max07681405
19-0381; Rev 2; 9/01
KIT
ATION
EVALU
ABLE
IL
A
V
LA
MANUA
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
________________________Applications
Industrial-Control Systems
Robotics
Data-Acquisition Systems
Automatic Testing Systems
Medical Instruments
Telecommunications
Functional Diagram appears at end of data sheet.
____________________________Features
♦ 12-Bit Resolution, 1/2LSB Linearity
♦ Single +5V Operation
♦ Software-Selectable Input Ranges:
±10V, ±5V, 0V to 10V, 0V to 5V
♦ Fault-Protected Input Multiplexer (±16.5V)
♦ 8 Analog Input Channels
♦ 6µs Conversion Time, 100ksps Sampling Rate
♦ Internal or External Acquisition Control
♦ Internal 4.096V or External Reference
♦ Two Power-Down Modes
♦ Internal or External Clock
______________Ordering Information
PART
TEMP RANGE
PIN-PACKAGE
MAX197ACNI
0°C to +70°C
28 Narrow Plastic DIP
MAX197BCNI
0°C to +70°C
28 Narrow Plastic DIP
MAX197ACWI
0°C to +70°C
28 Wide SO
MAX197BCWI
0°C to +70°C
28 Wide SO
MAX197ACAI
0°C to +70°C
28 SSOP
MAX197BCAI
0°C to +70°C
28 SSOP
MAX197BC/D
0°C to +70°C
Dice*
Ordering Information continued at end of data sheet.
*Dice are specified at TA = +25°C, DC parameters only.
__________________Pin Configuration
TOP VIEW
CLK 1
28 DGND
27 VDD
CS 2
WR 3
26 REF
RD 4
25 REFADJ
HBEN 5
SHDN 6
D7 7
MAX197
24 INT
23 CH7
22 CH6
D6 8
21 CH5
D5 9
20 CH4
D4 10
19 CH3
D3/D11 11
18 CH2
D2/D10 12
17 CH1
D1/D9 13
16 CH0
D0/D8 14
15 AGND
DIP/SO/SSOP/Ceramic SB
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim/Dallas Direct! at
1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com.
1
MAX197
_______________General Description
The MAX197 multi-range, 12-bit data-acquisition system (DAS) requires only a single +5V supply for operation, yet accepts signals at its analog inputs that may
span both above the power-supply rail and below
ground. This system provides 8 analog input channels
that are independently software programmable for a
variety of ranges: ±10V, ±5V, 0V to +10V, or 0V to +5V.
This increases effective dynamic range to 14 bits, and
provides the user flexibility to interface 4mA-to-20mA,
±12V, and ±15V powered sensors to a single +5V system. In addition, the converter is overvoltage tolerant to
±16.5V; a fault condition on any channel does not
affect the conversion result of the selected channel.
Other features include a 5MHz bandwidth track/hold, a
100ksps throughput rate, software-selectable internal or
external clock and acquisition, 8+4 parallel interface,
and an internal 4.096V or an external reference.
A hardware SHDN pin and two programmable powerdown modes (STBYPD, FULLPD) are provided for lowcurrent shutdown between conversions. In STBYPD
mode, the reference buffer remains active, eliminating
start-up delays.
The MAX197 employs a standard microprocessor (µP)
interface. A three-state data I/O port is configured to
operate with 8-bit data buses, and data-access and
bus-release timing specifications are compatible with
most popular µPs. All logic inputs and outputs are
TTL/CMOS compatible.
The MAX197 is available in 28-pin DIP, wide SO, SSOP,
and ceramic SB packages.
For a different combination of ranges (±4V, ±2V, 0V to
4V, 0V to 2V), refer to the MAX199 data sheet. For 12-bit
bus interface, refer to the MAX196 and MAX198 data
sheets.
MAX197
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
VDD to AGND............................................................-0.3V to +7V
AGND to DGND.....................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
REF to AGND..............................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
REFADJ to AGND.......................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Digital Inputs to DGND...............................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Digital Outputs to DGND ............................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
CH0–CH7 to AGND ..........................................................±16.5V
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
Narrow Plastic DIP (derate 14.29mW/°C above +70°C)....1143mW
Wide SO (derate 12.50mW/°C above +70°C)..............1000mW
SSOP (derate 9.52mW/°C above +70°C) ......................762mW
Narrow Ceramic SB (derate 20.00mW/°C above +70°C)..1600mW
Operating Temperature Ranges
MAX197_C_ _ .......................................................0°C to +70°C
MAX197_E_ _.....................................................-40°C to +85°C
MAX197_M_ _ ..................................................-55°C to +125°C
Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VDD = 5V ±5%; unipolar/bipolar range; external reference mode, VREF = 4.096V; 4.7µF at REF pin; external clock, fCLK = 2.0MHz
with 50% duty cycle; TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
ACCURACY (Note 1)
Resolution
12
Integral Nonlinearity
INL
Differential Nonlinearity
DNL
±1/2
MAX197B
±1
±1
Unipolar
Offset Error
Bipolar
Channel-to-Channel Offset
Error Matching
MAX197A
MAX197B
±5
MAX197A
±5
MAX197B
±10
±0.1
Bipolar
±0.5
Gain Error
(Note 2)
Bipolar
LSB
LSB
±3
Unipolar
Unipolar
Gain Temperature Coefficient
(Note 2)
Bits
MAX197A
LSB
MAX197A
±7
MAX197B
±10
MAX197A
±7
MAX197B
LSB
LSB
±10
Unipolar
3
Bipolar
5
ppm/°C
DYNAMIC SPECIFICATIONS (10kHz sine-wave input, ±10Vp-p, fSAMPLE = 100ksps)
Signal-to-Noise + Distortion Ratio
SINAD
Total Harmonic Distortion
THD
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range
SFDR
MAX197A
70
MAX197B
69
Up to the 5th harmonic
dB
-85
80
-78
dB
dB
Channel-to-Channel Crosstalk
50kHz, VIN = ±5V (Note 3)
-86
dB
Aperture Delay
External CLK mode/external acquisition control
15
ns
<50
ps
Aperture Jitter
External CLK mode/external acquisition
control
Internal CLK mode/internal acquisition
control (Note 4)
10
ns
2
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
(VDD = 5V ±5%; unipolar/bipolar range; external reference mode, VREF = 4.096V; 4.7µF at REF pin; external clock, fCLK = 2.0MHz
with 50% duty cycle; TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
3
µs
ANALOG INPUT
Track/Hold Acquisition Time
fCLK = 2.0MHz
Small-Signal Bandwidth
-3dB rolloff
±10V range
5
±5V range
2.5
0V to 10V range
2.5
0V to 5V range
Unipolar
Input Voltage Range
(See Table 1)
Bipolar
Unipolar
Input Current
Bipolar
Input Dynamic Resistance
Input Capacitance
MHz
1.25
0
10
0
5
-10
10
-5
V
5
0V to 10V range
720
0V to 5V range
360
-10V to 10V range
-1200
720
-5V to 5V range
-600
360
Unipolar
21
Bipolar
16
(Note 5)
µA
kΩ
40
pF
INTERNAL REFERENCE
REF Output Voltage
VREF
REF Output Tempco
TC VREF
TA = +25°C
4.076
4.096
Output Short-Circuit Current
Load Regulation
0mA to 0.5mA output current (Note 6)
Capacitive Bypass at REF
2.465
With recommended circuit (Figure 1)
Buffer Voltage Gain
V
ppm/°C
30
mA
7.5
mV
4.7
REFADJ Output Voltage
REFADJ Adjustment Range
4.116
40
µF
2.500
2.535
V
±1.5
%
1.6384
V/V
REFERENCE INPUT (Buffer disabled, reference input applied to REF pin)
Input Voltage Range
Input Current
Input Resistance
REFADJ Threshold for
Buffer Disable
2.4
4.18
V
Normal or STANDBY
power-down mode
VREF = 4.18V
FULL power-down
mode
Normal or STANDBY power-down mode
10
kΩ
FULL power-down mode
5
MΩ
400
µA
1
VDD - 50mV
V
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3
MAX197
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
MAX197
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VDD = 5V ±5%; unipolar/bipolar range; external reference mode, VREF = 4.096V; 4.7µF at REF pin; external clock, fCLK = 2.0MHz
with 50% duty cycle; TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
5.25
V
POWER REQUIREMENTS
Supply Voltage
VDD
4.75
Normal mode, bipolar ranges
Supply Current
IDD
18
Normal mode, unipolar ranges
6
Standby power-down (STBYPD)
700
Full power-down mode (FULLPD) (Note 7)
Power-Supply Rejection Ratio
(Note 8)
PSRR
10
850
120
±1/2
External reference = 4.096V
±1/2
Internal reference
mA
µA
LSB
TIMING
Internal Clock Frequency
fCLK
External Clock Frequency Range
fCLK
tACQI
Acquisition Time
tACQE
Conversion Time
tCONV
CCLK = 100pF
1.25
1.56
0.1
Internal acquisition
External CLK
3.0
Internal CLK
3.0
External acquisition (Note 9)
After FULLPD or STBYPD
6.0
Internal CLK, CCLK = 100pF
6.0
5.0
7.7
Reference Buffer Settling
To 0.1mV REF bypass
capacitor fully discharged
10.0
100
Internal CLK, CCLK = 100pF
Power-up (Note 10)
MHz
µs
5
External CLK
Bandgap Reference
Start-Up Time
MHz
2.0
3.0
External CLK
Throughput Rate
2.00
62
200
CREF = 4.7µF
8
CREF = 33µF
60
µs
ksps
µs
ms
DIGITAL INPUTS (D7–D0, CLK, RD, WR, CS, HBEN, SHDN) (Note 11)
Input High Voltage
VINH
Input Low Voltage
VINL
2.4
Input Leakage Current
IIN
VIN = 0V or VDD
Input Capacitance
CIN
(Note 5)
V
0.8
V
±10
µA
15
pF
0.4
V
15
pF
DIGITAL OUTPUTS (D7–D4, D3/D11, D2/D10, D1/D9, D0/D8, INT)
Output Low Voltage
VOL
VDD = 4.75V, ISINK = 1.6mA
Output High Voltage
VOH
VDD = 4.75V, ISOURCE = 1mA
Three-State Output Capacitance
COUT
(Note 5)
4
VDD - 1
_______________________________________________________________________________________
V
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
(VDD = 5V ±5%; unipolar/bipolar range; external reference mode, VREF = 4.096V; 4.7µF at REF pin; external clock, fCLK = 2.0MHz
with 50% duty cycle; TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.)
PARAMETER
CS Pulse Width
WR Pulse Width
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
tCS
80
ns
tWR
80
ns
CS to WR Setup Time
tCSWS
0
ns
CS to WR Hold Time
tCSWH
0
ns
CS to RD Setup Time
tCSRS
0
ns
CS to RD Hold Time
tCSRH
0
CLK to WR Setup Time
tCWS
CLK to WR Hold Time
tCWH
ns
100
ns
50
ns
Data Valid to WR Setup
tDS
60
ns
Data Valid to WR Hold
tDH
0
ns
RD Low to Output Data Valid
tDO
Figure 2, CL = 100pF (Note 12)
120
ns
HBEN High or HBEN Low to
Output Valid
tDO1
Figure 2, CL = 100pF (Note 12)
120
ns
70
ns
120
ns
RD High to Output Disable
tTR
RD Low to INT High Delay
tINT1
Note 1:
Note 2:
Note 3:
Note 4:
Note 5:
Note 6:
Note 7:
Note 8:
Note 9:
Note 10:
Note 11:
Note 12:
Note 13:
(Note 13)
Accuracy specifications tested at VDD = 5.0V. Performance at power-supply tolerance limits guaranteed by Power-Supply
Rejection test. Tested for the ±10V input range.
External reference: VREF = 4.096V, offset error nulled, ideal last code transition = FS - 3/2LSB.
Ground "on" channel; sine wave applied to all "off" channels.
Maximum full-power input frequency for 1LSB error with 10ns jitter = 3kHz.
Guaranteed by design. Not tested.
Use static loads only.
Tested using internal reference.
PSRR measured at full-scale.
External acquisition timing: starts at data valid at ACQMOD = low control byte; ends at rising edge of WR with ACQMOD
= high control byte.
Not subject to production testing. Provided for design guidance only.
All input control signals specified with tR = tF = 5ns from a voltage level of 0.8V to 2.4V.
tDO and tDO1 are measured with the load circuits of Figure 2 and defined as the time required for an output to cross 0.8V
or 2.4V.
tTR is defined as the time required for the data lines to change by 0.5V.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
5
MAX197
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
__________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics
(TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF BITS
vs. INPUT FREQUENCY
FFT PLOT
-20
AMPLITUDE (dB)
0.150
0.100
0.050
0.000
-40
-60
-80
-0.050
FSAMPLE = 100kHz
11.5
11.0
10.5
-100
-120
1000
3000
2000
4000
10.0
0
25
DIGITAL CODE
50
MAX197-4
0.4
VDD = 5V ±0.25V
0.2
PSRR (LSB)
VREF (V)
4.095
4.090
4.085
AV = 1.6384
+2.5V
INTERNAL
REFERENCE
REFADJ
100Hz
-0.2
0.33
CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL
GAIN-ERROR MATCHING (LSB)
MAX197-6
CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL
OFFSET-ERROR MATCHING (LSB)
0
CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL
GAIN-ERROR MATCHING vs. TEMPERATURE
CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL
OFFSET-ERROR MATCHING vs. TEMPERATURE
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10
-70 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130
TEMPERATURE (°C)
120Hz
-0.6
-70 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130
TEMPERATURE (°C)
5 25 45 65 85 105 125
TEMPERATURE (°C)
0.20
100
-0.4
REF
4.080
-55 -35 -15
10
POWER-SUPPLY REJECTION RATIO
vs. TEMPERATURE
REFERENCE OUTPUT VOLTAGE (VREF)
vs. TEMPERATURE
4.100
1
INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz)
FREQUENCY (kHz)
MAX197-5
0
MAX197-7
-0.100
-0.150
6
12.0
EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF BITS
0.200
fTONE = 10kHz
fSAMPLE = 100kHz
MAX197-2
0
MAX197-1
0.250
MAX197-3
INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY
vs. DIGITAL CODE
INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY (LSB)
MAX197
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
0.32
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.28
0.27
-70 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130
TEMPERATURE (°C)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
PIN
NAME
FUNCTION
1
CLK
Clock Input. In external clock mode, drive CLK with a TTL/CMOS compatible clock. In internal clock mode,
place a capacitor from this pin to ground to set the internal clock frequency; fCLK = 1.56MHz typical with
CCLK = 100pF.
2
CS
Chip Select, active low.
3
WR
When CS is low, in the internal acquisition mode, a rising edge on WR latches in configuration data and starts an
acquisition plus a conversion cycle. When CS is low, in the external acquisition mode, the first rising edge on
WR starts an acquisition and a second rising edge on WR ends acquisition and starts a conversion cycle.
4
RD
If CS is low, a falling edge on RD will enable a read operation on the data bus.
5
HBEN
Used to multiplex the 12-bit conversion result. When high, the 4 MSBs are multiplexed on the data bus;
when low, the 8 LSBs are available on the bus.
6
SHDN
Shutdown. Puts the device into full power-down (FULLPD) mode when pulled low.
7–10
D7–D4
Three-State Digital I/O
11
D3/D11
Three-State Digital I/O. D3 output (HBEN = low), D11 output (HBEN = high).
12
D2/D10
Three-State Digital I/O. D2 output (HBEN = low), D10 output (HBEN = high).
13
D1/D9
Three-State Digital I/O. D1 output (HBEN = low), D9 output (HBEN = high).
14
D0/D8
Three-State Digital I/O. D0 output (HBEN = low), D8 output (HBEN = high). D0 = LSB.
15
AGND
16–23
CH0–CH7
24
INT
25
REFADJ
Bandgap Voltage-Reference Output/External Adjust Pin. Bypass with a 0.01µF capacitor to AGND. Connect
to VDD when using an external reference at the REF pin.
26
REF
Reference Buffer Output/ADC Reference Input. In internal reference mode, the reference buffer provides a
4.096V nominal output, externally adjustable at REFADJ. In external reference mode, disable the internal
buffer by pulling REFADJ to VDD.
27
VDD
+5V Supply. Bypass with 0.1µF capacitor to AGND.
28
DGND
Analog Ground
Analog Input Channels
INT goes low when conversion is complete and output data is ready.
Digital Ground
+5V
3kΩ
+5V
MAX197
510kΩ
100kΩ
REFADJ
DOUT
DOUT
3kΩ
CLOAD
CLOAD
0.01µF
24kΩ
a. HIGH-Z TO VOH AND VOL TO VOH
Figure 1. Reference-Adjust Circuit
b. HIGH-Z TO VOL AND VOH TO VOL
Figure 2. Load Circuits for Enable Time
_______________________________________________________________________________________
7
MAX197
______________________________________________________________Pin Description
MAX197
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
_______________Detailed Description
Converter Operation
The MAX197, a multi-range, fault-tolerant ADC, uses
successive approximation and internal input track/hold
(T/H) circuitry to convert an analog signal to a 12-bit
digital output. The parallel-output format provides easy
interface to microprocessors (µPs). Figure 3 shows the
MAX197 in its simplest operational configuration.
Analog-Input Track/Hold
In the internal acquisition control mode (control bit D5
set to 0), the T/H enters its tracking mode on WR’s rising edge, and enters its hold mode when the internally
timed (6 clock cycles) acquisition interval ends. A low
impedance input source, which settles in less than
1.5µs, is required to maintain conversion accuracy at
the maximum conversion rate.
In the external acquisition control mode (D5 = 1), the
T/H enters its tracking mode on the first WR rising edge
and enters its hold mode when it detects the second WR
rising edge with D5 = 0. See the External Acquisition
section.
Input Bandwidth
The ADC’s input tracking circuitry has a 5MHz smallsignal bandwidth. When using the internal acquisition
1
DGND
CLK
mode with an external clock frequency of 2MHz, a
100ksps throughput rate can be achieved. It is possible
to digitize high-speed transient events and measure
periodic signals with bandwidths exceeding the ADC’s
sampling rate by using undersampling techniques. To
avoid high-frequency signals being aliased into the frequency band of interest, anti-alias filtering is recommended (MAX274/MAX275 continuous-time filters).
Input Range and Protection
Figure 4 shows the equivalent input circuit. With VREF =
4.096V, the MAX197 can be programmed for input
ranges of ±10V, ±5V, 0V to 10V, or 0V to 5V by setting the
appropriate control bits (D3, D4) in the control byte (see
Tables 2 and 3). The full-scale input voltage depends on
the voltage at REF (Table 1). When an external reference
is applied at REFADJ, the voltage at REF is given by VREF
= 1.6384 x VREFADJ (2.4V < VREF < 4.18V).
Table 1. Full Scale and Zero Scale
RANGE (V) ZERO SCALE (V) -FULL SCALE +FULL SCALE
0 to 5
µP
CONTROL
INPUTS
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
—
VREF x 1.2207
—
VREF x 2.4414
0 to 10
0
±5
—
-VREF x 1.2207 VREF x 1.2207
±10
—
-VREF x 2.4414 VREF x 2.4414
BIPOLAR
28
VOLTAGE
REFERENCE
S1
100pF
2
0
+5V
MAX197 VDD 27
CS
WR
REF
REFADJ
RD
HBEN
SHDN
D7
D6
D5
10
D4
11 D3/D11
12
D2/D10
13
D1/D9
14 D0/D8
INT
CH7
CH6
CH5
CH4
CH3
CH2
25
24
0.1µF
UNIPOLAR
5.12kΩ
4.7µF
OUTPUT STATUS
23
OFF
12.5kΩ
CH_
22
CHOLD
ON
20
19
T/H
OUT
S2
21
ANALOG
INPUTS
8.67kΩ
S3
18
CH1 17
16
CH0
AGND
+4.096V
26
HOLD
TRACK
TRACK
15
S1 = BIPOLAR/UNIPOLAR SWITCH
S2 = INPUT MUX SWITCH
S3, S4 = T/H SWITCH
µP DATA BUS
Figure 3. Operational Diagram
8
Figure 4. Equivalent Input Circuit
_______________________________________________________________________________________
S4
HOLD
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
Input Format
The control byte is latched into the device, on pins
D7–D0, during a write cycle. Table 2 shows the controlbyte format.
Even with VDD = 0V, the input resistive network provides
current-limiting that adequately protects the device.
Output Data Format
The output data format is binary in unipolar mode and
twos-complement binary in bipolar mode. When reading the output data, CS, and RD must be low. When
HBEN is low, the lower eight bits are read. When HBEN
is high, the upper four MSBs are available and the output data bits D4–D7 are either set low (in unipolar
mode) or set to the value of the MSB (in bipolar mode)
(Table 6).
Digital Interface
Input data (control byte) and output data are multiplexed
on a three-state parallel interface. This parallel I/O can
easily be interfaced with a µP. CS, WR, and RD control
the write and read operations. CS is the standard chipselect signal, which enables a µP to address the MAX197
as an I/O port. When high, it disables the WR and RD
inputs and forces the interface into a high-Z state.
Table 2. Control-Byte Format
D7 (MSB)
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0 (LSB)
PD1
PD0
ACQMOD
RNG
BIP
A2
A1
A0
BIT
NAME
DESCRIPTION
7, 6
PD1, PD0
These two bits select the clock and power-down modes (Table 4).
5
ACQMOD
0 = internally controlled acquisition (6 clock cycles), 1 = externally controlled acquisition
4
RNG
3
BIP
2, 1, 0
A2, A1, A0
Selects the full-scale voltage magnitude at the input (Table 3).
Selects unipolar or bipolar conversion mode (Table 3).
These are address bits for the input mux to select the “on” channel (Table 5).
Table 3. Range and Polarity Selection
BIP
RNG
Table 4. Clock and Power-Down Selection
PD1 PD0
INPUT RANGE (V)
0
0
0 to 5
0
1
0 to 10
1
0
±5
1
1
±10
DEVICE MODE
0
0
Normal Operation / External Clock Mode
0
1
Normal Operation / Internal Clock Mode
1
0
Standby Power-Down (STBYPD); clock mode
is unaffected
1
1
Full Power-Down (FULLPD); clock mode is
unaffected
Table 5. Channel Selection
A2
A1
A0
CH0
0
0
0
—
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH7
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
_______________________________________________________________________________________
9
MAX197
The input channels are overvoltage protected to
±16.5V. This protection is active even if the device is in
power-down mode.
MAX197
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
Writing a new control byte during conversion cycle will
abort conversion and start a new acquisition interval.
Table 6. Data-Bus Output
PIN
HBEN = LOW
D0
B0 (LSB)
B8
HBEN = HIGH
D1
B1
B9
D2
B2
B10
D3
B3
B11 (MSB)
D4
B4
B11 (BIP = 1) / 0 (BIP = 0)
D5
B5
B11 (BIP = 1) / 0 (BIP = 0)
D6
B6
B11 (BIP = 1) / 0 (BIP = 0)
D7
B7
B11 (BIP = 1) / 0 (BIP = 0)
Internal Acquisition
Select internal acquisition by writing the control byte
with the ACQMOD bit cleared (ACQMOD = 0). This
causes the write pulse to initiate an acquisition interval
whose duration is internally timed. Conversion starts
when this six-clock-cycle acquisition interval (3µs with
fCLK = 2MHz) ends. See Figure 5.
External Acquisition
Use the external acquisition timing mode for precise control of the sampling aperture and/or independent control
of acquisition and conversion times. The user controls
acquisition and start-of-conversion with two separate
write pulses. The first pulse, written with ACQMOD = 1,
starts an acquisition interval of indeterminate length. The
second write pulse, written with ACQMOD = 0, terminates acquisition and starts conversion on WR’s rising
edge (Figure 6). However, if the second control byte
contains ACQMOD = 1, an indefinite acquisition interval
is restarted.
The address bits for the input mux must have the same
values on the first and second write pulses. Powerdown mode bits (PD0, PD1) can assume new values on
the second write pulse (see Power-Down Mode).
How to Start a Conversion
Conversions are initiated with a write operation, which
selects the mux channel and configures the MAX197 for
either unipolar or bipolar input range. A write pulse (WR
+ CS) can either start an acquisition interval or initiate a
combined acquisition plus conversion. The sampling
interval occurs at the end of the acquisition interval.
The ACQMOD bit in the input control byte offers two
options for acquiring the signal: internal or external.
The conversion period lasts for 12 clock cycles in either
internal or external clock or acquisition mode.
tCS
CS
tACQI
tCSWS
tCSRH
tCSRS
tCSWH
tWR
tCONV
WR
tDH
tDS
CONTROL
BYTE
D7–D0
ACQMOD ="0"
tINT1
INT
RD
HBEN
tD0
HGH-Z
DOUT
tTR
tD01
HIGH / LOW
BYTE VALID
HIGH / LOW
BYTE VALID
Figure 5. Conversion Timing Using Internal Acquisition Mode
10
______________________________________________________________________________________
HGH-Z
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
MAX197
tCSRS
tCS
tCSRH
CS
tCSWS
tWR
tACQI
tCSHW
tCONV
WR
tDH
tDS
D7–D0
CONTROL
BYTE
ACQMOD = "1"
CONTROL
BYTE
ACQMOD = "0"
tINT1
INT
RD
HBEN
tD01
tD0
HIGH / LOW
BYTE VALID
DOUT
tTR
HIGH / LOW
BYTE VALID
Figure 6. Conversion Timing Using External Acquisition Mode
Clock Modes
The MAX197 operates with either an internal or an
external clock. Control bits (D6, D7) select either internal or external clock mode. Once the desired clock
mode is selected, changing these bits to program
power-down will not affect the clock mode. In each
mode, internal or external acquisition can be used. At
power-up, external clock mode is selected.
Internal Clock Mode
Select internal clock mode to free the µP from the
burden of running the SAR conversion clock. To select
this mode, write the control byte with D7 = 0 and D6 = 1.
A 100pF capacitor between the CLK pin and ground
sets this frequency to 1.56MHz nominal. Figure 7
shows a linear relationship between the internal clock
period and the value of the external capacitor used.
INTERNAL CLOCK PERIOD (ns)
How to Read a Conversion
A standard interrupt signal, INT, is provided to allow the
device to flag the µP when the conversion has ended
and a valid result is available. INT goes low when conversion is complete and the output data is ready
(Figures 5 and 6). It returns high on the first read cycle
or if a new control byte is written.
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0
50
100 150 200
250 300 350
CLOCK PIN CAPACITANCE (pF)
Figure 7. Internal Clock Period vs. Clock Pin Capacitance
______________________________________________________________________________________
11
MAX197
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
External Clock Mode
Select external clock mode by writing the control byte
with D7 = 0 and D6 = 0. Figure 8 shows CLK and WR
timing relationships in internal and external acquisition
modes, with an external clock. A 100kHz to 2.0MHz
external clock with 45% to 55% duty cycle is required
for proper operation. Operating at clock frequencies
lower than 100kHz will cause a voltage droop across
the hold capacitor, and subsequently degrade performance.
ACQUISITION STARTS
CONVERSION STARTS
ACQUISITION ENDS
CLK
tCWS
WR
ACQMOD = "0"
tCWH
WR GOES HIGH WHEN CLK IS HIGH
ACQUISITION ENDS
ACQUISITION STARTS
CONVERSION STARTS
CLK
WR
ACQMOD = "0"
WR GOES HIGH WHEN CLK IS LOW
Figure 8a. External Clock and WR Timing (Internal Acquisition Mode)
ACQUISITION ENDS
ACQUISITION STARTS
CONVERSION STARTS
CLK
tCWS
tDH
WR
ACQMOD = "0"
ACQMOD = "1"
WR GOES HIGH WHEN CLK IS HIGH
ACQUISITION STARTS
ACQUISITION ENDS
CONVERSION STARTS
CLK
tCWH
tDH
WR
ACQMOD = "1"
WR GOES HIGH WHEN CLK IS LOW
ACQMOD = "0"
Figure 8b. External Clock and WR Timing (External Acquisition Mode)
12
______________________________________________________________________________________
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
Power-On Reset
At power-up, the internal power-supply circuitry sets INT
high and puts the device in normal operation/external
clock mode. This state is selected to keep the internal
clock from loading the external clock driver when the
part is used in external clock mode.
Internal or External Reference
The MAX197 can operate with either an internal or an
external reference. An external reference can be connected to either the REF pin or to the REFADJ pin (Figure 9).
To use the REF input directly, disable the internal buffer
by tying REFADJ to VDD. Using the REFADJ input eliminates the need to buffer the reference externally.
When the reference is applied at REFADJ, bypass
REFADJ with a 0.01µF capacitor to AGND.
external reference at REF must be able to deliver
400µA DC load currents, and must have an output
impedance of 10Ω or less. If the reference has higher
input impedance or is noisy, bypass it close to the REF
pin with a 4.7µF capacitor to AGND.
With an external reference voltage of less than 4.096V
at the REF pin or less than 2.5V at the REFADJ pin, the
increase in the ratio of the RMS noise to the LSB value
(FS / 4096) results in performance degradation (loss of
effective bits).
REF
The REFADJ internal buffer gain is trimmed to 1.6384 to
provide 4.096V at the REF pin from a 2.5V reference.
VDD
REFADJ
REF
2.5V
Figure 9b. External Reference, Reference at REF
REF
CREF
4.7µF
AV = 1.638
MAX197
CREF
4.7µF
REFADJ
25
0.01µF
2.5V
Figure 9a. Internal Reference
26
AV = 1.638
REFADJ
10kΩ
25
10kΩ
26
MAX197
4.096V
CREF
4.7µF
AV = 1.638
Internal Reference
The internally trimmed 2.50V reference is gained
through the REFADJ buffer to provide 4.096V at REF.
Bypass the REF pin with a 4.7µF capacitor to AGND
and the REFADJ pin with a 0.01µF capacitor to AGND.
The internal reference voltage is adjustable to ±1.5%
(±65 LSBs) with the reference-adjust circuit of Figure 1.
External Reference
At REF and REFADJ, the input impedance is a minimum of 10kΩ for DC currents. During conversions, an
26
MAX197
25
2.5V
0.01µF
10kΩ
2.5V
Figure 9c. External Reference, Reference at REFADJ
______________________________________________________________________________________
13
MAX197
__________Applications Information
MAX197
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
Power-Down Mode
To save power, you can put the converter into lowcurrent shutdown mode between conversions. Two
programmable power-down modes are available, in
addition to a hardware shutdown. Select STBYPD or
FULLPD by programming PD0 and PD1 in the input
control byte. When software power-down is asserted, it
becomes effective only after the end of conversion. In all
power-down modes, the interface remains active and
conversion results may be read. Input overvoltage protection is active in all power-down modes. The device
returns to normal operation on the first WR falling edge
during write operation.
For hardware-controlled (FULLPD) power-down, pull
the SHDN pin low. When hardware shutdown is asserted, it becomes effective immediately and the conversion is aborted.
Choosing Power-Down Modes
The bandgap reference and reference buffer remain
active in STBYPD mode, maintaining the voltage on the
4.7µF capacitor at the REF pin. This is a “DC” state that
does not degrade after power-down of any duration.
Therefore, you can use any sampling rate with this
mode, without regard to start-up delays.
However, in FULLPD mode, only the bandgap reference is active. Connect a 33µF capacitor between REF
and AGND to maintain the reference voltage between
conversion and to reduce transients when the buffer is
enabled and disabled. Throughput rates down to 1ksps
can be achieved without allotting extra acquisition time
for reference recovery prior to conversion. This allows
conversion to begin immediately after power-down
ends. If the discharge of the REF capacitor during
FULLPD exceeds the desired limits for accuracy (less
than a fraction of an LSB), run a STBYPD power-down
cycle prior to starting conversions. Take into account
that the reference buffer recharges the bypass capacitor at an 80mV/ms slew rate and add 50µs for settling
time. Throughput rates of 10ksps offer typical supply
currents of 470µA, using the recommended 33µF
capacitor value.
Auto-Shutdown
Selecting STBYPD on every conversion automatically
shuts the MAX197 down after each conversion without
requiring any start-up time on the next conversion.
OUTPUT CODE
OUTPUT CODE
FULL-SCALE
TRANSITION
11... 111
FS
1 LSB =
4096
1 LSB =
011... 111
011... 110
11... 110
11... 101
000... 001
000... 000
111... 111
00... 011
100... 010
00... 010
100... 001
00... 001
100... 000
00... 000
0
1
2
FS
3
INPUT VOLTAGE (LSB)
Figure 10. Unipolar Transfer Function
14
FS - 3/2 LSB
-FS
0V
INPUT VOLTAGE (LSB)
Figure 11. Bipolar Transfer Function
______________________________________________________________________________________
+FS - 1 LSB
2FS
4096
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
Layout, Grounding, and Bypassing
Careful printed circuit board layout is essential for best
system performance. For best performance, use a
ground plane. To reduce crosstalk and noise injection,
keep analog and digital signals separate. Digital
ground lines can run between digital signal lines to
minimize interference. Connect analog grounds and
DGND in a star configuration to AGND. For noise-free
operation, ensure the ground return from AGND to the
supply ground is low impedance and as short as possible. Connect the logic grounds directly to the supply
ground. Bypass VDD with 0.1µF and 4.7µF capacitors
to AGND to minimize high- and low-frequency fluctuations. If the supply is excessively noisy, connect a 5Ω
resistor between the supply and V DD , as shown in
Figure 12.
_Ordering Information (continued)
PART
TEMP RANGE
PIN-PACKAGE
MAX197AENI
-40°C to +85°C
28 Narrow Plastic DIP
MAX197BENI
MAX197AEWI
MAX197BEWI
MAX197AEAI
MAX197BEAI
MAX197AMYI
MAX197BMYI
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-55°C to +125°C
-55°C to +125°C
28 Narrow Plastic DIP
28 Wide SO
28 Wide SO
28 SSOP
28 SSOP
28 Narrow Ceramic SB**
28 Narrow Ceramic SB**
** Contact factory for availability and processing to MIL-STD-883.
___________________Chip Topography
WR CLK
V DD
CS
DGND
V CC
REF
RD
REFADJ
HBEN
INT
SHDN
D7
CH7
0.231"
(5.870mm)
CH6
SUPPLY
CH5
GND
+5V
D6
CH4
D5
D4
4.7µF
R* = 5Ω
CH3
D3
CH2
0.1µF
**
D1
D2
VDD
AGND
DGND
+5V
MAX197
DGND
DIGITAL
CIRCUITRY
CH0
D0
AGND
CH1
0.144"
(3.659mm)
TRANSISTOR COUNT: 2956
SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO GND
* OPTIONAL
** CONNECT AGND AND DGND WITH A GROUND PLANE OR A SHORT TRACE
Figure 12. Power-Supply Grounding Connection
______________________________________________________________________________________
15
MAX197
Transfer Function
Output data coding for the MAX197 is binary in unipolar mode with 1LSB = (FS / 4096) and two’s-complement binary in bipolar mode with 1LSB = ((2 x |FS|) /
4096). Code transitions occur halfway between successive-integer LSB values. Figures 10 and 11 show the
input/output (I/O) transfer functions for unipolar and
bipolar operations, respectively. For full-scale (FS) values, see Table 1.
MAX197
Multi-Range (±10V, ±5V, +10V, +5V),
Single +5V, 12-Bit DAS with 8+4 Bus Interface
_________________________________________________________Functional Diagram
REF
REFADJ
AV =
1.638
CH7
CH6
CH5
CH4
CH3
CH2
CH1
SIGNAL
CONDITIONING
BLOCK
AND
OVERVOLTAGE
TOLERANT
MUX
10kΩ
+2.5V
REFERENCE
T/H
CHARGE REDISTRIBUTION
12-BIT DAC
COMP
12
CH0
SUCCESSIVEAPPROXIMATION
REGISTER
CLK
CS
WR
RD
CLOCK
CONTROL LOGIC
AND
LATCHES
4
8
4
8
MUX
SHDN
8
8
THREE-STATE, BIDIRECTIONAL
I/O INTERFACE
INT
HBEN
MAX197
VDD
AGND
DGND
D0–D7
8-BIT DATA BUS
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are
implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
16 __________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408) 737-7600
© 2001 Maxim Integrated Products
Printed USA
is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.
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