BIG-IP Global Traffic Manager Load Balancing

BIG-IP Global Traffic Manager  Load Balancing
BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™: Load
Balancing
Version 11.5
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Legal Notices.....................................................................................................5
Acknowledgments.............................................................................................7
Chapter 1: Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests to Specific
Resources.............................................................................................................................11
How do I configure GTM to load balance DNS requests to specific resources?..............12
About Topology load balancing........................................................................................12
Understanding topology records...........................................................................12
Understanding how the BIG-IP system prioritizes topology records.....................13
Creating a topology record....................................................................................15
Deleting a topology record....................................................................................15
About Topology load balancing for a wide IP...................................................................16
Example configuration: Topology load balancing for a wide IP..............................16
Configuring a wide IP for Topology load balancing................................................18
About Topology load balancing for a pool........................................................................18
Example configuration: Topology load balancing for a pool...................................19
Configuring a pool for Topology load balancing.....................................................21
About Topology load balancing for both wide IPs and pools............................................21
About IP geolocation data................................................................................................22
About topology records and IP geolocation data...................................................22
Downloading and installing updates to the IP geolocation data............................22
Reloading default geolocation data using the Configuration utility........................23
Reloading default geolocation data using tmsh.....................................................23
Chapter 2: Preparing BIG-IP GTM for Static Persist Load Balancing for
Transaction-Oriented Traffic...............................................................................................25
About preparing GTM to load balance transactions to a single transaction manager......26
About Static Persist load balancing.......................................................................26
3
Table of Contents
4
Legal Notices
Publication Date
This document was published on January 27, 2014.
Publication Number
MAN-0465-02
Copyright
Copyright © 2013-2014, F5 Networks, Inc. All rights reserved.
F5 Networks, Inc. (F5) believes the information it furnishes to be accurate and reliable. However, F5 assumes
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Trademarks
AAM, Access Policy Manager, Advanced Client Authentication, Advanced Firewall Manager, Advanced
Routing, AFM, APM, Application Acceleration Manager, Application Security Manager, ARX, AskF5,
ASM, BIG-IP, BIG-IQ, Cloud Extender, CloudFucious, Cloud Manager, Clustered Multiprocessing, CMP,
COHESION, Data Manager, DevCentral, DevCentral [DESIGN], DNS Express, DSC, DSI, Edge Client,
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GUARDIAN, iApps, IBR, Intelligent Browser Referencing, Intelligent Compression, IPv6 Gateway,
iControl, iHealth, iQuery, iRules, iRules OnDemand, iSession, L7 Rate Shaping, LC, Link Controller, Local
Traffic Manager, LTM, LineRate, LineRate Systems [DESIGN], LROS, LTM, Message Security Manager,
MSM, OneConnect, Packet Velocity, PEM, Policy Enforcement Manager, Protocol Security Manager,
PSM, Real Traffic Policy Builder, SalesXchange, ScaleN, Signalling Delivery Controller, SDC, SSL
Acceleration, software designed applications services, SDAC (except in Japan), StrongBox, SuperVIP,
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6
Acknowledgments
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Acknowledgments
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the GNU Public License.
In the following statement, This software refers to the Mitsumi CD-ROM driver: This software was developed
by Holger Veit and Brian Moore for use with 386BSD and similar operating systems. Similar operating
systems includes mainly non-profit oriented systems for research and education, including but not restricted
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BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™: Load Balancing
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9
Chapter
1
Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests
to Specific Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
How do I configure GTM to load balance
DNS requests to specific resources?
About Topology load balancing
About Topology load balancing for a wide IP
About Topology load balancing for a pool
About Topology load balancing for both wide
IPs and pools
About IP geolocation data
Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests to Specific Resources
How do I configure GTM to load balance DNS requests to specific resources?
You can configure BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™ (GTM™) to load balance DNS requests to a resource
based on the physical proximity of the resource to the client making the request. You can also configure
GTM to deliver region-specific content, such as news and weather, to a client making a request from a
specific location.
You can accomplish this by configuring GTM to perform Topology load balancing.
About Topology load balancing
Topology load balancing distributes DNS name resolution requests based on the proximity of the client to
the data center housing the resource that responds to the request. When Topology load balancing is enabled,
the BIG-IP® system uses topology records to make load balancing decisions.
Understanding topology records
A topology record is a set of characteristics that maps the origin of a DNS name resolution request to a
destination. Each topology record contains the following elements:
•
•
•
A request source statement that specifies the origin LDNS of a DNS request.
A destination statement that specifies the pool or pool member to which the weight of the topology
record will be assigned.
A weight that the BIG-IP® system assigns to a pool or a pool member during the load balancing process.
Note: In tmsh, the weight parameter is called score.
Understanding user-defined regions
A region is a customized collection of topologies that defines a specific geographical location that has
meaning for your network. For example, you can create two custom regions named Region_east and
Region_west. Region_east includes the states on the east coast of the United States. Region_west includes
the states on the west coast of the United States Then, you can use those custom regions as the Request
Source or Destination of a topology record you create.
This table describes how the use of topology regions improves the load-balancing performance of the
BIG-IP® system.
Faster load balancing configuration
Slower load balancing configuration
2 data centers
2 data centers
1000 pool members in each data center
1000 pool members in each data center
2 regions with 5000 CIDR entries each
2 topology records:
10,000 topology records:
1 entry routes all requests from Region_east to data 5000 CIDR topology records route requests to data
center1
center1
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BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™: Load Balancing
Faster load balancing configuration
Slower load balancing configuration
1 entry routes all requests from Region_west to data 5000 CIDR topology records route requests to data
center2
center2
Creating a region for Topology load balancing
Create regions to customize the Topology load balancing capabilities of the BIG-IP® system. For example,
you can create two regions to represent the data centers in your network: dc1_pools and dc2_pools.
Alternatively, you can create a region to which you can add IP subnets as you expand your network. Then,
when you create a topology record, you can use the custom regions as the Request Source or Destination
of the record.
1. On the Main tab, click DNS > GSLB > Topology > Regions.
2. Click Create.
The new record screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique identifier for the region.
4. To add members to the region, do the following for each member you want to add to the region:
a) From the Member Type list, select a type of identifier.
b) Select an operator, either is or is not.
c) From the Continent list, select the continent that contains the locations in the region you are creating.
d) Click Add.
5. Click Create.
You can now create a topology record using the custom region you created.
Understanding how the BIG-IP system prioritizes topology records
When Topology load balancing is configured, the order of the topology records is vital and affects how the
BIG-IP® system scores the pools or pool members to which it load balances DNS name resolution requests.
By default, the BIG-IP system prioritizes topology records using Longest Match sorting. As a result, topology
records are automatically sorted based on a specific criteria each time the BIG-IP system configuration
loads. Alternatively, you can disable Longest Match sorting and customize the order of the topology records
in the list.
Understanding Longest Match topology record sorting
When Longest Match is enabled, the BIG-IP® system sorts the topology records by the LDNS request source
statement, the destination statement, and the weight of the record.
The system first sorts the topology records by the type of LDNS request source statement using this order
from highest to lowest:
1. IP subnet in CIDR format (the system places the most specific IP subnet at the top of the list; for example,
10.15.1.1/32, 10.15.1.0/24, 10.15.0.0/16, 10.0.0.0/8)
2. Region
3. ISP
4. State
5. Country
6. Continent
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Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests to Specific Resources
7. LDNS Request Source negation (record that excludes an LDNS)
8. Wildcard records (the system sorts records that include a wildcard to the bottom of the list, because
these records are the least specific)
If the type of LDNS request source statement is the same in multiple topology records, the BIG-IP system
then sorts these records by the type of destination statement using this order from highest to lowest:
1. IP subnet in CIDR format (the system places the most specific IP subnet at the top of the list; for example,
10.15.1.1/32, 10.15.1.0/24, 10.15.0.0/16, 10.0.0.0/8)
2. Data center
3. Pool
4. Region (customized collection of criteria)
5. ISP
6. State
7. Country
8. Continent
9. Destination negation (record that excludes a destination)
10. Wildcard records (the system sorts records that include a wildcard to the bottom of the list, because
these records are the least specific)
If the type of LDNS request source statement is the same in multiple topology records and the type of
destination statement is the same in those records, the system then uses the value of the weight from lowest
to highest to sort the records.
The example shows a list of topology records sorted automatically using Longest Match. Note that the
fourth and fifth records have the same LDNS subnet and the destinations are both of type State. Therefore,
the weight determines the position in the list; thus, the record with the lower weight is first.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ldns: subnet 192.168.69.133/32 destination: subnet 10.15.1.1/32 weight: 500
ldns: subnet 192.168.69.133/32 destination: datacenter /Common/NorthAmerica weight: 400
ldns: subnet 192.168.69.0/24 destination: pool /Common/NorthAmerica weight 300
ldns: subnet 192.168.0.0/16 destination: state WA weight 100
ldns: subnet 192.168.0.0/16 destination: state NY weight 200
Customizing the sort order of topology records
Determine the order in which you want the topology records you create to be sorted.
Change the sort order of the topology records when you do not want the system to use the Longest Match
sort order.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab, click DNS > GSLB > Topology > Records.
Click the Change Order button.
Clear the Longest Match check box.
To change the order of the records in the Topology Record List, do the following:
a) From the list, select a topology record.
b) Click the Up or Down button to move the record to the preferred position in the list.
5. Click Update.
The BIG-IP system uses the customized Topology Record List for topology load balancing.
14
BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™: Load Balancing
Important: The BIG-IP system saves only one set of ordered topology records; if you re-enable Longest
Match, your custom ordering will no longer be available.
Configuring Longest Match
Ensure that topology records exist in the configuration.
Configure the BIG-IP® system to order the topology records using Longest Match.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab, click DNS > GSLB > Topology > Records.
Click the Change Order button.
Select the Longest Match check box.
Click Update.
The BIG-IP system uses Longest Match sorting to order the topology records in a list.
Creating a topology record
Before you create topology records, it is essential that you understand how the system sorts the topology
record list. Additionally, you must understand how the system uses the ordered list of records to assign
scores to the pools or pool members, to which the BIG-IP® system load balances DNS requests.
Create topology records that instruct the BIG-IP system where to route DNS name resolution requests when
Topology load balancing is enabled.
Tip: The BIG-IP system is more efficient when using regions for Topology load balancing.
1. On the Main tab, click DNS > GSLB > Topology.
2. Click Create.
The new record screen opens.
3. To create an LDNS request source statement, use the Request Source settings:
a) Select an origin type from the first list.
b) Select an operator, either is or is not.
c) Define the criteria for the request source statement based on the request source type you selected.
4. To create a destination (server object) statement, use the Destination settings:
a) Select a destination type from the first list.
b) Select an operator, either is or is not.
c) Define the criteria for the destination statement based on the destination type you selected.
5. In the Weight field, specify the priority of this record.
6. Click Create.
Deleting a topology record
Delete existing topology records as your network changes. For example, when you add a new data center
to your network, the topology records that the BIG-IP® system uses to distribute DNS name resolution
requests can become obsolete, requiring deletion.
15
Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests to Specific Resources
Note: You cannot modify topology records; you can delete records and create new ones that meet your
needs.
1. On the Main tab, click DNS > GSLB > Topology.
2. Select the topology record that you want to remove from the topology records list by selecting the
corresponding Select check box.
3. Click Delete.
A confirmation screen appears.
4. Click Delete.
About Topology load balancing for a wide IP
When you configure a wide IP for Topology load balancing, you can route DNS requests to the data center
that is closest to the client making the request. With this configuration, the BIG-IP® system load balances
DNS name resolution requests to the pools in a wide IP based on the topology records. (The members of
each pool must be in the same data center.)
Example configuration: Topology load balancing for a wide IP
This example illustrates how DNS name resolution requests are load balanced when a wide IP is configured
for Topology load balancing. An administrator configures the wide IP www.siterequest.net for Topology
load balancing. The wide IP contains three pools: Pool1 and Pool3 are located in the North America data
center; Pool2 is located in the South America data center. Next, the administrator creates topology records,
as shown in this figure, and ensures that Longest Match is enabled on the BIG-IP® system.
Figure 1: Topology records for a wide IP configured for Topology load balancing
The first topology record directs all DNS name resolution requests from an LDNS in the IP subnet
11.1.0.0/16 to Pool1. The second topology record directs all DNS name resolution requests from an
LDNS in the IP subnet 10.1.0.0/16 to Pool2. The third topology record is a wildcard. It directs DNS
name resolution requests from an LDNS in any IP subnet to Pool3. However, it is important to note that
the weight of the third topology record is lower than the weights of the other topology records.
16
BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™: Load Balancing
Figure 2: BIG-IP system load balancing DNS requests using a wide IP configured for Topology load
balancing
1. A client in New York makes a DNS request.
2. LDNS 11.1.0.1 queries the BIG-IP system in the North America data center.
3. The BIG-IP system directs the LDNS to Pool1. To determine this answer, for each pool, one at a time,
the BIG-IP system iterates through the list of two topology records to find a match. Pool1 matches the
first topology record in the list, because both the LDNS request source (11.1.0.1) and the Destination
(Pool1) of the DNS request match the first topology record; therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score
of 100 to Pool1. For Pool2, there is no matching topology record that contains both the LDNS request
source (11.1.0.1) and the Destination (Pool2); therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of zero to
Pool2. Pool3, matches the third topology record in the list, because both the LDNS request source
(11.1.0.1) and the Destination (Pool3) of the DNS request match the third topology record; therefore,
the BIG-IP system assigns a score of 10 to Pool3. The BIG-IP system directs the LDNS to send the
request to the pool with the highest score.
4. The LDNS sends the DNS request to Pool1 in the North America data center. How the system distributes
the DNS requests to the members of Pool1 is not depicted in this illustration, but is based on the load
balancing method configured for Pool1.
5. A client in Lima makes a DNS request.
6. LDNS 10.1.0.1 queries the BIG-IP system in the North America data center.
7. The BIG-IP system directs the LDNS to Pool2. To determine this answer, for each pool, one at a time,
the BIG-IP system iterates through the list of two topology records to find a match. For Pool1, there is
not a matching topology record that contains both the LDNS request source (10.1.0.1) and the Destination
(Pool1); therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of zero to Pool1. Pool2 matches the second topology
record in the list, because both the LDNS request source (10.1.0.1) and the Destination (Pool2) of the
DNS request match the second topology record; therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of 100 to
17
Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests to Specific Resources
Pool2. Pool3, matches the third topology record in the list, because both the LDNS request source
(10.1.0.1) and the Destination (Pool3) of the DNS request match the third topology record; therefore,
the BIG-IP system assigns a score of 10 to Pool3. The BIG-IP system directs the LDNS to send the
request to the pool with the highest score.
8. The LDNS sends the DNS request to Pool2 in the South America data center. How the system distributes
the DNS requests to the members of Pool2 is not shown in this illustration, but is based on the load
balancing mode configured for Pool2.
9. A client in Chicago makes a DNS request.
10. LDNS 12.1.0.1 queries the BIG-IP system in the North America data center.
11. The BIG-IP system directs the LDNS to Pool3. To determine this answer, for each pool, one at a time,
the BIG-IP system iterates through the list of two topology records to find a match. For Pool1, there is
not a matching topology record that contains both the LDNS request source (12.1.0.1) and the Destination
(Pool1); therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of zero to Pool1. For Pool2, there is not a matching
topology record that contains both the LDNS request source (12.1.0.1) and the Destination (Pool1);
therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of zero to Pool2. Pool3, matches the third topology record
in the list, because both the LDNS request source (12.1.0.1) and the Destination (Pool3) of the DNS
request match the third topology record; therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of 10 to Pool3.
The BIG-IP system directs the LDNS to send the request to the pool with the highest score.
12. The LDNS sends the DNS request to Pool3 in the North America data center. How the system distributes
the DNS requests to the members of Pool3 is not depicted in this illustration, but is based on the load
balancing mode configured for Pool3.
Configuring a wide IP for Topology load balancing
Before you configure a wide IP for Topology load balancing, ensure the following:
•
•
At least two pools are associated with the wide IP that you are configuring for Topology load balancing.
Topology records that define how you want the BIG-IP® system to load balance DNS name resolution
requests are configured.
You can use Topology load balancing to distribute DNS name resolution requests among the pools in a
wide IP based on the geographic location of both the client making the request and the pool that handles
the response.
1. On the Main tab, click DNS > GSLB > Wide IPs.
The Wide IP List screen opens.
2. Click the name of the wide IP you want to modify.
3. On the menu bar, click Pools.
4. From the Load Balancing Method list, select Topology.
5. Click Update.
Repeat this process for each wide IP that you want to configure for Topology load balancing.
About Topology load balancing for a pool
When you configure a pool for Topology load balancing, you can route DNS requests to the data center
that is closest to the client making the request. With this configuration, the BIG-IP® system load balances
DNS name resolution requests to the members of the pool.
18
BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™: Load Balancing
Example configuration: Topology load balancing for a pool
This example illustrates how DNS name resolution requests are load balanced when a pool is configured
for Topology load balancing. An administrator configures pools in two different data centers: the North
America data center (North America DC) and the South America data center (South America DC) for
Topology load balancing. A server that contains the pool members 10.10.10.1 - 10.10.10.3 resides in the
North America DC. The server that contains the pool members 11.10.10.1 - 11.10.10.3 resides in the South
America DC. Next, the administrator creates topology records, as shown in the following figure, to load
balance DNS requests to members of the pools, and ensures that Longest Match is enabled on the BIG-IP®
system.
Figure 3: Topology records for a pool configured for Topology load balancing
The first topology record directs all DNS name resolution requests from an LDNS in Bolivia to the South
America DC. The second topology record directs all DNS name resolution requests from an LDNS in Peru
to the South America DC. The third topology record directs all DNS name resolution requests from an
LDNS in the United States to the North America DC. The fourth topology record directs all DNS name
resolution requests from an LDNS in Canada to the North America DC.
19
Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests to Specific Resources
Figure 4: Pool configured for Topology load balancing
1. A client in the U.S. makes a DNS request.
2. An LDNS in the U.S. queries the BIG-IP system in the North America DC.
3. The BIG-IP system directs the LDNS to a member of Pool1 in the North America DC. To determine
this answer, for each pool member, one at a time, the BIG-IP system iterates through the list of topology
records to find a match. Pool members 10.10.10.1 - 10.10.10.3 each match the third topology record in
the list, because both the LDNS request source (U.S.) and the Destination (North America DC) of the
DNS request match the third topology record; therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of 20 to each
of those pool members. For each of the pool members 11.10.10.1 - 11.10.10.3, there is no matching
topology record that contains both the LDNS request source (U.S.) and the Destination (South America
DC); therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of zero to each of those pool members. The BIG-IP
system directs the LDNS to send the request to the pool member with the highest score.
4. The LDNS sends the DNS request to a pool member in the North America DC. Because all of the pool
members in the North America DC have the same score, the system distributes the DNS requests to the
pool members in a round robin fashion.
5. A client in Bolivia makes a DNS request.
6. An LDNS in Bolivia queries the BIG-IP system in the North America DC.
7. The BIG-IP system directs the LDNS to a pool member in the South America DC. To determine this
answer, for each pool member, one at a time, the BIG-IP system iterates through the list of topology
records to find a match. For each of the pool members 10.10.10.1 - 10.10.10.3 there is no matching
20
BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™: Load Balancing
topology record that contains both the LDNS request source (Bolivia) and the Destination (North America
DC); therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of zero to each of those pool members. Pool members
11.10.10.1 - 11.10.10.3 each match the first topology record in the list, because both the LDNS request
source (Bolivia) and the Destination (South America DC) of the DNS request match the first topology
record; therefore, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of 10 to each of those pool members. The BIG-IP
system directs the LDNS to send the request to the pool member with the highest score.
8. The LDNS sends the DNS request to a pool member in the South America DC. Because all of the pool
members in the South America DC have the same score, the system distributes the DNS requests to the
pool members in a round robin fashion.
Configuring a pool for Topology load balancing
Before you configure a pool for Topology load balancing, ensure the following:
•
•
The pool you are configuring for Topology load balancing contains at least two pool members.
Topology records that define how you want the BIG-IP® system to load balance DNS name resolution
requests are configured.
You can use Topology load balancing to distribute DNS name resolution requests among the members of
a pool based on the geographic location of both the client making the request and the member of the pool
that handles the response.
1. On the Main tab, click DNS > GSLB > Pools.
The Pools list screen opens.
2. Click the name of the pool you want to modify.
3. On the menu bar, click Members.
4. In the Load Balancing Method area, from the Preferred list, select Topology.
5. In the Load Balancing Method area, from the Alternate list, select Round Robin.
6. In the Load Balancing Method area, from the Fallback list, select None.
7. Click Update.
Repeat this process for each pool that you want to configure for Topology load balancing.
About Topology load balancing for both wide IPs and pools
You can configure a wide IP for Topology load balancing. You can also configure each pool in the wide
IP for Topology load balancing. When you configure both a wide IP and the pools in the wide IP for Topology
load balancing, the BIG-IP® system uses topology records to load balance DNS name resolution requests
first to a pool in the wide IP, and then, to a member of the pool.
Note:
When configuring both the wide IP and the pools in the wide IP for Topology load balancing, it is important
to set the Fallback load balancing method for each pool to None. If you do not, GTM™ can send a DNS
request to a pool in the wide IP even when no pool members are available. In this case, the load balancing
algorithm for the pool would then fall back to BIND (static DNS). When you set the Fallback load balancing
method for each pool to None, if no members of a pool are available, GTM sends the DNS request to another
pool in the wide IP.
21
Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests to Specific Resources
About IP geolocation data
The BIG-IP® system uses an IP geolocation database to determine the origin of DNS requests. The database
included with the BIG-IP system provides geolocation data for IPv6 addresses at the continent and country
levels. It also provides geolocation data for IPv4 addresses at the continent, country, state, ISP, and
organization levels. The state-level data is worldwide, and thus includes designations in other countries that
correspond to the U.S. state-level in the geolocation hierarchy, such as, provinces in Canada.
Note: If you require geolocation data at the city-level, contact your F5® Networks sales representative to
purchase additional database files.
About topology records and IP geolocation data
The BIG-IP® system uses an IP geolocation database to determine the IP addresses that match the geographic
names that you define in a topology record, such as continent and country.
Downloading and installing updates to the IP geolocation data
You can download a monthly update to the IP geolocation database from F5® Networks. The BIG-IP®
system uses the IP geolocation database to determine the origin of DNS name resolution requests.
1. Log in to the F5 Networks customer web site at http://downloads.f5.com, and click Find a
Download.
2. In the F5 Product Family column, find BIG-IP, and then in the Product Line column, click either BIG-IP
v11.x/Virtual Edition.
3. Select a version from the list preceding the table.
4. In the Name column, click GeolocationUpdates.
5. Click I Accept to accept the license.
6. In the Filename column, click the name of the most recent compressed file that you want to download.
7. In the Ready to Download table, click the download method that you want to use.
8. In the dialog box, click OK.
9. Select the directory in which you want to save the compressed file, and then decompress the file to save
the RPM files on the system.
10. To install and load one of the RPM files, run this command (the path and file name are case-sensitive):
geoip_update_data -f </path to RPM file and file name >.
The system installs and loads the specified database file.
11. Repeat step 10 for each of the RPM files that you saved to the system in step 9.
You can access the ISP and organization-level geolocation data for IPv4 addresses only using the iRules®
whereis command.
22
BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™: Load Balancing
Reloading default geolocation data using the Configuration utility
Before you reload the default geolocation data, delete the RPM files that are in the /shared/GeoIP directory.
To uninstall an update to the IP geolocation database, reload the default geolocation database files using
the Configuration utility.
1. At the BASH prompt, run this command to query the RPM database and determine what geolocation
data is installed:
rpm -qa --dbpath /shared/lib/rpm/
The system returns a list of RPMs, for example:
geoip-data-ISP-1.0.0-20110203.61.0
geoip-data-Region2-1.0.0-20110203.61.0
geoip-data-Org-1.0.0-20110203.61.0
2. To uninstall the RPMs, run this command for each RPM in the list:
rpm -e --dbpath /shared/lib/rpm/ <name of file>
For example, to uninstall geoip-data-ISP-1.0.0-20110203.61.0, run this command: rpm -e
--dbpath /shared/lib/rpm/ geoip-data-ISP-1.0.0-20110203.61.0
3. To remove the symlink in the /shared/GeoIP directory, run this command:
rm -f /shared/GeoIP/*
4. Log on to the Configuration utility.
5. On the Main tab, click System > Configuration.
6. In the Geolocation area, click Reload in the Operations setting.
The system reloads the default geolocation database files that are stored in /usr/share/GeoIP.
Reloading default geolocation data using tmsh
To uninstall an update to the IP geolocation database, delete the RPM files, and then reload the default
geolocation database files using tmsh.
1. At the BASH prompt, to query the RPM database and determine what geolocation data is installed, run
this command:
rpm -qa --dbpath /shared/lib/rpm/
The system returns a list of RPMs, for example:
geoip-data-ISP-1.0.0-20110203.61.0
geoip-data-Region2-1.0.0-20110203.61.0
geoip-data-Org-1.0.0-20110203.61.0
2. To uninstall the RPMs, for each RPM in the list, run this command:
rpm -e --dbpath /shared/lib/rpm/ <name of file>
For example, to uninstall geoip-data-ISP-1.0.0-20110203.61.0, run this command: rpm -e
--dbpath /shared/lib/rpm/ geoip-data-ISP-1.0.0-20110203.61.0
3. To remove the symlink in the /shared/GeoIP directory, run this command:
rm -f /shared/GeoIP/*
23
Using Topology Load Balancing to Distribute DNS Requests to Specific Resources
4. Log on to tmsh.
5. Run this command:
load / sys geoip
The system reloads the default geolocation database files that are stored in /usr/share/GeoIP.
24
Chapter
2
Preparing BIG-IP GTM for Static Persist Load Balancing for
Transaction-Oriented Traffic
•
About preparing GTM to load balance
transactions to a single transaction manager
Preparing BIG-IP GTM for Static Persist Load Balancing for Transaction-Oriented Traffic
About preparing GTM to load balance transactions to a single transaction
manager
You can configure BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager™ (GTM™) to provide static persistence of local DNS
servers to virtual servers. You can accomplish this by configuring GTM to perform Static Persist load
balancing. With this configuration, GTM guarantees that certain transactions are routed through a single
transaction manager (for example, Local Traffic Manager™ or other server array manager). This is beneficial
for transaction-oriented traffic, such as e-commerce shopping carts, online trading, and online banking.
About Static Persist load balancing
The Static Persist load balancing method uses the persist mask with the source IP address of the LDNS in
a deterministic algorithm to send requests to a specific pool member (virtual server). Using this method,
BIG-IP® GTM™ sends DNS name resolution requests to the first available pool member based on a hash
algorithm that determines the order of the pool members. This algorithm orders the pool members differently
for each LDNS that is sending requests to BIG-IP GTM, taking into account the Classless Inter-Domain
Routing (CIDR) of the LDNS. As BIG-IP GTM distributes requests across all pool members, requests from
each LDNS (and thus, each client) are generally sent to the same pool member. When the selected pool
member becomes unavailable, BIG-IP GTM sends requests to another pool member. When the original
pool member becomes available again, BIG-IP GTM sends requests to that pool member.
Configuring CIDR options for Static Persist load balancing
The Static Persist load balancing mode uses the Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) system to identify
which IP addresses require a persistent connection to a virtual server. You can configure the range of IP
addresses by configuring the Static Persist CIDR setting for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
1. On the Main tab, click DNS > Delivery > Settings > GSLB > Load Balancing.
The GSLB Load Balancing configuration screen opens.
2. For the Static Persist CIDR (IPv4) setting, type the number of bits that determine the IP address range
for IPv4 addresses.
Note: The default value is 32.
3. For the Static Persist CIDR (IPv6) setting, type the number of bits that determine the IP address range
for IPv6 addresses.
Note: The default value is 128.
4. Click Update.
You can now configure a pool for Static Persist load balancing.
26
Index
Index
C
R
CIDR
configuring for Static Persist load balancing 26
regions
and Topology load balancing 12
creating for Topology load balancing 13
D
database
installing geolocation 22
G
geolocation data
about 22
and topology records 22
downloading and installing updates 22
reloading default data 23
reloading default data using tmsh 23
I
IP geolocation data
and topology records 22
downloading and installing updates 22
L
load balancing
about Topology 12
and sort order of topology records 13
load balancing methods
Static Persist 26
load balancing modes
about Static Persistence 26
about Topology 12
Longest Match sorting
and topology records 13
disabling 14
enabling 15
P
pools
and example Topology load balancing configuration 19
and Topology load balancing 21
and Topology load balancing mode 18
S
Static Persist load balancing
and configuring CIDR options 26
Static Persist load balancing method
about 26
Static Persist load balancing mode 26
T
tmsh, and reloading default geolocation data 23
Topology load balancing
about 12
and an example for pools 19
and an example for wide IPs 16
and Longest Match sorting of records 13
and pools 21
and regions 12
and wide IPs 16, 18
Topology load balancingand creating regions 13
Topology load balancing mode 12
topology records
about 12
and IP geolocation data 22
and Longest Match sorting 13
changing sort order 14
configuring Longest Match sort order 15
creating 15
deleting 15
U
user-defined regions
about 12
creating for Topology load balancing 13
W
wide IPs
and example Topology load balancing configuration 16
and Topology load balancing 16, 21
27
Index
28
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