins, clips or collar buttons, or whatsoever. For varieties of trays
One
of the
see Fig. 165.
The
it is
first
matter to decide
to be for penholders
wide enough
to receive
and
is,
of course, the use of the tray.
pencils, the trough
If
must be long and
them, and the tray must be
stable, so as
not
to be easily upset.
If for cards, or crackers, it must be so designed
as to be easily picked up.
suitable wood for this project is sweet
gum, because it is of close even texture, moderately soft, cuts clean,
A
polishes well,
essentials is
and has a handsome color and
an easy matter.
123
figure.
The
fixing of the
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
124
of the tray will depend upon the refinement of its
and
such embellishments as there are in the way of carvproportions
are
These
very closely related in this project. That a pen-tray
ing.
The beauty
should not be bulky or clumsy goes without saying. But its lightness
and grace may depend as much upon the carved embellishments, Fig.
166, Nos.
A
1, 2, 3, as
of the edge, Fig. 167.
be offered as to the use of line decoration.
upon the modeling
few suggestions may
form of carving and yet lends
It is the simplest
See Figs. 168, 169.
variety.
lines be too
"wiry" or "wormy".
Fig
167.
itself to
endless
One danger
in line design is that the
This can be corrected by breaking
Tray with surface and edge modeled.
the lines and modifying the ends. It should also be remembered that
the blank spaces, that is, those uncarved, should make a pleasing pattern,
as
shown
The rosette design,
lines themselves.
a pure line design, so arranged that the blank
a rosette.
An interesting discussion of the breaking up
well as the carved
in Fig. 170,
is
spaces make
of spaces will be found in Ernest A. Batchelder's Design in Theory
and Practice.
In making the tray
like all
itself
the processes are few and simple, but
call for
good carving, require careful control of the hand, and
considerable variety of manipulation.
Taking for illustration a typical tray, the pen-tray with rosettes,
shown in Fig. 170, first, with the plane, true up the working face,
working edge, length, width, and thickness.
If the design is not
rectangular, but has curved outlines, it is necessary to true up only
working face, working edge, and thickness.
125
TRAYS
To
lay out the design,
draw on the working
face, center lines,
lengthwise, one crosswise, at exact right angles to each other.
one
Draw
similar lines on the design.
Lay the design already drawn in paper on a piece of glass, and
with a sharp knife point, make a clean cut stencil of one quarter of
1
Fig
it.
Where necessary
.
168.
Varieties of line carving.
to prevent the stencil
from becoming too weak
or falling apart leave little bridges to hold the parts together, as
in Fig. 171.
A
A,
this stencil, lay out the design on each quarter of the workof
the board. If it is necessary to pin it in place, do so '.face
ing
where
the pin pricks will afterward be cut away. This is more
places
From
important in a fine textured wood like
wood like oak.
As to when the
outline
until trough
than in a coarse textured
be cut, that depends upon its shape.
may be shaped before the trough is dug,
is to
If it is nearly rectangular, it
but ordinarily, and especially
it,
gum
if it is
and decoration
curved,
it is
are finished.
better not to touch
In this
rectangular
it will be
shape, the edges will not be bruised while handling and
126
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
and vise-dog. For
directions for shaping the outline, see below.
Next gouge out the trough of the tray with a large (1") outside
Work both with the grain and across it, noting carebevel gouge.
easier to hold the piece between the bench-stop
Fig-. 169.
Trays with
line grooving-.
any dips in the grain, and taking particular pains at those
Do not attempt to work within J/" of the margin of the
until
the main part is well gouged out.
That is, leave the
trough,
fully
places.
127
TRAYS
finest
of the
work till later, because with every added stroke greater control
hand is gained. For use of gouge on ordinary cuts, see Hand-
work in Wood, p. 60.
For delicate cuts learn
to use the twisting motion i. e., while pushthe
with
right hand, gently twist the gouge on. its
ing the handle
Tray and
blotter-holder with pattern
of rosettes.
Fig. 170.
This motion
axis.
line,
is
tool slips
no harm
is
when approaching an outTwist away from the outline, then if the
particularly useful
as of the trough.
done.
Particular pains must be taken with the corners of the trough if
In general they look better rounded. The arc of the
there are any.
round should not be greater than the arc of the gouge which you have
to use.
is
The sharper
the corner, the harder
it is
to cut it out well.
For very accurate work, and where the cross-section of the tray
uniform for some distance, as in Fig. 172, it is well to make a
templet
as
Stencil,
showing bridges
at A, A.
in
Fig. 170)
is
with
can be gaged
one proceeds.
But
Fig. 171.
wood
thin
of
which the work
to
many
all
that
trays
is
(as in
necessary
have a depth-gage.
For
purpose a nail driven into a strip of wood having a straight edge
will suffice, Fig. 173.
With this it is easy to detect variations which
make the work look slovenly. The curve of the edges of the trough
this
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
128
may
be often be determined by the curve of the gouge in use.
sure to keep the gouge sharp at all times. For the
ting the gouge, see Handwork in Wood, p. 60.
In some designs (see Fig. 174) the piece is
marks frankly shown. This is, on the whole,
Fig. 172.
Tray and
method
Be
of whet-
finished with the tool
better suited to large
blotter: simple outline decoration.
made
For the sort of designs shown
of coarse textured wood.
a
recommended.
smooth
finish
is
herewith,
perfect
After chiseling with the gouge as accurately as possible, scrape
the surface of the trough with a cabinet scraper. No. 2 and No. 7 are
pieces
the most useful. First see that the scraper is well sharpened. The
method of sharpening is described on page 92, of Handwork in Wood.
By tilting and turning the
scraper in various directions,
the curve can be made to fit the
triangle.
It is often
test
possible to de-
unevennesses
on the
sur-
face which are not visible to the eye, by
means
of the touch.
If nec-
Make the surface as perfect as
essary, shut your eyes while you feel.
with
the
Preserve
the
possible
scraper.
edges of the trough sharp.
Next sandpaper the trough of the
as a cushion for the sandpaper.
tray, using the tip of the
It frequently
thumb
happens that in sand-
TRAYS
129
papering, irregularities in the surface undetected before will appear.
If so, go back to the scraper, or even the gouge. But remember that
the fine particles of sand rubbed into wood, will quickly dull edge tools.
is
Next cut out whatever decoration there is in the design.
mere line design, as in Fig. 165, Nos. 2, 6 and 11, one
a
Fig.
Tray and
174.
blotter with tool
sufficient to cut it all out.
will cut soft
marks
of
gouge
left
If this
tool is
showing.
This tool must be sharp, so sharp that
it
wood
across the grain clean without any tearing.
Ordino
will
follow
line decoration.
narily
scraping or sandpapering
Be careful at the ends of the lines. Do not let them fade away,
as A, in Fig. 175, but finish clean and round, as at B.
For quite fine lines, as in Fig. 172, a veining too], so called, is
used. This is simply a very small gouge, and has to be whetted witli
a slipstone having a knife edge.
Such a design
as the rosette is made with a veining tool. The
especial danger in using the veining tool,
Fig.
How
175.
to
it
finish ends of line
carving:
wrong;
,
right.
will slip
Curved
beyond control and
lines
,
mar
is
that
the wood.
must be followed by hand, but
may be kept straight by running
along the edge of a rule or other straight edge held firmly in place,
straight lines
Fig. 176.
Once the gouging
shaped.
9
is finished, the outline of the tray may be
If the curves of the outline are large, use the turning-saw
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
130
67) and the spokeshave (Handwork in
use
the chisel (Handwork in Wood, pp. 56,
Wood, p. 118) ;
small,
curves
should
be trimmed out with the inside bevel
Concave
-57).
(Handwork
in
Wood,
p.
if
gouge and
if quite small should be bored out with a bit of the proper
before
the lines adjoining them are cut with the saw or
diameter,
Fig.
176.
Guiding a veining tool along a
straight edge.
For example, in Fig. 177, bore out A and B, locat'ng their
centers accurately, from the working face, X, bef .re cutting o.t the
chisel.
longer curves.
1
or even a ra$p to bring t< e line to
done, be careful to remove every trace of the tool
If necessary, use a
But
if
this is
file
s
.
ape.
marks
afterward with the chisel and sandpaper.
In many of the designs shown, the ecn ges of the outline are modeled, so as to give an appearance of lightness to the tray and to make
it easier to pick up.
In dethis
signing
ber
to
that
i,
feature,
the
keep
not to
tray
rememstable,
undercut
the
edges so far that the tiay will
Fig.
177.
tip
Laying out curves.
over
Make
the
at
a
base
slight
touch.
therefore
at
be done effectively by caivingout a cove with the gouge as in Fig. 178. This in most cases would
be wider at the on dp of the trav than at the sides to correspond with
least
as large as the trough.
This
may
TRAYS
1S1
In
run
the design on the upper side.
smoothly into the end cove.
Or, the cove
may
this case let the side cove
be turned into an ogee by rounding with the
Then the whole surface
chisel the lower angle, as in Fig. 178, b.
should
be
smooth,
scraped
careful
very
even,
and sandpapered.
while
upper
carefully
(No. 00)
Fig. 178.
Forms
of cross-sections of trays.
To bring out
r.g
the grain of sweet
of boiled linseed oil
(oil,-
to
mar
surface.
Next rub
face
Be
working
on the underside not
the
and
to
the
with
it
get
whole
sur-
steel
wcol
as
smooth
r)r)Ssi})].e
gum, nothing
is so
good as a coat
1 part, turpentine, 2 parts).
Apply with
a brush, rub well with cotton waste, and set as'de to dry.
Then apply successive coats of white shellac, letting
6 hours or more,
coat.
Be very
even.
Shellac
and rubbing
it
down with
steel
it dry for
wool between each
careful to avoid gobs, and to have each c~at thin and
not to be smeared on.
is
Finally the whole
may
be polished on the buffer, or better
still,
by the process of French polishing, directions for which are given in
Handwork
in
Wood,
p. 2
1
7.
132
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
Fig-. 179.
Rolling blotter-holders.
CHAPTER XI
ROLLING BLOTTER-HOLDER
The
essential features of a convenient rolling blotter-holder are
be the proper size and shape, say an oblong not larger than
3^2 "x6^"; that it be easily grasped; that the blotter be so fastened
that
it
changed; and that the blotter be properly cushioned.
In the device shown in Fig. 179 these requirements are met. The
as to be easily
construction
as follows
is
:
A
dowel on which a thread has been cut,
screwed and glued into the knob, while the part projecting from
the knob passes freely thru a hole in the cover, y^" thick, and screws
is
into the rounded part, Fig. 180.
The wood suggested is sweet gum, like the pen-tray described in
the preceding chapter.
The proportions are largely determined by its use, the knob alone
admitting of great variety in outline. The knob as well as the back
may
tray.
well be decorated with a pattern in
See Fig. 181.
The making
of the blotter
The materials needed
A.
i
piece,
B.
C.
i
piece,
piece,
I
i
harmony with
shown in Fig. 182
are of sweet
gum
that of the
will be described.
as follows
:
24"x3"xs" (full).
J4"x3"x5" (full).
i"xi"x2" and
dowel-rod, fa".
The new
is a screw-box and a wood
tap, size 3/".
and dress carefully the two larger pieces A and B.
Locate the center of each of these pieces. Bore a y%" ho!e thru B,
and a 5/16" hole thru A, and a 5/16" hole into and nearly thru C
at the center of one side.
Take great pains to bore perpendicularly
to the surface. With the tap, cut the threads in the
holes, in A and C.
True up
tool
needed
to size
Select a straight grained piece of dowel-rod y%" diameter, and
on one end by means of the screw-box cut a thread for two inches or
more. If the box tears off the thread instead of cutting it clean, take
133
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
134
A
is sharp, reassemble, and try again.
of
cutter
back and forth may be necessary to
the
adjustment
off
of the screw thus formed, work
cut.
Cut
best
two
inches
the
get
a little glue into hole
the 1" square piece, and screw in the dowel.
it apart, see
that the cutter
little
f
B
Fig. 180.
Now
Rolling- blotter holder.
shape up the knob to the form desired.
selected at the start in order to avoid the
A
piece 2" long wi?
danger of splitting
it
while!
boring into it the 5/16" hole. Cut off the surplus ^2" from each end,
lay out the form on the two opposite sides, and with the chisel, gou^e
If it is angular, it must
it and (or) file it and bring it into shape.
be shaped by hand; if it is round, it may be turned on a lathe, if
one is available. Shaping the knob by hand, is very difficult. Some
may find it easy to whittle it into shape with a penknife.
ROLLING BLOTTER-HOLDER
If one
is
gential cuts,
a novice at the lathe, do not try the
it
W03d
turner's tan-
but be content to scrape this piece into shape.
Wrap
a
paper around the projecting part of the screw
but
not violently into a three jawed chuck, and
firmly
thickness or two of
and fasten
135
stiff
Fig.
181.
Rolling- blotter-holder
and
tray.
then with sharp chisel and gouge, scrape it into shape, that is, hold
Use
the tool on the rest at right angles to the axis of the spindle.
high speed on the
lathe.
See Fig. 183.
Next shape the roller part of the blotter. Lay out the curve on
the two long edges of A with a templet of thick paper, cut to the
proper shape. Saw off surplus with rip-saw. With chisel or drawknife shape roughly and then plane to the line mostly across the
grain, as in shaping the mallet head.
(See
p.
120).
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
136
Take
care not to bring the curve to a knife edge with the upper
it as in Fig. 180, A, A.
face, but finish
Now
carve the pattern designed to
on the knob runs clear around
Fig.
while the knob
to a
ground
Add
is
182.
it,
fit
it.
If the cut
(groove)
as in Fig. 184, it can best be
added
Rolling blotter-holder.
in the lathe.
For
this purpose use a
1/16" chisel
round nose.
the decoration,
if
any, to the cover, B.
Finish in the same manner as the tray (p. 131).
A
pad of
felt,
fastened to the rounded surface by means of thick
shellac, gives a softer blotting surface.
The
pieces of blotting paper
Turned
knob
Fig. 184.
Fig.
183.
Scraping the knob on the lathe.
should be as wide as the blotter holder and long enough to fold well
into the space between the roller and the cover.
They are held in
place
\)j
tightening the screw.
CHAPTER XII
SMALL BOXES
The size of such a box as is contemplated in this project is determined by its use. If it is for gloves it should be approximately
4"x5"xl2". If for men's handkerchiefs, about 6" square and 4" or
box to
fit the stationery.
In any case,
measure the 'proposed contents and make the
If for stationery, then to
5" deep.
the only safe
way
is
to
fit.
The wood suggested
handsome woods.
strong,
is
mahogany
For the
or black
walnut or oak,
joints possible, see
Handwork
all
in
Wood, pp. 187-190.
In refining the proportions, sometimes even a slight modification
from the dimensions which mere utility requires will give a more
pleasing effect. Looking at each outer surface separately it may be
said that oblongs are more pleasing than squires, or looking at the
box as a whole, that cubes or multiples of cubes are to be avoided.
For embellishment the modifications suggested are:
(1) Extended tops and bottoms, as in Fig. 185, No.
3,
with the
edges modified by moldings.
(2)
A
simple outline of inlay.
The main
esthetic reliance, however, should be
tion, accuracy of
workmanship, and beauty of
on good propor-
finish.
The directions following are for the construction of a trinket box,
3" deep x4" wide x7" long, outside measurements, of stock
5/16"
thick when hand dressed. Fig. 185, No. 4.
The material may be
black walnut or mahogany, and the follow-
ing pieces are required:
2 pieces
2 pieces
2 pieces
(Or roughly speaking, a board fa" thick, 8" wide, and 20" long.)
2 brass butt hinges, i", narrow.
8 brass screws fa" No. 2.
137
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
138
The grain of the wood in the four sides of a box should always
run parallel, that is it should run either around the box or up and
down. The reason is that with equal conditions of grain, any shrinkage
that takes place will be even. In general the grain runs the long way
of each piece. In this case of a long box, the grain should run around.
2
4
.
Fig.
When
185.
Small boxes.
not working on the pieces keep them clamped together in
handscrews, (as in Fig.
in a paper to prevent
5, p. 19) or at least keep them wrapped up
them from uneven exposure and consequent
warping.
In dressing up the pieces, proceed as follows: Cut from the wood,
two pieces about 3^4" wide and 12" long. Each will serve for one
side and end, and each is to be kept in one piece thru as many processes as possible.
Plane up the working face, the working edge, one
end, the width, 2%", and the thickness, 5/16". The width should be
3" if the top is to be put on with a double rabbet joint, Fig. 186 B.
To fix the length of the end pieces, from the dressed end of each
12" piece measure off 334", score all around with a sharp knife and
a try-square, cut a groove for the saw, (Handwork in Wood, Fig. 91.)
but do not cut
off.
First plow the rabbets.
SMALL BOXES
139
With the rabbet-plane plow the rabbets, 3/16" deep and 5/16"
wide, on what will be the lower inside edge of the sides and ends. This
For diis to receive the bottom.
rections for rabbeting, see p. 72.
If the top of the box is to be
with its full thickness
affixed
showing, as in Fig. 186, A, no
rabbet is cut on the upper edges
of sides and ends. But a neater
and stronger
joint
is
the double
rabbet joint shown
B. If this is to be used, rabbet
out the upper edges of the 12"
in Fig. 186,
pieces
with
a
rabbet
3/16"
deep and 3/16" wide.
Next saw off what will be the
Fi ^ 186 Methods of affixing top of box.
end pieces of the box and blockplane them true. Be careful that both ends are of exactly the same
On both ends of each
size, 5/16"x2%"x3%", and all angles square.
'
side piece, cut rabbets,
(Handwork
Wood, page 179, No. 24) with
in
shoulders
the
the
6^s" apart,
rabbet 3/16" deep, and let the
surplus length remain for the
can be trimmed
present.
It
after the
box
is
off
put together.
See Fig. 187.
Make
these end rabbets
as
Score and groove the
shoulders with the t^-square
follows:
From
and
knife-
score
across the edges for ap-
proximately 3/16".
this
line
Wiih the
on the
marking-gage, gage
ends and on the edges beyond
the shoulders, a fine line, 3/16"'
Fi,.l. Rabbettedsideofbo*.
fr()m
^
^
^^
flnd
With the back-saw, saw in the groove down to the gaged lines.
Kemove the surplus wood with a chisel, being careful to keep angles
grooved.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
140
square and surfaces flat. The squareness of the box depends absolutely
upon the accuracy of this rabbet joint. The sides and ends may now be
assembled. Start brads (%" No. 20) in lines J4" from the ends of the
box ends, as in Fig. 188.
The
reasons for this
careful
location are: at the double dot-
ted line J/" apart, the box
be cut in two, the upper
is
to
part
and the lower the
box proper, and hence no brads
must be in the way of the saw;
making the
I
^ ^
lid
and, second, the lower brad can-
not safely be less than y>" from
the lower edge on account of
X
&
the
inserted
bottom.
Start
the
brads so that they will be driven
slightly outward, as in Fig. 189.
Drive
the
brads
until
points just prick thru.
little
Fig.
188.
Location of brads in end of box.
pu^
liquid glue
^g
parts
the
Put a
on the
joints,
together
aCCU-
rately, draw the sides up to the ends with a handscrew, being careful to place them so as not to buckle the sides, drive the brads home
and set them carefully with a nailset. Test the inside angles to see
Fig. 189.
Method
of driving brads in box.
that they are exactly square.
If instead of liquid glue, hot glue is
in
must
be
readiness
used, everything
beforehand, so that the work
as
as
the
fast
before
possible,
may proceed
glue sets. Set aside to dry.
SMALL BOXES
The
neatest
to conceal the holes
way
141
made by
the brads
Sharpen the end of a splinter of the same kind of
itself, so that it just fits a brad
hole, dip the end in glue, tap it
lightly into the
hammer, cut
knife
or
sharpen
chisel,
and
so
the
the
proceed
the holes are plugged up.
While the frame
the
this:
is
as the box
with a sharp
it off
again
splinter
till all
with
hole
wood
top
is
and bottom
worked up according
drying
may
to
be
the di-
rections given below.
When
is
the frame of the box
dry, test the upper
and lower
or some
edges on a face plate,
perfectly
flat
rocks
all,
at
surface.
If
it
where and
In doing
flat.
note
carefully plane it
so, take care not to
bump
the
as at
A B
*
-
toe or the heel of the plane into the inner arrises of the sides or ends,
A and 5, Fig. 190.
as at
Another way
is to lay a sheet of
surface and rub the box back
to bring the edges into plane,
sandpaper (No. 1) on a perfectly
flat
and forth on
it.
The danger here
is
of
rounding
the
over
ners,
B
as
Danger
of rounding" the corners, as at A, B.
A
and B, Fig. 191.
Next plane up
the top and the
bottom
Fig. 191.
corat
of
the
box, remember-
ing to choose the better looking piece for the top.
If the top is to be affixed with a butt joint, as in Fig. 186 A, it
may well be thinned to y^" or even 3/16", because if thin, it is more
easily kept
from warping by the boxed part of the
lid.
Do
not try
DESIGN AND CONSTKUCTIOX IX WOOD
142
to fit the butt jointed top to the exact size of the box,
the two faces.
It can be dressed off after it is glued on.
If the top is to be rabbeted into the sides
top square, but slightly larger
Fig. 192.
y%" }
and ends, as in Fig.
Plane up the
may now be plowed.
than it will be when
186, B, these rabbets in the top
ished.
but plane only
the box
is
fm-
Gluing the top on to the box.
Plow out the rabbets 3/16" deep, and wide enough, just over
The bottom is tofit easily into its place.
so that the top will
be 5/16" thick,
and
to be fitted exactly into the space rabbeted for
(Mean out any dried glue that there
may
be
in
it.
the corners, apply a
143
SMALL BOXES
thin film of glue to the joints, brad the bottom firmly into place,
set
driving the brads thru the bottom up into the sides, and then
their heads.
Fasten the top without brads using only glue, hot glue, if posSince it has not yet been dressed to exact size, take care that
sible.
the edges overlap
all
around.
In gluing on the top protect both it and the bottom by placing
between the box and the hand screws other boards, otherwise the
and
pressure of the hanclscrews may bend and even ciack the top
Use plenty
bottom.
of handscrews.
(See Fig. 192.)
When
dry, say in six hours, dress off, sawing, if necessary, the proand edges. Take care not to splinter the corners.
ends
jecting
box
Next, cut the
in
With the
two thus:
marking-gage, gage two
parallel
j/s"
lines,
;4" and
respectively,
f.om
surface
of
upper
Between
these
the top.
the
two
lines
apart
saw the box
with
saw, Fig.
the
193.
back-
For
larger box, the rip-
a
aw
would be used.
Now
plane each set
Fig-. 193. Sawing the box apart.
of edges separately, first
to the gaged line, and then test on a face plate, (flat surface) to sae
that they are in a plane. Finally test the cover thus
Lay it in place
:
and tap each corner with the finger to see if it rests firm there. Examine the crack all around and correct any errors. Round the external
arrises if desired (See Fig. 194) but in any case do not leave them
sharp, except where the box and its lid meet. Clean up and sandpaper.
Setting^the hinges. (See Handwork in Wood, pp. 131-133.) The
hinges should be set about the length of the hinge from the ends of the
box. Mark with the knife the length of the hinge on the edge of the
back of the box, taking the length of the hinge from the hinge itself,
by superposition. (Handwork in Wood, p. 204). Square across the
edge with the try-square and knife. Do this for both hinges. Hold the
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
144
box in its proper place on the box as it will rest when shut,
and mark the places for the hinges on the edge of the back of the lid,
and square across for both hinges. Between these lines on both the inside and outside of the box and of the lid, gage the proper depth of the
lid of the
one half the thickness of the knuckle of the hinge.
Chisel out the notches, set the hinges in place, drill or brad-awl the
notch,
i. e.,
holes for a tight
Fig- 194.
fit
and drive the screws.
A stationery box, external arrises slightly rounded.
before driving; otherwise they
should shut tight
Lubricate them with soap
all
may
around with no
If rightly done the lid
springing back. If it does spring
break.
back, the hinges are set too deep, and it
and set in a shaving under the hinge.
is
necessary to loosen the screws
gap between the
If there is a
lid at the back, the hinges need to be set in a little more
deeply. If the sides of the lid do not lie flush with the sides of the
box, one hinge is set further toward the outside side of the box than
box and the
If this difference is very slight, it rmy be corrected by loosthe
screws
a little and gently but firmly twisting the lid around
ening
in the right direction.
If the discrepancy is great, notice carefully
the other.
SMALL BOXES
where the error
is,
145
take out the screws that are wrongly placed, cut little
and bore new
plugs of wood, dip in glue, drive into the screw holes,
holes for the screws.
If a lock is needed for the box, see
directions for inserting
If the box has been
same way
Handwork
in
Wood,
p. 134, for
it.
made
of
as the candle-stick.
mahogany
See
it
may now
be stained in the
p. 92.
It looks well to stain only the outside including the edges
the lid meets the box,
When
with
the stain
is
and
where
to leave the inside unstained, as in Fig. 194.
thoroly dry, and the surface well rubbed down
Wheeler's Patent Paste
steel wool, give the outside a coat of
Wood
Mix this filler
Filler, No. 7, (see Handwork in Wood, p. 213).
with enough turpentine to make it the consistency of thin paste,
apply with a brush with the grain, and as it dries, but before it sets
The objoct of
hard, rub off the surplus carefully across the grain.
the
filler is to fill
The
surface.
up the pores of the wood and give
a smooth even
should dry for twenty-four hours. Then apply
down with steel wool, and, if de-
filler
successive coats of shellac, rubbed
sired,
French polish it. (See Handwork in Wood, p. 217.)
A black
box is of walnut, no stain is needed.
If the
filler
(Wheeler No. 10) will darken it a little.
If the design of the box calls for a projecting bottom and top, as
in Fig. 185, No. 3, several parts of the construction are different.
The
and ends are not rabbeted to receive either bottom or
which are glued and nailed directly on their edges.
sides
top,
In gluing on a top which has been finished to
size, and perhaps
must be taken not to let it slip when
One method of preventthe handscrews is applied.
made with molded
the pressure of
ing this
is
edges, pains
as follows: drive four brads into the
sides, bite off the
upper edges of the
heads with the nippers and sharpen the projecting
Set the top exactly in place and press it down so that the
brads will penetrate.
When the glue is applied see that the brads
enter the same holes, and the top will remain true in place.
points.
box frame
not to be cut in two, but the cover consists of
only a top board suitably molded or otherwise decorated, care must
of course be taken to select a well seasoned piece without any inIf the
is
clination to warp. The hinges in this case should be set entirely into
the edges of the back.
10
146
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
Instead of the rabbet joint described, which has the disadvantage
of the brad holes showing, several others are feasible as described in
Handwork in Wood, page 187.
Box construction of a more simple form may
making bird-houses, as shown in Fig. 195. The
be
made
use of in
necessity for
ing opposite sides of exactly the same size holds here as in
angular boxes.
mak-
all rect-
CHAPTER XIII
LANTERNS
This project consists essentially of a frame covered with transluIt may be worked out in two difFig. 196.
cent paper or cloth.
ferent ways, either as a hanging lantern, Fig.
197,
suspended by
chains, or a lantern supported on the wall by a suitable hook, or on
a bracket, Fig. 196, Nos. 1 and 4.
Either form
may
be so designed as to be
or by an electric light.
The
electric light
lit
is,
either by a candle
In
of course, safer.
is used, a suitable socket and pan for the candle are
and
the
lantern must be large enough si that the flame of
essential,
the candle cannot set fire to it. In the case of the wall lantern, the
case a candle
wall
may
tions,
Aside from these considera-
be protected by a metal screen.
considerable latitude
The wood chosen
is
possible.
for this project
is
yellow poplar because
not likely to be split by the fastenings used.
smooth even texture that
it
is
It has, besides, a
finishes well.
In a project as nearly rectangular as this, the chief consideration
have a satisfying relation of height to width; that is, the faces
are to be pleasing rectangles rather than squares.
is
to
The embellishments may take
various forms.
In Figs. 197 and
and wall lantern have the simplest
frame
interest
with
the
centering in the stencils cut on the
possible
and
In Fig. 196, Nos. 2
3, the pattern is made by the slats
paper.
198, both the hanging lantern
cross-lapped.
The chain
instead of being simple, as in Fig. 197,
may
have links of varying lengths.
Since in Fig. 196, Nos.
set
on
a bracket
which
1
also
and
4, the
lantern consists of a screen
holds the
bracket should harmonize with the screen.
page 185).
147
candle, the
(See
design of
Handwork
in
the
Wood,
148
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
SMALL BOXES
2
Fig. 196.
3
Lanterns.
149
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
150
The suspended lantern with the wood
I.
-
The wood
fret, Fig.
196, No.
selected for this is yellow poplar, 5/16" thick.
following sizes are required
2.
The
:
For the corners, which may be
4 pieces, 5/i6"x%"x8",
called stiles,
4 pieces, 5/i6"x7/i6"x8".
For the
cross-pieces,
whi~h may be called
1
rails,
''
4 pieces, 5/i6"xi^2"x4 /2
(upper rails),
4 pieces, 5/i6"xi%"x4^" (lower rails).
All to be of exactly the same length and proper!y shaped before assembling.
For the horizontal cross
slats,
T
4 pieces 5/i6"x^"x4 /".
For the muntins
(vertical slats),
8 pieces 5/i6"x^"x5^".
all
Prepare
these pieces, remembering that
it
is
easier to
work
convenient to plane and then to cut these
up to the proper lengths afterward. Since there is a considerable
number to be cut to the same length, fasten a stop at the proper place
svith as
long pieces as
it is
in the miter-box and saw off the pieces, measuring mechanically by
that means.
See Fig. 131.
If these are carefully cut it will not be necessary to dress the
ends of the rails or slats. The ends of the stiles should be carefully
Shape the rails with chisel and spokeshave.
Next lay out and cut and fit the cross-lap joints of the slats.
(Directions for making this joint are given on p. 155 of Handwork in
smoothed.
Glue these together.
Wood)
Next make up the corner posts by gluing
.
When
together, as in Fig. 199.
dry, dress off the outer surfaces of the joints so that they
will be quite flush.
The whole may now be assembled.
On
a flat board, leaving a space about 1" wider than the entire
of
width
the lantern, nail strips of wood about 9" long parallel to
each other, as A, A, Fig. 200. Prepare two wedges, B, ~B, 8" long,
5/16" thick, and tapering from y%' wide to a point, and a buffer
strip,
C.
the pieces of one side, outside down, in their proper position
in this space. Put in the strip C and drive in the wedges B, B, making all true and square, and seeing that there is no buckle.
Lay
At
on
all
the joints drive in 3/16" corrugated fasteners.
Kepeat
Stain the whole with brown oil stain and rub well.
all sides.
LANTERNS
151
Find some brown or manilla paper which gives a pleasing color
inside of the four sides with
transmitted
light, and glue on the
by
cloth
are also very effective.
and
silk
Raw
grass
liquid glue.
with glue
brads two nar-
Fasten
and
row
cleats
5/16"
square, and
3" long,
on the inside of two
near
sides
opposite
at
as
the bottom,
a,
201.
Fig.
On
fasten
these
with brads a
across
the
inside.
To
running
lantern
strip, I,
the middle of this
is
to be
screwed
a cop-
per
candle
holder
(socket
The
92.
saucer
round
pan),
as described on
made
p.
and
simplest
make is
hamand
to
mered convex with
horn
hammer
mold cut out
a
into a
of hard
wood.
Screw four small
sere w-e yes
(14
214^)
wire,
(No.
3/16" hole) in-
to each Of the
Fig. 197
Upper
Hanging
lantern.
inside corners, by means of which and a copper chain or wire the
lantern may be hung.
The hanging lantern shown
struction, since there is
in Fig. 197
no fret-work.
anese stencils are used.
In
is
simpler
still
in con-
this style of lantern
In making it, buy the four stencils,
"These can be obtained in New York of O. Shima, 20 East 33rd
at a cost of
about 25c each.
Jap-
first,"
Street,
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN
152
and make the lantern
are
gil
made
is
to
them.
fit
almost opaque.
the stencils.
The paper
WOOD
of which these stencils
more translucent effect is desired,
as shown in Fig. 198, may be traced
from the original Jap-
If a
Or, the stencils,
anese stencil on brown
writing paper or other
suitable
then
arid
material,
cut
with
out
a
sharp knife point on a
In
piece of glass.
this
way, fine clear edges
can be obtained.
Wall
II.
lanterns.
In making the screen
and bracket, shown in
and
202,
screen
first.
198
Figs.
make
The
stiles
rails
are
the
same
and
upper
of
all
the
and
thickness
The
width, 5/16"xj6".
Wall lantern.
Figr.198.
such small pieces
is
the end-lap.
Dress up
bottom
rails
wide.
On
5/"
are
whole
the
the simplest joint for
the parts and cut to
all
the desired lengths, (stiles 8>4" long, rails 3^").
The fitting toIf the
is
a
fine
delicate
distinct
twelve
gether
job, requiring
joints.
lantern
is
made
larger, say twice as large, the joints
joints and doweled together.
(For
Handwork in Wood, p. 152, No. 8).
directions,
Or,
it
may
may
be butt
see
be
put together with corrugated fasteners, as in the
hanging lantern (Fig. 200).
To make the end lap joint
Wood,
p.
156, No.
16.
When
see
Handwork
L
in
the parts are glued
bevel should be planed off
Pig-. 199.
Cor-
ner posts of
lantern.
together and dry, the 30
on both long edges of all the panels. Make the bottom of the screen
"
thick in the form shown in the plan in Fig. 202, i. e., half a hexa2
y
gon, so that
its sides shall
of the panels.
be just equal to the short (inside) width
LANTERNS
To
radius
153
lay out the hexagon, with a compass, draw a circle whose
equal to the desired length of one of the six sides. As only
is
required place one leg of the compass on the edge
the point where the circumference touches the
half the circle
is
of the board.
From
Fig-. 200.
Method
of clamping
up the
parts.
edge of the board, step off on the circumference a distance equal to
the radius.
Eepeat from the opposite point of the circumference,
and connect by straight lines the points thus obtained, a, I, c, d, and
the half-hexagon desired is drawn. Also inscribe a smaller circle of
2*4" radius to make room for the candle-stick which is fastened to
the bracket.
See Fig. 202.
Saw and
plane out this shape.
154
DESIGN"
AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
For gluing the panels together, prepare a few forms of the shape
shown in Fig. 203. Put a thin film of glue (liquid glue will do) on
those edges of the panels which are to be jointed, and with small
brads, (1" No. 18) nail the panels in place to the half hexagon bottom.
Clamp the panels together with small handscrews, using the
Fig. 201.
Working- drawing' of lantern shown
in Fig. 196.
See Handwork in Wood, p. 171, Fig. 258, and
2nd paragraph. When dry, clean up.
The frame should be stained and finished before the stencils are
put on. Hence it is better to make the bracket next, so that all the
staining may be done together. See below for directions for making
forms just made.
p. 170,
the bracket.
The
stencils are cut out of sheets of
brown paper which
insides of the panels.
(See p. 152.)
Cut three pieces of silk of the same size as the stencils,
harmonious
tint,
and tack both paper and
silk,
(silk
fit
the
and of an
toward the
155
LANTERNS
of thin strips of
candle) to the inside edges of the panels by means
Tack
these
20.
No.
wood and small brads, say }4",
strips all around
the inside of each panel.
The shelf of the bracket should conform in design to the lantern.
The material
for the bracket
Fig.
make
all
planing
202.
may
also be 5/16" thick.
Working- drawing of lantern shown in Fig.
If possible
198.
the parts, shelf, back, and two supports, out of one board,
the working face and working edge, and the exact thick-
first
Lay out the plans on this and cut out roughly. The shelf overhangs the back when assembled. The back and shelf can now be
finished exactly to shape by means of the plane, or if irregular in
ness.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN WOOD
156
shape with the spokeshave and chisel
supports exactly alike,
also.
In order to make the two
glue them together thus
:
Put a touch of glue
at several points on one piece,
press a piece of paper over it,
put glue on the other side of
the paper at the points opposite those already glued, lay on
the
Fig. 203
Block for clamping lantern
other piece and clamp to-
1
gether.
panels together.
When
dry,
proceed as
they were one piece, finishing carefully. When shaped, they may
be pried apart with a chisel, and what little glue adheres may be
planed off. Or, the two pieces may be handscrewed together, while
if
Fig. 205.
Methods
of hanging the bracket.
they are shaped. Assemble the parts of the bracket as in Fig. 204.
First draw light pencil lines on the top of the shelf and on the back
of the back, to indicate where the brads (1" No. 18) are to be driven
into the supports, start two brads along-
each of these lines, driving them thru
the boards until the points prick thru,
and also driving brads thru the shelf
go into the back.
Now, holding one of the supports in
the vise, lay the back on it in its proper
to
place
shelf.
and drive in the brad nearest the
By means of the try-square hold
the back exactly in place over this supEeport, and drive in the other brad.
peat with the other support.
Next brad the shelf and back
gether,
back.
having the
See that
in place
to-
shelf overhang
the
the
are
supports
and drive home the
squarely
brads thru the top into them.
Fig
204.
Location of brads.
Stain the bracket to match the screen.
LANTERNS
157
For hanging the bracket, gain into the back small copper or brass
strips with holes in them, as shown in Fig. 205, or insert small screweyes (No. 214^) at the back edge of the shelf.
ers so as not to interfere with the screen.
If electricity
is
available
it
is
of course
Place these hang-
much
small electric light bulb take the place of the candle.
safer to have a
INDEX
Ammonia,
100, 110.
Embellishments,
Emery
Ash, White, 4, 18.
Auger-bit-gage, 105.
Equipment,
Bastard board, 15.
Batchelder, Ernest A.
Theory and Practice,
in
Design
124.
22,
Boring,
91,
62,
64,
103, 104,
Boxes, Chap. XII, 137.
Bracket, 155.
Brads. See nailing.
Bruises in wood, 108.
Dowel-plates, 103, 106.
Candlestick, 82, Chap. VII,
Carving, 68, 124.
Finish, 25, 27, 37, 56.
Flower- p.ot stands, 97.
Fuming,
108, 117,
Compass
83.
4,
Handscrews,
19, 105,
62,
<8,
83,
Dow Arthur W.
79,
87, 91,
124,
of
129,
102, 150.
51,
152.
51.
Leaf press, 57.
Letter-tray, 56, 57.
Line, 24.
22, 125.
Composition,
Dowel-pins, 103, 106.
Dowel-rod, 133.
9,
99,
28.
Mortise and tenon, 28, 90, 117.
Notched, 111.
Rabbet, 142.
Rubbed, 9, 109.
Lanterns, 148, Chap. XIII, 149.
Lathe, 104, 135, 136.
137.
Depth-gage, 127.
Design, 9, 10, 21,
55, 59, 60,
71, 73, 74, 75, 76,
Draw-bolt,
End-lap, 9,
Ledge, 9
r
36,
39, 43, 44, 45,
38,
94,
Miter,
26,
110, 138.
in wood, 17, foot note 25,
Butt, 9, 90, 141.
Cross-lap, 9, 83, 87,
70.
Decoration,
83, 123, 133.
Joints, 22.
Joint:
holder, 64.
22.
19,
9,
140,
Japanese prints, 65, 70.
Japanese stencils, 151.
13.
Cylinder, copper, 93.
Cypress, 3, 9, 17, 35, 99.
The application
Day, Lewis F.
133,
Grain, 16.
G'um, Sweet,
108,
102, 104, 105, 109, 111, 113,
118, 119, 127, 128, 130, 131, 137, 138,
139, 143, 145, 146, 149, 152, 154.
Hexagon, Laying out, 153.
Hickory, 9, 115.
Hinges, Setting, 143.
Inlay, 137.
105.
ornament
77.
102, 105,
142, 143, 145, 150, 156.
Gouge, 89, 126.
92,
Composition, 22, 24.
Construction, 21, 22, 35, 133.
Convenience, 23.
Copper, 9, 40, 83, 92.
Corrugated fasteners, 150.
Cove, 89, 130.
Cut-.out,
79,
74,
33,
29, 33,
Color, 25, 67, 68.
Comb-grain, 15.
Combustibility of wood,
76,
Glue,
61,
Chiseling, 47, 60, 63, 111.
Clamps,
100, 110.
Gaging, 43.
Glass cutting,
Handwork
42, 80, 91.
9, 99.
Chestnut,
16.
File, 130.
Filler, 145.
118.
Chamfer,
29.
123, 133, 137, 149.
Figure,
Beads, 78.
Beauty, 23.
Bench, 28, 29.
Bird-houses, 146, 147.
Bit holder, 64.
Blotter-holder, 132, Chap. XI, 133.
16.
149.
Essentials, Fixing of, 26, 35, 83, 115,
Batter, 112.
Board foot, 16.
Board measure,
83,
cloth, 94, 95.
22, 65.
Mahogany,
137.
158
4,
9,
14,
19,
69,
83,
88,
INDEX
Sawing, Rip, 45, 60, 120.
Saw, Turning, 111.
Mallet, 10, Chap. IX, 115.
Maple, 9,
Margins,
69, 115.
65, 67.
Marking gage,
Mass,
Mat
43,
44,
45, 49, 61, 143.
23.
65,
66,
159
68, 69.
Scoring, 48.
Scrap-basket. Chap. IV, 35.
Scraper, 128.
Screw, 64.
Screw-box, 133.
Material and form, 22.
Miter box, 51, 55, 64, 74, 103, 105, 150.
Moisture in wood, 14.
Screw
Mold for hammering copper,
Shrinkage of wood,
Moldings for pictures,
78,
97.
80.
Skill,
Mounting of pictures, 69, 70.
Nailing, 14, 51, 53, 54, 75, 90, 91, 104,
140,
145, 156.
Nail set, 53.
Nail set holder, 64.
Nosing, 78.
Notan, 24.
Oak, White, 3, 9, 14, 18, 69, 137.
Octagon, Laying out, 109, 110.
Ogee, 131.
Structure and design, 22.
Structure of wood, 14.
74.
Tee
102,
99,
26,
36,
83,
124, 137.
22.
14, 117.
88, 108,
75,
74,
75,
108,
139, 143.
Saw, Coping, 95.
Sawing, Cross cut,
X, 123.
121,
41,
119.
117.
Vise, 29, 30.
Walnut, Black,
83, 88, 137.
9,
Warping of wood, 15.
Wax, 9, 57.
Wedge, Method of making, 121.
White wood, 9. See Poplar, Yellow.
Wood,
93, 94.
13.
Wood and
Forest,
16,
118.
33,
49,
Upholstery nails, 55.
Utility and beauty, 26.
Varnish, 25.
Wire, Binding,
128.
111,
Tools, 29, 30.
Try-square, 40, 43, 44,
Turning saw, 111, 129.
Quarter-sawing, 15.
Rabbeting, 71, 73, 138, 139.
Raymond, Geo Lansing. Proportion
and Harmony of Line and Color,
Rift board, 15.
Rings, Annual,
Sandpaper, 50,
Saw, Back, 63,
bevel, 52, 63, 119.
119, 127, 135.
Trays, 122, Chap.
.ray, Glass, 80.
Plates, Brass, 109.
Polish, French, 131.
Poplar, Yellow, 4, 9, 18, 59, 149.
Properties of wood, 13, 14.
of,
99.
89.
Templet,
42.
63,
Supplies, 33.
Tables, Small, 98, 100.
Taborets. Chap. VIII,
Tapering,
120, 141, 150.
Refining
Slash-grain, 15.
Slip-feather, 75.
Snips, 92, 94.
Socket, 92, 95, 151.
Soldering, 93.
Soundness of construction, 22.
Spline, 75.
Stain, 9, 33, 56, 76, 92, 110, 145, 150.
Steel wool, 121, 131, 145.
.
Proportions,
14, 15.
9.
Spoke shave, 61, 120, 121, 130.
Spruce, 3, 17.
Square, Steel, 112.
Oil, 9, 25, 64, 84, 100, 110, 131.
Pan, 92, 94, 151.
Paper, Cover, 69.
Pencil holder, 64.
Paper, Manilla, 77, 151.
Picture frame, Chap. VI, 65.
Picture-frame-clamp, 10, 58, 59,
Pine, White, 3, 9, It, 17, 70, 87.
Pith ,rays, 14.
Plane, Adjustment of, 39, 41,
Planing, 39, 41, 42, 46, 48,
eyes, 77, 151, 157.
Shellac, 9, 25, 117, 131.
Woods, Common,
3,
4.
foot note
26,
14 DAY USE
RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED
LOAN
DEPT.
due on the last date stamped below,
or on the date to which renewed. Renewals only:
Tel. No. 642-3405
Renewals may be made 4 days prior to date due.
sved books are subject to immediate recall.
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