Q46F-D Direct Fluoride Monitor
Model Q46F/82
Direct Fluoride
Monitor
Home Office
Analytical Technology, Inc.
6 Iron Bridge Drive
Collegeville, PA 19426
Ph:
800-959-0299
610-917-0991
Fax: 610-917-0992
Email: sales@analyticaltechnology.com
European Office
ATI (UK) Limited
Unit 1 & 2 Gatehead Business Park
Delph New Road, Delph
Saddleworth OL3 5DE
Ph: +44 (0)1457-873-318
Fax: + 44 (0)1457-874-468
Email:sales@atiuk.com
PRODUCT WARRANTY
Analytical Technology, Inc. (Manufacturer) warrants to the Customer that if any part(s)
of the Manufacturer's products proves to be defective in materials or workmanship
within the earlier of 18 months of the date of shipment or 12 months of the date of startup, such defective parts will be repaired or replaced free of charge. Inspection and
repairs to products thought to be defective within the warranty period will be completed
at the Manufacturer's facilities in Collegeville, PA. Products on which warranty repairs
are required shall be shipped freight prepaid to the Manufacturer. The product(s) will be
returned freight prepaid and allowed if it is determined by the manufacturer that the
part(s) failed due to defective materials or workmanship.
This warranty does not cover consumable items, batteries, or wear items subject to
periodic replacement including lamps and fuses.
Gas sensors, except oxygen sensors, are covered by this warranty, but are subject to
inspection for evidence of extended exposure to excessive gas concentrations. Should
inspection indicate that sensors have been expended rather than failed prematurely, the
warranty shall not apply.
The Manufacturer assumes no liability for consequential damages of any kind, and the
buyer by acceptance of this equipment will assume all liability for the consequences of
its use or misuse by the Customer, his employees, or others. A defect within the
meaning of this warranty is any part of any piece of a Manufacturer's product which
shall, when such part is capable of being renewed, repaired, or replaced, operate to
condemn such piece of equipment.
This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties (including without limiting the generality of
the foregoing warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose),
guarantees, obligations or liabilities expressed or implied by the Manufacturer or its
representatives and by statute or rule of law.
This warranty is void if the Manufacturer's product(s) has been subject to misuse or
abuse, or has not been operated or stored in accordance with instructions, or if the
serial number has been removed.
Analytical Technology, Inc. makes no other warranty expressed or implied except as
stated above.
Table of Contents
PART 1 - INTRODUCTION ................................. 4
1.1
1.2
1.3
PART 7 – SYSTEM MAINTENANCE ................48
General ...................................................... 4
Q46F/82 System Specifications ................ 6
Q46F/82 Performance Specifications ....... 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
PART 2 – MECHANICAL INSTALLATION ..... 8
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
PART 8 – TROUBLESHOOTING ......................49
General ...................................................... 8
Wall Mount Bracket .................................. 9
Panel Mount, AC Powered Monitor ........12
Flowcell Mounting ...................................13
Fluoride Sensor ........................................14
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
General .....................................................15
Q46F Sensor Wiring ................................17
Relay Wiring ............................................18
PART 4 – CONFIGURATION .............................20
4.1
User Interface ...........................................20
4.11 Keys .....................................................21
4.12 Display .................................................21
4.2
Software ...................................................23
4.21 Software Navigation ...........................23
4.22 Measure Menu [MEASURE] ...............26
4.23 Calibration Menu [CAL].........................27
4.24 Configuration Menu [CONFIG] .........28
4.25 Control Menu [CONTROL] ...............31
4.26 Diagnostics Menu [DIAG] .....................36
PART 5 – CALIBRATION ...................................40
5.1
Calibration ...............................................40
5.11 Slope Adjustment .................................40
5.12 Single Point Calibration .......................41
5.2
Temperature Calibration ..........................42
PART 6 – PID CONTROLLER DETAILS .........43
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
PID Description .......................................43
PID Algorithm .........................................43
Classical PID Tuning ...............................46
Manual PID Override Control..................46
Common PID Pitfalls ...............................47
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General .....................................................49
External Sources of Problems ..................49
Analyzer Tests .........................................50
Display Messages ....................................51
SPARE PARTS ......................................................52
PART 3 – ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ......15
3.1
3.3
3.4
General .....................................................48
Analyzer Maintenance .............................48
Sensor Maintenance .................................48
Table of Figures
FIGURE 1 – TYPICAL FLUORIDE MONITORING SYSTEM........................................................... 5
FIGURE 2 - Q46F ENCLOSURE DIMENSIONS ......................................................................... 9
FIGURE 3 - W ALL OR PIPE MOUNT BRACKET ....................................................................... 10
FIGURE 4 - W ALL MOUNTING DIAGRAM .............................................................................. 11
FIGURE 5 - PIPE MOUNTING DIAGRAM................................................................................ 11
FIGURE 6 - PANEL MOUNT CUT-OUT ................................................................................. 12
FIGURE 7 - FLUORIDE FLOWCELL....................................................................................... 13
FIGURE 8 - FLUORIDE SENSOR .......................................................................................... 14
FIGURE 9 - LINE POWER CONNECTION ............................................................................... 16
FIGURE 10 - SENSOR AND CONTROL CONNECTION ............................................................. 17
FIGURE 11 - RELAY CONTACTS ......................................................................................... 18
FIGURE 12 - USER INTERFACE .......................................................................................... 20
FIGURE 13 - SOFTWARE MAP ............................................................................................ 25
FIGURE 14 - CONTROL RELAY EXAMPLE ............................................................................ 34
FIGURE 15 - ALARM RELAY EXAMPLE ................................................................................ 35
FIGURE 16 - Q46 ISA PID EQUATION ................................................................................ 44
FIGURE 17 - Q46 DISPLAY MESSAGES............................................................................... 51
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Part 1 - Introduction
1.1
General
The Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride System is an on-line monitoring system designed
for the continuous measurement of fluoride ion in solution. The system is
designed to measure fluoride ion directly without the use of chemical buffers and
is suitable for potable water systems with stable pH and conductivity. It is
especially useful for applications where the use of chemicals is undesirable.
The full scale operating range of the system may be selected by the user for 020.00 PPM, 0-200.0 PPM, or 0-2000 PPM. The analog output signal may be
spanned for smaller ranges within the overall operating ranges. Because water
is flowing through the flowcell at a low rate, this unit cannot be exposed to
temperatures below 0°C.
The basic sensing element used in the monitor is a fluoride ion selective
electrode (ISE). This sensor contains a lanthanum fluoride crystal that generates
a voltage proportional to the activity of fluoride ion in solution. A silver/silver
chloride reference electrode contained in the same sensor body provides the
second half of the measurement cell. Because ISE electrodes respond to activity
rather than concentration, the response is slightly affected by changes in sample
pH and conductivity, but these effects are quite small on samples from relatively
stable water sources such as well water.
The fluoride monitoring system includes 2 parts, an electronic display unit (panel
or wall mount) and a sensor/flowcell assembly. A typical fluoride system
installation is shown in Figure 1. The measured fluoride concentration is
displayed on a backlit LCD on the front of the instrument. Two 4-20 mA outputs
are provided for recording or data logging of fluoride concentration and
temperature. Alarm contacts are also standard in the electronic package and
may be used either for simple control schemes or for signaling operators of
abnormal operating conditions.
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Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 1 – Introduction
Figure 1 – Typical Fluoride Monitoring System
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1.2
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 1 – Introduction
Q46F/82 System Specifications
Displayed Parameters
Main input, 0.01 ppm to 2000 ppm dissolved fluoride
Sensor mV
Sample Temperature
Loop current, 4.00 to 20.00 mA
Sensor slope & zero offset
Model number and software version
PID Controller Status
Main Parameter Ranges
Manual selection of one of the following ranges,
0.00 to 20.00 ppm
0.0 to 200.0 ppm
0 to 2000 ppm
Display
0.75” (19.1 mm) high 4-digit main display with sign
12-digit secondary display, 0.3" (7.6 mm) 5x7 dot matrix.
Integral LED back-light for visibility in the dark.
Ambient Temperature
Analyzer Service, 5 to 40°C (41 to 104ºF)
Storage, -5 to 70°C (-22 to 158ºF)
Ambient Humidity
0 to 95%, non-condensing.
EMI/RFI Influence
Designed to EN 61326-1
Output Isolation
600 V galvanic isolation
Filter
Adjustable 0-9.9 minutes additional damping to 90% step
input
Sensor
Combination F- / Reference Ion Selective Electrode
Sensor Materials
Glass, Lanthanum Fluoride, Ryton
Interconnect Cable
10 ft. (6.15 meter) standard
Q46F Power:
100-240 VAC ±10%, 50/60 Hz
Optional: 12-24 VDC
Q46F Enclosure:
NEMA 4X, IP66, polycarbonate, stainless steel hardware
HWD: 4.9" (124 mm) x 4.9" (124 mm) x 5.5" (139 mm)
Flammability rating: UL 94 V-0
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Part 1 – Introduction
Mounting Options
Wall mount bracket standard.
Panel mount adapter optional for Q46F Only
Relays, Electromechanical:
Three SPDT, 6 amp @ 250 VAC, 5 amp @ 24 VDC
contacts. Software selection for setpoint, phase, delay,
deadband, hi-lo alarm, and failsafe. A-B indicators on
main LCD.
Low Power Relays:
Three SPST, 1 amp @ 24 VDC. Software selection for
setpoint, phase, delay, deadband, hi-lo alarm, and failsafe.
Analog Outputs
Two 4-20 mA outputs. Output one programmable for PPM
F- or PID. Output 2 programmable for PPM or
temperature. Maximum load 500 Ohms for each output.
Outputs ground isolated and isolated from each other.
Digital Communications
(Optional)
Profibus-DP, Modbus-RTU. More versions pending.
See Q46 Digital Communications Manual for
Specifications.
Sample Flowrate
1 GPH Minimum (60 ml/min.)
5 GPH Maximum (315 ml/min.)
Weight
4 lbs. (1.8 Kg.)
1.3
Q46F/82 Performance Specifications
Accuracy
+/- 0.1 PPM or 0.2% of selected range
Repeatability
+/- 0.05 PPM or 0.1% of selected range
Sensitivity
0.01 PPM
Non-linearity
0.2% of selected range
Warm-up Time
3 seconds to rated performance (electronics only)
Sensor requires 1 hour stabilization at start-up
Supply Voltage Effects
± 0.05% span
Instrument Response Time
60 seconds to 90% of step input at lowest damping
Equipment bearing this marking may not be discarded by traditional
methods in the European community after August 12 2005 per EU Directive
2002/96/EC. End users must return old equipment to the manufacturer for
proper disposal.
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Part 2 – Mechanical Installation
2.1
General
Mechanical installation of a Q46F/82 fluoride system involves mounting of the
Q46F electronic assembly, mounting of the sample flowcell, and connection of
sample and drain tubing. If the optional panel assembly has been supplied, the
system comes assembled with flow controls to allow operators to properly adjust
sample flow to a low value.
Proper planning of the installation will benefit operation and maintenance of the
system. Here are a few considerations
1. Locate the Q46F electronics where personnel can easily access the front
panel control keys. Calibration of the system requires access to these
controls.
2. Locate the flowcell high enough above the floor so that servicing of the
sensor is not difficult. Sensors normally require inspection and cleaning
every 3-6 months.
3. Water sample and drain lines connect to the flowcell using ¼” O.D. tubing
supplied with the unit. A ¼” MNPT to tubing adapter is supplied for
connection to the customer piping. The drain should be directed to an
unpressurized drain near the flowcell. A check valve on the outlet side of
the flowcell serves as a vacuum breaker to avoid pulling a vacuum on the
flowcell.
The Q46F monitor is wall mounted using a PVC plate supplied with the unit.
The bracket kit contains 4 screws for attaching the plate to the back of the
enclosure. A paper template is supplied to ease of locating anchors in the wall.
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Part 2 – Mechanical Installation
Figure 2 - Q46F Enclosure Dimensions
2.2
Wall Mount Bracket
A PVC mounting bracket with attachment screws is supplied with each
transmitter (see Figure 3 for dimensions). The multi-purpose bracket is attached
to the rear of the enclosure using the four flat head screws. The instrument is
then attached to the wall using the four outer mounting holes in the bracket.
These holes are slotted to accommodate two sizes of u-bolt that may be used to
pipe mount the unit. Slots will accommodate u-bolts designed for 1½ “or 2” pipe.
The actual center to center dimensions for the u-bolts are shown in the drawing.
Note that these slots are for u-bolts with ¼-20 threads. The 1½” pipe u-bolt (2”
I.D. clearance) is available from ATI in type 304 stainless steel under part
number 47-0005
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Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 2 – Mechanical Installation
Figure 3 - Wall or Pipe mount Bracket
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Part 2 – Mechanical Installation
Figure 4 - Wall Mounting Diagram
Figure 5 - Pipe Mounting Diagram
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2.3
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 2 – Mechanical Installation
Panel Mount, AC Powered Monitor
Panel mounting of the Q46F monitor uses the panel mounting flange molded into
the rear section of the enclosure. Figure 6 provides dimensions for the panel
cutout required for mounting.
The panel bracket kit must be ordered separately (part number 05-0094). This
kit contains a metal retainer bracket that attaches to the rear of the enclosure, 4
screws for attachment of this bracket, and a sealing gasket to insure that the
panel mounted monitor provides a water tight seal when mounted to a panel.
The sealing gasket must first be attached to the enclosure. The gasket contains
an adhesive on one side so that it remains in place on the enclosure. Remove
the protective paper from the adhesive side of the gasket and slide the gasket
over the back of the enclosure so that the adhesive side lines up with the back of
the enclosure flange. Once in place, mount the monitor in the panel.
Figure 6 - Panel Mount Cut-Out
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2.4
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 2 – Mechanical Installation
Flowcell Mounting
The flowcell for the fluoride sensor is a sealed assembly with twist-lock
connection. The sensor is inserted into the top of the flowcell by aligning the
retainer pins on the sensor with the slots in the flowcell. Once inserted fully, the
sensor must be rotated slightly to insure the sensor is retained if the flowcell is
pressurized.
Figure 7 - Fluoride Flowcell
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2.5
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 2 – Mechanical Installation
Fluoride Sensor
The fluoride sensor used in the Q46F system is a combination style electrode
containing a lanthanum fluoride sensing element and a sealed silver/silver
chloride reference electrode. Fluoride sensor are suitable for monitoring fluoride
ion concentration in potable water systems when the source water has a very
stable pH and conductivity. Large changes in pH or conductivity (ionic strength)
can cause a significant shift in the calibration curve of a sensor. For applications
with widely varying sample conditions, ATI’s Auto-Chem fluoride system with
sample conditioning and automatic calibration is a good solution.
Physically, the fluoride sensor is in a molded industrial “twist-lock” housing
providing for simple insertion and removal from the sample flowcell. Dual o-rings
on the body of the sensor provide a water-tight seal and the sensor may be used
at pressures up to 50 PSI.
Figure 8 - Fluoride Sensor
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Part 3 – Electrical Installation
3.1

General
The Q46F electronics contains a universal power supply operating on voltages
between 90 and 265 VAC, 50/60 cycle. An optional version of this instrument
operates from a DC power input between 12 and 24 VDC. The label on the
outside of the Q46F enclosure indicates the input power required for that unit.
Important Notes:
1.
Use wiring practices that conform to all national, state and local
electrical codes. For proper safety as well as stable measuring
performance, it is important that the earth ground connection be
made to a solid ground point from terminal 12 (Figure 9).
2. Do NOT run sensor cables or instrument 4-20 mA output wiring
in the same conduit that contains AC power wiring. AC power
wiring should be run in a dedicated conduit to prevent electrical
noise from coupling with the instrumentation signals.
Q46 electronic units are supplied with five ½” NPT ports, two on each side and
one on the bottom. Red plugs are provided for each port. Five cord grips are
supplied separately for use during installation. A cord grip should be installed in
the bottom port for sealing the sensor cable connection. AC power should enter
through the lower right hand port as the AC terminals are closest to this entry.
WARNING
Disconnect line power voltage BEFORE connecting line power
wires to Terminal TB7 of the power supply. The power supply
accepts only standard three-wire single phase power. The
power supply is configured for 100-240 VAC ±10% operation..
Do NOT connect voltages other than the labeled requirement to
the input.
Connect HOT, NEUTRAL, and GROUND to the matching designations on
terminal strip TB7.
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Part 3 – Electrical Installation
The analog outputs from the system are present at terminals TB1. The loop-load
limitation in this configuration is 500 Ohms maximum for each output. Also note
that these two outputs are completely isolated from each other to insure that
ground loops do not result from the connection of both outputs to the same
device such as a PLC or DCS.
A ribbon cable connects the power supply assembly with the microprocessor
assembly located in the front section of the enclosure. This cable can be
disconnected from the front section during installation to facilitate wiring. The
ribbon cable has a marking stripe on one edge that is used to indicate proper
orientation.
Figure 9 - Line Power Connection
The power strip, TB5, allows up to 12 AWG wire. A wire gauge of 16
AWG is recommended. DC powered units are connected to the same
terminals used for AC connections and are marked as indicated in Figure
9 above.
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3.3
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 3 – Electrical Installation
Q46F Sensor Wiring
The interconnection between the fluoride sensor and the Q46F electronics is a 4conductor cable. The sensor cable has a coaxial cable with the center conductor
and shield separated for connection to terminals 1 and 3. Two addition wires
provide the temperature input and are terminated at terminals 7 and 8. A jumper
wire is required between terminals 4 and 8. The sensor wire is supplied with a
standard length of 10 feet (3 m.). If desired, this length can be cut to eliminate
excess cable. If you plan to cut the cable, be sure not to cut it too short as
adding additional cable by trying to splice the cable is extremely difficult and will
often lead to signal problems.
Figure 10 - Sensor and Control Connection
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3.4
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 3 – Electrical Installation
Relay Wiring
Three SPDT relays are provided on the power supply board. None of the relay
contacts are powered. The user must supply the proper power to the contacts.
For applications that require the same switched operating voltage as the Q46
(115 or 230 V), power may be jumpered from the power input terminals at TB7.
Relay wiring is connected at TB4,TB5, and TB6 as shown below. Note that the
relay contact markings are shown in the NORMAL mode. Programming a relay
for “Failsafe” operation reverses the NO and NC positions in this diagram (Figure
12).
Figure 11 - Relay Contacts
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3.5
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 3 – Electrical Installation
Low Power Relay Connection
TB2, is used to connect to the low power 3-relay card). The Q46 provides three
low power relays that can be used for switching low current DC loads. These
relays are not isolated. Contact ATI if you have any questions about using these
relays.
Figure 12 - Low Power Relay Connections
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Part 4 – Configuration
4.1
User Interface
The user interface for the Q46 Series instrument consists of a custom display
and a membrane keypad. All functions are accessed from this user interface (no
internal jumpers, pots, etc.).
RELAY
INDICATOR
4-DIGIT
MAIN DISPLAY
MENU ICONS
MENU ICONS
SIGN
A
UNITS
RELAY/LO-BAT
INDICATOR
UNITS
DIAG
CAL FAIL
CONF HOLD
B
12-CHARACTER
SECONDARY
DISPLAY
12-CHARACTER
SECONDARY
DISPLAY
MENU
ESC
4-KEY USER
INTERFACE
MENU/ESCAPE
KEY
ENTER KEY
UP ARROW
KEY
LEFT ARROW
KEY
Figure 13 - User Interface
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MEMBRANE
KEYPAD
MEMBRANE ENTER
KEYPAD
ATI
4.11
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 4 – Configuration
Keys
All user configurations occur through the use of four membrane keys. These
keys are used as follows:
4.12
MENU/ESC
To scroll through the menu section headers or to escape
from anywhere in software. The escape sequence allows
the user to back out of any changes in a logical manner.
Using the escape key aborts all changes to the current
screen and backs the user out one level in the software tree.
The manual will refer to this key as either MENU or ESC,
depending upon its particular function. In the batterypowered version of the Q46, this is also the ON button.
UP (arrow)
To scroll through individual list or display items and to
change number values.
LEFT (arrow)
To move the cursor from right to left during changes to a
number value.
ENTER
To select a menu section or list item for change and to store
any change.
Display
The large custom display provides clear information for general
measurement use and user configuration. There are three main areas of
the display: the main parameter display, the secondary message line, and
the icon area.
Main Parameter
During normal operation, the main parameter display
indicates the present process input with sign and units. This
main display may be configured to display any of the main
measurements that the system provides.
During
configuration, this area displays other useful set-up
information to the user.
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Lower Line
Part 4 – Configuration
During normal operation, the lower line of the display
indicates user-selected secondary measurements that the
system is making. This also includes calibration data from
the last calibration sequence and the transmitter model
number and software version. During configuration, the
lower line displays menu items and set-up prompts to the
user. Finally, the lower line will display error messages
when necessary. For a description of all display messages,
refer to Section 9.4.
+43 mV
Icon Area
The icon area contains display icons that assist the user in
set-up and indicate important states of system functions.
The CAL, CONFIG, and DIAG icons are used to tell the user
what branch of the software tree the user is in while scrolling
through the menu items. This improves software map
navigation dramatically. Upon entry into a menu, the title is
displayed (such as CAL), and then the title disappears to
make way for the actual menu item. However, the icon stays
on.
HOLD
The HOLD icon indicates that the current output of the
transmitter has been put into output hold. In this case, the
output is locked to the last input value measured when the
HOLD function was entered. HOLD values are retained
even if the unit power is cycled.
FAIL
The FAIL icon indicates that the system diagnostic function
has detected a problem that requires immediate attention.
This icon is automatically cleared once the problem has
been resolved.
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Relay Area A/B
Part 4 – Configuration
The relay area contains two icons that indicate the state of
the system relays (if the relay card is installed). Relay C is
normally configured for FAIL indication, so it is only
displayed on the lower MEASURE display line.
A
B
4.2
Software
The software of the Q46F is organized in an easy to follow menu-based system.
All user settings are organized under five menu sections: Measure, Calibration
[CAL], Configuration [CONFIG], Control [CONTROL] and Diagnostics [DIAG].
Note: The default Measure Menu is display-only and has no menu icon.
4.21
Software Navigation
Within the CAL, CONFIG, CONTROL, and DIAG menu sections is a list of
selectable items. Once a menu section (such as CONFIG) has been selected
with the MENU key, the user can access the item list in this section by pressing
either the ENTER key or the UP arrow key. The list items can then be scrolled
through using the UP arrow key. Once the last item is reached, the list wraps
around and the first list item is shown again. The items in the menu sections are
organized such that more frequently used functions are first, while more
permanent function settings are later in the list. See Figure 18 for a visual
description of the software.
Each list item allows a change to a stored system variable. List items are
designed in one of two forms: simple single variable, or multiple variable
sequences. In the single variable format, the user can quickly modify one
parameter - for example, changing the display range from 2.000 to 20.00. In the
multiple variable sequence, variables are changed as the result of some process.
For example, the calibration of fluoride generally requires more than one piece of
information to be entered. The majority of the menu items in the software consist
of the single variable format type.
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Part 4 – Configuration
Any data that may be changed will be flashing. This flashing indicates user entry
mode and is initiated by pressing the ENTER key. The UP arrow key will
increase a flashing digit from 0 to 9. The LEFT arrow key moves the flashing
digit from right to left. Once the change has been completed, pressing ENTER
again stores the variable and stops the flashing. Pressing ESC aborts the
change and also exits user entry mode.
The starting (default) screen is always the Measure Menu. The UP arrow key is
used to select the desired display. From anywhere in this section the user can
press the MENU key to select one of the four Menu Sections.
The UP arrow icon next to all list items on the display is a reminder to scroll
through the list using the UP arrow key.
To select a list item for modification, first select the proper menu with the MENU
key. Scroll to the list item with the UP arrow key and then press the ENTER key.
This tells the system that the user wishes to perform a change on that item. For
single item type screens, once the user presses the ENTER key, part or all of the
variable will begin to flash, indicating that the user may modify that variable using
the arrow keys. However, if the instrument is locked, the transmitter will display
the message Locked! and will not enter user entry mode. The instrument must
be unlocked by entering the proper code value to allow authorized changes to
user entered values. Once the variable has been reset, pressing the ENTER key
again causes the change to be stored and the flashing to stop. The message
Accepted! will be displayed if the change is within pre-defined variable limits. If
the user decides not to modify the value after it has already been partially
changed, pressing the ESC key aborts the modification and returns the entry to
its original stored value.
In a menu item which is a multiple variable sequence type, once the ENTER key
is pressed there may be several prompts and sequences that are run to complete
the modification. The ESC key can always be used to abort the sequence
without changing any stored variables.
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Part 4 – Configuration
Start
MENU
SECTIONS
MEASURE
(display only)
ME NU
ESC
pF
Temperature
mV
1
CAL
ME NU
ESC
CONFIG
CONTROL
DIAG
E NTE R
E NTE R
ENTER
or
or
or
or
Cal Fluor
Entry Lock
Cal Temp
Set Delay
Set Range
Contrast
1
PID 0% #1
Set Hold
PID 100% #1
Fault List
PID Setpoint #1
Sim Out
1
1
1
Main Units
PID Prop #1
1
Loop Current (#1)
Zero Filter
1
Loop Current (#2)
PID Int #1
T1 Cal Timer
Software Version
T2 Cln Timer
Com Mode
3
Com Address
2
Fail Val #1
Set 20mA (#1)
Fail Out #2
Set 4mA (#2)
Fail Val #2
Set 20mA (#2)
Backlight
Setpnt A (or A-HI, A-LO)
2
2
Hyst A (or A-HI, A-LO)
Delay A (or A-HI, A-LO)
3
Com Baud
Phase A
3
Com Parity
Setpnt B
Hyst B
I out 1 Mode
Delay B
I out 2 Mode
Relay A Mode
Phase B
4
Relay B Mode
Setpnt C
4
Hyst C
Relay C Mode
4
Temp Units
4
Temp Comp
Notes:
(1) If Relay A,B, is set to FAIL mode, relay settings are not
displayed in menu.
(2) The annunciator for Relay C is shown in the MEASURE/
temperature display
1
PID is enabled
If Relay A is set to ALARM mode, the settings are divided into
2 groups of HI and LO points.
3
If Comm Mode is set to a selection other than None, Additional
Comm menus will show.
4
Not Available when Relay C is set to FAIL.
2
Figure 14 - Software Map
25
PID Timer
Set 4mA (#1)
Sensor Type
Offset
1
Fail Out #1
Select TC
Slope
Class Diags
PID Deriv #1
Main Display
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ME NU
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ENTER
PID % Output
LIST
ITEMS
MENU
E SC
Delay C
Phase C
Start Delay
Failsafe
Set Default
ME NU
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Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
4.22
Measure Menu [MEASURE]
Part 4 – Configuration
The default menu for the system is the display-only menu MEASURE. This menu
is a display-only measurement menu, and has no changeable list items. When
left alone, the instrument will automatically return to this menu after
approximately 30 minutes. While in the default menu, the UP arrow allows the
user to scroll through the secondary variables on the lower line of the display. A
brief description of the fields in the basic transmitter version is as follows:
TRANSMITTER MEAS SCREENS:
pF
Similar to pH, but using F- concentration. Calculated by
–log [F-].
25.7C
Temperature display. User selectable for °C or °F. A small
“m” on the left side of the screen indicates the monitor has
automatically jumped to a manual 25C setting due to a
failure with the temperature signal input.
-32.3 mV
Raw sensor potential. Useful for diagnosing problems.
100% 20.00 mA
PID Status screen (if enabled.) Shows the present controller
output level on left, and actual transmitter current on the
right. The controller can be placed in manual while viewing
this screen by pressing and holding the ENTER key for 5
seconds until a small flashing “m” appears on the screen. At
that point the controller output can be adjusted up or down
using the UP and LEFT arrow keys. To return to automatic
operation, press and hold the ENTER key for 5 seconds and
the “M” will disappear.
4.00 mA
Transmitter output current # 1
20.00 mA
Transmitter output current # 2
Slope = 100%
Sensor output response vs. ideal calibration. This value
updates after each calibration. As the sensor ages, the slope
reading will decay indicating sensor aging. Useful for
resolving sensor problems.
Offset = 0.0 mv
This is a “calculated value” which indicates the theoretical
mv. value that would be generated at 0 PPM fluoride. Since
selective ion sensors do not actually respond down to dead
zero, this value is displayed simply to track sensor stability.
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Q46F VX.XX
Part 4 – Configuration
Transmitter software version number.
Note: A display test (all segments ON) can be actuated by pressing and
holding the ENTER key while viewing the model/version number on
the lower line of the display.
An auto-calibration or auto-clear cycle can be activated manually by
holding the ENTER key while viewing either of the T-cyc values.
The MEASURE screens are intended to be used as a very quick means of
looking up critical values during operation or troubleshooting.
4.23 Calibration Menu [CAL]
The calibration menu contains items for frequent calibration of user parameters.
There are three items in this list: Cal Fluoride, Cal Temp. and Set Range.
Cal
The fluoride calibration function allows the user to adjust the
transmitter span reading to match a reference solution, or to
set the sensor zero point. See Part 6 - Calibration for more
details.
Cal Temp
The temperature calibration function allows the user to
adjust the offset of the temperature response by a small
factor of ±5 °C. The temperature input is factory calibrated
to very high accuracy. However, long cable lengths and
junction boxes may degrade the accuracy of the temperature
measurement in some extreme situations. Therefore, this
feature is provided as an adjustment. See Part 6 Calibration for more details.
Set Range
This function allows the user to set the display range of the
transmitter to a specific application. Once set, all output
functions use this display range to establish configuration
settings. Press ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the
value will flash. Use the arrow keys to modify value;
available ranges include 20.00 ppm, 200.0 ppm, and 2000
ppm. Press ENTER to store the new value.
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4.24
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 4 – Configuration
Configuration Menu [CONFIG]
The Configuration Menu contains all of the general user settings:
Entry Lock
This function allows the user to lock out unauthorized
tampering with instrument settings. All settings may be
viewed while the instrument is locked, but they cannot be
modified. The Entry Lock feature is a toggle-type setting;
that is, entering the correct code will lock the transmitter and
entering the correct code again will unlock it. The code is
preset at a fixed value. Press ENTER to initiate user entry
mode and the first digit will flash. Use arrow keys to modify
value. See Page 65 for the Q46F lock/unlock code.
Press ENTER to toggle lock setting once code is correct.
Incorrect codes do not change state of lock condition.
Set Delay
The delay function sets the amount of damping on the
instrument. This function allows the user to apply a first
order time delay function to the fluoride measurements being
made. Both the display and the output value are affected by
the degree of damping. Functions such as calibration are
not affected by this parameter. The calibration routines
contain their own filtering and stability monitoring functions to
minimize the calibration timing. Press ENTER to initiate user
entry mode, and the value will flash. Use the arrow keys to
modify value; range is 0.1 to 9.9 minutes. Press ENTER to
store the new value.
Contrast
This function sets the contrast level for the display. The
custom display is designed with a wide temperature range,
Super-Twist Nematic (STN) fluid.
The STN display provides the highest possible contrast and
widest viewing angle under all conditions. Contrast control
of this type of display is generally not necessary, so contrast
control is provided as a means for possible adjustment due
to aging at extreme ranges. In addition, the display has an
automatic temperature compensation network.
Press
ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the value will flash.
Use arrow keys to modify the value; range is 0 to 8 (0 being
lightest). Press ENTER to update and store the new value.
Main Units
This function allows the user to select either PPM or mg/l.
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Zero Filter
This function forces the reading to zero when reading is
below the entered value. For example, if the entered value
were 0.0020 the display at 0-0019 would indicate 0.000. This
feature is useful in blanking out zero noise.
Main Display
This function allows the user to change the measurement in
the primary display area. The user may select between
fluoride or output current. Using this function, the user may
choose to put output current in the main display area and
fluoride on the secondary, lower line of the display. Press
ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the entire value will
flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify the desired display
value. Press ENTER to store the new value.
Select TC
This function allows the user to select either 100 or 1000
Ohm RTD for temperature compensation.
Sensor Type
This function allows the user to select either glass-body ISE
or epoxy-body ISE.
T1 Cal Tmer
This function does not apply to direct fluoride system. It
should always be set to OFF.
T2 Cln Tmer
This function does not apply to direct fluoride system. It
should always be set to OFF.
Com Mode
Sets digital communication mode of analyzer. Optional
digital communication card must be plugged into the power
supply slot for this function to work. Press ENTER to initiate
user entry mode, and the entire value will flash. Use the UP
arrow key to modify the desired value; selections include 1None, 2- P-DP for Profibus DP, 3 – Modbus, 4 – Ethernet IP.
Press ENTER to store the new value.
Com Address
Sets bus address for digital communication mode of
analyzer. Optional digital communication card must be
plugged into the power supply slot for this function to work.
Press ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the entire
value will flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify the desired
value. Range is 1-125. Press ENTER to store the value.
Com Baud
Sets communications baud rate.
Com Parity
Sets parity for the digital communications.
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Iout#1 Mode
This function sets analog output #1 to either track fluoride
(default) or enables the PID controller to operate on the
fluoride input. Press ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and
the entire value will flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify
the desired value; selections include 1-ppm for fluoride
tracking or 2-PID for fluoride PID control. Press ENTER to
store the new value.
*Iout#2 Mode
This function sets analog output #2 for either temperature or
fluoride. Press ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the
entire value will flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify the
desired value; selections include: 1-ppm for temperature, or
2-PPM for fluoride. Press ENTER to store the new value.
*Rly A Mode
Relay A can be used in three different ways: as a setpoint
control, as a fail alarm, or as a HI-LO alarm band. The three
settings for Rly A Mode are CON, FAIL and AL.
The CON setting enables normal control operation for Relay
A, with settings for setpoint, hysteresis, delay and phasing
appearing in the CONFIG menu automatically. See Figure
15 for further details.
The FAIL setting enables the fail alarm mode for Relay A.
Relay A will then trip on any condition that causes the FAIL
icon to be displayed on the LCD. Using this mode allows the
User to send alarm indications to other remote devices.
The AL setting allows two setpoints to be selected for the
same relay, producing a HI-LO alarm band. In this mode,
Relay A will trip inside or outside of the band, depending
upon the Phase selected. See Figure 16 for further details.
Relay B Mode
Relay C Mode
Relay B and C can be used in two ways: as a setpoint
control, or as an alarm. The two settings for Relay B Mode
are CON and FAIL.
The CON setting enables normal setpoint operation for
Relay B/C. Relay B/C then operates identically to Relay A,
with settings for setpoint, hysteresis, delay and phasing
appearing in the CONFIG menu automatically. See Figure
19 for details.
The FAIL setting enables the fail alarm mode for Relay B/C.
Relay B/C will then trip on any condition that causes the
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FAIL icon to be displayed on the LCD. Note that the Relay C
indicator shows up only on the lower screen of the display
next to the temperature reading. This is because the default
setting for relay C is the FAIL setting. Using this mode
allows the User to send alarm indications to other remote
devices.
Temp Comp
4.25
This function allows the user to turn on/off the temperature
compensation feature.
Control Menu [CONTROL]
The Control Menu contains all of the output control user settings:
Set 4 mA
Set 20 mA
[Iout1=PPM]
These functions set the main 4 and 20 mA current loop
output points for the transmitter. The units displayed depend
on the selection made in the CONFIG menu for Iout #1
Mode.
The value stored for the 4 mA point may be higher or lower
than the value stored for the 20 mA point. The entry values
are limited to values within the range specified in “Set
Range”, and the 4 mA and the 20 mA point must be
separated by at least 1% of this range Use the LEFT arrow
key to select the first digit to be modified. Then use the UP
and LEFT arrow keys to select the desired numerical value.
Press ENTER to store the new value.
Set PID 0%
Set PID 100%
[Iout1=PID]
If the PID is enabled, this function sets the minimum and
maximum controller end points. Unlike the standard 4-20
mA output, the controller does not “scale” output values
across the endpoints. Rather, the endpoints determine
where the controller would normally force minimum or
maximum output in an attempt to recover the setpoint (even
though the controller can achieve 0% or 100% anywhere
within the range.)
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If the 0% point is lower than the 100% point, then the
controller action will be “reverse” acting. That is, the output
of the controller will increase if the measured value is less
than the setpoint, and the output will decrease if the
measured value is larger than the setpoint. Flipping the
stored values in these points will reverse the action of the
controller to “direct” mode.
The entry value is limited to a value within the range
specified in “Set Range”, and the 0% and the 100% point
must be separated by at least 1% of this range Use the
LEFT arrow key to select the first digit to be modified. Then
use the UP and LEFT arrow keys to select the desired
numerical value. Press ENTER to store the new value.
PID Setpnt
[Iout1=PID]
PID Prop
[Iout1=PID]
PID Int
[Iout1=PID]
PID Deriv
[Iout1=PID]
The measured value which the controller is attempting to
maintain by adjusting output value. It is the nature of the
PID controller that it never actually gets to the exact value
and stops.
The controller is continually making smal
adjustments as the measured value gets near the setpoint.
Proportional gain factor. The proportional gain value is a
multiplier on the controller error (difference between
measured value and setpoint value.) Increasing this value
will make the controller more responsive.
Integral is the number of “repeats-per-minute” of the action
of the controller. It is the number of times per minute that
the controller acts on the input error. At a setting of 2.0 rpm,
there are two repeats every minute. If the integral is set to
zero, a fixed offset is added to the controller (manual reset.)
Increasing this value makes the controller more responsive.
Derivative is a second order implementation of Integral, used
to suppress “second-order” effects from process variables.
These variables may include items like pumps or mixers that
may have minor impacts on the measured value. The
derivative factor is rarely used in water treatment process,
and therefore, it is best in most cases to leave it at the
default value. Increasing this value will make the controller
more responsive.
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*Set 4 mA #2
*Set 20 mA #2
[Temp / PPM]
Part 4 – Configuration
These functions set the second 4 mA and 20 mA current
loop output points for the transmitter. The default setting for
this output is temperature, but it may be set for PPM if
preferred. The values stored for the 4 mA point may be
higher or lower than the value stored for the 20 mA point.
The entry value is limited to a value between 0 and 55°C if it
is set for temperature. The 4 mA and the 20 mA point must
be at least 20 units away from each other. Press ENTER to
initiate user entry mode, and the value will flash. Use arrow
keys to modify value. Press ENTER to store the new value.
NOTE: If the temperature units are changed between °C
and °F (see Temp Units in CONFIG section), the default
setting for this output will change between 100°C and 212°F
accordingly
*A Setpoint
This function establishes the trip point for relay A. The entry
value is limited to a value within the range specified in “Set
Range”. Use the LEFT arrow key to select the first digit to
be modified. Then use the UP and LEFT arrow keys to
select the desired numerical value. Press ENTER to store
the new value.
*A Hysteresis
This function establishes the hysteresis, or “deadband”, for
Relay A. Hysteresis is most often used to control relay
chattering; however, it may also be used in control schemes
to separate the ON/OFF trip points of the relay. Press
ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the value will flash.
Use the arrow keys to modify value. Press ENTER to store
the new value.
*A Delay
This function places an additional amount of time delay on
the trip point for relay A. This delay is in addition to the main
delay setting for the controller. The entry value is limited to a
value between 0 and 999 seconds. Press ENTER to initiate
user entry mode, and the value will flash. Use arrow keys to
modify value; range is 0 to 999 seconds. Press ENTER to
store the new value.
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*A Phasing
Part 4 – Configuration
This function establishes the direction of the relay trip.
When phase is HI, the relay operates in a direct mode.
Therefore, the relay energizes and the LCD indicator
illuminates when the value exceeds the setpoint. When the
phase is LO, the relay energizes and the LCD indicator
illuminates when the fluoride level drops below the setpoint.
The failsafe setting does have an impact on this logic. The
description here assumes the failsafe setting is OFF. Press
ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the entire value will
flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify the desired value;
selections include HI for direct operation or LO for reverse
operation. Press ENTER to store the new value.
See Figure 15 below for a visual description of a typical control relay
application.
When value rises to ≥ 1.050 ppm, relay opens.
When value rises to ≥ 1.000 ppm, relay closes.
ON
1.000 ppm
PHASE: HI
0.950 ppm
OFF
X
HYSTERESIS
}“DEADORBAND”
1.050 ppm
PHASE: LO
1.000 ppm
OFF
When value falls to ≤ 0.950 ppm, relay opens.
HYSTERESIS
ON
X
} “DEADORBAND”
When value falls to ≤ 1.000 ppm, relay closes.
Settings:
Setpoint:
Hyst:
Delay:
Failsafe:
1.000 ppm
0.050
000
OFF
Figure 15 - Control Relay Example
*Setpnt A-HI
*Hyst A-HI
*Delay A-HI
*Setpnt A-LO
*Hyst A-LO
*Delay A-LO
If Relay A Mode is set to Alarm Mode, AL, then the following
settings will appear in the Config Menu list automatically. In
this mode, two setpoints can be selected on the same relay,
to create an alarm band. Phase HI selection causes the
relay to energize outside of the band, and Phase LO causes
the relay to energize inside of the band. This feature
enables one relay to be used as a control relay while the
other is used as a HI-LO Alarm relay at the same time.
Setpoint A-LO must be set lower than Setpoint A-HI. When
AL mode is first selected, Setpoint A-LO is defaulted to 0.
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Figure 16 is a visual description of a typical alarm relay application.
When value rises to ≥ 1.000 ppm, relay
closes, until value falls back to < 0.950 ppm.
When value falls to < 1.000 ppm, relay
closes, until rises back to > 1.050 ppm.
ON
1.000 ppm
0.950 ppm
OFF
} HYST - HI
X
PHASE: HI
1.050 ppm
1.000 ppm
PHASE: LO
OFF
0.550 ppm
0.500 ppm
} HYST - LO
X
} HYST - HI
X
ON
0.500 ppm
0.450 ppm
} HYST - LO
X
ON
OFF
When value rises to ≥ 0.500 ppm, relay
closes, until value falls back to < 0.450 ppm.
When value falls to < 0.500 ppm, relay
closes, until rises back to > 0.550 ppm.
Settings:
Setpoint A-HI: 1.000 ppm
Hyst
A-HI: 0.050
Delay
A-HI: 000
Setpoint A-LO: .500 ppm
Hyst
A-LO: .0.050
Delay
A-LO: 000
Figure 16 - Alarm Relay Example
*B Setpoint
*B Hysteresis
*B Delay
*B Phasing
If Relay B Mode is set to CON (see Relay B Mode), then
Relay B will function identically to Relay A. Relay B settings
appear in the CONFIG menu list automatically
*C Setpoint
*C Hysteresis
*C Delay
*C Phasing
If Relay C Mode is set to CON (see Relay C Mode), then
Relay C will function identically to Relay A. Relay C settings
appear in the CONFIG menu list automatically.
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Part 4 – Configuration
4.26 Diagnostics Menu [DIAG]
The diagnostics menu contains all of the user settings that are specific to the
system diagnostic functions, as well as functions that aid in troubleshooting
application problems.
Set Hold
The Set Hold function locks the current loop output values
on the present process value and halts operation of the PID
controller. This function can be used prior to calibration, or
when removing the sensor from the process, to hold the
output in a known state. Once HOLD is released, the
outputs return to their normal state of following the process
input. The transfer out of HOLD is bumpless on the both
analog outputs - that is, the transfer occurs in a smooth
manner rather than as an abrupt change. An icon on the
display indicates the HOLD state, and the HOLD state is
retained even if power is cycled. Press ENTER to initiate
user entry mode, and entire value will flash. Use the UP
arrow key to modify the desired value, selections are ON for
engaging the HOLD function, and OFF to disengage the
function. Press ENTER to store the new value.
The Set Hold function can also hold at an output value
specified by the user. To customize the hold value, first turn
the HOLD function on. Press the ESC key to go to the DIAG
Menu and scroll to Sim Output using the UP arrow key.
Press ENTER. Follow the instructions under Sim Output
(see following page).
Fault List
The Fault List screen is a read-only screen that allows the
user to display the cause of the highest priority failure. The
screen indicates the number of faults present in the system
and a message detailing the highest priority fault present.
Note that some faults can result in multiple displayed failures
due to the high number of internal tests occurring. As faults
are corrected, they are immediately cleared.
Faults are not stored; therefore, they are immediately
removed if power is cycled. If the problem causing the faults
still exists, however, faults will be displayed again after
power is re-applied and a period of time elapses during
which the diagnostic system re-detects them.
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The exception to this rule is the calibration failure. When a
calibration fails, no corrupt data is stored. Therefore, the
system continues to function normally on the data that was
present before the calibration was attempted.
After 30 minutes or if power to the transmitter is cycled, the
failure for calibration will be cleared until calibration is
attempted again. If the problem still exists, the calibration
failure will re-occur. Press ENTER to initiate view of the
highest priority failure. The display will automatically return
to normal after a few seconds.
Sim Out
The Sim Out function allows the user to simulate the fluoride
concentration in the user selected display range. The user
enters a ppm value directly onto the screen, and the output
responds as if it were actually receiving the signal from the
sensor. This allows the user to check the function of
attached monitoring equipment during set-up or
troubleshooting. Escaping this screen returns the unit to
normal operation. Press ENTER to initiate the user entry
mode, and the right-most digit of the value will flash. Use
arrow keys to modify desired value.
PID Timer
This function sets a timer to monitor the amount of time the
PID controller remains at 0% or 100%. This function only
appears if the PID controller is enabled. If the timer is set to
0000, the feature is effectively disabled. If the timer value is
set to any number other zero, a FAIL condition will occur if
the PID controller remains at 0% or 100% for the timer value.
If one of the relays is set to FAIL mode, this failure condition
can be signaled by a changing relay contact.
Press ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the entire
value will flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify desired
value; range of value is 0-9999 seconds. Press ENTER to
store the new value.
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Fail Out #1
Part 4 – Configuration
This function enables the user to define a specified value
that the main current output will go to under fault conditions.
When the Relay Option Board is installed, the display will
read Fail Out #1. When enabled to ON, the output may be
forced to the current value set in Fail Val (next item.) With
the Fail Out setting of ON, and a Fail Val setting of 6.5 mA,
any alarm condition will cause the current loop output to drop
outside the normal operating range to exactly 6.5 mA,
indicating a system failure that requires attention.
Press ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the entire
value will flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify desired
value; selections are ON, OFF. Press ENTER to store the
new value.
Fail Val #1
Sets the output failure value for Iout#1. When Fail Out
above is set to ON, this function sets value of the current
loop under a FAIL condition. When the Relay Option Board
is installed, the display will read Fail Out #1. The output
may be forced to any current value between 4-20 mA.
Press ENTER to initiate user entry mode, and the entire
value will flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify desired
value; selections are between 4mA, and 20mA. Press
ENTER to store the new value.
Fail Out #2
This function sets the fail-mode of current loop output #2
under a FAIL condition. The settings and operation are
identical to Fail Out for output #1.
Fail Val #2
This function sets the value of current loop output #2 under a
FAIL condition. The settings and operation are identical to
Fail Out for output #1.
Backlight
This function has three options. ON – On all the time, OFF –
Off all the time, AL – Alarm (Default). This function flashes
the backlight on and off whenever the Fail icon is displayed.
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*Failsafe
Part 4 – Configuration
This function allows the user to set the optional system
relays to a failsafe condition. In a failsafe condition, the relay
logic is reversed so that the relay is electrically energized in
a normal operating state. By doing this, the relay will not
only change state when, for example, a fluoride limit is
exceeded, but also when power is lost to the controller.
When failsafe is selected to be ON, the normally-open
contacts of the relay will be closed during normal operation.
In an attempt to make this configuration less confusing, the
LCD icon logic is reversed with this setting, and the icon is
OFF under this normal condition. Therefore, when the trip
condition occurs, the closed N.O. contacts will be opened
(relay de-energized), and the LCD icon will illuminate. In
addition, a power fail would also cause the same contacts to
open.
Start Delay
This function is designed to minimize control or alarm issues
arising from temporary power loss. When power goes down,
the monitor records the analog output values and the status
of relays and PID functions. When power is restored, the
analog values and relays will be held at the pre-power loss
values for a defined period of time. This “start delay” may be
programmed for periods from 0-9.9 minutes. This function is
set to 0.0 minutes by default and must be activated by the
user if desired by setting a positive time value
Set Default
The Set Default function allows the user to return the
instrument back to factory default data for all user settings.
It is intended to be used as a last resort troubleshooting
procedure. All user settings are returned to the original
factory values. Hidden factory calibration data remains
unchanged. Press ENTER to initiate user entry mode and
the value NO will flash. Use the UP arrow key to modify
value to YES and press ENTER to reload defaults.
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Part 5 – Calibration
5.1
Calibration
Calibration of a fluoride analyzer requires the use of two standards with about 1
decade (10X) concentration difference. For many applications, values of 1 and
10 PPM are used. However, high range applications may require the use of 10
and 100 PPM or other values depending on the application. Prior to attempting
calibration of a Q46F system, be sure that the sensor has been installed in the
flowcell with water running for at least 30 minutes.
Q46F analyzers using direct sensors without sample conditioning require a
“slope” adjustment using 2 water samples with a decade concentration change
between the two. The exact values are not important in setting the slope as a
second 1-point calibration will be done to adjust the value to a value determined
by a comparative test.
5.11
Slope Adjustment
As noted previous, a slope adjustment is required as the first step in calibration.
A 100 ml. graduated cylinder, a 10 ml. syringe, and a bottle of 100 PPM fluoride
standard are needed for this adjustment.
Prepare two solutions as follows. Ideally, these two solutions should be mixed
using the treated water prior to fluoride addition as this will produce standards
with the same matrix as the water that will be monitored. If you do not have
access to unfluoridated sample water, then use distilled water to mix the
standards or use standards purchased from a laboratory supply company.
Solution 1
Using your syringe, measure out 10 ml. of 100 PPM fluoride
standard and transfer it to your graduated cylinder. Fill the cylinder
to the 100 ml mark with sample water. Transfer to a sample
container and mark as solution X10. Rinse the cylinder with
distilled water.
Solution 2
Rinse the syringe once with sample water and then use the syringe
to measure out 10 ml. of Solution 1 and transfer it to your
graduated cylinder. Fill the cylinder to the 100 ml mark with sample
water. Transfer to a sample container and mark as solution X1.
You will now have two solutions with solution number 1 having 10 PPM and
solution number 2 having 1 PPM. These two solutions will be used to adjust the
fluoride analyzer slope.
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Part 5 – Calibration
1. To start, place the fluoride sensor into the container of Solution 2 (1 PPM
Standard). Allow the sensor to stabilize for a few minutes.
2. Press the Menu key once to access the Cal. Menu. Press the UP arrow to
display “Cal Fluor”.
3. Press Enter and display will indicate “2-point” calibration.
4. Press Enter again and the display will ask for standard number 1. Since you
already have the sensor sitting in Solution 2, press Enter and the system will
begin checking for the stability of the sensor signal.
5. When the monitor determines that the signal is stable, the display will switch
to a concentration number and the first digit will be flashing. Set the value on
the display to 1.00 and press Enter to store that value.
6. The display will then prompt for the second standard. Move the sensor from
Solution 2 into Solution 1 (10 PPM Standard). Allow the sensor to sit for a
minute or two. Then press Enter.
7. The monitor will again check for stability. After sensing a stable signal, you
will be prompted to enter the second reference value. You must now set the
display value for 10.00 PPM. After adjustment, press Enter.
It is important to note that the two values you used in this procedure are intended
to set the slope of the sensor. If using standards made from distilled water, or if
using purchased standards, a single point calibration will be necessary to correct
for the affects of the different water matrix (pH, Conductivity, Temp.) on the
response of the fluoride sensor.
5.12
Single Point Calibration
Once the slope is set, the final calibration can be done by adjusting the display
value to a value determined using a comparative test kit. The sensor should be
installed in the flowcell and sample should be running for 10 minutes before this
adjustment is made.
1. Collect a sample from the drain line of the flowcell. Immediately measure the
fluoride concentration using a lab fluoride electrode on a sample treated with
TISAB buffer. A colorimetric test kit for fluoride may also be used, but it will not
be as accurate as a test done using the fluoride electrode method.
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Part 5 – Calibration
2. Press the Menu key to go to the “Cal Fluor” display and then press Enter.
3. When the “2-point” prompt appears, press the UP key to change to 1-point and
then press Enter. The monitor will prompt you for your reference solution. Press
Enter.
4. When the concentration is displayed after stability testing, adjust the value on the
display to the value determined by your lab test. Then press Enter.
5. You single point offset calibration is complete.
5.2
Temperature Calibration
The temperature calibration sequence is essentially a 1-point offset calibration
that allows adjustments of approximately ±5 °C.
The temperature element for the system is a Pt100 RTD. It is unlikely that
temperature calibration will ever be necessary but it can be done if desired. If
you wish to calibrate the temperature system, proceed as follows:
1. Scroll to the CAL menu section using the MENU key and press ENTER or the
UP arrow key.
2. Press the UP arrow key until Cal Temp is displayed.
3. Press the ENTER key. The message Place sensor in solution then press
ENTER will be displayed. Press ENTER to begin the calibration sequence.
4. The calibration data gathering process will begin. The message Wait will
flash as data is accumulated and analyzed. The °C or °F symbol may flash
periodically if the reading is too unstable.
5. The message Adjust value - press ENTER will be displayed, and the rightmost digit will begin to flash, indicating that the value can be modified. Using
the UP and LEFT arrow keys, modify the value to your measured value.
Adjustments up to ± 5 °C from the factory calibrated temperature are allowed.
Press ENTER.
Once completed, the display will indicate PASS or FAIL. If the unit fails, the
temperature adjustment may be out of range, the sensor may not have achieved
complete temperature equilibrium, or there may be a problem with the
temperature element. In the event of calibration failure, it is recommended to
attempt the calibration again immediately.
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Part 6 – PID Controller Details
6.1
PID Description
PID control, like many other control schemes, are used in chemical control to
improve the efficiency of chemical addition or control. By properly tuning the
control loop that controls chemical addition, only the amount of chemical that is
truly required is added to the system, saving money. The savings can be
substantial when compared to a system which may be simply adding chemical at
a constant rate to maintain some minimal addition under even the worst case
conditions. The PID output controller is highly advantageous over simple control
schemes that just utilize direct (proportional only) 4-20 mA output connections for
control, since the PID controller can automatically adjust the “rate” of recovery
based on the error between the setpoint and the measured value – which can be
a substantial efficiency improvement..
The PID controller is basically designed to provide a “servo” action on the 4-20
mA output to control a process. If the user requires that a measured process
stay as close as possible to a specific setpoint value, the controller output will
change from 0% to 100% in an effort to keep the process at the setpoint. To
affect this control, the controller must be used with properly selected control
elements (valves, proper chemicals, etc.) that enable the controller to add or
subtract chemical rapidly enough. This is not only specific to pumps and valves,
but also to line sizes, delays in the system, etc.
This section is included to give a brief description of tuning details for the PID
controller, and is not intended to be an exhaustive analysis of the complexities of
PID loop tuning. Numerous sources are available for specialized methods of
tuning that are appropriate for a specific application.
6.2
PID Algorithm
As most users of PID controllers realize, the terminology for the actual algorithm
terms and even the algorithms themselves can vary between different
manufacturers. This is important to recognize as early as possible, since just
plugging in similar values from one controller into another can result in
dramatically different results. There are various basic forms of PID algorithms
that are commonly seen, and the implementation here is the most common
version; The ISA algorithm (commonly referred to as the “ideal” algorithm.)
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Part 6 – PID Controller Details
1
de(t ) ù
é
output = P êe(t ) + ò e(t )d (t ) + D
I
dt úû
ë
Where:
Output =
P=
I=
D=
t=
e(t) =
controller output
proportional gain
integral gain
derivative gain
time
controller error (e=measured variable – setpoint)
Figure 17 - Q46 ISA PID Equation
The most notable feature of the algorithm is the fact the proportional gain term
affects all components directly (unlike some other algorithms - like the “series”
form.) If a pre-existing controller utilizes the same form of the algorithm shown
above, it is likely similar settings can for made if the units on the settings are
exactly the same. Be careful of this, as many times the units are the reciprocals
of each other (i.e. reps-per-min, sec-per-rep.)
PID stands for “proportional, integral, derivative.” These terms describe the three
elements of the complete controller action, and each contributes a specific
reaction in the control process. The PID controller is designed to be primarily
used in a “closed-loop” control scheme, where the output of the controller directly
affects the input through some control device, such as a pump, valve, etc.
Although the three components of the PID are described in the setting area
(section 6.25), here are more general descriptions of what each of the PID
elements contribute to the overall action of the controller.
P
Proportional gain. With no “I” or “D” contribution, the controller output is
simply a factor of the proportional gain multiplied by the input error
(difference between the measured input and the controller setpoint.)
Because a typical chemical control loop cannot react instantaneously to a
correction signal, proportional gain is typically not efficient by itself – it
must be combined with some integral action to be useful. Set the P term to
a number between 2-4 to start. Higher numbers will cause the controller
action to be quicker.
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I
Integral gain. Integral gain is what allows the controller to eventually drive
the input error to zero – providing accuracy to the control loop. It must be
used to affect the accuracy in the servo action of the controller. Like
proportional gain, increasing integral gain results in the control action
happening quicker. Set the I term to a number between 3-5 to start (1-2
more than P). Like proportional gain, increasing the integral term will
cause the controller action to be quicker.
D
Derivative gain. The addition of derivative control can be problematic in
many applications, because it greatly contributes to oscillatory behavior.
In inherently slow chemical control process’, differential control is
generally added in very small amounts to suppress erratic actions in the
process that are non-continuous, such as pumps and valves clicking on
and off. However, as a starting point for chemical process control, its best
to leave the “D” term set to 0.
Based on these descriptions, the focus on tuning for chemical applications really
only involves adjustment of “P” and “I” in most cases. However, increasing both
increases the response of the controller. The difference is in the time of recovery.
Although combinations of high “P’s” and low “I” will appear to operate the same
as combinations of low “P’s” and high “I’s”, there will be a difference in rate of
recovery and stability. Because of the way the algorithm is structured, large “P’s”
can have a larger impact to instability, because the proportional gain term
impacts all the other terms directly. Therefore, keep proportional gain lower to
start and increase integral gain to achieve the effect required.
Many of the classical tuning techniques have the user start with all values at 0,
and then increase the P term until oscillations occur. The P value is then
reduced to ½ of the oscillatory value, and the I term is increased to give the
desired response. This can be done with the Q46F controller, with the exception
that the I term should start no lower than 1.0.
If it appears that even large amounts of integral gain (>20) don’t appreciably
increase the desired response, drop I back to about 1.0, and increase P by 1.00,
and start increasing I again. In most chemical control schemes, I will be
approximately 3 times the value of P.
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6.3
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 6 – PID Controller Details
Classical PID Tuning
Unlike many high speed position applications where PID loops are commonly
used, the chemical feed application employed by this instrument does not require
intense mathematical exercise to determine tuning parameters for the PID. In
fact, the risk of instability is far greater with overly tuned PID control schemes. In
addition, many of the classical mathematical exercises can be damaging or
wasteful in the use of chemicals when the process is bumped with large amounts
of input error to seek a response curve. Because of this, the general adjustment
guidelines described in section 7.2 are sufficient for almost all application tuning
for this instrument. Beyond this, many sources are available for classical tuning
methods.
6.4
Manual PID Override Control
The Q46 PID output function allows the user to take manual control of the PID
control signal. This is often useful when starting up a control loop, or in the event
that you wish to bump the system manually to measure system response time.
To access the manual PID control, you must be in the MEASURE mode of
operation and you must have the PID output displayed on the lower line. This
line will indicate “XX.X% XX.X mA” with the X values simply indicating the
current values. With this display on the screen, press and hold the ENTER key
for about 5 seconds. You will see a small “m” show up between the % value and
the mA value. This indicates you are now in manual mode.
Once in manual, you may increase the PID output by pressing the UP arrow or
you may decrease the output by pressing the LEFT arrow. This will allow you to
drive the PID output to any desired setting.
To revert to normal PID control, press and hold the ENTER key again until the
“m” indicator disappears.
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6.5
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 6 – PID Controller Details
Common PID Pitfalls
The most common problem occurring in PID control applications involves the
false belief that proper settings on only the PID controller can balance any
process to an efficient level.
Close-loop control can only be effective if all elements in the loop are properly
selected for the application, and the process behavior is properly understood.
Luckily, the nature of simple chemical control process’ are generally slow in
nature. Therefore, even a de-tuned controller (one that responds somewhat
slowly) can still provide substantial improvements to setpoint control. In fact,
damaging oscillatory behavior is far more likely in tightly tuned controllers where
the user attempted to increase response too much.
When deciding on a PID control scheme, it is important to initially review all
elements of the process. Sticking valves, undersized pumps, or delays in
reaction times associated with chemical addition can have a dramatic effect on
the stability of the control loop. When controlling a chemical mix or reaction, the
sensor should be placed in a location that ensures proper mixing or reaction time
has occurred.
The easiest process’ to control with closed-loop schemes are generally linear,
and symmetrical, in nature. For example, controlling level in tank where the
opening of valve for a fixed period of time corresponds linearly to the amount that
flows into a tank. Chemical control process’ can be more problematic when the
nature of the setpoint value is non-linear relative to the input of chemical added.
For example, pH control of a process may appear linear only in a certain range of
operation, and become highly exponential at the extreme ranges of the
measuring scale. In addition, if a chemical process is not symmetrical, that
means it responds differentially to the addition and subtraction of chemical. It is
important in these applications to study steady-state impact as well as stepchange impact to process changes. In other words, once the process has
apparently been tuned under normal operating conditions, the user should
attempt to force a dramatic change to the input to study how the output reacts. If
this is difficult to do with the actual process input (the recommended method), the
user can place the control in manual at an extreme control point such as 5% or
95%, and release it in manual. The recovery should not be overly oscillatory. If
so, the loop needs to be de-tuned to deal with that condition (reduce P and/or I.)
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Part 7 – System Maintenance
7.1
General
The Q46F/82 Fluoride System requires minimal maintenance for reliable
operation. Keep in mind that preventive maintenance on a regular schedule is
much less troublesome than emergency maintenance that always seems to
come at the wrong time.
7.2
Analyzer Maintenance
No maintenance of the electronic monitor is required if installed according to the
guidelines of this operating manual. During operation, it is best to use only your
finger to operate front panel keys. Using tools, especially sharp objects, to press
front panel keys will result in damage to the panel keys.
7.3
Sensor Maintenance
Over time, the response of the fluoride sensor can become sluggish or show
excessive measurement drift due to adsorption of impurities on the face of the
sensor. To clean the sensor of fats, oils and organics, gently rub the sensor tip
with a cotton swab and ethyl alcohol. To remove inorganic residues, place the
sensor tip in a 0.1 M HCl solution for 12 hours. Another recommended way to
clean the sensor is using the polishing strip provided. Place the rougher side of
the polishing strip facing up in the palm of your hand and put a few drops of
distilled water on the strip. Press the face of the fluoride sensor onto the strip,
rotating it back and forth to polish the fluoride crystal on the tip. Once polishing is
done, rinse the face of the sensor with distilled water and then immerse the tip in
a small amount of the 100 PPM fluoride standard for about 30 minutes.
If the fluoride monitoring system is to be shut down for more than 2 or 3 days, it
will be necessary to remove the sensor, rinse the sensor with distilled water, dry
the face of the sensor, and replace the protective cap. Long periods of time with
the sensor sitting in stagnant water can result in sensor failure. If you plan to
shut the system off for a few days, remove the sensor from the flowcell and place
the sensor in a small container with 100 PPM fluoride standard.
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Part 8 – Troubleshooting
8.1
General
The information included in this section is intended to be used in an attempt to
quickly resolve an operational problem with the system.
During any
troubleshooting process, it will save the most time if the operator can first
determine if the problem is related to the analyzer, sensor, or some external
source. Therefore, this section is organized from the approach of excluding any
likely external sources, isolating the analyzer, and finally isolating the sensor. If
these procedures still do not resolve the operational problems, any results the
operator may have noted here will be very helpful when discussing the problem
with the factory technical support group.
8.2
External Sources of Problems
To begin this process, review the connections of the system to all external
connections.
1. Verify the analyzer is earth grounded. An earth ground connection MUST be
present for the shielding systems in the electronics to be active. Grounded
conduit provides no earth connection to the plastic enclosure, so an earth
ground wiring connection must be made at the power input terminal strip.
2. Verify the proper power input is present (115/230 VAC).
3. Verify the loads on any 4-20 mA outputs do not exceed the limits in the
Instrument Specifications. During troubleshooting, it is many times helpful to
disconnect all these outputs and place wire-shorts across the terminals in the
instrument to isolate the system and evaluate any problems which may be
coming down the analog output connections.
4. Do not run sensor cables or analog output wiring in the same conduits as
power wiring. If low voltage signal cables must come near power wiring,
cross them at 90° to minimize coupling.
5. If rigid conduit has been run directly to the Q46 enclosure, check for signs
that moisture has followed conduit into the enclosure.
6. Check for ground loops. Although the sensor is electrically isolated from the
process, high frequency sources of electrical noise may still cause erratic
behavior in extreme conditions.
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Part 8 Troubleshooting
7. On systems where relays are in use, check the relay load to verify the load is
within the contact rating of the relays. Relay contacts which have been used
for higher power AC current loads may become unsuitable for very low signal
DC loads later on because a small amount of pitting can form on the contacts.
If the load is highly inductive (solenoids, motor starters, large aux relays),
note that the contact rating will be de-rated to a lower level. Also, due to the
large amount of energy present in circuits driving these types of loads when
they are switched on an off, the relay wiring placement can result in electrical
interference for other devices. This can be quickly resolved by moving wiring,
or by adding very inexpensive snubbers (such As Quencharcs) to the load.
8.3
Analyzer Tests
1. Disconnect power and completely disconnect all output wiring coming from
the analyzer. Remove sensor wiring, relay wiring, and analog output wiring.
Re-apply power to the analyzer.
2. Using the Simulate feature, check operation of analog outputs and relays with
a DMM.
3. Check TC drive circuit. Place a wire-short between the GREEN and RED
terminals. With a digital voltmeter (DVM), measure the voltage between the
BLACK and GREEN terminals on the monitor to verify that the TC drive circuit
is producing about 4.8-5.1 Vdc open circuit. Remove DVM completely and
connect a 100 Ohm resistor from the BLACK to GREEN terminals. The
temperature reading should display approximately 0°C.
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8.4
Q46F/82 Direct Fluoride Monitor
Part 8 Troubleshooting
Display Messages
The Q46 Series instruments provide a number of diagnostic messages which
indicate problems during normal operation and calibration. These messages
appear as prompts on the secondary line of the display or as items on the Fault
List.
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
POSSIBLE CORRECTION
Max is 200
Entry failed, maximum user value allowed is 200. Reduce value to ≤ 200
Min is 200
Entry failed, minimum value allowed is 200.
Increase value to ≥ 200
Cal Unstable Calibration problem, data too unstable to Check to see that a stable standard is in use.
calibrate. Icons will not stop flashing if data is too If sample is stable, Replacement of the sensor
unstable. User can bypass by pressing ENTER. is necessary
Out of Range Input value is outside selected range of the Check manual for limits of the function to be
specific list item being configured.
configured.
Locked!
Transmitter security setting is locked.
Enter security code to allow modifications to
settings.
Unlocked!
Transmitter security has just been unlocked.
Displayed just after security code has been
entered.
Offset High
The sensor zero offset point is out of the Check wiring connections to sensor. Allow
acceptable range.
sensor to operate powered a minimum of 1
hour prior to first cal.
Sensor High The raw signal from the sensor is too high and Check wiring connections to sensor. Be sure
out of instrument range.
that the blue and white wires are not reversed.
Sensor Low
The raw signal from the sensor is too low.
Check wiring connections to sensor.
Fluoride High The Fluoride reading is greater than the
maximum of the User-selected range.
The reading is over operating limits. Set
measuring range to the next highest level.
Cal Fail
Failure of fluoride calibration. FAIL icon will not Clean sensor redo calibration. If still failure,
extinguish until successful calibration has been sensor slope may be less than 60% or greater
performed, or 30 minutes passes with no keys than 120%. Replace sensor if failure recurs.
being pressed.
EPROM Fail
Internal nonvolatile memory failure
System failure, consult factory.
Chcksum Fail Internal software storage error.
System failure, consult factory.
Display Fail
Internal display driver fail.
System failure, consult factory.
Range Cal
Fail
Failure of factory temperature calibration.
Consult factory.
Figure 18 - Q46 Display Messages
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Spare Parts
Part No.
Description
Q46 Electronic Assembly
03-0430
07-0365
07-0367
01-0306
23-0022
38-0072
38-0073
38-0074
38-0075
31-0173
44-0311
44-0274
Q46F front lid assembly
100-240 VAC monitor electronics assembly
100-240 VAC monitor electronics assembly with Profibus
Power supply circuit board assembly
Fuse, 250mA, 250V, (for AC and DC Analyzers)
Terminal block plug, 3 position (relays)
Terminal block plug, 4 position (outputs)
Terminal block plug, 3 position (ground)
Terminal block plug, 3 position (power)
20 Pos. Ribbon cable
Conduit entry plug, red PE
Cord grip, ½” NPT
63-0090
00-1691
Fluoride Sensor
Flowcell Assembly w/Vacuum Breaker
Lock/Unlock Code: 1456
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