pierwszy projekt

pierwszy projekt
DirectX 11
First Project
Challenge 2.1: Change cursor & window
size
goo.gl/forms/Uvamlt0mQM
Steps for a basic DirectX window
● Window initialization
● Application loop
● Window callback procedure
● DirectX configuration, initializing, rendering
and clean up
The real-time message loop
Window Initialization
WinMain parameters
hInstance. The handle of the application’s current instance.
prevInstance. The handle of the previous instance of the application.
This will always be NULL according to the MSDN documentation. Since
this will always be NULL, if you need a way to determine whether a
previous instance of the application is already running, the
documentation recommends creating a uniquely named mutex using
CreateMutex. Although the mutex will be created, the CreateMutex
function will return ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS.
WinMain parameters
cmdLine. The command line for the application without
the program’s name. This allows you to pass commands to
the application, such as from the command prompt, by use
of a shortcut with the command string provided, etc.
cmdShow. An ID that specifies how the window should be
shown.
CodeShare google document
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contained on page 1
Window Initialization
UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER can be used
to avoid compiler warnings about parameters
that are unused by a function’s body.
typedef struct tagWNDCLASSEX {
UINT cbSize;
Window Class
UINT style;
WNDPROC lpfnWndProc;
int cbClsExtra;
int cbWndExtra;
HINSTANCE hInstance;
HICON hIcon;
HCURSOR hCursor;
HBRUSH hbrBackground;
LPCTSTR lpszMenuName;
LPCTSTR lpszClassName;
HICON hIconSm;
} WNDCLASSEX, *PWNDCLASSEX;
cbSize. The size of the structure in bytes.
style. Style flags used to define the window’
s look.
lpfnWndProc. A callback function that is
called whenever an event notification comes
from the operating system.
cbClsExtra. Number of extra bytes to
allocate for the window structure.
cbWndExtra. Number of extra bytes to
allocate for the window’s instance.
Window Class
hInstance. The application instance that
contains the windows procedure (callback)
for this window class.
lpszMenuName. null-terminated
string of the resource name for the
menu.
hIcon. The resource ID for the icon graphic
to be displayed for the application.
lpszClassName. null-terminated
string for what you wish to name
your window class.
hCursor. The resource ID for the graphic
that will act as the cursor.
hbrBackground. A handle to the
background brush that will be used for
painting the window’s background.
hIconSm. Handle to the window’s
small icon
Window Initialization
RegisterClassEx is used to register the window class.
AdjustWindowRect to calculate the size required of the
window based on our desired dimensions and style. The type of
window will determine how much true size we’ll need, taking on
account the client and non-client area.
AdjustWindowRect function takes a rectangle that defines the
dimensions of the window, the window style flag of the window
being created and a Boolean indicating whether or not the
window has a menu, which affects the non-client area.
Window Initialization
CreateWindow(A) takes as
parameters:
lpClassName (optional)—The
window class name (same name used
for the window class structure).
lpWindowName (optional)—The
window title bar text.
dwStyle—The window’s style flags.
X—The window’s horizontal position.
Y—The window’s vertical position.
nWidth—The window’s width.
hHeight—The window’s height.
hWndParent (optional)—Handle to
the parent window’s handle (optional
if this new window is a pop-up or
child window).
hMenu (optional)—Resource handle
to the window’s menu.
Window Initialization
hInstance (optional)—The application instance ID (first
parameter of wWinMain).
lpParam (optional)—Data to be passed to the window and
made available via the lpParam parameter of the windows
proc callback function.
ShowWindow, takes as parameters the window handle
returned by CreateWindow(A) and the command show
flag.
Challenge 2.2: Change background color
goo.gl/forms/6oZ0WKxqKv
Application Loop
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Application Loop
Win32 GUI applications are event-based applications. This essentially means
that when an event happens, the application is notified of it, and some action
then occurs.
In video games, the applications are real-time, meaning that whether or not
some event or action takes place will not keep the application from performing
many tasks throughout its lifetime.
Both real-time and event-based programs must run until the user decides to
quit. This introduces the concept of the application loop.
Application Loop
MSG is a Win32 structure used to hold window
messages, some of which come from the
operating system, and it is up to the application
to respond to these messages. If this does not
happen after a certain amount of time has
passed, the operating system will report the
application as not responding.
Application Loop
With window messages we need to process them, and dispatch (respond) to
these messages.
PeekMessage Win32 function retrieves a message for the associated window.
The first parameter is the structure that will hold the message (its address), the
window handle (optional), min and max message filter flags (optional), and the
remove flag. Specifying PM_REMOVE as the remove flag like we’ve done
removes it from the queue.
If there is a message obtained by PeekMessage, we can respond to that
message by calling TranslateMessage and DispatchMessage.
Application Loop
If there are no messages, the only thing to do is to perform game updates and
rendering.
In this part of the code (now only commented), a series of game-specific steps
are taken for each rendered frame.
Most games strive to reach 30 or 60 frames per second, or in other words 30 to
60 game loop iterations for each second of real-world time.
The last line of code in the wWinMain function returns 0. Generally this
function is returning an exit code, which would only matter if was launched the
application from another application.
Windows Callback Procedure
Windows Callback Procedure
The WndProc function is a callback function,
meaning that it is called whenever messages are
being obtained and processed by our
application.
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Windows Callback Procedure
The callback function takes as parameters the handle of the window
dispatching this message, the message as an unsigned integer, and two
parameters specifying additional information (wParam and lParam). The
last two parameters are used to supply data to the callback function for
messages that require more data to perform some type of action.
The two messages that most Win32 applications handle are WM_PAINT
(sent when Windows would like the window to be redrawn) and
WM_DESTROY (sent when the window is being destroyed).
Windows Callback Procedure
An important thing to note is that any message you don’t process in the
switch statement goes into DefWindowProc, which defines the default
behavior for every Windows message. Anything not processed needs to
go into DefWindowProc for the application to behave correctly.
The paint message is handled by calling Win32 functions to draw the
window’s background, which is handled by calling BeginPaint and
EndPaint. Since Direct3D will be doing all of our rendering, this will be
all we’ll have to do for this message
Windows Callback Procedure
The quit message is handled by calling the Win32
PostQuitMessage function, which will cause the MSG object
in our application loop to retrieve a WM_QUIT message,
which causes the application loop to end and the
application to quit as we’ve intended. Since there are
situations where we don’t want to just flat-out quit, we can
use this to only post a quit message if we really want to quit.
Challenge 2.3: First DirectX window
goo.gl/forms/xnfGcr1yAs
DirectX configuration
Execute the app now!
Initializing DirectX
Initializing DirectX
To set up Direct3D we need to complete the following steps:
1. Define the device types and feature levels we want to
check for.
2. Create the Direct3D device, rendering context, and swap
chain.
3. Create the render target.
4. Set the viewport.
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels
Initializing DirectX
In Direct3D 11 we can have a
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
● Hardware device,
3. Create the
render target.
● Reference device,
4. Set the
viewport.
● Software driver device,
● WARP device.
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
Hardware device is a Direct3D device that runs on the graphics
hardware and is the fastest of all devices.
Reference device is installed with DirectX SDK and is available
to developers only; it should not be used for shipping
applications. There are two reasons to use the reference device:
●
To test code your hardware does not support.
●
To test for driver bugs. If you have code that works
correctly with the reference device, but not with the
hardware, then there is probably a bug in the hardware
drivers.
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
Software driver device allows developers to write their own
software rendering driver and use it with Direct3D. This is
called a pluggable software driver.
WARP device creates a high performance Direct3D 10.1
software driver. WARP stands for Windows Advanced
Rasterization Platform. We are not interested in this because it
does not support Direct3D 11. Uses the Windows Graphic
runtime found in Windows Vista and Windows 7 and highly
optimized instructions and code.
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
D3D_DRIVER_TYPE driverTypes[] =
{
D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_HARDWARE, D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_WARP,
D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_REFERENCE, D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_SOFTWARE
};
unsigned int totalDriverTypes = ARRAYSIZE( driverTypes );
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL featureLevels[] =
{
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_11_0,
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_10_1,
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_10_0
};
Challenge 2.4: Exit app message
goo.gl/forms/HmZFLn1U8U
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
Each device has at least one swap chain, but multiple swap chains
can be created for multiple devices. A rendering destination can
be a color buffer that is rendered to and displayed to the screen, a
depth buffer, a stencil buffer, and so forth.
Usually in games we have two color buffers that are being
rendered onto called the primary buffer and the secondary buffer,
as well as being known as the front and back buffers. The primary
buffer (front buffer) is the one that is displayed to the screen,
while the secondary buffer (back buffer) is being drawn to for the
next frame.
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_DESC swapChainDesc;
ZeroMemory( &swapChainDesc, sizeof( swapChainDesc ) );
swapChainDesc.BufferCount = 1;
swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.Width = width;
swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.Height = height;
swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM;
swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.RefreshRate.Numerator = 60;
swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.RefreshRate.Denominator = 1;
swapChainDesc.BufferUsage = DXGI_USAGE_RENDER_TARGET_OUTPUT;
swapChainDesc.OutputWindow = hwnd;
swapChainDesc.Windowed = true;
swapChainDesc.SampleDesc.Count = 1;
swapChainDesc.SampleDesc.Quality = 0;
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
The sample description defines the
multisampling properties of Direct3D.
Multisampling is a technique used to sample and
average rendered pixels to create smoother
transitions between sharp color changes. The
artifacts we are attempting to reduce with
multisampling are called jagged edges, also
known as the staircase effect.
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
for( driver = 0; driver < totalDriverTypes; ++driver )
{
result = D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain( 0, driverTypes[driver], 0,
creationFlags, featureLevels, totalFeatureLevels,
D3D11_SDK_VERSION, &swapChainDesc, &swapChain_,
&d3dDevice_, &featureLevel_, &d3dContext_ );
if( SUCCEEDED( result ) ) {
driverType_ = driverTypes[driver];
break;
}
}
if( FAILED( result ) )
{
DXTRACE_MSG( "Failed to create the Direct3D device!" );
return false;
}
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
A render target view is a Direct3D resource
written to by the output merger stage. In order
for the output merger to render to the swap
chain’s back buffer (secondary buffer), we create
a render target view of it.
The primary and secondary rendering buffers of
the swap chain are color textures, and to obtain a
pointer to it we call the swap chain function
GetBuffer.
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
HRESULT result = swapChain_->GetBuffer( 0, __uuidof( ID3D11Texture2D ),
( LPVOID* )&backBufferTexture );
if( FAILED( result ) )
{
DXTRACE_MSG( "Failed to get the swap chain back buffer!" );
return false;
}
result = d3dDevice_->CreateRenderTargetView( backBufferTexture, 0,
&backBufferTarget_ );
if( backBufferTexture )
backBufferTexture->Release( );
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
Setting the render target description parameter to null gives us a
view of the entire surface at mip level 0.
Each time we want to render to a specific render target, we must set
it first before any drawing calls. This is done by calling
OMSetRenderTarget, which is a function that is part of the output
merger (hence the OM in OMSetRenderTarget).
The OMSetRenderTarget function takes as parameters the number
of views we are binding in this function call, the list of render target
views, and the depth/stencil views.
d3dContext_->OMSetRenderTargets( 1, &backBufferTarget_, 0 );
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
The viewport defines the area of the screen we
are rendering to.
For split-screen games we can create two
viewports, with one defining the upper portion of
the screen and one for the lower portion.
1. Define the
device types
and feature
levels.
2. Create
device,
rendering
context, and
swap chain.
3. Create the
render target.
4. Set the
viewport.
Initializing DirectX
D3D11_VIEWPORT viewport;
viewport.Width = static_cast<float>(width);
viewport.Height = static_cast<float>(height);
viewport.MinDepth = 0.0f;
viewport.MaxDepth = 1.0f;
viewport.TopLeftX = 0.0f;
viewport.TopLeftY = 0.0f;
d3dContext_->RSSetViewports( 1, &viewport );
DirectX Rendering
Rendering to the screen takes place in a few different steps. The first step is
usually to clear any necessary render target surfaces.
It is not necessary to clear the color buffer before rendering in most commercial
games because the sky and environment geometry ensures every pixel will be
overridden in the color buffer anyway, making the clearing step unnecessary.
To clear the screen, we are specifying the color as the color we want the
background shaded to. This color is a red, green, blue, and alpha array with
color values specified in the 0.0 to 1.0 range. In this case 0.0 is nonintensity,
and 1.0 is full intensity.
DirectX Rendering
The next step is to draw the scene’s geometry.
The last step is to display the rendered buffer to the screen by calling the swap
chain’s Present function.
float clearColor[4] = { 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.25f, 1.0f };
d3dContext_->ClearRenderTargetView( backBufferTarget_, clearColor );
swapChain_->Present( 0, 0 );
DirectX Clean up
The final thing to do in any Direct3D application is to clean up and release the
objects that you’ve created.
COM objects keep a reference count that tells the system when it’s safe to
remove objects from memory. By using the Release function, you decrement the
reference count for an object. When the reference count reaches 0, the system
reclaims these resources.
if( backBufferTarget_ ) backBufferTarget_->Release( );
if( swapChain_ ) swapChain_->Release( );
if( d3dContext_ ) d3dContext_->Release( );
if( d3dDevice_ ) d3dDevice_->Release( );
Test 2: First DirectX project
goo.gl/forms/mwipx2CWTl
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