l llustratc

l llustratc
l llu stra tc ~ j1la g a~ittt of
lQ racti re
(.·Lll Ri g hts 1'C8C l'l'<'li.]
S _-\.'r URDA Y, NOYE :JIUE R U,
YoL. I.-Xo . J-!.J
l S ~9.
; - ---- - -·- - ~ "\
' - - -· · ·.· - •-=:--,:-,,
...•- .•.--
1" 1~. -!.
--·- --- -
F ig. 5.
I '
--L ~ ~ . tJ ... ~---· - -~ --- - --~~L -~ ~ - -- ~ ---
F ig. G.
Fig. 7.
. 10
F ig. 11.
A lOLDllfG COMBINED COOKING STOVE AND OVEN. (For .De.~rriplion, 1w m>.rt pa[le.) Flg. 1.- Appara tus shown comple te and opened out. ready for
UM u Onn or Cooking Stove. Plg. 2.- Appara tus shown
closed and folded up. Flg. 3.- Appara tus shown cut ln half and e • biblting Interior
at Back. Pl~. t .- llethod of flXln' Top and Bottom Centre Rod. Fig. 5.- Diagram showing Corner befor e being bent and rolled.
Fig. 6. - Corner
after ben dtnr and roJUn~. Flga. 7 and a.- Suitable Ha.ndles for fitting on Apparat us. Figs. 9 and 10.-Dia grams showing mode
of making
laucepa n Handlea. ~. 11.-Bra cket to support Rod on which Oven Bottom revolve s.
"THE early bird catches the worm." If this
is so, it proves that there is not so nmch
good advice contain ed in the proverb as is
genera lly su.Pposed, for the worm, althoug h
an earlier n ser than the bird, meets with
very great disadv antage s from rising so
early. But perhap s it may be arpued that
the ''early bird catches the worm' at home,
before it- the worm -has started out for its
day's business. However, whichever side of
the questio n is right, a great deal may be
both in fo. vour of and agains t early
• •
n smg.
My purpos e in this article is to lay a few
suggestions before the reader, whereb y he
may profit if he be an early riser. I know
several young men . who have to start to
their work before six o'clock in the morning.
One of them is a sin~ le lodger} and J?repa.res
his own breakf ast; tne other~ ive wtth their
parents . Now, as it is necessary for them
to rise at so early an hour, with the one
exceptiont they have not time to cook their
own breaKfasts, so that that task devolves
upon the mother, who probab ly retires to
r est after she has satisfied her son, and has
no need to rise again until two or three
hours afterwa rds. By allowin g the mother ,
or sister, as the case may be, to have her
rest compar atively undistu rbed, would not
encoura~e idleness, for it may be safely presumed tnat what 1s needed to be done will
be done.
H ow nice then for the son when he rises
t o prepare his own meal withou t taking up
much of his time, and withou t disturb ing
the rest of any one else ! There are numer ous small handy cooking stoves about, and
there is no reason whatev er to be urged
Bt,rrninst their use, instead of lightin g a coal
I ha>e designed the cooking appara tus
h ere shown so that it can be used as an
ovt:n, or for boiling water, and frying any
necessaries or luxurie s · it can be also comp ressed, and carried backwa rds and forwar ds
to work, or stowed away in some corner.
Very little require s to be said about the
mea.c;urements, the sizes of course being
optional. If made 15 in. square, I think
that would be a very convenient size. It
will be .o bserved t hat the top and bottom
fold togethe r, while the two sides extend
out,l'ar ds. The rods round which the sides
are bent should not be very thick, but they
must be firm and strong.
:Fig. 5 shows how each corner of the back
a?d fn;mt should be cut, so that when each
p1ece 1s bent round the rods they will fit
properly, as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 4 shows
the centre rod at the top, the bottom one being
similar. T hey should be a few inches longer
than t he others, and should be hamme red
fiat at the ends, and bent at right an"'les · it
will then be found that they keep the st~ve
compact. 11'or the benefit of those who do
not ·. know, I may as well give a h int for
cuttmg the edges that are to fit round the
r ods ; whatever the diamet er of the rods
the pieces which bend r ound them should
be three times the widt h of the diameter·
thuH, if tha rod is ~ in. thickb the :pieces to b~
cut out .at the sides should e {· m., leaving
tho&e ptec~s pr~jecti ng (as shown in Figs.
4 and 5) i m. wtde to bend round them.
I have tshown the a11para tus as an oven as
well for thoHe who may desire it, but I
should not like to say I expect it to pos8688 all the merits of the tsmo.ll portabl e
ovens t hat are now so largely made ; but,
if well made, I see no reason why it should
not answer itH purpos e satisfac torily. If no
oven is required, the stove should not be
made quite so hi~h, and the top only shouJd
fold in, the two s1des and bottom extend ing
outwar ds.
For the bottom of the oven I ltave shown
two flaps (Fig. 3). Each should be about
9 in. wide, and one should be fixed slightly
higher than the other, so as to overlap it.
The small iron bracke ts shown should be
soldere d on to the inside of the two narrow
middle side pieces, while on the outside of
these pieces is a small knob, to facilita te
openin g and foldin~ the entire article.
I should not advtse the amatem to try his
hand at the saucep ans and frying pans.
He can buy them already made, and can use
his skill by fixing the movabl e handle I
have shown in Figs. 9 and 10. A firm hollow rim should so round the tops of the
above named arttcles, to sulJport them in
their positions. Where the tandle is to go
a piece should be cut out. The handle
is an ordina ry one, and is fastene d into a
piece of metal, the end of which has been
bent round to the same diamet er as the
rim. A hole should be made in the rim on
either side of the handle , so as to admit a
short piece of strong wire to fix the handle
in positio n. Saucep an handle s are frequently a source of great inconvenience, and
as there is not likely to be much weight
brough t to bear upon the::;e, I think they will
be an advant age.
Fig. 11 shows the shape of the suppor ts
to be fixed to the inside of the st.ove, upon
which the flaps composing the oven bottom
revolve. Fig. 7 is intende d as a handle for
carryin g the whole affair about ; I haYe not
shown it in anv of my drawin gs, but it will
be found useful. Pieces are fixed at either
side of the stove, one having a slot in it,
throng h which runs the long top piece. A
small piece must be cut out of the side of
each of the three top openings, to allow the
handle admitt ance ; and I believe it will
be found that the ventila tion throug h these,
when the affair is used as an oven, will be
quite sufficient.
I say nothin g here about the lamps; that
must be left to the reader, as they can be
obtaine d anywh ere and everywhere: neither
do I speak of the door fasteni ng i the wOt·king of it must be appare nt to all, and the
hinge will be precisely the same in constru ction as the.cor ners of the stove.
The job should be made in tin, with the
oven bottom of iron.
SoME time since a practic al man recommende d the use of Americ an cloth or leather
as a surfo~ce for the sign writer to work
upon. I have never given it a trial, but we
all know the materia l, as it is frequen tly
seen on the cottager's table, and also in
many kitchens. I have, I should say, used
it for tempor ary purpos es many times, such
as a bazaar or fancy fair announ cemen t
t aking place at a public hall, but in such
cases tlie cloth has merely been stretch ed
on to a frame, and the letters hnve been
painted direct on to the black shining
surface. This, though , is a simple expedi ent
as a cheap substit ute fo r a proper signboard, and is entirel y different from the
.[Work- Ko,·em hcr 9, l SS!l.
method employed by my practic al friend.
which I will now describe.
The face of the sign board should 1'e
covered with the bC!)t stout r\111cricnn
cloth, which is made to adhere, fir:-;t of nU,
to the board with bootma ker's pa::;tc, vi:r_,
glue, flour, and alum. The cloth m u:-;t J,c
of sufficie nt dimensions to lap orct· tL~
edges of the board where it is closely tackul
down all round with tinned tacks. 1)o w•t
on any accoun t use iron or blue tark s, as
they mst and very soon rot the fa.lJric.
The cloth shonlcl dry out perfectly taut nncl
free from wrinkles. We next paint the
edges of the board where the tacks arc with
a good round coat of red and white katl
mixed as a furth er prescrvati,·e, taking
care to keep the front of the cloth surface •
clean. The mouldings, which have alrt:ady
been primed and received one coat of paint,
are next tacked on, and the nail h ol e~,
ioints, etc., well stoppe d with putty. 'l'lte
'back of the board and the beading:;, etr.,
next receive three good coa.ts of paint made
up into a slate colour, with black and white
aud red lead. The cloth itself, being of a
shiny and hard non-porous surface, require s
but two thin coats of paint, mixed with
equal quantit ies of copal varnish, raw linseed
oil, and turpent ine. This first coat ntU!'It be
allowed to get perfect ly hard, when it is
lightly glasS-J)apered with Oakey' s No. 0 or
N o. l, and it 1s then ready to receive its
second coat. If the sign 1s to be written
on before varnishing, it should be "flntte d"
in the same colour as used for the first
coats, and, after getting thorou ghly hard, it
is ready for " setting out'' the matter
thereon. The medium for binding on the
ftatting should be copal varnish, which must
also be used for fini shing off the sign.
I do not myself think this method
possesses any lasting qualities. It is, nevertheless, a handy dodge for covering up very
old and badly cracked name-boards over
shop fronts where the tenant does not care
to go to the expense of having a new board
inserte d.
In conclud ing this subject , I cannot do
better than quote the method employed by
Mr. \Villiam Suther land of Manch ester, one
of the best workers, and a recognised
author ity on all matters relatin r• to sign
writing , marblin g, and its kindred arts,
that we have in the provinces. I shaH
call attenti on to the literary work of this
gentlem an at the end of these articles
when recommending an advanc ed textbook on the sign-writer's art.
"A signboard requires to be as smoothly
got up as any other descrip tion of painterl
work, and the clearer the polish or lu stre~
and the freer from nits or grit it is, the
better the work afterwa rds put upon it.
will look. This is especially the case when
the letters are gilt. The smoother the surface,
the brighte r and more lustrou s will be its
burnish . It should, therefore, be pointed
out that, althoug h there will be some extra
labour required to get up the work properly,
its appear ance when finishe d will amply
repay the trouble bestowed upon it. . .. · •
The first thing to do will be to kill. tb
knots, but there never should be any lD a.
signboard, it being always a serious defect;
for no covering in the shape of pa.tc~t
knottin g or glue and red lead, et~., will
preven t a resmou s knot from showmg on I
the surface if exposed to the sun's ra~. "'
And the only effectual cure in. these c:ases 18f
to cut out the knot and let m a p1ece o
sound wood in its plac<l. . . . . . For
primin~, use any of tho dark reds ~r brow!ls,
red ox1de, purple brown, etc., m1xed with
Work-November 9, 18S9.]
raw oil The second and third coats should
be bro~ also, but mix~d wit~ one-t!llrd
tnrps to two-thirds of oil, havmg o. httle
liquid dryers added to harden it. All. the
paint used should be carefully stramed
before bein" used, and well rubbed down
between ea~ coat. If this is not done, we
are apt to accumulate on the surface of the
board a quantity. of coarse particles of
colour and skins of paint which are afterwards very ciifficult to get rid of. . . . . .
. To finish the board off with a black
ground, we first give the sign a bare coat of
, black oil colour upon the previous t.hree
coats of brown. We then grmd drop black
in turpentine, stiffish, and then add sufficient Ja,paoners' gold size or varnish to
bind 1t, and with t.his. carefully coat the
sirn over. When th1s 1s dry and hard, we
fi~h with one or two coats of copal
' b."
In writin~ a. fresh inscription upon an old
signboard,· 1t is frequently found to be
necessary to clean off all the old material,
and otherwise "doctor" it, before it can be
made fit for repainting.
The old paint
must, therefore, be burnt off \vith the spirit
torch, and the board well rubbed down with
some sharp new glass-paper until smooth.
All boles, cracks, and other imperfections,
should next be made good with white lead
and putty, and the knots freshly coated
with the usual preparation. The board
should now be primed with red and white
lead, ha.lf and half, with the usual quantity
of oil and turps. I am always in favour of
this priming for a.ll new work, as it has
such protecting power and soon dries quite
hard, whilst the oxides of iron and the
earths have little or any body in them, and
arel consequently, unfitted for withstanding
ana resistmg the climatic changes of any
A few words of caution here may, perhaps,
be the means of preventing a few young
hands from making bad work the r esult of
their first efforts :1. Always use raw linseed oil for the face
of sign boards.
. 2. Always use pure, uncoloured turpen-
3. Always use the sa.me dryer throughout
a job, and d o not use one kind in one coat
of paint and another in the next or finishing
coat : the difterent chemical actions of the
two substances will not agree, and very
likely ca.use the paint to crack, etc.
4. For the same reasons, always use the
llOJlle quality of varnish and the best
procurable : outside copal and outside oa.k.
The best boatbuilders' varnish will be found
an excellent prCl:lerva.tive when the board is
varnished before lettering, as it is made
with the special object of r esisting water
and the sun's action. As it is somewhat
~lark, I cannot recommend it for varnishIng after lettering or on a. light-coloured
5. Well strain your pa.ints and pigments.
6. Do not use boiled oil, except for the
back of your signboards.
7. Let each coat get thoroughly ha.rd
before applying the next-quite hard, and
not merely dry.
8. Also, never rub down with glass-paper
until quite hard, and be careful not to rub
portions of the previous coat " up" or "clean
oft',, or your surfa.ce is spoilt.
9. La:st a.nd most important : do not ha.ve
~t too thick or containing too much
Do not let each coat be too roun<iL: it
better be laid on too sparingly t~an
Well work each coatabout with
bruah in every direction, and finish by
S ilfiTHS'
''laying off" evenly in one direction nncl
with a. light hand, leaving no hru~h mnrks.
This last remark also applies to Ynmi:-;hing.
This rule must be uttended to in order to
prevent the sign from blistering.
Much might here be said as to the general
tints and shades of colour which show otf
the lettering to the best advantage, but as
space is limited, a great deal must he leit to
individual taste and knowledge. For g0ltl
lettering, a black grouudwork is always tho
most etrective, as the letters show up
plainly at whatever nnglo they ll1:1y be
viewed from ; this is n tlt so with a white ot·
any other light ~ronn tl. Gold letters also
look well on a dark blue or bronze green
grow1dwork. '!'hey also ::::how up Wl)tHlcrfully well, when properly shaded, on a
g round of Chinese red. 'i'his is the colom
used on the mail carts, but, as it is
particularly liable to fade when exposell to
the light and weather. seveml t'l'ats of
''Batting" must be applied, and after the
gold leaf has been atlixed, it must be well
prctected with two good coats of varni ~h.
A black letter shows up the best on o. white
ground, but it may not be genemlly kno" n
that a 'll'lliie letter on a black grouml is a
great d eal more etfecti ,.e than 1•ic~ uer$d.
At least, this is the opinion of a grc:1t many
of our best writers, who hn'\'e frequl'ntly
pointed it out to the author of these m·tidcs.
This is more so the case in very sma ll
lettering, and on a limited spare containin~
a. lot of matter, such as a "Trespnssin~
Notice Board," or auctioneers and lanll
a&'ents' boards, which generally commence
w1th "This valuo.ble plot of freehold land
to be sold for buildin.;t purposes, etc.," and
such like examples. J:Son.rds of this class, I
confidently assert, can be read mur h easier
and at a greater distance-especially by
short-sighted people-if the letters are in
white on a black ground. Do not, however,
use white lead, but oxide of zinc, or, better
still, some Charlton white. Tho.t is, of
course, if the tube colour is not used, which
is the rule for common work of this class.
If the tube colour is used, resort may be
had to flake white, which is the carbonate
of white lead oxidised, and which does
not consequently discolour so quickly on
exposure to the atmosphere.
With reference to other kinds of g rounds,
there is a species which ono frequently secs
lettered upon, especially on shop facias, nnd
that is the ma.rbled or grained sul'face,
which exhibits very bad ta~te indeed when
an· inscription is written thereon in the
ordina.rl style. It frequently looks ns if the
grain o the wood or veins in the marble
are springing out in all directions from the
letters themselves. I have no sympathy
whatever with a gmined ground, aud would
strongly urge the employment of u plain
colour, which harmonises with the gramiug
colour around it. If a. g rained ground is
used at all, it should imitate a wood totally different to that which is used for the
rest of the work, and also contain a smnll
close grain.
In writing on an imitation marble surface
only one class of letter looks reaJ..ly well, and
that is the incised letter, or, rather, the
imitation thereof. It is a difficult letter,
a.nd wants a. lot of skilful ha.ndliiJg to look
effective and real. If the whole of a. shop
front is marbled, a.nd the name to be
inscribed a.lso on a marble surface, the facio.
or signboard should be worked in a dift'erent marble of a. somewhat lighter tone, and
so a.s to resemble an inlaid slab which has
. the a.ppeara.noe of being let into the rest of
the strnctw·e.
53 I
\\"OH 1\.
HY .J. 11 .
-- . . ,:. . --MEOI.F.\'AI. ~li!TII:·.' \\"oHK Tu r I""' \\' "' ;; Tll •.1
W .\S .:\1.\Jt l", .\:SII rill. )l t~l•l: .\~Jt ,\(1 111,.1• • t •
:M.\KI:\1; l r.
takl· a ft•\\' u f I"""'' I '\:1111ples of the llh.'di:l'\·al :-;t~~itll ,..· \\urk \\ lti.-!1
remain in exi:>tcllt:t', nnd :-h.dl ··u.J, ,,\11111',
inn. skl'tl'hy
m;IIJIICI', "' di:-•·n=-' the lltl'lla ..d..;
of manufadurc at!l'J'll·tl. 1'··• h IJ'" tit,· l•·••11
'' manu factnre ,. 1s
. twt \\'t' 11 ,. It•l:-l'll to l'XJII• · ~
the conditions under wlti,·lt tilt· natt:-111• '''''
the .Jliddle ~\.~l'S ~a,· t.! ~'••r111 ;tll.l J•l·rtlla tlt'lll'•:
1t1 their bc:mt.ifnll'rcntilnl-. - tltcir ,·lta :<lvlll'd
ideals. Let us say, rat ltl'l' ... Hh·tl•••"' ,.r faln·ication, mysteries of tTait:-nt.tll:<llip, rJ,,;:,
cl'n- ut'l't~ of nrt:s ll.lhl t ratk:< ...
In this prcliminnrr scd i,,n •'ll tl1 t.! "'wk Ill
th e mcdia.• ,·al smiths, l tbink it w,•ll l l \
divide the snbjcd mHler ::c' cr.d hl·.td:<. di,.. .
cu ss in~ undl' l' l'al·h hl'a1l 1hl' ...:har.H'Il' ri:-t i,.,
0f some :;pecial kiml t'f Wllrk. In 1hi:: way
I shall tak~ h ingt!s, g-;ttc::. ltwk,; a t11l kt·~ "·
grilles and scrl'cu::. nrm:: nntl :\rnH'IIl'. nn.t.
tinalh·. some miscdlanl'IHI:o; )'it'l'l':o; ,,f "''rk
man:<hip, n.s lamps, knol·kl•r::. dt'. l!nt !.l'lt•IL'
entering on these, I :-:hall hl•:-t llt't' ll)'~· thi:-:
present article in rctn;nk,; lH. a ;.!Clll' ral l·ha·
meter on thl' metlwd:: l,f l'J••·r;\1 ion ll,JJ.I\\'n l
by the old smiths in tht! ial•ril·,Hil'll lll.thc:-l'
nnious art ides.
One of the print:iplc::: tli lntc art i:-; tltat
nf adaptin~ the dl•::i~n tt' t hl' l·har.wh•r l't'
th e matL'rial cntplll)'l'tl. Tl llt::. tna:-:-ivc dcl'ign::, w!tidt ar~ su'ltaulc i.,r :-ll'lll', arc 1wt
adapted fur Wtwks in il'l' ll : and dc:-i).!'lt:-:,
on th~ ot her hand, whit: h lllOk we 11 i 11 i l'l'll,
are not suitell tl) the prcl·i,,n:; ml'tak
.:\.nothl't' principl ~ is tlutt uf dCL'Ill';\t inc:,
insten.tl of tlis!!ni.-in~
' anLll't'nn~al in:.:. l':':-t.!tttial portion=' of cou:-:truditll\. \\'~ l'L'lll'l'a l
our locks, hinges, na i1:<, and so 1\,rt h, a=' fat·
ns possible ; the llll'di:'I.'Yal \H,rknten l'lablll'ated and beautiticll them, Ullll lU<hle thl·ir
work tit for the vi:sion of the goJs.
~ow int<.'llll
I n th<' elder clny;:: of nrt.
lluiltlct'8 wrou~hl w ilh f.=T<'Illl'»l
E neh minut .: u11tl UllSL'l'll Jl:ll't :
.F or the t;ot.ls s.:.: c,·ay" ll <!n•.
And thus the e:nh·
hin •!!c~ CIWL'rcll the
whole breadth of their dl'Lli'S with ucaut\·.
The lock and key were marwh: t'f \nwkmanship intended to hl' :'l'L'Il and alllllirL'd.
and a. smith would sometimes L)ccupy twl'
years in making n. lod\:. The nails and bL1lr:-:
were also often ril'hh·
ornamcntcd .
The old iron work OWl'S mud1 of it ~
charm to one clement of lsL•nutr.
the re:Moll
of which we may yet. tll't bl} quite ('1)11:-:t:i\' ll"
of-I mean its extreme lightnl'S:>. It is tlti:-:
which, as much as graceful cmves nu,l lklicate tracery, lend$ so much charm tn t ltl'
screens and the grilles, the hinges D.llll t h0
door-fastenings, the gates atlll tlw lnntpbrackets. The exceeding liglttucss b,,t 1t 111
weight and in nppenm11re of work llonl.! in
wrought iron is one of its r hit:f rl'CL'IIlllll'll do.tious. Nothing in stonl', timber. l'l' l';J::t
iron can be at once so strong and so light,
or be endowed with such !!rnccful out litw::.
If we examine samples 1.1f irl'll work frlltn
difl'erent cou ntries aud n!!cs,
" . we shall SL'I.!
much difference in the cil'!!I'Nl of fini sh imparted to them. But finish all,nl' is ntlt,
however, distincti\·e of any one Pl'l'i('•l. and
some of the earlier works compare la \'t'lll'·
ably in this respect with thosl) of Lltl'l'
As a. rule, the bars from wl.tidt the oh!
work is built up are Juore ot· le:::: rt' llc!lt.
They show the marks of th e hantllll'l'. au.l
have a wavy and uneven fll 'l't:nr.u:l··:. lt
[Work -:::\ow mbcr !), 1SS9.
, there is no trace of
would appea r as thoug h the workm en must. lighte r portio ns. There is little attem pt at l have h l!en very strong
Often it:; emplo nnent .
in many case..", have thems elves hamm ered conce almen t of these fnstenin~.
the work of leaves and flowers is
their bars to such dimen sions a.s they h ap- where the desig n lends itself t hereto the
ering, the iron bein~ in
peneJ to requir e for any piece of work on rivets are made subse rvien t to ornam ent, convo luted by hamm
not more thnn 3\. in. thtck.
hand. But there are striki ng excep tions: their heads being forme d into a. cuppe d or ,·ery mnny cases usunl
h· ri>ete d on, thoug h
These leaves are
The best. perha ps, which I have seen is the semic ircula r shape .
In large numb ers of instan ces the bar:; also occasi onally w elded.
pair of gates made for Edwa.rd IV!s tomb
The tiorin.tecl ormtm c1:t d i~plnys much it\at Windsor, the reput ed work of Quen tin and scroll work are united by mean s of
who may have eYer atllat..qys. It is a wond erfull y perfec t piece bands or ~elts of ~ec~ ngu lar. o,·nl, or ci r- 1 genui ty. and those
not thin ~h eet brass,
of a
forms , will appre ciate
for the smoot hness of finish of the surface of comm on with riveti ng, and is used in posi- ·1 but iron, into floral
task. Some ~perim ens
the bars. It has been sugge sted that the tions where riveti ng would n ot be com·e- the difficu lty of the nre here :;~ho wn (Figs. :2
heavi"r portio ns are of cast iron. It i s pos- nient or possib le. Illust ration s occur iu Fig. of these omnm ents
ate who_rls o~ the coroll a,
sible, but very impro bable. The art of cast - I. T~e ba nds are Ya.l'iously se~ured. In a.nd :3). The separ l, a re umm ahly formed
iucr in iron wa.s little under stood at the very light works they are often stmpl y bent when there areeets,
each cut t o o1~tline, and
pe~iod when these gates were made~ I cnn round ~vithout ll!'Y attemt~t at we~cling, or of distin ct sh
ollow ed (see f1g. 2). A
only think that these are the work of an 1 even w1t hout the1r en ds qutte m eetmg . In beate n out. ~ncl h
1 t orus or hnse t~ g-ener ally pre~en t , and formed
ri\'et, which is clench ed
t he use of a broa.d flatter ,coup led with almos t 1 fast fitting that they appea r to be certainly I by the h ead of a
hchin d ; and
i nfin
this ser>es to
takin g, the
th e
whorl s of th e
coroll a t o each
a.re so much
ot her, and the
whole to the
impar ted
ns in
~ tem
t he ba~ Rut
S taFig. 2.
certai nly the
m ens often apuse of tJatte rs
pear as nail~.
by t
}l r o b a b 1 y
smith s npven.rs
welde d in. a:'
to have
they are Yer~·
very much the
firmly set (:;cc
excep tion raFig. :J). Thl'
t her than the
r etals in thi:-;
rule, for few
Illu s trati on
of tho
appe:1rto hnYc
ba r s
heen beaten
w hi c h
out of tlu.:
1:.rn.tes are bt&ilt
solid bar. The
up! a.nd :..-ery
bar would prol itt l e ll'On
bablr be n r~t
work, indeed,
di..-ide d into
of that
th·e forks, and
~how smoo th
these beaten
into ribb ed
Ano ther
leaYes. which
point is that
were then bent
the file
from Ita.Uan
to ha.v~ been
T he bent en
Fi.;. 3.- Llly, Seventeenth
0 ate way,
11uite an exfol iage is a
ceptio nal tool.
marke d fenry.
turc of the old
have l>een renwork. It rondered smoo th
unsig htly but n eresthe
hy a
sarr joint::.. and much of the plain skcleout sayin g absol utely that this m ethod
ures, and the generol
effect is alwaYs pleasi ng-. A cande labrum
no traces of its use. There are an imof hamm ered non (Yene tinn sixtee nth
Fig. 2. -Flora l OrnamGnt from Italian Gateway,
mense numb er of curve s whose outlin es
centu ry) nt. South Kensi ngton is thus
seven teenth centur y.
could ha.ve ~een re!ldered much more
quite enshr ouded "-ith foliage. aud th i~
perfec t by filmg, whtch were not so renl gln.nce. It is onl~·
1 welde d.
d ered.
n that shows the centra l
a nd faces \Vhere a. file could have been used. in two portio ns. In nume rous in~tan res a close exam inatio
the scrolls bound
1 Ruppo
to much
theret o, suppo rting the wealt h of foliage. ·
"ymm etry, and
Anoth er notab le featur e is thnt while ! An Itnlin u balust rade (Yene tian seYeoteenth
never been used ; but the work ha.s been,
Kensi ngton . is enwitho ut quest ion, left just a.s the chisels, weldi ng was the excejl tion, swa,.,.in"' down 1 centu ry), a lso nt South
for the top a nd bottom ,
punch e.<t, or f ullerin g toofs left it. Stron g evi- 1 was ,·ery com mon. In lnr"'e n~tmbers of tirelr form ed, save
foliag e mnde of ham- ·
:.i'tr in. thickn ess, ~nd
m ~he remo.rknble freedom f~om corros ion j large sectio n h ns ~~en first taken nnd bifu r- !11ered iron of nbout
oppos ed sheets stand mg
wh1cb th~ old works mamfest. a clear cated a.s mnny ttmes as there were stems 1s made doubl e, the
Jlroof, I thmk , that the work wa.s left un- requir ed, and tl1at each of the~e tongu es out in relief on both
What e,·er the metho d of ornam~ntahon
t.ou~heci ~fter the hamm er, the scale of ma.g- wo.s then beate n out t o requir ed sectio ns,
union of parts 1s never
foliage is never withfm:ttin g a hetter protec tive coatin g than any nnce hnlf a dozen sep~rl\te stems are ham- forgot ten. The thin
ly thnt of ri>ets , and the
I mered from a. single hnr. A nd expan sions out suppo rt. usualtrn~er
. .
y are suppo rted and
often sm~ll scroll~ o.ncl
. ln the umon !"r pnrt@, rr~etmg and teno!l- i mnde to rerresent leaves nre also nre
of muted nt freque nt mterYals by means of
mg were the prmotplll dev1ccs emplo yed m : beate n out o the ba.r. :Many ~tems
the. croft of the m~ireval smith s ; the 1 circul ar section, and it is n clifficult task t o loops or bonds.
The more elnho rnt e scroll work formed
mam ~nt are !40 umted , and 80 also f\re ! ben.t out nnd cu rve t hem nlso, when, ns in
is well worth y of close
the dohca te fohage and the ftowcr:s~ The ~ many cases, tboy lie in close contig uity t o from flat bar iron. bars of rectangul~r
tenon a &ro m011tly UAed for the hee.v1er bnrs one anoth er. Even in such work ns this, stndy . From plam
of tbo frame work, and the rivets for the where the
Wart-Nonmber 9, 1889.]
coalltructecL Wht:re practicable sevc~o.l con•olutions will be formed from one ptece of
bAr and the smaller the pattern and. the
c~r and more in.volved the con~olut1on s
the greater is the d1fficulty of benchng them
enhanced. Little of this could. have been
done on the anvil-at least, not m the la.~er
stages. :Much could h~ve be~n done w1th
t~ngs and pincers, or w1t~ a hght htll!lmer,
while the work was la1d across suttable
mandrels held in the vice. And then where
much of the tracery is reproduced over ~nd
ever again, frequent reference to drawmgs
or templets would have been necessary to
verify the accuracy of results.
TheRe works are, to all appearance, done
by the hammer chiefly. Y~t in some. of
tbc grilles and gates there 1s a. profus1on
of panels whose curves are identical in all
respects and in hinges the curved portions
wb1ch ft~nk the central bar are beautifully
symmetrical on each side. Probably, therefore, tcmJJiets or full-sized drawi ngs would
be employed as now. but for the accuracy of
the resuiLs the workmen must have trusted
onl)' to hammer o.nd tongs.
Nor is this all. In the gates and grilles
there o.re mouldings of diverse forms attached to ]Jiain bars or frames. We can
roll moulded forms between grooved rollers.
Not !lO the old smiths. These mouldings
muat have been laboriously first chamfered
I'O Ughly, and then swaged down bit by bit
between swages or moulds or dies first carefully prepared. 'fhe quantity of material
roc1uircd precludes t he likelihood of any
other method of formati on havinK been
adopted. 'fo these mouldings, and their
mode of fabrication, I shall give more detailed notice.
How beautiful were many of these creations I 'l'hough the execution of the work is
often rude and rough if tested by our modern
Htandard of machine finish and of die-stamping, with their monotonous regularity yet
beauty is interwoven with them all, and the
more we study them the greater is the
fa.!icination, the more intense the spell of
reverence and de li~ht with which we are
held in bondage. '!'hough the blacksmith's
\~ork is n_ot gaudy, like that of the gold and
silvor·SIUJth's, or even as that of the brass
found er and copper-smith, it still partakes
of, and is pcrmeatecl with, the charm that in
Home myliterious way is ever associated with
~he t1tormy ages when art, science, and lenrnmg found nn tu·k of safety within the walls
• of the cloister, and in the service of the
and magazines contain so
many o.rticles of interest to an intelligent
workman that it seems a shame that they
lhou1d in so many cases be consigned to
~te ancl destroyed after being once read.
It. 18 true1 some of the magazmes clea.ling
lflth subJects of special interest o.re preand bound at the completion of the
; but I refer more particularly to
odd items of information and pro.cuse which are continually t o be found
~mA daily and weekly newspapers. In as
\Vorda as possible I will explain my
of preserving_ these and arranging
reference. It is, of course, poHsible
other methods which may have ad vanin the ooee of classifying and finding
but, aa t. rule, they are more
cumbrous, and necessitate the use of more good tltic·k uotc·Lor,k, at lf~:. -. 1 an iwh t J.ir·k,
drawers or pigeon holes than most of uH can :uu.l at t he lop CCJI'II!'I'.; ,,f ,., •·ry t•:t;..:•: t• l:l• ·•·
command. After an experience of fift een initial letter:-:. Lt will 1,,. f•Htnd c·••l•v•·ni •·ut
years, I believe the method I am nLout; to t O \I ~U t(t C :-;yslt:lll arJ ,pl1·d J,y ai'I:IJI I III:tfll '.
describe will be found to be the most ~ er­ in iudexing ledgersrtlld tol hl·ral·r·•,ll llf l,r,,,J; .., :
t lmt i ~, to c la~s tfy I hu •·••t ric..; l,y tl w fi1 .1
First of all, then, when you read, rcntl let.tur anti abo lov till' li r.··t \ 11 \\'t· l :dl• r LI P :
with a lead pencil within reach, and mark fir~t letter. 'l'ltu~, ·' Frvtw .. rk " "''n ld lw
everything that you want to keep. Don't indexed on the pagc · de\ ••led t•1 " I-'•·, ·
be afraid of marking, tLinkiug that you can " .Uritlges '' uucler ·· J;i." ( ·.,nnt tl•e t•:t::•·,
i n your note-Look, awl tlll'n di,·id•: I 1•• ·11:
cclually amongst the kttr·r:-. c,f tl11: alp(,;tl,t·l,
COIIIUJCJ1Cing with,say, fi\l·pa ~t·S(IIr llll' 111111~·
l.Jer fou nd ueccssarY) lc.:t tt ·n:d .. .\a ; ., tlu ·11
following on wit!: .h·, .\i, .\o, :turl
A u. B folluws with J;.t, I :v. t;\1'. 'J'I.i .
index serves to enter thL· :-. t~ l •.k•·t,., c•f all yc1t11'
scraps ; aml, HHn·e tl m11 t l ~:tl , auy ut il' lt:
which yonlllay 111cet wit h in Y" llr n·adin;.:
shonlJ Ut! indexed 1\tldl'r it s JII'IIJ •cr l1c~t diu;.:
in such a. lll <lllll CI' t hat tltc f,t,•k 11r nt::.!.!:tzi uo ·
can be ruferrccl l.t) a i :t 11 )' f 11 t nrc t i lnt·.
c·;u1 I"·
The " ~ cwspaper. (J'ut,.t i111; ., loot•ks
. .
., :-;1.~111 re f etTe< I to as " :-;c. ., 11r •· :-il".
fyi ng ~crap- l100k I. or 11., wi t h thl· lllltll.lu.: r
of the page in ~ r nallc.:r tigmc-;; whik: l•ou•u!
Fig . L- Pa.per Mounted to form Ca.se.
l.Jooks or 111 aga~:ines :-;h"nld ha,·e th e tttlcall•t
trust to your memory for a. certain fact or other particulars give11 llllll'l' tnlly. 'J'Jt,.
recipe; when you want it must you will following exampl e..; frt~tll rny it1dcx lllny
possibly find that your memory is at fault lllakc tltis n.litt.le de;nn·r :m j ust some little detail which is of th e A rcltilct'fm·e: Law ( 'unrt ()l'' i!.!ll:', " J:c.:lgreatest importance; and remember that it
graviu, .. \ '"1. 1 L. ; " J:ui lder,"
is the man who can lay his hands at once on
end of 11"~ I.
the informn.tion he needs who has the best A ttl•JIIIrtl(t: ' ' ] l ouscht~ld \\'unh:,'' y.,(. 1\'.,
chance of success nowadn.ys. }!fark, th en,
:,oa; .. Lci:-.nrc l luur,'' J'-J7!1.
anything likely to be useful
Jt'()mula l ifJn s : He. \' ll L., ·I:!.
read put your paper away where it will not Jtc!fW<l!J.S: 1'ruport.ion13 \Jf ; :-ic. 1., ·1.
be d'eStroyed and at t he week end or first
·w herever ncces:-;ary tiH• itc·m slwuld lu·
leisure half-hour, take a pair of scissors,
light your pipe and proceed to cut out indcxct l under scvl'ral hL·:tdi 11:.,:s: a~. lc11·
everything you have mm·ked. Paste th ese example, an arti cle 011 t lit• ·• l'rt~~n.-.;s of llll'
cuttings, either just as they come to hand or, M::uH:heHter l::lhip Canal,'' ~ ll t•ll ltl Ill' rvkrrL·•l
to under :Jf. B. anti l'., and !LII f H lld!'r " l're~­
gress.'' 1 am sorry to :-;ay t ltat <L qf ual..J,.
weekly jou rnal de:-;t roys lmlf tlte Yalue 1•1'
its contents by it.-; JICIYerty pf indexing, tlrt·
above item being found 11tlly under ·· l're~·
gress," where onu would ('l't tainly nc\·c r lo(lk
for it ; while " 1fow to 111akc <:lue ., is 111 dexctl under " l:l ow," and nc,·er mc.:ntionccl
under "Glue."
The above coutai n ~ in l11·icf I he wl10lt•
system, nnd I tlliu k I nut safe in sny iu,L;
that any one who has t rictl it for six nt ontb
will tint! it of so much II:'C : 1;-; to IJu Yery 1\11 ·
willing to give it up. :-;ometi nrc:-; t il l' enttings relating to onu ~u l ,ject will Le fu untl
to be very long and very lltt lliCrous. To put.
these in the scrap-Look woulll Le inconvenient for several n·n~orts - lhey take up
too much valuable room, too much t ime in
J>nsting in, and t hey ~et too much s<-paratcd
by other mattct· comi ng in between. The
plan I use in d ea.lin ~ with these is to mako
a ~ epn.ra.te case for cn.eh su l.jl.!ct, l•y cutt.ing
and folding old mounted drn "" i ng papc·r, ns
shown in the diagrams. 'l'lt is material I
uso because it comes Jll(lst readily to lilY
ha.nds, but i[ it is not obtai nable t here wil!
Pig. 2.-Caae for Cutt1Dga Complete.
be no difliculty in fi nding a sul,:-.titutc. 'l'ht·
if you have much sense of order1 classified mounted paJ)er is cut to tho :-.hnpe shown in
as far as you can into a scrap-oook with Fig. 1, und folded with the hollnnd :-.ide out ·
numbered p_ages. Those that I uso myself wards. A piece of red tnpe, stH.·h as is usL•cl
a.re the "Newspaper Cuttings," issued by for bundling papers, is t hr('ndetl tlr rough :ts
Messrs. Marcus Ward & Co., and contain shown, and a stt·ip of dark-cldtiUrecl boo!, two hundred pnges each, though smaller binder's cloth, gluecl along the bac k, sen ·L..,
ones are to be had. Now t hen prepare an to keep tho tape in po:-;ition nllll ntake th t•
index in a separate note· book. '!'here is an co.se pt·est>ntable wlton pnt on I he l•<K•k.
index in the cutting books named above, shelves. With pen nnd mk priuL tltl' titll'
but generally it will be found not to have on the front cover, tll:l in F ig. :!, null dra."· t l ~l'
room enough for the requisite entries. Do marks nct·oss the coruers, all(l the tl11ng 1s
not slcimp your index ; make it big enough complete. It takes t en mi nute:-; to ntakt'.
t o last a. hfetime, for if you once start it does not cost more tho.n t\\"(l['Cilte at tIll'
you .are not likely to drop it again. Get o. moet, and has quite a respectable ttl'Pcara nee.
[Work-November 9,l889.
~----------------~----------------~----------------- '
THE K ~.\LE IH OS {'O PE: ITS eO~STRUC­ wandering. A line may now be gauged on thin parting tool. Should the tube p
each side of the row of holes, the distance too short to admit the carrier as above,rove f
between not to exceed the diameter of the thicker iron, with a shoulder to abut again~
steel rods. By a careful use of a fine rat- the . e~d of. the tube. . Now cut off 5 i~ \
tail file, the holes may be run into each of pm10n wne, centr~ It truly at both end· 1
TnE CAsF. AND INTERIOR M EC HANrRt\£ OF other ; then a stout ward file for rouf?hing, and turn about an mch at one end to
and using a dead Emooth for the fimshing· tightly within the brass tube · set off t ·
touches. Drill the central hole t in. diam- from ~he shoulder, and beyo~d this tui~
[For fl lustrnti•>n8 tiJ ?dlich Rr'ft• rrucr.~ arc made in eter, and leave it to be fini shed with a
a beanng larae enough in diameter to allow 1
thi<~ Paper, sec }la[te;; 434, 425.]
reamer. On applying heat, the two plates of ~he ~en~ra:r hole in the slotted plate for
HAVINl1 completed the wood turning in
will separate, and they may now be secured whiCh .1t 1s mt~nded being broached out
cnnnection with the phtcs forming the end::; in their places immediately over the centre ~o fit It. Leaymg fully t m. for the bear.
of the case, the next process i::; that of cut- line, I J (Fig. 2). It is now necessary mg beyond this, cut a notch with the edge
ting ~ut the plates to the correct form : to prepare the milled heads, B and n (Fig. of a small half round file and break it
first, square the centre lines across the 5), which act as lock-nuts on the screws asu.n~er ; cen.tre afresh, and turn the reedges, ~md continue them on the reverse cut on the heads, .A and c. Of course, the mammg portwn to fit the opposit& end of
s ide ; then set out the octagon on the front easiest method would be to bold them by the tube for about It in. ; then t in.
plate, and having removed some of the means of a self-centring chuck, but failing set off as before, and from this point it is
sUt·plus wood with a sa.w, pare off the re- this, they may be held for turning by .turn ~d pa~aUel for ~ in., after which the .
ma.mder to the lines, keeping the edge as driving them tightly into a recess bored r emq.mder 1::; tapered to fit the milled head,
::;quare as possible. The two plates, with in a piece of hard wood which has been c. If the worker is an adept with the file
the insides faeing each other, must now be mounted on a face plate. If a good fit is the leaves of the pinion wire may be ~
attached together by a couple of screws secured, it will be foun d unnecessary to reduced as to leave very little tp be done in
passing through on a line perpendicular aink them beyond half their depth. Having the lathe, and thus av01d the jarring of the
to ?ti N (Fig. 2), and 3.t in. from the trued up one side, bore a -r\-in. hole in work as the tool meets each leaf or tooth
centre, so as not to disfigure the wood the centre for screwing with ti1e i-in. brass in succession ; in any case, it will be adv~­
where exposed to view. When fixing, be gas tap. To make sure that it is truly able to make a somewhat liberal nse of the
mindful to notice that the centre lines tapped it will be well to enter the taper file, always provided that the process is
correspond, and also, that the openin~ in tap a little way before removing from the not carried too far. The pinion to which
the front plate is concentric with the ctrcle chuck, feeding up the back centre as the the head, A, is attached is similar to that
of the same diameter scril>cd on the back tap moves inwards, the screwing to be just described, and slides in vertical slots
plate, which may now be pared ronnd the finished in the vice. Each head having cut in two brass plates 2i in. long and It
edges to match the front, and a !-in. hole been treated in this way, they must be in. wide ; the upper ends are cut to the
bored sq,uarely through the two :plates cor- mounted Ol'l a suitable mandrel of brass or angle of the case to which they are secured
r esponding to the centre of the milled head, iron, and the turning completed, finishing by four screws each. The outline of one
E (Fig. 1); this hole requires slotting in the
the edges by grooving and milling. The half is shown in elevation by the dotted
front plate, but may be deferred till the heads, A and c, require much the same line at P (Fig. 2), and they are also shown
spindle has been prepared.
treatment as the foregoing. They are in section just behind the racks in Fig. 5.
The plates can now be taken asunder, mounted first \vith the shanks projecting; The slots must be polished so that the
and a start made on the metal work. Turn- should they exhibit a tendency to become pinion works freely and smoothly within
ing to o (Fig. 2), a brass plate is shown, loose in the chuck, they may be further them, and the plates carefully attached to
having a hole in the centre, in which the secured with three wood screws, evenly dis- the woodwork, the centre of the slots
pinion turns, to which the milled head, c, posed round the edge of the recess, or the coincident with the centre line, :M N; of
1s attached, and on each side of the central back centre may be pressed into the service course, the wood must be pierced squarely
hole a slot is cut in which slide the ends to assist in steadying the shank while through to admit the tapering ends of the
of two steel rods supporting the arms, it is being manipulated. A hole A in. pinions, and for the parallel necks or journals
K, K (Fig. 5).
These slotted plates are diameter is next d ri lied and tapered as of these latter, four washers must be precut from sheet brass t in. thick, 6~ in. shown with et suitable reamer. Should the pared ; all are circular in section, with the
long, and 1 ~ in. wide; notice if they are latter not be to hand, procure a piece of exception of that under the clamping head,
winding, or bent; if so, lay them on a ±-in. cast steel about 4 in. long, anneal B (Fig. 5). The washer in question is an
level surface, and remove the twist with a it by heating to a dull red, and place it in oblong plate curved at the top and square
few skilful blows of a smooth-faced ham- slaked lime to cool. File about i in. at at the bottom end, in order to utilise 1t as
mer. Drill and countersink the holes for one end, square in section, so that it may a vernier to indicate the angle of the rethe screws, which may be ~ or ~ in. long, be turned with a smfl.ll wrench or brace, flectors ; it is kept vertical by a long slot,
and attach them side by side to the true theu reduce the point to the necessary which slides on a. pin formed of a small
face of a .Piece of hard wood. Holding taper, making it circular in section to begin screw the head beina filed off flush after
them thus 111 the vice, file the surface quite with, and afterwards pentagonal, which is being' screwed home. o The plate adjace~t
level, heat a soldering iron, and tin the not so difficult to accomplish as it seems to the slide may also be attached at this
ends of each piece ; now lay them face to at first sight. Now make it red-hot and juncture the fi~ures being deferred for the
face, bind them together with a piece of plunge into cold water, polish, and hold present,' as tbeu correct position can o~Jy
fine iron wire, and using sprits of salts for It over a thick piece of hot iron until the be determined by experiment when the m·
a flux, sweat them together with a l1eavy cutting portion becomes of a deep straw strnment is complete.
proceeded thus far, we may now
piece of red-hot iron. When cold, level colour ; cool this portion and still further
both sides, and one ed..,.e as straight and lower the head to a blue tint, otherwise turn our attentio.n to the spindle connecte).d
square as possible, then the other parallel to it will be apt to snap off in use. It now to the friction wheel, H (Figs. 2 ~nd 5
it. Scribe a centre line on one face, and rema ins to mount the finished head, B, firm There are two methods whereby this may
dot the central hole with a fine pointed and deep in a piece of hard wood as before, be accomplished ; the first which Sl!gges~
centre-punch i on each side of this dot set and use it as a support on which to finish itself is to bore a hole in a bard pteceod
off }: in. wtth the compasses; dot these the outsides nnd edges of the heads, .A and beech t in. thick, so that a No. 1~ wo marks for holes denoting the inner ends of c, after which, rather than resort to force, it screw will fit tightly within it ; ~md the
the slots, and a second pair · of dots 6 in. will be well to split up the wood in which screw, which should be about 4 ~·J0le
apart for the outer ends, after which the the former is embedded . .
to the end of the thread, and cut .0 the
slots may be spaced out for drillin(r a series
The next in order is the stationary pinion; point ~ in. outside the wood ; u~w1nd
of holes -fa i:n. apart ; the drill us:'d for the first, square up the ends of the brass tube screw and weld or braze it to a piece of
p~rpose should be ~bo ut -lt. in. less in to finish 7k in. long; it is possible to in. rdund iron, cu~ off to 9! in. fromaoc.u~
d tameter than the width of the finished do this with a file, but a saperior way is to screw-thread ; straighten and. centred finiSh
slot. A twist drill mounted in the lathe turn them, fitting a short piece of iron into rately then replace the wood d1~c, an
will be found the most suitable tool for the the end to support the tube lest it collapse to 1i' in. diamet~r by i in. thick, ~ ~e~
work, the plates being fed on the drill by under the screw of the carrier, which latter shallow groove beiDg turned on the. ed~ bl
m eans of a piece of hard wood having a should be small, and may be easily made sup~ort a band of red rubber, as ~
deep hole previously bored in the lathe out of a piece of brass plate .t in. thick, stationers to secure note books. . I Wt&.tlr
to fit tightly over the centre of the slidina having a screw t in. diameter. The tube a small· screw in the rim of the dise, ~ ,
h eadstock. The dots will probably requir~ is then trued up at one end, and the oppo- use it for a carrier to reduce ill~h-~
to be deepened to prevent the drill from site end next the carrier separated with a end of the spindle to fit the m W> -..r
wozt-November 9, 1~.]
\ which lins been _p repared with a
(F~g. . " h0 le fot· its recept10n. Perhaps an
tnp~rwg to mount the spindle would be to
;:d~~e~h~ plain part 0~ tbe wood-screw _so
to fit a piece of -~t~·lD.
brass tube, 9 111.
d also reducincr the long boss or
~n~ a~f the milled bead to fit the oppo~ite
~ securincr them in position by sweat!ng
en ther or drilling a small h~le for a pm ;
~ h ;weating is to be used m pt:eferenc?.
R ~ing the brass tube for. the .sp10dle, "e
{nu gnin an advanta~e m 1ts bemg shorter,
and thus lessen the dtstnnce that t,he h~ud
projects outwards from the case. Selectmg
a tece of brass t in. thick, we may n9w cut
the lever, L (Fig. 2), as shown m t~1e
dotted line; it is attached by a screw at 1ts
~ lower end, which acts as a fulcrum. The
centml hole is broached out to. fit ~be
spindle, wl!ich has a groove _cut ~ m . . w1de
at this pomt, the lever actmg as a key to
prevent end-shake, and at the upper e_nd <?f
the lever is a small stud, round whiCh JS
booked one end of a tension spring, the
opposite end of which is secured by a scre~v,
and the slotted plate, P, c'!lt .away to clear 1t.
Arrived at this stage, 1t 1s now n_;.cessary
to commence on the rackwork. J. 1rst attacking the fixed pair, R R (Fig. 5), very
little difficulty is likely to be exp~rienc ed
in makina them a success. Two pteces of
rarkwork"u in. long are cut off, ·and at each
end the teeth are removed. so as to leM'e a
.clear space of t in. ; in the centre of this
space a hole is drilled and countersu nk for
~mall screws, by which the racks are secured
to pieces of oak or beech, ehaped as at o
(Fig. 2}; these are rabbeted to fit over the
~Jotted plates, and it will be noticed that
one i!; l in. thicker than the other, and is
also cut away in addition to admit of verti• cal travel in the washer, which resists the
pull of the clamping head, B. Passing on
to the sliding racks s, s (Fig. 5}, we require
for these two lengtns
of dry beech, 12 in.
long, accurately planed true and parallel to
i in. square. Previous to being divided into
o6 in. lengths, mark one face and one edge,
and place some distinguis hing mark so that
they may be kept in pairs, one pair· to each
-end. As only 4! in. are useful, I must
.explain that the extra length is to lessen
the danger of the wood splitting on account
of having to drive screws in close proximit y
to the end of the piece. 'l.'he two remainin g
lengths of rackwork ar<.- equally divided
:a.nd a space cleared and drilled at each end
as before, a,fter which each rack is screwed
to a wood slide in the centre of its lencrth
and fl ush with the face. AB in the case of
the fixed raek above, provision must be
made for the washer, and in order to support
the .rack, and keep it sq~are ,~·ith t he pinion,
a shp of wood about t m. thtck is screwed
~the back of the slide, as shown in section
1i tg. 5 ; ~vhe~ these are in position, they
:Should shde JUSt clear of the edge of the
:Slotted P.late. Now, it will be seen that the
lower slide o! the two at each end is sup,POrted ?n a p1ece of bard wood, T, T, 2~ in.
long, 1 u~. w1de. and the combined thickness
-of.the shde and slotted plate in one instance
Wltb. the '~B:Sher added in the other. Th~
pos1t10~ of these supports may be
boundh, ~Y J?lacmg the end of the case on the
~n.c ms1~e uppermost, and holding the
r~nlOn Vert~calJy in. ~ts "9earing; push the
fwer. ~k lUto pos1t10n, mterposi ng a slip
<l wntmg paper so that the teeth may not
engage to~ deeply, the support being finally
secured Wl~h a screw o.t t in. from each end
~\khclearmg the brass clips, l l (Fig. 5):
Th ~li8P the backs of the up'(?er 11lides.
ese c ps are of brass ~ in. tluck, fil ed to
the outline seen in t he dotted line (Fig. 2),
allowing -} in. beyond for bending. If the
brass from which they are to be made
betrays a dispositio n t o crack on bending
to a sharp angle, it must be annealed by
making red hot, and plunging into cold
water. 'l'he hole i s first drilled to clear the
pinion, then the latter is placed upright, the
paper slips interveni ng between the racks
and pinion t eeth, and a line scribed on the
inside of tha brass clip, which must next be
bent at a right a ngle, over the edge of a
piece of smooth t-in. !:!quare iron, bent on
1tself, in order to grasp the brass on both
sides when held in the vice. This done,
with a SI)10oth tile polish the inside of each
clip, rounding otf the arris or edge so far as
it comes in contact with the wood slides.
When all this bas been carefully carried outi
it will be found that the racks will trave
smoothly in either direction on turning the
~inio n with a small carrier or pin vice.
~hould this not have the desired efiect, one
or both the racks is too deeply in gear with
t be pinion, if they a re not pinched at the
sides. Taking them asunder for examination, it will perhaps be d iscovered that the
cause lies in their not being of an even
thickness from the tips of the teeth to the
back, which will be exemplifi ed by a careful
use of the cali pers ; the remedy will be to
file a little off the wood, preservin g the
same square edge, but on no account must
the teeth be interfered with. If the calipers
re\'eal no discrepan cy in the depth, it may
be necessary to remove the brass clip and
file the sur face adjacent to the slides, only
be minuful that n. very little clearance will
give the necessary freedom to the movemen t.
'l'he rackwork is now complete , with t he
exception of four brass lugs or hinges tin.
thick, as seen at k (Fig. 1), having holes
drilled and broached if necessary to fit the
steel rods which pass through the arms of
the reflectors. To be certai n that this b ole
is exactly central over t h e slot in which the
rod moves, it will be advisable to bring the
racks to the end of the stroke, as in .Fig. 2,
while the holes for the screws are being
marked t h rough the counters unk holes in
the hinges. In this way it will be immediately noticed if the pinion is out of wind
with the rod on each side of it. The sur plus
wood at t he ends of the slides may now be
cut away, the lower slides being bevelled as
at s (Fig. 1), t o clear the sides of the case,
the construct ion of which wlll be taken up
in the next article.
FRET-CRA FT is an art so simple, that the
rules for its perfect working nught be taught
in five minutes and set forth in a few paragraphs. Yet the p oint where it gains value
from careful a nd precise workman ship is
not to be rea~ed by one or two t rials only.
If, however, th~ amateur worker intends t o
become a past master of the craft, the motto
of the old Romans -Festina, lente-wh ich
is generally translate d "hasten slowly,"
should be his, for undue dilatorine ss or
overhaste will alike fail to compa.ss his
end. Like to a moth fretting against a
garment, h e will indeed leave t races behind
him, not only of spoilt material, but also
of useless toil. If the saw is not tight and
taut at each reinsertio n- if it be not held
in a perfectly vertical position- the best
result cannot be achieved . Yet, if the
design is rJoly wrought with elaborate
mechanic al exactitud e, there is danger of a
stiff cast· i' on pattern being produced. In all
hand-w r,,~ught work, the eharm con!'; ists in
the feQling unwitting ly imparted by the
worker. A machine will make you t en
thousand repeatl:i of tbe same detai l wi th
microscopic correctne s, but if an artist ha:;
to draw a pattern with frequent repetition s,
though he he never so careful, he will, if
indeed h e be an artist, all unknowingly
produce slight variation s in each.
The leaves of a tree, like as they are to
each other, are yet not exact replicas of one
shape, even in the simplest form er! spc<:i1.::.:.
But it is waste of words to try to teach
what · must be instinctive. Though you
a rgue until doomsda y, you shall ne \'er convince one who has not already fe lt it of
the subtle quality we call "art." Be sure,
that if you fail to recognise the ditl'erenr e
between things hr.ld t o be worthy, and t he
commonp lace wares of to-day, that the j uy
or sorrow of the artist is not yours. If yuu
see nothing in the marvello us drapery of the
Fates (in the ma rble remains of tl1 e friL·;:c
of the Partheno n in the British Musenn1 )
more than in the Jrn.pery also of marble that
clothes the weeping ligures who are fondl ing
urns in the Euston Hoad stoneyan ls, tbL· n
it would be waste of time t o try to inl't i1
it. To be able to explain wherein and why
they differ is qnite a uotber thing, that comes
only by education and study, Lut the feeling must be there ere you can in any way
cultivate it.
If you take rough can·ings by peas:;tnt
lads, home-ma de attempts at decoratw n
by artisans, in some you trace the u ntra ined artist, in others merely the mechaui··,
wbo assuredly may rival a nmchine i11 his
finish, but who will never surpass it in the
higher qualities.
A sombre sermon thi s, you !':ay. on a fretwork bracket. Diluted }Jhilosoph y expended on a trivial piece of om amental
work, lacking merit in design, a nd exacti.n~
little skill in execution . True, I grant you ;
but the preacher may be aware of the good,
although his infirmitie s forbid him to
achieve it. And if the desire to be inspired.
with the true and sincere love of beant •y f lll'
its own sake should begin with a thing that
has no claim whatever to snch n royal
descriptio n, it will have sencd a noble end.
If in poor wm·k you put your whole heart
into making each rmYe better than your
design, letting every leaf or bud mimic the
true lines of nnture, which1 in the desire to
k eep the whole s imple, 1s impossib le in
catering for an unknown army of possible
workers, then the artist who drew it OH
paper will be only too delighted to find himself beaten, and be glad to have provoked the
energy that caused the initial etfort.
The design, fot· the necessity of the pages
of WoRK, h as been planned to give a large
pat tern in the limit of a page. In t racing
l eave half an inch of plain wood between
the four parts. Trace and reverse for the
second tracing of each part. The bracket
to support the shelf can be either a simple
one or the whole of design A. The shelf
may be shaped to any con-venient form. It is
best kept square with rounded corners. This
yields more room for objects to be carried,
and is better than a simple ha lf circle.
The size of the bracket when fi nished and
put together is 17 in. by 15t in. There i:)
no necessity to say anything about material.
as when it is possible to do so the matenal
should be suited to the furniture of the
room and the surroundings. The design
itself will be found in the next page.
I& ra c!Zet
FrEfW or lZ.
,.-~-·1 --,
! .. _
Bi B
\ •
{Size, 17 in. by 15:.
' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - •..
' ... -~
, A :•' A.
' ...I.. II ..' " "
\ I :
".. ' ,
•• •
,.., _ .,
Bo);~EY 1 'TEYN E.
[Wor k- November9, 1889,
York-Nov ember 9, 1889.]
LAR UJJt s .
his own cndR. Such n. wily thief would
p,xarnine all winduwH n.ucl doors iu scn.n:lt of
indication1-1 pointing to tlt u JH'c:-~c tu:c of
ala.rm contactH, nnd even itn·t·llt llll:n.ns for
,_... Wru B unoLAB - UNGUARDED PoisTS OF TilE throwing t hese out of ndiou
and so prevent.
Da.T£ NO& - BunoL,.. n TtlAP~- L EAn n t:1'TF.tt'B
them from giving the nlan n.
H UIWLAK Ar.ABli-FLOOlt OR D oon-ALAT C()NU11.'Jil<L?'Cir•t{ P r1ints ·~/ f!tt • / h'frut·t•. -\ Vc
should th erefore cndctn·our to so plan ou r
r on EKM'Y H ousEtS---:UosoLUI:IION.
system of defence as t o lea. vu 110 points nuf'lu Wilv .Bu1·glar.- Professional burglarRdo guardc<.l. Pn.rtin.Jiy opcm·d fanli ght s lll:L.Y
not always set about their nefarious w or~ in be left in thi l-1 stn.tc if protc<"h·d witlt Leggc's
the same way, nor enter the house accordmg I Wi1~dow .UJiud Coutacl. :-lc ullery windows
tl<:viscd ~c· h c rr H·s ,,f tl11: wily l.nrglnr, :t11tl
driv e hint t." dt ·:-.l'll ir. I J:tl •:'s l:ta l';•l:tr
'l'mp (slu awtt at. Vi:.:. lil t) is sr• 11:t 11 wd l.y " '' '
IH·c·:utsc ,,r its l'l•·v•·rly ,J,., i. r·tl ,j,,,,I,J,
ac·liou. Th is trap is !Ita; I•· u p (:a .; . la ••" 11 iat
tlt e figun·) (If a s tu:dll otass t':t!'>tin;.• :~ ·. ia •. l. v
~ in. I•.Y ! iu., wit lt t \\'11 pi ..•·•·s lwut ,j,," 11 it\
t lte ntid d h: at ri;.:ht :11a;.d<·s to''''"' :1 •·h ,,f, ,r
tlt c hing<:d lvvcr lll' l11w. ,\11 ,. J,r,rr it• · 1,),,, I.
is att ac·ht:rl to c·ar·l• c· ttcl of tl w J,; ,,.,,. pl:tl •·,
nncl to llt t•sc blrwk ..; an· li xr·d J,,;, ·. ,.,,,,t :.. I
I pit.:ct.:s iusulalt.:d ftullt tlu: J ,a ~ r· ,,J,d•·. 'J'IJ';
- -. .
Pig. 62.- Alarm 1n Fig.
611n Sect ion, sbow1ng
Working Parts undt r
tbe Dome.
Fig. 61. Leadbcttc r's
Universal Burglar
Pig. Gts. - Form
of Brass Spring
tor Alarm.
• 0
Fig. G3. rioor or Doorru :t~ Cou: act.
F1i. 88.- Amateur Floor Contact Ata.rm : Section.
Fig. 67.- Contact Block for Floor
Contact Alarm.
to the r uleR of any concerted system. An I should always bo fitted with a tmitnble con-
open window or open door muy generally tact, and C\'en the trap-door lead ing to the
be rl:liod upon as offering 11.11 unresistn.ble roof should not be left unguar<.led. Tbu
temptation to the thief, but he prefcrA an
open cellar gro.ting, a fan-light left u11stoned, orseullct·y window left ajar, to any
these apparent tro.ps. The old 'bird is not
wtth chaff, nor the ticket-of-leave
~wic~ in the snme wa.y. As he gets
~wcer m hts career, he becomes more cro.fty,
te&chea the younger members of his proMlcm the mysteries o[ his cr·aft. I cnn qui to
liA,,,,. of r:mch a. wily thie[ studying cl~cand making hirnRelf well acquainted
electric burglR.r alnrms with a. view
1lit;tg hia acquisitions of knowledge to
cellar-flaf ot· gmting mny be ndequatcly
pt·otectct wi t.h ono of Dale's Burglar Traps
fastened to the some with o. piece of stout
string. Should the thief hreak the fo.stenings of the flap noiselessly and attempt to
open it, the string of t he trn.p '~ill not fail
to ring the bell; and should he dtscover the
string and cut it, he will by so doing release
the ~pring of the trap o.nd cause it to make
con tact.
B 1'1'0lar Traps.-These, o.nd the others to
be described, are therefore vel'itable burglar
traps, likely to foil the most cunningly
- I
.Anmteur Floor Contact Alu.rm : Pl:!.:1 of UJ.:.:lcr sidc.
~mn ll
hrass rocking lc\'l'l' lt iugl·d In tltl' laa,_,.
pla.te is nlso furni:-hcd with plat iunm poiul :wherc the ends touc·h t he t·nutact plall''·
It will he seen tlmt a. pi cec of IH' Il t dol'k
:-;pring, o, form s n. ~pring loctWl'Cit I Ill' lansv
pln.tc and ouo end of the rocki11g ll'n'r, In
keep this from being iu eoulai'L wit lt llw
pla.Le at A. T his little n.pplialll'U ntn.'· 1...
nttnched by screws to the llonr, a. pw-1, o1·
any piece of wood nt n. little clistnnn• frut11
the point to be protC'ctctl. 'f h c wire fw tn
the binding screw, c:, tunst th en i ll~ I'Oltnoctcd to one lino wire. n.ml the t w1• wir• '"
ft.·om A and n to the other lino wire of lh• •
alarum system. Tlti ::~ l>cing done, the lael l
will ring nnd continue riuging unt il tltl'
rocki ng lever has been pulle d a.way from ringing. The conta ct pieces can be set easily
B suffi cient to keep both ends free from
at any time by unsct·ewing the cap of the
rouching eithe r A or D. A piece of stou t pilla r and adju sting the rod, and this can
string i::~ then fastened to the loop, E, aud be set to almo st any degre e of stiffness by
tied to the door -flap, grati ng, draw er, or more or less press ure from the screwed cap
what ever we wish to prote ct. It may be on t he ball of the pisto n. Thes e little intied to the l~rr of the ta.ble, or of a chai r, strum ents are sold by Mess rs. T. Gent and
Qr to the knob of a dmw er, or of a door. Co , Fara day vV orks, Brau nston e Gate,
Shou ld the artic le to whic h it is tied be Liecestet·, at 10s. 6d. each. They are said
moved away from the appli ance , the lever to be most inval uable as detec tors of gard en
will be qrou ght into conta ct with A and thieves, as the strin gs lead ing from them
start the bell ringi ng; but shou ld the wily can be readi ly laid amon g grass and foliage,
thief discover and cut the strin g, the leYer and so escape obse rvati on.
will be forced by the spring, D, into conta ct
Floo1· 01· Door-.Jfat Con tact. -At Fig. 63
with n, and thus ring the bell. Shou ld he is show n the usua l form of floor or door
fail to di~co v er the strin g, he may possibly mat conta ct. The brass barrel of this~tumble again st it and thns bring both ends appli ance is furni shed with an
extra stou
alter natel y in conta ct. Simi lar traps are spira l sprin g surro undi ng the stem of thet
n1ade in cylin drica l form for inser twn in tlat top plun~er shown in the sketc h. This
:vosts and sills. In these form s a small keep s the plun ger in the posit ion show n
brass pisto n work ing in an ebon ite cylin der until press ed down with the foot, when the
i s kept in conta ct with the brass casin g at botto m of the stem comes into conta ct
one end by mean s of a spira l sprin g, until with an insul ated stud fixed in an ebon
pulle d out, when a cross t>iece makes con- disc screw ed into the botto m of the barreite
tact at the othe r end. 'fhe:;e are name d To fix this appli ance , a hole to fit the barrel.
"dou ble conta cts."
must be drill ed with a brace bit in the
Leadbette1·'s Burglm· .Alm ·m.-T his in- tloor, unde r the mat ; the top part of this
genio us bur~ lar trap, inve nted by Majo r is coun tersu nk to receive the lowe r part
L eadb etter , 1s show n at Fig. 61, and its of the cap, and then the flanges of the
inter nal arran geme nt at Fig. 62. The ex- cap let in flush with the surfa ce of the
t ernal appe aranc e is that of a 3-in. elect ric floor. The wires are laid alono- bene ath
bell gong, furni shed with a pilla r on the the floor, and brou ght up throu gh the hole
top, out of whic h protr udes a smal l pisto n cut to recei ve the cont act barr el; the ends
Qf brass. On takin g this iustr umen t in are conn ected to the screw s show n in the
hand we find that the gong is faste ned to sketch. Whe n place d unde r a mat in the
a brass ring enclosing a d1sc of ebon ite, whic h door way this appli ance serve s to anno unce
form s a base for the gong. The ring is the arriv al of a visito r, and it is also used
h eld to the sides of the gong by three smal l unde r the. ca.r pet of a din ing-room table
steel set screws, and, on unsc rewi ng these, to enab le the host or hoste ss to summ on
the dome comes off and revenls the inter ior a serva nt by press ing the conta ct with the
.arra ngem ent shown in secti on at Fig. 62. foot.
This is most simp le. Two smal l strips of
Tlte .Amateu1· Floo1· Contact Alan n.-A t
sprin g brass are fixed to the ebon ite base Figs. 64, (j5, 66, and 67, I give detai led
by smal l screws and bent to form a bridg e, illus tratio ns show ing h ow an amat eur may
comi ng iuto conta ct with each othe r at the cons truct for hims elf an effective floor
free ends. To the lonrrer and lowe r strip is cont act a larm . To do this he must rip
solde red (in the midd le of the bridg e) a one or two or more floor boar ds unde r the
smal l disc of brass raise d in the centr e to doorway, or at any othe r par t of the floor
form a cone, the summ it of which is . wher e the alarm is to be fixed. One floor
hollowed out a little to recei ve the roun ded boar d will be enou gl1, but the a rea
.end of the brass rod or piston. Two shor t conta ct will be enlar ged if two or more
piece s of insul ated wire conn ected t o these boar ds are form ed into a ki nd of
bits of brass and carried out throu gh holes and then laid down again, for intra.J;l
thts case
in the ebon ite base, serve to conn ect them it will be almo st impo ssible for any one
with the alaru m syste m ouside. It will be miss tread ing on the trap. I take, howseen that the pilla r on the top of the gong ever, one hoar d as being sufficient to work
is hollowed out to form a socket, and this upon for the purp ose of eluci datin g the
fits a ball throu gh whic h the pisto n passes. cons truct ion of t his alarm . Hav ing taken
The screwed cap of the pilla r is hollo wed up the boar d, mark oft' an oblon g piece
beneath to form a cup fittin g the top of it, just betw een two joist s, at a spot wher
this ball. Whe n 1 there fore, the end of the a perso n is likel y to tread when enter ing thee
rod or pisto n is mser ted in t he top of the open door. Cut this piece out of the boar
<:one on the cont act briclgo and the cap as show n at Fig 66, and thus form n. little
<>f the pilla r is screw ed down , its hollow trap- door with beve lled edges.
To the
cup presses on the ball and causes the rod unde rside s of the rema ining pieces of
to press apar t the conta ct pieces below. board , faste n , by means of shor t screw
The alaru m is now fixed ready fo r actio n. four piece s of thin sprin g steel or sprins,
By mean s of projecting pieces on the ring brass in the posit ion show n at Fig. g
of the base, it may be faste ned by screws Whe n the conta ct a rrang emen t bene ath the
to the floot· of a room, to a blor.k of wood floor has been completed , these '{lieces
in a gard en, or to a table , or any othe r board will be naile d down in theu placeof
wooden supp ort. Piece s of t wine or stron g and the sprin gs will supp ort the trap- doors
wors ted are then faste ned to the top of the as show n m sketc h.
p iston (in the holes show n in the cap) and
Two conta ct strin gs will be requ ired for
led in any direc tion from the cont act to the unde rside o the trap. The form
d oors or windows, or to stake s drive n in these is show n at Fig. 65. Thei r prothe grou nd, to whic h the ends must be porti onat e dime nsion s are show n in plan
attac hed. If the prow ling thief open s a li'ig. 64, and in secti on at F ig.
66. I p urdoor attac hed to one of these strin gs, or posely omit sizes beca use these
if his feet is caug ht in one of t hem, the obta ined by actu al meas urem ent must be
on the
t op of the proje cting rod is pulle d on one spot. The sprin gs them selve s shou
ld be
side and its foot slips out of t he sock et made out of stou t spring brass at
least tin.
on to the ~on tact bridg e; these strip s at in widt h, and the curv ed ends shou
Qnce come mto conta ct, and the bell ts set a bit of plati num foil solde red ld have
to them
[Work -November 9, 1S89.
w~ere they are likely to come into contact
wtth the conta ct bloc~ beneath the floor.
The base plat e to wh1ch they are riveted
must be long enou gh. to span the spac
betw een the stee_l sprmgs supporting
trap, and the sprm gs long enough to reach
the cont-a.ct bl<?ck as shown in F1g. 66. The
conta ct block IS to be made out of a piece
of boxwood or of ebonite to the shape
sh<?w n at Fi~. 67, a~d sho_uld measure when
fimsh cd .: hetr,ht 2 m., wtdth. It in., thickness 1 m. lh e ~ower part of the block,
b~neath. the taper mg par_t, must be coated
wtth t~m shee t b_rass, w1th a bit of platinum f01l solde red JUSt where the tips of the
sprin gs are likel y to come into contact with
the brass when the trap is pressed down
This bl~ck must be fastened to n strip of
t in. deal secured to the joists and supported as show n at Fig. 66. The floor
board s may now be nailed down and
the wires from the alarum system' connecte d to .the steel sprin gs as shown at
;Fig. 64. Whe n the trap .is put in its place
1t shou ld be kept by the t1ps of these sprin~
at least t in. abov e the level of the floor 1{
inten ded to be under a mat or carpet. The
tips of the conta ct sprin gs should also be
resti ng on the taper wood part of the contact block. If all has been made aright; the
trap will sink when trod upon and the current from the batte ry will pass by 'vay of
the steel sprin gs to the brass springs and
the circu it be completed througli the metal
coat of t he conta ct block.
'l'his form of tloor conta ct possesses the
adva ntag e of being easy to construct and
keep in order . All the conta ct points are
what are known as "rub bing contacts,"
a nd there fore not likel y to get rusty or
coate d with dust. Shou ld any of the parts
requ ire atten tion, the trap can be easily ·
remo ved and the parts repaired.
1'he Closed Circuit Alar m System.-To
more efrectua.lly foil the nefar ious schemes
of the electrically educ ated thief, a system
of elect ric alaru ms has been invented,
whic h depe nds upon the action of an
electro-m~o-netic relay alwa ys conuected
with a cons ta.nt batte ry. This relay keeps
the local circu its of the alaru m bells open
whil st its own circu it remains closed, but
shou lu t he craft y thief disco>er the wires
and cut them, the circu it of the : elay is. at
once brok en, and it then throw s mto actJOn
the local batte ry conn~cted with the alarum
belL The batte ry used in this syste m is a
form of the Dani ell know n as the sulphate
grav ity batte ry. In this form , a. lead cylinder perfo rated with smal l boles at the
botto m, and filled with sulph ate of co{lper
cryst als form s the nega tive element m a
glass o~ porcelain cell. In the same eel~
susp ende d near the top from a. wooden
cover, a mass ive ring of ~nc forms the
posit ive elem ent. The cell IS first charged
with d ilute sulph uric acid, then. a. saturated
solut ion of copp er sulph ate lS carefully
pour ed into the leac! cylif?der so. as to float ,
the dilut e sulph unc actd on Its surfa ce.
'fhe supe rior S);)ecific gravi ty of the coppef
sulph ate solut10n k eel?s it at the b~ttom .~
the cell b elow the d1lute sulph unc e:ctu,
unless the . cell is shak en or .the solutlOk
agita ted. This batte ry keeJ?s m g?od wor ~
inoorde r whils t const antly 1D act1on, bene
its use for this purpose.
If this syste m IS adop ted throughout •
house all the conta cts must have a reve r:t
actio n · that is to say, they m~t beaU th8
to keep the circu it closed whils t
door s and wind ows are closed, bu~ to breed
the circu it when any of these aJie O_!:~nth ·
No attem pt shou ld be made to conce~~~ 8
9, 1&~. ]
wires and connections as it will bo an
adnnta.ane should they be discovered and
..tf.larvn~.t for.Empf!.f llou,sts.- \\711en wellto-do householders 1ht to the seastde or to
the moor for their summer holidays they
cannot always le~ve their houses in the care
of servants or care-takers. They therefore
Jock up the premises and depart in some
fear and trepidation lest the house should be
broken into during their absence. Messrs.
T. Gent & Oo. have made arrangements
f or supplying a specially constructed loudtoned gong to be fi.'\:ed on the outside of a
house and connected with the tLiarum system
inside. Notice should be given to the
police that a. house is thus protected whilst
1ts owners are a.way, when they ·will hold
themselves ready to pounce on the thief
a.s soon as the bell gtves notice to them
of his intrusion. Of course it will be
understood that the bell is not placed in a
prominent position to be easily seen by the
mtending burglar, but it wiU be best h eard
if pla~ed high up on the house.
In this series of papers I have not pretended to give an account of all the little
contrivances made and sold as burglar
alarm contacts. Either of the firm s mentioned by me will ha.\'e mnch pleasure in
s upplying any special forms to meet s~ecial
circumstances, and to advise on the fixing
of the same. I 'viU o.lso endeavour to do
what! co.n through the medium of "Shop" to
assist with my advice any reader who may
wish to make or repair his burglo.r alarums.
The subject of fire alarms and other automatic alarm systems will be d ealt with in
future papers.
Goon THINGs-.SnoP.
from tho top of tho bnck t o tho floor, and that
the hindor support.~ are nttllohod to tbeao by
b right. brnss gTipll, whoso bold on tho long bnrs
can be released or tightened llt pleasure, and
which mo\'o up and down tho bnck, and thus
rniso or lower the sc.'lt to My inclination desired.
These ratent Folding Chairs nro distinguished
by different nnmes accordin~ to size, form, or
fittings. Thus in Fig. 1 an 1llustration is gi\'cn
"Hygienic," illnslrukd in F ig. 2, is lilco tlao
" Pliant," but hi\S a rnck nt tho &oot. l•n111 nnd "
rogulator faEto!ncd to tho bnclc in!ltonJ of t ho
grips.. " Then made " 'ith amts it i11 1\ good
nursary chair, nnd a child may bo put to ~IN• p in
it. It is 11poci:tlly recommended for · invnlidM,
because tho pcculittr wnvc-liko motion induced
by it when in u se roliovos constipation. " 11.8
action," says tho inventor, ''is p erfect maJt~RO
without tho toilsome labour, nnd, as prevention
u better than cure, tho dnily uso of its gentle,
undulatory motion will groatly assist th<l livl'r
and bowels in securing that vigorous h enlth
which u of 80 much ,-ruuo to every ono. A groat
advantage of this chair is thnt. it cotnhines n
porfoct rockin~ chnir wit.h a perfect lounge, tho
restfulness bemg such that it. has many tiu1es
boon used ns a bed.
'l'ua EotTou.
THll Editor of W onx hns much plorumre in
snying that he has reooivod the following lt!ttcr
from tho Secretary and Members of tho Committ.ce for the fonno.tion of these classes, fluted
17, Shepherd's Plnco, Upper Konnington Lano,
S.E. : -
A :u.u.n ea.a~ chair ia a piece of furniture much
cc 'Ve oarnesUy request your favournbl o consideration of the enclosed syllabus of mru:;onry
cl'\SS to be h eld at South K en sington undor tho
direction of L'\wrcnoo H arvey, E sq., F.R l.ll.A.,
etc., and should you beliol'o tho lessons therein
nre calculat.ed to givo o. sound knowlcdgo of
masonry and construction , and prol'e a sci~ntific
basis of training for mnsons d~i rous of rising to
tho positions of foremen or clerks of w ork!~, wo
respectfully solicit y our h olp to bring U1cso
lessons within their rench.
"The Council of tho City nnd Guilds of L ontlou
Institute either mnnot. or will n ot r cdtt <'O tho
high fee demanded of 2lt guinCJLS, thcrcfort' wo
tho undersigned btwe formed oursclve11 into ~~
Committee to reccivo subscription:~ from fri<'~ltb
who consider our cause a good ono, nnd tentltng
to raise tho general tono nnd chamctor of rL
large body of workmen.
"\Ve propose reducing the fe~ t o 2;is. cr~ch
for all boua-fido masons, nml. C\'Cn this umount.,
with the addition of rnil wny funl nnd other
expenses, forms n. largo ~urn for masons to p:1y,
and it is to their crcdtt thnt many nro now
anxiously awaiting tho result of this our effort
. thetr
. \.._\..
.. l i ' ,
In gh·ing publicity to it, tho Editor h 1U1 only
to add that a letter to the Sccrot:lry at the 11rl?ross
given abovo will nt onco procuro for tho npphcnnt
a syllnbus of the classes and a pt'Ospectus of tho
" College of Mason a."
to be desired m every house, especially a chair
that ia made in such a manner that the inclina-
• • • 1'a.lmttU, IIUlluifaciurerl, and dtnlerB ~n.emlly an t·e·
qut~led to tctld prwptelWIU, bil/.1 ~. qf their lpt<Jinli1
t (u in ~ MGC.Ilin.ery, and VIOriahQp a.ptxi4tt«s to the
Editor Q/ IVOllK /Or
iR "Our Uuuu to Good
T.lirag1." It il dutroblc tW ~peci11un.t ahottld. be se11t
/Of' auminatfon anll.tuting in aU c:nsu when Oti,s oo.n be
dou wlt/unU ti\CO"WI\WIW. Speci!IU!Ill thlLI retei1•td
wiU bt returned cU tM tar£iul avpor11lnity. lt must be
u'&CU!r~tood Uta.l nocrrtlling tchi(A il notic«l, il noti«d
" DE.Ul
Fig. L - The "Waverley" Patent Folding Chair.
of the "\YnYcrley," a luxm;ous nnd comfortable h:1mmock rhni r or loungo chl\ir, nicely
upholstered with a strip of carpeting t.hnt forms
both soot nnd back, and yields to evory mo,·oment of the body, to which it affords n strong
but. most comfortable support. The ends of the
framing aro finnly planted on tho ground, and
cont-Ain within tho stmight lines umwn, or thnt
may b o dmwn, from ono to the oth er, n sufficient
aren to impart porfcct stability to tho scat. This
chn.ir is said to bo one of tho best ch1tirs made
for use on n. lnwn or ship':~ deck, and it cnn b e
used when opened out only eighteen inches from
front to bnck, thus rendering it of gTMt utilit.y
ic. cases where room is n C'onsiuerntion. 'l'ho
"Trafalgar" is like tho "'Vnverloy" in form
and construction, but the frnmo is more strongly
madC', nnd Ums p01·bups it is more suitnhlo for
gentl~men's use as tl. lounge, hammock, or deck
ib tnerU. only, alld tMt, 111 U u iR I'M JlO!cer Q/ Clny
OM who An.t4 ~ arlkUfor' ICI.lc to obl4ilt IIU!nliol~ of
U '" tAu dlpo.l'hllat Q/ WORK wWio11t ch4rgt~ the
Mt kllr gh<c" JIG rtab '" "" tour Q/ u... •&a.t ""' Q/ ao •-e r·
101.-Moou'a PATUT FoLDING OH.Ams.
tion of tho back
to tho 1101\t may be varied a t.
ploa.euro from an almost erect position to ono
that ia very n~rly parallel to tho tloor without
difficult,y or much exertion on the part of tho
open.tor, and which, whon the rolatiYe positions
of back and seat have beon tbua altered, is 80
OOl)structed u to retain the form which is defired and required without ahifting either when
touched or Mt upon, aa is tbo case with ~ot o.
few folding cbaira that are said to bo eecuro and
etable. The beat chain ot t.hiJt kind-best becaoae
all the conditiona that one
for in an euy chair 'Whose back
be 1 htd. or lowered at ploa.eure, ntunoly,
i1it7, 1111, and oomfort..-are, aa far as my
to be found in the Patent FoldOh•ln ma=a•ctved. by Hr. J. T. Moore, of
Jha lie 6 ......: • rid 'bJ uy upholeterer in the
Vahall X._. .,, ilaot la atook, can be pro•anafeotaer for any c:uatomer
-~ 'At pa:baoiple Oil which these
wzln ia .ouua ea-, but that
IN reply to correspondents who ha,·e writl~n
pointing out that cngnwh~ of Uu.:so designs thd
not appear in No. 30 ot \\ onK as nnnottltr.:ll<l. lh.c
Editor tnkcs tho opportunity ot explain in~ tha~ tt
wn.s considered to bo moro useful to rcl\drl'tl 1t1 1:(1\' 0
working drnwings of them instead or l!ntl\11 skct.dto.s,
as was orlglnnlly contemph\ted, n!11l t.hnt th i'Y w1~l
shortly npponr in turn wltJ\ dcsor•pth o nu\tt.ur o:~o.:­
plo.iniug n1od0 of construcl.lon, etc. oto.
of mo~t of them
aa iupentbn of Fig. 1,
Lba' tu hA& Jec8 or
'llkl11 d tbl flaming
- ·- - -
Fig. 2.- Tbe "Hygienic" Patent Folding Chair.
chu.ir whilo tho ""•nvorley " m~et.s. the loss
exacting requirements of tho l:tJtcll m ?very
particular. 'fho " l 1 litml," nnothct· chnll' of
this class, is plnced on r ockers, ond so llro ~ho
~·Gem" nnd cc Littlo Gem," most useful chlllrs,
very portabltJ nnd 11u.itnblo in o,·cry respect for
dmwmg-roo~s sitting-rooms, and bedrooms, as
-ell as for outdoor pur~oses. 'l' ho last-named
chairs difterfrom tbo cq llYOr1~y,, . u T_._,r,r
and "Pliant •• in hn,·ing tho JnobmttJon o tho
back ngulated by moons of a rack ~n the. underlid• of the aoot bare, in connoctlon Wlth tho
lplndle oa whioh the seat ban rest. The
.. MuntlD." and Suglleatlona to our Writers.
-\V. n. ( LivcJ-pool) writes: - "1 ob:~C'r,·o. :l01110
correspondenco In •Sbop.' No. 27 (SCO vn.:o ~1:~1 ..r \lsmrdln the dori'l"ntlon or tho WOI'\1 11\llllllll. I
flnd ltg gil'en in Qgllvlo's Imporlnl Dkt iotu!rr M
follows·-· Munt (Scotohl. to monnL 1\hll!llll, or
muntln · the central vcrUcal Jlicco th1\l dh' hli~:~ thu
pn.nels ~t a door.' It Is ovldoa~Uy 1\ corrupt ion or thn
word • mounting.' Mny 1 ottor n BUifit~Stlon ns hl
artioloa in W o RK t There is a tcttdoncy in EOI~to
writers t.o sborLcn their descriptions. 1\1~~.. to qtl ~(
tary instructions Ulrongh :s1•OI'. 1
aup8~enTbo effect is to lol\\·o the Lnstrncthms a
re~ , ' · and so much ill taken Cor lfrt\nt.cd Lllnt
Rt~ 8° ~~~mea diiDcul~ Cor nn unskUlcd h~nd tf
follow them. Tbat la not sat.lds[ncto ry,,nd1~P !~~gt!
tbo deftolenoloa m&7 be ma o up 1 n ..,, n '
onl7 when some one ••kl tor tbo details. os!dos.
you will no doubt ha,·c corrcsponrlcnts nll over the
world, to whom the columns of · ~hop· cannot be
of much serr icc in that wu.y. The liclnys nrc too
grcnt. I rcgnrll \\'oH I~ ns so ;n.luablc thnL I should
he sorry to sec its nscfulncss impaired for want of u.
1i1tle extm trouble on the pnrL of the author;;.
)htny of your readers nt·o no lloubl, like m)·self.
' 'cry amateurish. and require full untl complete
•lctails of construction from bt•ginnin,:r lo encl. but
obhcrve it h11s only to be done once. Hnvin~ gi\·cn
such ins tructions Cor, say. u. bookcnsc. camcm. etc.•
in all future des igns of similar character, readers
could be rcfcrrc'l to those instructions for details.
lJo not think I cornpluin of WORK-it is the best
value Cor its price th1U I ha \ 'C SC('n for a Ion~ t ilm•.
I rlo not. like to mention names, but J\lr. .-\damson's
instt·uctions ubouL th e bureau arc the kincl tlmL I
and tnany nthcrs rctJnirc. I cannot follow the
m·ticlas or. the camera, kn lcidoscopt•, silicbottrd. etc.,
so 1•ns ily."
Tfn Ovals, e tc.- A. N. (.A il·d,·ic. }"l.H.) writes:"Being a rcuclcr of your paper. \\'ollK, I mar sny
I lllll well plcnsccl with it, also the rcmnt·ks in
· Sho\1,' which is o. lirst-clnss fe11Lurc in it. nn<l
wllic 1 I liud YCry inter esting. I lllllf suy I 1L1n in
the metal s tamping line, unrl 1un plcasccl with
li. .M. Hnmsdcn's pn./Jcr. l also not icc<l the fanners
in • ::-hop; of whic t I hnxr nuulc n. !ew before
seeing snme. 'l'he only ditl'erence in mine is I
have spinclle r unning on ccnu·es us un<lcl'llcath,
which et\uscs less friction. ancl can be altered in
cnse or blades rubbing on :;irlc. ha\'ing gam nut on
the screws. I may say I ha,·e mnde a. fern case
and aquarium combinccl. and seeing inquiries for
sume. I hope to sec papers on it. Hut, :Mr. Editor.
w ould you be as kinclus to usk some r eader tor a
description of mnchinc or O\'UI rollers fo1· making
O\'al tm bodies with locked seam. such as mus tard
and tobacco tins. or makers of same. or put me in
correspond ence with one who knows? I mar sny
I would gi\·e so met binr
'' to ha ,-e n ftU>t met hod for
form in!' ovnl bodies.
hope you will be tts kind us
to put this inquiry before your renders.''
Machine s for Current o f Air.- FtTTER ( Walsalll writc•s :-"I have noticed a sketch or two of
machines for producing n. constant c urt·r nt of nir.
and I s hould be ~lad of the dimensions for wakin~
Chamfe r Plane.-.APPRE:-iTtcr.: J..,\D (Leicester)
·writes:-" In l'\o. 20, on jmgc :nli..J. \\'. f1Jurlon·OII7'rcntl writes that h e 1ns mu.cle n. chamfer pltme
from workin~; uru.wings publishccl in the ('m·pentcr
ancl Builclo·. I r:;hould be \'Cry much oblig-ccl to
him if he would kindly give me Lhc rhrtwinl-{ in
'Shop.' so ns to make ono myself. I t.hink others
would like to mnko such a useful tool too. 1 am
very pleased with \ VORI{."
Blacking Glndstone Bags. - R. A. P. (Sortth
Kensin(llon) writes:- " Seeing in yonr issue of 2-tth
August (pni{C 365). n parn,:trnph entillccl · Glads tono
Bags,' recommending .Merlin muck for rcno\·ating
same, I cndcrwourccl to get some, but found that it
is seldom l;:ept in stock l>r shopkeepers, tbout:h
it could be got to orclcr, but not h:ss than a gallon.
I therefore I{Ot some ot llarl'is' Dlnck Leather
Vamisb, sold by llnrr is &. Son. 33. Beech !-5trcet,
Barbie~n. E.C., and founrl it nnswcr admiro.bh·,
drying quickly. nnd it is quite clastic and pliable.
T wopt nnyworth is sulticient for nlnrge bag."
A Hint to Fretsawye r s .-C. E. (.Strc:athcrm
Hill) \\Titcs :-·'It mny be worth knowing that
l1o If a dozen or more exact cop ies with once tracin"
can be taken ot a dcsi~n without spoiling the
ori,;inul by placing under neath suflicicnt sheets of
J~JMncse pupcr and co.rbonic paper. and tracing
wtlh the encl of o. needle s tuck into a wooden
bolder. l!~or instance, if six copies shonlrl be
required, six sheets ot the Japanese and three
sheets of the carbonic paper would be rcquit·ccl
ns the lnLter is prc\1arcd on l>olh sides. The paper:
being so extreme y thin, cnn easily be rcmo,·cd
rrotn the cut work with. ll dn~np sponge. pt'O\'idcd
It hn'! been stuck on wtLh t lun past c. Being also
tmnspnrcnt, the reverse of n d esign can be got
by simply turning it O\'Cr. I mav mention that
.Mcsst'S. l sMC Pitmnn 8.: Sons. of s'horthnncl fame,
Amen Comet·, supplied mu wiLh smulJ quautities of
the O.bO\'C."
Wheels, etc., for MaU Cart.- \V. P . writcs :"llcadct'!! of \VorttC who r eside in the North of
England aiiCl urc llcsii'OIIS of huiltling a mail c..:urt
can buy their wheels nncl other r e(Juiromeuts of
.Jumcs Henry, 9.5. l'ort l:>trcct, Piccnrlilly. 1\fnn·
eh ester, who SUJiplics wood '~heels ut -Is. per pnir,
rubber wheels UL 5s. rcr pUll', nnd OtbCI' thingS
equally cheap; Alft·c• Pm·kct'. tiO nnd G:'!, (~•·cat
.i\ncoat.s Street\ 1\lnnchcstcr. who supplies rubber
llre ~vl~~cls wtth u:dc tlt 5s. tirl. pet· pait•; n.nd
Owcn s l oy Dazun.r, 8 1. Ancoats Street, :\1unchestct·
where .rnbl>cr tit:c wheels may ~c bought nt 5s. lid:
110r. pau·, and S\ltdcr wheels (wJthonL rubbet· tires).
lllJI'!ngs. und nx c n t is. the lot. l tcuders rcsidin:; nt
a dtsLUuc:e, and utmblc to gl't these thinrrs in their
O\~·n locnlitr. _should wt:itc before mnking o. r cmJ tuLnee, ~-ttVIII~ the h eight o!' wheels rcquit·cd
aml inquil·ing price."
S.tra!.g hte ning ~lrd Co.ge Wire. -A. E. D.
(Bu·nun(IIUwt) wt·ttes :-" I n l\o. 27 of " ' ORK (sec
page 4~9) arc n. few remarks 1·c struigh tcnin~ wit<'
but all ha,·c noL the use of a set of tin111nn's rolls:
so I tnke lh~? libct:tY of s~ncii ng sketch. or u. simple
~ethod whtch wtll stt:n•~ht en uny ktnd of wire,
etlbct· hnrd or soft;, whtch I hope will be useful to
r~ndcrs of \Vo nK. Jn t he illm•trntion A is tL stron~
J>ICCC of wood iuto whicll stt·ong nails or pict:cs of
[ Wor1t- N ovember9t lo""
m entio_ned t;-om ~ndon and made the tbl
accor dtng tC? mstructions. but was diahearte
the completion, as the definition ot the objec':aedOA
v ery bad: I then had the opportunity of exam!;!a prof~1on_a.lly- made oqe-, o.nd found my lenaea to~
absnrd m d1ametcr u.ncr as regard to their I>OSlti0
Now I wish to point out that such descriptioDA ~
young lnds.nnd a m ateurs to spend their tim& &lld
. _,
mo!le~, until they corn~.- to such a. disappointment u
~ cll.d m my. firs.t attempt, when the whole thine
1s g~vc~ }JP m dis~st. P erhaps I a m too raah ID
not wu.lt.ing to see if the subject is to be conUnuea
or. not. However, here are t wo or three more
thlngs that would put the damt~cr on a boy who
St rats h tening Bird Cage Wire. commenced t o mo.ke (1) machine for corrent of
air, No. 19, p. 302. ~t cer tainly has a slight look of
a fan- pct·ho.ps a little resemblance to a CapeD
through before ~oing through .Mine
driven in the wrong direction the
the nuils; t.hc wire is then Y!lnes fn,n-but
ettrved the 'vron~ way, and no inlet tor the
threaded U1rongh the whole, a1r s~?wn.
(2) .An cu~• ly-mndo fret machine, No.
nnd pulled either wit.h a pair 21, p. 3:!2: Th<?
most nUll po.1·t not shown, ho w la
of pliers or by being bent ronnel a piece of wood the mo~10n g iven
the su.w frame by a camot· the like; if the wh·e curls either wny the nails cccentrt~ or w hat ;toa nd
on cnrtb would the
ure to be hit sideways nltcrnntcly: the lnst two ~o!lnectmg rod pass ~hebow
.axle, tlxcd in the war
or three will suffice. A little practice will soon 1t ts sl_IOWI: 1 (3) Soldormg 10
of sheet metal
show how the curl can bo broken. And now, utensils, No. 23, p. 354. Now repairs
everybody would no'
in conclusion, allow me to tl1nnk you for publish- know, in nttempting such soldering
that tbo least
in~ so useful u pet·iodicul ns \VORK. I haYe taken
particle of zinc Jert on his ir on or saltier would lrlve
it ft·om the commencement. and ttm both instructed no
en_d of trouble in attempting to mend a kettle or
and rlclig htccl. Long may it ftourish is my wish."
csl!cctai!Y a soft metal teapot; n good solder tor
Simple Bend Router. - J. M. (Louth. Line.) linto.nma. metlll or pewter contains bismuth to
writes :-" Noli<'ing, ns I have in looking through mnke it more eo.sily fused, so as not to endanger the
the columns of \VonK. the many valuable tiJ.lS and article. 'l'hls t r ouble I had to tlnd out nt the
r ccc•ipt:; ther contain. ulso about the tools of other e::~..-pense of sp01Un~ o. good teapot. I now keep
tradc·s. winch of course I mrsclf am not well a. piece of solder to itself tho.t I use for zinc only
acquainted with, it made me think. ns I , had rc- ns good solder gets contaminated whun solderm,r
cch·cd some benefit uom \VoRK, I could supply ~alvaniscd metal. I am also very.eareful to ftleoit
all the old facing from the iron o.Cter using it tor
zinc. (4) Lock repairing and key fitting, No. U
first, poge. Our friend says the chisels for chipping
out the keys cost about Gd. 1\:lost amateurs iii
nttelll(>tiu~ chipping metal with such small chisels
would soon send tllcir sixpenr.cs flying. I had to
Jind out tbnt using a. chipping chisel requires a
good deal of skill. A boy reading that subject, and
seeing bow simple it appears to be to cut keys.
;:.._- -would speculate a shilling or two on the tools, and
.• :?
in U1e rnd be disgusted at his chisels breaking. I
a~mire such o. remark as regards buying a cheap
-v1cc, us I once bought one; t he thread stripped in
a Ycr~- short time. I trust you will see wbnt I am
nimiug- ut, not exactly being sarcastic, but simply
pointing out Utat a little more detail and caution
F.ig. 1.
llli!;ht be put in the subjects to make them more
easily undct·stood by the younger folk, as t·eallr my
:Fig. .a.
(1) und (~) would make o. practical wnn study
Fig. 1.- Examples of Beading. Fig. 2. - Bead before he could understand whu.t the drawings
were meant to illustt·u.t.e. I think if such drawings
R ou ter i n Plan {C) and l-..n d View {D).
were s nl>mittecl to mot·e practical men before bclrig
less lime a nd money would be wasted. I am
some of our nmnteur friends, ns well ns practical cut
discredit, ou the whole o!' the subjects.
friends, with n. design for a YCI'Y simple 1\nd :rct as I reflecting
co u:;idct· most of them splendiclly described. I
Yery useful ancl cheap Lool, which they nil coi1ld um now ncnrly thirty,
o.nd bu.vc always taken
mo.kc themselves. It iB a tool (of course I co.ll it n a. pnpet· of this sort siuce being
thirteen years oldtool, though, perhaps, some would not call it so) Dcsioa ancl f·Vo,·k. or E110lish
.Jllccl!anic, aDd
for making bends on the edge of doors, or o.nr now \VORK, w hich I consider by fnr
the best for
other m·ticle that requires a bend on an cd~c. I amateurs. I am speaking for be~;inners,
as yon
rnclose sample of Lending, also the tool Itself. w ill see what difficulties I have met by attempting
You will notice one bend is finished with just tbe these things which appear easy to make or do.
edge taken olf wi• h n ~;moothing plane (n.s at A in In my opinion every lo.d should have n hobby and
Fi~. 1), o.nd the other nt B. just cut with the screw
be encouraged, us a verr little thing makes him
head. and not fini~;hcd with smooLhing plnnc. The give i~ up if eYerything
does not go right, and theD
he w ill pc1·hnps turn for the worse. My father
tg. 9~ . ••
encouraged me by buying o. small cheap lathe for a
Noises in Waterplpes.-E. G. B. (Rochestcr) Christmus-box when very youn~, and used to help
asks :- "Can you t.ell me the enu se of watcrpipcs me out of mo.ny a d.illiculty. I now posse8ll &
hWHmi!lg, o.nd aloud lapping noise occurring when facsimile screw-cutting amateur lathe that took
watc1· ts drawn 1 llow can I remedy the aboYe the only medal for lntbes at o.n exhibition held in
ucfccL 1"-'l'o this query I ma.y reply :-The noise my town. My bobbJ. now is n good bell> on ID.T
rcfcned to by E. u. ll. is cnuscd hy turning the weekly salar y."- [ Your letter contains J USt the
l!raw-otf cock suddenly when there is n. high kind of criticJsm tho.t is desired and courted, ~
pressure of water. 'l'hc &implest remedy is to hnYc the rcoommendo.tions given will no doubt .,..
u screw down cock, ot· hu\'C the pipe lengthened accepted, remembered, nnd acted upon by thoee iO
thus:whom they refer. Yon must reme mber, bowebjvert
tbnt many a skilled hnnd, writing on a .su eot
with which he is perfectly familiar, will Gm!~
en ce to some necessary point, because ..,
happens to be so well known to himself that he
imagines it is equally well known to a ll. tor whom
he is writing. 1 endeav our, however, to I DIP resa4~
every writer the desir ability and necess 1 ty ~
being m inute in detail, so t.hat t hoso who aze
ignor ant of pr ocesses, etc., under description or
Noi ses 1n Wa terpipes-A, Pipe ; B, Draw-off Cock. d-iscussion m a y be helped to
perfect a compreo
hcnsion of them as possible.
a vo~:mt.eer
writer describes nnd illustrates In
Micros cope Making, Etc.-G. E. G . (Brai/,. thing that is not nctunlly tensible, i t Is
forcll writes :-"The insLructions given by 0. B. in either quer ies should be put to elicit
1\o. 22 of ·"·omc describe tho brnsswork pnrt most Uon on o.ny points which may not be
m i nutely, but nothing much is said o.bout the most a description supplied which clears up
important thing (viz., th e optical part). excepting a that may n ot be perfectly plo.in.-ED.]
littl<' about the eye piece, which wns of great
inte r est to me. He says there is nothing thut un Il.- QUESTIONS ANSWERED BY EDITOR AND l:n'Al
ingenious worker cannot do except tl>e few castings
Papers on House Pa1Dt1Dgg,,,~~~i:~!;
in brass. llow would the instructtuns rend it
applied to the metal work of n. clock, nnd nothing (Siuu:lcrland).-.Articles on hous~_
said nbout the number of teeth, or the diameter o! coruting were commenced inN os.
wheels und their mode of action 1 I consider it and these nre furnished by ono who t
just us vague. The metal work to me now is skilled ban d at the work and a competeD
M es, 0·6_~·111
child's play, but the opticnl pnrt I don't know much Receipts for making v arnish es1 .~
about. I should esteem it a great favour if as good patent d r iers, etc., will o.ppear ID " eans.
a d escription of the louses could be given. I don't und .;\!ethods" when sent in by correspondents
mean the making of tbcrn, but as to their focal have tried o.nd tested them ; but I regre~to
positions, diameters, et c. I, when o. boy of fifteen, up to this time I bo.ve h nd but very e"J
rend u n article in Desim~ m1d Work r cspecLing bution s to this portion of the l\{~lne.
the malting of a. mict·oscoJJO : the instl'lletious gi veu comply with your request to fac ta~~
were mos tly o.bout the ilinmctcrs, positions, and chu.nge of receipts between renders \:>t d &h'"',.
focus of the lenses. I procured the proper lenses m e u.ny that you m ay hav e by you, an
thi ck wire nre driven. not straight bnt zigzn.g IUI
shown. A st.u.ple iB also driven for wire to pass
··. .
--------- --
54 I
to register 100,000 feet. T hat is to say. that the
h and of circle 1 must ha,·e truvcllcd. once ri~ht
r ound before that oC circle 2 is on the l. which will
s how that 1.000 feet ha\·c been used ; anclthc hand.
of circle 2 must have tra,·cllcd ri~;ht rnunrl once,
and that of circle 1 ten tim es. before the hancl of
cir cle 3 is on the 1. which will show thu.t liJ,tJOO fo.:ot
have b ee n used, and so on. :::\ow to t.akc the state
Indices of Ordinary Dry Gas Meter.
of meter. commcncn at circle I. and wllichc\·t>r
nurnlJCr the hanrl is on or ncarr::>L w, that will
indicate lmndn.:rl,;. You will nr,ti cr· l J.a\·e pilL it at
ior 700. (l!car in mind that it wnulrl ha\'11 tnl{O
rit:l'ht round to be l.O!)CJ.I Ju cireh·:! ynu willnr,til'l;
tbat the hand is het\\ ecn the I anol 5, t,ut. ulthou~J.
it i:! nt:urcs t t o the 5. you call it 4, which ruuk c,;
it 4.700. The reaso n you call it '1, and n••t 5, i ~ be·
CiLII~e the hunrl has ur,t r cachctl 5, but liU,; pa;,st:l!
the 4 and about thrcr·-qllur·tcr;;. ot· 700. fJ\'(·r. In
ci r cle :~. the hnntl i'i bet ,,·,·en t h e 8 and !l. "~' 'T
neurlyhalf-wa~·. which rnak c,; the reatlin'-'li l.iuO. The
small ci rde aiJO\'C rnr·ro;ly iudicatc.; unir-<. nnrl nct:d
not be taken any n otice of. As the indir·r:s nf l,r)l h
w et and rtrr rnetcr3 somctimcs ,·nry with rlill'cl't·ut
maker3, 1 will soon potl \'Oil ri)tht if your ind1·X
rtoes not correspond with the dia~rau1 above ou
receipt of particular.-!.- E. D.
Plat ing.-C. E. (l'la inrillc. Ifarlfnrd Co. r·omr.).
:-You arc p erfectly corn~ct ~e:.:anlin;; .r>latin~·/'Iat·
tng. I t srrnply 111eans plut rnum }Jiaum;. 1 H·rn
arc no solutions 1 nm sorry to say ut prc!',.nt in tlu;
market (at )Past that 1 could n·~:nmmcnd) In plate
a nd oxitlisc at the surne time. You could. howcn·r.
add a little platinum hichlorirle to your hath, but
it is, ns a rule. a little troubl esome t o work. A
good method an d Rolution for oxidi s in~; s il ver is t h e
following :-Take llb. of sulphu r o. nd dis;;oh·e it in
1 quart of boiling JIOtash solution. pr·l!pnrcd by
dissolving~ lb of caustic potash in 1 quar t of wut 1:1·
(cold). ·when the r eaction followin~ this ha-;
stopped and the ,.ellscl is cold. pom· in sulphu r ancl
boil. s tirring th e sol11 tinn well, then cool allfl lilt e r.
This gi\·es a flnn oxicli ing solution . If work i'l too
lit:"ht a rid litth: more sulph ur anrl boil, but if too
dark dilute \\;th wat er (with little caustic polash
dissoh ·ell in it). T o w;e this, well clea n th e urtidc
t o be oxidi;;ed, then immcr·...,;e for a rniuutc in this ;
then dry on a piece of wui'Ilt iron. and polish with
rouge. I do not quite unrlr: rstaud what you t erm
the dttll flni ilh of ~-:nods, but if you work with excc:-.'1
of cyanide an<l s nmll anode thr: work will tlllrken
s ligh tly. 'l'h H quicksih·er metho•l is worked hy
m eans of amalgams: cir lu!r gold or sih·er is made
in to an am ali;nnt with II W I'CII I'Y· and the work to be
p lated is covered with t hi!s amal;.:um. The m er c ury
1s then volntisc:rl otf hr the aitl of h eat, whi ch
leavP.s the m etal nn the urtiell'. which then. gcncr·
ally speak in~. will bear bumishing. I do not know
of th e so-culled black nickel solution: send me
details of its }lrcparution and I will allvi~<c. Any
further infor111ulion you or nuy b rother plater'! uwy
r equire I shall be very pleased t o ~i ,.c. I will also
sec about a nother article for tlte pro fcssion.F . W .l'1.
Etching Mate rin.la . - Ct: P I D (Casllrjoltn).I h a ve never h eurtl of su ch a eotnpouud us nn
etching mordaunt. Hydrochloric a cid and nitr·oms
a c id arc t h e two gen•~ ru lly used for ctc hiug on
coppe r and stecl.-F. M.
Spence'a Metal.- J. S. D. (London. E.).- T ry
BiUington & Newton, Longpor t, Statfor·ds hirc.- J .
T e lescope Tubea.- H. N. D. ( .Middlcton) - Let
m e tell Mr. 13 tlrstl>· thnt, from a ctual expcl'icncc. I
can't help hjm. T hough I luwe deul t with m any a
.. bra.ss telescope tu be," I ha\"c n e,·er ncctlcd to
blo.cken t he in ter ior o! one. for the r eason t hat t he
blackening is a luxury rathe r 1ban a ncccs...,;ity. The
dull, dead.. coppcrr colour of the drawn bro..c;s, in
i ts first unpolls hed state. I ha,'e a lways found
sufficiently n n rcll ecti ve. 'fhis for the as tronom ical
t elescope; the stops commonly inser ted in a tc•·restrial telescope s hould render any special darkcn ill,l{
of t h e tubes still less necessary. However , I w ill
srtve what he lp my kn o wlcd~c can. The ftuucs or
ournlog straw will darken a b rass llllrfacc, nud
tWs is t he onl y homely process th a t I kn o w. Of
satisfactory chem ical methodB which do uot neces·
sito.te elaborate manipulation the simplest is th is:
Dlasoh•e soft copper in nitric a cid (scraps of wire
covered with the raw acid u ntil they arc taken up),
a nd dilute the r esultant solution with water. H eat
the braas slightly, and apply the solution freely
with & soft brush . 'fben raise tho heat or the
metal until a sufllclenUr Intense colour i.s obtained,
and finish off with an olled rag. A considerable
tll'!;n•e of hc:H iR nN·t·-;snry to ol,tuin 11 ~,,,,rl fiui·h .
1\lr. H. muy not ho nwaro that a ~>t"\' tl.at will , t,uL
oul cxtruncnms Ii~IIL can I{Cilei'HIIY "' apl'lu·d 1 ,, "
telescope wi t hout iujurin!> tl•c \'uluc oC t1c iro ... tru·
mcnt.- E. A. J:o'.
Size and Glues. - 0A Hrtr·:·rr ( /Jrw.~'"o·/1). - r
nm uot n wurc of uny work t ro·uti Ill( l!)wf"ially <JII lll<}
rnunufuc turc of th csl' nrtit;leii, awl 11itw<: 1 htt \'<;
ntUIIC spcciul nn1l pn rt ir·ultu· inqui ry witll thn•;r: wlr11
ou~hL to know. I drJ 1111t llduk unythllll{ r,f tlor: ki1od
has been published. AltiHlll~h J{luc i:11111 art idr· ,,f
liOIHC what ancient usu~r·. !lize. n'i uow prcpun·d fr,r
distemper, paintin~;, etc.. i!l <'OIIlflurativl'ly l.ut a
n :ccnt de\·eloprncnt. Tile l{ilde r· Jll't·Jmre'i tlor;
t:nzc he uses in .. watcr·I(J!tlinl{" friJUJ JIUrr.luu•:nt
cullinhrs• which aro put iuto nu ir<lu \"l!:i-~1'1. r·o\·r·r•·d
with water, anrl then t.i mrucrc·tl Jor ruuny ll<,ur:t
until all the "virtue" i:~ t:xtrar·tod. Tlw !>ize tl.u-s
obtuincd is call et! .. denr Rize," und is 1 hr: p•trh~
anrl clearest of anr u ~cd . The corn uu·rcial .. tl•m t,lt·"
untl "extra duublr•." us the ordi11ury qualir i<;, arc
cullccl, urc doubtless prcpr.red fro111 siudlu1· J.!"latinr,us sources. \"ill: .. fron: the l11111f..; 11f dilfo·r•·nt
unirno.lil, cullings of hirl cs, und ull sud1 rr·fuso IJf Jlw
slau~;htcr-h ouse. In th o 2\orth of En~ l anrl. 1 lm·
lien·. a ~ood c lear size i~ murl<• froJJ1 trir•e-rlrP,;~e r's
r·cfuse, trotters. anti so on. Allll<m~h lho·rl al rur1-L
p:dntcrs. in rr·cft·r(! Jil;f; I<J rlt ~...... ldlll{
cxclu!>iV<:ly by
tlw ~;luc onc .~ ~,.If. the olr s tylo: 111 Lrmtl•rn and
other Jarr;-c ccnlr1:s. there lllliSt he a gf,<Jtl dr·ruamt
tr1 pay for its lllunufat·tur·c on n lut·i:w hcal r·, "irof'r· iu
hr1L weat her si?.u em·ilr putrl'liC:!. YOull:(s l'al •·nt
~rz•: i.; a much si roni{Cr anti nHH'e trau~p.• rt·lll
ltlukc than the l WO kiuds Of g]lle·'>iZo~ uc:fr,rr· 111"11·
I i<Hwrl. untl conunanrl:; a hi~ !.ale ill t h<! w r:l rupuli,; .
YariiJn, forlltsul,;o of powrl1:rr·tl glue. tcr·rnl:d .. '''lit·
t·r·lltrato.:rl size." .. s ize powd er·.' ' etc.. llllrl a r·t·ady
hale i11 th e trurlc. .\ nF-cful ucco11nt of the rn•"thr,t)
11f makin~ J.!llle is, 1 hclic\·c, COJOtaiuerl in s,,..u·..;
.. \\"ork;;IIIJp Hcc:ipcs," price i'i:>., t•uloli:,ltcrl at ('ha r i~~~
CrUS'>. 'Jho · fol !rJ\\'i ug i-s a lJri,.f d t:seril•tirlll "' 1lw
J•I''H't::-s. Tlu, hitl t.: clipping ..;, lt•HIIS. uud ,;ur·h lik•·
J'f'flll>c o f 1 he lull ya r·rl~ are tir:.t t n ·au·d "irlr lir,•·.
tlwu drier! l,y CXfiO:.un; t•J Ih e air, awl aflf'J'Warrl.;
s ilulliCI'I.'<I ill Lnilill~ wal t: r• fu1· u c<lll!o.idcrahlt; I ill If·.
The I ''I uirl t lt m; ol•l uiucd i-. COIJ(:C utratr·d t.y r·vapo11·a·
ti••ll. aud whcu chld antl .. !-.et" for·u,.., a jl'll.1· wloi•·h
ii c ut iuto Ll()!:k:>. The bltwk,; arc tlo1·11 HI·i•·rl r,y
t wu proccs:e~ - lir-t hy cx,,,,., urc t<J air in !>lliJ.tlol"
druiJIIJ<:r:>. and aftcrwan s in heat t:rl d1utnlu·r.;.
The l<l'llcess of dryinj.{ by t·X]Ifl'illro r•~• flrirci t·\ e1·y
ullcnti<m. f<Jr clo:tlli;C in till' \\r•arh•·r Ilia\· !>prliltlw
wiJOio hutch. The bpl'inl{ aurl autlllllll. "whr;JJ rltr·
atJuo,pherc is lcuo;t \'ar·iulJie . arc thu bc:;t pr·riuri.;
fo1·1ldi drying-. lil u•· in a liquid fiJrtn L; prcpan·r l
IJy rli-,ol\·ing- the snb'ltuncc iu water'. and ad d in~
tdc•Jhol. If G .\ HHE1"l' hurl g i \'CII (h·fi ni H: J HII'·
ti culars I rnighL hu,·c nssi:stetlltilu 11101'1: practir·allr.
J\l r m.l\' icc to him is, ~;el pcrrub~ inn to gQ tltruuJ; h
a g luo factory. If th is i~ 11ut withiu his nar;lr I
111ay further us:;ist him throu:;lt our Editor.-F. 1".
Trn.m Car Sta.rter.-Ao Y.~r.o rn;;\r (f!"II J.Y our sketc h does not clearh· sh<J\\' tlt o nctiom nf
t he fnot-bruke in regulutirtt; ihc ucc mnulatinu aut!
di;;tributiou of enc r~;y, but tlt<:rc is antJlher l"•int
whi ch sc<-ms fatal to the f!Uo;t·C!>~ful a<·lion nf r<••u·
a pparatus. SutJJIOSe you urc r111111i11~ ill the rli1·r·t··
tio11 s hown bY th e arrows i11 \"0111' !'kt:tch. a111l
ha,·inr; the frier ion wheel on the 'axle in :.tc:u· with
the upper fric1 ion wiH·c·l uf tiH~ cu•·rg-y M•1riu..:
urrnn;.:ernent wh en rna kin;; a !>IIJp. th cu to ruakr;
a fresh srart in th e l>U JJIIJ dit•o.:~:l ion. the lowe r
friction whee l o( th e: st•H·u~c ~;r·11r m11st Ire IJrouf{ltt
into gea r· with the fric ti<JII wh(·<·l 011 tlw axle; Ull fc:,,j
Lhcrci i!l SO iliO pa wl or dctellt whkh i.; not shown iu
your sk•~ tt;h, your spring- \HJHid 1{11 r!Qwn with 1~
rush while you arc hftin~ )'Ollt' ft·ict iou wloccl,;: in
fuel. dirccll\' thu lop 011e leu,·c<: th e uxlo.: wiH:d. In
the unan J.{oincllL rlcscrihecl in tilt' sli p you cllf·lo~c
t hl'rc i.-s e\·idcntly a lot·k of !><!lttt.: :.oi'L wJ.ir·J. i;
r·elc;Lsed by th e pull upon th e tra ces. Your irll·a of
ncc nmnlutin~ encn:r in rnn11i11~ down liill aud
~;h i11;; it off again is in~enious. hut th e •lr!lai],; do
not show how you do it. I should imu~i111· tlrou:.:h
you would require a lor·~ a11d v ery bea\·y .;pri11;; to
lllal;:c much of tbis. - F . (.;.
Exposure Tables.-J. D. n. (l.it:rrpool).-Th rrc
nrc no tables compill'tl spt:r·ially fur instantaru·•Ht:l
WOJ·k. Hnrton'::s cxposm·u tubl c'l ure 11:1 ~'""" n..;
any, hut the use of tubl c:s of any kiud is contim:d to
t irn c cxposu re.-B. IJ.
Harmonium. - A :'IIATE Un (Prckham).- Papt> r 'l
n11d plans on this su bject will upptur us soo n as thu
scuson for \\iutcr work sets iu.- .Eu.
Crlcket-bn.t Hn.nd1cs.-A:~r .\TI':t,; n fSilcffidrll.'\"c nrc unable to naut c auy shop wht·r·•: c.111.., (}r
whalebone handle3 arc on sulr. as 1111'}" n1·e pru .
buhly made for .. the trade " ouly: it i-1 likdr rh.tt
they could be procm·cd throu~h uuy tlt·.ol··r 111
cricket npplianct:s. JJut why s hould not A )LL'J ~.1" 1:
make t hem for lrimsclf 1 The lll':.t cane fot· lit··
p,nrposc is said to be th e male (solid) junJ.dl'·r·aup.
1'1ti;; is cheap: in large quantil ic;; it muy. flt·t·llllfl:-,
r an;w from £2 to £1 per ton. \\'hulchvlh' i.; a ru11rc
costly Lhing, anrl mar cost ru; tnu ch us 1~ ;;. t•cr
pound. The material is rncrc lr cut iutu ~t rip ., :1. t,
or 5, llB may be desired, ancl r;lucdtu~ethcr.-A. Y.
E. ll. ( Homro1·). - You a .'k
Lathe Bn.nd. bow to secu r e the hook nnd eye of t he .. h"llt" IJntocl
so that it will not come otr. 'floc tl n;t thiu" i:J to
get the hook and eye t he r ight size for t he !{Ill:
b uve th em of such a aize that you can screw t he
gut in when only \"Cry slightly pointed with 11 pcuknl!c or chisel : you sqould not h o. ve to red uco t hu
gut except a t tbe very point. Screw the gut in a
vice slightly grease the end, gro.sp the book fn a
hand-vice, and screw it on witbout stopping till it
comes through i. it must screw on rnthcr hard ; it
you stop it muy oo ditHcult to&tart agw n ; if it. won't
,:ro on far enough, you can't unscrew it : the only
th.ing Is to out off the end, a.nd bore the bit out ot
the I10ok, then slightly reduce t h e end ot the gut,
nnd try uguin. \Vhen you have got the hook on
tight, cut away with a penknife what<lver bit ot
gut. comes throug-h into the hook; then heat a
skewer red·hut, and pass it momentarily through
Ute hook to sear the end ; it must bo only a quick
touch. Now put on the eye the same way. I never
hM·o trouble with mine. It is possible you may
lm vo bud hooks and eyes with a bacl thread ; n1ino
come from J. Buck, SG, Holborn Viaduct, as also
the gut. You probably know you can til{ht<ln your
bn.ud by twisting it up u. tlu·n before hooking it, and
i t. can be loosened a little by untwisting in the same
way, thus you can adi ust it to a nicet.f, according to
the went her. l'hc Editor willtlpprcclato your good
wishes, and you will soon overcome this slight
diltlc ulty.-F. A . .M.
Chova.l Screen.- W. A. Jr. (P o1·tolcnone).- Your
ideo. of o. cheval screen whereon to display your
flower pictures is undoubtedly a happy one. Have
rou thought ot utilising o. once popular v o.riety, that
15 a little diflicult to explain without diagram, but
is pl'llctically the shape of Fig. 2 (page 196), with two
pllllols thnt d raw out, one on either side1 Yet I do
not know that this is nny real gain; it w ould add to
your labour, and need o. harder grain thu.n pitch
pine possesses, to mo.ke t he frnmework strong, a nd
yet atendcr enough to work in a satisfactory way.
I s hould suggest (as perhaps you intend) cbonising
the pine, or enamelling it with white. Either
white or black produces a good frame, but the
colour or pino, especially in conjunction with !Pit
moulding, is rnrcly a success. .As a practiclll hmt,
I would advise you to use the stout cheap German
miUboards for mounts, and bo quite sure to pnste
the pictures (or backing paper) on both sides while
the pn.ste is wet. If you nllow ono side to warp in
drymg, as it most llSSuredly will on any past<lboard,
it is utmost impossible to get it to keep quit<l flnt
ugu.in. ::lo be quite ready to cover each side of the
panel, and, l\S soon ll8 possible, lay the whole under
a smooth bou.rd, with u. few bricks or other heavy
weights, to keep it taut in drying. It you could
work a moulding or the same wood1 and apply it in
place of gold (whlcb bus al wa.ys, 1n these sort of
things, a cheap and shoddy olfcct), I think you
would find it in much better taste, or you might
rabbet the mount, or tack on a simple beading.J . G.-W.
Sword Smlth.- H . B. (Lond on, E.).-Youseem to
know so well what you want~ that it i.s only the
matter of finding a good sword smith (not a
mere sword manufl\cturer). Mr. H . Mole, sword
maker, or Birminghum, n1igbt give you reliable
information; or b y a \'isit to Lhat town, or She.ffi.eld,
amongst the s word cutlers, you might try testing
bllldes, and f orm an opinion o! tho merit of the
tempering. The shape you s hould supply by a
wooden pattern, which prevents any mistake being
made by the smith in his work. A single sword
o! a ditfcrcnt pattern would cost more than an
ordina1·y blade. When done you should be sure
to try it before tbo Wit is fixed. The scabbard is
unimportant, except for actuw servicc1 or to test
the best form o! suspension to the riaer
if it be
f or a h orseman. The maker named is sure to use
the best steel, as would any sensible sword smith, as
it would not cost a shilling more tba.n common
s~J .Sisnot.nnou~~tb~wqprl~furu.pr~
sentation sword, which means forty odd pounds
are paid for hilt, scabbard. and fancifying the
blade. We arc pleased you a ppro\·e or the way
our writers tell renders the bow and why of
work, and further help learners by telling the bow
and why o! failures. .An illustration of logic in
work, ll8 well as in words, WU8 given by u. swordsmith to a manufacturer. A S\VOrd sm ith, who now
is in tile U n ited States, was cont<lnding with his
employer !or his claim for better pay. '' It is not
log•co.J," said his employer " for you to expect more
thun uny other smith.'' 'l'he smith took up a sword
blade made and t<lmpercd ready f or grinding-i.e..
making worso-and fixed it in a vice, a.nd with a
IIWOI'd ho had tempered, with one blow cut the
ot.her blndo in two, with but sli~bt harm to the
better blade. " '!'bat is my logic, ' said the w orkmnn, scornrully, ll8 he turned away from ono whose
iguorn.u~ was ma~o mo.ni!cs t by his bad sword
blu.dc wa.ldng.-J . c. K.
Tool8.-II. C. (Clapton Parlel writes in reply to
0 . P . (Ed(Jelcy) (ace pngo 300) :-" Tl1o tools he
Hhould h nve t o commence with as actual n ecessities
urc-ajuck J1lnnc, a smooth plane, band sa,v, !!l i n.
tenon saw, Sin. : hammer, turnscrcw, oil sto,·e oil
cu.n, th ree c blsels-11ny, i In .\~ In., ! in. ; rule, 2 't t. ;
lltJUore, 4~ In. ; two brnilawJs, two gimlets. Your
MrreHJIOntlent would lint! lt pu.y the best to have
g uod Lool11, u nd uot tho cheap ones, and I think be
c•~n not do better thnn go to Messrs. Sycr & Co., ot
41i, Wll11on t:ltreet., E'lnsbury &~unrc, London, who
llllVe u. good WISOr t mcn t, and where he could also
l{t!L lnfor mutlon prnctlcuJiy domonstrntcd In t.he
u110 of tho tools{ IC he dcsii"CJII!O.rno. I found the firm
\'crY obllging n showing the uses of the vnrlous
tools I IJn vo hut! from tllem. Of course ,there nro
otber ruu.kcMI, hut 11 myKclf, do not. know of ono
who IHUI n CJu·pculcr lll!hop wherein to try and s co
t..bc uaca or tho tools oue la buying."
Finishing Brass.- R. L. (Rallcnu. near Du1J1i11)
writes in reply to S. H. D. (1\·cwtownl (sec pngc :«~i):
-"Gold lncqucr. or b rosq llnishers' lncquer, cnn toe
got in three shndcs oC colour nt most oil shops. 'J'o
use it on small articles to pre\'cnt tarnishing nfler
thoroughly cleaning the bruss, warm I he mctul inn
Dunscn burner or ~<ph·it lump, 1 ill the bnck of the
band will just bear it. when plucccl n~ainst it: then
apply the lacquer qukkly and c\·cnly with a soft
brusb. Do not go ove1· (any JIU.rt twice. or n slain
wiU result. W hen done puss the nr liclc quickly
through the flame a few time!', nnd lcr~\·c to hnrclcn.
Should tJ1c brn.ss be loo bot. t.hc lucqucr will tlry or
burn at once. mullcnvc murks on tho metnl. nnd if
too cold the bru.ss will ba\'C a Co~;gy or dull appearance."
Removing Inlc Sta.ins.- R. L. (Rahrnu, oncar
Dttbli11) writes in rC)lly to J"J'l"ru:ToN (JVorccstn·)
(sec page 3liG):- "'l'o rcmO\'e ink or iron mould
stains f1·om linen, moisten t.hc linen by holdinJ:: it
in t.he stca.m from boilinl{ wuter, then UJlply wenk
hydt·ochloric ucicl on n p1ccc of stick. \Vhen the
stnin is dissol vcd out wu.sh the urt.iclo well to ~;et
rld of nny a cid."
Insurance of Worltmo.n's Tools.- DoNOYAN
(Tiu·ap.slon) writes in reply t.o J . .K. Wx/OI'Cl) (sec
page :ltlU) :-"You wonld, 1 think, do well to join the
Hearts of Oak llencnt ~ocicty, for by so doing you
would(among othc1· thing-s) insure your tools for £ 15.
.An application to tho :::iCCI'etary, 1!carts of OcLk
Benefit Society, l i, Churlottc ::ltrcct, Filzroy Squure.
London, ,V., will procw·o t.ho nccc!:lsury forms und
. Removing Ink Sto.ins.- L. 1\I. (Putlll:l/) writes
10 reply to LJT'I'LC:TON (sec pngc 300) :-"You cnn
easily r emove ink stains by moistening them with a
weak solution of oxalic ac1d."
Flour Paste Souring.- A . .T. C. (Finsbury Park)
writes in reply to J. H. (Skcn·ic.9) (sec pugc 238) :.. 'l'o c,·cry half-pint of llour pn.s tc (without nlum)
a dd 15 grains of powdered cor1·osive sublimate. and
mix wclJ; this , though not tlttackcd by insects, is
extremely poisonous.-N. B.-.Kccp in a co,·crcd
Drilling Square Holes.-B. A. B. (Hamp.~tcad)
writes i n tlllswcr t o .A HEADER (sco page :?iO) : ' "!'here is a plan described in ono of R. ::;, Burns'
books, which consists of a square steel tube the rcquil·cd size, ~t·ound and sharpened inside to a
chisel edge. 'l 'his square tube surrounds an auger,
01' Jennings' twist. b1t, wbicll fits the tuloc ns nenrlr
as a round tool con. '!'he bit l1n.s an adjustable
shoulder, brought into contact with blunt end of
tube, so that the bit bores n hole, which the squnre
tube, which is thereby forced into contact "it.h the
wood, immediately cuts into a square mortise. A
READER will see that care must be taken to bc~;in
U1e square holecorrcct.Jy, and that thct·e is a pOl'llon
of h ole left circular."
Regilding Looking -Glass. - F. P. writes in
reply to B. N. (West Jlant) (sec page 333) :-"As it
may probably so.>e disappointment to the worker,
allow me to supplement. G. R.'sanswcr to theabo,·e
by a few lines. Take your frame nnd clcnn ott' dirt,
and with it the old clear size; this is a rig ut commencement; but, in ni ne cnses out of ten, a frame
r equires someU~ing else before it can be gold-sized
and properly gJ!ded. Nearly nU new frames nre
gilded by water-gilding process (I make no allusion
to German ln.cqucrcd stutf), and, therefore, beneath
the exquisitely thin layer of gold wo have an
absorbent surfnce. .A frame is seldom rcgildcd
until son1e of the gold is worn and ru bbed off: and,
therefore. to put ' jnpnnncrs' gold size • upon it
without any other prcparntiou, mcnns that the
la.tter \\ill invariably be absorbed into t he' size and
whiting' surface underncatit, and, consequently,
the gold cannot slick. 'Vc can touch i t up o.ftcl·wards, of course, but workmanlike mcth<'dS and
amateur mnkesbifts nre two Yastly different mntters.
In a ny case of r egildillg, it is always advisable, if
not necessary, to gi\·e the article. after cleaning, u.
coa.t or either French polish or thin 'pntcnt knotting,' applied evenly and expeditiously; or, what is
the better job. a thin, bare coat of white paint,
mnde wi Lh Iead, turps, nncla little ' japanners' gold
size' in it to dry u.nd bnr<len it. • J npunncrs' gold
size,' u.s a medium for gilding upon, is only an
• amateur's touch.' and such us no good job of
gilding is done with. Get 11. little of gildcrs' oil gold
size, spread very barely with a soft hog-hair tltch
(worlong on white paint one can see where one is
going), stand it aside, out of dust, until the next
day, and then Iu.y on the gold lenf. Wipe off very
gently as l7. R. directs, and tlnish with clear size, n
bare, e \•en cont, or u. weak solution of isinglass.
w hich is more rendilr,dissoh·ed ; a pennyworth wiU
do a score of frames. '
A READEn.-Much obliged to you for your adn ee, which shall be a cted on if found expedien t or
pmcticnblo to do so. J . R. (Skcrrics).-1'ho articles
on pluns, etc., for building cannot be commenced in
the present volume n.s there uro a lready so muny
RUbjects in hand. W. R. (Old Stl·eet).-I acknowledge the receipt of your letter, which is all that is
r eally necessary for me to do. " 'hat rou do not
cure for, others tuko plcusuro In, and vice t:ersd.
0 . B.-Electric lighting will be trcntcd In 'Vorm:.
DESrrm (Pcckllant).-Piuwblng will be treated in·
'VonK in due season.
!1, 1889,
Trade Notes nncl :1\[emoranda.
TIECE:STJ.Y, ut Messrs. DcnrdnK>re & Company's
Pnrkhead F OI'!(C', Glnsr;ow, the cn,tlnl( took place of
nn unusually lar~c slmft for ~~ ciynumo mnchinc.
Over scvcnt.r tons o[ metul were 1·un Into tho
mould, which wns sunk more thnn t.wcntr feet into
th!! J;,rrouud. The cMtiu~. wr\S of Siemens steel, and
will be hollowed to 11. duunc ter of tweh·c inches
"'hen finished the s hu[t. will wci,:;h nbouL Ulirty.two
~ons .. T he drnumo for which the sh n[t is intended
1s bcmg const ru ctccl to t.he order of 1he London
l•:lcct.ric_nl ~upply Corr.orat ion, and will be the
lnrgcst. 111 the world. f lw cu.c;tlng wns in everr
wny succcssCul, nnd woulu tuke fully u. week for
the metal to cool.
A l'Ew YonK correspondent sars lhnt beside.'!
the clippings rcsultinK from the mn1mrncturc of
vnriou~ urticlcs, nn immens.e nmount. of tinplnto
scrop 1s \\"listed every renr 1n the form of emt•LY
tins ancl other similnr ohjCI'!t!!. .i\Juuy Joroccsscs
lln \'O hccn deviser! for ut.ili~:~ inl{ the ecmp b\st'r.nrnt inl{ the tin from the t~ht: CL iron, but. they nil
fu1lcd 111oro or less, either fmcn n t echnical or n
commcrcictl point of view. An .A rncrican inventor
hns hi.t upon .t he id et~ of cmn•crt ill!{ lhe 1inplntu
ecrnp mlo nmls, nnd althouJ,:h consHlcrablc clinlcult ies had to be overcome nt 1he outset, it is stated
thnt the mnc.hincry htlS 11ow been so g1·cnlly improved that 1t enables a boy lo produce ncnrly 1
cwt. of nnils in u. day, the cos t. of the scrnp in
Amcr1cn being at present about !Jcl. per cwt.
A no~L\:S corrcsponil ~n.t ~nys. t hut~ he well-known
tirm of Ansu.ldo-llombm1 Ill . mnp1crdnrenu ha\'C
recently completed the colos~al euginc unrl boilers
inte nded for the Italian ironclad Sicilia. Tho
engine is constructed to work UJI to l !l,!i(JO horse
power, and it is the most powerful hitherto construc te d i n I t.o.ly. It. is cons truc ted on the compound
principle, with eight crlindcrs and four snrfuco
condensers. It dri\·es two four-nrmcrl scre ws,
which ha \"C a rliamctcr of six metres. The weight.
of the boilers is 500 tons, and the total weight of
the engine and boilers is l ,i40 tons.
pllbli•l•rtt nt Ltt lJt llt Suu cnge, Llld{lnl• 1/ill, J.ondnn. nt
9 o· clnck en r 11 lrcttucsdtrJI monliuu , a ud '''" "Id bt tltuu n~t~blt' f'ttTV·
tehcrt through out tile l:1uttrl J\wudo111 '"' FruJuv ut tl•ol<il.:4t.
nu>nlltF, t ree hy 1•on
.. .. .. I& M .
• • :Jct. :M.
1:! mon t iJ&.
•• tif§ oa.
tJntcrs or T'nH Omce Ord er~ paynhll' nL the General
!'oat Olll<'c, Luuuou,to C.t.s,;Kc.r,anu \;ulli'A..'I\', Limit~U.
T.llnlJS f'Oil T)IU JliSJ>nTIO:< OP AI'I\'P.ILTJSilllllliTS 1!( l!ACIJ
.£ 8. d.
OnP T'~go •
- J~ 0 0
llnlf t'a!<•' - G 10 o
(,lunrtcr l'nso
- .
• - 8 13 a
:EII'hth of n Pn{ln - •
I 17 a
Onc-Scxt~enth nf n Page .
• I 0 0
lu C:.,lttlUII, IJCr IOCb
0 10 0
r,-omwcnt J'oaltt011!l or tt u o'itl of f111nlttml,
hv q.tcia Rrruu, emtut.
t;:matt prepaid Ad\'Crli~l·oncnts, such ns Sltnntlons Wnnced
and ~;x c h :uu;.-, Tw.,ucy Worde or ICf~, Ono SIJitllolf, anu Ono
l'~ony l•o:r Wurd ~xtra iC O\'o:r Tweulf.
••• .A..dverl i !~DIOIIl' fhnutd r~ndc ttll.' omcc Court~cn
dn\' 3 ID liU\"OOCO o f lbCdate uf fe&UC.
Cyclists.- Use "Craphine" on your chains ; no grelSC.
will nol hold du~t; 8 st.amps, free -WOLFP and SoN,
Falcon Pencil Works, Bauersca, S. W,
(3 R
Fretwork.-Be.,t value in Outfits, 2s. 6d. and JS. 6d.
Pauerns, ts. per dozen in books. CaL:llogucs, fd.-HARGER
BRos., Seule, Yorks.
[1: R
,. Roll Ca ll " Pipe.-Dewsnap's Pateni.- A new,
true, and approved anll·nicotine. Mounted briars. Free,
1s. Sd.- ALLEN DEWSNAP, 65, Pikes L:tne, Clossop. [15 R
English a n d Ame rican T ools.-Seventh edition;
reduced price li~t (eighty pages) one St:lmp.- LUNT, Tool
1\lerchaot, :97, H ackney Ro:td, London.
[19 R
Model Work.-New Jllu~trated Cnt:~logue; engines,
castings, parts, lathe ca.stincs, &c., 4d. : screw>, bolts, nuts:
list, stamp.-STtf'FIN and Co., 3:4, Essex Ro:~.d, London,
(23 R
Cut Your Clothing Systematlcally.-Suiu,
Trouse,..., Overct.alS. Enormous s.·wtn~r guaranteed.Particulars, ]AMES HOPKINS, .Proctical Culler, JA1 Che<nut Ro:~d, Touenham, London,
Complete Fount of Rubber Type.- Two :~.lph:~.­
bet~. 10 form :toy word, box, pad, ink, and holder, post free,
1s. 6d. ; extro alphabets, 6d. per ~et; fi~;urcs, 3d.-E. C.
PRESTRI ocE, Cumberl:tnd Street, Bmtol.
[27 R
Lathe.-Will take £2, or exchange for a Flutin:r. or
ponable Harmonium. Can be seen any time.-CANsos,
14, J:tme~·s Place, North Street, Poplar.
(r S
Photographic Set.- Will either sell or exchan~e.
~-plate C:Lmer;~, St:tnd, e,·erything needed, with full IDstruclions.-Tnos. WRAY, Pateley tiridge.
Collins' Patterne.-roo Fretwork (new), 100 Can·ing, roo Repou>.<e tall full size), 300 Turning, ,.coo mull
~tencils, ts. each parcel. C:~.talogue (700 engn.Vlllg-s), 3d.
Collins' Stencils. - too, decorotor's, large, 25. 6d.,
samples free. 1co, for ~i~n wri1ers, I S. 12 Assorted Cut
Stencil:<, t:<. 6d. All postage free.-COLLISS, Summerl.y's
Pia~, B:~..t h.
[J s
Wood-turner's Lathe, equal new, g-in. cen~;
romplete, various chuck.<, only .£8 ; photo. Also v:l!cous
tools and lathe parts: suit amate urs; \'cry ch~p.-L15t of
J OHNSO)ol, 1 :!1 Barrack Sueet, Colchester, (Private.) 14 s
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