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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
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UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
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PLUMBING SYSTEMS
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED
UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
PLUMBING SYSTEMS
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Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is identified at its point of use.
Use of the copyrighted material apart from this UFC must have the permission of the copyright
holder.
U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND (Preparing Activity)
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AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY
Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \1\ ... /1/)
Location
Para 1-6; Appendix A, IPC CH5 H.
Eq 1, Sample Computation, et al; Appendix E
Appendix D; updated reference.
Appendix A, paragraph D, page A-4
Para 1-9.1, Appendix A IPC Chapter 5 Para H
506.2, Appendix C Government Publications Par 10
Appendix A, IPC Chapter 10, Delete: [For Navy
projects only], page A-25
Miscellaneous changes throughout document.
Appendix A, IPC Chapter 4, paragraph D: added Air
Force; paragraph E: removed Air force
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Change 4
Change 5
Date
June 7, 2006
August 18, 2006
September 20,
2007
October 1, 2007
March 24, 2008
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Change No.
Change 1
Change 2
Change 3
July 1, 2008
Change 7
Change 8
April 30, 2009
October 27,
2009
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Change 6
_____________
This UFC supersedes UFC 3-420-01FA dated 15 May 2003 and Military Handbook
1003/1, dated 15 Feb 2000.
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FOREWORD
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The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system is prescribed by MIL-STD 3007 and provides
planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and applies
to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities in accordance
with USD(AT&L) Memorandum dated 29 May 2002. UFC will be used for all DoD projects and
work for other customers where appropriate. All construction outside of the United States is also
governed by Status of forces Agreements (SOFA), Host Nation Funded Construction
Agreements (HNFA), and in some instances, Bilateral Infrastructure Agreements (BIA.)
Therefore, the acquisition team must ensure compliance with the more stringent of the UFC, the
SOFA, the HNFA, and the BIA, as applicable.
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UFC are living documents and will be periodically reviewed, updated, and made available to
users as part of the Services’ responsibility for providing technical criteria for military
construction. Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities
Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) are
responsible for administration of the UFC system. Defense agencies should contact the
preparing service for document interpretation and improvements. Technical content of UFC is
the responsibility of the cognizant DoD working group. Recommended changes with supporting
rationale should be sent to the respective service proponent office by the following electronic
form: Criteria Change Request (CCR). The form is also accessible from the Internet sites listed
below.
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UFC are effective upon issuance and are distributed only in electronic media from the following
source:
Whole Building Design Guide web site http://dod.wbdg.org/.
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Hard copies of UFC printed from electronic media should be checked against the current electronic
version prior to use to ensure that they are current.
AUTHORIZED BY:
______________________________________
DR. JAMES W WRIGHT, P.E.
Chief Engineer
Naval Facilities Engineering Command
______________________________________
KATHLEEN I. FERGUSON, P.E.
The Deputy Civil Engineer
DCS/Installations & Logistics
Department of the Air Force
______________________________________
Dr. GET W. MOY, P.E.
Director, Installations Requirements and
Management
Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense
(Installations and Environment)
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______________________________________
DONALD L. BASHAM, P.E.
Chief, Engineering and Construction
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
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CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
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1-8
1-8.1
1-8.2
1-9
1-9.1
1-9.2
1-9.3
1-9.4
1-10
1-10.1
1-10.2
1-11
1-11.1
1-11.2
1-12
PURPOSE AND SCOPE ....................................................................
APPLICABILITY ..................................................................................
GLOSSARY ........................................................................................
REFERENCES....................................................................................
BACKGROUND ..................................................................................
Model Code Organizations .................................................................
Public Law 104-113 ............................................................................
International Plumbing Code ® ...........................................................
PRIMARY VOLUNTARY CONSENSUS STANDARD REFERENCE
International Plumbing Code ® Copyright ..........................................
IPC Additions, Deletions, and Revisions ............................................
SECONDARY VOLUNTARY CONSENSUS STANDARD
REFERENCES....................................................................................
CONFLICTS IN CRITERIA .................................................................
Fire Protection .....................................................................................
Petroleum Fuel Facilities.....................................................................
GENERAL POLICY .............................................................................
Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation ........................................
Reliability .............................................................................................
Piping Arrangement ............................................................................
Siting ...................................................................................................
DESIGN ANALYSIS ............................................................................
Design Basis .......................................................................................
Calculations .........................................................................................
DRAWINGS ........................................................................................
Water Service .....................................................................................
Equipment Notes ................................................................................
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS ......................................................
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1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-5.1
1-5.2
1-5.3
1-6
1-6.1
1-6.2
1-7
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Paragraph
1-1
1-1
1-1
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1-1
1-1
1-1
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1-2
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1-3
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1-3
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1-4
1-4
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1-4
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APPENDIX
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APPENDIX A SUPPLEMENTAL TECHNICAL CRITERIA
IPC CHAPTER 1 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................... A-1
IPC CHAPTER 2 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................... A-1
IPC CHAPTER 3 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................... A-1
IPC CHAPTER 4 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................... A-3
IPC CHAPTER 5 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................. A-10
IPC CHAPTER 6 SUPPLEMENTS ...................................................................A-14
IPC CHAPTER 7 SUPPLEMENTS ...................................................................A-21
IPC CHAPTER 8 SUPPLEMENTS ...................................................................A-23
IPC CHAPTER 9 SUPPLEMENTS ...................................................................A-23
IPC CHAPTER 10 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................A-25
IPC CHAPTER 11 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................A-26
IPC CHAPTER 12 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................A-26
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IPC CHAPTER 13 SUPPLEMENTS .................................................................A-26
IPC APPENDIX SUPPLEMENTS .....................................................................A-27
GLOSSARY..............................................................................B-1
APPENDIX C
REFERENCES .........................................................................C-1
APPENDIX D
DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR EMERGENCY SHOWER AND
EYEWASH STATIONS ............................................................D-1
APPENDIX E
DOMESTIC WATER HEATERS FOR ARMY BARRACKS ......E-1
FIGURES
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APPENDIX B
Title
901-1
D-1
Soil, Waste, and Vent Diagrams ............................................................... A-24
Emergency Shower and Eyewash Details ................................................ D-7
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Figure
TABLES
Title
403-1
403-2
403-3
403-4
403-5
Water Closet Allowances .......................................................................A-5
Lavatory Allowances ..............................................................................A-5
Fixture Allowances For UOPH ...............................................................A-6
Fixture Allowances For UEPH ..............................................................A-6
Plumbing Allowances For Facilities Where Separate Toilet
Facilities Are Provided For Persons Other Than Employees .................A-7
Size of Food Waste Grinders ................................................................A-9
Water Service Temperatures ............................................................... A-11
Tank Fill Pump ..................................................................................... A-19
Hydro-Pneumatic Tank High Water Levels and Withdrawals .............. A-20
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Table
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413.5-1
506
606.5.11-1
606.5.11-2
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
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PURPOSE AND SCOPE. This UFC provides guidance in the design of
plumbing systems, together with the criteria for selecting plumbing materials, fixtures,
and equipment and is applicable to all elements of the Department of Defense (DoD)
charged with planning military construction. This UFC provides minimum standards to
safeguard life or limb, health, property and public welfare by regulating and controlling
the design, construction, installation, quality of materials, location, operation, and use of
plumbing systems. It is not the intent of this manual to duplicate information contained
in the standards cited herein, but to reference them as appropriate (see Appendix A.)
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APPLICABILITY. This UFC applies to all service elements and contractors
involved in the design and construction of plumbing systems for use in facilities of all
branches of service. A plumbing system consists of the water supply distribution
system; fixtures, and fixture traps; soil, waste, and vent piping; storm water drainage;
acid and industrial waste disposal systems; and special gases (medical and oxygen)
systems. The plumbing system extends from connections within a structure to a point
1.5 m (5.0 ft) outside the structure. Additions, alterations, renovations, or repairs to a
plumbing system must conform to that required for a new plumbing system without
requiring the existing plumbing system to comply with all the requirements of this
manual. Do not execute additions, alterations, or repairs that cause an existing
plumbing system to become unsafe, hazardous, or overloaded.
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GLOSSARY. Appendix B contains a glossary of acronyms used in this
document.
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REFERENCES. Appendix C contains a list of references used in this
document.
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Background.
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1-5.1
Model Code Organizations. Three major voluntary consensus building code
organizations jointly organized the International Code Council™ (ICC), which issued the
International Plumbing Code (IPC). They are the Building Officials and Code
Administrators International (BOCA)®; International Conference of Building Officials
(ICBO)®; and the Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI)®.
1-5.2
Public Law 104-113. Public Law 104-113, The National Technology
Transfer Act of 1995, requires the Federal agencies and departments to adopt voluntary
consensus standards whenever possible.
1-5.3
International Plumbing Code®. The availability of the IPC allows the DoD
to comply with Public Law 104-113 by adopting the IPC. Sufficient familiarity to the
Architects and Engineers, and the Construction Contractor is assured by the broad
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usage of the IPC and the prior plumbing codes of the three code organizations of the
ICC.
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PRIMARY VOLUNTARY CONSENSUS STANDARD REFERENCE. The
DoD adopts the \1\ latest /1/ edition of the International Code Council™ International
Plumbing Code® as the primary voluntary consensus standard for DoD facility plumbing
systems.
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1-6.1
International Plumbing Code® Copyright. “The International Plumbing
Code”® is copyrighted by International Code Council, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia,
U.S.A. All rights reserved. Without advance written permission from ICC or its duly
authorized agent, no portion of the IPC may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical, or
mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by
or in an information storage and retrieval system). For information on permission to
copy IPC material exceeding fair use, please contact:
Executive Vice President, International Code Council
\7\500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor
Washington, DC 20001-2070
1-888-ICC-SAFE
http://www.iccsafe.org//7/
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1-6.2
IPC Additions, Deletions, and Revisions. The additions, deletions, and
revisions to the IPC sections listed in Appendix A “Supplemental Technical Criteria” of
this document preserve the appropriate supplemental technical criteria for use in
current and future designs of DoD facilities. When and if these supplemental technical
criteria are adopted into the IPC, they will be removed from this document. When
interpreting the International Plumbing Code®, the advisory provisions must be
considered mandatory; interpret the word “should” as “shall”.
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The format of Appendix A, including English and metric unit references, does
not follow the UFC format, but instead follows the format established in the IPC, to the
extent possible.
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SECONDARY VOLUNTARY CONSENSUS STANDARD REFERENCES.
The DoD adopts the current issue of the following voluntary consensus standards, fully
referenced in a later paragraph:
(1) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning
Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Handbook Series, including the latest editions of
the following:
(a) Fundamentals
(b) HVAC Applications
(c) HVAC Systems and Equipment
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(d) Refrigeration
(2) ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except
Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
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CONFLICTS IN CRITERIA. Where, in any specific case, different sections of
this guidance or referenced standards specify different materials, methods of
construction or other requirements, the most restrictive requirement will govern. In
leased facilities where the local jurisdiction controlling the lessor has adopted a different
plumbing code, the more restrictive requirement will govern.
1-8.1
Fire Protection. If a conflict exists between this UFC and UFC 3-600-01,
Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities, including its referenced standards (National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL), Factory
Mutual Corporation (FM), etc.), UFC 3-600-01 and its referenced standards take
precedence.
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1-8.2
Petroleum Fuel Facilities. If a conflict exists between this UFC and the
current issue of UFC 3-460-01, Design: Petroleum Fuel Facilities, including its
referenced standards (American Petroleum Institute (API), American National
Standards Institute (ANSI), NFPA, UL, FM, etc.), the current issue of UFC 3-460-01 and
its referenced standards take precedence.
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GENERAL POLICY. Design plumbing systems to provide economy and
reliability. Provide simple, functional designs.
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\5\ \7\Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation. Plumbing system
energy usage and equipment efficiencies shall comply with UFC 3-400-01, Energy
Conservation, requirements. Per Executive Order 13423, employ strategies that in
aggregate use a minimum of 20% less potable water than the indoor water use
baseline calculated for the building after meeting the Energy Policy Act of 1992,
Uniform Plumbing Code 2006, and the International Plumbing Code 2006 fixture
performance requirements. /7/ /5/
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1-9.2
Reliability. Where interruption of a service cannot be tolerated or where
failure of a system would drastically reduce the efficiency of a facility, provide dual-fuel
capability and/or redundant system components.
1-9.3
Piping Arrangement. Conceal piping in permanent-type structures. In
limited life structures, piping may be installed exposed, except when specific project
criteria justify concealment or where concealment does not increase the cost of the
project. Exposed piping attached to or near fixtures or equipment, or subject to high
heat or frequent washing, must be copper, brass, or chromium plate. Prime other
exposed piping with paint suitable for metal surfaces and finish-paint with color to
match background. Arrange piping runs to minimize interference with personnel and
equipment. For critical piping services such as medical gas systems, route piping so
that it is not on exterior walls or walls shared with mailrooms in accordance with UFC 41-3
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010-01 DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings.
1-9.4
Siting. Whenever possible, site and design buildings, sewers, and water
mains to avoid the need for sewage lifts or water booster pumps.
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DESIGN ANALYSIS. Unless directed otherwise, the design analysis will
include the following:
Design Basis. Basis for design will consist of:
(1) Building population (number of males and number of females).
(2) Plumbing fixture determination, listing quantity and types of fixtures
(3) Fixture units for drainage, venting, cold and hot water piping.
(4) Roof areas used in determining storm drainage pipe sizes.
(5) Capacities of all equipment and tanks.
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1-10.1
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Calculations. Show calculations clearly so that any changes that become
necessary during construction or re-siting are made efficiently. When tables used in the
design are taken from publications, indicate the title, source, and date of the
publication. Provide the model number and manufacturer of each major piece of
equipment for which space was allocated.
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DRAWINGS. The drawings will be accurate, to scale and follow the TriService A/E/C CADD Standard. Provide large-scale details of congested area on the
drawings, with dimensions locating all work relative to structural features of the building.
Show fixtures, equipment, and piping in their proper locations. Show riser diagrams of
soil, waste, drain, and vent stacks and water risers for all buildings in excess of one
story. Calculate the grade of drain lines and establish invert elevations. Provide each
set of drawings with a legend covering symbols and abbreviations as indicated in
ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals. Where practical, group all notes, legends, and
schedules at the right of the drawings above the title block. Unless directed otherwise,
graphic symbols must be in accordance with \7\ASME/7/ Standard Y32.4, Graphic
Symbols for Plumbing Fixtures for Diagrams Used in Architecture and Building
Construction.
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1-11.1
Water Service. Unless directed otherwise, place the following note on the
applicable drawing: "Water pipe sizes are based on a minimum working pressure of ___
[kPa (psig)] at a flow rate of___ [L/s (gpm)] at the location where the main service
enters the building." When water pressure is not known, assume pressure to be the
pressure that will not exceed the required minimum residual pressure, plus allowances
for pressure due to friction and pressure required for elevation of the highest water
outlet.
1-11.2
Equipment Schedules. Unless directed otherwise, include equipment
schedules on the drawings. The following are typical schedules and data provided on
these schedules:
(1) Hot water circulating pumps:
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(a) Capacity in L/s (gpms).
(b) Total head in meters (feet).
(c) Minimum horsepower.
(d) Volts, phase, hertz.
(e) RPM
(2) Ejector or sump pump:
(a) Capacity in L/s (gpm).
(b) Total dynamic head in meters (feet).
(c) Minimum horsepower.
(d) Volts, phase, hertz.
(e) RPM
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(3) Water heater:
(a) Heating capacity in L/s (gph).
(b) Temperature rise in degrees Celsius (C) (Fahrenheit (F)).
(c) Storage capacity in liters (gallons).
(d) Energy Factor (defined by Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association
(GAMA))
(4) Hot water storage tank:
(a) Dimensions.
(b) Capacity in liters (gallons).
(c) Minimum insulation.
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(5) Hot water generator:
(a) Dimensions.
(b) Storage capacity in liters (gallons).
(c) Heating surface area.
(d) Design pressure.
(e) Heat source (i.e. steam, HTHW, natural gas, electric).
(f) GPH @ entering water temperature and leaving water temperature.
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(6) Drinking water dispenser:
(a) Cafeteria: Type, size.
(b) Electric drinking water cooler: Type, size. (Note: Water coolers must use
HFC refrigerants.)
(7) Grease interceptor:
(a) Fat capacity in kilograms (pounds).
(b) Flow rating in L/s (gpm).
(c) Maximum leaving water grains (ppm).
(8) Reverse osmosis water treatment equipment:
(a) Minimum flow rating in L/s (gpm).
(b) Design and operating temperature in ° C (° F).
(c) Maximum leaving water grains (ppm).
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(9) Water softening treatment equipment:
(a) Minimum flow rating in L/s (gpm).
(b) Grains (grams) hardness to which water is to be softened.
(c) Amount of water metered in gallons (liters) to start automatic
regeneration of a softener unit.
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(10) Booster pump
(a) Capacity in L/s (gpm)
(b) Total head in meters (feet)
(c) Minimum horsepower
(d) Volts, phase hertz
(e) RPM
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CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. For Navy Design-Bid-Build projects,
ensure the construction document package includes Unified Facilities Guide
Specification (UFGS)-\7\ 23 03 00.00 20 /7/, Basic Mechanical Material and Methods,
paragraph 1.3.5.1 that defines the relationship between IPC terms and the contract
language, and paragraph 1.3.5.2 that requires the Contracting Officer to interpret the
administrative requirements under the contract.
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APPENDIX A
SUPPLEMENTAL TECHNICAL CRITERIA
(Note: chapter and paragraph numbers reference IPC \7\2006)/7/
IPC CHAPTER 1 “ADMINISTRATION” SUPPLEMENTS.
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A.
Delete Chapter 1 in its entirety. The administrative requirements are
covered by the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) and by the authority
granted to the Contracting Officer in administering the contract.
IPC CHAPTER 2 “DEFINITIONS” SUPPLEMENTS.
A.
Replace the definition published in Chapter Two with the following
definition.
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“CODE OFFICIAL. For Army and Navy projects, the Code Official is the
Contracting Officer assigned by the Government to administer and enforce
the construction contract. This official administers construction inspections
and submittals in accordance with the applicable Federal Acquisition
Regulations.
B.
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For Air Force projects, the Code Official is a technical specialist having
expertise in and assigned to interpret specific codes.”
Add the following definitions to Chapter Two.
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“OWNER OR OWNER’S REPRESENTATIVE. For Government-owned
facilities, the Contracting Officer assigned by the Government to administer
the construction contract. For leased facilities, the leaser of the facility.”
“PERMIT HOLDER. The contractor accomplishing the project.”
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IPC CHAPTER 3 “GENERAL REGULATIONS” SUPPLEMENTS.
A.
SECTION 301.1 Scope. Add after the last sentence: “Standpipes and hose
systems for fire protection systems will be designed in accordance with the latest
version of UFC 3-600-01 Design: Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities.”
B.
SECTION 301.6 Prohibited locations. Insert before the first sentence: “No
plumbing system components may be installed within any Air Handling Unit (AHU),
ductwork, or room used as a plenum conveying supply air, return air, outside air, or
mixed air. This will not prohibit connection of AHU components, such as humidifiers, to
the water supply system, nor prohibit connection of trapped condensate pans and
humidifier drains indirectly to the drainage system. This will also not prohibit plumbing
system components in ceiling spaces used as return air plenums, nor prohibit drains in
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raised floor supply plenums.”
C.
Add “SECTION \7\ 301.8 /7/ Protection of building materials. Where the
seasonal design temperature of the cold water entering a building is below the seasonal
design dew point of the indoor ambient air, and where condensate drip will cause
damage or create a hazard, insulate plumbing piping with a vapor barrier type of
insulation to prevent condensation. All chilled water piping from a central drinking water
cooling system should be insulated with vapor barrier type insulation to prevent
condensation.”
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D.
Add “SECTION \7\ 301.9 /7/ Protection of computers, telephone switches
and terminal equipment, and other electronic equipment from water damage.
Neither water nor drainage piping will be located over electrical wiring or equipment
unless adequate protection against water (including condensation) damage has been
provided. Insulation alone is not adequate protection against condensation.
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\7\ 301.9.1 /7/
Dedicated computer, telephone, and other electronic
equipment. These areas within buildings should be located to minimize
exposure to water and other listed hazards from adjoining areas and activities;
refer to NFPA-75, Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing
Equipment.
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\7\ 301.9.2 /7/
Prohibited piping. Chilled water piping, domestic water
piping, sanitary drains, roof drains, gas lines, fuel oil lines, steam lines, water
mains, and other utility lines not serving the electronic equipment area are
prohibited from the electronic equipment and record storage areas.
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\7\ 301.9.3 /7/
Restricted piping. Utilities containing water or other fluids,
which serve the electronic equipment and record storage areas, are not to be
routed to pass directly over electronic equipment or stored records, whether the
utilities are installed over or below the finished ceiling.
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\7\ 301.9.4 /7/
Waterproof floor above. The floor above each of the
electronic and records storage rooms should be waterproofed to prevent
passage of accidental spillage. As an alternative, allow no prohibited pipe in the
rooms above the electronic equipment and record storage areas.”
E.
SECTION 303.3 Plastic pipe, fittings and components. Add after the last
sentence: “Installation procedure for plastic piping materials will be in accordance with
the Plastic Pipe Institute (PPI) Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe. Design parameters
such as thermal movement, chemical resistance, flow characteristics, and pressure
ratings are covered in PPI publications. The designer should be aware that some
schedule 40 plastic pipes do not have the strength of a schedule 40 steel pipe;
therefore, the desired working temperature and pressure ratings for any plastic piping
specified must be indicated either in the specifications or on the drawings.”
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F.
SECTION 305.6 Freezing. Add after the last sentence: “Although insulating
water pipes, tanks, and cooling tower may not prevent water from freezing, these
devices are to be insulated and, if noted on the drawings, heat traced for protection
against damage. The proper thickness or conductivity factor for this insulation and the
watts/linear foot (watts/linear meter) for heat tracing are to be determined by the design
engineer. For Army projects, do not provide water or waste piping in exterior walls or
attic spaces where there is danger of freezing. For Air Force projects, if piping is to be
installed in exterior walls, the designer must show that the exterior wall design will
prevent water or waste piping from experiencing freezing conditions. For Air Force
projects, do not provide water or waste piping in attic spaces where there is danger of
freezing.”
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G.
SECTION 305.6.1 Sewer depth. Replace with the following: “Building
sewers that connect to private sewage disposal systems shall be a minimum of ____
inch (____ mm) below finished grade at the point of septic tank connection. Building
sewers shall be a minimum of ___ inch (____mm) below grade.”
H.
SECTION 312.4 Drainage and vent final test. At the end of the first
sentence delete “where necessary for cause” and replace it with “or peppermint test”.
At the end of the section add: “If a peppermint test is chosen the contractor should be
required to submit a testing procedure for approval.”
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I.
Add “SECTION 313.2 Energy conservation. Design systems containing
electric water heaters, gas water heaters, solar water heaters, air-to-water heat pump
water heaters, and water-to-water heat pump water heaters in accordance with the
ASHRAE Handbook Series (appropriate Chapters), ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy
Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential and DOE-FEMP (appropriate
recommendations).”
IPC CHAPTER 4 “FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS”
SUPPLEMENTS.
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A.
SECTION 401.2 Prohibited fixtures and connections. Add after the last
sentence: “Fixtures employing continuous flow devices and fixtures that are subject to
backflow are prohibited. Continuous flow devices cannot be used for water
conservation reasons.”
B.
SECTION 401.3 Water conservation. Add after the last sentence: “Water
conservation fixtures conforming to the International Plumbing Code® (IPC) will be
used except where the sewer system will not adequately dispose of the waste material
on the reduced amount of water. DOE - FEMP water conservation requirements are,
for certain fixtures, more restrictive than Section 604.4. Designers have the option to
design to DOE - FEMP water conservation requirements for areas of the country that
restrict water usage. The owner or owner's representative should be consulted before
specifying water conservation fixtures that are more restrictive than Section 604.4.”
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25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
C.
SECTION 402.1 Quality of fixtures. Add after the last sentence: “Fixture
materials are to be selected from those specified in \7\ UFGS 22 00 00, Plumbing,
General Purpose /7/. Porcelain-enameled cast-iron lavatories will be provided in
enlisted personnel barracks or dormitories or other gang toilet facilities.”
D.
[For Navy \8\ and Air Force /8/ Projects only] TABLE 403.1 MINIMUM
NUMBER OF \7\ REQUIRED /7/ PLUMBING \7\ FIXTURES /7/. Add additional notes
beneath IPC Table 403.1 as follows:
“For use in Navy \8\ and Air Force /8/ facilities: (prevails when in conflict with Table
403.1 and notes above).
ED
g For “male only” toilet facilities, urinals may be substituted for no more than onethird of the water closets required, one for one.
h For “Assembly” occupancies, provide drinking fountains at 1 per 400 persons.
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i For “Business” (office, public buildings, and similar, and for bowling centers);
“Educational” (Training); “Factory and Industrial” (Industrial, shops, warehouses, and
similar), provide fixtures (both male and female) at the following rates:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
water closets (1 per 20 persons (p), up to 100 p; then 1 per 40 p).
lavatories (1 per 20 p, up to 100 p; then 1 per 45p).
showers (1 per 15 p - Only if needed).
drinking fountains (1 per 75 p).
service sinks (1 per floor).
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j For “High hazard” occupancies involving exposure to skin contamination with
poisonous, infectious, or irritating materials, provide fixtures per note i. “Business”
above, except provide lavatories at 1 per 5 persons.
AN
k For \4\ No. 1 - Assembly - \7\ Occupancy /7/ A-4 - Coliseums, arenas, skating
rinks, pools, etc. \7\/7/, add a new line for Locker rooms (for athletes, not
spectators). Provide fixtures per note i. "Business" above.” /4/
E.
[For Army \8\/8/ projects only] SECTION 403 MINIMUM PLUMBING
FACILITIES. Replace this entire section with the following:
Fixture Allowances. Toilet facilities will be provided for employees as
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“403.1
follows:
403.1.1 Water closets. Water closets in separate toilet rooms for each sex
will be provided in all places of employment according to Table 403-1. The
number of water closets to be provided for each sex will be based on the number
of employees of that sex for whom the toilet facilities are furnished. Separate
toilet rooms for each sex need not be provided when toilet rooms will be
occupied by no more than one person at a time, can be locked from the inside,
and contain at least one water closet. When such single occupancy rooms have
more than one water closet, only one such fixture in each toilet room will be
counted for the purpose of Table 403-1.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Table 403-1. WATER CLOSET ALLOWANCES
Number of Employees
Minimum Number of Water Closets
1
2
3
4
5
6
6 for the first 150, plus
1 additional fixture for
each additional 40
employees
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ED
1 to 15
16 to 35
36 to 55
56 to 80
81 to 110
111 to 150
151 and over
1
1
Where toilet rooms will not be used by women, urinals may be substituted for some water closets,
except that the number of water closets in such cases will not be reduced to less than two-thirds of the
minimum specified.
AN
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403.1.2 Lavatories. Lavatories will be made available in all places of
employment according to the requirements for lavatories as specified in Table
403-2. In a multiple-use lavatory, 24 linear inches (610 mm) of wash sink or 20
inches (60 mm) of a circular basin, when provided with water outlets for each
space, will be considered equivalent to one lavatory. Lavatories in toilet rooms
for food service employees will be provided with other than hand-operated
valves.
Table 403-2. LAVATORY ALLOWANCES
Minimum Number
of Lavatories
1
2
3
4
5
1 additional
additional
45 employees
1
For other types of employment, at least one lavatory for three required water closets will be provided.
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Type of Employment
Non-industrial office
buildings, public
buildings, and similar
establishments
1
Number of
Employees
1 to 15
16 to 35
36 to 60
61 to 90
91 to 125
126 and over
fixture for each
403.1.3 Drinking fountains. One drinking fountain for each 75 employees or
fraction and at least one fountain per floor will be provided.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
403.1.4 Other users. When persons other than employees are permitted the
use of toilet facilities on the premises, the number of fixtures will be appropriately
increased according to 403.3 when determining the minimum number required.
ED
403.2
UOPH & UEPH. Plumbing fixture allowances for Unaccompanied
Officers Personnel Housing (UOPH) will be according to Table 403-3. Plumbing
fixture requirements for Unaccompanied Enlisted Personnel Housing (UEPH) will
be as follows. A central bathroom will be provided for E1 Recruits. Fixture
allowances are provided in Table 403-4. For Grade E1 to E4 provide a twoperson shared bathroom and for Grade E5 to E6 provide a private bathroom.
Bathrooms will contain a lavatory with base cabinet, water closet, and a shower
or combination tub/shower unit.
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Table 403-3. FIXTURE ALLOWANCES FOR UOPH
Fixtures
Bathroom for each suite will
provide one lavatory, one water
closet, and one bathtub with
shower. Each floor will include
one drinking fountain
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Occupant
WI to 06
AN
Table 403-4. FIXTURE ALLOWANCES FOR UEPH
(Minimum number of persons per fixture)
Occupants
E1 Recruits
1
Water
Closets
5
Showers
Lavatories
3
5
Drinking
Fountains
1
75
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An additional drinking fountain will be provided in recruit housing for every 30 occupants per floor above
the initial 75 occupants requirement.
403.3 Other occupancies. Plumbing fixture allowances for religious, welfare
and recreational facilities for persons other than employees, where separate
toilet facilities are provided, will be according to Table 403-5.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Table 403-5. PLUMBING FIXTURE ALLOWANCES FOR FACILITIES WHERE
SEPARATE TOILET FACILITIES ARE PROVIDED FOR PERSONS OTHER THAN
EMPLOYEES (Minimum number of persons per fixture when more than one
fixture is required)
Water
Closets
Chapel (Congregation only)
Male
300
Female
150
Drinking
Lavatories
Urinals
Showers
Fountains
Joint facilities for employees and patrons will
be provided according to Tables 403-1 and 403-2.
ED
Occupancy
Bowling Alley
150
150
None
None
400
400
200
None
None
None
500
500
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Enlisted Personnel Service Club (Patrons only)
Male
150
150
Female
100
100
300
None
General Education Development (GED) Building (Students only)
Male
40
25
40
Female
25
25
None
None
None
100
100
Gymnasium, Field House (does not include fixtures for component swimming pools) (Athletic participants
only - spectators according to theaters below)
Male
30
30
40
15
100
Female
20
25
None
15
100
AN
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Installation (Post) Restaurant or Cafeteria, NCO's Open Mess, Officers' Open Mess (Patrons only)
Male
200
200
300
None
500
Female
150
150
None
None
500
Library
Joint facilities for employees and
patrons will be provided according to
Tables 403-1 and 403-2.
1,2
Recreational Workshop Swimming Pool (Swimmers only)
Male
40
40
40
30
Female
20
40
None
30
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Temporary Lodging
100
100
Provide the following fixtures for every two-guest rooms: One water closet, two
lavatories, and one shower compartment or bathtub. In addition, a common
toilet room will be provided for the office and lounge.
3
Theater, Bus and Taxicab Ticket Station, Enlisted Personnel Dining Facilities (Patrons only)
Male
250
200
250
None
400
Female
150
150
None
None
400
1
Fixtures will be provided for swimmers only on this basis: The maximum capacity of the pool (swimmers)
will equal the area of the pool in square feet divided by 27 (meters divided by 2-1/2). Where applicable,
2
2
fixtures for waders will be computed on the basis of not less than 13-1/2 ft (1-1/4 m ) per wader instead of
2
2
27 ft (2-1/2 m ) in depth of less than 5 feet (1-1/2 m). Separate fixtures will be provided for spectators at
indoor swimming pools as indicated opposite "theater" above.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
2
In addition to the above fixtures, "wet toilets" required by wet swimmers and located adjacent to shower
rooms will be provided as follows: One "wet toilet" for women, consisting of one water closet for 100
swimmers or less, and two water closets for over 100 swimmers. The "wet toilets" will be so placed that
persons using them must pass through the shower before entering the pool.
3
Patron toilet facilities are not required in enlisted personnel dining facilities that are adjacent to other toilet
facilities in existing UEPH buildings. Separate toilet facilities will be provided for kitchen employees
according to Tables 403-1 and 403-2.
ED
{End of Section 403 Replacement}
F.
SECTION 404 Accessible Plumbing Facilities. Delete this entire section
and use the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standard (UFAS) and the Americans with
Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG). When
these standards differ, use whichever provides the greatest accessibility requirement.
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G.
SECTION 405.3 Setting. Add after the last sentence: “ Lavatories and
urinals in enlisted men's barracks or dormitories and in men's gang-toilet facilities (three
or more water closets) are subject to heavy damage. Verify wall bolts are tight and
properly installed”.
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H.
SECTION 405.3.1 Water closets, \7\ urinals, /7/ lavatories and bidets.
Add after the last sentence: “Lavatories provided in enlisted personnel barracks or
dormitories or other gang toilet facilities will be installed to prevent uplifting.”
AN
I.
Add “SECTION 410.3 Central drinking water systems. Central drinking
water systems should be evaluated as an alternative to unitary water coolers in facilities
where 15 or more drinking stations are required. Evaluation should include potential
heat recovery from central condenser, addition of heat to building envelope by unitary
condensers, differences in anticipated energy usage, and differences in first cost.”
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J.
Add “SECTION 411.3 Design guidance for emergency shower and
eyewash stations. Refer to Appendix D of UFC 3-420-01, Design: Plumbing Systems
for additional requirements associated with Emergency Shower and Eyewash Stations."
K.
Add “SECTION 412.5 Required locations and construction. Floor drains
are not required in service sink rooms and transformer rooms. Provide floor drains to
serve, but not be limited to, the following areas and equipment:
1. Gang toilets, which are those having three or more water closets; and gang
shower drying rooms, which are those serving two or more showers.
2. Subsistence buildings, as follows:
(a) Dishwashing, scullery or pot washing, and food-cart washing areas.
(b) Vegetable peelers and vegetable preparation areas.
(c) Steam table and coffee urn areas.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
(d)
(e)
Soda fountain area.
Adjacent areas to ice chests, ice-making machines, and walk-in, reach-in,
freezers and refrigerators.
Steam cookers and steam-jacketed kettles.
(f)
3. Cold-storage buildings, as follows:
(a) Fat-rendering, processing, salvage, and receiving rooms.
(b) Receiving and issuing vestibules.
(c) Adjacent areas to meat coolers and milk, butter, and egg rooms.
ED
4. Mechanical rooms with steam, condensate, chilled or hot water systems.
5. Laundry rooms.
When automatic priming is through a device connected to the water system, ensure
that device is equipped with a vacuum breaker.”
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L.
Add “SECTION 412.6 Floor drains for emergency shower and eyewash
stations. Refer to Appendix D of UFC 3-420-01, Design: Plumbing Systems for
additional requirements for use of floor drains associated with Emergency Shower and
Eyewash Stations."
N.
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M.
Add “SECTION 413.5 Food waste grinders design. Food waste grinders
are authorized in Department of Defense permanent quarters, hospitals, and dining
facilities when the sewage treatment plant can handle the additional load. Design of
new sewage treatment plants and additions to existing plants will be based on the
increase in load that will result from food waste grinders installed in hospital, dining
facilities, and the ultimate projected number of family quarters to be constructed. Food
waste grinders installed in hospital kitchens and dining facilities will be sized as shown
in Table 413.5-1. Food waste grinders will not discharge into a grease interceptor.”
Add Table 413.5-1 (below) after SECTION 413.5.
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Table 413.5-1. SIZE OF FOOD WASTE GRINDERS
Persons
served
Up to 200
200 to 500
501 to 1,000
Over 1,000
Pot washer
horsepower
2
3
5
7-1/2
Dishwasher
horsepower
3
5
7-1/2
10
O.
SECTION 419.1 Approval. Add after the last sentence: “Waterless/waterfree
urinals shall conform to IAPMO Z124.9 Plastic Urinal Fixtures or ASME A112.19.2
Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures and Hydraulic Requirements for Water Closets and
Urinals, but not conform to the hydraulic performance requirements. For Navy projects,
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
approval for use of waterless/waterfree urinals shall be the responsibility of the Facilities
Engineering Command (FEC) \7\ /7/.”
IPC CHAPTER 5 “WATER HEATERS” SUPPLEMENTS.
ED
A.
SECTION 501.2 Water heater as a space heater. Replace the first
sentence with the following: “Where a combination potable water heating and space
heating system requires water for space heating at temperatures of 140°F (60°C) and
higher, a tempering valve shall be provided to limit the water to the potable hot water
distribution system. The valve shall be set to deliver 110°F (43°C) water to the fixtures
except where higher temperatures are required by specialized equipment as indicated
in ASHRAE Handbook – Applications."
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B.
Add “SECTION 501.9 Multiple water heaters. Provide hospitals, laundry
buildings, subsistence buildings, bachelor officers' quarters with mess and enlisted
men's barracks with mess with multiple water heaters and storage tanks. Provide other
facilities with a single water heater and storage tank. Multiple units, however, may be
justified by circumstances such as (1) facility configuration, (2) space limitations, (3)
limited access to tank room, and (4) hot water requirements necessitating an unusually
high capacity heating and storage unit. When two units are provided, each will have a
capacity equal to two thirds of the calculated load. When more than two units are
provided, their combined capacity will be equal to the calculated load.”
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C.
Add “SECTION 501.10 Solar water heating. \7\ In accordance with Public
Law 110-140, Energy Independence and Security Act 2007, /7/ solar energy will be
evaluated as a means of meeting all or part of the hot-water requirements if required by
design instructions. \7\ If life cycle cost effective, provide at least 30% of building hot
water demand by solar water heaters./7/ Conventional back-up heating equipment will
be provided for periods when high demand or an extended period of cloudy days
exceeds the capacity of the solar energy system.”
D.
SECTION 502.1 General. Add after the last sentence: “For Army projects,
control of scale formation will be provided with central water treatment on the hot-water
system. This system will be in accordance with UFC 3-230-08A.
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E.
SECTION 504.2 Vacuum relief valve. Add after the last sentence: “Provide
a vacuum relief valve on each copper-lined storage tank to prevent the creation, within
the tank, of a vacuum which could cause loosening of the lining.”
F.
Add “SECTION 505.2 Insulation of hot water piping. Insulate service hot
water piping and storage to meet the more restrictive minimum requirements of the
following:
(1) International Plumbing Code (IPC).
(2) ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise
Residential Buildings.”
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
G.
Add “SECTION 505.3 Upgrade insulation. The insulation requirements and
maximum heat loss rates stated in this section are minimum design requirements. The
quality of insulation should be upgraded if the designer can show an improvement in
the system performance or that insulation improvements are cost effective.”
H.
Add “SECTION 506 SIZING HOT WATER SYSTEMS.
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506.1 Sizing Calculations. Design in accordance with American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Handbook HVAC Applications-\1\ \7\ 2007 /7/ /1/, Chapter \1\ 49 /1/, “Service Water
Heating”; and in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Efficient
Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. In addition to
criteria provided in the ASHRAE Handbook, consideration should be given to
differences in costs of building area required to support systems when
calculating life cycle costs. For low-rise residential buildings, design in
accordance with The ICC International Residential Code. Size hot water system
and set service water heater (SWH) storage temperature set point for not less
than 140°F (60°C) to limit the potential for growth of Legionella pneumophila.
Provide a hot water and cold water blending, tempering valve immediately
downstream of the SWH storage tank to provide anti-scalding protection.
Provide a balanced-pressure-type tempering valve. Set the blending valve to
deliver 110°F (43°C) water to the fixtures except where higher temperatures are
required by specialized equipment as indicated in ASHRAE Handbook –
Applications. For Army and Air Force projects, use the set point temperatures
indicated in Table 506.
AN
Table 506. WATER SERVICE TEMPERATURES
Service
Degrees F ( Degrees C)
120 (49)
Commercial type dishwashers
with internal boosters
140 (60)
Commercial type dishwashers
without internal boosters
180 (82)
Commercial type laundries
180 (82)
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General use such as showers,
sinks, family housing,
administration facilities, etc.
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ED
UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
506.1.1 Sizing distributed or residential SWH systems. Use ASHRAE
Chapter \1\ 49 /1/, Table \1\ \7\ 5 /7/ /1/ to size small SWH systems typical for
family housing, Lodges, and bachelor housing units provided with individual
SWH’s. For family housing, select the SWH size from Table \1\ \7\ 5 /7/ /1/
based upon the number of bathrooms and bedrooms in the unit. For Navy
lodges, use the 1 to 1.5 baths, 2 or 3-bedroom column, since entire families
of 3 to 5 persons or more occupy these single rooms for extended stays of up
to 30 days. For bachelor housing projects with individual SWH’s for each unit
or a pair of units, use the number of baths and bedrooms to select from Table
\1\ \7\ 5 /7/ /1/.
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506.1.2 Sizing central SWH systems. Use ASHRAE Chapter \1\ 49 /1/,
Table \1\ \7\ 10 /7/ /1/ to size central SWH systems, except revise the
numbers in row “9. Showers” by multiplying by the correction factor calculated
in Section 506.1.4. The revision reflects Public Law 102-486 maximum
fixture flow of 2.5 gallons per minute (9.5 L/s), ASHRAE recommended
service water storage temperature minimum of 140°F (60°C), personnel
safety maximum fixture delivery temperature of 110°F (43°C), and the
appropriate supply design cold water temperature, which varies according to
location and season. Use the Hotel column to size central SWH systems for
Navy Bachelor Housing and Lodges, due to occupant’s schedules resembling
those of hotel and motel occupants – the rooms are inhabited mostly
between 5 PM and 7 AM. Use Appendix E of UFC 3-420-01, Design:
Plumbing Systems for sizing the domestic water heaters in Army Barracks.
AN
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506.1.3 Hot water mixing equation.
(Conversion Factors: 1gpm = 3.8 L/s;
degree Fahrenheit = 9/5 degree Celsius + 32)
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Let: Qf = Fixture flow in gpm = 2.5 gpm per Public Law 102-486
Qs = Flow from SWH Storage Tank in gpm
Qc = Flow from Cold Water Supply in gpm
Tf = Temperature at fixture in degrees F = 110 F for personnel safety
Ts = Temperature at SWH Storage Tank in degrees F, 140 F minimum for
Legionella
Tc = Temperature at Cold Water Supply in degrees F, varies due to location
and season
Mixing Equation: (Qf x Tf) = (Qs x Ts) + (Qc x Tc)
Substituting Qc = Qf – Qs gives the following:
(Qf x Tf) = (Qs x Ts) + ((Qf – Qs) x Tc)
(Qf x Tf) = (Qs x Ts) + (Qf x Tc) – (Qs x Tc)
(Qf x Tf) – (Qf x Tc) = (Qs x Ts) – (Qs x Tc)
Qf x (Tf–Tc) = Qs x (Ts–Tc)
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Qs = Qf x [(Tf-Tc)/(Ts-Tc)]
Substituting Qf = 2.5 gpm, Tf = 110 F, Ts = 140 F, and Tc = 50 F gives the
following:
Qs = 2.5 x [(110–50)/(140–50)]
Qs = 1.667 gpm of hot water from storage tank
Qc = Qf–Qs = 2.5 gpm–1.667 gpm = 0.833 gpm of cold water from supply
ED
The mixing equation may be used to evaluate the effect of variation of Tc
temperatures on Qs. At Ts = 140 F, for Tc = 40 F, Qs = 1.75 gpm; and for Tc
= 80 F, Qs = 1.25 gpm.
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The mixing equation may also be used to evaluate the required size of SWH
storage tanks as Ts varies. Higher storage temperatures allow smaller tank
sizes to deliver equal water to fixtures.
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506.1.\1\ \7\ 4 /7/ /1/ Revisions to ASHRAE Chapter \1\ 49 /1/, Table \1\ \7\
10 /7/ /1/, Row 9, Showers. Table \1\ \7\ 10 /7/ /1/, Row 9, Showers,
indicates 225 gallons per hour (gph) per fixture for hot water flow in
Gymnasiums, Industrial Plants, Schools, and YMCA’s. Assume this
represents continuous flow of shower fixture, what is the design fixture flow
rate? Since 225 gph/60 min. per hour = 3.75 gpm of hot water flow = Qs,
calculate the fixture flow Qf from the mixing equation, using Tf = 110 degrees
F, Ts = 140 degrees F, and Tc = 50 degrees F. Observe that Qf = Qs + Qc,
therefore Qc = Qf – Qs. Substituting:
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Qf x Tf = (Qs x Ts) + (Qc x Tc)
Qf x Tf = (Qs x Ts) + ((Qf–Qs) x Tc)
Qf x Tf = (Qs x Ts) + (Qf x Tc) – (Qs x Tc)
(Qf x Tf) – (Qf x Tc) = (Qs x Ts) – (Qs x Tc)
Qf x (Tf–Tc) = Qs x (Ts–Tc)
Qf = Qs x [(Ts–Tc)/(Tf–Tc)]
Qf = 3.75 x [(140–50)/(110-50)]
Qf = 5.625 gpm
Therefore, the proper correction factor (CF) for Chapter \1\ 49 /1/, Table \1\
\7\ 10 /7/ /1/, Row 9 is equal to 2.5 gpm per fixture (per PL 102-486) divided
by 5.625 gpm (calculated above), which results in CF = 0.444 for Tc of 50
degrees F. This may also be calculated as Qs = 1.667 divided by Qs = 3.75
equals CF = 0.444.
Thus, the gymnasium shower at 225 gph x CF corrects to 225 gph x 0.444 =
100 gph for Tc of 50 degrees F.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
506.1.5 Domestic Hot Water Recirculation Pumps. For Navy, Army and
Air Force projects, see Appendix E of UFC 3-420-01, Design: Plumbing
Systems.
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506.2 Life cycle cost analysis. Executive Order \5\ 13423, “Strengthening
Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” /5/ requires
life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) of alternatives and maximum utilization of energy
conserving methods and equipment. Evaluate alternative energy source options,
such as electric, steam, oil-fired, and gas-fired service water heater. Evaluate
SWH storage tank capacity and electric heater element sizing to minimize
electric demand charges to the government. Larger storage tanks with smaller
heater elements may be cost effective due to reduced demand charges,
although the longer storage recovery time and the additional costs for providing
non-standard tank and element selections should also be considered. Do not
exceed the ASHRAE recommended 8-hour maximum recovery time. Also
consider the incremental cost of additional electric service capacity versus the
incremental costs of providing steam or gas service or providing fuel oil storage
and delivery. Include the costs of providing combustion air and flue gas exhaust
for fuel-fired water heaters. Do not consider the cost of the tempering valve in
the life cycle costs analysis, it is required by the 140°F (60°C) storage
temperature to avoid legionella. However, since it is required, consider the life
cycle cost advantages of storing hot water at higher temperatures, if the source
is electric, steam, or natural gas, and the tank insulation is increased to maintain
equal total heat loss. A smaller SWH storage tank may reduce the size of the
mechanical room and the building, which will reduce the energy and capital costs
of the facility. Consider a pre-heat tank upstream of the SHW storage tank for
applications recovering heat from refrigerant hot gas, steam condensate,
process waste cooling, solar collectors, and diesel engines. Provide a tempering
valve for all heat recovery SWH systems to limit the supply temperature,
because the recovered heat can heat the storage tank above the normal storage
temperature. A pre-heat tank may increase the amount of heat usably recovered
prior to allowing the water to be heated by prime energy. Consider sealed
combustion chambers for natural gas-fired SWH’s, with combustion air ducted
directly from and flue gases ducted directly to the outside air. This may reduce
the possibility of carbon monoxide poisoning within the occupied spaces. Ensure
adequate clearances of inlet and outlet during snow, icing, flood, and heavy
wind-driven rain conditions.”
IPC CHAPTER 6 “WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION” SUPPLEMENTS.
A.
Add “SECTION 601.5 Storage tank materials. Storage tanks will be
constructed of one of the following combinations of materials and methods: (1) Ferrous
metals lined with nonferrous metals and provided with cathodic protection. (2) Ferrous
metals lined with glass and provided with cathodic protection. (3) Ferrous metals lined
with cement and provided with cathodic protection. (4) Fiberglass reinforced plastic for
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
atmospheric pressure applications.”
B.
Add “SECTION 602.2.1 Non-potable water exception. A non-potable
water supply, when used in an entirely separate system and when approved by the
local health department, may be used for flushing water closets and urinals, and for
other approved purposes where potable water is not required. Piping containing nonpotable water, that is water not meeting accepted potable water standards, will be
labeled "NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK." ”
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C.
Add “SECTION 602.2.2 Water for landscaping. Wall faucets, wall
hydrants, lawn faucets, and yard hydrants will be located so that, with 100 feet (30 m) of
garden hose, the area can be watered without crossing the main entrance of public
buildings or barracks. The branch to the lawn faucets and yard hydrants will be
equipped with stop and waste valves. The means of watering lawn areas, flowerbeds,
and gardens will be provided as follows: (1) Wall faucets with vacuum breaker backflow
preventer on outside walls in nonfreezing climates. (2) Non-freeze wall hydrants with
vacuum breaker backflow preventer on outside walls in freezing climates. (3) Lawn
faucets with vacuum breaker backflow preventer for garden and lawn areas in
nonfreezing climates. (4) Yard non-freeze hydrants for garden and lawn areas in
freezing climates. Yard non-freeze hydrants have an automatic drain feature that can
allow ground water to enter the service line. To protect the water supply the designer
can either isolate the supply to the yard non-freeze hydrants with a double check valve
backflow preventer, or specify sanitary yard hydrants. Sanitary yard hydrants are selfcontained and do not drain to the surrounding ground, eliminating the possibility of
cross-contamination. The designer should select the most cost effective option;
sanitary yard hydrants are about three times the cost of standard non-freeze yard
hydrants.”
AN
D.
SECTION 604.1 General. Add after the last sentence: “Service lines will
enter the building in an accessible location. Large buildings will be provided with two or
more water services to ensure constant delivery to all fixtures and equipment. For
Army and Air Force projects, drain valves will be installed on the fixture side of all
service valves located inside a building. For Air Force projects, drain valves shall be
placed in locations with access to waste drains.”
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E.
SECTION 604.3 Water distribution system design criteria. Add after the
last sentence: “Provide piping water velocities not to exceed 10 feet per second (3.28
m/s). In hospitals and similar facilities, where a quiet system is desired, velocities are
not to exceed 7 feet per second (2.13 m/s).”
F.
SECTION 604.8 Water-pressure reducing valve or regulator. Add after
the last sentence: “For Army and Air Force projects, when the pressure of water
supply to building exceeds the required water pressure by 10 psig (69 kPa), a pressurereducing valve will be provided. Consideration will be given to increasing pipe sizes
based on the anticipated future installation of fixtures when performing design
calculations. For Air Force projects, building potable water pressure shall not exceed
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Including change 8, October 27, 2009
70 psig (483 kPa).”
G.
SECTION 604.9 Water hammer. Add after the last sentence: “Only specify
commercial-type water hammer arresters, vertical capped pipe columns are not
permitted. Size and locate commercial water hammer arresters in accordance with PDI
WH201-\7\2006/7/, Water Hammer Arresters and manufacturer’s recommendations.
Provide access doors or removable panels when water hammer arresters are
concealed.”
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H.
SECTION \7\ 605.4 /7/ Water \7\ distribution pipe /7/. Add after the last
sentence: “Selection of pipe, valves, and fittings will be in accordance with the quality of
the water. For Army Projects, water quality is classified under the following categories:
(a) Category 1: Calcium plus magnesium content 0 to 35 parts per million (ppm)
expressed as calcium (Ca). For this type of water, pipe, valves, and fittings will be
nonferrous for both hot-and cold-water services.
(b) Category 2: Calcium plus magnesium content 35 to 75 ppm. For this type of
water, pipe, valves, and fittings may be ferrous for cold –water service, when sulfates
(SO4) are less than one and one-half times the calcium content. If the sulfate content is
more than one and one-half times the calcium content, pipe, valves, and fittings will be
nonferrous for cold-water service. All pipe, valves, and fittings for hot-water service will
be nonferrous.
(c) Category 3: Calcium plus magnesium content more than 75 ppm. For this
type of water, pipe, valves, and fittings may be ferrous for cold-water service and
nonferrous for hot-water service if the sulfates (SO4) are less than twice the calcium
content. If the sulfates are more than twice the calcium content, pipe, valves, and
fittings will be nonferrous for hot and cold-water service.
(d) Category 4: Pipe and fittings for salt-water service will be of thermoplastic or
thermosetting plastic. Valves will be plastic or nonferrous metal.
In the absence of actual experience at a specific location, the categories
shown above, especially category 1, are satisfactory for the selection of potable water
piping. Non-ferrous piping is recommended for hot-water service regardless of water
category and is also recommended for cold water installations when piping is concealed
in walls, partitions, and floors, where replacement would be difficult and expensive, and
when the piping is 3 inches (76 mm) diameter or less. High-chloride content, especially
in category 2 and 3 waters, will have a corrosion-causing effect similar to high-sulfate
content. If local experience shows that ferrous piping in category 2 and 3 waters has a
satisfactory life of 20 to 25 years, ferrous pipe may be used for cold-water service,
provided piping is not concealed and replacement can be accomplished economically.
Where dissimilar metals are joined underground or at water heaters, insulated joints will
be installed at those points to break the galvanic couple.”
I.
Add “SECTION 606.5.11 Sizing booster systems and pumps. Water
pressure may be increased by using a hydro-pneumatic system consisting of a tank,
pumps, compressed air system, and associated control devices.
606.5.11.1 Tank Pressure. The minimum pressure maintained within the
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tank is at low-water level and is equal to the pressure required to meet the
fixture demands. The high pressure at high water level depends on the
operating pressure differential selected for the system. A reasonable and
most commonly selected pressure differential is 20 psi (138 kPa).
ED
606.5.11.2 Pumps. Pumps normally are provided in duplex. For Army and
Air Force Projects, a minimum of three pumps will be provided. The third
pump will be a standby unit. Each pump is sized to meet the requirements of
the facility. Pump capacities in gallons per minute (L/s) will be in accordance
with Table 606.5.11-1. Pump head is to be equal to the high pressure
maintained within the hydro-pneumatic tank.
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606.5.11.3 Tank Capacity. Tank capacity is to be based upon a withdrawal,
in gallons (liters), of 2-1/2 times the gallon per minute (L/s) capacity of the
pump and a low water level of not less than 10 percent of total tank capacity
or 3 inches (76 mm) above top of the tank outlet, whichever is greater. Table
606.5.11-2 indicates high water levels and withdrawals for efficient operation
of tanks with bottom outlets and a 10-percent residual. Using this table, the
tank capacity may be determined as per Example 1. Pressure ranges are
given in pounds per square inch (psi) and kilopascals (kPa)
Example 1. Determine the tank capacity when pump capacity is 150
gallons per minute and tank operating pressure range is 40 to 60 pounds
per square inch. (Referring to Table 606.5.11-2, the withdrawal from the
tank is 24 percent of the tank capacity.)
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Total tank capacity = 2.50 x 150 gpm / 0.24 percent = 1,563 gallons
or
Total tank capacity = 2.50 x 568 L/s / 0.24 percent = 5916 liters
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AN
606.5.11.4 Compressed Air. Compressed air is supplied for tank operation
according to the tank capacities. Satisfactory operation has been attained by
providing 1.5 cubic feet per minute (cfm) for tank capacities up to 500 gallons
(1893 L) and 2 cfm for capacities from 500 to 3,000 gallons (1893 to 11355
L). For each additional 3,000 gallons (11355 L) or fraction thereof, add 2 cfm
(0.0566 cubic meters/min.). (Quantities are expressed in cubic feet (cubic
meter) per minute free air at pressure equal to the high pressure maintained
within the hydro-pneumatic tank.)
606.5.11.5 Controls. The controls of a hydro-pneumatic system are to
maintain the predetermined pressures, water levels, and air-water ratio within
the tank. When duplex pumps are provided, controls are to start only one
pump at a time. Pumps are to be operated alternately and run
simultaneously only when a single pump cannot maintain the predetermined
low pressure. A manual transfer switch will operate the third pump if
provided. Controls are to admit compressed air into the tank only when tank
pressure at high water level is below normal.
606.5.11.6 Booster Pumps. Booster pumps may be the "on-off" type or
continuous running type.
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606.5.11.6.1 On-Off Type. The installation of an "on-off" type of pumping
system should be considered when relatively long periods of pump-on or
pump-off are anticipated. Pumps are to be activated, only when pressure
is inadequate, by a sensing device located in the pump suction line. Flow
normally is through a single full-size pump bypass with check valve and
two normally open (N.O.) isolating valves, whether the installation has one
pump or multiple pumps. Provide each pump with a check valve on the
discharge and two N.O. isolating valves.
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606.5.11.6.2 Continuous Running. Variable speed, constant pressure,
continuous running pumps are to be considered when anticipated
pressure fluctuation would result in short-cycling of the "on-off" type of
pumps. Whether the installation is a single pump or multiple pumps,
provide one full-size pump bypass having a check valve and two N.O.
gate valves. Provide each pump with a check valve on the discharge and
two N.O. isolating valves.
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25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Table 606.5.11-1. TANK FILL PUMPS
Number of
Fixtures
Gpm (L/s)
per Fixture
Min. Pump
Capacity (L/s)
Administration
Building
1-25
26-50
51-100
101-150
151-250
251-500
501-750
751-1000
1000-up
1.23
0.9
0.7
0.65
0.55
0.45
0.35
0.3
0.275
(0.08)
(0.06)
(0.045)
(0.04)
(0.03)
(0.03)
(0.02)
(0.02)
(0.02)
25
35
50
75
100
140
230
270
310
(1.5)
(2.2)
(3.2)
(4.7)
(6.3)
(7.8)
(15.0)
(17.0)
(20.0)
Apartments
1-25
26-50
51-100
101-200
201-400
401-800
801-up
0.6
0.5
0.35
0.3
0.28
0.25
0.24
(0.04)
(0.03)
(0.02)
(0.02)
(0.02)
(0.015)
(0.015)
10
15
30
40
65
120
210
(0.6)
(0.9)
(1.9)
(2.5)
(4.1)
(7.6)
(13.0)
Hospitals
1-50
51-100
101-200
201-400
401-up
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
(0.06)
(0.05)
(0.04)
(0.03)
(0.025)
25
55
85
135
210
(1.6)
(3.5)
(5.4)
(7.9)
(13.0)
1.5
1.0
0.75
0.7
0.65
0.6
(0.10)
(0.06)
(0.05)
(0.045)
(0.04)
(0.04)
25
40
60
80
110
165
(1.6)
(2.5)
(3.8)
(5.0)
(7.0)
(10.5)
0.65
(0.04)
0.55
(0.03)
0.45
(0.03)
0.35 ( 0.20)
0.275 (0.02)
0.25 (0.015)
0.2
(0.01)
25
35
60
100
150
225
300
(1.6)
(2.2)
(3.8)
(6.3)
(9.5)
(14.5)
(19.0)
1.5
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
10
15
30
45
65
110
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1-25
26-50
51-100
101-150
151-250
251-up
AN
Industrial
Buildings
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Quarters
And Barracks
Schools
1-50
51-100
101-200
201-400
401-800
801-1200
1200-up
1-10
11-25
26-50
51-100
101-200
201-up
ED
Location
(0.09)
(0.06)
(0.05)
(0.04)
(0.03)
(0.025)
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(0.06)
(0.9)
(1.9)
(2.8)
(4.1)
(7.0)
UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Table 606.5.11-2 HYDRO-PNEUMATIC TANK HIGH WATER LEVELS AND
WITHDRAWALS
(Based on bottom outlet tanks and a 10 percent residual)
43
38
34
32
28
48
42
37
35
32
Withdrawal
(96% of total tank capacity)
33
28
24
22
18
38
32
27
25
22
ED
20-40 (140-275)
30-50 (205-345)
40-60 (275-415)
50-70 (345-480)
60-80 (415-550)
20-45 (140-310)
30-55 (205-380)
40-65 (275-450)
50-75 (345-520)
60-85 (415-590)
High Water Level
(% of total tank capacity)
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Pressure Range
Psi (kPa)
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J.
Add “SECTION 607.1.1 Legionella Pneumophila (Legionnaire’s Disease).
The bacteria that causes Legionnaire’s disease when inhaled has been discovered in
the service water systems of various buildings in the United States and abroad. It has
been determined that Legionella pneumophila can colonize in hot water systems
maintained at temperatures of 115°F (46°C) or lower. Service water segments subject
to stagnation (e.g., faucet aerators, shower heads and certain portions of storage–type
water heaters) could provide an ideal location for bacteria to breed. Service water
temperatures in the range of 140°F (60°C) are recommended in order to limit the
growth potential of the bacteria. However, care must be taken to avoid scalding. Antiscald devices shall be incorporated in designs in which the service water temperature is
in the range described above. For hospital and health care facilities, periodic
supervised flushing of fixture heads with water at or above 170°F (77°C) are
recommended.”
K.
SECTION 607.2 Hot water supply temperature maintenance. Replace the
existing text with the following: “Criteria determining the need for circulating pumps in
ASHRAE HANDBOOK HVAC Systems and Equipment will be followed. Pump sizing
will be in accordance with the simplified method in ASHRAE unless specific conditions
warrant the need for more detailed calculations. Circulation should be at a rate that
limits the water temperature drop to 20°F (11.1°C) (maximum temperature difference
between supply and return). A method that has proved satisfactory and is generally
accepted for determining rate of circulation is to allow 1 gallon (3.8 L) per minute for
each 20 fixtures using hot water. Valves for balancing the circulation should be
provided in each return branch.”
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25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
L.
SECTION 607.2.2 \7\ Hot water system controls /7/. Add after the last
sentence: “In buildings operated on a nominal 40-hour week or on a nominal two-shift
basis (either a 5- or a 7-day week), a clock or other automatic control will be installed on
domestic hot-water circulating pumps to permit operation only during periods of
occupancy plus 30 minutes before and after.”
ED
M.
SECTION 608.1 General. Add after the last sentence: “Single check valves
are not considered adequate protection against back flow. \7\Backflow prevention
devices must be approved by the State/local regulatory agencies. If there is no
State/local regulatory agencies requirements, all backflow prevention devices must be
listed by the Foundation for Cross-Connection Control & Hydraulic Research, or any
other approved testing laboratory having equivalent capabilities for both laboratory and
field evaluation of backflow prevention devices and assemblies. Testing frequencies
will follow the requirements set forth by the State/local regulatory agencies or DoD
policy, whichever is more stringent.”/7/
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N.
SECTION 611.2 Reverse osmosis systems. Add in front of the first
sentence: “Reverse osmosis water treatment systems will be installed when water of a
higher purity than that produced by the domestic water is required, such as for deionized or distilled water systems used in hospitals. A water quality analysis will be
performed and water treatment design will proceed based on that analysis. Reverse
osmosis is a general term covering equipment that can have various types of filter
elements and membranes and polishing components. The reverse osmosis membrane
selection is critical and the operating pressure depends upon the membrane selected.
Pump pressures can range from 80 to 800 psi (552 to 5516 kPa). The reverse osmosis
unit is only part of the required treatment systems, which may include pretreatment
facilities and organic filters. In some cases, booster pumps may be required for final
water distribution. Materials for piping, pumps, valves, and other components must be
carefully selected due to the corrosive nature of the high-purity water produced.”
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O.
[For Army and Navy projects only] Add “SECTION \7\614 Ion
exchange/7/ water softening treatment equipment. \7\. Softening requirements are
application-specific; it is typically required where precipitation of calcium carbonate can
damage boiler/water heating equipment, block conduits or for aesthetic reasons. Ion
exchange water softening is a suitable process for these purposes. However, /7/ each
category has its own recommended limits for maximum hardness. Water hardness for
laundries should not exceed 2.5 grains per gallon (43 ppm) and water hardness is
usually reduced to zero. Large mess halls should have a water hardness not exceeding
that provided for laundries; whereas, hospitals can utilize water of up to 3 grains per
gallon (51 ppm) water hardness. \7\ Ion exchange /7/ water softening equipment
consists of a softener unit and a regeneration brine tank utilizing common salt (NaCl)
for regeneration of the softener exchange material. Softening units can be multiple
units where two or more units utilize the same regenerating brine tank to provide for
continuity of treatment during regeneration of a softening unit.”
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25 October 2004
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IPC CHAPTER 7 “SANITARY DRAINAGE” SUPPLEMENTS.
ED
A.
SECTION 712.3.1 Sump pump. Add after the last sentence: “Sump pumps
will be installed in pits below the lowest floor. Subsoil drains may discharge into this pit.
For Navy projects, provide a single pump unit where the function of the equipment is
not critical, and provide duplex pump units where the function of the equipment is
critical and also where six or more water closets are being served. When duplex pump
units are provided, the capacity of each pump is to be sufficient to meet the
requirements of the facility. For Army and Air Force projects, pumps with discharge
capacities in excess of 25 gallons per minute (1.6 L/s) and with a total head of at least
20 feet (6 m) will be of the duplex type.”
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B.
SECTION 712.3.2 Sump pit. Add after the last sentence: “Sumps are to
contain, in gallons, between the high level and low level operating switch settings
approximately twice the capacity of the sump pump, in gallons per minute. The depth
of the pit, below the finished floor, will be in even feet to conform to standard lengths of
submerged pump shafts.”
C.
SECTION 712.3.4 Maximum effluent level. Add after the last sentence: “A
high water alarm actuator is to be installed within sump and operate an audible or visual
alarm when the normal high-water level within sump has been exceeded.”
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D.
Add “SECTION 712.3.6 Controls. Automatic controls are to be provided for
each pump. Duplex pump units are to be equipped with controls to alternate the
operation of the pumps under normal conditions and to operate pumps simultaneously
when one pump cannot handle the flow.”
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E.
SECTION 712.4 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors. Add after the last
sentence: “Detailed requirements for pumps and ejectors will be in accordance with the
standards of the Hydraulic Institute. Where sewers are not of sufficient depth to drain
the lower floor fixtures by gravity, the main toilet rooms should be located on higher
floors. Sewage ejectors will be of the duplex pneumatic type and will be located in a
concrete pit below the lowest floor. Ejectors will utilize a high-velocity steam, air, or
water jet for ejecting the sewage. When the sewage must be pumped, duplex units will
be provided below the lowest floor in a concrete sump protected by a safety railing.
Duplex sewage pumps will be installed in a separate pump house when the sewage
from a group of buildings must be pumped and where it is not possible to install sewage
pumps in the buildings. Pump motors will be located so as not to become submerged
by an electrical service interruption. Packaged pumping systems installed in vertical dry
or wet basins with non-clog centrifugal pumps are acceptable, if the influent line leads
directly to the discharge line of both pumps and all incoming sewage passes through
self-cleaning screens. Auxiliary screens will be installed in influent lines within wet
wells, since built-in, self-cleaning screens of the pump discharge lines may not be able
to handle extreme peak flow conditions. Combination "T" and check valve
arrangements will be provided in the influent line to each pump to prevent raw sewage
from backing into incoming sewer lines, when pumps are operating.”
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
F.
SECTION 712.4.2 Capacity. Add after the last sentence: “The capacity will
be determined by the fixture unit method described in Section 710.”
G.
SECTION 715.5 Location. Add after the last sentence: “A gate valve shall
be installed on the sewer side of each backwater valve, and both will be installed in a
manhole.”
IPC CHAPTER 8 “INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE” SUPPLEMENTS.
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A.
SECTION 802.1.5 Nonpotable clear-water waste. Add after the last
sentence: “Clear water discharge from hydraulic elevator sump pumps will be
connected to the sanitary sewer drainage system through an indirect waste pipe by
means of a 2-inch (50 mm) air gap or directly through an oil/water separator to storm
sewer, or to grade outside the building, each in accordance with discharge permits,
regulations, and statutes.”
B.
Add “SECTION \7\802.1.8/7/ Arms vault and storage areas. Through-thewall drains with discharge to grade will be provided in arms vaults and storage areas
requiring dehumidification, to dispose of condensate water from dehumidifiers. When
such drains are not practicable, floor drains will be installed inside the vaults or storage
areas to provide for water removal.”
IPC CHAPTER 9 “VENTS” SUPPLEMENTS.
Delete “SECTION 917 AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES” in its entirety.
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B.
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C
A.
SECTION 901.1 Scope. Add after the last sentence: “A Philadelphia (one
pipe), air admittance valve system, engineered vent system, or a sovent (aerator) type
system shall not be permitted. For Army and Air Force projects, design of vent
systems will conform to Figure 901-1. A branch vent, circuit vent, individual vent,
common dual vent, loop vent, relief vent, or stack vent, or a combination of two or more
of these vents, is considered adequate protection for trap seals.”
C.
Delete “SECTION 918 ENGINEERED VENT SYSTEMS” in its entirety.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
IPC CHAPTER 10 “INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS” SUPPLEMENTS.
A.
\1\ \6\/6/ SECTION 1002.4 Trap Seals. Replace second sentence \7\/7/ with
the following: "Where a trap seal is subject to loss by evaporation, a deep-seal trap
consisting of a 4-inch (102 mm) seal or a trap seal primer valve shall be installed."
ED
B
SECTION 1003.1 Where required. Add after the last sentence: \7\“/7/
Interceptors will be installed underground outside the building. The area surrounding
interceptors will be paved and provided with suitable drainage facilities. Where design
temperatures are less than 0°F (–18°C), interceptors should be located within the
building, remote from the kitchen area. \7\”/7/
IPC CHAPTER 11 “STORM DRAINAGE” SUPPLEMENTS.
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A.
SECTION 1101.1 Scope. Add after the last sentence: “Storm drainage will
include roof drains, leaders, and conductors within the building and to a point 5 feet
(1-1/2 m) outside the building. This manual does not cover storm drainage outside
buildings and building perimeter foundation drainage systems.”
C
B.
SECTION 1104.2 Combining storm with sanitary drainage. Replace the
last sentence with the following: “When a combined drainage system is to be provided,
the systems should be maintained as separate systems within the building. Systems
should be combined outside of the building and preferably at a manhole.”
AN
C.
Add “SECTION 1104.4 Insulation of rainwater conductors. To prevent
condensation, insulate horizontal piping runs and roof drains inside the building with a
minimum of one-inch (25 mm) thick insulation”.
D.
SECTION 1106.1 General. Add after the last sentence: “For Army and Air
Force projects, roof drainage systems will be designed in accordance with rainfall
intensity-frequency data in UFC 3-230-01.
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IPC CHAPTER 12 “SPECIAL PIPING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS” SUPPLEMENTS.
A.
[For Army and Air Force projects only] Delete Chapter 12 “SPECIAL
PIPING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS” in its entirety. Central systems for medical gas
and vacuum will be in accordance with AFR 88-50, Criteria for Design and Construction
of Air Force Health Facilities.
IPC CHAPTER 13 “REFERENCED STANDARDS” SUPPLEMENTS.
A.
Delete the last sentence of the first paragraph.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
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IPC APPENDIX SUPPLEMENTS.
A.
APPENDIX A is not adopted for use by the DoD.
B.
APPENDIX B is adopted for use by the DoD.
C.
APPENDIX C is adopted for use by the DoD, where conditions may
warrant.
ED
D.
APPENDIX D is adopted for use by the DoD, except where it may conflict
with UFC 3-400-02 Engineering Weather Data, which prevails.
APPENDIX E is adopted for use by the DoD.
F.
APPENDIX F is adopted for use by the DoD.
G.
APPENDIX G is not adopted for use by the DoD.
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E.
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H.
Incorporate APPENDIX D of this manual as APPENDIX H of the IPC to
provide guidance for emergency shower and eyewash stations.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
APPENDIX B
GLOSSARY
A/E. Architect and Engineer
AFCESA. Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency
AGA. American Gas Association
ANSI. American National Standards Institute
API. American Petroleum Institute.
ED
\7\ /7/
AFR. Air Force Regulation
ASHRAE. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers,
Inc.
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ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers
\7\ ASSE American Society of Safety Engineers/7/
ASSE. American Society of Sanitary Engineering
ASTM. American Society of Testing and Materials
BOCA. Building Officials and Code Administrators International
CCB. Construction Criteria Base
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CEGS. Army Corps of Engineers Guide Specification
CFR. Code of Federal Regulations
DoD. Department of Defense
AN
ES/EWS. Emergency Shower and Eyewash Station
FAR. Federal Acquisition Regulations
FCCHR. Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research
FHD. First hour draw
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FHR. First hour rating
FM. Factory Mutual Corporation
GAMA. Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association
GFI. Ground Fault Interrupter
HI. Hydraulic Institute
HQUSACE. Headquarters, United States Army Corps of Engineers
ICBO. International Conference of Building Officials
ICC. International Code Council
IPC. International Plumbing Code®
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
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ISEA. International Safety Equipment Association
LCCA. Life cycle cost analysis
MIL-HDBK. Military Handbook
NAVFACENGCOM. Naval Facilities Engineering Command
\7\ /7/
NEMA. National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NFPA. National Fire Protection Association
NIST.
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NFGS. Naval Facilities Guide Specification
National Institute of Standards and Testing
NOAA. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
NSF.
National Sanitation Foundation
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NSTC. Navy Supplemental Technical Criteria
OICC. Officer in Charge of Construction
OSHA. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PDI. Plumbing and Drainage Institute
PPI. Plastic Pipe Institute
ROICC. Resident Officer in Charge of Construction
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SBCCI. Southern Building Code Congress International
SWH. Service Water Heater
TM. Technical Manual
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UEPH. Unaccompanied Enlisted Personnel Housing
UFAS. Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards
UFC. Unified Facilities Criteria
UL. Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
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UOPH. Unaccompanied Officers Personnel Housing
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UFC 3-420-01
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APPENDIX C
REFERENCES
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS:
1. Department of Defense
Surface Drainage Design/7/
\7\UFC 3-230-07A
Water Supply: Sources and General
Considerations/7/
\7\UFC 3-230-08A
Water Supply: Water Treatment/7/
\7\UFC 3-400-01
Energy Conservation/7/
Engineering Weather Data
UFC 3-460-01
Design: Petroleum Fuel Facilities
UFC 3-600-01
Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities
DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for
Buildings
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UFC 4-010-01
UFC 4-442-01N
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UFC 3-400-02
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\7\UFC 3-230-01
Design: Covered Storage
UFC 4-451-10N
Design: Hazardous Waste Storage
\7\UFGS 22 00 00
Plumbing, General Purpose/7/
\7\UFGS 23 03 00.00 20/7/
Basic Mechanical Materials and Methods
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2. Department Air Force
\7\ /7/
AFR 88-50
\7\ /7/
Criteria For Design and Construction of Air Force
Health Facilities
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Including change 8, October 27, 2009
3. Environmental Protection Agency
40 CFR 261
Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste
4. General Services Administration – Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards
Section 4.1.6
Accessible Buildings - Alterations
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5. Federal Specifications
WW-P-541
Plumbing Fixtures
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6. National Bureau of Standards (NBS), National Technical Information Service,
5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161, http://www.ntis.gov/
Publication COM 75-1045 (52 pages) Monograph 31
7. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Superintendent of
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402,
http://www.gpo.gov/
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Atlas II Precipitation Frequency Atlas of Western States
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8. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP), Buying
Energy Efficient Products (www.eere.energy.gov/femp/procurement).
9. Federal Register, http://www.gpoaccess.gov
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Executive Order \5\ 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and
Transportation Management,” dated January 24, 2007
Public Law 109-58
Energy Policy Act of 2005, 8 AUG 2005 /5/
\7\Public Law 110-140
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007/7/
NON-GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS:
1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI), \7\1819 L Street, NW, 6th Floor,
Washington, DC 20036/7/, http://www.ansi.org/
ANSI Z21.22
Relief Valves and Automatic Gas Shutoff Devices
for Hot Water Supply Systems
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Including change 8, October 27, 2009
\7\
2. American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE), 1800 East Oakton Street, Des
Plaines, IL 60018, http://www.asse.org/
ASSE Z87.1
(formerly ANSI Z87.1) /7/
Occupational Eye and Face Protection
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3. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE), \7\1791 Tullie Circle, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329/7/, http://www.ashrae.org/
Handbook, Fundamentals
Handbook, HVAC Applications
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Handbook, HVAC Systems and Equipment
Standard 90.1
Energy Standard For Buildings Except Low-Rise
Residential Buildings
4. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), \7\Three Park Avenue, New
York, NY 10016-5990/7/, http://www.asme.org/
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Graphic Symbols for Plumbing Fixtures for
Diagrams Used in Architecture and Building
Construction
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ASME Y32.4
Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures and Hydraulic
Requirements for Water Closets and Urinals
Section IV
Heating-Boilers
Section VIII
Pressure Vessels, Division 1
Safety Code CSD-1
Controls and Safety Devices for Automatically
Fired Boilers, Part CW, Article 5
ASME A112.19.2
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ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes Heating Boilers Pressure
5. American Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE), \7\901 Canterbury Road, Suite A,
Westlake, OH 44145 /7/, http://www.asse-plumbing.org/
Standard 1001
Pipe Applied Atmospheric Type Vacuum Breakers
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Standard 1011
Hose Connection Vacuum Breakers
Standard 1012
Backflow Preventer with Intermediate Atmospheric
Vent
Standard 1020
Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly
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6. Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research (FCCHR), USC
ATTN: BHE315, Los Angeles, CA 90098-0231, http://www.usc.edu/dept/fccchr/
FCCHR-01
Manual of Cross-Connection Control
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7. Hydraulic Institute (HI), \7\9 Sylvan Way, Parsippany, NJ 07054/7/,
http://www.pumps.org/
Hydraulic Institute Pump Standards For
Centrifugal, Vertical, Rotary and Reciprocating
Pumps
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8. International Code Council (ICC), Incorporated, \7\ 500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6
Floor, Washington, DC 20001-2070/7/, http://www.iccsafe.org/
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International Plumbing Code®
International Plumbing Code Commentary
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9. International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA), 1901 North Moore Street,
Arlington, VA 22209-1762, http://www.safetyequipment.org/
\3\
ISEA Z358.1
(2004) Emergency Eyewash and Shower
Equipment (formerly ANSI Z358.1)
/3/
10. Plumbing and Drainage Institute (PDI), \7\800 Turnpike Street, Suite 300, North
Andover, MA 01845/7/, http://www.pdionline.org/
PDI-WH201-\7\2006/7/
Water Hammer Arresters
11.
Plastic Pipe Institute (PPI), \7\105 Decker Court, Suite 825, Irving, TX 75062/7/,
http://plasticpipe.org/index.html
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PPI Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe
12. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA,
\7\02169-7471/7/, http://www.nfpa.org/
NFPA-75
Standard for the Protection of Electronic
Computer/Data Processing Equipment.
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13. International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO), 5001 E.
Philadelphia St., Ontario, CA 91761, http://www.iapmo.org
Plastic Plumbing Fixtures
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IAPMO Z124.9
(or ANSI Z124.9)
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APPENDIX D
DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR EMERGENCY SHOWER
AND EYEWASH STATIONS
NOTE: The format of English and metric unit measurements in Appendix D follow the
format of ANSI Z358.1 Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment.
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1.
Emergency Shower and Eyewash Stations (ES/EWS) – Provide ES/EWS
meeting \3\ ISEA /3/ Z 358.1 Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment where
required by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations or by
other competent authority, such as UFC’s, Military Handbooks, or Design Manuals.
Consult with the local station and engineering authorities, including the process,
environmental, and safety engineers, and the Industrial Hygienist about ES/EWS
locations, materials present, waste treatment systems available, and permits required.
Locate ES/EWS as close to the hazard as possible, within 10 to 20 ft (3 to 6 m) for
highly corrosive chemicals, but not more than 10 seconds or 100 feet (30 m) of
unobstructed travel away, whichever is lesser.
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a. For personnel protection within water-reactive hazardous materials storage
and handling areas, provide \7\ASSE Z87.1/7/ Occupational Eye and Face Protection
chemical splash goggles. Consider providing portable \3\ ISEA /3/ Z 358.1 personal
eyewash protection for use within the water-reactive area. Provide ES/EWS
immediately outside the water-reactive area, but not more than the 10 seconds or 100
feet (30 m) away from the work location. Ensure water from ES/EWS will not enter the
water-reactive area; this may require provision of partitions, walls, berms, trenches, or
curbs. The personal eyewash should be of the smallest reasonable volume necessary
to enable initial flushing on the way to the ES/EWS, to minimize the water-reactive
hazard due to spillage of the flushing fluid. A water-reactive material spill is the most
probable cause of the need for flushing, and the spillage of the flushing fluid provides
the other chemical needed to initiate the reaction. Carefully consider whether to
provide personal eyewash or not, and document the decision analysis. Personal
eyewash fluid presence may increase the risk of a water-reactive chemical event due to
risk of accidental personal eyewash fluid spill, and due to valid usage of personal
eyewash. Water-reactive materials are defined in UFC 4-451-10N Design: Hazardous
Waste Storage and UFC 4-442-01N Design: Covered Storage.
2. ALARMS - Provide a water flow-initiated alarm for each ES/EWS. For locations
where potable water is not available, provide personal eyewash protection and a
manually initiated alarm. Provide a local audible signal device, a silencing switch, and a
flashing strobe light for each ES/EWS and for each manual alarm, and optionally
provide central reporting of the alarm to a 24 hour per day manned location. Alarm
installations should be waterproof per NEMA Class 3. ES/EWS alarm systems in
hazardous (classified) locations, per National Electric Code, should be listed and
labeled for that purpose. Alarm audible signal devices should have a distinct sound,
different from other alarms in this and adjacent facilities. Mount alarm audible signal
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
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device, silencing switch, and strobe light on wall or ES/EWS column, immediately
above the level of the showerhead.
Alarms protect people by promptly summoning help, and protect stored materials,
equipment, and facilities by indicating or reporting ES/EWS activation, with its
attendant water flow.
3. FLOOR DRAINS - Floor drains for ES/EWS are not required by the International
Plumbing Code® (IPC) \7\2006/7/ edition, see Section 411.
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a. Owners and occupants prefer floor drains, for housekeeping and for material
and facility protection reasons.
The floor drain may become a source of illicit disposal of prohibited
substances. Careful supervision will be necessary.
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b. Floor drains may be provided. The Environmental Protection Agency
regulation, 40 CFR 261, describes “ ...the following mixtures of solid wastes and
hazardous wastes listed in Subpart D are not hazardous wastes...” “...“de minimis”
losses include ...” “...discharges from safety showers and rinsing and cleaning of
personal safety equipment;...”. Therefore, ES/EWS discharges may be drained to the
sanitary sewer system, as they are “de minimis” losses.
c. Floor drains, where provided, should comply with the following:
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1) Minimum capacity of 45 gallons per minute (2.8 L/s) water flow, based upon
1.5 times the \3\ ISEA /3/ Z 358.1 standard water flow minimum requirement.
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The floor drain must accommodate the full flow of the ES/EWS to avoid
spilling water over the containment curb, into the hazardous material storage
area, and to avoid damage to the material and the facility in case of
continuous ES/EWS operation.
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2) Floor drains should be provided with 4-inch (100 mm) deep seal traps.
Frequent testing of the ES/EWS, as required by \3\ ISEA /3/ Z 358.1, will refill the trap
seal.
The deep seal trap is provided to reduce the problem of the unused trap
drying out and allowing the back flow of sewer gases, fumes, and vermin into
the space. Weekly testing of the ES/EWS will be usage enough to refill the
trap seal; otherwise, provide an automatic trap priming valve connected to the
cold water supply to maintain the trap seal.
3) For HAZMAT areas, provide a 1.5 inch (37 mm) high ES/EWS containment
curb completely around the ES/EWS, slope the exterior (approach) face of the curb up
at a slope of 1/12 rise, but not more than 1 /8 rise per Uniform Federal Accessibility
Standards (UFAS) 4.1.6, mark the ES/EWS curb as a trip hazard per OSHA
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
regulations, and inform the personnel that the ES/EWS curb exists. Where ES/EWS
with floor drains are located within hazardous material (hazmat) spill containment
bermed or curbed areas, provide the crest of the ES/EWS curb to be 1.5 inch (37 mm)
higher than the surrounding HAZMAT area curb, to ensure spills do not enter the floor
drain. See Figure D-1
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The ES/EWS containment curb protects the floor drain from accidental spills in
the surrounding HAZMAT area. The ES/EWS curb also protects the stored
HAZMAT materials and facility from accumulated ES/EWS water flow by
directing the flow into the floor drain.
4) In HAZMAT areas, post a placard at each ES/EWS stating: “NO
DUMPING. This drain discharges untreated into the sanitary sewer, contact Activity
Environmental Office for proper disposal of spilled material or waste.”
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The placard provides the occupants with sufficient information to avoid
inadvertent “spills” caused by using the floor drain as a convenient sink for
cleanup of spilled materials. Revise the wording to correctly indicate the
discharge destination and any treatment system it passes through, such as a
neutralization tank or an oil-water separator.
d. Floor drains, where provided, should connect to drain as follows:
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1) Extraordinary hazard materials - such as poisons, should not discharge into
a drain system. Utilize the HAZMAT spill containment curb system to contain the
ES/EWS water flow. Provide remote alarm reporting to a central manned station.
Immediate action is required to prevent poison contaminated water from spreading
throughout the facility.
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The floor drain is omitted to prevent inadvertent exposure of persons
downstream of the floor drain from unknowingly contacting the potentially
poisonous runoff. The hazardous material spill response team answering the
alarm will be aware of the hazards and capable of taking appropriate
measures for self-protection. If the HAZMAT spill containment curbed area
has insufficient volume to hold a minimum of 30 minutes of ES/EWS water
flow, provide a floor drain to an above ground holding tank sized to hold at
least 30 minutes of flow. Properly label the piping and the tank as holding
poisonous fluids. Provide a HAZMAT spill containment berm around the
holding tank. Provide an ES/EWS containment curb around the floor drain to
preclude fire protection water from flooding the floor drain holding tank and
tank berm. ES/EWS curb to be 1.5 inches (37 mm) higher than the HAZMAT
curb.
2) Plating shops - Drain to the proper industrial waste treatment system.
Segregate cyanide wastes, including ES/EWS drainage, from all acid wastes.
Segregate hexavalent chromium wastes, including ES/EWS drainage, from all caustics
and cyanides. Where the shower is located in a multiple use area, such as a material
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
handling or shipping/receiving area, drain to the proper industrial waste treatment
system.
3) Battery rooms or shops - Drain to the proper neutralization tank, if provided;
otherwise, drain to the sanitary sewer system. Segregate caustics from the NickelCadmium-Alkali battery area, including ES/EWS drainage, from acids. Segregate acids
from the Lead- Acid battery area, including ES/EWS drainage, from caustics. Do not
allow mixing of acid and alkali wastes in the drains.
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4) Oily Waste shops - Drain to the oil/water separator, if provided; otherwise,
drain to the sanitary sewer system. Typical oily waste shops include the following: paint
shops and hangers, paint mix rooms, paint equipment rooms, engine shops, ground
support equipment shops, refueler shops, Public Works automotive shops, locomotive
and crane shops.
5) Miscellaneous materials - Drain to the sanitary sewer system.
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6) Exterior ES/EWS in HAZMAT areas - Slope impervious-surfaced grade to
drain to a bermed or curbed impervious-surfaced area to allow cleanup without
“spillage” to the environment; or provide a floor drain connected to an appropriate drain
system, and an enclosure with roof to preclude storm water entry into the floor drain.
Provide the ramp, curb, and grate around the floor drain, to preclude surface drainage
into the floor drain.
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Note: All drain connections must comply with all national, State, local, and DoD
regulations. Coordinate this issue with the local authorities per paragraph 1 above.
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4. PIPED DRAINS - Piped drains for eyewash stations (EWS) are not required by the
International Plumbing Code® (IPC) \7\2006/7/ edition, see Section 411.
a. Owners and occupants prefer piped drains for EWS for housekeeping
purposes.
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b. Piped drains for EWS may be provided. The Environmental Protection
Agency regulation, 40 CFR 261, describes “ ...the following mixtures of solid wastes
and hazardous wastes listed in Subpart D are not hazardous wastes...” “...“de
minimis” losses include ...” “...discharges from safety showers and rinsing and
cleaning of personal safety equipment;...”. Therefore, EWS discharges may be
drained to the sanitary sewer system, as they are “de minimis” losses.
c. Piped drains, where provided, should comply with the following:
1) Piped full size from waste tee. See Figure D-1.
2) Piped drains should be provided with 4-inch (100 mm) deep seal traps.
Frequent testing of the EWS, as required by \3\ ISEA /3/ Z 358.1, will refill the trap
seal.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
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The deep seal trap is provided to reduce the problem of the unused trap
drying out and allowing the back flow of sewer gases, fumes, and vermin into the
space. Weekly testing of the EWS will be usage enough to refill the trap seal;
otherwise, provide an automatic trap priming valve connected to the cold water
supply to maintain the trap seal.
d. Piped drains, where provided, should connect to drain as follows:
ED
1) Extraordinary hazard materials - such as poisons, should not discharge into
a drain system. Utilize the HAZMAT spill containment curb system to contain the
EWS water flow. Provide remote alarm reporting to a central manned station.
Immediate action is required to prevent poison contaminated water from spreading
throughout the facility.
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The piped drain is omitted to prevent inadvertent exposure of persons
downstream of the piped drain from unknowingly contacting the potentially
poisonous runoff. The hazardous material spill response team answering
the alarm will be aware of the hazards and capable of taking appropriate
measures for self-protection. If the HAZMAT spill containment curbed area
has insufficient volume to hold a minimum of 30 minutes of EWS water
flow, provide a piped drain to an above ground holding tank sized to hold
at least 30 minutes of flow. Properly label the piping and the tank as
holding poisonous fluids. Provide a HAZMAT spill containment berm
around the holding tank.
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2) Plating shops - Drain to the proper industrial waste treatment system.
Segregate cyanide wastes, including EWS drainage, from all acid wastes.
Segregate hexavalent chromium wastes, including EWS drainage, from all caustics
and cyanides. Where the EWS is located in a multiple use area, such as a material
handling or shipping/receiving area, drain to the proper industrial waste treatment
system.
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3) Battery rooms or shops - Drain to the proper neutralization tank, if provided;
otherwise, drain to the sanitary sewer system. Segregate caustics from the NickelCadmium-Alkali battery area, including EWS drainage, from acids. Segregate acids
from the Lead- Acid battery area, including EWS drainage, from caustics. Do not
allow mixing of acid and alkali wastes in the drains.
4) Oily Waste shops - Drain to the oil/water separator, if provided; otherwise,
drain to the sanitary sewer system. Typical oily waste shops include the following:
paint shops and hangers, paint mix rooms, paint equipment rooms, engine shops,
ground support equipment shops, refueler shops, Public Works automotive shops,
locomotive and crane shops.
5) Miscellaneous materials - Drain to the sanitary sewer system.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
6) Exterior EWS in HAZMAT areas - Slope impervious-surfaced grade to drain
to a bermed or curbed impervious-surfaced area to allow cleanup without “spillage”
to the environment; or provide a piped drain connected to an appropriate drain
system.
Note: All drain connections must comply with all national, State, local, and DoD
regulations. Coordinate this issue with the local authorities per paragraph 1 above.
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5. ELECTRICAL - Provide Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) protection for dedicated heat
tape circuit, if provided, and for all electrical power outlets within 6 feet (1.8 m) of an
ES/EWS and below the elevation of the showerhead.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Figure D-1. Emergency Shower and Eyewash Details
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
APPENDIX E
DOMESTIC WATER HEATERS FOR ARMY
BARRACKS
1. Purpose. This appendix provides basic design guidance for the sizing of
domestic water heaters for barracks buildings at Army installations.
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2. Background. There have been questions regarding the sizing for domestic
water heaters for barracks. Designers have often used ASHRAE design
criteria for motels or dormitories with some over sizing. However the peak
demand for domestic hot water in barracks is significantly larger than motels
or dormitories due to the concentrated shower pattern of the occupants. This
appendix provides a uniform approach to determine domestic water heating
requirements for Army barracks, and will be used for the planning, design
and construction of new and renovated facilities.
a. General
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3. Guidance.
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(1) As with any domestic water heating system, storage tank
temperature should be maintained at a minimum of 60°C
(140°F) to reduce the potential for Legionella Pneumophila
(Legionnaire's Disease). Note that higher storage temperatures
will result in a lower recovery rate to satisfy the peak demand.
Include a cross connection with a mixing valve between the
domestic water supply and hot water supply lines (leaving the
storage tank) to limit the temperature of water distributed to
plumbing fixtures to 43°C (110°F). Require a strainer upstream
of the thermostatic mixing valve on both the hot- and cold-water
connections to protect the small orifice in the mixing valve from
debris that may be in either line.
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(2) If a backflow preventer is installed in the domestic water main
entering a building or in the line supplying the domestic hot
water system, include provisions to accommodate thermal
expansion. In barracks this can be critical as occupants often
shower at the same time and after this peak usage event, the
hot water loop will be at a relatively low temperature. During the
subsequent recovery phase the water temperature will rise
causing the water to expand. If little hot water is being used,
this expansion will cause a pressure increase that may activate
a relief valve or rupture the storage tank. The best method to
alleviate this excess pressure is to install an expansion tank,
sized in accordance with Chapter 12 of the 1996 ASHRAE
Systems and Equipment handbook.
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25 October 2004
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(3) Normally if a central energy plant is available it will be life cycle cost
effective (an analysis must be performed) to generate domestic hot water
using distributed media as the heat source. If there is no central plant or if the
plant does not operate during the nonheating season provide a separate
domestic hot water source. If the site consists of several barracks buildings,
evaluate the life cycle cost of these alternatives:
(a) A single boiler to provide low temperature hot water, 94°C (200°F) to
heat exchangers in each barracks for domestic hot water generation.
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(b) A single heating source for domestic hot water in each individual
barracks separately.
If the barracks building is not part of a building complex and there is no
central plant or distribution system available then a single heating source
must be provided.
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b. Calculations: The following information applies to all types of domestic
water heating systems for barracks.
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(1)\2\ Peak Demand: Design for the case where all occupants are taking
showers at essentially the same time. Public law limits the maximum flow
from of each showerhead and private lavatory faucet to 0.16 Lps (2.5 gpm). It
is assumed during peak demand that the shower runs for 7.5 minutes and
the lavatory runs for 2 minutes. As a result, the peak domestic hot water
demand (at Ts) can be found using equation (1) below:
p

− Tc 

= (h)(occ)( P) T d

−
T
c 
T
 s

(1)
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V
/2/where:
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VP = volume of domestic hot water required at peak, L (gal).
h = number of shower heads, ea.
Occ = number of occupants using each shower, ea.
Td = temperature of water delivered to shower valve = 43°C (110°F)
Ts = temperature of water in storage tank, degrees C (degrees F)
\2\Tc = temperature of cold water supply /2/
P = amount of water used per occupant during peak demand, 90.0
L/occupant (23.75 gal/occupant)
Note that there is no diversity in the number of occupants in the building.
The peak volume of domestic hot water is calculated assuming 100%
building occupancy. Also note that equation (1) does not take laundry or
dining facilities into account. Add additional hot water requirements if
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laundry or dining facilities will be requiring hot water during the peak
demand period.
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(2) Tank Size: Once the peak demand is known, the tank capacity and
corresponding recovery rate can be determined. Since space in the
mechanical room is frequently limited, select the desired tank capacity
first. An initial estimate of tank size can be determined by using 50 L per
occupant (12.5 gal per occupant). Normally a selection of 50 L (12.5 gal)
will provide acceptable operation at a reasonable cost but it should be
noted that other factors including larger tank sizes and higher storage
temperatures will reduce amount of recovery required. Larger tank sizes
and increased storage temperatures will also result in greater heat loss
from the storage tank. Compare selected tank size to standard tank
capacities available commercially and with the space available in the
mechanical room.
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(3) Recovery Rate: Once the tank capacity is known, the recovery
rate can be calculated. The recovery rate is the quantity of
water to be heated from the inlet temperature to the desired
storage temperature. The difference between the inlet water
temperature and the water storage temperature is often
assumed to be 55°C (100°F). However, this temperature
difference should be coordinated with local conditions and
revised as necessary. Equation (2) below is used to
determine the required recovery rate:
V
p
− (M
S)
t
d
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R=
(2)
where:
R = recovery rate at the required temperature, Lps, (gph).
M = ratio of usable water to storage tank capacity (60 - 80%)
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St = storage tank capacity (initial estimate), L (gal) = (h)(occ)
d = duration of the peak, (seconds) =
50 L
occupant
9.5 min
60 sec
occ
occupant
min
The duration is calculated assuming that the peak usage period will be
9.5 minutes per occupant. Therefore, if two occupants share a bathroom
the duration is 19 minutes, 3 occupants would be 28.5 minutes, etc.
Note \2\1: The recovery rate is an output condition. Insure that manufacturer's data for
the hot water generation unit indicates sufficient input capacity to satisfy the recovery
E-3
UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
rate with actual design inlet water and storage temperatures.
Note 2: The tank size may be adjusted up or down to accommodate available tank
sizes or available recovery capacities. A smaller tank size yields a higher recovery rate.
Simply enter the desired tank size into equation 2 and solve for the required recovery
rate. Verify that the combination of tank size and recovery rate is commercially
available./2/
ED
(4) Pipe Sizes: The next component to be sized in the system is the
domestic hot water distribution piping. Appendix A of the 1997 National
Standard Plumbing Code, Chapter 45 of the ASHRAE Handbook Applications 1995 and Chapter 33 of the ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 1997 provide an ample set of resources on this topic.
Therefore, this appendix will not discuss this process.
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L
(5) Domestic Hot Water Circulation Pump: After the domestic hot
water distribution piping has been sized, the domestic hot water
circulation pump can be sized. This pump is used to circulate the
domestic hot water through the distribution piping system. Size the pump
using equation (3) below:
Q
where:
p
=
q
cρ c p ∆T
C
Qp = pump capacity, Lps (gpm)
q = heat loss in the piping system, kW (BTUH)
kW ⋅ sec
min
(60
)
kJ
hr
AN
c = constant, 1
ρ = density of water, 0.9971
kg
lb
(8.33
)
L
gal
C
cp = specific heat of water, 4.18
BTU
kJ
(1
)
lb ⋅ ° F
kg ⋅ K
ΔT = allowable temperature drop through the system, K (°F)
Equation (3) can be simplified to:
E-4
(3)
UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Q
=
p
Q
q
kW ⋅ sec 

 4.1679
∆T
L⋅K 

=
(4-SI)
q
(4-IP)

BTUH 
 500
∆T
gpm ⋅ ° F 

Heat loss in the piping system (q) can be calculated using Table 2 in
Chapter 45 of the ASHRAE Handbook - Applications 1995. However, a
common rule of thumb is 0.032 kW/m (30 BTUH/ft.).
ED
p
The allowable temperature drop through the piping system (ΔT) is usually 2
to 5K (5 to 10°F). It is recommended to use 2K (5°F) to assure that sufficient
hot water is provided for all occupants under peak conditions.\2\/2/
EL
L
c. Systems using a separate hot water generation unit and storage tank:
The following information applies to systems using a separate storage tank
and forced circulation type water heater, boiler or heat exchanger to generate
and store domestic hot water. A forced circulation type water heater is similar
to a boiler in that it is designed to heat domestic water as it passes through a
series of coils rather than heating water in a storage tank but is designed for
generating domestic hot water only.
AN
C
(1) Locate the storage tank and hot water generation unit in the same
mechanical room whenever possible. This keeps the head requirements at a
minimum for the pump circulating water between the hot water generation
unit and the storage tank.
C
(2) Require the domestic water supply be connected in the line supplying
hot water to the storage tank. This allows the cold water to mix with the
warmer water in the storage tank before entering the boiler, minimizing
problems associated with condensation and thermal stress and improving
overall system efficiency. Require a submittal from the manufacturer
addressing whether a thermostatically controlled bypass line between the
boiler supply and return lines or other means are needed to preclude the
possibility of thermal shock to the boiler.
(3) If a forced circulation type water heater or boiler is used, equation (3)
again can be used to size the circulation pump between the heater and the
storage tank. In this case limit the temperature differential to no greater than
16K (30°F) to minimize problems with condensation and thermal stress and
improve overall system efficiency. Also note that the sizing of the circulation
pump must account for the heating of the domestic cold water being
E-5
UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
provided. Therefore, the value of q required to use equation (3) is found with
equation (5):
q = qpipe + (R c ρ cp ΔTt)
(5)
where:
qpipe = heat loss in the piping between the boiler and the storage tank, kW
(BTUH)
ED
ΔTt = temperature difference between the tank water and the make-up water,
K (°F)
Determine actual storage tank and domestic water supply temperatures based
on local requirements. If the water in the tank is assumed to be 60°C (140°F)
and the make-up water is 4°C (40°F), equation (5) can be simplified to:
(5-SI)

BTUH 

q = qpipe +  Rx50,000
gpm 

(5-IP)
EL
L
kW ⋅ sec 

q = qpipe +  Rx 233.402

L 

C
AN
C
The new value of q can then be inserted into equation (3) to determine the
required flow rate for the pump. Compare this flow rate with the minimum
flow rates required for boiler or water heater operation and require the larger
of the two values. Once the required flow rate is known, the pressure drop for
the circulation pump can be determined. The resources listed in paragraph
6.b(4) (Pipe Sizes) give adequate information on calculating the pressure
drop through the piping. However, several manufacturers should be
contacted to determine the pressure drop through the water heater or boiler.
This value will vary widely between different manufacturers. Therefore, the
circulation pump should be sized to overcome the highest pressure drop.
However, flow rates over or under those required by the boiler or water
heater manufacturer can reduce the efficiency of the unit. As a result, the
drawings should indicate the pump characteristics used for the design. Then
add a note indicating that the pump is to be sized by the boiler or water
heater manufacturer with the horsepower requirements not to exceed those
listed in the schedule.
(4) If a heat exchanger is used, size the circulation pump based on the
flow required for the heat exchanger to meet the recovery calculated in
equation (3) and the heat lost through the piping.
E-6
UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
d. Sample Computations:
(1) Given:
(2) Find:
EL
L
ED
h = 36 shower heads
occ= 2 occupants per shower
Td =43°C (110°F)
TS = 60°C (140°F)
\2\ Tc = 4.4oC (40oF)/2/
M = 75% useable tank capacity
ΔT = 5K (9°F) Maximum temperature drop through distribution system.
ΔTt= 54K (97°F)
Piping system consists of:
9 meters of 50 mm pipe
6 meters of 25 mm pipe
15 meters of 20 mm pipe
A separate tank and hot water boiler will be used.
qpipe = 0.10 kW = 341.18 BTUH
(a) Peak domestic hot water demand, L
(gal).
C
AN
C
(b) Storage tank size, L (gal).
(c) Recovery rate required given the tank size selected, Lps
(gph).
(d) Flow rate required for domestic hot water circulation
pump.
(e) Flow rate required for boiler circulation pump.
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UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
(3) Solution:
(a) Peak Domestic Hot Water Demand:

  T d − Tc 
90

h
occ
=
 occupant  
p

  T s − Tc 
V
p
V
p
ED
V
 2occupants  90 L  43°C − 4.4°C 

= (36heads )


 occupant  60°C − 4.4°C 
 head
EL
L
= 4499 L(1188 gal )
(b) Initial Storage Tank Size:
t
 2occupants  50 L 

= (36heads)

 head
 occupant 
= 3600 L(951gal )
C
S
S
t
AN
Use 2 tanks of 1893 L (500.0 gal) each to fit into the available space.
(c) \2\Initial Recovery Rate:
C
 9.5 min 
 60 sec 
(2occupants)
d = 
 = 1140 sec
 min 
 occupant 
R=
4499 L − (75% x 2eachx1893L)
= 1.46 Lps (1388 gph or 23 gpm)
1140 sec
(d) Flow rate for domestic hot water /2/circulation pump (heat loss through piping is
0.629 kW):
E-8
UFC 3-420-01
25 October 2004
Including change 8, October 27, 2009
Q
p
=
0.629kW
= 0.0302 Lps (0.48 gpm)
kW ⋅ sec 

 4.1679
5 K
L⋅K 

kW ⋅ sec 

q = qpipe +  Rx 233.402

L 

ED
(e) \2\Flow rate for boiler circulation pump:
p
=
340.87 kW
= 5.11 Lps (81.0 gpm/2/
kW ⋅ sec 

16 K
 4.1679
L⋅K 

C
AN
C
Q
EL
L
L
kW ⋅ sec 

q = 0.1kW + 1.46
x 233.402
 = 340.87kW
sec
L 

E-9
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