BwE: Flexible, Hierarchical Bandwidth Allocation for WAN Distributed Computing

BwE: Flexible, Hierarchical Bandwidth Allocation for WAN Distributed Computing
BwE: Flexible, Hierarchical Bandwidth Allocation for
WAN Distributed Computing
Alok Kumar
Nikhil Kasinadhuni
Björn Carlin
Sushant Jain
Enrique Cauich Zermeno
Mihai Amarandei-Stavila
Stephen Stuart
Uday Naik
Anand Raghuraman
C. Stephen Gunn
Jing Ai
Mathieu Robin
Aspi Siganporia
Amin Vahdat
Google Inc.
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Keywords
WAN bandwidth remains a constrained resource that is economically infeasible to substantially overprovision. Hence,
it is important to allocate capacity according to service priority and based on the incremental value of additional allocation. For example, it may be the highest priority for one
service to receive 10Gb/s of bandwidth but upon reaching
such an allocation, incremental priority may drop sharply
favoring allocation to other services. Motivated by the observation that individual flows with fixed priority may not
be the ideal basis for bandwidth allocation, we present the
design and implementation of Bandwidth Enforcer (BwE),
a global, hierarchical bandwidth allocation infrastructure.
BwE supports: i) service-level bandwidth allocation following prioritized bandwidth functions where a service can represent an arbitrary collection of flows, ii) independent allocation and delegation policies according to user-defined hierarchy, all accounting for a global view of bandwidth and failure conditions, iii) multi-path forwarding common in trafficengineered networks, and iv) a central administrative point
to override (perhaps faulty) policy during exceptional conditions. BwE has delivered more service-efficient bandwidth
utilization and simpler management in production for multiple years.
Bandwidth Allocation; Wide-Area Networks; SoftwareDefined Network; Max-Min Fair
1.
INTRODUCTION
TCP-based bandwidth allocation to individual flows contending for bandwidth on bottleneck links has served the Internet well for decades. However, this model of bandwidth
allocation assumes all flows are of equal priority and that all
flows benefit equally from any incremental share of available
bandwidth. It implicitly assumes a client-server communication model where a TCP flow captures the communication
needs of an application communicating across the Internet.
This paper re-examines bandwidth allocation for an important, emerging trend, distributed computing running
across dedicated private WANs in support of cloud computing and service providers. Thousands of simultaneous such
applications run across multiple global data centers, with
thousands of processes in each data center, each potentially
maintaining thousands of individual active connections to
remote servers. WAN traffic engineering means that site-pair
communication follows different network paths, each with
different bottlenecks. Individual services have vastly different bandwidth, latency, and loss requirements.
We present a new WAN bandwidth allocation mechanism
supporting distributed computing and data transfer. BwE
provides work-conserving bandwidth allocation, hierarchical fairness with flexible policy among competing services,
and Service Level Objective (SLO) targets that independently
account for bandwidth, latency, and loss.
BwE’s key insight is that routers are the wrong place to map
policy designs about bandwidth allocation onto per-packet
behavior. Routers cannot support the scale and complexity of the necessary mappings, often because the semantics
of these mappings cannot be captured in individual packets.
Instead, following the End-to-End Argument[28], we push
all such mapping to the source host machines. Hosts rate
limit their outgoing traffic and mark packets using the DSCP
field. Routers use the DSCP marking to determine which
CCS Concepts
•Networks → Network resources allocation; Network management;
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2785956.2787478
1
path to use for a packet and which packets to drop when
congested. We use global knowledge of network topology
and link utilization as input to a hierarchy of bandwidth enforcers, ranging from a global enforcer down to enforcers on
each host. Bandwidth allocations and packet marking policy flows down the hierarchy while measures of demand flow
up, starting with end hosts. The architecture allows us to decouple the aggregate bandwidth allocated to a flow from the
handling of the flow at the routers.
BwE allocates bandwidth to competing applications based
on flexible policy configured by bandwidth functions capturing application priority and incremental utility from additional bandwidth in different bandwidth regions. BwE
supports hierarchical bandwidth allocation and delegation
among services while simultaneously accounting for multipath WAN communication. BwE is the principal bandwidth
allocation mechanism for one of the largest private WANs
and has run in production for multiple years across hundreds
of thousands of end points. The systems contributions of our
work include:
Figure 1: WAN Network Model.
2.
BACKGROUND
We begin by describing our WAN environment and highlight the challenges we faced with existing bandwidth allocation mechanisms. Thousands of individual applications and
services run across dozens of wide area sites each containing
multiple clusters. Host machines within a cluster share a common LAN. Figure 1 shows an example WAN with sites S 1 , S 2
and S 3 ; C 11 and C 12 are clusters within site S 1 .
We host a combination of interactive web services, e.g.
search and web mail, streaming video, batch-style data processing, e.g., MapReduce [13], and large-scale data transfer
services, e.g., index copy from one site to another. Cluster
management software maps services to hosts independently;
we cannot leverage IP address aggregation/prefix to identify
a service. However, we can install control software on hosts
and leverage a control protocol running outside of routers.
We started with traditional mechanisms for bandwidth allocation such as TCP, QoS and MPLS tunnels. However these
proved inadequate for a variety of reasons:
● Leveraging concepts from Software Defined Networking, we build a unified, hierarchical control plane for
bandwidth management extending to all end hosts. In
particular, hosts report per-user and per-task demands
to the control plane and rate shape a subset of flows.
● We integrate BwE into existing WAN traffic engineering (TE) [17, 11, 12] mechanisms including MPLS AutoBandwidth [22] and a custom SDN infrastructure. BwE
takes WAN pathing decisions made by a TE service
and re-allocates the available site-to-site capacity, split
across multiple paths, among competing applications.
At the same time, we benefit from the reverse integration: using BwE measures of prioritized application demand as input to TE pathing algorithms (Section 5.3.1).
● Granularity and Scale: Our network and service capacity planners need to reason with bandwidth allocations
at different aggregation levels. For example, a product group may need a specified minimum of site-to-site
bandwidth across all services within the product area.
In other cases, individual users or services may require
a bandwidth guarantee between a specific pair of clusters. We need to scale bandwidth management to thousands of individual services, and product groups across
dozens of sites each containing multiple clusters. We
need a way to classify and aggregate individual flows
into arbitrary groups based on configured policy. TCP
fairness is at a 5-tuple flow granularity. On a congested
link, an application gets bandwidth proportional to the
number of active flows it sends across the links. Our
services require guaranteed bandwidth allocation independent of the number of active TCP flows. Router QoS
and MPLS tunnels do not scale to the number of service
classes we must support and they do not provide sufficient flexibility in allocation policy (see below).
● We implement hierarchical max-min fair bandwidth allocation to flexibly-defined FlowGroups contending for
resources across multiple paths and at different levels of
network abstraction. The bandwidth allocation mechanism is both work-conserving and flexible enough to
implement a range of network sharing policies.
In sum, BwE delivers a number of compelling advantages.
First, it provides isolation among competing services, delivering plentiful capacity in the common case while maintaining required capacity under failure and maintenance scenarios. Capacity available to one service is largely independent of
the behavior of other services. Second, administrators have a
single point for specifying allocation policy. While pathing,
RTT, and capacity can shift substantially, BwE continues to
allocate bandwidth according to policy. Finally, BwE enables
the WAN to run at higher levels of utilization. By tightly integrating loss-insensitive file transfer protocols running at low
priority with BwE, we run many of our WAN links at 90%
utilization.
● Multipath Forwarding: For efficiency, wide area packet
forwarding follows multiple paths through the network, possibly with each path of varying capacity. Routers hash individual service flows to one of
the available paths based on packet header content.
2
Any bandwidth allocation from one site to another
must simultaneously account for multiple source/destination paths whereas existing bandwidth allocation
mechanisms—TCP, router QoS, MPLS tunnels—focus
on different granularity (flows, links, single paths respectively).
● Flexible and Hierarchical Allocation Policy: We found
simple weighted bandwidth allocation to be inadequate. For example, we may want to give a high priority user a weight of 10.0 until it has been allocated 1
Gb/s, a weight of 1.0 until it is allocated 2 Gb/s and a
weight of 0.1 for all bandwidth beyond that. Further,
bandwidth allocation should be hierarchical such that
bandwidth allocated to a single product group can be
subdivided to multiple users, which in turn may be hierarchically allocated to applications, individual hosts
and finally flows. Different allocation policies should
be available at each level of the hierarchy.
Figure 2: Reduction in TCP packet loss after BwE was deployed. Y-axis denotes packet loss in percentage. Different
lines correspond to different QoS classes (BE1 denoting best
effort, and AF1/AF2 denoting higher QoS classes.)
3.
ABSTRACTIONS AND CONCEPTS
3.1
Traffic Aggregates or FlowGroups
Individual services or users run jobs consisting of multiple
tasks. Each task may contain multiple Linux processes and
runs in a Linux container that provides resource accounting,
isolation and information about user_name, job_name and
task_name. We modified the Linux networking stack to mark
the per-packet socket buffer structure to uniquely identify the
originating container running the task. This allows BwE to
distinguish between traffic from different tasks running on
the same host machine.
BwE further classifies task traffic based on destination cluster address. Optionally, tasks use setsockopt() to indicate
other classification information, e.g. for bandwidth delegation. Delegation allows a task belonging to a shared infrastructure service to attribute its bandwidth to the user whose
request caused it to generate traffic. For example, a copy service can delegate bandwidth charges for a specific file transfer
to the user requesting the transfer.
For scalability, baseline TCP regulates bandwidth for most
application flows. BwE dynamically selects the subset of flows
accounting for most of the demand to enforce. Using TCP
as the baseline also provides a convenient fallback for bandwidth allocation in the face of a BwE system failure.
BwE allocates bandwidth among FlowGroups at various
granularities, defined below.
● Delegation or Attribution: Applications increasingly
leverage computation and communication from a variety of infrastructure services. Consider the case where
a service writes data to a storage service, which in
turn replicates the content to multiple WAN sites for
availability. Since the storage service acts on behalf of
thousands of other services, its bandwidth should be
charged to the originating user. Bandwidth delegation
provides differential treatment across users sharing a
service, avoids head of line blocking across traffic for
different users, and ensures that the same policies are
applied across the network for a user’s traffic.
We designed BwE to address the challenges and requirements described above around the principle that bandwidth
allocation should be extended all the way to end hosts. While
historically we have looked to routers with increasingly sophisticated ASICs and control protocols for WAN bandwidth
allocation, we argue that this design point has resulted simply from lack of control over end hosts on the part of network service providers. Assuming such access is available, we
find that the following functionality can be supported with
a hierarchical control infrastructure extending to end hosts:
i) mapping WAN communication back to thousands of flow
groups, ii) flexibly sub-dividing aggregate bandwidth allocations back to individual flows, iii) accounting for delegation
of resource charging from one service to another, and iv) expressing and enforcing flexible max-min bandwidth sharing
policies. On the contrary, existing routers must inherently
leverage limited information available only in packet headers
to map packets to one of a small number of service classes or
tunnels.
Figure 2 shows an instance of very high loss in multiple
QoS classes during a capacity reduction on our network. TCP
congestion control was not effective and the loss remained
high until we turned on admission control on hosts.
● Task FlowGroup or task-fg: <delegating_service,
user_name, job_name, task_name, source_cluster,
destination_cluster>. This FlowGroup is the finest unit
of bandwidth measurement and enforcement.
● Job FlowGroup or job-fg: Bandwidth usage across all
task-fgs belonging to the same job is aggregated into
a job-fg: <delegating_service, user_name, job_name,
source_cluster, destination_cluster>.
● User FlowGroup or user-fg: Bandwidth usage across
all job-fgs belonging to the same user is aggregated into a user-fg: <delegating_service, user_name,
source_cluster, destination_cluster>.
● Cluster FlowGroup or cluster-fg: Bandwidth usage
across all user-fg belonging to same user_aggregate
and belonging to same cluster-pair is combined
into a cluster-fg: <user_aggregate, source_cluster,
3
destination_cluster>. The user_aggregate corresponds
to an arbitrary grouping of users, typically by business
group or product. This mapping is defined in BwE configuration (Section 3.2).
(a) f g 1
Allocation
Level
3.2.1
0
10
∞
Allocation
Level
Weight
Bandwidth
(Gbps)
10
10
10
∞
Guaranteed
Best-Effort
Table 1: BwE Configuration Example.
10
(a) f g 1
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
0
2.0
5
1.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0
0.5
5
15
1.0
10
20
0.5
Bandwidth (Gbps)
15
25
0.0
20
0.0
Bandwidth (Gbps)
25
Fair Share
Fair Share
(b) f g 2
Figure 3: Example Bandwidth Functions.
The BwE configuration maps users to user_aggregates.
Mapping from user-fg to site-fg can be derived from this. The
BwE configuration policies describe how site-fgs share the
network and also describe how user-fgs within a site-fg share
bandwidth allocated to the site-fg. For all FlowGroups in a
level of hierarchy, the BwE configuration defines: 1) bandwidth for each allocation level and 2) within each allocation
level, weight of the FlowGroup that can change based on allocated bandwidth. An example of a BwE configuration for the
relative priority for two FlowGroups, f g 1 and f g 2 is shown
in Table 1.
Bandwidth Sharing Policies
Requirements
Our WAN (Figure 1) is divided in two levels, the intersite network and the inter-cluster network. The links in the
inter-site network (l 7 , l 8 and l 9 in the figure) are the most
expensive. Aggregated demands on these links are easier
to predict. Hence, our WAN is provisioned at the intersite network. Product groups (user_aggregates) create bandwidth requirements for each site-pair. For a site-pair, depending on the network capacity and its business priority,
each user_aggregate gets approved bandwidth at several allocation levels. Allocation levels are in strict priority order, ex,
Guaranteed allocation level should be fully satisfied before allocating to Best-Effort allocation level. Allocated bandwidth
of a user_aggregate for a site-pair is further divided to all its
member users.
Even though provisioning and sharing of the inter-site network is the most important, several links not in the inter-site
network may also get congested and there is a need to share
their bandwidth fairly during congestion. We assign weights
to the users that are used to subdivide their user_aggregate’s
allocated bandwidth in the inter-cluster network. To allow
more fine grained control, we allow weights to change based
on allocated bandwidth as well as to be overridden to a nondefault value for some cluster-pairs.
3.2.2
0
20
5
Best-Effort
BwE creates a set of trees of FlowGroups with parent-child
relationships starting with site-fg at the root to cluster-fg, userfg, job-fg and eventually task-fg at the leaf. We measure bandwidth usage at task-fg granularity in the host and aggregate
to the site-fg level. BwE estimates demand (Section 6.1) for
each FlowGroup based on its historical usage. BwE allocates
bandwidth to site-fgs, which is redistributed down to task-fgs
and enforced in the host kernel. Beyond rate limiting, the hierarchy can also be used to perform other actions on a flow
group such as DSCP remarking. All measurements and rate
limiting are done on packet transmit.
BwE policies are defined at site-fg and user-fg level. Measurement and enforcement happen at task-fg level. Other levels are required to scale the system by enabling distributed
execution of BwE across multiple machines in Google datacenters.
3.2
Bandwidth
(Gbps)
Guaranteed
● Site FlowGroup or site-fg: Bandwidth usage for clusterfgs belonging to the same site-pair is combined into a
site-fg: <user_aggregate, source_site, destination_site>.
(b) f g 2
Weight
3.2.3
Bandwidth Functions
The configured sharing policies are represented inside BwE
as bandwidth functions1 . A bandwidth function [17] specifies
the bandwidth allocation to a FlowGroup as a function of
its relative priority on an arbitrary, dimensionless measure of
available fair share capacity, which we call fair share. fair share
is an abstract measure and is only used for internal computation by the allocation algorithm. Based on the config, every
site-fg and user-fg is assigned a piece-wise linear monotonic
bandwidth function (e.g. Figure 3). It is capped at the dynamic
estimated demand (Section 6.1) of the FlowGroup. They can
also be aggregated to create bandwidth functions at the higher
levels (Section 3.2.4).
The fair share dimension can be partitioned into regions
(corresponding to allocation levels in the BwE configuration) of strict priority. Within each region, the slope2 of a
FlowGroup’s bandwidth function defines its relative priority
or weight. Once the bandwidth reaches the maximum approved for the FlowGroup in a region, the bandwidth function
flattens (0 slope) until the start of the next region. Once the
Configuration
1
Bandwidth functions are similar to utility functions [8, 6]
except that these are derived from static configured policy (Section 3.2) indicating network fair share rather than
application-specified utility as a function of allocated bandwidth.
2
Slope can be a multiple of weight as long as the same multiple is used for all FlowGroups.
Network administrators configure BwE sharing policies
through centralized configuration. BwE configuration specifies a fixed number of strict priority allocation levels, e.g.,
there may be two levels corresponding to Guaranteed and
Best-Effort traffic.
4
5.0
fg1(left)
fg2(left)
fair share(right)
20.0
4.5
4.0
40.0
37.5
35.0
32.5
30.0
27.5
25.0
22.5
0.0
20.0
0.5
0.0
17.5
1.0
2.5
15.0
1.5
5.0
12.5
2.0
7.5
7.5
2.5
10.0
10.0
3.0
12.5
5.0
3.5
15.0
2.5
17.5
Fair Share
22.5
0.0
Allocated Bandwidth (Gbps)
25.0
Link Available Bandwidth (Gbps)
Figure 4: Bandwidth Sharing on a Bottleneck Link.
Figure 5: BwE Architecture.
bandwidth function reaches the FlowGroup’s estimated demand, it becomes flat from that point for all the following
regions.
Figure 3 shows example bandwidth functions for two FlowGroups, f g 1 and f g 2 , based on BwE configuration as defined
in Table 1. There are two regions of fair share: Guaranteed (02) and Best-Effort (2-∞). The endpoints for each region are
system-level constants defined in BwE configuration. BwE’s
estimated demand of f g 1 is 15Gbps and hence, its bandwidth
function flattens past that point. Similarly, f g 2 ’s estimated demand is 20Gbps.
We present a scenario where f g 1 and f g 2 are sharing one
constrained link in the network. The goal of the BwE algorithm is to allocate the bandwidth of the constrained link
such the following constraints are satisfied: 1) f g 1 and f g 2 get
maximum possible but equal fair share, and 2) sum of their allocated bandwidth corresponding to the allocated fair share
is less than or equal to the available bandwidth of the link.
Figure 4 shows the output of the BwE allocation algorithm
(Section 5.3) with varying link’s available bandwidth shown
on the x-axis. The allocated fair share to the FlowGroups is
shown on the right y-axis and the corresponding bandwidth
allocated to the FlowGroups is shown on the left y-axis. Note
that the constraints above are always satisfied at each snapshot of link’s available bandwidth. One can verify using this
graph that the prioritization as defined by Table 1 is respected.
One of BwE’s principal responsibilities is to dynamically
determine the level of contention for a particular resource
(bandwidth) and to then assign the resource to all competing FlowGroups based on current contention. Higher values of fair share indicate lower levels of resource contention
and correspondingly higher levels of bandwidth that can potentially be assigned to a FlowGroup. Actual consumption
is capped by current FlowGroup estimated demand, making
the allocation work-conserving (do not waste any available
bandwidth if there is demand).
The objective of BwE is the max-min fair [6] allocation of
fair share to competing site-fgs and then the max-min fair
allocation of fair share to user-fgs within a site-fg. For each
user-fg, maximize the utilization of the allocated bandwidth
to the user-fg by subdividing it to the lower levels of hierar-
chy (job-fgs and task-fgs) equally (no weights) based on their
estimated demands.
3.2.4
Bandwidth Function Aggregation
Bandwidth Functions can be aggregated from one FlowGroup level to another higher level. We require such aggregation when input configuration defines a bandwidth function at a finer granularity, but the BwE algorithm runs over
coarser granularity FlowGroups. For example, BwE’s input
configuration provides bandwidth function at user-fg level,
while BwE (Section 5.1) runs across cluster-fgs. In this case,
we aggregate user-fgs bandwidth functions to create a clusterfg bandwidth function. We create aggregated bandwidth functions for a FlowGroup by adding bandwidth value for each
value of fair share for all its children.
4.
SYSTEM DESIGN
BwE consists of a hierarchy of components that aggregate
network usage statistics and enforce bandwidth allocations.
BwE obtains topology and other network state from a network model server and bandwidth sharing policies from an
administrator-specified configuration. Figure 5 shows the
functional components in BwE.
4.1
Host Enforcer
At the lowest level of the BwE hierarchy, the Host Enforcer
runs as a user space daemon on end hosts. Every five seconds, it reports bandwidth usage of local application’s tasksfgs to the Job Enforcer. In response, it receives bandwidth
allocations for its task-fgs from the Job Enforcer. The Host
Enforcer collects measurements and enforces bandwidth allocations using the HTB (Hierarchical Token Bucket) queuing discipline in Linux.
4.2
Job Enforcer
Job Enforcers aggregate usages from task-fgs to job-fgs and
report job-fgs’ usages every 10 seconds to the Cluster Enforcer. In response, the Job Enforcer receives job-fgs’ bandwidth allocations from the Cluster Enforcer. The Job Enforcer
ensures that for each job-fg, bandwidth usage does not ex-
5
ters to multiple other clusters, with each cluster pair utilizing
multiple paths. Hence, the bandwidth allocation must simultaneously account for multiple potential bottlenecks.
Here, we present an adaptation of the traditional max-min
fairness objective for FlowGroups sharing a bottleneck link
to multipath cluster-to-cluster communication. We designed
a centralized MultiPath Fair Allocation (MPFA) algorithm to
determine global max-min fairness. We present a simpler
version of the problem with a single layer of FlowGroups
(Section 5.2) and then extend it to multiple layers of FlowGroups with different network abstractions in hierarchical
MPFA (Section 5.5).
ceed its assigned allocation. To do so, it redistributes the assigned job-fg allocation among the constituent task-fgs using
the WaterFill algorithm (Section 5.4).
4.3
Cluster Enforcer
The Cluster Enforcer manages two levels of FlowGroup aggregation - user-fgs to job-fgs and cluster-fgs to user-fgs. It
aggregates usages from job-fgs to user-fgs and computes userfgs’ bandwidth functions based on input from a configuration
file. It aggregates the user-fgs’ bandwidth functions (capped
at their estimated demand) to cluster-fg bandwidth functions
(Section 3.2.4), reporting them every 15 seconds to the Global
Enforcer. In response, the Cluster Enforcer receives clusterfgs’ bandwidth allocations, which it redistributes among userfgs and subsequently to job-fgs (Section 5.4).
4.4
5.1
Network Model Server
The Network Model Server builds the abstract network
model for BwE. Network information is collected by standard monitoring mechanisms (such as SNMP). Freshness is
critical since paths change dynamically. BwE targets getting
an update every 30 seconds. The consistency of the model is
verified using independent mechanisms such as traceroute.
4.5
5.2
Global Enforcer
MPFA Problem
Inputs for MPFA are:
The Global Enforcer sits at the top of the Bandwidth Enforcer hierarchy. It divides available bandwidth capacity on
the network between different clusters. The Global Enforcer
takes the following inputs: i) bandwidth functions from the
Cluster Enforcers summarizing priority across all users at
cluster-fg level, ii) global configuration describing the sharing policies at site-fg level, and iii) network topology, link capacity, link utilization and drop statistics from the network
model server. A small fraction of flows going over a link may
not be under BwE control. To handle this, for every link we
also compute dark bandwidth. This is the amount of traffic
going over the link which BwE is unaware of. This may be due
to packet header overhead (particularly tunneling in network
routers) or various failure conditions where BwE has incomplete information. Dark bandwidth is the smoothed value of
(actual link usage - BwE reported link usage), and link allocatable capacity is (link capacity - dark bandwidth). BwE
reported link usage is computed by taking the set of flows
(and their current usage) reported to the Global Enforcer by
Cluster Enforcers, and mapping them to the paths and links
for those flows. Given these inputs, the Global Enforcer runs
hierarchical MPFA (Section 5.3) to compute cluster-fgs’ bandwidth allocations and sends these allocations to Cluster Enforcers.
5.
Inputs and Outputs
Inputs to the BwE algorithm are task-fgs’ demands, bandwidth functions of user-fgs and site-fgs and network paths for
cluster-fgs and site-fgs. We aggregate task-fgs’ demands all the
way up to site-fgs and aggregate user-fgs’ bandwidth functions
to cluster-fgs’ bandwidth functions (Section 3.2.4). We run
global hierarchical MPFA (Section 5.5) on site-fgs and clusterfgs that results in cluster-fgs’ allocations. Then, we distribute
cluster-fgs’ allocations to task-fgs (Section 5.4), which are enforced at the hosts.
1. Set of n FlowGroups, F = { f i , ∀i ∣ 1 ≤ i ≤ n} where
FlowGroups are defined in Section 3.1. Each f i has an
associated bandwidth function (Section 3.2.3), B f i . B f i
maps fair share to bandwidth for f i . If f i is allocated fair
share of s, then it should be allocated bandwidth equal
to B f i (s).
2. Set of m links, L = {l k , ∀k ∣ 1 ≤ k ≤ m}. Each link l k
has an associated allocatable capacity c l k .
f
3. Set of n f i paths for each f i . Each path, p j i , has an asf
sociated weight, w j i , where 1 ≤ j ≤ n f i and for each
f
f
f i , ∑1≤ j≤n f w j i = 1. Each path, p j i , is a set of links, i.e,
i
f
p j i ⊆ L.
We define the fraction of f i that traverse l k as FR( f i , l k ).
f
f
This is calculated as the sum of weights, w j i , for all paths, p j i ,
f
for the FlowGroup, f i , such that l k ∈ p j i .
FR( f i , l k ) =
∑
f
wji
f
1≤ j≤n f i ∣l k ∈p j i
The output of MPFA is the max-min fair share allocation s f i to each FlowGroup, f i , such that ascending sorted
(s f 1 , s f 2 , . . . , s f n ) is maximized in lexicographical order. Such
maximization is subject to the constraint of satisfying capacity constraints for all links, l k .
∑ FR( f i , l k ) × B f i (s f i ) ≤ c l k
BWE ALLOCATION ALGORITHM
One of the challenges we faced was defining the optimization objective for bandwidth allocation to individual flows.
First, we did not wish to allocate bandwidth among competing 5-tuple flows but rather to competing FlowGroups. Second, services do not compete for bandwidth at a single bottleneck link because services communicate from multiple clus-
∀ fi
5.3
MPFA Algorithm
The MPFA algorithm (Algorithm 1) can be described in the
following high-level steps:
6
Input:
FlowGroups, F ∶ { f i , ∀i ∣ 1 ≤ i ≤ n};
Links, L ∶ {l k , ∀k ∣ 1 ≤ k ≤ m};
Allocatable capacities for ∀l k : {c l k , ∀k ∣ 1 ≤ k ≤ m};
bandwidth function for f i : B f i ;
// ∀ f i , ∀l k , Fraction of f i traversing link, l k
Function, FR( f i , l k ) : Output is a fraction ≤ 1;
Output:
Allocated fair share for ∀ f i :{s f i , ∀i ∣ 1 ≤ i ≤ n};
Figure 6: MPFA Example.
Bottleneck Links , Lb ← ∅;
Frozen FlowGroups, F f ← ∅;
foreach f i do s f i ← ∞;
// Calculate bandwidth function for each l k
foreach l k do ∀s, B l k (s) ← ∑∀ f i FR( f i , l k ) × B f i (s) ;
while (∃l k ∣ l k ∉ Lb ) ∧ (∃ f i ∣ f i ∉ F f ) do
Bottleneck link, l b ← nul l;
Min Bottleneck fair share, s min ← ∞;
foreach l k ∉ Lb do
Find s bl k ∣ c l k = B l k (s bl k );
if s bl k < s min then s min ← s bl k ; l b ← l k ;
1. For each link, l k , calculate the link’s bandwidth function, B l k , by aggregating bandwidth functions of all
non-frozen3 FlowGroups, f i , in appropriate fractions,
FR( f i , l k ). B l k maps fair share, s, to allocation on the
link l k when all FlowGroups traversing l k are allocated
the fair share of s.
2. Find the bottleneck fair share, s bl k , for each remaining
(not bottlenecked yet) link, l k , by finding the fair share
corresponding to its capacity, c l k in the link’s bandwidth
function, B l k . Since bandwidth function is a piece-wise
linear monotonic function, finding fair share for a given
capacity can be achieved by a binary search of the interesting points (points where the slope of the function
changes).
if l b ≠ nul l then Add l b to Lb ;
else break;
// Freeze f i taking the bottleneck link, l b
foreach f i ∣ FR( f i , l b ) > 0 ∧ f i ∉ F f do
Add f i to F f ; s f i ← s min ;
// Remove allocated bandwidth from B f i
∀s, B f i (s) ← max(0, B f i (s) − B f i (s min ));
// Subtract B f i from B l k for all its links
foreach l k ∣ FR( f i , l k ) > 0 ∧ l k ∉ Lb do
∀s, B l k (s) ← B l k (s) − FR( f i , l k ) × B f i (s);
3. The link, l b , with the minimum bottleneck fair share,
s min is the next bottleneck. If the minimum bottleneck
fair share equals ∞, then terminate.
4. Mark the link, l b , as a bottleneck link. Freeze all FlowGroups, f i , with non-zero fraction, FR( f i , l b ), on l b .
Frozen FlowGroups are not considered to find further
bottleneck links. Subtract frozen FlowGroups’ bandwidth functions beyond the bottleneck fair share,s min
from all remaining links.
Algorithm 1: MPFA Algorithm
⎧
2.75s
∶0≤s<9
⎪
⎪
⎪
0.75(min(18, s))
) = ⎨ 0.75s + 18 ∶ 9 ≤ s < 18
B l 2 (s) = (
+ min(18, 2s)
⎪
⎪
∶ s ≥ 18
⎪
⎩ 31.5
5. If any link is not a bottleneck, continue to step 2.
Figure 6 shows an example of the allocation algorithm with
three links, l 1 , l 2 and l 3 , with capacity 13, 13 and 4 respectively.
Assume all bandwidth numbers are in Gbps for this example. There are three FlowGroups: 1) f 1 takes two paths (l 2 and
l 1 → l 3 ) with weights 0.75 and 0.25 respectively, 2) f 2 takes
one path (l 2 ), and 3) f 3 taking one path (l 1 ). All FlowGroups
have demand of 18. Assume f 1 , f 2 and f 3 have weights of 1, 2
and 3 respectively, corresponding bandwidth functions of the
FlowGroups are: B f 1 (s) = min(18, s), B f 2 (s) = min(18, 2s)
and B f 3 (s) = min(18, 3s).
Based on that paths, fraction of FlowGroups( f i ) traversing Links(l k ) are: FR( f 1 , l 1 ) = 0.25, FR( f 1 , l 2 ) = 0.75,
FR( f 1 , l 3 ) = 0.25, FR( f 2 , l 2 ) = 1 and FR( f 3 , l 1 ) = 1.
We calculate bandwidth function for links as:
⎧
3.25s
∶0≤s<6
⎪
⎪
⎪
0.25(min(18, s))
B l 1 (s) = (
) = ⎨ 0.25s + 18 ∶ 6 ≤ s < 18
+ min(18, 3s)
⎪
⎪
∶ s ≥ 18
⎪
⎩ 22.5
3
A frozen FlowGroup is a FlowGroup that is already bottlenecked at a link and does not participate in the MPFA algorithm run any further.
B l 3 (s) =
0.25(min(18, s)) = {
0.25s
4.5
∶ 0 ≤ s < 18
∶ s ≥ 18
Next, we find bottleneck fair share, s bl k for each link, l k ,
such that B l k (s bl k ) = c l k . This results in s bl 1 = 4, s bl 2 ≈ 4.72,
s bl 3 = 16. This makes l 1 the bottleneck link and freezes both
f 1 and f 3 at fair share of 4. l 1 will not further participate in
MPFA. Since f 1 is frozen at fair share of 4, B l 2 and B l 3 need to
be updated to not account for B f 1 beyond fair share of 4. The
updated functions are:
⎧
2.75s ∶ 0 ≤ s < 4
⎪
⎪
⎪
B l 2 (s) = ⎨ 2s + 3 ∶ 4 ≤ s < 9
⎪
⎪
∶s≥9
⎪
⎩ 21
B l 3 (s) = {
0.25s
1
∶0≤s<4
∶s≥4
We recalculate s bl 2 and s bl 3 based on the new values for B l 2
and B l 3 . This results in s bl 2 = 5 and s bl 3 = ∞. l 2 is the next bottleneck with fair share of 5. f 2 is now frozen at the fair share of
7
5. Since all FlowGroups are frozen, MPFA terminates. The final allocation to ( f 1 , f 2 , f 3 ) in fair share is (4, 5, 4), translating
to (4Gbps, 10Gbps, 12Gbps) using the corresponding bandwidth functions. This allocation fills bottleneck links, l 1 and l 2
completely and fair share allocation (4, 5, 4) is max-min fair
with the given pathing constraints. No FlowGroup’s allocation can be increased without penalizing other FlowGroups
with lower or equal fair share.
5.3.1
Figure 7: Allocation Using WaterFill.
Interaction with Traffic Engineering (TE)
The BwE algorithm takes paths and their weights as input.
A separate system, TE [17, 11, 12], is responsible for finding
optimal pathing that improves BwE allocation. Both BwE
and TE are trying to optimize network throughput in a fair
way and input flows are known in advance. However, the
key difference is that in BwE problem formulation, paths and
their weights are input constraints, where-as for TE [17, 11,
12], paths and their weights are output. In our network, we
treat TE and BwE as independent problems.
TE has more degrees of freedom and hence can achieve
higher fairness. In the above example, the final allocation
can be more max-min fair if f 1 only uses the path l 2 . In this
case, MPFA will allocate fair share to flow groups ≈ (4.33, 4.33,
4,33) with corresponding bandwidth of (4.33Gbps, 8.66Gbps,
13Gbps). Hence, a good traffic engineering solution results in
better (more max-min fair) BwE allocations.
We run TE [17] and BwE independently because they work
at different time-scales and different topology granularity.
Since TE is more complex, we aggregate topology to sitelevel where-as for BwE, we are able to run at a more granular cluster-level topology. TE re-optimizes network less often because changing network paths may result in packet reordering, transient loss [16] and resulting routing changes
may add significant load to network routers. Separation of
TE and BwE also gives us operational flexibility. The fact
that both systems have the same higher level objective function helps ensure that their decisions are aligned and efficient.
Even though in our network we run these independently the
possibility of having a single system to do both can not be
ruled out in future.
5.4
up the bandwidth allocation for each user-fg using its bandwidth function.
Bandwidth distribution from a user-fg to job-fgs and from
a job-fg to task-fgs is simple max-min fair allocation of one
resource to several competing FlowGroups using a WaterFill
as shown in Figure 7. WaterFill calculates the water level corresponding to the maximum allocation to any FlowGroup.
The allocation to each child FlowGroup is
min(demand, waterl evel). If there is excess bandwidth still remaining after running the WaterFill, it is
divided among the FlowGroups as bonus bandwidth. Since
some (or a majority) of the FlowGroups will not use the
bonus assigned to them, the bonus is over-allocated by a
configurable scaling factor.
5.5
Hierarchical MPFA
Next, we describe hierarchical MPFA, which reconciles the
complexity between site-fg and cluster-fg level allocation. The
fairness goal is to allocate max-min fair share to site-fg respecting bandwidth functions and simultaneously observing
inter-site and intra-site topological constraints (Figure 1). Because not all cluster-fgs within a site-fg share the same WAN
paths, individual cluster-fgs within a site-fg may bottleneck
on different intra-site links.
We motivate hierarchical fairness using an example based
on Figure 1. All links have 100Gbps capacity, except l 1
(5Gbps) and l 9 (40Gbps). There are two site-fgs, s f 1 from S 1
to S 3 and s f 2 from S 2 to S 3 . s f 1 consists of cluster-fgs: c f 1
from C 11 to C 31 and c f 2 from C 12 to C 31 . s f 2 consists of a clusterfg: c f 3 from C 21 to C 31 . All site-fgs have equal weights and for
each site-fg, all its member cluster-fgs have equal weights. c f 1
and c f 3 have 100Gbps of demand while c f 2 has a 5Gbps demand. If we run MPFA naively on site-fgs, then s f 1 and s f 2
will be allocated 20Gbps each due to the bottleneck link, l 9 .
However, when we further subdivide s f 1 ’s 20Gbps among c f 1
and c f 2 , c f 1 only receives 5Gbps due to the bottleneck link l 1
while c f 2 only has demand of 5Gbps. c f 3 receives all of s f 2 ’s
20Gbps allocation.
With this naive approach, the final total allocation on l 9 is
30Gbps wasting 10Gbps, where c f 3 could have used the extra
10Gbps. Allocation at the site level must account for independent bottlenecks in the topology one layer down. Hence, we
present an efficient hierarchical MPFA to allocate max-min
fair bandwidth among site-fgs while accounting for clusterlevel topology and fairness among cluster-fgs.
The goals of hierarchical MPFA are:
Allocation Distribution
MPFA allocates bandwidth to the highest level of aggregations, site-fgs. This allocation needs to be distributed to lower
levels of aggregation. Distribution of allocation from clusterfg to lower levels is simpler since the network abstraction
does not change and the set of paths remains the same during
de-aggregation. We describe such distributions in this section. The distribution from site-fg to cluster-fg is more complex since the network abstraction changes from site-level to
cluster-level (Figure 1), requiring an extension of MPFA to
Hierarchical MPFA (Section 5.5) to allocate bandwidth directly to cluster-fgs while honoring fairness and network abstractions at site-fg and cluster-fg level.
To distribute allocation from a cluster-fg to user-fgs, we calculate the aggregated bandwidth functions for the cluster-fgs
(Section 3.2.4) and determine the fair share, s u , corresponding to the cluster-fg’s bandwidth allocation. We use s u to look
8
Fair Share
● The algorithm should not over-allocate any link in the
network, hence, should enforce capacity constraints of
intra-site and inter-site links.
0.0
110
100
87.5
20
15
7.5
10
0.0
25.0
22.5
20.0
15.0
0.75
0
Ô⇒
2
0
0.167
50
15.0
0.2
Bandwidth (Gbps)
0.067
Apply T1
on fair share
0
● The algorithm should be work-conserving.
30.0
1
25.0
22.5
20.0
12.5
Bandwidth (Gbps)
● Within a site-fg, ensure max-min fairness of fair share
across cluster-fgs using cluster-fgs’ bandwidth functions.
Fair Share
+
30.0
0
0
25.0
25.0
0.133
15.0
Fair Share
0.0
110
100
87.5
20
15
12.5
7.5
0
0.0
Ô⇒
20.0
0.75
50
2
0.167
0
15.0
Apply T1
on fair share
20
20.0
10
Bandwidth (Gbps)
30.0
Bandwidth (Gbps)
Becf2 (Output)
Bcf2 (Input)
For hierarchical MPFA, we must run MPFA on all clusterfgs to ensure that bottleneck links are fully utilized and enforced. To do so, we must create effective bandwidth functions for cluster-fgs such that the fairness among site-fgs and
fairness within a site-fg are honored.
We enhance MPFA in the following way. In addition to
bandwidth function, B c f i , for cluster-fg, c f i , we further consider the bandwidth function, B s f x for site-fg, s f x . Using
∀i, B c f i and ∀x, B s f x , we derive the effective bandwidth function, B ce f i , for c f i .
We create B ce f i by transforming B c f i along the fair share dimension while preserving the relative priorities of c f i with
respect to each other. We call bandwidth values of different
c f i as equivalent if they map to the same fair share based
on their respective bandwidth functions. To preserve relative priorities of ∀c f i ∈ s f x , the set of equivalent bandwidth
values should be identical before and after the bandwidth
functions transformation. Any transformation applied in fair
share should preserve this property as long as the same transformation is applied to all c f i ∈ s f x . Allocated bandwidth to
each c f i on a given available capacity (e.g. Figure 4) should
be unchanged due to such transformation. In addition, we
must find a transformation such that when all c f i ∈ s f x use
their effective (transformed) bandwidth functions, B ce f i , they
can together exactly replace s f x . This means that when B ce f i
are added together, it equals B s f x . ∀s, ∑∀i∣c f i ∈s f x B ce f i (s) =
B s f x (s).
The steps to create B ce f i are:
Fair Share
=
47.5
3
40.0
0 55.0
50.0
0.2
40.0
0.33
1
Fair Share
30.0
Fair Share
Figure 8: Bandwidth Function Transformation Example
Again, just applying the transformation at the interesting points (points where the slope of the function
changes) is sufficient.
An example of creating effective bandwidth function is
shown in Figure 8. MPFA algorithm as described in Section 5.3 is run over cluster-fgs as FlowGroups with their effective bandwidth functions to achieve hierarchical fairness.
When we run hierarchical MPFA in the topology shown
in Figure 1, the allocation to c f 3 increases to 30Gbps, fully
using bottleneck link l 9 . However, if c f 2 has higher demand
(say 100Gbps), then it will not receive benefit of c f 1 being
bottlenecked early and s f 1 will not receive its full fair share
of 20Gbps. To resolve this, we rerun the bandwidth function
transformation for a site-fg when any of its member clusterfgs is frozen due to an intra-site bottleneck link.
∑ B c f i (s)
6.
∀c f i ∈s f x
SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
This section describes various insights, design and implementation considerations that made BwE a practical and useful system.
2. Find a transformation function of fair share from B saf x
to B s f x . The transformation function, Tx is defined as:
Tx (s) = s̄ ∣ B saf x (s) = B s f x (s̄)
6.1
Note that since bandwidth function is piece-wise linear
monotonic function, just find Tx (s) for values for interesting points (where slope changes in either B saf x or
B s f x ).
Demand Estimation
Estimating demand correctly is important for fair allocation and high network utilization. Estimated demand should
be greater than current usage to allow each FlowGroup to
ramp its bandwidth use. But high estimated demand (compared to usage) of a high priority FlowGroup can waste bandwidth. In our experience, asking users to estimate their demand is untenable because user estimates are wildly inaccurate. Hence, BwE employs actual, near real-time measure-
3. For each c f i ∈ s f x , apply Tx on fair share dimension of
B c f i to get B ce f i .
B ce f i (Tx (s)) = B c f i (s)
9
0.0
110
100
87.5
50
1.5
0
20
15
12.5
10
7.5
4
T1 (7.5) = 20
T1 (10) = 50
T1 (12.5) = 87.5
T1 (15) = 100
T1 (> 15) = ∞
20
30.0
0.0
Bsf1 (Input)
Calculate T1 :
∀ Bandwidth
map fair share
B saf → B s f 1
1
Bandwidth (Gbps)
55.0
0
Bandwidth (Gbps)
Basf1 (Calculated)
1. For each site-fg, s f x , create aggregated bandwidth function, B saf x (Section 3.2.4):
∀s, B saf x (s) =
Becf1 (Output)
Bcf1 (Input)
30.0
20
● Ensure max-min fairness of fair share across site-fg
based on site-fgs’ bandwidth functions.
ments of application usage to estimate demand. BwE estimates FlowGroup demand by maintaining usage history:
Demand = max(max∆t (usage) × scal e, min_demand)
We take the peak of a FlowGroup’s usage across ∆t time
interval, multiply it with a factor scal e > 1 and take the max
with min_demand. Without the concept of min_demand,
small flows (few Kbps) would ramp to their real demand too
slowly. Empirically, we found that ∆t = 120s, scal e = 1.1 and
min_demand = 10Mbps works well for user-fg for our network applications. We use different values of min_demand
at different levels of the hierarchy.
6.2
Figure 9: Improving Network Utilization
WaterFill Allocation For Bursty Flows
fgs. Because multiple such runs across all FlowGroups does
not scale, we run one instance of the global algorithm and
pass to Cluster Enforcers the bandwidth function for the most
constrained link for each FlowGroup. Assuming the most
constrained link does not change, the Cluster Enforcer can
efficiently calculate allocation for a FlowGroup with ∞ demand in the constrained link, assuming it becomes the bottleneck.
The demands used in our WaterFill algorithm (Section 5.4)
are based on peak historical usage and different child FlowGroups can peak at different times. This results in demand
over-estimation and subsequently the WaterFill allocations
can be too conservative. To account for burstiness and the resulting statistical multiplexing, we estimate a burstiness factor
(≥ 1) for each FlowGroup based on its demand and sum of its
children’s demand:
estimated demand
∑
burstiness f actor = ∀chi l dre′ n
parent s estimated demand
Since estimated demand is based on peak historical usage
(Section 6.1), the burstiness factor of a FlowGroup is a measure of sum of peak usages of children divided by peak of sum
of usages of the children. We multiply a FlowGroup’s allocation by its burstiness factor before running the WaterFill. This
allows its children to burst as long as they are not bursting
together. If a FlowGroup’s children burst at uncoordinated
times, then the burstiness factor is high, otherwise the value
will be close to 1.
6.3
6.4
Improving Network Utilization
BwE allows network administrators to increase link utilization by deploying high throughput NETBLT [10]-like
protocols for copy traffic. BwE is responsible for determining the flow transmission rate for these protocols. We mark
packets for such copy flows with low priority DSCP values so
that they absorb most of the transient network packet loss.
To ensure that the system achieves high utilization (>90%)
without affecting latency/loss sensitive flows such as web and
video traffic, the BwE Global Enforcer supports two rounds
of allocation.
Fair Allocation for Satisfied FlowGroups
● In the first round, link capacities are set conservatively
(for example at 90% of actual capacity). All traffic types
are allowed to participate in this round of allocation.
A Satisfied FlowGroup is one whose demand is less than
or equal to its allocation. Initially, we throttled each satisfied FlowGroup strictly to its estimated demand. However
we found that latency sensitive applications could not ramp
fast enough to their fair share on a congested link. We next
eliminated throttling allocations for all satisfied FlowGroups.
However, this lead to oscillations in system behavior as a
FlowGroup switched between throttled and unthrottled each
time its usage increased.
Our current approach is to assign satisfied FlowGroups a
stable allocation that reflects the fair share at infinite demand.
This allocation is a FlowGroup’s allocation if its demand grew
to infinity while demand for other FlowGroups remained
the same. When a high priority satisfied FlowGroup’s usage
increases, it will ramp almost immediately to its fair share.
Other low-priority FlowGroups will be throttled at the next
iteration of the BwE control loop. This implies that the capacity of a constrained link is oversubscribed and can result
in transient loss if a FlowGroup’s usage suddenly increases.
The naive approach for implementing user-fg allocation
involves running our global allocation algorithm multiple
times for each FlowGroup, assigning infinite demand to the
target user-fg without modifying the demand of other user-
● In the second round, the Global Enforcer allocates only
copy traffic, but it scales up the links aggressively, e.g.,
to 105% of link capacity.
● We also adjust link scaling factors depending on loss
on the link. If a link shows loss for higher QoS classes,
we reduce the scaling factor. This allows us to better
achieve a balance between loss and utilization on a link.
Figure 9 shows link utilization increasing from 80% to 98%
as we adjust the link capacity. The corresponding loss for
copy traffic also increases to an average 2% loss with no increases in loss for loss-sensitive traffic.
6.5
Redundancy and Failure Handling
For scale and fault tolerance, we run multiple replicas at
each level of the BwE hierarchy. There are N live and M cold
standby Job Enforcers in each cluster. Hosts report all task-fgs
belonging to the same job-fg to the same Job Enforcer, sharding different job-fgs across Job Enforcers by hashing <user
name, job name, destination cluster, traffic_type>.
10
7.
7.1
400.0k
50.0k
Feb 2012 Jul 2012
user flow groups (left)
job flow groups (left)
Jan 2013
180.0M
150.0M
120.0M
90.0M
60.0M
30.0M
0.0
task flow groups
1.2M
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
Cores
user/job/cluster flow groups
700.0M
600.0M
500.0M
400.0M
300.0M
200.0M
100.0M
0.0
1.6M
Jul 2013 Dec 2013
cluster flow groups (left)
task flow groups (right)
Figure 10: FlowGroup Counts
Feb 2012 Jul 2012
Cores (right)
Control Traffic - WAN
Jan 2013
Jul 2013 Dec 2013
Control Traffic - Total
Figure 11: Resource overhead (Control System)
fine-grained bandwidth allocation and decreasing reporting
interval for enforcement frequency.
Figure 10 shows growth in FlowGroups over time. As expected, as we go up in the hierarchy the number of FlowGroups drops significantly, allowing us to scale global components. Figure 11 shows the amount of resources used by
our distributed deployment (excepting per-host overhead). It
also shows the communication overhead of the control plane.
We can conclude that the overall cost is very small relative to
enforcing traffic generated by hundreds of thousands of cores
using terabits/sec of bandwidth capacity.
Table 2 shows the number of FlowGroups on a congested
link at one point in time relative to all outgoing flow groups
from a major cluster enforcer. It gives an idea of overall scale
in terms of the number of competing entities. There are portions of the network with millions of competing FlowGroups.
Table 3 shows our algorithm run time at various levels in the
hierarchy. We show max and average (across multiple instances) for each level except global. Overall, our goal is to
enforce large flows in a few minutes, which we are able to
achieve. The table also shows that the frequency of collecting
and distributing data is a major contributing factor to reaction time.
EVALUATION
Micro-benchmarks on Test Jobs
We begin with some micro-benchmarks of the live BwE
system to establish its baseline behavior. Figure 12(a) demonstrates BwE fairness across users running different number
of TCP connections. Two users send traffic across a network
configured to have 100Mbps of available capacity between the
source/destination clusters. User1 has two connections and a
weight of one. We vary the number of connections for User2
(shown on the x-axis) and its BwE assigned weight. The graph
shows the throughput ratio is equivalent to the users weight
ratio independent of the number of competing TCP flows.
Next we show how quickly BwE can enforce bandwidth allocations with and without the infinite demand feature (Section 6.3). In this scenario there are 2 users on a simulated
100 Mbps link. Initially, User1 has weight of 3 and User2 has
weight of 1. At 120s, we change the weight of User2 to 12. In
Figure 12(b), where the infinite demand feature is disabled,
we observe that BwE converges at 580s. In Figure 12(c), where
infinite demand feature is enabled, we observe it converges at
160s. This demonstrates BwE can enforce bandwidth allocations and converge in intervals of tens of seconds. This delay
is reasonable for our production WAN network since large
bandwidth consumers are primarily copy traffic.
7.2
800.0k
Bits/s
Cluster Enforcers run as master/hot standby pairs. Job Enforcers report all information to both. Both instances independently run the allocation algorithm and return bandwidth allocations to Job Enforcers. The Job Enforcers enforce
the bandwidth allocations received from the master. If the
master is unreachable Job Enforcers switch to the allocations
received from the standby. We employ a similar redundancy
approach between Global Enforcers and Cluster Enforcers.
Communication between BwE components is high priority and is not enforced. However, there can be edge scenarios where BwE components are unable to communicate with
each other. Some examples are: BwE job failures (e.g. binaries
go into a crash loop) causing hosts to stop receiving updated
bandwidth allocations, network routing failures preventing
Cluster Enforcers from receiving allocation from the Global
Enforcers, or the network model becoming stale.
The general strategy for handling these failures is that we
continue to use last known state (bandwidth allocations or
capacity) for several minutes. For longer/sustained failures,
in most cases we eliminate allocations and rely on QoS and
TCP congestion management. For some traffic patterns such
as copy-traffic we set a low static allocation. We have found
this design pattern of defense by falling back to sub-optimal
but still operable baseline systems invaluable to building robust network infrastructure.
One Congested Link
Largest Cluster Enforcer
Avg across cluster enforcers
Global
site
cluster
user
job
task
336
55
53
1594
3.0k
3.5k
1.5k
47.4k
40k
63k
22k
682k
400k
165k
60k
1825k
12714k
15660k
6496k
194088k
Table 2: Number of *-fgs (at various levels in BwE) for a congested link and for a large cluster enforcer.
Global Enforcer
Cluster Enforcer
Job Enforcer
System Scale
Algo Run-time
Max(s)
Mean(s)
Algo
Interval(s)
Reporting
Interval(s)
3
.16
<0.01
10
4
4
10
10
5
.15
<0.01
Table 3: Algorithm run time and feedback cycle in seconds.
Algorithm interval is how frequently algorithm is invoked
and Reporting interval is the duration between two reports
from the children in BwE hierarchy.
A significant challenge for BwE deployment is the system’s
sheer scale. Apart from organic growth to flows and network
scale other reasons that affect system scale were supporting
11
(a) BwE Fairness
(b) Allocation Capped at Demand
(c) Allocation not Capped at Demand
Figure 12: BwE compliance
Number of user-fg
Number of job-fg
Usage
Min
Max
Mean
3%
3%
94%
11%
10%
99%
7%
6%
97%
exploring abstractions where we can provide fair share to all
users across all bottleneck links irrespective of the number
and placement of communicating cluster pairs. Other areas
of research include improving the reaction time of the control
system while scaling to a large number of FlowGroups, providing fairness at longer timescales (hours or days) and including flow deadlines in the objective function for fairness.
Table 4: Percentage of FlowGroups enforced.
BwE tracks about 500k user-fgs and millions of job-fgs, but
only enforces a small fraction of these. Processing for unenforced FlowGroups is lightweight at higher levels of the BwE
hierarchy allowing the system to scale. Table 4 shows the fraction of enforced flows and the fraction of total usage they represent. BwE only enforces 10% of the flows but these flows account for 94% of the traffic. We also found that for congested
links, those with more than 80% utilization, less than 1% of
the utilization belonged to unenforced flows. This indicates
BwE is able to focus its work on the subset of flows that most
contribute to utilization and any congestion.
We introduced a number of system optimizations to
address growth along the following dimensions: 1) Flow
Groups: Organic growth and increase in specificity (for e.g.,
delegation). For example, the overall design has been serving us through a growth of 10x from BwE’s inception (20M to
200M). 2) Paths: Traffic Engineering introduced new paths in
the system. 3) Links: Organic network Growth 4) Reporting
frequency: there is a balance between enforcement accuracy
and resource overhead. 5) Bottleneck links: The number of
bottleneck links affects the overall run time of the algorithm
on the Global Enforcer.
8.
8.1
Broader Applicability
Our work is motivated by the observation that per-flow
bandwidth allocation is no longer the ideal abstraction for
emerging WAN use cases. We have seen substantial benefit of BwE to applications for WAN distributed computing
and believe that it is also applicable to a number of emerging application classes in the broader Internet. For example,
video streaming services for collaboration or entertainment
increasingly dominate WAN communication. These applications have well-understood bandwidth requirements with
step functions in additional utility from incremental bandwidth allocation. Consider that a 480P video stream may
receive no incremental benefit from an additional 100Kbps
of bandwidth; only sufficient additional bandwidth to enable
720P streaming is useful. Finally, homes and businesses are
trending toward multiple simultaneous video streams with
known relative priority and incremental bandwidth utility, all
sharing a single bottleneck with known capacity.
Next, consider the move toward an Internet of Things [29]
where hundreds of devices in a home or business may have
varying wide-area communication requirements. These applications may range from home automation, to security,
health monitoring, to backup. For instance, home security
may have moderate bandwidth requirements but be of the
highest priority. Remote backup may have substantial, sustained bandwidth requirements. However, the backup does
not have a hard deadline and is largely insensitive to packet
loss. Investigating BwE-based mechanisms for fair allocation
based on an understanding of relative application utility in
response to additional bandwidth is an interesting area of future work.
DISCUSSION AND FUTURE WORK
BwE requires accurate network modeling since it is a key
input to the allocation problem. This is challenging in an environment where devices fail often and new technologies are
being introduced rapidly. In many cases, we lack standard
APIs to expose network topology, routing and pathing information. With Software Defined Networking, we hope to see
improvements in this area. Another challenge is that for scalability, we often combine a symmetric full mesh topology into
a single abstract link. This assumption however breaks during network failures and handling these edge cases continues
to be a challenge.
Our FlowGroup abstraction is limited in that it allows
users sending from multiple source/destination cluster pairs
over the same bottleneck link to have an advantage. We are
9.
RELATED WORK
This paper focuses on allocating bandwidth among users
in emerging multi-datacenter WAN environments. Given the
generality of the problem, we necessarily build on a rich body
12
Work in RSVP, Differentiated Services and Traffic Engineering [14, 27, 7, 22, 21, 1, 5] overlaps in terms of goals. However, these approaches are network centric, assuming that
host control is not possible. In some sense, we take the opposite approach, considering an orthogonal hierarchical control infrastructure that leverages host-based demand measurement and enforcement.
Congestion Manager [3] is an inspiration for our work on
BwE, enabling a range of flexible bandwidth allocation policies to individual flows based on an understanding of application requirements. However, Congestion Manager still
manages bandwidth at the granularity of individual hosts,
whereas we focus on the infrastructure and algorithms for
bandwidth allocation in a large-scale distributed computing
WAN environment.
of related efforts, including utility functions [8], weighted fair
sharing [2, 11, 12, 8] and host-based admission control [9].
We extend existing Utility max-min approaches [8] for multipath routing and hierarchical fairness.
Weighted queuing is one common bandwidth allocation
paradigm. While a good starting point, we find weights
are insufficient for delivering user guarantees. Relative to
weighted queuing, we focus on rate limiting based on demand estimation. BwE control is centralized and protocol
agnostic, i.e., general to TCP and UDP. This is in contrast to
DRL [25], which solves the problem via distributed rate control for TCP while not accounting for network capacity explicitly.
Netshare [20] and Seawall [30] also use weighted bandwidth allocation mechanisms. Seawall in particular achieves
per-link proportional fairness. We have found max-min fairness to be more practical because it provides better isolation.
Gatekeeper [26] also employs host-based hierarchical token buckets to share bandwidth among data center tenants, emphasizing work-conserving allocation. Gatekeeper
however assumes a simplified topology for every tenant.
BwE considers complex topologies, multi-path forwarding,
centralized bandwidth allocation, and a range of flexible
bandwidth allocation mechanisms. Secondnet [15] provides
pair-wise bandwidth guarantees but requires accurate userprovided demands and is not work conserving.
Oktopus [4] proposes a datacenter tree topology with specified edge capacity. While suitable for datacenters, it is not a
natural fit for the WAN where user demands vary based on
source-destination pairs. The BwE abstraction is more finegrained, with associated implementation and configuration
challenges. Oktopus also ties the problem of bandwidth allocation with VM placement. Our work however does not
affect computation placement but rather takes the source of
demand as fixed. We believe there are opportunities to apply such joint optimization to BwE. Datacenter bandwidth
sharing efforts such as ElasticSwitch [24], FairCloud [23] and
EyeQ [18] focus on a hose model for tenants. EyeQ uses ECN
to detect congestion at the edge and assumes a congestion free
core. In contrast, our flow-wise bandwidth sharing model allows aggregation across users and is explicitly focused on a
congested core.
Recent efforts such as SWAN [16], and B4 [17] are closely
related but focus on the network and routing infrastructure
to effectively scale and utilize emerging WAN environments.
In particular, they focus on employing Software Defined Networking constructs for controlling and efficiently scaling the
network. Our work is complementary and focuses on enforcing policies given an existing multipath routing configuration. Jointly optimizing network routing, and bandwidth allocation is an area for future investigation. TEMPUS [19] focuses on optimizing network utilization by accounting for deadlines for long-lived flows . Our bandwidth
sharing model applies to non-long-lived flows as well and
does not require deadlines to be known ahead of time. Flow
deadlines open up possibility of further optimization (for example, by smoothing bandwidth allocation over a longer period of time) and that remains an area for future work for us.
10.
CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, we present Bandwidth Enforcer (BwE), our
mechanism for WAN bandwidth allocation. BwE allocates
bandwidth to competing applications based on flexible policy configured by bandwidth functions. BwE supports hierarchical bandwidth allocation and delegation among services
while simultaneously accounting for multi-path WAN communication.
Based on multiple years of production experience, we
summarize a number of important benefits to our WAN.
First, BwE provides isolation among competing services, delivering plentiful capacity in the common case while maintaining required capacity under failure and maintenance scenarios. Second, we provide a single point for specifying allocation policy to administrators. While pathing, RTT, and capacity can shift substantially, BwE continues to allocate bandwidth according to policy. Finally, BwE enables the WAN to
run at higher levels of utilization than before. By tightly integrating new loss-insensitive file transfer protocols running
at low priority with BwE, we run many of our WAN links at
90% utilization.
Acknowledgements
Many teams within Google collaborated towards the success
of the BwE project. We would like to acknowledge the BwE
development, test and operations groups including Aaron
Racine, Alex Docauer, Alex Perry, Anand Kanagala, Andrew
McGregor, Angus Lees, Deepak Nulu, Dmitri Nikulin, Eric
Yan, Jon Zolla, Kai Song, Kirill Mendelev, Mahesh Kallahalla, Matthew Class, Michael Frumkin, Michael O’Reilly,
Ming Xu, Mukta Gupta, Nan Hua, Nikhil Panpalia, Phong
Chuong, Rajiv Ranjan, Richard Alimi, Sankalp Singh, Subbaiah Venkata, Vijay Chandramohan, Xijie Zeng, Yuanbo Zhu,
Aamer Mahmood, Ben Treynor, Bikash Koley and Urs Hölzle
for their significant contributions to the project. We would
also like to thank our shepherd, Srikanth Kandula, and the
anonymous SIGCOMM reviewers for their useful feedback.
11.
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