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INTRO
Effectivity: 912 i Series
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Chapter: TOA
TABLE OF AMENDMENTS
*Approval
The technical content of this document is approved
under the authority DOA ref. EASA.21J.048
Note: THE APPROVAL IS GIVEN TO ALL CHAPTERS
EXCEPT THE AIRWORTHINESS LIMITATIONS
SECTION 04-00-00 WHICH IS SUBJECT TO
SPECIFIC APPROVAL OF THE EASA.
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Edition 1/Rev. 2
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d05902.fm
NOTES
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 0
TOA
page 2
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
SUMMARY OF AMENDMENTS
Summary of the relevant amendments in this context, but without requirement on completeness.
Content
current
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Airworthiness Limitations: Approval inserted
Time limits for parts: Fuel pressure regulator assy.
inserted
Smooth performance of the engine: change of text
Abbreviations: +Sport
Use for intended purpose: change of text
Added text to TBO table
Maintenance schedule: exhaust system added
Checking of overload clutch: obtained value corrected; change of page layout
Engine speed exceeded: change of text
Change of text
ECU - Read Out: change of text
Engine test run: change of text
Check+Installation of magnetic plug: change of
text
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d05902.fm
NOTES
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 0
TOA
page 4
January 01/2012
BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Chapter: 00-00-00
GENERAL NOTE
Introduction
This section describes this maintenance of engine type ROTAX
912 i Series.
NOTE:
The ROTAX 912 i Series includes 912 iS, 912 iS Sport and
912 iSc Sport.
Table of contents
This chapter of the Maintenance Manual contains general and safety
information concerning the operation and maintenance of the aircraft
engine.
Subject
Page
Page 3
Abbreviations and terms used in this Manual
Conversion table
Page 5
Page 8
Safety notice
Safety information
Instruction
Maintenance Concept
Technical documentation
Use for intended purpose
Page 9
Page 10
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 16
d05903.fm
General note
Effectivity: 912 i Series
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
d05903.fm
NOTES
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 0
00-00-00
page 2
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
2) Abbreviations and terms used in this Manual
Abbreviations
Abbreviation
*
Description
Reference to another section
center of gravity
d05903.fm
The drop symbol indicates use of sealing agents, adhesives or
lubricants (only in the Illustrated Parts Catalog).
°C
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)
°F
Degrees Fahrenheit
912 iS
see OM (Type designation)
912 iS Sport
see OM (Type designation)
912 iSc Sport
see OM (Type designation)
A
Ampere
AAPTS
Ambient Air Pressure Temperature Sensor
AC
alternating current
Ah
Ampere hour
A/C
Aircraft
AD
Airworthiness Directive
A/F
Across-flat dimension
ASB
Alert Service Bulletin
ACG
Austro Control GmbH
API
American Petrol Institute
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
ATA
Air Transport Association
AWG
American Wire Gauge
CAN/CGSB
Canadian General Standards Board
CPS 1+2
Crankshaft Position Sensor 1+2
CSA
Constant Speed Actuator
CTS
Cooling Temperature Sensor
CS-E
Certification Specifications for Engines
CW
Clockwise
CCW
Counter-clockwise
DCDI
Dual Capacitor Discharge Ignition
DC
direct current
DOA
Design Organisation Approval
DOT
Department of Transport
EASA
European Aviation Safety Agency
ECU
Engine Control Unit
EGT
Exhaust Gas Temperature
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
00-00-00
page 5
June 01/2014
BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Description
EMS
Engine Management System
EN
European Norm
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
FAR
Federal Aviation Regulation
hr.
hours
HIC A
Human Interface Connector A
HIC B
Human Interface Connector B
IFR
Instrument Flight Rules
IM
Installation Manual
INJ 1-8
Injector 1-8
INTRO
Introduction
IPC
Illustrated Parts Catalog
iRMT
independent ROTAX Maintenance Technician
ISA
International Standard Atmosphere
kg
kilograms
LEP
List of Effective Pages
MAPS 1+2
Manifold Air Pressure Sensor 1+2
MATS 1+2
Manifold Air Temperature Sensor 1+2
MM
Maintenance Manual
MON
Motor Octane Number
MS
Magneto Side
N
new part (only Illustrated Parts Catalog)
n.a.
not available
nB
as necessary (only Illustrated Parts Catalog)
NDT
Non Destructive Testing
Nm
newtonmeter
OHM
Overhaul Manual
OM
Operators Manual
OPS
Oil Pressure Sensor
OTS
Oil Temperature Sensor
part no.
Part number
POA
Production Organisation Approval
PTO
power take off side
Rev.
Revision
RON
Research Octane Number
ROTAX
is a trade mark of BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG
rpm
Revolutions per minute
SAE
Society of Automotive Engineers
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d05903.fm
Abbreviation
BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
The illustrations in this Manual are mere sketches and show a typical arrangement. They may not represent in full detail or the exact shape of the parts which
have the same or similar function. Therefore deduction of dimensions or other
details from illustrations is not permitted.
NOTE:
The Illustrations in this Manual are stored in a graphic data base system and are provided with a consecutive irrelevant number.
This number (e.g. 00277) is of no significance for the content.
d05903.fm
Illustrations
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
3.5)
Use for intended purpose
General note
 WARNING
WARNUNG
Explosion hazard.
Never run an engine without propeller. Flying components
can cause serious injuries.
The engine ROTAX 912 iSc Sport is intended for use in certified aircraft. In case
of doubt the regulations of the national authorities or the respective sportive
federations have to be observed.
Certified engines
The certified aircraft engine ROTAX 912 iSc Sport is tested as per aeronautical
standards for safety and time between overhaul. It was developed to conform to
the latest technological standards and rigorously tested.
Non certified engines
The engine ROTAX 912 iS, 912 iS Sport is not certified. These engines have not
received any aeronautical standards or regulatory safety or durability testing, and
conform to no aircraft standards. These engines are for use in experimental,
uncertificated aircraft and vehicles only in which an engine failure will not compromise safety.
NOTE:
These engines are technically equivalent to certified engines and have
been manufactured by BRP-Powertrain using the same quality assurance system.
Engine stoppage
The operator assumes all risk of use, and acknowledges by this use that he/she
knows this engine is subject to sudden stoppage.
Maintenance
and repair conditions
Use for intended purpose also includes observation of the operational, maintenance and repair conditions prescribed by the manufacturer. This is a crucial
factor concerning the reliability of the engine and can increase the durability of
the engine.
d05903.fm
Use
Effectivity: 912 i Series
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
2) Time limit
General
After reaching
this time limit
A general overhaul is due after a defined period of operation or after a specified calendar life since initial
start of operation (whichever comes first).
The time limit for engine operation will be specified by the TBO.
WARNUNG
NOTICE
WARNUNG
NOTICE
After reaching this time limit, the engine has to be
shipped to an authorized ROTAX overhaul facility.
For an overhaul, the engine must be removed from the aircraft, be
cleaned, preserved and all openings to be closed to prevent entering of
contaminants.
Observe the storage and preservation directives!
NOTE:
The maximum possible storage period of the engine is limited
to 24 months.
If this period is exceeded, the engine must be sent to an ROTAX authorized overhaul facility for inspection.
d05904.fm
Storage period of
the engine
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Engine
Type description
engine affected
engine S/N
TBO
Time Between Overhaul
912 iSc Sport
from 7 702 101
2000 hr. or 15 years,
whichever comes first
912 iS
from 4 417 001 up to 4 417 400
from 7 703 001
2000 hr. or 15 years,
whichever comes first
912 iS Sport
from 7 703 001
2000 hr. or 15 years,
whichever comes first
For the TBO of the specific engine type/version refer to the table below.
Authorized exceeding
Extension or exceeding of the TBO by 5% or 6 months is allowed whichever comes first.
Shipment
The shipment to an authorized ROTAX overhaul facility must include the
following:
1
Engine log book.
2
Maintenance records of the engine (i.e. all maintenance check lists, and reports
of operation, of maintenance, of findings and of oil analyses).
3
The engine assembly as per supply volume. Additionally all added-on parts as
in the supply volume such as filters, intake silencer, fuel pump, external generator, sensors, ignition unit, electric starter, oil tank.
4
Indication of total engine operating hours (TSN) and where applicable, engine
operating hours since a previous overhoul (TSO).
NOTE:
This information must be supplied to allow the service history of
components to be traced.
ECU incl. a statement of the number of times it has been plugged in/unplugged.
6
FUSE BOX incl. a statement of the number of times it has been plugged in/unplugged.
7
Harness incl. a statement of the number of times it has been plugged in/unplugged.
8
Data about the type of aircraft used.
9
Useful remarks and observations concerning the engine.
d05904.fm
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
5.1)
General note
Maintenance Schedule
Perform the following maintenance tasks at the intervals shown in the
maintenance check list. See chapter 05-20-00 25 hr. check.
Legend:
X
=
blank =
NOTE:
do the task
no task required
If the points 1-3 are correct of the check list then to continue
with the maintenance schedule.
If one of the points 1-3 is not fulfilled, the engine must be
checked and repaired in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain
instructions for continued airworthiness.
Points of Inspection
Interval
Operating hours
as
indicated
Chapter
Reference
Signature
100 hr.
1.) Visual inspection of the engine
General visual inspection of the engine for damage or recommended
abnormalities.
50 hr.
Check cooling air duct and cooling fins of the cylinders for obstruction, cracks, wear and good condition.
Take note of changes caused by temperature influence.
X
Visual inspection of the ECU and FUSE BOX.
X
Inspect all coolant hoses for damage, including leakage, hardening from heat, porosity, loose connections and secure attachment. Verify routing is free of
kinks and restrictions.
X
12-20-00
sec. 3)
Carry out visual inspection of leakage bore at the
base of the water pump for signs of leakage.
X
12-20-00
sec. 3)
Inspect the expansion tank for damage and abnormalities. Check coolant level, replenish as necessary.
Inspect radiator cap.
Inspect protection rubber on expansion tank base for
correct fit.
X
12-20-00
sec. 10.4)
Inspect the overflow bottle for damage and abnormalities.
Verify coolant level, replenish as necessary.
Inspect line from expansion tank to overflow bottle for
damage, leakage and clear passage.
Inspect venting bore in cap of overflow bottle for clear
passage.
X
12-20-00
sec. 10.5)
d05905.fm
12-20-00
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Interval
Operating hours
Points of Inspection
as
indicated
Chapter
Reference
100 hr.
Inspect all oil lines for damage, leakage, hardening
from heat, porosity, security of connections and attachments. Verify routing is free of kinks and restrictions.
X
12-20-00
sec. 3)
Inspect all fuel lines for damage, leakage, hardening
from heat, porosity, security connections and attachments. Verify routing is free of kinks and restrictions.
Check steel fuel lines for any cracks and/or scuffing
marks.
X
12-20-00
sec. 11.3)
Inspect the wiring (wiring harness) and its connections for secure fit, damage and signs of wear.
X
12-20-00
sec. 15.1)
Inspection of the exhaust system included in the
BRP-Powertrain standard delivery.
X
NOTE:
Signature
If there is no standard/genuine exhaust system in use, the specifications of the manufacturer must be
observed.
2.) Magnetic plug
Check the magnetic plug.
X
12-20-00
sec. 13)
3.) Compression check
Check the compression by the differential pressure
method.
Test pressure________hPa (psi)
every 100 hr.
12-20-00
sec. 4)
Pressure drop (% or fraction)
Cyl #
1
2
3
4
bar
4.) Checking the engine suspension
Inspect engine suspension and fasteners for secure
fit, including damage from heat, deformation, cracks.
X
12-20-00
sec. 2.1)
Inspect suspension and fasteners for secure fit, including damage from heat, deformation, cracks.
X
Check the airbox incl. air flap actuation. Inspect sensors for tight fit, damage from heat, damage and
signs of wear.
X
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
d05905.fm
5.) Checking the air intake system
05-20-00
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
1) Engine check after propeller strike incidents
Definition
1.1)
General note
A propeller strike is:
- Any incident while the engine is stationary or running which makes it
necessary to perform repairs on the propeller.
See SL-912 i-001 current edition.
Propeller gearbox with integrated overload clutch
After any propeller strike the following inspections must be performed
before operation can continue.
Step
Procedure
Inspect the engine for damage. If any damage is detected, inspect, repair
or overhaul the whole engine in accordance with the relevant Manual.
Inspect all systems for correct functioning.
2
Inspect add-on components e.g. propeller governor, vacuum pump, external alternator. Observe the manufacturers instruction(s).
3
Observe all relevant directives from the aircraft manufacturer.
4
Remove the fuel pump and gearbox. Perform a crankshaft out- of roundness inspection on PTO side. See chapter 72-00-00 Heavy Maintenance. If
measuring up is inside the value 0.08 mm continue and also perform a
crankshaft distortion inspection see chapter 72-00-00. If distortion is inside
the value of 2 degree, continue as following:
5
Remove and replace the roller bearing in crankcase for propeller shaft. See
chapter 72-00-00 Heavy Maintenance.
6
Remove the crankshaft gear for NDT inspection. See chapter 72-00-00
Heavy Maintenance.
7
Inspect, repair and perform overhaul of the whole gearbox in accordance
with chapter 72-00-00 Heavy Maintenance.
8
Perform NDT inspection upon housing and metal parts e.g. propeller shaft
and gear set.
9
Re-install crankshaft gear and check the crankshaft for out-of roundness.
See chapter 72-00-00 Heavy Maintenance.
10
Re-install the overhauled gearbox. See chapter 72-00-00 Heavy Maintenance.
11
Perform an engine test run in accordance with chapter 12-20-00.
12
Release back to service and make a note in engine log book work carried
out.
d05906.fm
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NOTES
Effectivity: 912 i Series
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
2) Checking of the overload clutch
General note
In the event of lead deposits and/or if slipping is suspected, it will be necessary to check the overload clutch.
NOTE:
Slipping of overload clutch is apparent if at engine speed rise,
the propeller speed does not increase at the same rate.
NOTE:
The engine should be run for a short time (max. 1 day) prior to
the test, otherwise there is the risk of the clutch “drying out“,
resulting in a higher torque.
Step
Procedure
1
Remove the propeller as per manufacturers instruction.
2
Lock the crankshaft. See chapt. 12-20-00 section: 6)
3
Danger of damage to the engine suspension!
Depending on the engine installation (e.g. in the
case of extremely lightweight engine suspension),
the gearbox must be removed and the test carried out on a suitable mounting attachment.
Install a torque multiplier of respective specification (1000 Nm /737.6 ft.lb.)
on the propeller flange.
NOTICE
NOTE:
Because of difficult measurement of the slipping torque the
braekaway torque is measured.
specially prepared lever
torque wrench
propeller flange
F
d05906.fm
support of specially
prepared lever
Fig. 1
Effectivity: 912 i Series
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
torque wrench
propeller flange
specially prepared lever
adapter
plate
support of specially prepared
lever
Fig. 2
10201
.
Step
4
Procedure
Attach and adjust outrigger of the torque multiplier. If the engine is mounted
in an aircraft, this one must be supported/fixed to the ground.
NOTE:
The effective direction of the support device is opposite
to the input direction of rotation.
5
Connect torque wrench to torque multiplier.
6
Turn over the clutch for 3 times. (No record of measured values!)
7
Inspect the breakaway torque with a torque wrench.
NOTE:
Compare the measured value with the limits in table 1.
The maximum limit must not be exceeded, otherwiNOTICE
se it may cause a damage of the gearbox.
Values below the minimum limit may cause a slipping of the overload clutch that result in an overspeed.
If the value is greater or smaller than the limit values, the overload clutch
must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRPPowertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
d05906.fm
8
Check transmission ratio of the torque multiplier.
The measurement must be repeated a few times (min.
2x) in order to obtain a stable value.
Effectivity: 912 i Series
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Table 1.
Motortype
minimum Limit
maximum Limit
912 iS
600 Nm (442 ft.lb.)
800 Nm (590 ft.lb.)
912 iS/iSc Sport
700 Nm (516 ft.lb.)
900 Nm (664 ft.lb.)
Step
Procedure
Remove torque multiplier and torque wrench.
10
Release the crankshaft, see Maintenance Line chapt. 12-20-00 section: 6).
11
Install the propeller according to the manufacturers instruction.
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NOTES
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3) Examination after engine failure
General note
In order to find possible causes of the failure, it is important to pass on all
available data. Observations on the aircraft and the engine suspension
can also be of help. It is important to pay particular attention to any of the
following engine phenomena to facilitate troubleshooting.
Engine
Engine runs erratically and misfires
part
possible cause
Fuel system
fuel supply
vapour locks
contamination
Ignition system (shorting cable,
charging coil, ECU, FUSE BOX)
Spark plug
malfunction
grounding defect
wrong spark plug connection
loose connection
Rough running
Rough running engine
part
possible cause
Ignition
wiring (assignment fault)
Engine
engine temperature too low
wrong intake air
Engine stoppage
Should one of the above mentioned items occur even
for a short time then a detailed check of the engine is
necessary. The fault needs to be located and corrected.
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Unintended engine stoppage by seizing
part
possible cause
oil pressure too low or no oil pressure
oil shortage
contamination
incorrect venting
Oil pump
defect
Camshaft bearings/Conrod bearings
rather consequential damage wear (low oil
pressure)
d05906.fm
Oil system
NOTICE
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
The entire assembly must be dismantled, inspected and repaired.
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- The whole engine must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
- Inspect all systems for correct functioning.
- Detailed inspection of affected engine components.
Cylinder head
A rise in cylinder head temperature above normal operating limits (see
Operators Manual) is a clear signal for a failure in the cooling system.
Cylinder head temperature too high
part
possible cause
not enough coolant
bad venting
Return valve, pressure relief valve
malfunction
Radiator
contaminated
sealing of intercooler to cowling
poor cooling flow
Radiator cap
leaking
Water pump
malfunction
d05906.fm
Cooling system
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3.1)
General note
Returning engine to service after submerging in water
WARNUNG
NOTICE
The engine must be marked clearly “Engine submerged in water“. Define if it was fresh water or salt
water.
An engine which has been submerged in water must be inspected,
repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
Inspection
- Inspect all systems for correct functioning.
NOTE:
Prior to the detailed inspection, all parts should be cleaned and
inspected for corrosion. For accessories (e.g. vacuum pump,
fuel filter etc.) the instructions and specifications of the corresponding manufacturer must be followed.
Complete inspection of these components:
power supply
gearbox
engine suspension frame
fuel system
units of power
ignition system
cylinder unit
cooling system
valve train system
engine management
exhaust system
lubrication system
start system
In most cases an overhaul is necessary, in this regard send the engine
without delay to an authorized ROTAX overhaul facility for inspection.
d05906.fm
If an engine was submerged into water, all electrical components (e. g.:
electric fuel pumps, ignition coils, stators, spark plugs, spark plug connectors, FUSE BOX, sensors, ECU, wiring harness) must be replaced.
NOTE:
Discoloration or corrosion are signs of submerging in water.
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3.2)
General note
Inspection in extreme climatic conditions
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Every 25 hr. checks of air filter, coolant radiator and
oil cooler are necessary.
Flying in deserts or areas with heavily contaminated or dusty air causes
increased wear on all components. For this reason, shorter maintenance
intervals are recommended.
Flying in areas with extreme climatic conditions or in extreme altitudes
requires adjustment of the cooling system. To do this, it is necessary to
contact the aircraft manufacturer and an authorized ROTAX distributor.
3.3)
General note
3.4)
Diminished functional capability of EMS
NOTE:
The diminished functional capability of EMS must be entered by
the pilot into the engine log book, stating duration extant of diminished functional capability and all pertinent details.
- Perform engine inspection.
Read out the ECU data memory and check the data for details of diminished functional capability. Perform the corresponding inspections/repairs
depending on the functional defects found.
Returning engine to service after influence by fire
An engine after influence by fire must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued
airworthiness.
Inspection
- Inspect all systems for correct functioning.
NOTE:
Prior to the detailed inspection, all parts should be cleaned and
inspected for weld penetration or melted materials.
If an engine was influenced by fire, first a visual inspection of all parts has
to be done and then a hardeness test of all mechanical parts must be performed (e. g.: crankcase, cylinder, cylinder heads etc.).
In most cases an overhaul is necessary, in this regard send the engine
without delay to an authorized ROTAX overhaul facility for inspection.
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General note
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3.5)
Exceeding of max. admissible engine RPM
General note
Any exceeding of the max. admissible engine RPM
must be entered by the pilot into the engine log book
stating duration extent of overspeeding and pertinent
detail.
Read out the ECU data memory and check the data for details of
increased engine speed. Perform the corresponding inspections/repairs
depending on the functional defects found.
5800 rpm up to
max. 6200 rpm
If the limit was exceeded for max. 1 minute up to 6200 rpm
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Step
1
5800 rpm up to
max. 6200 rpm
No action is required.
If the limit was exceeded for more than 1 minute up to 6200 rpm
Step
1
6200 rpm up to
max. 6500 rpm
d05906.fm
more than 6500
rpm
Procedure
Check that the push-rods are straight.
If the limit was exceeded for max. 1 minute up to 6500 rpm
Step
1
6200 rpm up to
max. 6500 rpm
Procedure
Procedure
Check that the push-rods are straight.
If the limit was exceeded for more than 1 minute up to 6500 rpm
Step
Procedure
1
The whole engine must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
2
Check that the push-rods are straight.
3
Inspect the crankshaft for out-of-roundness and torsion. See chapter 7200-00 of the latest Heavy Maintenance Manual.
4
Inspect all systems for correct functioning.
5
Detailed inspection of affected engine components.
If the speed of 6500 rpm was exceeded
Step
Procedure
1
The whole engine must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
2
Check that the push-rods are straight.
3
Check differential pressure
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Step
3.6)
General note
4
Replace the crankshaft. Check the drive gear for out-of-roundness and torsion. See chapter 72-00-00 of the Heavy Maintenance Manual.
5
Check if piston had contact with valve.
6
Check roundness of valves.
7
Inspect all systems for correct functioning.
8
Detailed inspection of affected engine components.
Exceeding of max. coolant temperature
If the maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, other limits are also often exceeded, e.g. oil temperature.
Please observe the relevant instructions.
Any exceeding of the max. admissible coolant temperature must
be entered by the pilot into the engine log book, stating duration,
extent of excess temperature and pertinent detail.
WARNUNG
NOTICE
NOTE:
Graphic
Procedure
Overview and proceed:
Proceed as instructed
in table 2
135 °C
(275 °F)
Proceed as
instructed in table 1
Operating limit
(See Operators Manual 912 i Series)
0
Time
07140
d05906.fm
Fig. 3
30 min.
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Temperature exceeded briefly
Table 1.
Temperature exceeded - briefly
Step
Procedure
1
The whole cooling system must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
2
Inspect all further systems for correct functioning.
Carry out detailed inspection of the affected engine components such as.
Exceeded for longer than 30 min.
-
Leakage check on the cooling system.
-
Check that the cylinder head attachment is fitted securely. If any of the
cylinder head nuts are loose, proceed as instructed in sec. “Excess
temperature of over 180 °C (356 °F) and/or for longer than 30 min.“
-
Check all coolant fittings (feed/outflow) for secure fit.
Table 2.
Excess temperature for longer than 30 min.
Step
3.7)
Procedure
1
The whole cooling system must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
2
Inspect all further systems for correct functioning.
3
Carry out detailed inspection of the affected engine components.
4
Check compression by carrying out a differential pressure check.
5
All cylinder heads and cylinders must be removed and subjected to a detailed check including hardness testing.
See chapt. 72-00-00 of the Heavy Maintenance Manual.
Non compliance with the coolant specification
General note
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Use only coolant as recommended in the current Operators Manual and SI-912 i-001 “Selection of
suitable operation fluids“, current issue.
Non compliance with the coolant specification
Step
Procedure
When a different coolant as the former one (conventional coolant) is used,
then the coolant system has to be flushed.
See chapt. 12-20-00 section: 10.3)
2
Fill in with new coolant
See chapt. 12-10-00 section: 3.1).
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Non compliance with the coolant specification
Step
3.8)
Procedure
3
Re-install the radiator cap.
4
NOTE:
Run engine for a minute and replenish as required.
Exceeding the max. permissible oil temperature
General note
If the max. permissible oil temperature is exceeded,
other limits are often exceeded, too, e.g. the cylinder
head temperature. Please observe the relevant instructions.
NOTE:
Any exceeding of the max. admissible oil temperature must be
entered by the pilot into the engine log book, stating duration
extant of excessive temperature and pertinent detail.
Read out the ECU data memory and check the data for details of
increased oil temperature. Perform the corresponding inspections/repairs
depending on the functional defects found.
Graphic
Overview and proceed;
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Proceed as instructed
in table 4
160 °C
(320 °F)
Proceed as
instructed in
table 3
Operating limit
(See Operators Manual 912 i Series)
0
15 min.
07140
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Fig. 4
Time
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Exceeding up to
max. 160 °C
(320 °F)
Table 3.
Excess temperature up to max. 160 °C (320 °F) max. 15 min.
Step
Exceeding over
160 °C (320 °F)
Procedure
1
The whole oil system must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
2
Inspect oil level in the oil tank.
3
Inspect oil cooler for contamination and check the entire oil circuit for correct
functioning.
4
Check that oil lines are routed correctly and undamaged.
5
Cut oil filter housing and inspect filter mat for foreign matter.
6
Carry out oil change.
7
Inspect all further systems for correct functioning.
Table 4.
Excess temperature over 160 °C (320 °F) for longer than 15 min.
Step
Procedure
The whole engine must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance
with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
2
Inspect all further systems for correct functioning.
3
Carry out detailed inspection of the affected engine components.
4
The whole oil system (oil cooler, oil lines) must be inspected.
5
Cut oil filter housing and inspect filter mat for foreign matter.
6
Carry out oil change.
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3.9)
Oil pressure below minimum value
General note
NOTE:
Graphic
If the oil pressure falls below the minimum value, other
limits are often exceeded, e.g. the oil temperature.
Please observe the relevant instructions.
Any exceeding of the min. admissible oil pressure must be entered by the pilot into the engine log book, stating duration extent
of excessive pressure and pertinent details.
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Overview and instruction
Oil pressure
0.5 bar
(50 kPa)
Operating limit (minimum value)
(See Operators Manual 912 i Series)
Proceed as
instructed in
table 5
Proceed as
instructed in table 6
1 min.
Fig. 5
07188
Oil pressure below minimum oil pressure on the ground
If noticed on ground, immediately stop the engine and determine the
cause.
- Inspect the complete lubrication system, trace cause and rectify. See
SI-912-005, latest issue.
d05906.fm
Minimum oil
pressure on the
ground
Time
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Minimum oil pressure falls below
0.5 bar (50 kPa)
max. 1 min. in
flight
If the oil pressure falls below the minimum value up to max. 0.5 bar
(50 kPa) and for max. 1 min., the cause must be determined. Table 5.
Oil pressure below minimum permissible oil pressure up to max. 0.5 bar
(50 kPa) max. 1min. in flight
Step
Procedure
1
Inspect all oil lines for restrictions and clear passage.
2
Verify oil quantity.
3
Inspect pressure sensor.
4
Inspect indicating instrument to specifications of the manufacturer, replace
as required.
5
Inspect crankcase pressure (See Installation Manual 912 i Series, latest issue.)
6
If no cause for the low oil pressure is found after the above checks, carry out
an oil change.
7
If after the previous checks and oil change the oil pressure is still too low,
repair or overhaul the engine in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
8
Inspect all systems for correct functioning.
9
Carry out detailed inspection of the affected engine components.
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Minimum oil pressure in flight
more then 0.5 bar
(50 kPa)
When re-installing the oil cooler and oil lines, the complete lubrication system (inclusive oil tank) must be
flushed.
Consequent damage can be expected if the oil pressure falls below the
minimum value more than 0.5 bar (50 kPa). Table 6.
Oil pressure below minimum permissible value more than 0.5 bar (50 kPa) in
flight
Step
1
Procedure
The whole cooling system must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
-
The crankshaft must be replaced.
Carry out detailed inspection of the affected engine components.
3
Cut oil filter housing and inspect filter mat for foreign matter.
4
Inspect all further systems for correct functioning.
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3.10) Oil specification not respected
General note
NOTE:
An entry by the pilot in the engine log book of all pertinent details
is required.
If by error engine was serviced with oil, which does not correspond with oil
specification in the Operators Manual and the engine has been in operation for less than 5 hours, the following measures must be taken:
less than 5 hr.
Oil specification not respected
Step
1
Oil change.
2
Remove the lowest positioned banjo screw (1) (banjo bolt, plug screw or
screw socket) and drain the remaining oil from the crankcase. Screw in banjo
bolt or plug screw.
Tightening torque see Installation Manual 912 i Series.
3
Replace oil filter.
4
Drain oil completely from oil cooler.
5
Drain oil from oil tank.
6
Refill oil tank with oil as specified, refer to Operators Manual.
7
Purge air from oil system. See chapt. 12-20-00, section: 12.5).
8
Run engine for approx. 1 hour and replace oil and oil filter once more, as stated above.
Position of the plug screw
Part
Function
1
plug screw M22x1,5
2
plug screw M16x1,5
3
oil filter
d05906.fm
Graphic
Procedure
Fig. 6
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
longer than 5 hr.
If the engine has been operated longer than 5 hours with engine oil not
corresponding with specification in the Operators Manual the following
work is required.
Oil specification not respected
Step
Procedure
Remove propeller gearbox.
2
The gearbox must be inspected, repaired or overhauled in accordance with
the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
3
Carry out detailed inspection of the affected engine components.
4
Oil change.
5
Remove the lowest positioned banjo screw (banjo bolt, plug screw or screw
socket) and drain the remaining oil from the crankcase. Screw in banjo bolt
or plug screw.
Tightening torque see Installation Manual 912 i Series.
6
Replace oil filter.
7
Control of the contact surfaces camshaft / hydraulic valve tappet
8
Drain oil completely from oil cooler.
9
Drain oil from oil tank.
10
Refill oil tank with oil as specified, refer to Operators Manual.
11
Purge air from oil system. See chapt. 12-20-00, section: 12.5).
12
Run engine for approx. 1 hour and replace oil and oil filter once more, as
stated above.
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3.11) Spark plug not in accordance with specification
General note
If by error any of the spark plugs were installed which are not according to
specification of the engine manufacturer and/or not genuine ROTAX parts,
the following verification will be necessary.
Spark plug not in accordance with specification
Step
Procedure
1
Mark position of the spark plugs (e.g. cyl. 1 top) and remove all spark plugs.
2
Inspect the spark plugs for damage (formation of melt beads, burn off). At
heavy melt beads or bad burn off, inspect the piston dome and cylinder wall
by periscope. If parts are damaged, the engine must be inspected, repaired
or overhauled in accordance with the BRP-Powertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
3
Inspect all systems for correct function.
4
Detailed inspection of affected engine components.
5
Inspect spark plug thread for damage (especially at bad burn off).
6
Differential pressure check. See chapt. 12-20-00 section: 4).
7
Change oil and oil filter.
3.12) Non compliance of fuel quality
General note
With the use of unsuitable fuel quality (e.g. low octane fuel), depending on
the operating condition the knock control would activate itself. This control
should prevent damage by knocking combustion.
The use of unsuitable fuel quality has to be entered in the engine log book.
Non compliance with fuel quality
Step
Procedure
Visual inspection of engine
2
Empty the fuel system according to the instructions of cell manufacturer
3
Replace fuel filter
4
Flush fuel system
5
Check differential pressure
6
Engine test run
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3.13) Smooth performance of the engine
General note
See Fig. 7.
 WARNING
WARNUNG
Inspection
Risk of electric shock!
Ignition “OFF“ and system grounded! Disconnect
negative terminal of aircraft battery.
Inspection of smooth performance of the engine should be performed at
a temperature about 0 °C to 60 °C.
Engine runs sluggishly
Step
Graphic
Procedure
1
Remove spark plug connector and remove 1 spark plug from each cylinder.
2
Torque must be determined with a suitable jig.
To do this, determine the maximum occurring torque on the propeller shaft
necessary to move the whole crank drive.
The torque must be max. 150 Nm (110.64 ft.lb).
If the maximum torque is exceeded, perform the following inspections:
- Carry out detailed inspection of the affected gearbox components
- Carry out detailed inspection of crank drive
Measuring torque required to turn crank drive
Always use protection of propeller edge when doing this test.
d05906.fm
NOTE:
Fig. 7
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
3.14) Lightning strike
General note
An indirect lighting strike is a strike on the aircraft fuselage, the wings or
propeller. A direct lighting strike is a strike which acts directly on the
engine.
Different types of damage can be caused depending on the type of lightning strike.
Indirect lightning strike
Read out the ECU data memory and check the data for details of
increased oil temperature. Perform the corresponding inspections/repairs
depending on the functional defects found.
Indirect lighting strike
Step
Procedure
1
Inspect FUSE BOX
2
Inspect the condition of the engine.
3
Inspect the mechanical actuation systems in the engine.
4
Inspect the harness.
5
Crank the engine and check that it rotates freely.
6
Perform an engine test run.
Heat damage due to indirect lightning strike:
Detailed findings will need to be obtained for affected components. Always
replace components if visible signs of damage are evident or if you are in
any doubt.
Electrical and magnetic damage due to indirect lightning strike:
Detailed findings will need to be obtained for affected components. Always
replace components if visible signs of damage are evident or if you are in
any doubt.
Send the engine without delay to an authorized ROTAX overhaul facility
for inspection.
d05906.fm
Direct lightning
strike
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
3.15) Reporting
According to the regulation of EASA part 21A.3 / FAR 21.3 the manufacturer shall evaluate field information and report to the authority. In case of
any relevant occurrences that may involve malfunction of the engine, the
form on the next page should be filled out and sent to the responsible
authorized ROTAX aircraft engines distributor.
NOTE:
The form is also available from the official ROTAX AIRCRAFT
ENGINES Website in electronic version.
www.FLYROTAX.com
d05906.fm
General note
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Form
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4) Lubrication system
4.1)
Oil level check/Replenish
General note
 WARNING
WARNUNG
Risk of Burns!
Hot engine parts!
Always allow engine to cool down to ambient temperature before start of any work.
 WARNING
WARNUNG
Risk of electric shock!
Ignition “OFF“ and system grounded! Disconnect
negative terminal of aircraft battery.
ENVIRONMENT NOTE
Be careful that no oil enters the sewerage system or the soil Risk of contamination of drinking water!
Collect waste oil and take it to the recycling center.
Preparatory tasks
Before checking the oil level, make sure that there is no residual oil in the
crankcase.
Instruction
See Fig. 4.
For checking and before replenish proceed as follows.
Step
Procedure
1
Prior to oil level check, turn the propeller several times by hand in direction
of engine rotation to pump all the oil from the engine to the oil tank.
2
This process is completed when air flows back to the oil tank. This air flow
can be perceived as a murmur (gurgling) when the oil tank cover (1) of the
oil tank is removed.
3
Pull out the oil dipstick (2).
4
The oil level in the oil tank should be between the two marks (max./min.) on
the oil dipstick, but must never fall below the min. mark.
5
CAUTION
For longer flights replenish oil to max. mark to warrant more
oil reserve.
During standard engine operation, the oil level should be mid-way between
the max. and min. marks, as at higher oil level (over servicing), oil will escape
via the venting passage.
Difference between “max.“ and “min“. - mark = 0.45 l (0.95 liq.pt)
d05907.fm
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Effectivity: 912 i Series
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Replenish oil as required.
Only use brand name oil in accordance with the latest OpCAUTION erators Manual and SI-912 i-001, “Selection of suitable operating fluids“ latest issue.
12-10-00
page 9
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Step
Engine test run
Procedure
7
Check oil level - Marks on the oil dipstick.
8
Fit the oil dipstick and tighten the oil tank cover (1) by hand.
Engine test run is necessary:
Step
Graphic
Procedure
1
Check the oil level and top up with oil as required.
2
Operate the engine until the temperatures have stabilized for a period of 5 min
(engine oil temperature between 50 to 70 °C (122 - 160 °F).
3
Switch the engine OFF.
4
Allow the engine to cool down.
5
Check for leaks.
Oil level check/Replenish
Part
Function
1
Oil tank cover
2
Oil dipstick
Effectivity: 912 i Series
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Fig. 4
12-10-00
page 10
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
5) Engine management ECU
Safety notice
See Fig. 4.
 WARNING
WARNUNG
5.1)
Instruction
Non-compliance can result in serious injuries or
death!
When working on the ECU, the general safety instruction must be observed.
See chapt. „INTRO“.
Checking ECU
For checking proceed as follows:
Step
5.2)
Instruction
Procedure
1
Inspect the ECU (1) and ECU mounts (2) for secure attachment and damage.
2
Inspect the ECU wiring for wear, chafing and other damage, and make sure
that the connectors are securely attached.
Read out the ECU data memory
For read out the ECU data memory proceed as follows:
Step
Procedure
1
Connect the decoding unit (Dongle) with ECU data cable to the computer.
2
Select the menu item BUDS in the maintenance software and print out the report.
Connect and disconnect the B.U.D.S. USB-to-CAN Converter
only if ECU is OFF. Non-compliance leads to entries in the error
/ event memory of the ECU
d05908.fm
NOTE:
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
12-20-00
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Graphic
Engine management ECU.
Part
Function
1
ECU
2
Grounding clip
3
Socket for APM-connector
d05908.fm
Fig. 4
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 0
12-20-00
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
7) Test run of engine
General note
 WARNING
WARNUNG
Danger of life threatening injuries caused by the propeller, rotating and stressed parts of the engine!
Always observe the engine from a safe place while it
is running. Check that the cockpit is occupied by a
competent operator.
Preparation
Preparation of the engine for test run:
- Ensure that all the operating fluids (engine oil, coolant, fuel) are
replenished to the specified level.
- Make sure that no loose objects (e.g. tools) are left in the engine compartment.
- Inspect tight fit of the propeller.
- Anchor the aircraft suitably to the ground and fix wheel chocks. Ensure
that the propeller zone is clear and safe before starting the engine.
Test run
Test run as follows:
Step
Procedure
1
Engine start according to latest Operators Manual.
2
After engine start, observe oil pressure. Oil pressure has to be built up within
10 sec.
3
Let engine run for approx. 2 min. at 2000 rpm. Then first use the throttle lever
to bring the engine to approx. 2500 rpm and then run through warming up period, until the oil temperature reaches 50 °C (122 °F).
4
Check temperatures and oil pressure: At a steady oil temperature above
50 °C (122 °F) and oil pressure above 2 bar (200 kPa) engine speed may be
increased.
5
Ignition check as per the current Operators Manual.
6
Conduct a short full throttle run and check that the engine reaches the max.
full power speed. Consult the pilot’s operating handbook for maximum speed,
as it depends on the propeller used.
7
After full-load run, conduct a short cooling run to prevent formation of vapour
lock in cylinder heads. This is necessary to prevent steam locks in the cooling
and fuel system after shut-down.
8
Shut engine down.
On switching off the engine switch off ignition and withdraw
the ignition key.
d05908.fm
NOTE:
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
12-20-00
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Step
9
Procedure
Inspect rotary seal for leakage.
NOTE:
Due to the design of the rotary seal, the manufacturer tolerates a certain amount of leakage. If the leakage is in excess
of the limit rotary seal must be renewed.
Tolerated leakage:
For this check the engine must be operated until all temperatures have stabilized for a period of 5 minutes. At that point shut down engine and ensure the
ignition is switched off and engine secured against unintentional operation.
Coolant must not drip through leakage bore, located at the base of the ignition
housing, for a period of 1 minute after the engine has been stopped.
In case this leakage test can not be passed, the rotary seal must be renewed.
Engine oil and
coolant
Oil filter
WARNUNG
NOTICE
If the oil filter has been replaced, re-tighten by hand after the trial run on a cold engine.
Inspect the engine for oil, fuel or coolant leaks and repair as necessary.
d05908.fm
Check of leaks
Risk of Burns!
Never open the radiator cap when the cooling system
is hot. For safety’s sake, cover cap with a rag and open
slowly. Sudden opening of the cap could provoke the
escape of boiling coolant and result in scalding.
Replenish engine oil and coolant as required once engine has cooled
down.
 WARNING
WARNUNG
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
12-20-00
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
12) Lubrication
12.1) General
Overview
into oil pump
T
OU
IN
out from
engine
d05908.fm
Part
Function
1
Oil tank
2
Drain screw M12x12
3
Oil cooler
4
Oil filter
Fig. 19
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 0
12-20-00
page 35
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
General note
For detailed information see SI-912 i-005 “oil change“, latest issue, and
Fig. 19.
 WARNING
WARNUNG
Risk of Burns from hot engine parts!
Always allow engine to cool down to ambient temperature before start of any work.
 WARNING
WARNUNG
Risk of electric shock!
Switch off ignition and remove key! Disconnect negative terminal of aircraft battery.
NOTE:
It is advisable to check the oil level prior to an oil change as it
informs about oil consumption.
See chapt. 12-10-00 section: 4.1).
Observe!
Observe the following to prevent possible unintentional voiding of the oil system and damage to the valve
drive:
- Draining the suction lines, oil cooler and return line is not necessary and
must be avoided, as it results in air entering the oil system. Otherwise
SI-912 i-004 must be accomplished. See chapt. 12-20-00 section:
12.5).
- Replacement of the oil filter and the oil change should be effected
quickly and without interruption to prevent a draining of the oil system
and the hydraulic tappets.
Oil lines, Oil
connections
Oil lines and other oil connections are not normally removed.
d05908.fm
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Effectivity: 912 i Series
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12-20-00
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Contaminated
Graphic
WARNUNG
NOTICE
If the oil circuit is contaminated, replace the oil cooler
and flush the oil circuit. See chapt. 12-20-00 section:
12.6). Proper judgement requires years of experience
in repair of piston engines.
Oil filter
to bearings
from oil pump
3
4
2
5
1
5
Part
Function
1
Filter housing
2
Filter cover
3
Gasket ring
4
Filter element
5
Filter mat
Fig. 22
08427,00181
12.4) Cleaning the oil tank
d05908.fm
General note
See Fig. 23.
NOTE:
This procedure is optional and requires purging of the oil system. See chapt. 12-20-00 section: 12.5).
If using leaded fuel it is required to clean the tank every 200
flight hours.
It is only necessary to clean the oil tank and the inner parts if
there is heavy oil contamination.
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
12-20-00
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MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Procedure to clean the oil tank:
Step
Procedure
1
Detach the profile clamp (2) and remove the oil tank cover (3) together with the
O-ring (4) and the oil lines.
2
Remove the inner parts of the oil tank such as the baffle insert (5) and the partition (6).
3
Clean oil tank (8) and inner parts (5, 6) and check for damage.
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Incorrect assembly of the oil tank components might
cause engine faults or engine damage.
Step
Graphic
Procedure
4
Fit hex.Double ignition screw (1) M12x12 with a new gasket ring (7). Tighten to
25 Nm (18.5 ft.lb).
5
Safety wire (9).
6
Reassemble the oil tank by following the same steps in reverse order.
7
Purge the oil system.
Cleaning the oil tank
Part
1
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 0
d05908.fm
Procedure
Function
Hex. screw M12x12
12-20-00
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
13) Inspecting the magnetic plug
General note
See Fig. 24.
NOTE:
The magnetic plug is located on the crankcase between cylinder
2 and gearbox.
This inspection is important because it allows conclusions to be drawn on
the internal condition of the gearbox and engine and reveals information
about possible damage.
Procedure
Remove the magnetic plug and inspect it for accumulation of chips.
Steel chips in low
numbers
Steel chips in low numbers as depicted in Fig. 24 can be tolerated if the
accumulation is below 3 mm (0.125 in).
Steel chips in
larger numbers
If there are larger accumulations of metal chips on the magnetic plug,
the engine must be repaired or overhauled in accordance with the BRPPowertrain instructions for continued airworthiness.
Unclear findings
In the case of unclear findings:
Step
1
Flush the oil circuit.
2
Fit a new oil filter.
3
Install the magnetic plug. See chapt. 12-20-00 section: 13.1)
4
Engine test run. See chapt. 12-20-00 section: 7).
5
Inspect the magnetic plug once more.
If the oil circuit is contaminated, replace the oil cooler
and flush the oil circuit.
See chapt. 12-20-00 section: 12.6). Detailed inspection of affected engine components.
Trace the cause and remedy.
WARNUNG
NOTICE
d05908.fm
Contamination
Procedure
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
12-20-00
page 45
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BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Graphic
Inspecting the magnetic plug.
magneticplug
acceptable
not acceptable
Fig. 24
13.1) Installation of the magnetic plug
Install
The following steps are necessary:
Step
Procedure
1
Clean the magnetic plug.
2
Install the magnetic plug. Tightening torque 25 Nm (221 in lb.)
3
Secure with safety wire.
d05908.fm
Inspect all system for correct function. Detailed inspection of affected
engine components.
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
12-20-00
page 46
June 01/2014
BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
14.2) Replacement of spark plugs
General note
See Fig. 26.
WARNUNG
NOTICE
Use of incorrect spark plugs can result in ignition
problems and pre-ignition and consequent engine
damage. See chapt. 05-50-00 section: 3.1).
Because of the differing thermal load, particular spark plugs have been
specified for each engine type.
In numerous tests the best possible heat range has been determined to
make sure that the spark plug will burn off deposits but will not overheat.
Renewal intervals
NOTE:
Operation with leaded fuels (e.g. AVGAS 100LL) can result in
increased wear of the spark plugs. Reduce renewal intervals
accordingly.
Spark plugs
See latest Illustrated Parts Catalog for engine type 912 i Series.
14.2.1) Remove the spark plugs
Remove the spark plugs and store them according to cylinder and position.
d05908.fm
Remove
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 2
12-20-00
page 49
June 01/2014
BRP-Powertrain
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
14.2.2) Inspection of spark plugs
Heat range
Check heat range and adjust electrode gap correspondingly.
Visual check
Inspect all spark plugs for mechanical damage.
Electrode gap
Electrode gap
New
Wear limit
0.6 - 0.7 mm (0.023 - 0.027 in)
NOTE:
Spark plug face
0.9 mm (0.035 in)
Inspect the electrode gap also on use of new spark plugs.
The distance can changed by improper handling.
Spark plug face reveals the following about the operating condition of the
engine:
Spark plug face
light coloured to brown
velvet black
oily, glossy coating
plug and calibration of the engine are correct
Possibly indicates one or more of the following:
-
mixture too rich
-
insufficient air intake (clogged air filter)
-
engine operating temperature too low
Possibly indicates one or more of the following:
-
damaged valve stem seal
-
misfiring
-
too much oil in combustion chamber
-
worn cylinder and piston rings
Possibly indicates one or more of the following:
-
mixture too lean
-
leaking valves
d05908.fm
white with formation of
melt beads
Information
Effectivity: 912 i Series
Edition 1/Rev. 0
12-20-00
page 50
January 01/2012
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