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A projec; of Volunteers in Asia
Less Smokv Rooms
by Andreas Bachmann
Published
by:
UNICEF
P.O. Box 1187
Kathmandu
NEPAL
Available
from:
same as above
Reproduced by permission-
Reproduction of this microfiche
document in any
form is subject to the same restrictions
as those
of the original
document.
lizI
SS SMOKY
la
ROOMS
LESS
SMOKY
ROOMS
WITH
WOOD-FIRED
STOVES
FOR:
COOKING
l
q. $!OOM
.‘
HEATING
,a:: ,HQ-T
.;' CWATER
PRODUCTION
With the he
proved stoves
and proper chimneys
i r'
S.#JUDY r?,$#C.*P 3-J cI-4p*,.,x*cP.L
IMPROVEMENT.
THROUGH:
With special
OF
LIVING
STANDARDS
l
LESS
SMOKY
ROOMS
a
FUEL
EFFICIENCY
l
SAFETY
reference to the Himalayan region
(Bhutan and Nepal)
ANDREAS
BACHMANN
Published
by:
Sahayogi Press
Tripureshwar
Kathmandu
Phone: 211 489
********jr
SECOND, REVISED EDITION
OCTOBER
-
1984
The opinions expressed and arguments employed
in this publication
are the responsibility
of
the author and do not necessarily
represent
those of any organization.
Copyright is reserved by the.author',
but permission
is hereby granted for the reproduction
of any part,
text or drawiug, for non-profit
publication;
however
the whole book-t,
or any major portion,
should not
be reproduced without permission. &yone making use
of material presented herein is requested to acknowledge the source and submit to the author
a copy of
the excerpt.
Printed
in Nepal
at Sahayogi Press
.
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
7
INTRODUCTIOL
9
COOKING
Solid Stoves with cast-iron
parts
Another New Nepali Chulo
Cooking and Fuel Efficiency
Cooking Pots
The Hwogwo
The Ic-Mic Cooker
Hay-Box Cooking
A Cooking Place for large-sized
PotsROOMHEATERS
A Simple Wood-Burning Stove
Sawdust Stoves
Room Heating with an improved
Sawdust Stove
Open Fireplaces
(Cheminee)
,
WATER HEATING
Cooking Stoves c&bined
hot water production
Bath Oven
Instant
Hot Water
11
27
32
34
36
37
39
41
45
49
_
53
56
with
57
61
65
BAKING OVEN
A large wood-burning
oven
A Camp.Oven
Construction
of a simple Bread OvenA Small Brick Oven
66
68
69
72
CHIMNEYS
Principles
Masonry Chimney
Roof Protection
Top of Chimneys
Sheet Metal Pipes
Connections / Pipe Installations
Sheet Metal Bends
Passing through. Ceilings
and Walls Sheet Metal Pipe Manufacturing
69
90
92
STOVE AND CHIMNEY SAFETY
95
A WORDOii ROOMHEATING
97
ALTERNATIVE RENEWABLEENERGY RFSOURCES-
99
73
79
81
84
86
87
MANUFACTURERS
AND SUPPLIERS
101
REFERENCES
102
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
103
-7FOREWORD
Thanks to the late Rev. B.R. Saubolle -who was a
pioneer in these mini technologiesseveral of his
experiences
could be included
in this book&et: taken
from an earlier
publication:
Mini Technology,
I + II.
Other solutions
shown in this volume were collected
from different
places, mainly from Nepal and Bhutan,
but also from previous activities
in Switzerland.
Not so inar,y y ears ago wood fired devices were considered as "old-fashioned"
utilities.
Yet it is
recognized
that most of the world's
population
is
dependentonthem.
This will
remain unchanged for many
years.
Many countries
are worried about their
fuel supply for
cooking in near future.
One solution
is the conservation of existing
resources.
With fuel wood this means
energy-saving
devices, e.g. doing the same job but
with less fuel consumption.
Charcoal stoves are not
being covered in this booklet.
One reason being that
quite a lot of information
is already available,
another is that normally practizided
charcoal production in developing
countries
is a wasteful,
fuelthat charcoal is coninefficient
process. Realizing
venient,
it will
also be hard to stop - even when the
environment
is severely endangered.
The aim of this booklet is to inform interested
persons
in possibilities
of fuel efficient
devices in less
A
lot
of
the
information
deals mainly
smoky rooms.
with some of the principles
to be followed
during the
installation
of stoves and chimneys.
It is hoped that the technology
of improved devices,
properly
fitted
and maintained,
will
soon be improved
(for reasons of efficiency,
function.and
safety)
for
many households and small-scale
enterprises
in urban
and rural areas,
-9INTRODUCTION
With the improvement of life
styles,
cooking and room
heating devices are being changed. This is of considerable significance
in countries
where wood is the
main fuel. Several reasons for this include:
in rooms
a smoke reduction
l
fuel efficiency
of stoves
l
fire hazards
During the last few years efforts
have been directed
towards more efficient
and smokeless stoves. Of course,
these devices need proper knowledge -to some extent at
leastto give satisfactory
and safe performance.
Programmes at the national
levels mainly take care of
the rural family's
needs. For this the prefabricated
stoves, made of fired clay, have emerged as the most
successful
solution
here in Nepal. Of course, the same
device can also be made with rammed earth,
or with mud
as used traditionally.
This stove is locally
made, at
reasonable cost, quite foolproof,
fuel efficient
and
smokeless and most importantly,
widely accepted by
many households in rural areas. The activities
of rural
stove improvement are several years old and more information is available
from the organizations
involved.
Now people are asking for other improved fuel efficient
and smokeless devices.
It has also been recognized
that
for institutions,
hostels,
etc.,
larger stoves are
required.
Now more experiments
have been made and new
devices are available.
The increasing
demand in such new devices not only
proves that people are interested
in having less smoky
rooms and improved fuel efficiency,
but also that much
can be achieved through direct
and practical
approaches,
local skills
and small-scale
manufacturers.
This technology
and its products have aroused interest
in many
places and in several countries.
-2 .O-
bend -
xleaning
opening
in
masonry
chimney
.properly
dimensioned
sheet metal
pipe
damper,for draught
control
cast-iron
plates,
with rings
door, with a
air draught
control
ash tray
-
A "super cooking stove" in Bumthang,
Bhutan. This stove, with its proper installation
and incorporated
cast-iron
parts,
provides
fast and fuel-efficient
cooking in a smoke-free
kitchen.
-llSOLID
STOVES WITH CAST-IRON
PARTS
Many people in urban and rural areas would prefer to
have more convenient
and longer lasting
stoves. Stoves
made of cast-iron
have been around for a long while.
Cast-iron
is a durable material;
it can be used for
wood and coal firing,
and once a pattern
has been
developed it is easy to produce standard pieces by
casting.
In Western countries
such stoves are available from shops, but since they are solid,
they cost
quite a bit.
Recognizing the various needs of people it was necessary to develop modules of standard sizes. To start
with, one set of cast-iron
parts was brought from
Switzerland
and a prototype
stove was made here in
Kathmandu. Nowadays it is possible
to get "stove
construction
kits“,
consisting
of necessary metal
parts:
stove plates with rings,
grate with door frame,
ash tray,
chimney connection
with incorporated
damper
for draught control.
These items can be assembled at
home by a skilled
mason.
Two of these cast-iron
sets were taken to Bhutan and
firstly
installed
at Bumthang. At the same time people
there also designed a new chimney block, which can be
cast at the site with a simple mould made of wood.
These blocks have hollow spaces for insulation.
The
prefabrication
of blocks enabled chimneys to be quite
quickly
constructed
and gave very satisfactory
performance.
These ideas caught on speadily
in Bhutan. Several such
stoves and many chimneys were made within
a few months.
They were fitted
at the Forestry
Training
Centre's
main kitchen,
as well as in several
staff quarters,
private
homes. People in general are very happy with
this convenient
stove. It also became obvious,
however,
that stoves must be supplied with all the necessary
parts.
For example, at one or two places the ash tray
was missing,
causing too strong air draught in the
stove. This increased fuelwood consumption!
It is also
important
to instruct
the owners how to use such stoves
properly.
-12In Nepal several institutions
have installed
stoves; for example, UNICEF-assisted
feeder
these
developed
as well
in Dhankuta at the Ccmmunity
Center
(Nepal-Canada
Project).
domestic
new
hostels,
Medicine
Auxiliary
Training
Different
sizes have been
to meet the needs of the community
for
requirements.
Correctstoveinstallation
is vital.
Stoves need to be
properly
located,
and need a well designed and carefully
constructed
chimney. Recently a complaint
arrived
from
Trisuli,
where a pilot
stove was fitted,
that the stove
produced too much smoke. After
a brief
inspection
at the
site it became clear that the stove and the chimney
simply needed cleaning!
This was done and the stove
again worked properly.
Metal parts for the construction of a
cooking stove, as developed by the
National Structure & Engineering Co.,
in Patan Industrial
Estate, Kathmandu.
The cast-iron
modules can be assembled in many different
ways. In addition
to cooking,
there are also possibilities to have hot water from a small container,
a baking
oven, or a system to provide hot water from the tap.
This all provides more convenience for cooking with wood,
and longer lagting
stoves! Certainly,
such metal parts
mean that the initial
cost is not low, but they will
provide good service for many years.
-13-
A newly made cooking stove
at Bumthang/Bhutan,
with
cast-iron
parts and chimney
pipe fitted
to masonry
chimney.
A demonstration
Patan Industrial
unit at
Estate.
Stove for a single pot;
a combination
of room
heating
and little
cooking.
A larger
sized cooking range
at the Forestry
Training
Centre in Bumthang. It's
cooking capacity
is for
and proabout 30 trainees,
vides some hot water
through a hot water jacket,
incorporated
in the stove.
The hot water container
is
in the corner.
A prototype
construction
of an advanced cooking
range, with baking oven,
developed at the Kharbandi Technical
Training
School in Phuntsholing.
-15COOKING
RANGE
INSTALLATION
masonry chimney (bricks
(SAMPLE)
or hollow
r-fill
space with porous,
incombustible
material
blocks)
non-metallic,
HJ
for
draught. control
cast-iron
plates
door
cleant7i a3
F
cooking
t
--------
fireproof
range
ashtray
laver "-l--="-a
Note: It is possible to incorporate
a water jacket
with such stoves - to warm water for washing. Many
wood fired cooking ranges in western countries
(Australia,
Switzerland,
etc.) used to have them.
1
I
-161
COOKING STOVE
WITH CAST-IRON
EXAMPLE:
PARTS
2 PQT-STOVE
FRONT / SECTION
fire
chamber, under first
ashes and air
r’
E
u
E
u
II
f@zb
I I
flow
pot
-17-
COOKING
STOVE
WITH
DIRECT
CHIMNEY
CONNECTION
SIDE CROSS
cleaning opening
(at this height:
access to damper)
-I t
I
pipe (rectangular,
approx. 24x 6 cm1
TOP
1;
1
I/--If\ - -’
,‘y&\
I’I’ :-I
LL-- 24or45
--
7
.+.
mm-
,.
r
.@
~~1134
L--J
20 cm
I
-18-
COOKING
TOP
STOVE
WITH
CAST-IRON
VIEWS
PARTS
TWO POTS STOVE
"FRONT FEED"
in.
min.
120 mm inside
120 mm ID \
0
-19.
COOKING
STOVES
TOP VIEWS
WITH
SINGLE
CAST-IRON
PARTS
POT STOVE
n. 100 mm inside
0
L-J
34 /45
cm
Note: sizes
of cast-iron
parts
THREE
min.
b ‘I.
I
f
150 mm ID
.
I
depend on manufacturers'
POTS
supply
STOVES
min. 150 mm ID
I
\
+f
+
~
"L-SHAPE/
1
PE
I
LEFT”
RIGHT”
i
I
\
-A--a’
v4/45_1
_!
L-4
34145
Note:
Three pots stoves can also be made in a straight
line (in
the same way as the two pots stoves). The third hole serves
mainly for lower temperature cooking.
a,ba
-21)-
COOKING
STOVE
WITH
EXPLODED
CAST-IRON
PARTS
VIEW
top plate
door with
frame
grate
damper
chimney
connector
masonry
stove
body
ash tray
-21CONSTRUCTION
OF
STOVE
WITH CAST-IRON
STEP
Note that the plate may
be smaller than the outside of the masonry
walls.
wood feeding
STEP
TWO
After the first
layer
of bricks is placed
estimate the final
level of the top of
the stove.
Build up as many
bricks as needed and
fill
in the space inside the walls with
bricks,
stones;up
to the same level.
distance
to wall
cast-iron
plate
PARTS
ONE
Have all the materials
ready for the stove
construction:
castiron parts and construction
materials.
(e.g. bricks and
mud)
The measurement of the
foundation
depend on
the cast-iron
top plate.
First,
place the plate
on the floor,
together
with the smoke-exit
piece and arrange the
masonry work. Figure
out where the door will
be fitted,
(it should be
positioned
in line with
the center of the first
cooking hole.
I
~
-22CONSTRUCTION
OF
STOVE
I
WITH
CAST-IRON
STEP
PARTS
THREE
Place the cast-iron
door frame in the structure and make sure it
is lined up with the
first
cooking pot hole.
Arrange its support,
so that the ashtray
will have its proper
place, as shown.
Be aware that the
door frame may be inside the front wall
construction
(so that
the top plate will fit
into the groove of the
door frame - and hold
the frame firmly
in
position).
STEP
FOUR
Build the walls to flush
with the top of the stove
and fix the chimney connector to the end. Place
the top plate in position
for a trial:
the rim on
the bottom of the plate
should probably fit into
the groove of the door
frame (this depends on
the design of the manufacturer).
Then place the
fire grate.
-23CONSTRUCTION
OF
STOVE
WITH
CAST-IRON
STEP
PARTS
FIVE
Construct the sides and
structure
below the
second cooking pot hole,
as shown. The gap should
be approximately
5 cm.
Provide a good layer of
mud inside the stove,
as usually done in
traditional
stoves.
STEP
SIX
Provide a finishing
layer to the outside
(cement plastering),
and connect the stove
to the main chimney.
Before the first
cooking is done the
structure
needs to
dry for a few days.
for a few days.
Cooking stove combined with hot
water production.
The heated
water circulates
by thermosyphon and water is kept hot
in the insula,ted
storage tank.
This system has been imported
from New Zealand.
A prototype
construction
of
a cooking range with a "water
ship" incorporated.
The
rectangular
water tank at
the end is heated during the
cooking process and conveniently provides
hot water.
-25SOLID
COMBINED
STOVE
WITH
WITH
HOT
CAST-IRON
WATER
PARTS
STORAGE
TANK
FRONT
hot water
co1 d water
TOP
-269
SOLID
WITH
HOT
STOVES-
WATER
WITH
SHIP
FRONT
CAST-IRON
WITH
PARTS
BAKING
OVEN
FRONT
L CLEANING
OPENING
TOP
\ water ship
TOP
damper I
, heat flow control
-27ANOTHER
(Modified
NEW
NEPAL1
"Magan"
CHULO
System)
Although many improved household stoves
over the last two decades in Nepal this
technology
keeps on developing.
have been made
kind of
The c-on
goals of people involved
in improving
household stoves are generally
the improvement of
fuel efficiency
and creation
of healthier
environment
for the inhabitants,
both human beings and animal.
Other goals are the use of local materials,
low cost,
easy installation,
easy understanding
of operation
and last, but not least,
the social acceptability.
The latest
designs
are based on a traditional
technology -the prefabrication
of stove components- by local
potters
and installation
in homes by ,stove constructors.
Improvement to the traditional
stove are more efficient
internal
dimension,
a baffle
to increase the heat
efficiency
and a chimney to lead smoke out of the
house.
From the outside,
the finished,
improved stove does
not appear different
to the traditional
stove, because
the prefabricated
parts are surrounded by local bricks
or stones and coated with a layer of red mud plastering. The new stove made from burnt clay parts is three
centimeters
lower than the traditional
stove. This
leaves space for a thick toppening of clay, that can
be applied in such a way that holes for the cooking
pots can be shaped to fit the pots closely.
Such an installation
can be completed in a few hours,
provided the materials:
stove, clay pipes, etc.,
are
made ready in advance. A set of these items costs at
present approx. Rs. lOO/- (U.S.$ 7/-),
not counting
the transportation
charges.
It is hoped that after the stoves are widely accepted
the house owners will then build stronger
chimneys of
bricks or stones.
-
-28The cook will of course have to learn a little
to
operate these new stoves efficiently.
Experience
shows
that this takes only a few days and that these new
chulos are quite acceptable
and are being recommended
by the users to many others.
It is convenient
and efficient
parts,
but where not available
copied this design successfully
struction
materials.
to have fired clay
farmers already have
by using mud as con-
After returning
from Nepal a member built
his own stove with rammed earth in the
staff
quarters
of the eumthang workshops.
The chimney is in the corner.
Por efficient
and comfortable
have to be followed:
e
e
cooking
several
Faints
Dry wood cut-in
thin pdeces should be used
Slow cooking process is preferable
Lids should be kept on cooking pots
The damper should be closed as far as possible.
the chimney should
However, for proper functioning
be at least handwarm.
* Further
inforfnation
on such stoves may be obtained
ENICEF, P-0. Box 1187, Kathmandu/Nepal,
"New Nepali Cooking Stoves'".
ask for booklet:
from:
Installation
of a "New Nepali
Cooking Stove".
Cooking on a New Nepali
Stove; it is fuel-saving
quite smoke-free.
Cooking
and
bHANNEL
TOP
FOR
AIRFLOW
AND
ASH
i
6
i
FRONT
TOP LAYER
(3cml
CLAY
I
FIRED
CLAY
=
BRICKS OR STONES
MEASUREMENTS
IN CM
2/2/W
a,ba
I
NEW NEPALI
CHULO
(IMPROVEDMAGANSYSTEM) I
-31-
Construction
of an
improved cooking
stove using .bricks
for the stove-walls
and the chimney.
The interior
of the
stove is lined with
a mud-sand mixture.
fj
L>
Finished
stove, with
damper and air fiowj
ash removal from the
side. Note the
chimney opening at
the bottom for
cleaning.
-32COOKING
AND
FUEL
EFFICIENCY
Beginning to cook on new types of stoves require
some
small changes in cooking methods. Smaller wood pieces
may be required
and the cooking process needs a little
patience
in the first
few days.
At
the start the damper near the chimney has to be
-----------opened fully.
Once the fire is burning properly,
the
front door has to be closed and the damper (flap valve)
turned until
smokes comes out; then open it a little
again. Further
adjustments
are needed with the ash
tray and the air flow from the lower part of the fire
box: when completely
closed the fire will extinguish.
In this way the fuel efficiency
can'be further
increased.
&fger cooking is completed,
the wood can be removed.
It ~~-%%I~~ble
to close the damper and keep all the
top holes closed. This way the stove can remain warm
for several hours.
Cleaning:
The ash needs to be removed regularly,
-----achamber.
the ash tray as well from the fire
Drying
Use dry wood!
at the Lame Gompa in Bunthang.
from
-33geeration:
------make sure that the cooking pots sit snugly on the
cooking stove.
l
keep the damper closed as much as possible.
use small pieces of wood.
l
0 use dry wood.
l
keep the fire small and cook slowly.
l
keep covers on the pots.
0 use metal pots, and where possible
use pressure
cookers.
l
keep doors and windows closed in cold climates.
remove ash, charcoal and unburnt wood when cooking
l
is finished,
extinguish
them with water and keep
outside the house in a safe place.
l
keep all top holes closed, but on one, place a pan
with water, and close the damper after cooking.
This will keep the stove warm and warms the water.
l
keep the stove and the chimney clean; arrange for
regular
checks and cleaning.
*
USEFUL TOOLS FOR STOVE'S OPERATION
-340
COOKING
POTS
FOR
WOOD-FIRED
STOVES
For conveniance and fuel efficiency,
it is important
to have the kind kind of cooking pots. Nowadays many
people are using metal pots. Note that exposed surfaces of pots be kept clean, and tar deposits
removed
(this acts as a heat insulator).
T+r
v
It is essential
also the sides)
Jf
ace
fire
that much of the bottom (and possibly
is exposed to direct
heat.
-I
\
-
rmetallic
11
I
‘tk
fire
For a smoke-free room and for proper functioning
of
the stove cooking pots should sit snugly on the cooking
stove. It is very useful to have rings, made of castto the different
diameters.
iron, to enable adjustment
-For fuel efficiency
keep the top of the cooking
covered as much as possible.
pots
-35pressure cooker is a very good investment
- it saves
fuelwood and reduces cooking time.
at high
Note : this is of special great significance
where
in
normal
atmospheric
condition
the
altitude,
boiling
point is extremely
low (and therefore
cooking
needs much more time and fuel).
A
PRESSURECOOKER
DANGER: NEVER BLOCK THE SAFETY VALVE!
WRONG
heat escape
heat escape
,
WRONG
Placing ordinary
metal pots on the metallic
surface is
a very inefficient
way of cooking because of poor heat
conductivity
(which is enormous with thin pots and
uneaven bottoms).
-36-
THE
HWOGWO
Who has not heard of the samovar? It's
the Russian
appliance
for preparing
tea. What is not commonly
the water
known, however, is that the fuel for boiling
is right
"inside"
the water pot. Or looking at another
way, the water is all around the stove. This is very
efficient,
because heat radiation
from the sides of
the stove is not lost on the air but is utilized
in
heating the water.
The same principle
applies in what the North Chinese
The word simply
and Mongolians know as the hwogwo.
kind of cooking
means "cooking pot", the most ordinary
pot used by the common people living
in those parts.
Some Tibeteans
in Xathmandu also use the hwogwo, but
they call it jakok.
grate
The simpliest
way of describing
the hwogwo or jakok is
to call it a sophisticated
karai
with a chimney in the
middle. A karai,
for those who do not know the Nepali
word, is a pot shaped like the segment of a globe. It
is generally'or
iron or aluminium.
To convert a karai
into a hwogwo, cut a 10 cm hole in the bottom and weld
-3 7it to a conical tube or chimney tapering
to a 7 cm
hole on top. The cover too has a hole in the center to
allow the chimney to protrude
some 3 to 5 cm above it.
Of course, the hwogwo does not h.ave to look like a
karai.
It could very well be shaped like almost every
cooking pot.
Inside the chimney, at the very bottom, comes a grating
to support bits of charcoal,
coke, wood chips or other
similar
fuel. The fire is lighted
in, and is totally
contained by, the chimney, thus applying
all its heat
to the very center of the food being cooked. The pot
rests on a stand with an opening in front through which
the fire draws the air it needs. Some hwogwos have
artistically
decorated stands.
The little
heat that passes straight
up the middle of
the chimney without
touching the sides need not be
wasted. With a samovar it is standard practice
to place
above the chimney a pot containing
tea concentrate,
which can thus be kept hot all day long. Nothing
prevents one from supporting
a small kettle
above the
hwogwo chimney, so that no heat whatever be lost.
THE
IC-MIC
COOKER
About the time that the 19th century became the 20th,
a little
before or a little
after,
Father Saubolle did
not know exactly,
a Bengali invention
came on the
market by the name of The Ic-Mic Cooker. It was so
successful
and so much in demand that two or three
other manufacturers
copied it. They copied not only
the appliance
itself,
but slavishly
copied even the
instruction
booklet,
misprints,
grammatical
errors
and all:
The Ic-Mic is a pressureless
steam cooker, extremely
economical on fuel.
It will
thoroughly
cook four pots
of food on approximately
one liter
of coke, charcoal
or walnut-size
balls of charcoal dust bound with a
thin slurry
or cowdung. Gas or electricity
must also
be used.
-38-
-r..-
Once the raw materials
have been put into the pans with
all necessary seasonings,
and the cooker closed and
lighted,
no attention
whatever is needed. The .food is
well cooked, very tasty and nourishing,
and even after
the fire is burnt out, the cooker keeps the food warm
for up to six hours. This is ideal for campers,
travellers
and picnickers:
they set up the cooker, go
about their business and return when they please to a
hot, well-cooked
meal.
,/
/
steam
jacket
-7 ,=;
Ifdb
,'
/'support for
steam jacket
draught
any)
l
/outer
carrying
case
holes for
(smoke if
set of aluminium
food pans.
(keep bottom
above water level)
water (for steaming)
or sand (for baking)
I
+
. /
/
r
fire box (detachable
from outer carrying
case) for charcoal
or coke. Electricity
or gas could be used
instead.
For steaming the food, the steam jacket holds 2.5 cm
of water below the pans, but not touching them. For
baking, the water is replaced by sand. Obviously
baking and steaming cannot be done together.
All frying,
of onions or spices for curry, must be done
e-g,
separately
before setting
up the food in the cooker.
There may be some limitations
to what the Ic-Mic will
do, but the advantages are enormous.
-390
It is quite normal to cook meat in one pan, vegetables
in another,
desert in a third
and soup in a fourth,
all at the same time, without
the aroma or flavour
of
one dish interfering
with that of another, without
any
and without
your having to fan
dish being over-cooked,
or blow or rake up or replenish
the fire once it has
been lighted.
Recipe books for use with the Ic-Mic are available
in
but any resourceful
housewife will
soon learn
India,
to manage the cooker successfully.
Rice cooked on the
Put one measure rice into lV2
Ic-Mic is delicious.
measures water. When cooked, all the water will have
so no nourishing
elements
been absorbed into the rice;
are thrown away. The rice is clean. The grain fall
and don't stick in one clammy~lump.
separate,
HAY - BOX
COOKING
Have you ever cooked with hay? Now don't get the
wrong idea. Poor people often use dry leaves or straw
but we are not recommending that
as fuel for cooking;
we burn grass in our stoves. Hay, after all,
is only
cut grass. But have you noticed how a pile of cut
grass heats up? No, not hot enough of course to cook
a meal in a few minutes.
But quite hot to help
Poor villagers
in Europe have used the hay box for
centuries
to cut down expenses by saving fuel. Newmown hay is put into a large box, a hole or kind of
x
nest is made in the middle leaving several inches of
.'*'.
round at the bottom. Then a pot of food.is
hay all
brought just up to the boiling
point,
covered, and
immediately
placed in the nest. A cushion is placed.;"'
on top to prevent the heat from escaping.
After some
time, from half an hour to severalhours
depending
on what is being cooked (meat for &ample takes
the pot is withdr+e
and the food
longer than rice),
is ready to be eaten.
-4oInstead of using hay we can make our hay box with any
insulating
material.
First
put a couple of sheets of
newspaper inside along the four sides and at the
bottom. Then put at least 10 cm of insulating
material
all round and below, leaving a nest in the middle
lined again with paper and large enough to hold your
pot snugly, but a little
deeper to allow for a cushion
above. As insulation
we may use either
fresh hay or
dry grass, chopped straw, bits of crumpled paper,
coir,
cotton,
sawdust, or if you can get it, glass
wool. Some people use polystyrene,
which is perhaps
the best?
Fresh hay, besides insulating
p generates its own heat,
but the other materials
named above do not. So with
these kinds of insulation
it is advisable
to place
below the pot a flat heated stone or brick.
Space for
this should be made so that the pot can be well sunk
into the insulation.
The pot should also be quite full.
So the size of the pot to use depends on the amount of
food being cooked.
For cooking rice , put rice and water into the pot as
usual; bring it just to the boil,
then put the full
pot covered into the nest with the hot stone below
and the cushion above, close the box with its lid,
and in twenty minutes your rice will
be ready. Meat
requires
20 or 30 minutes'
cooking on the stove before
being placed in the box. If the night meal is prepared
in the morning and placed in the box, it will be ready
to eat in the later afternoon
or evening. Or the
morning meal can be prepared and boxed overnight
to
be ready when you awake next morning.
What is the advantage of a hay box? Well, instead of
bringing
your rice to the boil and adding more and
more fuel while the pot continues to boil till
the
rice is soft and quite cooked, you put in the hay box
and safe all that extra fuel.
Or you cook some other
dish with the fuel that would have been used only to
cook the rice,
So the hay box economizes on fuel,
and
a little
saved energy every day means a lot saved in
a month; and that is really
worthwhile.
h
-41A
COOKING
PLACE
FOR
One of the larger firewood
industry
of cheese makers,
industry
and others,
using
the liquid.
Several attempts
cooking devices.
using electricity,
but without much
not clear what is
LARGE-SIZED
POTS
consumers is the cottage
wool dyers for the carpet
large-sized
pots for boiling
have been made to improve domestic
For large-sized
pots alternatives,
were studied and projects
started,
success. After many years it is still
likely
to be the best solution!
More wood is being wasted in large,
rather primitive
stoves. These stoves have several disadvantages
such
as: they are smoky and consume a lot of fuelwood.
In
addition
they are often quite unsafe structures
for
the support of heavy pots with boiling
liquids!
More
and more such cooking places are being built,
increasing firewood use. At present few people have access
to alternative
energy supplies,
which in any case will
require
a rather high initial
investment
- and will
also for this reason restrict
their
application.
A
trial
on personal initiative
has been started
at a
small carpet factory
in Jawalakhel,
Kathmandu, and
the initial
results
have been encouraging:
several
people have asked to have their places improved.
*
;;$cipl.e.
: To meet most of the user's requirements
a
coo ing stove should satisfy
the following
requirements:
safety;
reduced fuel wood consumption;
less smoky rooms; convenient
handling.
For safety
reasons the heavy pots need to be placed on a solid
base. A chimney is necessary to enable smoke to flow
to the outside of the house.
Reduced fuelwood consumption can be achieved through
'
careful
construction
and by having certain
essential
parts incorporated.
Very important
is the draught
control
in the chimney pipe - a device which often is
forgotten
(and the fuelwood consumption is even increased)!'
-42FRONT I CROSS
5
l"g G.I.
SECTION
4u3cm
5
pipe-f3
-----
TOP
VIEW
kzhimney
air
a,ba
flow &
23/7/84
AT\<cast-iron
\1
‘J\
grate
\A.Li
L-4
32cm
-firewood
(front
feed
door)
-43-
I
-1
III
chimney
20 cmg
SECTION
I
u-*or
SIDE / CROSS
level
,-damper
door wi th frame
,.'(mild
s)teel)
I
-‘---L--LX--l
-I
-+I+
i+
-!---’
-Liz-
L--
cast-iron
grate
Convenient,
fuel-efficient
and safe wool dyeing with
a newly-constructed
largesized stove.
WOOD-FIRED COOKING PLACE
FOR
LARGE-&ii3
POTS
-44The critical
for ashfall
chimney pipe
gaps on the
designed to
components of such a stove are: grate,
door, with airflow
holes;
and airflow;
with damper; properly
fitted
pot, with
sides for hot air flow. And it should be
burn pieces of fuelwood about 1 m long.
Chimney: A chimney can be made of masonry or of sheet
metal. It needs to be at least 2.5 meters long and
with an inner diameter of not less than 20 cm. The
connection
to the stove needs a draught control
and
(= damper). Chimneys need to be cleaned regularly
must therefore
have openings at the bottom (to remove
soot).
Construction:
A new stove will be built
according to
the size of the vessel. Materials,
such as: pot; grate
and frame; chimney pipe with damper; approx. 2000
bricks and mud and some other small materials
will be
needed. Note that it is important
to have a good
foundation
to carry the weight of the entire
structure
and pot with its liquid
contents:
hard wood, cut into
Operation:
Use dry, if possible
thin pieces. To begin with, the damper should be
by little
closed until
completely
open, but little
fire intensity
is satisfactory.
During firing
it is
essential
that the wood is moved in regular
intervals,
so that the.ash can fall
through the grate and.fresh
air from below gets to the fire.
Note that during the
operation
the front door should be kept closed.
There are worthwhile
achievements:
safe and convenient
operation
of stove and boiling
liquids
in a less
smoky environment;
improved quality
of wool dyeing.
Reduction of fuel wood consumption:
previously
about
1 kg of fire wood was needed to dye 1 kg of wool. With
this new design only about half of the firewood is
required:
with 92 kg of firewood 200 kg of wool could
be dyed:
-45A
SIMPLE
FOR
WOOD-BURNING STOVE
ROOM HEATING
This stove is made from an empty 20-liter
paint drum.
Cut a hole of diameter 8 cm in the top for the chimney
as near as possible
to the circumference.
Cut out the
rest of the top, leaving a 1 cm ledge. Make a flap
cover and hinge it at the dotted line.
It must rest
on the ledge. This allows for loading the stove with
kindling
and wood.
A
WOOD-BURNING
STOVE
2.5 cm above the bottom make a 7 cm hole. Fix to it a
8 cm long metal tube open at both ends. Make a second
metal tube of slightly
smaller diameter to slide
The second (inner)
tube is
smoothly into the first.
closed at one end and given a handle. Along the length
of this inner tube make about six slits
6 cm x 1 cm.
This inner tube serves as draught control.
Give the
the bottom of the stove w'ith
stove three legs. Fill
2.5 cm of clay. This is a safety measure: it acts as
insulation
in case the stove is used on a wooden floor.
It also prevents the bottom of the stove from getting
red hot and wearing out before its time.
-46Alternative
to putting
the chimney on the top of the
stove, it could conveniently
be placed high up on the
vertical
side of the stove opposite the draught
control.
The chimney diameter should be somewhat
greater than that of the draught control.
A side
chimney leaves space on top for a pot.
If the chimney is nice and long (4 m) the draught is
excellent,
and the stove lights
with one match. There
is no need to blow or fan. Start the fire with much
kindling
and little
wood. Once it is burning well you
can fill
it up with more wood.
Room heating
with
a 'Bukhari.'
in Bhutan.
These stoves will work satisfactorily
through five or
six winters before having to be replaced.
Note, however, although these stoves heat very quickly
and
instensively,
they do consume quite a lot of wood.
Another disadvantage
is that they need constant refil
ling as they do not have any thermal mass to store
some of the heat.
-47-
A low-cost
room heater,
made
of sheet metal.
It would be
safer to have a larger
gap
between the stove and the
wall!
An improved Bukhari installation:
a well dimensioned
sheet metal
pipe with a properly
designed
bend.
A newly developed room heater;
prototype
construction
of
Kharbandi
Technical
Training
School in Phuntsholing/Bhutan.
-48~
ROOM HEATING
STOVE
masonry chimney (bricks
fill
space with
porous,
incombustible
material.
INSTALLATION
or hollow
blocks)
non-metallic,
correct fixture
for pipe --
adequate
distance
from ceiling
_
1
-----.~,,.~~
\.
\
sheet metal pipe,
of sufficient
diameter
not smaller than
100 mm inside diameter
L sleeve pipe made
of sheet metal
-masonry
(SAMPLE)
chimney
,-damper
I
(flap
valve)
/x
’ ‘\
I
opening for
f- cleaning
!x
-
grate
Note: the Bukhari needs to be fitted
on a metal plat
especially
on wooden floors,
and properly nail
to it (For fire protection
reasons)!
-49Certainly
they have room for improvements:
- fuel efficiency:
can be increased,
by having a
damper (flap valve) in the chimney (metal pipe).
With
this the draught can be regulated
and reduce much of
the heat lost through the chimney. In addition
the
pipes should have a diameter of at least 100 mm inside
diameter (ID).
- design: a good stove has a grate,
for ashfall
and
airflow
from below, and also an ashtray to remove the
ashes.
- safety:
these stoves are quite light
structures,
and should therefore
be fitted
to the floor,
so that
they cannot fall.
In addition,
these stoves should
be on a metallic
platform,
and with this prevent
fire hazards. They should have a protecting
frame
work to protect
children
from burns, and pipes
properly
fitted,
again to reduce fire
hazards.
1
SAidDUST
STOVES
One of the simplest
fuels for cooking,
and for heating
the house in winter is sawdust, A wast product which
is usually
thrown away and is therefore
available
free
or at nominal cost. True, not everybody lives conveniently near a sawmill or Lumberyard; but the same
objection
applies to many other alternative
sources
of power. Not everyone has a stream running through
his property
to generate electricity,
or keep cattle
to supply manure for methane. We must make use of
whatever sources are available,to
us.
Sawdust will burn properly
only in a special
constructed stove, which is very simple to make and costs
The fuel in such a unit always
practically
nothing.
lights
with only one match, and keeps burning for
long periods - six, eight or even twelve hours if
desired - with absolutely
no smoke, except at the
no blowing or fanning and no
moment of lighting,
such a stove burns until
Once lighted,
refuelling.
-5oall the fuel is consumed. It can then be re-charged
and lighted
again. Such a device is ideal where
steady heat is required
for hours on end with no
attention,
as for instance,
to provide day-long hot
water, or to keep a sick room cosy and warm through a
chill
winter's
night.
To make a sawdust stove, take an empty paint drum of
Cut out the top and make a
say twenty liter
capacity.
5 cm hole in the middle bottom. Set the container
up
on three legs, and the stove is ready. The only "tool"
you need to make the burner work is a smooth round
stick or length of water pipe the diameter of the hole
on the
in the bottom, and long enough, when resting
ground, to protrude
ten of twelve cm above the can top.
It is absolutely
essential
that the fuel for this stove
be bone dry. If it is slightly
damp, it will
smoke;
and if it is very damp it won't light
at all.
Dry
sawdust burns wonderfully
well - some times even with
a blue flame - and is entirely
smokeless. It does give
off some fumes, however, and so the room where the
stove is being used must be well ventilated.
insert
the stick or pipe through
To load the burner,
while you
the.hole
in the bottom, and hold it upright
pour sawdust around it. Every now and then, as you
press the fuel down firmly
to
fill
the container,
make it tight
and compact. When the drum is full,
completely
cover the top of the sawdust with a thin
even layer of sand or ashes to prevent the flame from
creeping over the top and causing smoke. Then twist
the pipe as you carefully
pull it out of the packed
fuel. You will now have a neat hole, which will
act
as a chimney, right through the mass.
The sawdust stove is easy to light.
Just crumple a
sheet of newspaper according fashion and push it
gentle down the chimney until
ot protrudes
at the
'bottom. Put a match to the lower end and the home
made heating will
require
no further
attention
whatever until
the fuel is completely
consumed.
-51The sawdust burns fram the center outwards,
the hole
,. gradually
increasing
in diameter until
there is no
sawdust left and the flame dies out, The rate of
consumption is approximately
5 cm per hour (the
figure varies slightly
with the quality
of the fuel
and how tightly
it is packed). A stove 30 cm in diameter will burn approximately
six hours, and one
20 cm across will
operate long enough to cook a meal
and produce some hot water to wash the pots and pans.
A
drum with legs
and hole
SAWDUST
drum partly
STOVE
filled
stick removed
ashes over fuel
.
paper in chimney
ready to light
The amount of heat produced is dependent on the depth
of the container:
the longer the "chimney",
the hotter
the flame. A tall,
narrow stove will become very hot
for a relatively
short time; a broad, squat model will
burn both long and hot. Calculate
the dimensions to
suit your requirements.
-520
The basic design described
above can be adapted to
special purposes. For instance,
a good sawdust-fired
kitchen range can be constructed
in either
of two
ways:
(1)
Two or more legless drum stoves can be
bricked in with a small opening below
each to admit air and remove ashes;
(2)
The range can be built
of brickwork
alone,
without
drums, but with one or more spaces
the shape and size of a drum to hold the
sawdust. Each of these spaces should have
a 5 cm hole through the brick work into
the bottom of the space.
COOKING RANGE
This second model is loaded with the help of two
sticks
or pipes. One is first
pushed through the
front opening at least as far as the center of the
stove, and the other is held upright
resting
on the
horizontal
pipe. Then the unit is packed with sawdust
and both pipes or sticks
are drawn out. To light
this
stove, the paper is shoved in horizontally.
-530
The sawdust stove may be modified
into a space heater
to dry laundry on a rainy day, or warm a living
room
To adapt a drum stove for this puron a cold night.
pose, a second drum, with its top removed, is turned
upside-down and fitted
snugly on the upper rim of the
This radiates
warmth into the room. If desired,
heater.
a hole with a removeable cover could be cut in the
top to make an open burner for heating a kettle.
SPACE
r
HEATER
overturned
empty drum
L-stove
ROOM HEATING WITH
AN IMPROVED SAWDUST STOVE
The previous article
described
a small two-drum sawdust room heater.
A much bigger and more efficient
heater,
also made with two drum, has one inside the
one. It
other. The outer drum can be a 2250liter
should have a securely
closing but removable cover
with two handles of l/2" rod. The smaller drum should
be some 10 cm less in diameter,
and 16 cm shorter
in
height.
ROOM HEATING
WITH
‘If hard to light,
add a
second chimney take-off
(with damper) at dotted
lines. After lighting
.
close damper
-.
TOP
-
/CL-
--
handles
l/Z" 0 iron rods
hole, 6 cm fl
/I-
drawer
--
zlz---=
.
a-=pf
/
rf I ,d.
SAWDUST
mper
* For the general
idea of this stove,
and for much of the
information
given here, we are indepted
to the Northeastern
Forest Experiment
Station,
Upper Darby / PA 19082 / USA.
-55is placed inside
A false bottom, cut to a close fit,
the larger drum 8.5 cm above the true bottom. It is
supported by two l/2" iron rods running from front to
back through holes in the drum and welded or brazed to
it. The false bottom should have a 6 cm hole in the
very center.
The outer drum is given a chimney take-off
hole of
12.5 cm diameter just above the false bottom. Opposite
this hole, and between the two bottoms, comes a metal
drawer which acts as ash pan and draught control.
It
has a curved front to fit the drum, and is given a
handle. The drum should be given three legs.
The inner
It should
drum for holding
have a 6 cm hole
the sawdust needs no cover.
in the bottom center.
The center stick used in packing the stove with sawdust (cf. previous
article)
is better made slightly
tapering
to facilitate
extraction.
It should be as
long as the inner drum is deep, and should have a
handle. Remember to put ashes or sand over the top
surface of the sawdust to prevent smoking. To light,
put crumpled paper down the hole in the sawdust; cover
the stove* , put burning paper into the drawer just under
the center hole.
The stove cover should have a secure, close fit to
prevent the possibility
of carbon monoxide fumes
escaping into the room instead of going up the chimney.
Adequate room ventilation
should be provided with this
stove as, in fact ,with all stoves. Avoid opening the
stove while it is burning.
The stove gives the greatest
heat with dry sawdust.
If the sawdust is slightly
damp (60 percent or less)
it will burn, but will
smoke. Damp sawdust burns
longer,
but less hot, because much of the heat
generated is spent in drying the fuel instead of being
available
for heating the room.
A stove of this
25 oC for eight
some insulationfreezing.
kind can keep a room 8m x 5m at about
to ten hours -provided
the house has
when outside temperature
is below
-56OPEN FIREPLACES
(CHIMNEE)
way to provide
Open fire places are not an efficient
they are more dangerous
warmth to rooms. In addition
a framed
than (closed) stoves; to prevent accidents
wire mesh should be in front of the open fire.
This
prevents sparks to jumping out into the room and
children
from being burnt.
Open fire place construction
needs experienced
skilled
people who know about proper measurements of such
places and the scientific
proportions
of room, chimney
and fire place.
It is not intended to promote open fire places;
but
if they are to be made they should be constructed
to
thus include all specifications
operate satisfactory,
TOP VIEW
Note:
Measurements
proportionate
room size.
Open fire
efficient
places
heating
need to be
to the
are not fuel
devices!
, /' ; 'i\
heat
i
FRONT VIEW j
/
transfer
-L
-chimney
1
i
‘\
/'smoke
',
,'collection\,
p-----e-- --k----'t
CROSS SECTIOV
-57COOKING STOVES COMBINED WITH
HOT WATER PRODUCTION
Hot water from a tap can be an added convenience
for
a home. Where wood or coal is used as a fuel for
cooking
a quite
simple modification
to the stove can
be made to supply cheap hot water.
It increases
the
as hot water does not have to
safety
of tha household
be moved around in pots.
Such installations
are very popular
in many countries,
such as America,
New Zealand,
Switzerland,
etc. The
technology
is well proven and a range of sizes is
available.
hot water
storage tank
chimney
cooking
range
A demonstration co0kir.q range installation;
combination of cooking, baking and hot
water production
( Lesotho, S.-Africa)
The system works in the following
manner: to the side
walls,
out of the way of the firewood,
of the fire
chamber a water jacket
is fixed,
in which the fire
heats water.
Out of this
box or pipe coil two pipes
are lead to a hot water storage
tank fixed
above the
stove.
One- pipe,
the "riser",
goes from the top cf
the water jacket
to the top of the storage
tank. The
other pipe goes from the base of the heat jacket
to
the base of the storage
tank.
warm water in the water jacket
When the fire
is lit,
is displaced
by colder,
denser water from the storage'.
tank,
and circulation
of the water between the water
jacket
and the storage
tank starts.
-58~
A well-insulated
hot water storage tank will easily
remain hot overnight,
provided the tank is fixed
approx. 60 cm higher than the top of the stove. This
height difference
is necessary to prevent backflow
and cooling in the uninsulated
water jacket.
To make a system that
following:
l
0
works properly
note the
The system has to be designed and installed
that the heat exchanger will remain filled
water during heating.
so
with
Careful attention
has to be given to proper installation;
all the circulation
pipes
(connections
between stove and hot water storage tank) must be
fixed with a gradient
towards the hot water storage
tank; a breather
pipe' must be attached to the top
of the storage tank.
Danqer: it is extremely
dangerous to have air
locks in the pipes: the heated water will transform
into steam where air bubbles are and may cause an
explosion.
a
Heat jackets to be made of welded construction;
where pipes are used seamless steam pipes are
recommended and should not be of less than 3/4"
diameter.
Where possible
the coil should be made
from one piece of pipe. The coil can be made by
filling
the pipe with sand and bending it over a
fire.
If fittings
are needed, they should be of
mild steel and welded; screw joints
will
leak as
the fire will burn out the jute. The water jacket
can also be made of strong M.S. sheet, with welded
joints.
l
Make sure that the circulation
pipes are properly
fixed:
upper pipe of heat exchanger to upper connection of the hot water storage tank (at least
2/3 of the total
height of the hot water storage
tank. These pipes need to be insulated
only where
they are longer than approx. 1.5 mtr.
Note: no valve of course should be fixed in the
circulation
pipes, for safety reasons!
WATER
\
HEATING
JACKET
bc
e
-c\
downcomer l"fl
riser
l"fl
r
f!l
sheet meta1
box, 6 mm
INSTALLATION
pI vent pipe
\
hot
hot water
storage
tank
If
insulated
\
/ c--\
riser
>
l"@
t
1
hot water
taps
to
cold
from
mains
a,ba
Expectations
/ Heatinq Jacket:
exposed surface,
as example be
approx.
7 dm2 - provides
about
60 ltr of hot water per hour.
ur allI
\
wood burning cooking
range
a
0
l
It is essential
to provide the hot water storage
tank with a safety device,
so that the heated
water can expand-without
troubles.
There must be
a safety valve or a vent-pipe,
etc.
The pipe that draws off hot water from the system
should be fixed to the top of the hot water storage
tank, so that the hottest
water can be tapped.
Where danger of freezing
exists
it is necessary to
drain the system. Empty the hot water storage tank,
keep the taps open and keep the firing
going until
the water jacket has dried out. There may also be
a drain valve outside the stove for convenient
draining
of the heat exchanger.
Note: Before lighting
the fire again, the system
has to be filled
with water, firing
without
water
will quickly
damage the water jacket.
:et
A simpler device is used in Africa.
The metal chimney
pipe is surrounded with a jacket,
which is filled
with water. A tap is fixed at the bottom to drain the
heated water. The system will provide good service for
warm water, however, one has also to consider that
.one can not extract
all the heat in the smoke for
heating
the water (otherwise
the gases may condense
and soot be deposited
in the chimney).
These systems , properly
installed,
complete user saftisfaction.
usually
give
-61BATH
OVEN
ago -when wood was still
widely usedthis kind of bath oven was fitted
in bath rooms. This
water heating device has a double purpose:
Not
so lcng
a)
W
to heat water for a bath quite quickly
to provide a little
warmth to the room
(and that's
one reason why the water
storage tank is not insulated).
The advantage of this small oven is that
efficient
and that hot water is available
15 to 20 minutes.
For the installation
to consider several
of this
points:
bath oven it
it
is fuel
in about
is important
i)
safety:
make sure that the room gets
sufficient
fresh air and that the damper
on the top does not close completely:
(Danger of deathly carbon monoxide formation).
ii)
Have the piping properly
done, with a ventpipe (to assure water expansion without
spoiling
the tank),
and to provide air
when draining
(to avoid syphoning,
which
would probably squeeze and damage the
container).
iii)
In areas where the
drop below freezing
to have the system
to prevent damage
drain valve at the
for this.
outdoor temperature
may
point it is essential
drained after its use,
from frozen pipes. iA
lowest point is required
For remote areas, low-pressure
systems or open systems
have several advantages.
It is recommended to ask
trained
pipe fitters
to do the job accordingly.
When
producing this kind of oven,it
is good to have a
rather strong sheet metal to ensure sufficient
strength
for pressure and vacuum.
-62BATH
damper-
C
OVEN
-
hot water
rings for
reinforcement
I- --
m
N
cu
-
an
i
TOP
-*
chimney pipe
12 cm inside diameter
/----
water
container
S---
cold water
grate
---
ashtray
and airflow
-64-
Bath Oven: is a small but a
quite efficient
water heater,
within
10 to 15 minutes
several
hot showers are
available,
demanding little
firewood.
A wood-fired
water heater.
The insulation
around the
container
keeps the water
hot for several
hours,
(provided
the damper is
closed after
firing)!
A room-heater
combined with hot
water produCtion.
There is a
jacket
around the metallich
chimney. Note the heat protection
on the wooden wall and the solid
floor
protection
(Equipment from
New Zealand).
-64-
Bath Oven: is a small but a
quite efficient
water heater,
within
10 to 15 minutes
several
hot showers are
available,
demanding little
firewood.
A wood-fired
water heater.
The insulation
around the
container
keeps the water
hot for several
hours,
(provided
the damper is
closed after
firing)!
A room-heater
combined with hot
water produCtion.
There is a
jacket
around the metallich
chimney. Note the heat protection
on the wooden wall and the solid
floor
protection
(Equipment from
New Zealand).
-65INSTANT
HOT
WATER
FROM YESTERDAY'S
NEWS
In a boarding school in Darjeeling
in the Himalayas
at an altitude
of about 1600 m, the tiny tots aged six
to eight neededhot
water in the cold months for their
morning ablutions.
At one time this was provided
instantly
by a most ingenious
device:
a conical boiler.
Front
/ Cross
+
open outlet
7
TOP
--J--kl-l
?5
It was a double cone of galvanized-iron
sheeting,
one
inside the other, with a gap of two or three millimeters between them. Water entered at the bottom and,
came out at the top. The cone was mounted on a fire
box in which old newspaper were crumpled up and set
ablaze. Within a few seconds the outflowing
water was
hot, Once the fire is lighted,
the water should be
allowed to flow, or steam pressure may build up and
burst the cone.
.
-66A
LARGE
WOOD-BURNING
OVEN
One of these ovens was built
for a school with about
150 boarders.
It has worked excellently
for the past
twenty years. Loaded to capacity,
it can hold 3 doz.
2-lb loaves (pans 28 cm x 11.5 x 7.5), or nearly
6 doz. l-lb loaves (pans 19 cm x 9 x 6). After
beaking bread, it can bake a lot of bisquits,'which
being thin,
require
less heat and bake quicker.
. The oven is a cube of brick-and-mortar
construction
comes
with a side of 180 cm. At 80 cm from the floor
the oven proper,
a square of 120 cm with an arched
up
top. The side walls of the baking space are built
to 25 cm on the right and left,
and from there comes
the arch. The measurements from the oven floor to the
center of the arch is 50 cm. The walls all round are
30 cm thick.
The brickwork
above the arch center is
40 an.
The front wall of the oven has an opening in the
middle 90 cm wide, narrowing down to the oven door
which is 40 cm broad and 30 cm high. This latter
is
made of iron sheeting hinged to an angle-iron
frame
to protect
the brickwork
around the door. If firebricks are available,
line the baking space with them:
otherwise
use the hardest brick you can find,
at least
for the floor,
which in the course of time suffers
a
lot of wear and tear with the pushing in and pulling
out of bread pans and the scarping out of embers. The
ledge in front of the oven door is covered with a
protective
sheet of thin metal.
Fire is lighted
in the oven. The smoke comes out at
the door and rises srtaight
up the chimney, which
begins immediately
in front.
Make the chimney hole as
large as possible,
at least 20 cm, and the smoke will
give no trouble
whatever.
In the twenty years that
this oven has been used, the front face has remained
clean without
the least trace of blackening.
When the
fire dies down, rake out the embers and put in the
-67A
LARGE
WOOD-BURNING
FRONT
TOP
I
I
-&
--!-I
I)-
1 --
*
--J;
I'
I'
OVEN
-68-
That is the basic design of the oven. A few helpful
improvements are recommended. The thin metal sheet
covering the ledge could be replaced by an iron plate,
say 2 mm thick,
of the same shape, hinged along the
front edge so that it can be flipped
up to expose a
hole in the ledge through which the embers can drop
straight
into a bucket recessed into the oven wall.
This is neater and cleaner than letting
the hot embers
and ashes fall
on the floor.
Another suggestion
is to have a couple of arched
storage spaces under the baking space. They should
be more than 50 cm high, so as to leave 40 cm of
brickwork
under the bread,
not
The school oven mentioned above has no back wall of
its own. It abuts against the wall separating
the
bakery from an adjacent store room, which it keeps
warm and dry.
A
CAMP
OVEN
Late Rev. B.R. Saubolle's
father did an awful lot of
camping. He baked his bread daily in the simplest
oven:
an ordinary
cooking pot. The pot was set on a very
gentle fire.
Inside was an overturned
saucer or small
pot cover to keep the bread pan off the bottom. The
pot was closed with a larger cover holding two or three
centimeters
of glowing ember. And that was all! The
baking was always successful.
Sometimes he would bake
himself
a small cake or a few scrumptious
scones.
If you have never used a pot oven, it may take a
couple of attempts before you can judge rightly
just
how strong to make the fire.
It's
so simple that it's
well worth the try:
CONSTRUCTION
(Uses
OF
A
SIMPLE
a
20 ltr
small
BREAD
OVEN
drum )
Construct
a small mud brick
vault
leaving
a hole
(approx.
15 x 15 cm)
Add on mounting
and upper vault.
-. 0 ‘I
0
bricks
for
drum
Drill
holes in drum for support
rods (ID - 12 mm). These rods
help to stabilize
the drum and
hold the tray for the upper row
of bread pans.
* Information
received
from: Richard Carothers,
Institute
for the Study and Application
of Integrated
Development / 43 Queen's Park Cres. East, 3rd Floor,
Toronto / Ontario
M5S 2C3 / Canada
-7o-
3-5 cm gap
I
ItcMount drum and continue
upper walls.
to build
leave 3-5 cm gap
Complete upper vault
3 - 5 cm gap between
and the drum.
Ezzzzl’
f-I
-fire
---
---- - .- -_ _
:r!?I
box
hole
for
chimney
solid
end
wall
leaving
a
the bricks
Section through the
at this point
oven
-71-
J
/
Use mud plaster
to close in the
front
of the oven up to the
drum. Use drum lid as a door.
Build chimney extension.
-1,
\ \
‘I
/
/
-=a
=L
I/j/s,
/--‘1\,IJ
i=
I
0I
I
r1
I
Operation
of oven
damper
Suggested
improvements
for
- fuel efficiency,
addings of:
- a front
door
- a grate,
for airflow
and ash
- a damper, to control
smoke
exit and heat escape
We found that this
time and took less
residual
heat for
a reasonable
daily
loaves of bread/day.
oven could cook ten loaves of bread at
wood than the large massive types that
baking.
We found that women also could
income from the production
and sale of
a
use
earn
20
-72A
(Capacity:
-6
SMALL
BRICK
8 pcs
one-lb
OVEN
loaves)
Mark off on the ground a square of one meter.
Lay bricks within this space to a height of
four to five layers.
In the center mark off a square of 50 cm. This
space will be the oven floor.
Make it as hard and
coanpact and smooth as possible.
Build up the sides and back to a height of 20 cm.
Then make an arch with its apex 35 cm above the
floor.
In the front wall leave a door space 25 cm wide
and 20 cm high. Fix a sheet-iron
door in the
brick work.
It is recommended to plaster
the outside of the
oven with a mixture of clay and cowdung (or chaff,
or rice husk). This chars in course of time,
leaving tiny air pockets in the plaster
having an
insulating
effect
which keeps the heat in.
If the oven is out in the open and not under
shelter,
make the top slope down gently from the
center so that rain water may flow easily.
That's all! Let the oven dry thoroughly
lighting
a fire in it.
before
To use, fill
the oven with firewood and light
it.
Leave the door and the smoke hole open. When the
wood is consumed, close the smoke hole securely,
pull
out the embers , put in the bread placing
the pans a
little
away from the sides, and close the door. In
about 40 minutes the bread will be baked. The loaves
are ready when the emit a hollow sound if tapped on
the bottom.
Immediately
should still
biscuits.
after extracting
the bread, the oven
be hot enough to bake a batch of
-73+
CHIMNEYS
Chimneys are very convenient
structures,
provided'
they function
properly.
Correct chimney construction
is a s'cience in itself,
with numerous variations
possible.
Fortunately
there are also some rules of
thumb that give satisfactory
results.
The points mentioned here are for improve cooking
stoves and room heating stoves. The rules for open
fire places are not specified.
In any case, those
interested
in efficient
heating with wood will
probably not be interested
in open fireplaces.
1.
Every stove connected to a
chimney should have a
draught regulator
(=damper). This can be a metal
flap in the connecting
pipe between stove and
chimney. Dry wood burns more efficiently,
and
hard wood produces more heat (and less soot).
2.
Temperature:
Fuel Efficiency:
The chimney needs to be
warm for a good air draught
and to reduce sooting.
In cooler climate it is
better to have the chimney inside the house. A
good chimney is made of special
chimney blocks
(with ho11 ow spaces for insulation),
or it can
be insulated
with fire resistant
material
(mineral
wool).
-74Materials:
3.
Suitable
materials
are those
which retain
heat well (and
non-corrosive),
such as special
chimney blocks
(with hollow spaces for insulation),
bricks,
stones, caly pipes, etc.
Sheet metal (without
insulation)
may be used to
connect the stove to the main chimney; and
radiate
the heat inside the house. Sheet metal
pipes should not be exposed to cold temperature
outside,
as fast cooling
reduces the draught,
and
hastens soot formation
(and possibly
corrosion)
inside the chimney.
4.
Joints:
5.
Inside
The inside surface of the
chimney should be smooth
and without
any obstructions,
so soot will not be
deposited
readily
and cleaning
is easier.
6.
Foundations
Construction:
Chimney pipes have to be
s2aled well for proper
functioning,
as well as protection
against the
the risk of fire.
Where bricks or stones are
being used a mixture of clay and sand may be
applied;
pure cement is not suitable
as it tends
to crack when the temperature
changes frequently.
Surfaces:
/
Where the chimney is built
of stone or brick one has
to keep in mind that this
structure
is the "heaviest"
part of the hole
house: It rests on a compartively
small platform
which carries
the entire
weight of the chimney
which may pass through several floors.
It is
essential
that chimneys be vertically.
The size
of the foundation
depends on length and dimension
of the chimney. Foundations
for chimneys must be
on solid ground, well below frostline.
Construction
of chimneys should be done in non-freezing
climate:
Note also that no wood should be in contact with
the chimney, and that they should be given the
chance to expand, although fixed in vertical
line!
Height of the
Chimney:
7.
Whereever possible
the
chimney should be higher
than the top of the roof,
and in any case not be less than three meters in
and go at least 60 cm above the roofing.
height,
(If shorter,
the draught may be reduced and
cambustion quality
decreased).
8.
Top:
The upper end of the
chimney has to be covered
with a rainwater
cap. It is of course essential
to have a cap design that minimises the effect
of wind which may cause back draught;
a tee-piece
is often used. It is easier to protect
the roof
from penetration
by rainwater,
when the chimney
passes through the roofing
at the ridge; here is
less water than on the lower part of the roof.
9.
Cleaning:
by using a brush
moving it through
from below. It is
sible
opening at
for the cleaning
10. Sizes:
Chimneys need regular
This can be done
cleaning.
attached to a stick,
and by
the chimney pipe from above and
wise to have an easily
accesthe bottom (and below roofing)
out of ashes and soot particles.
Where bricks or stones are
being used an inside square
of 20 x 20 cm is very suitable
for household
applications.
Where clay pipes or cement pipes
are readily
available
they may be inserted
in
stone or brick structures
which provide the
Where sheet metal pipes are
required
insulation.
being used a diameter of 100 to 200 mm is suitable, depending on the size of the stove to be
fitted.
11, Number of
It is best to have a separConnections:
ate chimney for each stove,
for reasons of proper
functioning
and safety.
It is also possible
to
have two or morestoves connected to the same
chimney, provided the chimney size is increased
accordingly
and the branches are at different
levels.
-36~
A good draught depends on
a certain
minimum of fire
of
in a stove respectively
a certain
temperature
inside the chimney. It may
be worthwhile
to light
a newspaper at the smoke
exit inside the stove near the chimney, especially
when the chimney is cold.
12. Before lighting
a
fire in a stove:
Good chimneys are made
of masonry: bricks,
stones or prefabricated
chimney blocks with
hollow spaces for
insulation.
Chimneys on
flat
roofs should be
approx.
1.5 mtr above
the roofing.
13. Danger:
Chimneys are also dangerous!
To prevent chimney fires
regular
cleaning
is a must (say every three to
Foundations
and
four months, approximately).
joints
must be airtight
and strong.
Fireplaces
must not be completely
sealed off from the
chimney draught:
the damper should have an open
section and keep draught functioning.
An almost
dead fire can produce enough poisonotis gas to
kill
a whole family in a quite closed room!
Well designed and properly
constructed
chimneys can
greatly
reduce the discomfort
and health risk caused
by smoke. Smoke is a problem encountered
especially
in the homes of poorer people: chimney construction
deserves more attention
and support!
-77-
A new chimney, made of
prefabricated
chimney
blocks,
with a small
room heater fitted
to
it.
Newly made chimney blocks
at the Forestry
Training
Center in Bumthang. The
mould is made of wood.
It takes three people
one day to produce
approx. 50 such blocks.
One bag of cement is
required
for 12 blocks.
-780
Chimney-pipe
made of
fired-clay.
This solution
is from Korea, Suweon.
Chimney pipe made of fired
clay. Where the temperature
remains quite warm chimneys
may be fitted
outside
the
house.
Low-cost chimney installation.
Workable solution which will
need
replacement
after
some
years.
c
-79MASONRY
CHIMNEY
.
,-inner
dimensions:not
smaller than
20 x 20 cm
make surfaces smooth!
.
.
fill
space with porous,
non metallic
, incombustible
material.
Sheet metal prevent
material
from slipping
inlet,
if required,
inlet.
If not
keep properly
with a metal
second
used:
sealed
cap.
sheet metal pipe
Chimneys have to be in
a vertical
position
Chimneys must have a
smooth inner surface.
frost
level!
-8O-
DRAUGHT
CONTROL
Each wood-fired
device
(Bukharis,
cooking range,
hot water stove, etc.,)
needs to have a draught
control.
In most cases a
CROSSVIEW
damper (flap
will
washer
7
valve)
do the job.
Note that the closing should
never be 100 percent, so
that poisonous gas can still
escape through the chimney and not enter the rooms)!
I
_*_.a-.-*
Dampers (flap valves) have
to be fitted
properly:
with
a "key-handle",
having the
same direction
as the damper
-to indicate
to the users
its position.
Such dampers
need to be near the stoves!
end,--'
with a
knock
of a
hamner.
<
Ii
;L-j--A,
II
II
STOVE /
BUKHARI,
etc.
IMPORTANT:
Dampers need to be made of strong material.
preferably
of cast-iron;
or of thick sheet
metal
-81-
ROOF / CHIMNEY
RAIN
MASONRY
PROTECTION
CHIMNEY
,--
7
masonry chimney
sheet metal flashing
(joints
soldered)
tiles
-82ROOF / CHIMNEY
SHEET
RAIN
METAL
.
Ill
Ill
PROTECTION
PIPE
-
sheet metal
pipe
/
sheet metal flashing
(joints
sol dered)
7
cap, soldered
to chimney pipe
i /--II
/-
\
I
tiles
-83CHIMNEY
Correct
PIPES
ABOVE
ROOF
TOP
Installation
100 mm inside
diameter,
or more
2
*
-1 . L
:tRiI
IrIng
and dangerous
to put the smoke exit
under the roof!
TOP
NORMAL TOP COVER
OF
CHIMNEYS
The top of a chimney requires
a hat for protection
from rain.
However, the design may need to
to be in such a way that the
draught is increased,
even
with wind from the side (without providing
back-flow to
the stoves.
H - PIPE
The diameters of the pipes
should be the same as that
of the main chimney pipe,
not smaller than 100 mm inside
TURNING CHIMNEY HAT
This hat turns with the wind.
It is designed to increase the
draught, without back-flow to
stoves.
-850
It is good to
chimneys for
is also easier
root-chimney
if
Zrom rain,
are near the
A roof flashing,
ready for
metal,
(Kathmandu Metal
have several
many stoves.
It
to have the
joints
protected
the chimneys
ridge.
made of sheet
installation.
Industry).
A chimney needs a proper
flashing,
to protect
the
house from leakages!
This
flashing
is made of sheet
metal by the Mechanical
Training
Center,
Balaju,
Kathmandu.
-86SHEET
Cooking
to main
single
having
METAL
PIPES
stoves and room heaters normally
are connected
chimneys with sheet metal pipes. Quite often
room heaters (Bukharis)
are fitted
simply by
a single pipe passing through walls or ceilings.
There is a tendency to overlook the importance
of
proper dimensions of pipes and safety during installation,
(stabilizing
of pipe).
Diameter:
The diameter of sheet metal
with the stove to be fitted:
- small room heater,
l-pot stove
- 2 pots stove
- 3 pots stove
pipes
varies
100 to 120 mm fi I.D.
(Inside Diameter)
120 to
150 mm fl I.D.
150 to
200 mm fi I.D.
warmth to
Length: Such pipes provide some additional
the rooms, but should not be very long (say maximum
three to four meters) and fitted
firmly
with clamps
and hangers (but pipes should never touch directly
walls,
ceilings,
etc.).
Dampers: Near the stove a damper is required
for
draught control.
This is essential
to reduce firewood
consumption.
Note that a damper should never close
completely,
so that poisenous gas can still
escape
through the chimney - and not enter the rooms!
Safety:
Pipes can get very hot and are a constant
risk.
Where they pass through walls and ceilings
proper installation
and safety precautions
are required (see drawings).
Replace corroded pipes in
time, before anything is set ablaze!
Clean the pipes regularly
to remove soots, for
efficient
operation
and also to prevent
chimney
fires!
-87-
CONNECTION
TO
MAIN
CHIMNEY
The main chimney will
nections from stoves,
sheet metal pipes.
have conthrough
A sleeve pipe is fitted
into
the masonry chimney and sealed
with cement (inside and on the
joints).
ISOMETRIC VIEW of sleeve pipe,
made of sheet metal.
CROSSVIEW of chimney,
made with
hollow
blocks
sealing
with
CROSSVIEW of chimney,
made with hollow
********
blocks
ISOblETRIC VIEW of cap
-A
openings
to be kept
closed,
with sheet
metal caps
cement-
'
I
-88-'
c
SHEET
wall
distance
--
25
-I-- clamp
-TI
4
.4-.
I
METAL
PIPE
INSTALLATION
hanger
adequate
distance from
ceiling
for
rasons of fire
security(50
cm
-
P
up to main chimney
Sheet metal pipes need correct fitting
to ceiling
and walls.
Never should they be fitted
directly
to walls or cei?ings:
always allow an
"fir gap" to keep the heat away.
Slope is required from the
towards the stoves, so that
water or rainwater
can flow
the fire (without
dirtying
Pipe)*
main chimney
condensed
back into
the whole
Chimney pipes must be easily removeable so to enaYe easy regular cleaning
(between two weeks to four months,
approximately!.
4-t
<
Diameter of sheet metal pipes should
not be less than 100 mm inside diameter (for Bukharis) and not 1~s than
150 mm inside diameter for cooking
stoves.
-89-
CHANGES
OF
DIRECTION
WITH
SHEET
METAL
PIPES
-------I
; smoke
.I_.
--4
I \upwards
-iI
L - - - -- --- - - - a'J
iI
1.--
2(
'1 chimney pipe
(narrow end)
bend (wide end)
I
I
l
I
I
--
The change of direction
in
sheet metal pipes should be
done with quite "round" bends:
several segments to be addrl
together.
This ensures a good
draught and reduces quick
deposition
of soot.
.
WRONG
It is wrong to have "elbows"
fitted
in smoke pipes.
They reduce the draught
considerably
and clogs up
the pipe in no time.
-9oPASSING
A sheet
ceiling
with a
through
THROUGH
CEILINGS
metal pipe should never be in direct
contact with the
materi&.
Of course the air gaps need to be closed,
piece of sheet metal, so that the heat does not escape
the ceilings!
CROSSVIEW
sheet metal plate,
nailed to the
floor
+ir
I '
TOP VIEW
be
-h.
-
_--_
.-5
=
_ ._. .- -=L-
t-7
-. ---+ -j
--.-.-_
~-_
-------t--i
-.
~y.z..E.~o:
:
-;---.
_-.- .oi
-,/-f
’
--A: ;-x~~~ i _
-.-----___
1
-.c
-.-r-vc-f!-.
5
-I-.-._-- . ___
-_ _0_ . 0 _..
-. “j--- :. _;=;\oj _ -0---____
--------
c_-
/.------J-x==--
D
I
0
I
---cr-- A_---._
0
i -I
--.-
- -.
_----_ ..Z
To prevent heat transfer
from the pipe to the ceiling
materials
a space, all around the metal pipe, of the diameter of the pipe
(or even with more distance)
is required.
-91PASSING
THROUGH
WALLS
CROSSVIEW
Sheet metal pipes should
never be in contact with
the wall materials.
Where wood or other
dangerous materials
are
used a "safety gap" is
very essential,
to
prevent fire hazards.
A sheet metal plate
keeps the pipe in
position
- on the
other side an open
space interrupts
the
heat transmission.
-'-'-*-'-.
Pipe
WRONG
Don't
pipes
walls
having
sheet
plate!
pass
through
without
a
metal
-92Simple sheet metal
pipe manufacturing
tool
(made of wood)
FRONT VIEW
A.
c.
D.
source:
Demonstration of sheet metal pipe
manufacturing, using a simple
tool made of wood.
VITA
-93approx. approx.
2mmc2nnnc
-n--l
MANUFACTURING OF SHEET METAL
PIPES
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1,
I
!
I
I
I
I
I
I
L-l
Sheet metal pipes
should
have a nar-
row end and on the other
side a wide
end. This can easily
having the pipes
by
cut in a "conical
shape".
Of course provision
for
sl:p
2mm
approx.
needs to be made
the seams.
Properly
2mm
approx.
be achieved
made pipes
of approx.
should
8 cm into
have a
the other
pipe.
c - circumference
(incl.
seams)
Sheet metal pipes may be riveted
some rivets
are required
or folded.
to prevent
If
folding
the seams' opening.
is applied
1
-94-
FIXTURE
OF
SHEET
METAL
VERTICAL
PIPES
In cases where the sheet metal
pipe needs a fixture
to prevent
it slipping
into the lower pipe
a small "S"-shapsd metal strip
will
do the job.
Narrow end of pipe
To enable easy fitting
the narrow end of the pipe should be
prepared this way (and where necessary also the wide end to keep the air
gaps small).
-95STOVE
Location:
-------1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
AND
CHIMNEY
SAFETY
.
Stoves should not block doors
Keep sufficient
distance
from combustible
materials,
walls,
ceilings,
etc.
Wood floors
need to be protected.
Room
Heaters
(Bukharis):
should stand on a large
------------sheet metal plate and have a ventilated
air space
between floor and bottom of the stove.
Cooking
Stoves: should be fitted
on a fire-proof
""'J""""
material
on sufficient
height
(bricks,
stones,etc.)
with a small platform
in front to prevent ash
falling
on wooden floors.
Bukharis are very light
in weight,
therefore
they
should be attached to the floor to prevent them
falling
over.
Stove pipes have to be short and mainly vertical.
Avoid long horinzontal
pipes and many bends
(don't use elbows.)
Secure pipes with clamps to ceilings,
etc.
Masonry chimneys need strong foundations
and a
fixture
in each floor
(stability
during earthquakes).
Chimneys need to extend far enough (50 cm) above
the roof to draw properly
(and should never end
below the roof in the top floor!)
-960
Use:
-me
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
a.
9.
Have plans for emergency escape.
fire
Keep a safe distance
away from combustibles:
wood@ clothes,
boxes, etc.
Don't leave fires unattended.
child safety:
Keep a frame (railing)
around the
BuE&~~~~-Troom heaters)
to protect
children
from
dangerous burns. Do not let children
play with
stoves and matches!
Don't let handles of pots extend over the edges of
stoves -this
prevents children
pulling
down the
cooking utensils
which probably have hot contents.
Remember always that grease is flamable
liquid
and
should never get too hot. If spilled
around the
stove - clean it up.
Make sure that no pot or kettle
boils dry, otherwise food could catch fire or pots could melt and
turn over.
Keep a handful of salt near the cooking range. With
this a chimney fire could probably be extinguished
as soon as it starts.
Help your community organization
to be available
in cases of fire.
A fire insurance
can help you in case of losses!
Maintenance:
----a-----1.
2.
3.
Stoves and chimneys need periodical
checking
for
signs of deterioration.
Defective
parts need repair
or replacement.
Keep chimneys, pipes and stoves free from ashes
and soot.
Ashes removed from the stove should be placed
safely outside the house.
-97A
WORD ON
ROOirl HEATING
Heating gozs along with insulation:
can be gained through insulation:
A lot
of warmth
suitable
materials
on top ceiling.
materials;
0 windows with glass or transparent
double glazing in windy and/or cold regions.
properly
groved frames
m doors and windows to fit
(to reduce heat escape through gaps).
keep windows closed with shutters;
heavy curtains
l
(in proper boxes on top) during night time.
continue the traditional
way of making door steps;
l
this considerably
retards
rapid heat loss.
it is essential
to keep doors and windows closed!
l
0
-98IMPROVED
DOOR
(REDUCTION
I
AND
OF
Insulated
\
Lgroove/
also on
verticals
WINDOW
HEAT
DESIGN
LOSSES)
I
ceiling
box for curtain--l
closed on top
(to prevent heat
losses through
convection)
long, heavy-,,
curtain for
insulation
I
glass
mastic
sheet
metal
/-
step, to prevent
air draught
insulated
TOP
floor
ALTERNATIVE
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
Forests
are renewable
resources,
however,
due to many
reasons they are disappearing
much too fast
(for
example because of popuiation
increase,
paper/timber
industry,
management, etc.).
Probably
the rural
population
is suffering
most, and different
measures
are required.
One of these is improved forest
management, another
is the improvement
of wood fired
devices.
In addition,there
e
e
0
e
Of course
limitations,
advantage,
are also
other
useful
alternatives:
Fuel gas from Cowdung
Solar utilization
/ insulation
Mini water power utilization
Other natural
resources
each of them has it's
own potential
and
but several
alternatives
may prove an
if made available
and to function
properly.
Many problems can be solved when farmers undertake
the task of growing their
own trees to satisfy
their
requirements
for wood (cooking;
timber and fodder)
-just
as they grow their
own food - which may also
be more effective
than large-scaled
projects!
Combined energy utilization:
a chimney for
the wood-fired
devices
and solar collectors
(below the windows,
f&rst 'floor)
for hot
water provision.
Passive solar heating:
besides the small
windows the clever
house owner fitted
glass panels.
With
this he gains more
light
and warmth.
Fuel Gas from Cowdung:
a newly constructed
biogas plant above
Lobeysa in Bhutan.
Such plants
can provide fuel for cooking
and lighting
and also
fertilizer.
This
system needs a fairly
warm climate
to be
operational.
MANUFACTURERS &
SUPPLIERS
Mr. Akkal Man Nakarmi
KATHMANDULMETALINDUSTRY
12 / 514 Quadon / Nagal
Chhetrapati
/ Kathmandu
Nepal
Improved cooking stoves,
using cast-iron
parts,
hot water production
with
improved stoves for
bathingwater jackets
Metal parts for largesized cocrkiny pots
Sheet metal pipes, bends
roof flashings,
etc.
NATIONAL STRUCTUREAND
ENGINEERING COMPANY
Patan Xdustrial
Estate
Lalitpx
/ Kathmandu
Nepal
Improved cooking stoves,
using cast-iro:n
parts
FORESTRYTRAINING CENTER
Lame Gompa
Bumthang / Bhutan
Improved cooking stoves,
using cast-iron
parts,
hot water production
with
improved stoves for bathing
production
of special
chimney blocks, with hollow
spaces
~ ~~-
BUMTHANGWORKSHOPS
Jakar / Bumthang
Bhutan
Improved stoves, made of
sheet metal and with castiron parts,
bath oven, sheet metal pipes
and bends, Bukharis
TECHNICAL TRAINING
SCHOOL, KHARBANDI
Phuntsholing
/ Bhutan
Improved cooking ranges and
made of sheet
room heaters,
metal
PUBLIC WORKSDEPARTMENT
Thimphu / Bhutan
Cooking stoves, made of
rammed earth and chimneys
made of sheet metal pipes
I
-102REFERENCES
HEATING
WITH WOOD, by Larry Gay, 1974
Garden Way Pubiishing,
Charlotte,
Vermont 05445, USA
CENTRAL HEATING
WITH WOOD AND COAL,by Larry Gay,1981
The Stephen Greene Press, Brattleboro,
Vermont, USA
-HEATING
THE HOME WATER SUPPLY, by Larry Gay, 1983
Garden Way Publishing,
Charlotte,
Vermont 05445, USA
WOOD STOVES , by Ole Wik, 1977
Alaska Northwest Publishing
Company, Anchorage,
Alaska 99509
NEW PDI-FAMILY
COOKER, by Chr. Adam, 1981
Chr. Adam, Hagelbergerstrasse
9, D-1000 Berlin 61, W.-Germany
--B
WOOD HEAT, by John Vivian, 1976
Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania,
USA
ENERGY PRIMER,
Portala Institute,
1974
Menlo Park,
California
94025, USA
MODERN STOVES FOR ALL, by W. Micuta, 1981
Bellerive
Foundation, P.O. BQX 6, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland
NEW NEPAL1 COOKING STOVES, by A.Bachmann, 1982
UNICEF, P.O. Box 1187, Kathmandu, Nepal
MINI
TECHNOLOGY ItII,
1978, 1983, by B.R. Saubolle
and A. Bachmann, Sahayogi Press, Tripureshwar,
Kathmandu,Nepal
A COOKING PLACE FOR LARGE-SIZED
POTS,by A. Bachmann
1984, UNICEF, P.O. Box 1187, Kathmandu, Nepal
FUEL GAS FROM COWDUNG, Third Edition,
1983
by B.R. Saubolle and A. Bachmann, Sahayogi Press, Kathmandu
NEW HIMALAYAN
WATER WHEELS, by A.Bachmann, A.M. Nakarmi
1983, Sahayogi Press, Tripureshwar,
Kathmandu, Nepal
-103ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Over the past few years several. promising
lopments have been initiated.
Much of the
has been pioneered by the late Rev. B.R.
was active regarding
so many technologies
became fashionable.
stove devework in Nepal
Saubolle,
who
before they
Thanks also to active people in UNICEF, Mr. M.Kennedy,
Ms. M. Diamanti, Mr. R. Carriere
anti others;
in SATA
and in the Agricultural
Development Bank/Nepal for
their interest
and support
.
We are also grateful
for
Mr. Larry Gay/ USA, for
Worb/Switzerland
for the
sized cooking place and
Bubendorf / Switzerland
the materials
supplied,
to:
his excellent
books; Gebr. Ott,
construction
plan of the large
to Mr Paul Schweizer,
TIBA,
for tiuL last-iron
parts.
In Bhutan support was provided by Helvetas,
Mr,M.Ischer,
Mr. R. Mi.iller and Mr. F. Maurer; in PWD by Mr. Pradhan
and Mr. J. Lingden; in Phuntsholing,
Kharbandi Technical
Training
School by Prof. H.V. Rao, Mr. K. Chhodar and
Mr. B. Wangdi.
Many thanks also to Mr. Akkal Man Nakarmi and to the
National
Structure
Engineering
Company, Kathmandu,
for their cooperation
in developing
the cast-iron
modular parts for the czoking stoves, and to Mr. Gerry
Neville
for his valuable
.:ssistance
and suggestions
for the improvement of this edition.
Due to such effort
and support by so many people, many
new developments can now be put to use in improving
people's
welfare.
-104-
FO
Make sure that your stoves are installed
properly
Don't leave fires unattended
firewood,
clothes,
boxes, etc.,
0 Keep combustibles:
a safe distance away
play with matches and stoves
e Do not let children
@ Clean chimneys, pipes and stoves regularly
(to prevent chimney fires)
e Remember always that grease is flamable
liquid
and should never get too hot. If spilled
around
the stove - clean it up.
Make sure that no pot or kettle
boiis
dry, otherwise food could catch fire or pots could melt and
turn over.
Have fire-fighting
equipment ready
Have plans for emergency escape
"
Help your community or organization
to be available in cases of fire
Remember in time that fire insurance wil.1 help you
in case of losses!
e
e
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