Atmel AT42QT2160 16-key QMatrix Touch Sensor IC Features DATASHEET

Atmel AT42QT2160 16-key QMatrix Touch Sensor IC Features DATASHEET
Atmel AT42QT2160
16-key QMatrix Touch Sensor IC
DATASHEET
Features
 Number of keys:

up to 16 keys, and one slider (constructed from 2 to 8 keys)
 Technology:

patented spread-spectrum charge-transfer (transverse mode)
 Number of I/O lines:
11 (3 dedicated – configurable for input or output, 8 shared – output only)
PWM control for LED driving
Key outline sizes:
 6 mm × 6 mm or larger (panel thickness dependent); widely different sizes and
shapes possible
Key spacings:
 8 mm or wider, center to center (panel thickness dependent)
Slider design:
 2 to 8 keys placed in sequence, same design as keys
Electrode design:
 two-part electrode shapes (drive-receive); wide variety of possible layouts
PCB layers required:
 one layer (with jumpers), two layers (no jumpers)
Electrode materials:
 PCB, FPCB, silver or carbon on film, ITO on film
Panel materials:
 plastic, glass, composites, painted surfaces (low particle density metallic
paints possible)
Adjacent metal:
 compatible with grounded metal immediately next to keys
Panel thickness:
 up to 3 mm glass, 2.5 mm plastic (key size dependent)
Key sensitivity:
 individually settable via simple commands over I2C-compatible interface
Interface:
 I2C-compatible slave mode (100 kHz)
Moisture tolerance:
 Increased moisture tolerance based on hardware design and firmware tuning
Signal processing:
 self-calibration, auto drift compensation, noise filtering
 Adjacent Key Suppression® (AKS®) technology
Applications:
 Laptop, mobile, consumer appliances, PC peripheral
This datasheet is applicable to revision 4R0 chips only
Operating Voltage:
 1.8 V – 5.5 V
Package:
 28-pin 4 × 4 mm QFN RoHS compliant
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1.2
I2CA1
GPIO3
SDA
1
SCL
GPIO2
RST
Pinout Configuration
Y0A
1.1
Y1A
Pinout and Schematic
GPIO1
1.
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
I2CA0
2
20
Y1B
VDD
3
19
Y0B
VSS
4
18
VSS
X6
5
17
VDD
X7
6
16
VDD
CHANGE
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
15
14
VREF
SMP
X0
X1
X2
X3
X4
QT2160
X5
Pinout Descriptions
Table 1-1.
Pin
Pin Listing
Name
Type
If Unused, Connect
To…
Comments
1
GPIO2
I/O
General purpose input/output 2
–
2
GPIO3
I/O
General purpose input/output 3
–
3
Vdd
P
Power
–
4
Vss
P
Supply ground
–
5
X6
O
X matrix drive line / shared GPO X6
Leave open
6
X7
O
X matrix drive line / shared GPO X7
Leave open
7
CHANGE
OD
State change notification
Leave open
8
Vref
P
Supply ground
–
9
SMP
O
Sample output.
–
10
X0
O
X matrix drive line / shared GPO X0
Leave open
11
X1
O
X matrix drive line / shared GPO X1
Leave open
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Table 1-1.
Pin
I
OD
Pin Listing (Continued)
Name
Type
If Unused, Connect
To…
Comments
12
X2
O
X matrix drive line / shared GPO X2
Leave open
13
X3
O
X matrix drive line / shared GPO X3
Leave open
14
X4
O
X matrix drive line / shared GPO X4
Leave open
15
X5
O
X matrix drive line / shared GPO X5
Leave open
16
Vdd
P
Power
–
17
Vdd
P
Power
–
18
Vss
P
Supply ground
–
19
Y0B
I/O
Y line connection
Leave open
20
Y1B
I/O
Y line connection
Leave open
2
21
I2CA0
I
I C address select
–
22
I2CA1
I
I2C address select
–
23
SDA
OD
Serial Interface Data
–
24
SCL
OD
Serial Interface Clock
–
25
RST
I
Reset low; has internal 30k - 60k pull-up
Leave open or Vdd
26
Y0A
I/O
Y line connection
Leave open
27
Y1A
I/O
Y line connection
Leave open
28
GPIO1
I/O
General purpose input/output 1
–
Input only
Open drain output
O
P
Output only, push-pull
Ground or power
I/O
Input/output
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1.3
Schematic
Figure 1-1. Typical Circuit
follow regulator manufacturers recommended values for input
and output bypass capacitors.
VDD
Vunreg
VREG
tightly wire a 100nF bypass capacitor between Vdd and Vss (pins 3 and 4).
MATRIX X DRIVE
Rx7
Rx6
Rx5
VDD
Rx4
Rp
Rp
Rx3
QT2160
Rx2
Rx1
I2C
SDA
Rx0
SCL
VDD
General purpose
inputs/outputs
Rchg
CHANGE
I2C ADDRESS
SELECT
Cs0
Ry1
Cs1
Rs1
Rs0
MATRIX Y SCAN IN
Ry0
Notes:
1) the central pad on the underside of the chip is a
Vss pin and should be connected to ground.
Do not put any other tracks underneath the body
of the chip.
2) it is important to place all Rx, Ry, Cs and Rs
components physically near to the chip.
3) leave YnA, YnB unconnected
if not used.
Check the following sections for component values:

Section 3.3 on page 8: Cs capacitors (Cs0 – Cs1)

Section 3.5 on page 10: Sample resistors (Rs0 – Rs1)

Section 3.7 on page 10: Matrix resistors (Rx0 – Rx7, Ry0 – Ry1)

Section 3.11 on page 15: Voltage levels

Section 5.4 on page 22: SDA, SCL pull-up resistors (Rp)

Section 5.5 on page 22: CHANGE resistor (Rchg)

Section 5.2 on page 21: I2C addresses
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Figure 1-2. Inputs/Outputs
GPIOn
where n = 1 3
GPIOn / Xm
where n = 1 3
m =0 7
GPIOn
where n = 1 3
GPIOn / Xm
where n = 1 3
m =0 7
* Low-pass filter can be added
to filter out burst pulses on
shared GPOs (X0 X7)
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2.
Overview
2.1
Introduction
The AT42QT2160-MMU (QT2160) is designed for use with up to 16 keys and a slider (constructed from 2 keys up to
8 keys). There are three dedicated General Purpose Input/Outputs (GPIOs) which can be used as inputs for
mechanical switches or as driven outputs. There are eight shared General Purpose Outputs (GPOs) (X0 – X7) which
are driven outputs only. There is PWM control for each GPIO/GPOs.
The QT2160 device is a digital burst mode charge-transfer (QT™) sensor designed specifically for matrix layout
touch controls; it includes all signal processing functions necessary to provide stable sensing under a wide variety of
changing conditions. Only a few external parts are required for operation. The entire circuit can be built within a few
square centimeters of single-sided PCB area. CEM-1 and FR1 punched, single-sided materials can be used for the
lowest possible cost. The PCB rear can be mounted flush on the back of a glass or plastic panel using a conventional
adhesive, such as 3M VHB two-sided adhesive acrylic film.
The QT2160 technology employs transverse charge-transfer sensing electrode designs which can be made very
compact and are easily wired. Charge is forced from an emitting electrode into the overlying panel dielectric, and
then collected on a receiver electrode (see Figure 2-1). This directs the charge into a sampling capacitor which is
then converted directly to digital form, without the use of amplifiers.
The keys are configured in a matrix format that minimizes the number of required scan lines and device pins. The
key electrodes can be designed into a conventional Printed Circuit Board (PCB) or Flexible Printed Circuit Board
(FPCB) as a copper pattern, or as printed conductive ink on plastic film.
The device uses an I2C-compatible interface to allow key data to be extracted and to permit individual key parameter
setup. The command structure is designed to minimize the amount of data traffic while maximizing the amount of
information conveyed.
In addition to normal operating and setup functions the device can also report back actual signal strengths.
Figure 2-1. Field Flow Between X and Y Elements
overlying panel
X element
Y element
CMOS
driver
2.2
Keys and Slider
The QT2160 is capable of a maximum of 16 keys. These can be located anywhere within an electrical grid of eight X
and two Y scan lines.
A lesser number of enabled keys will cause any unused acquisition burst time slots to be pared from the sampling
sequence, to optimize acquire speed and lessen power consumption. Thus, if only eight keys are actually enabled,
only eight timeslots are used for scanning.
Additional processing can be done on the keys to form a slider. The slider must start at X0 and use only Y0. The
slider can consist of a minimum of two keys and a maximum of eight keys.
2.3
Enabling/Disabling Keys
Keys can be enabled by setting a non-zero burst length. A zero burst length disables the key.
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2.4
Moisture Tolerance
The presence of water (condensation, sweat, spilt water, and so on) on a sensor can alter the signal values
measured and thereby affect the performance of any capacitive device. The moisture tolerance of QTouch devices
can be improved by designing the hardware and fine-tuning the firmware following the recommendations in the
application note Atmel AVR3002: Moisture Tolerant QTouch Design (www.atmel.com/Images/doc42017.pdf).
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3.
Hardware and Functional
3.1
Matrix Scan Sequence
The circuit operates by scanning each key sequentially, key by key. Key scanning begins with location X = 0, Y = 0
(key 0). X axis keys are known as rows while Y axis keys are referred to as columns although this has no reflection
on actual wiring. Keys are scanned sequentially by row, for example the sequence X0Y0 X1Y0 … X7Y0, X0Y1,
X1Y1... and so on. Keys are also numbered from 0 – 15. Key 0 is located at X0Y0. Table 3-1 shows the key
numbering.
Table 3-1.
Key Numbers
X7
X6
X5
X4
X3
X2
X1
X0
Y0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Y1
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Key
numbers
Each key is sampled in a burst of acquisition pulses whose length is determined by the Setups parameter BL (Table
7-1 on page 36); this can be set on a per-key basis. A burst is completed entirely before the next key is sampled; at
the end of each burst the resulting signal is converted to digital form and processed. The burst length directly impacts
key gain; each key can have a unique burst length in order to allow tailoring of key sensitivity on a key-by-key basis.
3.2
Burst Paring
Keys that are disabled by setting their burst length to zero have their bursts removed from the scan sequence to
save scan time and thus power. The QT2160 operates on a fixed 16 ms cycle and will go to sleep after all
acquisitions and processing is done till the next 16ms cycle starts. As a consequence, the fewer keys, the less power
is consumed.
3.3
Cs Sample Capacitor Operation
Cs capacitors (Cs0 – Cs1) absorb charge from the key electrodes on the rising edge of each X pulse. On each falling
edge of X, the Y matrix line is clamped to ground to allow the electrode and wiring charges to neutralize in
preparation for the next pulse. With each X pulse charge accumulates on Cs causing a staircase increase in its
differential voltage.
After the burst completes, the device clamps the Y line to ground causing the opposite terminal to go negative. The
charge on Cs is then measured using an external resistor to ramp the negative terminal upwards until a zero
crossing is achieved. The time required to zero cross becomes the measurement result.
The Cs capacitors should be connected as shown in Figure 1-1 on page 4. The value of these capacitors is not
critical but 4.7 nF is recommended for most cases. They should be 10% X7R ceramic. If the transverse capacitive
coupling from X to Y is large enough the voltage on a Cs capacitor can saturate, destroying gain. In such cases the
burst length should be reduced and/or the Cs value increased. See Section 3.4.
If a Y line is not used its corresponding Cs capacitor may be omitted and the pins left floating.
3.4
Sample Capacitor Saturation
Cs voltage saturation at a pin YnB is shown in Figure 3.5. Saturation begins to occur when the voltage at a YnB pin
becomes more negative than –0.25 V at the end of the burst. This nonlinearity is caused by excessive voltage
accumulation on Cs inducing conduction in the pin protection diodes. This badly saturated signal destroys key gain
and introduces a strong thermal coefficient which can cause phantom detection. The cause of this is either from the
burst length being too long, the Cs value being too small, or the X-Y transfer coupling being too large. Solutions
include loosening up the key structure interleaving, more separation of the X and Y lines on the PCB, increasing Cs,
and decreasing the burst length.
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Figure 3-1. VCs – Nonlinear During Burst
X Drive
YnB
Increasing Cs will make the part slower; decreasing burst length will make it less sensitive. A better PCB layout and
a looser key structure (up to a point) have no negative effects.
Cs voltages should be observed on an oscilloscope with the matrix layer bonded to the panel material; if the Rs side
of any Cs ramps more negative than –0.25 V during any burst (not counting overshoot spikes which are probe
artifacts), there is a potential saturation problem.
Figure 3-2. VCs – Poor Gain, Nonlinear During Burst
X Drive
YnB
Figure 3.5 shows a defective waveform similar to that of Figure 3.5, but in this case the distortion is caused by
excessive stray capacitance coupling from the Y line to AC ground; for example, from running too near and too far
alongside a ground trace, ground plane, or other traces. The excess coupling causes the charge-transfer effect to
dissipate a significant portion of the received charge from a key into the stray capacitance. This phenomenon is more
subtle; it can be best detected by increasing BL to a high count and watching what the waveform does as it descends
towards and below –0.25 V. The waveform will appear deceptively straight, but it will slowly start to flatten even
before the –0.25 V level is reached.
Figure 3-3. VCs – Correct
X Drive
YnB
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A correct waveform is shown in Figure 3.5 on page 10. Note that the bottom edge of the bottom trace is substantially
straight (ignoring the downward spikes).
Unlike other QT circuits, the Cs capacitor values on QT2160 devices have no effect on conversion gain. However,
they do affect conversion time.
Unused Y lines should be left open.
3.5
Sample Resistors
The sample resistors (Rs0 – Rs1) are used to perform single-slope ADC conversion of the acquired charge on each
Cs capacitor. These resistors directly control acquisition gain; larger values of Rs will proportionately increase signal
gain. For most applications Rs should be 1 M. Unused Y lines do not require an Rs resistor.
3.6
Signal Levels
The signal values should normally be in the range of 200 to 750 counts with properly designed key shapes and
values of Rs. However, long adjacent runs of X and Y lines can also artificially boost the signal values, and induce
signal saturation; this is to be avoided. The X-to-Y coupling should come mostly from intra-key electrode coupling,
not from stray X-to-Y trace coupling.
The signal swing from the smallest finger touch should preferably exceed 8 counts, with 12 being a reasonable
target. The signal threshold setting (NTHR) should be set to a value guaranteed to be less than the signal swing
caused by the smallest touch.
Increasing the burst length (BL) parameter will increase the signal strengths, as will increasing the sampling resistor
(Rs) values.
3.7
Matrix Series Resistors
The X and Y matrix scan lines can use series resistors (Rx0 – Rx7 and Ry0 – Ry1 respectively) for improved EMC
performance (Figure 1-1 on page 4).
X drive lines require Rx in most cases to reduce edge rates and thus reduce RF emissions. Values range from 1 k
to 20 k, typically 1 k.
Y lines need Ry to reduce EMC susceptibility problems and in some extreme cases, ESD. Typical Y values are about
1 k. Y resistors act to reduce noise susceptibility problems by forming a natural low-pass filter with the Cs
capacitors.
It is essential that the Rx and Ry resistors and Cs capacitors be placed very close to the chip. Placing these parts
more than a few millimeters away opens the circuit up to high frequency interference problems (above 20 MHz) as
the trace lengths between the components and the chip start to act as RF antennae.
The upper limits of Rx and Ry are reached when the signal level and hence key sensitivity are clearly reduced. The
limits of Rx and Ry will depend on key geometry and stray capacitance, and thus an oscilloscope is required to
determine optimum values of both.
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Figure 3-4. Drive Pulse Roll-off and Dwell Time
X drive
Dwell time
Lost charge due to
inadequate settling
before end of dwell time
Y gate
Dwell time is the duration in which charge coupled from X to Y is captured (Figure 3-4 on page 11). Increasing Rx
values will cause the leading edge of the X pulses to increasingly roll off, causing the loss of captured charge (and
hence loss of signal strength) from the keys.
The dwell time is a minimum of 250 ns. If the X pulses have not settled within 250 ns, key gain will be reduced; if this
happens, either the stray capacitance on the X line(s) should be reduced (by a layout change, for example by
reducing X line exposure to nearby ground planes or traces), or, the Rx resistor needs to be reduced in value (or a
combination of both approaches).
One way to determine X line settling time is to monitor the fields using a patch of metal foil or a small coin over the
key (Figure 3-5 on page 11). Only one key along a particular X line needs to be observed, 250 ns dwell time should
exceed the observed 95% settling of the X-pulse by 25% or more.
In almost all cases, Ry should be set equal to Rx, which will ensure that the charge on the Y line is fully captured into
the Cs capacitor.
Figure 3-5. Probing X-Drive Waveforms With a Coin
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3.8
Key Design
Circuits can be constructed out of a variety of materials including conventional FR-4, Flexible Printed Circuit Boards
(FPCB), silver silk-screened on PET plastic film, and even inexpensive punched single-sided CEM-1 and FR-2.
The actual internal pattern style is not as important as the need to achieve regular X and Y widths and spacings of
sufficient size to cover the desired graphical key area or a little bit more; ~3mm oversize is acceptable in most cases,
since the key’s electric fields drop off near the edges anyway. The overall key size can range from 6 mm x 6 mm up
to 100 mm x 100 mm but these are not hard limits. The keys can be any shape including round, rectangular, square,
etc. The internal pattern can be interdigitated as shown in Figure 3-6.
For small, dense keypads, electrodes such as shown in the lower half of Figure 3-6 can be used. Where the panels
are thin (under 2 mm thick) the electrode density can be quite high.
For better surface moisture suppression, the outer perimeter of X should be as wide as possible, and there should be
no ground planes near the keys. The variable T in this drawing represents the total thickness of all materials that the
keys must penetrate.
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Figure 3-6. Recommended Key Structure
³T
½T
½T
½T
Y
X
Y0
X0
Y1
Y2
Note:
T should ideally be similar to the complete thickness the fields need to penetrate to the touch surface.
Smaller dimensions will also work but will give less signal strength. If in doubt, make the pattern coarser.
The lower figure shows a simpler structure used for compact key layouts, for example for mobile phones. A
layout with a common X drive and two receive electrodes is depicted
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3.9
Setting the Slider
3.9.1
Introduction
Groups of keys can be configured as a slider, in addition to their use as keys. The slider uses the Y0 line of the
matrix and must start at X0, with the keys placed in consecutive numerical order. The slider can take up a
programmable number of keys on the Y0 line. The remaining keys on that Y line behave as normal.
Positional data is calculated in a customizable range of 2 bits (0 – 3) to 8 bits (0 – 255). Geometric constraints may
mean that the data will not reach the full range. Thinner dielectric or the use of more keys in a slider will increase the
data range towards the ends.
Stability of the reported position will be dependent on the amount of signal on the slider keys. Running at higher
resolutions, with a thick panel might produce a fluctuating reported position.
Key sizes should be in the 5 – 7mm range when used in the slider to get the best linearity. The slider should be made
up of however many of these elements are required to fit their dimensions.
The slider will be treated as an object in the Adjacent Key Suppression (AKS) groupings. The keys in the slider would
normally be set to the same burst length and threshold, although adjustments can be made in these at the expense
of linearity.
3.9.2
AKS Technology and the Slider
There can be up to three AKS groups, implemented so that only one key in each group may be reported as being
touched at any one time. The AKS technique will lock onto the dominant key, and until this key is released, other
keys in the group will not be reported as in detection. This allows a user to slide a finger across multiple keys with
only the dominant key reporting touch. Each key may be in one of the groups 1 – 3, or in group 0 meaning that it is
not AKS enabled.
Keys in the slider are not able to use AKS technique against each other. This is necessary to enable smooth
scrolling. Multiple keys within the slider can be in detect at the same time, regardless of the AKS settings. The AKS
technique will, however, work against keys outside the object or within another object. For example, if a slider is in
the same AKS group as keys, then touching anywhere on the slider will cause the AKS technique to suppress the
keys. Similarly touching the keys first will suppress the slider.
Note:
3.10
For normal operation all keys in the slider should be placed in the same AKS group.
PCB Layout, Construction
3.10.1 Overview
It is best to place the chip near the touch keys on the same PCB so as to reduce X and Y trace lengths, thereby
reducing the chances for EMC problems. Long connection traces act as RF antennae. The Y (receive) lines are
much more susceptible to noise pickup than the X (drive) lines.
Even more importantly, all signal related discrete parts (resistors and capacitors) should be very close to the body of
the chip. Wiring between the chip and the various resistors and capacitors should be as short and direct as possible
to suppress noise pickup.
Ground planes, if used, should be placed under or around the QT chip itself and the associated resistors and
capacitors in the circuit, under or around the power supply, and back to a connector. Ground planes can be used to
shield against radiated noise, but at the expense of a reduction in sensitivity as described previously.
Note:
When using ground planes/floods, parasitic capacitance on Y lines can lead to reduced charge-transfer
efficiency. For noise suppression, ground planes/floods can be beneficial around and between keys on the
touch side of the PCB. However, it is advisable to route Y lines on the PCB layer furthest away from the
plane/flood, to reduce parasitic capacitance. Cross-hatched ground patterns can act as effective shields,
while helping to reduce parasitic capacitance. Ground planes/floods around the chip are generally
acceptable, taking into account the same considerations as for the Y line parasitics.
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3.10.2 LED Traces and Other Switching Signals
Digital switching signals near the Y lines will induce transients into the acquired signals, deteriorating the SNR
performance of the device. Such signals should be routed away from the Y lines, or the design should be such that
these lines are not switched during the course of signal acquisition (bursts).
LED terminals which are multiplexed or switched into a floating state and which are within or physically very near a
key structure (even if on another nearby PCB) should be bypassed to either Vss or Vdd with at least a 10 nF
capacitor to suppress capacitive coupling effects which can induce false signal shifts. The bypass capacitor does not
need to be next to the LED, in fact it can be quite distant. The bypass capacitor is noncritical and can be of any type.
LED terminals which are constantly connected to Vss or Vdd do not need further bypassing.
3.10.3 Tracks
The central pad on the underside of the chip should be connected to ground. Do not run any tracks underneath the
body of the chip, only ground.
Figure 3-7. Position of Tracks
Example of GOOD tracking
Example of BAD tracking
3.10.4 PCB Cleanliness
All capacitive sensors should be treated as highly sensitive circuits which can be influenced by stray conductive
leakage paths. QT devices have a basic resolution in the femtofarad range; in this region, there is no such thing as
“clean flux". Flux absorbs moisture and becomes conductive between solder joints, causing signal drift and resultant
false detections or transient losses of sensitivity or instability. Conformal coatings will trap in existing amounts of
moisture which will then become highly temperature sensitive.
The designer should specify ultrasonic cleaning as part of the manufacturing process, and in cases where a high
level of humidity is anticipated, the use of conformal coatings after cleaning to keep out moisture.
3.11
Power Supply Considerations
See Section 9.2 on page 43 for the Vdd range and short-term power supply fluctuations. If the power supply
fluctuates slowly with temperature, the device will track and compensate for these changes automatically with only
minor changes in sensitivity. If the supply voltage drifts or shifts quickly, the drift compensation mechanism will not
be able to keep up, causing sensitivity anomalies or false detections.
As the device uses the power supply itself as an analog reference, the power should be very clean and come from a
separate regulator. A standard inexpensive Low Dropout (LDO) type regulator should be used that is not also used
to power other loads such as LEDs, relays, or other high current devices. Load shifts on the output of the LDO can
cause Vdd to fluctuate enough to cause false detection or sensitivity shifts.
Caution: A regulator IC shared with other logic devices can result in erratic operation and is not advised.
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A regulator can be shared among two or more QT devices on one board. Refer to page 4 for suggested regulator
manufacturers.
A single ceramic 0.1 µF bypass capacitor, with short traces, should be placed very close to supply pins 3 and 4 of the
IC. Failure to do so can result in device oscillation, high current consumption, erratic operation, and so on. Pins 16
and 17 do not require bypassing if the traces between these pins and power traces are short.
Suggested regulator manufacturers:
3.12

Toko (XC6215 series)

Seiko (S817 series)

BCDSemi (AP2121 series)
Startup/Calibration Times
The device requires initialization times of approximately 70 ms. The CHANGE line will go low and calibration will start
(takes 15 matrix scans), after this start up period is over.
3.13
Calibration
Calibration does not occur periodically. Keys are only calibrated on power-up and when:

Enabled
AND

held in detect for too long. The negative recalibration delay (NRD) period is specified by the user
OR

the signal delta value is greater than the positive threshold value, defined as reference value plus threequarters of the negative threshold
OR

the user issues a recalibrate command
An interrupt on the CHANGE pin occurs when there is a change in the key status bytes. An interrupt will occur on
calibration only if at least one of the keys or objects was in detect as recalibration will then cause a status change.
3.14
Reset Input
The RST pin can be used to reset the device to simulate a power-down cycle, in order to bring the device up into a
known state should communications with the device be lost. The pin is active low, and a low pulse lasting at least
10µs must be applied to this pin to cause a reset.
If an external hardware reset is not used, the reset pin may be connected to Vdd.
3.15
Spread Spectrum Acquisitions
QT2160 uses spread-spectrum burst modulation. This has the effect of drastically reducing the possibility of EMI
effects on the sensor keys, while simultaneously spreading RF emissions. This feature is hard-wired into the device
and cannot be disabled or modified.
Spread spectrum is configured as a frequency chirp over a wide range of frequencies for robust operation.
3.16
Detection Integrator
See also Section 3.2 on page 8.
The device features a detection integration mechanism, which acts to confirm a detection in a robust fashion. A perkey counter is incremented each time the key has exceeded its threshold and stayed there for a number of
acquisitions. When this counter reaches a preset limit the key is finally declared to be touched.
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For example, if the limit value is 10, then the device has to exceed its threshold and stay there for 10 acquisitions in
succession without going below the threshold level, before the key is declared to be touched. If on any acquisition
the signal is not seen to exceed the threshold level, the counter is cleared and the process has to start from the
beginning.
3.17
Sleep
The device operates on a fixed 16 ms cycle time basis. The device will perform a set of measurements and then
sleep for the rest of the cycle to conserve power.
There are two user-configurable sleep modes; Low Power (LP) mode and SLEEP mode.
The LP setting (see Section 3.2 on page 8) is used for conserving power when there are no touches and is set to be
a long time period. This will determine how often the device wakes up to do drift compensation. It also determines
the maximum response time to the first touch after inactivity.
When a valid touch is registered, the device enters minimum cycle time (16 ms) for a faster response to key touch
and object operation. The device will stay in this mode if it continues to see keys being touched and released. There
is a user-selectable inactivity timeout; the awake timeout.
The measurement period needs to be shorter than the 16 ms fixed cycle time for optimum operation. If the
measurement time exceeds the 16 ms fixed cycle time, a CYCLE OVERRUN bit is set in the general status register.
The QT2160 will still operate if the 16 ms fixed cycle time is exceeded, but the timing for the timed parameters, for
example, drift compensation negative recalibration time out, and so on, will slightly change.
A low power setting of zero causes the device to enter an ultra-low power mode (SLEEP), where no measurements
are carried out. SLEEP mode also stops the internal watchdog timer, so that the part is totally dormant, and current
drain is <2 µA. The PWM function will not be carried out during SLEEP, therefore it is recommended driving the
GPIOs/GPOs to known states before entering SLEEP mode.
The QT2160 wakes from SLEEP mode if there is an address match on the I2C bus, a hardware reset on the RST pin
or an LP mode is set. If the Wake option is set for the dedicated GPIO inputs, then the QT2160 will trigger the
CHANGE line if a change in status (either positive or negative going edge) of the respective GPIO is detected, in
SLEEP mode.
3.18
General Purpose Inputs/Outputs
There are three dedicated GPIOs (GPIO1 – 3) and eight GPOs shared with X lines (X0 – 7). Shared GPOs are
always outputs, whereas dedicated GPIOs can be set to be outputs or inputs.
GPIOs set to input can be used for reading dome switches or logic signals. Outputs can be used to drive LEDs, or
other devices. It is recommended driving external devices through the use of bipolar transistors or MOSFETs, so as
not to affect capacitive sensing if a load fluctuates the power rail by drawing/sinking too much current.
All GPOs and GPIOs set to output can be PWM driven, if the corresponding PWM bit is set. Note that the PWM duty
cycle will be an approximation, as GPIOs will not be switched during acquisition bursts.
The dedicated GPIOs have a Wake option, that if enabled will enable dedicated GPIOs set as inputs, to be read in
SLEEP mode.
Note that shared GPOs (X0 – X7) are driven by the burst pulses during acquisition bursts, if the corresponding X line
is used in the keys/slider. A low pass filter can be inserted to eliminate these burst pulses, as shown in Figure 1-2 on
page 5.
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4.
I2C Operation
The device communicates with the host over an I2C bus. The following sections give an overview of the bus; more
detailed information is available from www.i2C-bus.org. Devices are connected to the I2C bus as shown in Figure 41. Both bus lines are connected to Vdd via pull-up resistors. The bus drivers of all I2C devices must be open-drain
type. This implements a wired AND function that allows any and all devices to drive the bus, one at a time. A low
level on the bus is generated when a device outputs a zero.
Figure 4-1. I2C Interface Bus
Vdd
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
4.1
Transferring Data Bits
Each data bit transferred on the bus is accompanied by a pulse on the clock line. The level of the data line must be
stable when the clock line is high; the only exception to this rule is for generating START and STOP conditions.
Figure 4-2. Data Transfer
SDA
SCL
Data Stable
Data Stable
Data Change
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4.2
START and STOP Conditions
The host initiates and terminates a data transmission. The transmission is initiated when the host issues a START
condition on the bus, and is terminated when the host issues a STOP condition. Between the START and STOP
conditions, the bus is considered busy. As shown in Figure 4-3, START and STOP conditions are signaled by
changing the level of the SDA line when the SCL line is high.
Figure 4-3. START and STOP Conditions
SDA
SCL
START
4.3
STOP
Address Byte Format
All address bytes are 9 bits long, consisting of 7 address bits, one READ/WRITE control bit and an acknowledge bit.
If the READ/WRITE bit is set, a read operation is performed, otherwise a write operation is performed. When the
device recognizes that it is being addressed, it will acknowledge by pulling SDA low in the ninth SCL (ACK) cycle. An
address byte consisting of a slave address and a READ or a WRITE bit is called SLA+R or SLA+W, respectively.
The most significant bit of the address byte is transmitted first. The address sent by the host must be consistent with
that selected with the option jumpers.
Figure 4-4. Address Byte Format
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
7
8
9
SDA
SCL
START
1
2
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4.4
Data Byte Format
All data bytes are 9 bits long, consisting of 8 data bits and an acknowledge bit. During a data transfer, the host
generates the clock and the START and STOP conditions, while the receiver is responsible for acknowledging the
reception. An acknowledge (ACK) is signaled by the receiver pulling the SDA line low during the ninth SCL cycle. If
the receiver leaves the SDA line high, a NACK is signaled.
Figure 4-5. Data Byte Format
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
Aggregate
SDA
SDA from
Transmitter
SDA from
Receiver
SCL from
Master
1
2
7
Data Byte
SLA+R/W
4.5
Stop or Next
Data Byte
Combining Address and Data Bytes into a Transmission
A transmission consists of a START condition, an SLA+R/W, one or more data bytes and a STOP condition. The
wired ANDing of the SCL line is used to implement handshaking between the host and the device. The device
extends the SCL low period by pulling the SCL line low whenever it needs extra time for processing between the
data transmissions.
Note: Each write or read cycle must end with a stop condition. The device may not respond correctly if a cycle is
terminated by a new start condition.
Figure 4-6 shows a typical data transmission. Note that several data bytes can be transmitted between the SLA+R/W
and the STOP.
Figure 4-6. Byte Transmission
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
7
8
9
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
START
1
2
SLA+RW
2
7
Data Byte
STO
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5.
Interfaces
5.1
I2C Protocol
The I2C protocol is based around access to an address table and supports multi-byte reads and writes.
Note: Each write or read cycle must end with a stop condition. The QT2160 may not respond correctly if a cycle is
terminated by a new start condition.
5.2
I2C Addresses
Four preset I2C addresses are selectable through pin I2CA0 and I2CA1 (Table 5-1).
Table 5-1.
5.3
Data Read/Write
5.3.1
Writing Data to the Device
I2C Addresses
I2CA1
I2CA0
Address
0
0
0x0D
0
1
0x17
1
0
0x44
1
1
0x6B
The sequence of events required to write data to the device is shown next.
Host to Device
S
SLA+W
A
MemAddress
Device Tx to Host
A
Data
A
P
Key:
S
Start condition
SLA+W
Slave address plus write bit
A
Acknowledge bit
MemAddress
Target memory address within device
Data
Data to be written
P
Stop condition
The host initiates the transfer by sending the START condition, and follows this by sending the slave address of the
device together with the Write-bit. The device sends an ACK. The host then sends the memory address within the
device it wishes to write to. The device sends an ACK. The host transmits one or more data bytes; each will be
acknowledged by the device.
If the host sends more than one data byte, they will be written to consecutive memory addresses. The device
automatically increments the target memory address after writing each data byte. After writing the last data byte, the
host should send the STOP condition.
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The host should not try to write beyond address 255 because the device will not increment the internal memory
address beyond this.
5.3.2
Reading Data From the Device
The sequence of events required to read data from the device is shown next.
Host to Device
S
SLA+W
A
Data 1
A
Device Tx to Host
MemAddress A P
Data 2
S
SLA+R
A
Data n
A
A
P
The host initiates the transfer by sending the START condition, and follows this by sending the slave address of the
device together with the Write-bit. The device sends an ACK. The host then sends the memory address within the
device it wishes to read from. The device sends an ACK.
The host must then send a STOP and a START condition followed by the slave address again but this time
accompanied by the Read-bit. The device will return an ACK, followed by a data byte. The host must return either an
ACK or NACK. If the host returns an ACK, the device will subsequently transmit the data byte from the next address.
Each time a data byte is transmitted, the device automatically increments the internal address. The device will
continue to return data bytes until the host responds with a NACK. The host should terminate the transfer by issuing
the STOP condition.
5.4
SDA, SCL
The I2C bus transmits data and clock with SDA and SCL. They are open-drain; that is I2C master and slave devices
can only drive these lines low or leave them open. The termination resistors (Rp) pull the line up to Vdd if no I2C
device is pulling it down.
The termination resistors commonly range from 1 k to 10 kand should be chosen so that the rise times on SDA
and SCL meet the I2C specifications (1 µs maximum).
5.5
CHANGE Pin
The CHANGE pin is an active low open drain output that can be used to alert the host of any changes to any of the 5
status bytes (address 2 to 6), thus reducing the need for wasteful I2C communications. After setting up the QT2160,
the host can simply not communicate with the device, except when the CHANGE pin goes active.
CHANGE goes inactive again only when the host performs a read from all status bytes which have changed.
Poll rate: The host can make use of the CHANGE pin output to initiate a communication; this will guarantee the
optimal polling rate.
If the host cannot make use of the CHANGE pin, the poll rate should be no faster than once per matrix scan (see
Section 9.4 on page 44). Anything faster will not provide new information and will slow down the chip operation.
The CHANGE pin requires a pull-up resistor, with a typical value of ~100 k.
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6.
Communications Protocol
6.1
Introduction
The device is address mapped. All communications consist of writes to, and reads from, locations in an 8-bit address
map. Table 6-1 shows the address map of QT2160.
Table 6-1.
Memory Map
Address
Use
Access
0
Chip ID
Read
1
Major/minor code version
Read
2
General Status
Read
3
Key Status 1
Read
4
Key Status 2
Read
5
Slider Touch Position
Read
6
GPIO Read
Read
7
Sub-revision
–
Reserved – 0x00
–
8–9
10
Calibrate
Read/Write
11
Reset
Read/Write
12
LP Mode
Read/Write
13
Burst Repetition
Read/Write
14
Reserved – 0x00
Read/Write
15
Neg Drift Compensation
Read/Write
16
Pos Drift Compensation
Read/Write
17
Normal DI Limit
Read/Write
18
Neg Recal Delay
Read/Write
19
Drift Hold Time/AWAKE
Read/Write
20
Slider Control
Read/Write
21
Slider Options
Read/Write
22 – 37
Key 0 – 15 Key Control
Read/Write
38 – 53
Key 0 – 15 Neg Threshold
Read/Write
54 – 69
Key 0 – 15 Burst Length
Read/Write
70
GPIO/GPO Drive 1
Read/Write
71
GPIO/GPO Drive 2
Read/Write
72
Reserved - 0x00
Read/Write
73
GPIO Direction 2
Read/Write
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Table 6-1.
Memory Map (Continued)
Address
Use
Access
74
GPIO/GPO PWM 1
Read/Write
75
GPIO/GPO PWM 2
Read/Write
76
PWM Level
Read/Write
77
GPIO Wake
Read/Write
78
Common change Keys 1
Read/Write
79
Common change Keys 2
Read/Write
80 – 99
Reserved – 0x00
–
100 – 131
Key 0 – 15 Signals
Read
132 – 163
Key 0 – 15 References
Read
Note: Reserved areas can be read or written to, to simplify communications. If written to, only write 0x00.
6.2
Address 0: Chip ID
Table 6-2.
Chip ID
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
0
b3
b2
b1
b0
b3
b2
b1
b0
Chip ID
There is an 8-bit chip ID, which is set at 0x11.
6.3
Address 1: Code Version
Table 6-3.
Code Version
Address
b7
b6
1
b5
b4
Major Version
Minor Version
There is an 8-bit major and minor version of firmware code revision. The top nibble of the firmware version register
contains the major version (4.0) and the bottom nibble contains the minor version (4.0).
6.4
Address 2: General Status
Table 6-4.
General Status
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
2
RESET
CYCLE
OVERRUN
0
0
0
0
CC
SDET
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These bits indicate the general status of the device. A change in this byte will cause the CHANGE line to trigger.
RESET: this bit is set after a reset. This bit is clear after this byte is read back by the host.
CYCLE OVERRUN: this bit is set if the cycle time is more than 16 ms. It will be cleared when the cycle time is less
than 16ms.
Note: holding any of the I2C lines, for clock stretching or other purposes, will increase the cycle time.
CC: this common change bit is set if all the selected keys (address 78 – 79) have a signal change of more than half
the detection threshold, NTHR. The CC bit is not debounced.
This bit can be used to indicate a common change in signals, for example, in a notebook application, where the
cover is closing, so that the host can suppress key detections.
Note: the CC bit will be set to 1 if no keys are selected to be in the Common Change group (see Section 6.27 on
page 34).
SDET: this bit is set if a touch is detected on the slider.
6.5
Address 3 – 4: Key Status
Table 6-5.
Key Status and Numbering
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
3
k7
k6
k5
k4
k3
k2
k1
k0
4
k15
k14
k13
k12
k11
k10
k9
k8
Address 3: detect status for keys 0 – 7
Address 4: detect status for keys 8 – 15
Each location indicates all keys in detection, if any, as a bit field; touched keys report as 1, untouched or disabled
keys report as 0. A change in this byte will cause the CHANGE line to trigger.
6.6
Address 5: Slider Touch Position
Table 6-6.
Address
Slider Touch Position
b7
b6
b5
b4
5
b3
b2
b1
b0
Position
Position: Last position of the touch on the slider
A change in this byte will cause the CHANGE line to trigger.
6.7
Address 6: GPIO Read
Table 6-7.
GPIO Read
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
6
0
0
0
GPIO3
GPIO2
GPIO1
0
0
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GPIO1 – 3: If GPIO1 – 3 are set as inputs, returns the logic level on the respective pin. If a GPIO is set as an output,
the respective bit in GPIO Read will always report 0.
GPIOs set as inputs are only read once every cycle, that is, every 16ms.
A change in this byte will cause the CHANGE line to trigger.
6.8
Address 7: Sub-revision
Table 6-8.
Sub-revision
Address
b7
b6
b5
7
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
b1
b0
Sub-revision
This is an 8-bit sub-revision number that follows the code version (for example, 4.0.0).
6.9
Address 10: Calibrate
Table 6-9.
Calibrate
Address
b7
b6
b5
10
b4
b3
b2
CALIBRATE
Writing any non-zero value into this address will trigger the QT2160 to start a recalibration on all enabled keys.
6.10
Address 11: Reset
Table 6-10. Reset
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
11
b3
b2
b1
b0
RESET
Any non-zero value will trigger the device to reset. After a reset, the device will revert to default settings.
After receiving a reset command the QT2160 will start not acknowledging I2C communications and make CHANGE
inactive within 16ms. The chip will reset after another ~16ms.
6.11
Address 12: LP Mode
Table 6-11. LP Mode
Address
12
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
LP_MODE
LP mode sets the sleep time between bursts. A higher value causes more sleep time between acquisitions resulting
in lower power consumption, but slower response time.
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The values are between 1 and 255, with each incrementing the sleep time by 16 ms steps. For example, 1 = 16 ms
LP, 2 = 32 ms LP, 3 = 48 ms LP, and so on.
A value of zero causes the device to enter an ultra-low power mode (SLEEP), where no measurements are carried
out (see Section 3.17 on page 17).
The QT2160 is designed to sleep as much as possible to conserve power.
Note: the longer the LP mode, the longer the response time at first touch. The response time for the first touch
includes the digital filter settling time (a few measurement cycles) and the DI process. Above 256 ms LP mode the
power consumption does not reduce as much, even with longer LP mode durations. Refer to Table 9-1 on page 45
for typical power consumptions.
Default value: 1 (6ms LP)
6.12
Address 13: Burst Repetition
Table 6-12. Burst Repetition
Address
b7
b6
13
0
0
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
BREP
Burst Repetition (BREP) is a feature that enables the QT2160 to make multiple measurements and take the average
result; this improves the device’s ability to operate in noisy environments.
The number of burst repetitions can be reduced in low noise environments for faster response time. The BREP value
can range between 1 and 63 repetitions. Do not set to 0 as it is not valid.
Default value:1 (one measurement burst)
6.13
Address 15...16: Neg/Pos Drift Compensation
Table 6-13. Neg/Pos Drift Compensation
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
15
0
NDRIFT
16
0
PDRIFT
b2
b1
b0
Signals can drift because of changes in Cx and Cs over time and temperature. It is crucial that such drift be
compensated, else false detections and sensitivity shifts can occur.
Drift compensation (see Figure 6-1) is performed by making the reference level track the raw signal at a slow rate,
but only while there is no detection in effect. The rate of adjustment must be performed slowly, otherwise legitimate
detections could be ignored. The parameters can be configured in increments of 0.16s.
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Figure 6-1. Thresholds and Drift Compensation
Reference
Hysteresis
Threshold
Signal
Output
The device drift compensates using a slew-rate limited change to the reference level; the threshold and hysteresis
values are slaved to this reference.
When a finger is sensed, the signal falls since the human body acts to absorb charge from the cross-coupling
between X and Y lines. An isolated, untouched foreign object (a coin, or a water film) will cause the signal to rise very
slightly due to an enhancement of coupling. This is contrary to the way most capacitive sensors operate.
Once a finger is sensed, the drift compensation mechanism ceases since the signal is legitimately detecting an
object. Drift compensation only works when the signal in question has not crossed the negative threshold level.
The drift compensation mechanism can be asymmetric; the drift-compensation can be made to occur in one direction
faster than it does in the other simply by changing the NDRIFT and PDRIFT Setup parameters. This is a global
configuration.
Specifically, drift compensation should be set to compensate faster for increasing signals than for decreasing
signals. Decreasing signals should not be compensated quickly, since an approaching finger could be compensated
for partially or entirely before even touching the touchpad (NDRIFT).
However, an obstruction over the sense pad, for which the sensor has already made full allowance, could suddenly
be removed leaving the sensor with an artificially suppressed reference level and thus become insensitive to touch.
In this latter case, the sensor should compensate for the object's removal by raising the reference level relatively
quickly (PDRIFT).
Drift compensation and the detection time-outs work together to provide for robust, adaptive sensing. The time-outs
provide abrupt changes in reference calibration depending on the duration of the signal event.
If PDRIFT or NDRIFT is set to 0 then the drift compensation in the respective direction is disabled.
Note: it is recommended that the drift compensation rate be more than four times the LP mode period. This is to
prevent undersampling, which decreases the algorithm's efficiency.
6.14
Default NDRIFT:
20 (3.2 s/reference level)
Default PDRIFT:
5 (0.8 s/reference level)
Address 17: Detect Integrator
Table 6-14. Detect Integrator
Address
b7
b6
b5
17
0
0
0
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
NDIL
NDIL is used to provide signal filtering.
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To suppress false detections caused by spurious events like electrical noise, the device incorporates a 'detection
integrator' or DI counter mechanism. A per-key counter is incremented each time the key has exceeded its threshold
and stayed there for a number of acquisitions in succession, without going below the threshold level. When this
counter reaches a preset limit the key is finally declared to be touched.
If on any acquisition the signal is not seen to exceed the threshold level, the counter is cleared and the process has
to start from the beginning.
The QT2160 has a built in minimum of 1 DI counts in addition to the NDIL value. Therefore, if setting a NDIL value of
3, the actual number of consecutive acquisitions is 4.
Available NDIL values are from 1 to 31.
Default: 3 (4 DI value)
6.15
Address 18: Negative Recal Delay
Table 6-15. Negative Recal Delay
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
18
b3
b2
b1
b0
NRD
If an object unintentionally contacts a key resulting in a detection for a prolonged interval it is usually desirable to
recalibrate the key in order to restore its function, perhaps after a time delay of some seconds.
The Negative Recal Delay timer monitors such detections; if a detection event exceeds the timer's setting, the key
will be automatically recalibrated. After a recalibration has taken place, the affected key will once again function
normally even if it is still being contacted by the foreign object. This feature is set globally.
NRD can be disabled by setting it to zero (infinite timeout) in which case the key will never auto-recalibrate during a
continuous detection (but the host could still command it).
NRD is set globally, which can range in value from 1 to 255. NRD above 0 is expressed in 0.16 s increments.
Default:
6.16
255 (40.8 s)
Address 19: Drift Hold Time/Awake Timeout
Table 6-16. Drift Hold Time/Awake Timeout
Address
19
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
DHT/AWAKE
The DHT/AWAKE value is used for Drift Hold Time and Awake Timeout parameters.
Drift Hold Time (DHT)
This is used to restrict drift on all keys while one or more keys are activated. DHT defines the length of time the drift
is halted after a key detection.
This feature is particularly useful in cases of high-density keypads where touching a key or hovering a finger over the
keypad would cause untouched keys to drift, and therefore create a sensitivity shift, and ultimately inhibit any touch
detection.
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Awake Timeout (AWAKE)
After each matrix scan, the part will automatically go to sleep whenever possible to conserve power, unless there
has been a key state change. The AWAKE timeout feature determines how long the device will remain in the
minimum LP mode from the last key state change.
Subsequent key state changes reinitialize the AWAKE interval. Once the part has been awakened by a change, the
key response time will be fast for as long as the keyboard remains in use. Once key activity lapses for a period
longer than the AWAKE timeout, the part will return to the assigned LP mode.
DHT/AWAKE can be configured to a value of between 0.32s and 40.8s, in increments of 0.16s. Values of 0 and 1 are
invalid and should not be used.
Note: It is recommended having a DHT/AWAKE of at least two seconds to prevent unintended key sensitivity drifts
and the slider being unresponsive in longer LP modes.
25 (4 s)
DHT/AWAKE Default:
6.17
Address 20: Slider Control
Table 6-17. Slider Control
Address
b7
20
b6
b5
HYST
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
NUM_KEYS
HSYT: Set the hysteresis value for the slider’s reported position. Hysteresis is the number of positions the user has
to move back, before the new touch position is reported when the direction of scrolling is changed and during first
scroll after touch down.
At lower resolutions, where skipping of reported positions will be noticed, hysteresis can be set to 0 (1 position). At
higher resolutions (6 – 8 bits), it would be recommended to have a hysteresis of at least 2 positions or more.
HYST can range from 0 (1 position) to 15 (16 positions). The hysteresis is carried out at 8 bits resolution internally
and scaled to the desired resolution; therefore at resolutions lower than 8 bits, there might be a difference of 1
reported position from the HYST setting, depending on where the touch down is.
Note: it is not valid to have a hysteresis value more than the available positions in a resolution. For example, do not
have a HYST of 5 positions with a resolution of 2 bits (4 positions).
NUM_KEYS: Set the number of keys to be used in the slider. For proper slider operation, valid values are between 2
and 8. Setting a value of 0, will disable the slider.
HYST Default:
0 (1 position),
NUM_KEYS Default: 5 (5 keys)
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6.18
Address 21: Slider Options
Table 6-18. Slider Options
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
21
0
0
0
0
0
b2
b1
b0
RESOLUTION
RESOLUTION: Resolution of reported position of touch on the slider. Valid values are between 0 (8 bits) to 6 (2 bits).
The keys used for the slider starts at X0 and is on the Y0 line.
Table 6-19. Resolution
Value
Resolution
Value
Resolution
0
8 bits (0-255)
4
4 bits (0 – 15)
1
7 bits (0-127)
5
3 bits (0 – 7)
2
6 bits (0-63)
6
2 bits (0 – 3)
3
5 bits (0-31)
Note: For better stability of the reported position at higher resolutions, increase the number of keys used to construct
the slider, reduce the front panel thickness, reduce the loading on the slider keys or increase the burst length to gain
more signal.
Default:
6.19
4 (4 bits)
Address 22 – 37: Key Control
Table 6-20. Key Control
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
22 – 37
0
0
0
0
0
0
b1
b0
AKS GROUP
AKS GROUP: these bits configure which AKS group a key is within (0 - AKS disabled, 1, 2 or 3). Keys in the same
group cannot both be in detect at the same time, unless they both form part of the slider (see Section 3.9.2 on page
14).
Default:
0 (AKS disabled)
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6.20
Address 38 – 53: Negative Threshold
Table 6-21. Negative Threshold
Address
b7
b6
b5
38 – 53
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
THRESHOLD
The negative threshold value is established relative to a key signal reference value. The threshold is used to
determine key touch when crossed by a negative-going signal swing after having been filtered by the detection
integrator. Larger absolute values of threshold desensitize keys since the signal must travel farther in order to cross
the threshold level.
Conversely, lower thresholds make keys more sensitive.
As Cx and Cs drift, the reference point drift-compensates for these changes at a user-settable rate; the threshold
level is recomputed whenever the reference point moves, and thus it also is drift compensated.
The amount of NTHR required depends on the amount of signal swing that occurs when a key is touched. Thicker
panels or smaller key geometries reduce key gain, that is, signal swing from touch, thus requiring smaller NTHR
values to detect touch.
Negative hysteresis: this is fixed at two less than the negative threshold value and cannot be altered. It is
implemented to stop keys from dithering in and out of detect.
6.21
NTHR Typical values:
7 to 12
NTHR Default value:
10 (10 counts of threshold)
Address 54 – 69: Burst Length
Table 6-22. Burst Length
Address
b7
b6
b5
54 – 69
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
BURST LENGTH
The QT2160 uses a fixed number of pulses which are executed in burst mode. This number is set in groups of four.
Therefore, the value send to the QT2160 is multiplied by four to get the actual number of burst pulses.
The burst length is the number of times the charge-transfer (QT) process is performed on a given key. Each QT
process is simply the pulsing of an X line once, with a corresponding Y line enabled to capture the resulting charge
passed through the key capacitance Cx.
Increasing burst length directly affects key sensitivity. This occurs because the accumulation of charge in the charge
integrator is directly linked to the burst length. The burst length of each key can be set individually, allowing for direct
digital control over the signal gains of each key individually.
Apparent touch sensitivity is also controlled by the Negative Threshold level (NTHR). Burst length and NTHR
interact; normally burst lengths should be kept as short as possible to reduce scan time and limit RF emissions, but
NTHR should be kept above 6 to reduce false detections due to external noise. The detection integrator mechanism
also helps to prevent false detections.
Note: setting a burst length of zero for a specific key, disables that key.
Typical values:
8 – 32 (32 – 128 burst pulses)
Default:
4 (16 burst pulses)
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6.22
Address 70 – 71: GPIO/GPO Drive
Table 6-23. GPIO/GPO Drive
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
70
X7
X6
X5
X4
X3
X2
X1
X0
71
0
0
0
GPIO3
GPIO2
GPIO1
0
0
If the GPIOs are set to outputs, the drive for the individual GPIO is set according to the corresponding bit in GPIO
Drive bytes. Setting the bit to 1 will drive the corresponding GPIO pin to Vdd, while setting it to 0, will drive the
corresponding GPIO pin to ground.
Enabling PWM on a GPIO pin will override the drive on the pin.
Shared X line GPOs will be only driven when not doing any measurements. During measurements, burst pulses will
be driven from the X lines, make sure that the driven device will not be affected.
Default:
6.23
0 (All driven low)
Address 73: GPIO Direction
Table 6-24. GPIO Direction
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
73
0
0
0
GPIO3
GPIO2
GPIO1
0
0
Sets the direction of the GPIOs: 1 = driven outputs, 0 = floating inputs.
If set as inputs, the GPIO will only be read every 16ms (fixed cycle time).
Shared X line GPOs are always outputs. By default, the dedicated GPIOs are set as inputs. Make sure to drive (set
to outputs) these GPIOs if not used, as floating pins may consume unnecessary current.
Default:
6.24
0 (All inputs)
Address 74 – 75: GPIO/GPO PWM
Table 6-25. GPIO/GPO PWM
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
74
X7
X6
X5
X4
X3
X2
X1
X0
75
0
0
0
GPIO3
GPIO2
GPIO1
0
0
Setting the corresponding GPIO PWM bit to 1 will enable PWM on the respective pin. The pin will be driven
according to the duty cycle specified in PWM Level (address 76).
PWM will only be enabled on GPIOs that have their GPIO direction set to 1 (output).
Shared X line GPOs will only be driven when not doing any measurements. During measurements, burst pulses will
be driven from the X lines, making sure that the driven device will not be affected.
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All PWM enabled GPIOs/GPOs will only be switched when not doing any measurements. Therefore, the PWM duty
cycle’s accuracy will depend on the burst lengths of keys, as the longer the burst length, the longer the periods of no
PWM switching.
Default:
6.25
0 (PWM disabled)
Address 76: PWM Level
Table 6-26. PWM Level
Address
b7
b6
b5
76
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
DUTY_CYC
This sets the Duty Cycle of the PWM enabled pins. Valid values are between 0 to 255. A value of 0 – 10 will be 100%
duty cycle (always on), and a value of 250 – 255 will be 0 percent duty cycle (always off).
Default:
6.26
0 (100% duty cycle)
Address 77: GPIO Wake
Table 6-27. GPIO Wake
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
77
0
0
0
GPIO3
GPIO2
GPIO1
0
0
If the corresponding bit is set to 1, dedicated GPIO pins set to inputs will still be read during SLEEP mode (no
capacitive sensing carried out). When a change in the state of the inputs is detected, the CHANGE line will be
triggered and the QT2160 will go back to SLEEP.
Default: 0 (Wake disabled)
6.27
Address 78 – 79: Common Change Keys
Table 6-28. Common Change Keys
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
78
k7
k6
k5
k4
k3
k2
k1
k0
79
k15
k14
k13
k12
k11
k10
k9
k8
k0 – k15: represents the respective keys. If set to 1, the respective key is included in the common change
comparisons.
Note: if no keys are included in the Common Change group, the CC bit is set to 1.
Default:
0 (not included)
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6.28
Address 100 – 163: Signals and References
Addresses 100 – 131 allow signal data to be read for each key. There are two bytes of data for each key. These are
the key 16-bit signal which is accessed as two 8-bit bytes, stored LSB first.
Addresses 132 – 163 allow reference data to be read for each key. There are two bytes of data for each key. These
are the key 16-bit reference which is accessed as two 8-bit bytes, stored LSB first.
There are a total of 16 keys and 4 bytes of data per key, yielding a total of 64 addresses. These addresses are readonly.
Table 6-29. Signal and References
Address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
100
0
Signal LSB
132
0
Reference LSB
101
0
Signal MSB
133
0
Reference MSB
102
1
Signal LSB
134
1
Reference LSB
103
1
Signal MSB
135
1
Reference MSB
104 – 131
2...15
136 – 163
2 – 15
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7.
Setups Block
Setups data is sent from the host to the Q160 using the I2C interface. The setups block is memory mapped onto this interface.
Thus each setup can be accessed by reading/writing the appropriate address. Setups can be accessed individually or as a
block.
Table 7-1.
Address
Setups Table
Bytes
Parameter
Symbol
Valid
Range
Bits
Key
Scope
Default
Value
Description
Page
0: SLEEP mode (no capacitive
sensing)
12
1
LP Mode
LP_MODE
0 – 255
8
16
1
13
1
Burst
Repetition
BREP
1 – 63
6
16
1
Range is 1 – 63 burst repetitions
27
15
1
Neg Drift
Comp
NDRIFT
0 – 127
7
16
20
Range is in 0.16 s increments,
1 = 0.16 s/reference level
27
16
1
Pos Drift Comp
PDRIFT
0 – 127
7
16
5
Range is in 0.16 s increments,
1 = 0.16 s/reference level
27
17
1
Normal DI
Limit
NDIL
1 – 31
5
16
3
Normal DI limit: take the operand and
add 2 to get the value
28
18
1
Neg recal
delay
NRD
0 – 255
8
16
19
1
Drift Hold
Time/Awake
Timeout
DHT/AWAKE
2 – 255
8
16
25 (4s)
HYST
0 – 15
4
Slider
0
(1 position)
NUM_KEYS
0, 2 – 8
4
Slider
5 (5 keys)
20
1
1 – 255: Low Power mode,
increments in steps of 16 ms
Range is in 0.16 s increments;
255 (40.8 s) 0 = infinite; default = 40.8 s
Range is {infinite, 0.16 – 40.8 s}
Slider Control
Range in 0.2 s increments;
default = 4 s
26
29
29
0 – 8: hysteresis for slider reported
position
0: disables slider mode
30
2 – 8: number of keys in slider
Slider Keys start at X0 and are on Y0
21
1
Slider Options
RESOLUTION
0–6
3
Slider
25 (4 s)
Resolution of reported slider touch
position
31
8 bits (0) to 2 bits (6)
22 – 37
16
Key Control
KEY_CONT
0–3
3
1
0 (AKS off)
38 – 53
16
Neg threshold
NTHR
1 – 255
8
1
10
54 – 69
16
Burst Length
BL
0 – 255
8
1
4
(16 pulses)
0: AKS disabled
31
1 – 3: AKS groups
32
0: Key disabled
1 – 255: Burst length = BL × 4
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36
Table 7-1.
Address
70
71
73
74
Setups Table (Continued)
Bytes
1
1
1
1
Parameter
Symbol
Valid
Range
Bits
Key
Scope
Default
Value
X7
0–1
1
X6
0–1
1
–
0
X5
0–1
1
–
0
X4
0–1
1
–
0
0: GPO driven low
X3
0–1
1
–
0
1: GPO driven high
X2
0–1
1
–
0
X1
0–1
1
–
0
X0
0–1
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
GPIO3
0–1
1
–
0
GPIO2
0–1
1
–
0
GPIO1
0–1
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
GPIO3
0–1
1
–
0
0: GPIO is floating input
GPIO2
0–1
1
–
0
1: GPIO is push-pull output
GPIO1
0–1
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
X7
0–1
1
–
0
X6
0–1
1
–
0
X5
0–1
1
–
0
X4
0–1
1
–
0
0: PWM disabled
X3
0–1
1
–
0
1: PWM enabled
X2
0–1
1
–
0
X1
0–1
1
–
0
X0
0–1
1
–
0
Description
Page
0
GPO Drive 1
GPIO Drive 2
33
If GPIO set to output,
33
0: GPIO driven low
GPIO Direction
GPO PWM 1
1: GPIO driven high
33
33
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Table 7-1.
Address
75
Setups Table (Continued)
Bytes
1
Parameter
Symbol
Valid
Range
Bits
Key
Scope
Default
Value
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
GPIO3
0–1
1
–
0
GPIO2
0–1
1
–
0
GPIO1
0–1
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
GPIO PWM 2
Description
Page
If GPIO set to output,
33
0: PWM disabled
1: PWM enabled
If PWM enabled,
0 – 10: 100% duty cycle (always ON)
76
1
PWM Level
DUTY_CYC
0 – 255
8
GPIOs
0
11 – 249: varying duty cycles
34
250 – 255: 0% duty cycle (always
OFF)
77
78 – 79
1
2
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
GPIO3
0–1
1
–
0
GPIO2
0–1
1
–
0
GPIO1
0–1
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
–
–
1
–
0
k0 – k15
0–1
16
16
0
GPIO Wake
Common
Change Keys
If GPIO set to output,
0: GPIO not read in SLEEP
34
1: GPIO read in SLEEP
34
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8.
Getting Started With the QT2160
8.1
Using the I2C Bus
The QT2160 is an address-mapped part. All commands and data transfers consist of reads from, and writes to,
memory locations.
8.2
Establishing Contact
To establish that the device is present and running, write a zero to it (see Section 8.3). Now read a single byte (see
Section 8.4). This byte should be the ID of the device (0x11). If this is the case the device is present and running.
8.3
Writing to the Device
A write cycle to the device consists of a start condition followed by the I2C address of the device (see Section 5.1).
The next byte is the address of the location into which the writing will start. This address is then stored as the
address pointer.
Subsequent bytes in a multi-byte transfer will be written to the location of the address pointer, location of the address
pointer + 1, location of the address pointer + 2, and so on. This ends with the stop condition on the I2C bus. A new
write cycle will involve sending another address pointer.
It is possible to stop the write after the address pointer is sent if no data is required to be written to the device. This is
done when setting the address pointer for reading data.
8.4
Reading From the Device
A read cycle consists of a start condition followed by the I2C address of the device (see Section 5.1). Bytes can then
be read starting at the location pointed to by the address pointer set by the last write operation. The address is
internally incremented for each byte read during a multi-byte read.
The stop condition at the end of the transfer causes the internal address pointer to revert to the value written during
the last write operation. This means that if a set of data bytes needs to be read many times (such as the status bytes)
then it is not necessary to keep sending an address pointer. It can be set to the first location and multi-byte reads will
always then start there.
8.5
Keys
The default setting of the QT2160 is for 16 keys with AKS disabled. This will be the default setting when the device
first powers up. A coin placed over any key can be used to pick up the burst signal to see the activity on the keys as
explained in Section 3 of the application note Secrets of a Successful Touch Sensor Design which can be
downloaded from the Atmel website.
The CHANGE line will go low indicating there is new data to be read. Reading the status bytes (address 2 – 6) will
cause the CHANGE line to go inactive, as the data has been read.
If a key is now touched, the CHANGE line will go active again, indicating that there is new data again. The CHANGE
line will remain active until the status location containing the status for that key is read. If the CHANGE line does not
go low then it is likely the sensitivity of the key is not high enough. The burst length should be increased to increase
the sensitivity.
A change in burst length should be followed by a calibration command (set the calibration byte to a non-zero value)
to ensure reliable operation. It is also possible to adjust the sensitivity using the negative threshold for that key. Note
that thresholds below 6 counts may cause sensitivity to noise and thresholds above 12 counts will require longer
burst lengths than strictly necessary.
All unused keys should be switched off by setting their burst lengths to zero. This will reduce the power requirements
of the device.
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8.6
Slider
A group of keys on the Y0 line can be configured as a slider. These have to be placed in numerical order starting with
X0 and with no missing keys in the sequence. The keys should be 5 – 7 mm wide along the length of the slider for
good linearity. The number of keys needed in a slider will simply be the number of the size required to form the
desired slider length.
The slider can now be enabled by setting the NUM_KEYS bits in Slider Control byte to the number of keys which are
used in the slider. This can be from 2 to 8 keys. For example, to enable a slider of five keys, set NUM_KEYS to five.
Note that the higher the resolution, the more keys will be required to get a stable response out of the slider. As a
general rule, the number of keys must be at least the number of bits, for example, at least 4 keys for a 4 bit slider.
Now the slider is enabled, touching it will result in a slider position being reported in the Slider Touch Position byte.
Note that the keys forming the slider will still cause key detections and will still report their status in the key status
registers.
If the slider position is noisy, try reducing the panel thickness or increasing the sensitivities of the keys forming the
slider, to get more signal for positional calculations. Increasing the hysteresis (Section 3.2 on page 8) will also help.
Keys within the same slider are normally in the same AKS group and have the same burst length and threshold.
8.7
Adjacent Key Suppression (AKS) Technology
Adjacent Key Suppression (AKS) technology is a patented method to detect which key is pressed, when keys are
located close together. A touch in a group of AKS keys will only be indicated on the key with the largest signal. This
is assumed to be the intended key.
Once a key in an AKS group is in detect, there can be no further detections on keys in that group until the key is
released. By default, the AKS technique is disabled on all keys; therefore, the keys can detect, regardless of the
state of any other keys.
The AKS technology works slightly differently when keys are in a slider which act like a single AKS object. Any
number of keys can go into detect with a slider but if any keys within one of these objects are in detect then the AKS
technology will lock out anything else in the same AKS group. Similarly, a key in the same AKS group as the slider
can lock out the slider as a whole object.
Note: for normal operation all keys in the slider should be placed in the same AKS group.
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8.8
GPIOs
By default, the dedicated GPIOs (GPIO1 – GPIO3) are set as inputs. Make sure to drive (set to outputs) these
GPIOs if not used, as floating pins may consume unnecessary current.
By default, shared GPOs are push-pull outputs driven low when not measuring.
Table 8-1 shows a summary of the GPIO options, and the precedence of each setting.
Table 8-1.
8.9
GPIO options
GPIO
Direction
GPIO
PWM
GPIO
Drive
Wake
Dedicated GPIO Function
Shared GPO
Function
0
X
X
X
Input - read only in LP mode so CHANGE
event possible only in LP mode
Always output
0
X
X
1
Input - read in LP and Sleep modes so
CHANGE event possible in both modes
Always output
1
0
0
X
Output - Gnd
Output – Gnd
1
0
1
X
Output - Vdd
Output – Vdd
1
1
X
X
Output - PWM
Output - PWM
Typical Initialization and Usage
Figure 8-1 on page 42 shows a typical example of communicating with the QT2160.
1.
After a reset/power-up, wait for CHANGE to go low, indicating the QT2160 has initialized and is ready to
communicate.
2.
Send all the setup parameters that need to be changed from the startup default values. Drive all unused
GPIOs to outputs, to prevent unnecessary increase in current consumption.
3.
After setting up the QT2160, send a Calibrate command.
4.
Read all status bytes once (address 2 to 6), to return the CHANGE line to an inactive state.
5.
If CHANGE line goes low, perform a read of the required status byte. All the status bytes that have changed
need to be read, to ensure that the CHANGE line goes inactive again.
6.
Process the received byte accordingly.
7.
Check the reset bit in the general status byte (address 2). If it is a 1, go to step 2 to resend all the setup parameters, as a reset has occurred. If it is a 0, proceed to the next step.
8.
Repeat steps 5, 6 and 7. Steps 5 and 6 are the continuous normal operating loop sequence after initialization.
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Figure 8-1. Typical Initialization and Usage
Reset/Power Up
/CHANGE pin
active (low)?
No
Yes
Send setup parameters to set up
QT2160
Send Calibrate command
Read all status bytes (Address 2...6)
to restore /CHANGE pin to inactive
(high)
/CHANGE pin
active (low)?
No
Yes
Read required Status bytes and other
status bytes that changed, to restore
/CHANGE pin to inactive (high).
Host processes received status bytes
Yes
‘Reset occurred’
bit = 1?
No
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9.
Specifications
9.1
Absolute Maximum Specifications
Vdd
–0.5 to +6 V
Max continuous pin current, any control or drive pin
±10 mA
Short circuit duration to ground, any pin
infinite
Short circuit duration to Vdd, any pin
infinite
Voltage forced onto any pin
–0.6 V to (Vdd + 0.6) V
CAUTION: Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Specifications" may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or other conditions beyond those
indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum specification
conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
9.2
Recommended Operating Conditions
Operating temp
–40oC to +85oC
Storage temp
–55oC to +125oC
Vdd
+1.8 V to 5.5 V
Supply ripple+noise
(1)
(<1MHz)
±25 mV
Supply ripple+noise(1) (>1MHz)
±50 mV
Cx transverse load capacitance per key
2 to 20 pF
1.
Applicable to QT2160 on a typical setup, with Burst Repetition (BREP) = 2.
The effects of supply ripple and noise on performance is more prominent the nearer it is to the burst center
frequency.
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9.3
DC Specifications
Vdd = 5.0 V, Cs = 4.7 nF, Rs = 1 M, Ta = recommended range, unless otherwise noted
Parameter
Description
Average supply current,
running (LP16ms)
Iddr
Min
Typ
Max
Units
476
–
955
Notes
Vdd = 1.8 V
–
µA
Vdd = 3.3 V
1127
Vdd = 5.0 V
<1.5
Vdd = 1.8 V
Average supply current,
sleeping (SLEEP)
–
Vil
Low input logic level
–
–
0.2 × Vdd
V
1.8 V < Vdd < 5 V
Vhl
High input logic level
0.6 × Vdd
–
–
V
1.8 V < Vdd < 5 V
Vol
Low output voltage
–
–
0.2
V
Voh
High output voltage
4.2
–
–
V
Idds
<2
–
µA
Vdd = 3.3 V
<3
Vdd = 5.0 V
Iil
Input leakage current
–
–
1
µA
Ar
Acquisition resolution
–
10
–
bits
Internal RST
pull-up resistor
–
–
60
k
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Rrst
9.4
Timing Specifications
Parameter
Description
40
TBS
Burst duration
–
80
120
Notes
BL = 4 (4 × 4 = 16 actual pulses)
–
µs
160
BL = 8 (8 × 4 = 32 actual pulses)
BL = 12 (12 × 4 = 48 actual pulses)
BL = 16 (16 × 4 = 64 actual pulses)
Fc
Burst center frequency
–
400
–
kHz
Fm
Burst modulation,
percentage
–
±8
–
%
TDW
Dwell time
250
–
500
ns
TPW
Pulse width
–
1000
–
ns
AT42QT2160 [DATASHEET]
9502C–AT42–09/2014
44
9.5
I2C Bus Specifications
Parameter
Unit
Address space
7-bit
Maximum bus speed (SCL)
100 kHz
Hold time START condition
4 µs minimum
Setup time for STOP condition
4 µs minimum
Bus free time between a STOP and START condition
4.7 µs minimum
Rise times on SDA and SCL
1 µs maximum
9.6
Power Consumption
Table 9-1.
Average Current Consumption
Test condition: 16 keys enabled, BL = 16 (4 × 16 = 64 actual pulses), BREP = 1
Idd (µA) at Vdd =
LP Mode
1.8 V
3.3 V
5V
SLEEP
<1.5
<2
<3
LP 16 ms
476
955
1,127
LP 32 ms
311
609
770
LP 64 ms
229
436
592
LP 128 ms
188
350
502
LP 256 ms
167
306
458
LP 512 ms
157
285
435
LP 1024 ms
152
274
424
AT42QT2160 [DATASHEET]
9502C–AT42–09/2014
45
9.7
Mechanical Dimensions
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F
#
$'#'#M
:
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:
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L
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@
*
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457389
:
;;
;<;
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:
;;;
;;
;;>
@
;B
;
;B
;;D#-
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F>
I;
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#
F<>
I;;
I;>
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F>
I;
I>
;I>
*
;F>
;I;
;I>
J
;;;
K
;;
L
;;
K
K
V+VIOIO;JV*
%;I>V
IOI#O
V"%J#%
J"%W3- *
4W- 9
AT42QT2160 [DATASHEET]
9502C–AT42–09/2014
46
9.8
Marking
Either part marking can be supplied:
28
Pin 1 ID
1
Chip Assembly
Lotcode (for
traceability)
AT42
QT2160
-MMU
LTCODE
Part number;
AT42QT2160-MMU
28
Pin 1 ID
1
Abbreviation of
Part number;
AT42QT2160
LTCODE
Chip Assembly
Lotcode
(for traceability)
2160
AT
Program week code number 1-52 where:
A = 1, B = 2...Z = 26
then using the underscore
A = 27...Z = 52
AT42QT2160 [DATASHEET]
9502C–AT42–09/2014
47
9.9
9.10
Part Numbers
Part Number
Description
AT42QT2160-MMU
28-pin 4 x 4mm MLF RoHS compliant IC
Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL)
MSL Rating
MSL3
Peak Body Temperature
o
260 C
Specifications
IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020
AT42QT2160 [DATASHEET]
9502C–AT42–09/2014
48
10.
Known Issues
The following errata are applicable for QT2160:
1. I2C interface malfunction in multi-slave designs
Description:
If the device wakes up from Low Power mode during an I2C transfer on the bus, the device may start to clock in data,
depending on the level on SDA and SCL. If this state occurs while transferring the last byte in the data, the device
detects the STOP condition as illegal and triggers an interrupt with bus error. This may cause the SDA line to be
pulled low for a short duration.
If the device wakes up during a byte transfer that is not the last, and the I2C address is clocked on the data line by
accident, this triggers an interrupt with a legal value. The chip may start communicating and corrupts the ongoing
communication. Worst case, this may corrupt the setup parameters stored in AT42QT2160.
Problem fix / workaround:
Use a dedicated I2C bus for each AT42QT2160. Do not share the bus with any other slave devices.
2. Bus free time between a STOP and START condition
Description:
The bus free time between a STOP and START condition is specified as 4.7 µs as per I2C bus specification. This
free time is insufficient for the AT42QT2160 device and may cause random communication failure, especially during
Read operation.
Problem fix / workaround:
Provide a minimum 50 µs bus free time between a STOP and START condition to ensure reliable communication.
AT42QT2160 [DATASHEET]
9502C–AT42–09/2014
49
Revision History
Revision No.
History
Revision AX – July 2008

Initial release

General updates

Applied new template

Added Section “Known Issues” on page 49
Revision B – March 2013
Revision C – September 2014
AT42QT2160 [DATASHEET]
9502C–AT42–09/2014
50
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