Red Hat | CERTIFICATE SYSTEM 7.3 - COMMAND-LINE | System information | Red Hat CERTIFICATE SYSTEM 7.3 - COMMAND-LINE System information

Red Hat CERTIFICATE SYSTEM 7.3 - COMMAND-LINE System information
Red Hat Certificate System 7.3
Command-Line Tools
Guide
7.3
ISBN: N/A
Publication date:
Red Hat Certificate System 7.3
This book covers important, Certificate System-specific, command-line tools that you can use to
create, remove, and manage subsystem instances and to create and manage keys and
certificates.
Red Hat Certificate System 7.3: Command-Line Tools Guide
Copyright © 2008 Red Hat, Inc.
Copyright © 2008 Red Hat. This material may only be distributed subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the
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Red Hat Certificate System 7.3
About This Guide ...................................................................................................... vii
1. Who Should Read This Guide ........................................................................ vii
2. Required Information ..................................................................................... vii
3. What Is in This Guide .................................................................................... vii
4. Common Tool Information .............................................................................. ix
5. Additional Reading ......................................................................................... ix
6. Examples and Formatting ................................................................................x
7. Giving Feedback ............................................................................................ xi
8. Revision History ............................................................................................ xii
1. Create and Remove Instance Tools ........................................................................ 1
1. pkicreate ....................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Syntax ................................................................................................ 1
1.2. Usage ................................................................................................ 3
2. pkiremove ..................................................................................................... 3
2.1. Syntax ................................................................................................ 3
2.2. Usage ................................................................................................ 3
2. Silent Installation .................................................................................................... 5
1. Syntax ........................................................................................................... 5
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................10
3. TokenInfo .............................................................................................................13
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................13
4. SSLGet ................................................................................................................15
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................15
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................15
5. AuditVerify ............................................................................................................17
1. About the AuditVerify Tool .............................................................................17
2. Setting up the Auditor's Database ..................................................................17
3. Syntax ..........................................................................................................18
4. Return Values ...............................................................................................19
5. Usage ..........................................................................................................19
6. PIN Generator ......................................................................................................21
1. The setpin Command ....................................................................................21
1.1. Editing the setpin.conf Configuration File .............................................21
1.2. Syntax ...............................................................................................22
1.3. Usage ...............................................................................................25
2. How setpin Works .........................................................................................25
2.1. Input File ...........................................................................................27
2.2. Output File .........................................................................................29
2.3. How PINs Are Stored in the Directory ..................................................29
2.4. Exit Codes .........................................................................................30
7. ASCII to Binary .....................................................................................................31
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................31
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................31
8. Binary to ASCII .....................................................................................................33
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................33
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................33
v
Red Hat Certificate System 7.3
9. Pretty Print Certificate ...........................................................................................35
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................35
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................35
10. Pretty Print CRL ..................................................................................................39
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................39
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................39
11. TKS Tool ............................................................................................................41
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................41
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................44
12. CMC Request .....................................................................................................49
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................49
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................53
13. CMC Enrollment ..................................................................................................55
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................55
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................55
14. CMC Response ..................................................................................................59
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................59
15. CMC Revocation .................................................................................................61
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................61
2. Testing CMC Revocation ...............................................................................62
16. CRMF Pop Request ............................................................................................63
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................63
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................64
17. Extension Joiner .................................................................................................67
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................67
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................67
18. Key Usage Extension ..........................................................................................71
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................71
19. Issuer Alternative Name Extension .......................................................................73
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................73
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................75
20. Subject Alternative Name Extension .....................................................................77
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................77
2. Usage ..........................................................................................................79
21. HTTP Client ........................................................................................................81
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................81
22. OCSP Request ...................................................................................................83
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................83
23. PKCS #10 Client .................................................................................................85
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................85
24. Bulk Issuance Tool ..............................................................................................87
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................87
25. Revocation Automation Utility ..............................................................................89
1. Syntax ..........................................................................................................89
Index .......................................................................................................................91
vi
About This Guide
The Certificate System Command-Line Tools Guide describes the command-line tools and
utilities bundled with Red Hat Certificate System and provides information such as command
syntax and usage examples to help use these tools.
1. Who Should Read This Guide
This guide is intended for experienced system administrators who are planning to deploy the
Certificate System. Certificate System agents should use the Certificate System Agent's Guide
for information on how to perform agent tasks, such as handling certificate requests and
revoking certificates.
2. Required Information
This guide assumes familiarity with the following concepts:
• Public-key cryptography and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol
• SSL cipher suites
• The purpose of and major steps in the SSL handshake
• Intranet, extranet, Internet security, and the role of digital certificates in a secure enterprise,
including the following topics:
• Encryption and decryption
• Public keys, private keys, and symmetric keys
• Significance of key lengths
• Digital signatures
• Digital certificates
• The role of digital certificates in a public-key infrastructure (PKI)
• Certificate hierarchies
3. What Is in This Guide
This guide contains the following topics:
Chapter 1, Create and Remove Instance
Tools
Describes the tools used to create and
remove subsystem instances.
Chapter 2, Silent Installation
Describes the tool used for a silent instance
creation.
vii
About This Guide
Chapter 3, TokenInfo
Describes the utility which can be used to
identify tokens on a machine, which shows
whether the Certificate System can detect
those tokens to use for a subsystem.
Chapter 4, SSLGet
Describes a tool used by the Certificate
System to help configure and use security
domains.
Chapter 5, AuditVerify
Describes how to use the tool used to verify
signed audit logs.
Chapter 6, PIN Generator
Describes how to use the tool for generating
unique PINs for end users and for populating
their directory entries with PINs.
Chapter 7, ASCII to Binary
Describes how to use the tool for converting
ASCII data to its binary equivalent.
Chapter 8, Binary to ASCII
Describes how to use the tool for converting
binary data to its ASCII equivalent.
Chapter 9, Pretty Print Certificate
Describes how to use the tool for printing or
viewing the contents of a certificate stored as
ASCII base-64 encoded data in a
human-readable form.
Chapter 10, Pretty Print CRL
Describes how to use the tool for printing or
viewing the contents of a CRL stored as
ASCII base-64 encoded data in a
human-readable form.
Chapter 11, TKS Tool
Describes how to manipulate symmetric keys,
including keys stored on tokens, the TKS
master key, and related keys and databases.
Chapter 12, CMC Request
Describes how to construct a Certificate
Management Messages over Cryptographic
Message Syntax (CMC) request.
Chapter 13, CMC Enrollment
Describes how to sign a CMC certificate
enrollment request with an agent's certificate.
Chapter 14, CMC Response
Describes how to parse a CMC response.
Chapter 15, CMC Revocation
Describes how to sign a CMC revocation
request with an agent's certificate.
Chapter 16, CRMF Pop Request
Describes how to generate Certificate
Request Message Format (CRMF) requests
with proof of possession (POP).
Chapter 17, Extension Joiner
Describes how to use the tool for joining
MIME-64 encoded formats of certificate
extensions to create a single blob.
Chapter 18, Key Usage Extension
Describes how to generate a distinguished
viii
Common Tool Information
encoding rules (DER)-encoded Extended Key
Usage extension.
Chapter 19, Issuer Alternative Name
Extension
Describes how to generate an Issuer
Alternative Name extension in base-64
encoding.
Chapter 20, Subject Alternative Name
Extension
Describes how to generate a Subject
Alternative Name extension in base-64
encoding.
Chapter 21, HTTP Client
Describes how to communicate with any
HTTP/HTTPS server.
Chapter 22, OCSP Request
Describes how to verify certificate status by
submitting Online Certificate Status Protocol
(OCSP) requests to an instance of an OCSP
subsystem.
Chapter 23, PKCS #10 Client
Describes how to generate a Public-Key
Cryptography Standards (PKCS) #10
enrollment request.
Chapter 24, Bulk Issuance Tool
Describes how to send either a KEYGEN or
CRMF enrollment request to the bulk
issuance interface to create certificates
automatically.
Chapter 25, Revocation Automation Utility
Describes how to automate user management
scripts to revoke certificates.
Table 1. List of Contents
4. Common Tool Information
All of the tools in this guide are located in the /usr/bin directory, except for the Silent Install
tool which is downloaded separately and installed to any directory. These tools can be run from
any location without specifying the tool location.
5. Additional Reading
The documentation for the Certificate System also contains the following guides:
• Certificate System Administrator's Guide explains all administrative functions for the
Certificate System, such as adding users, creating and renewing certificates, managing smart
cards, publishing CRLs, and modifying subsystem settings like port numbers.
• Certificate System Agent's Guide details how to perform agent operations for the CA, DRM,
OCSP, and TPS subsystems through the Certificate System agent services interfaces.
ix
About This Guide
• Certificate System Enterprise Security Client Guide explains how to install, configure, and use
the Enterprise Security Client, the user client application for managing smart cards, user
certificates, and user keys.
• Certificate System Migration Guide provides detailed migration information for migrating all
parts and subsystems of previous versions of Certificate System to Red Hat Certificate
System 7.3.
Additional Certificate System information is provided in the Certificate System SDK, an online
reference to HTTP interfaces, javadocs, samples, and tutorials related to Certificate System; a
downloadable zip file of this material is available for user interaction with the tutorials.
For the latest information about Certificate System, including current release notes, complete
product documentation, technical notes, and deployment information, see the Red Hat
documentation page:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/cert-system/
6. Examples and Formatting
All of the examples for Red Hat Certificate System commands, file locations, and other usage
are given for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 systems. Be certain to use the appropriate commands
and files for your platform. For example:
To start the Red Hat Directory Server:
service dir-server start
Example 1. Example Command
Certain words are represented in different fonts, styles, and weights. Different character
formatting is used to indicate the function or purpose of the phrase being highlighted.
Formatting Style
Purpose
Monospace font
Monospace is used for commands, package names, files and
directory paths, and any text displayed in a prompt.
Monospace
with a
background
Italicized text
x
This type of formatting is used for anything entered or returned
in a command prompt.
Any text which is italicized is a variable, such as
instance_name or hostname. Occasionally, this is also used to
Giving Feedback
Formatting Style
Purpose
emphasize a new term or other phrase.
Bolded text
Most phrases which are in bold are application names, such as
Cygwin, or are fields or options in a user interface, such as a
User Name Here: field or Save button.
Other formatting styles draw attention to important text.
NOTE
A note provides additional information that can help illustrate the behavior of the
system or provide more detail for a specific issue.
TIP
A tip is typically an alternative way of performing a task.
IMPORTANT
Important information is necessary, but possibly unexpected, such as a
configuration change that will not persist after a reboot.
CAUTION and WARNING
A caution indicates an act that would violate your support agreement.
A warning indicates potential data loss, as may happen when tuning hardware
for maximum performance.
7. Giving Feedback
If there is any error in this Command-Line Tools Guide or there is any way to improve the
documentation, please let us know. Bugs can be filed against the documentation for Red Hat
Certificate System through Bugzilla, http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla. Make the bug report as
specific as possible, so we can be more effective in correcting any issues:
xi
About This Guide
• Select the Red Hat Certificate System product.
• Set the component to Doc - cli-tools-guide.
• Set the version number to 7.3.
• For errors, give the page number (for the PDF) or URL (for the HTML), and give a succinct
description of the problem, such as incorrect procedure or typo.
For enhancements, put in what information needs to be added and why.
• Give a clear title for the bug. For example, "Incorrect command example for setup
script options" is better than "Bad example".
We appreciate receiving any feedback — requests for new sections, corrections, improvements,
enhancements, even new ways of delivering the documentation or new styles of docs. You are
welcome to contact Red Hat Content Services directly at mailto:docs@redhat.com.
8. Revision History
Revision History
Revision 7.3.2
Tuesday, August 5, 2008
Ella Deon
Lackey<dlackey@redhat.com>
Edited setpin options per Bugzilla #224748 and Bugzilla #224930
Revision 7.3.0-1
Fri May 25 2007
DavidO'Brien<david.obrien@redhat.com>
Removed ecc as key type option
Added pkisilent tool syntax for RA
Revision 7.3.0-0
Thu May 24 2007
Added revision history.
Updated version for 7.3.0
Updates to presentation and layout for commands.
xii
DavidO'Brien<david.obrien@redhat.com>
Chapter 1.
Create and Remove Instance Tools
The Certificate System includes two tools to create and remove subsystem instances,
pkicreate and pkiremove.
NOTE
The pkicreate tool does not install the Certificate System system; this is done
through installing the packages or running the Red Hat Enterprise Linux up2date
command. This tool creates new instances after the default subsystems have
been installed.
Likewise, the pkiremove utility does not uninstall the Certificate System
subsystem; it removes a single instance.
1. pkicreate
The pkicreate tool creates instances of Certificate System subsystems and does a minimal
configuration of the new instance, such as setting the configuration directory and port numbers.
Further configuration is done through the HTML configuration page, as with configuring the
default instances.
The following sections explain the syntax and usage of the pkicreate tool.
1.1. Syntax
This tool has the following syntax:
pkicreate -pki_instance_root=/directory/path -subsystem_type=type
-pki_instance_name=instance_ID [-secure_port=SSLport]
[-unsecure_port=port] -tomcat_server_port=port
-user=user_name -group=group_name [-verbose] [-help]
NOTE
The pkicreate tool also accepts an environment variable,
DONT_RUN_PKICREATE; if this is set, the pkicreate utility is prevented from doing
anything. When the DONT_RUN_PKICREATE variable is set before installing the
default subsystem instance (before running the rhpki-install script), this
allows the default instance to be installed in a user-defined location instead of the
default location.
1
Chapter 1. Create and Remove Instance Tools
Parameter
Description
pki_instance_root
Gives the full path to the new instance
configuration directory.
subsystem_type
Gives the type of subsystem being created.
The possible values are as follows:
• ca, for a Certificate Authority
• ra, for a Registration Authority
• kra, for a DRM
• ocsp, for an OCSP
• tks, for a TKS
• tps, for a TPS
pki_instance_name
Gives the name of the new instance.The
name must be unique within the security
domain. Even cloned subsystems must have
different instance names for cloning to
succeed.
secure_port
Optional. Sets the SSL port number. If this is
not set, the number is randomly generated.
unsecure_port
Optional. Sets the regular port number. If this
is not set, the number is randomly generated.
tomcat_server_port
Sets the port number for the Tomcat web
server. This option must be set for CA, OCSP,
TKS, and DRM instances.
tomcat_server_port is not used when
creating a TPS instance since it does not use
a Tomcat web server.
user
Sets the user as which the Certificate System
instance will run. This option must be set.
group
Sets the group as which the Certificate
System instance will run. This option must be
set.
verbose
Optional. Runs the new instance creation in
verbose mode.
help
Shows the help information.
Table 1.1.
2
pkiremove
1.2. Usage
In the following example, the pkicreate is used to create a new DRM instance running on ports
10543 and 10180, named rhpki-drm2, in the /var/lib/rhpki-drm2 directory.
pkicreate -pki_instance_root=/var/lib -subsystem_type=kra
-pki_instance_name=rhpki-drm2 -secure_port=10543 \
-unsecure_port=10180 -tomcat_server_port=1802 -user=pkiuser
-group=pkigroup -verbose
To keep the pkicreate script from creating a new instance when it is run, set the
DONT_RUN_PKICREATE environment variable to 1.
export DONT_RUN_PKICREATE=1
2. pkiremove
The pkiremove tool removes subsystem instances. This tool removes the single subsystem
instance specified; it does not uninstall the Certificate System packages.
2.1. Syntax
This tool has the following syntax:
pkiremove -pki_instance_root=/directory/path -pki_instance_name=instance_ID
Parameter
Description
pki_instance_root
Gives the full path to the instance
configuration directory.
pki_instance_name
Gives the name of the instance.
Table 1.2.
2.2. Usage
The following example removes a DRM instance named rhpki-drm2 which was installed in the
/var/lib/rhpki-drm2 directory.
pkiremove -pki_instance_root=/var/lib -pki_instance_name=rhpki-drm2
3
4
Chapter 2.
Silent Installation
The Certificate System includes a tool, pkisilent, which can completely create and configure
an instance in a single step. Normally, adding instances requires running the pkicreate utility
to create the instance and then accessing the subsystem HTML page to complete the
configuration. The pkisilent utility creates and configures the instance in a single step. The
pkisilent tool must be downloaded independently. It is available through the Red Hat
Certificate System 7.3 Red Hat Network channel.
NOTE
Run this tool on a system which already has a subsystem installed, since this
tool depends on having libraries, JRE, and core jar files already installed.
Two files are installed for the pkisilent tool:
• pkisilent, the Perl wrapper script.
• pkisilent.jar, the jar files containing the Java™ classes to perform a silent installation.
The utility can be downloaded and saved to any location and is then executed locally.
1. Syntax
This tool has the following syntax for a CA:
perl pkisilent ConfigureCA -cs_hostname hostname
-cs_port SSLport
-client_certdb_dir certDBdir
-client_certdb_pwd password
-preop_pin preoppin
-domain_name domain_name
-admin_user adminUID
-admin_email admin@email
-admin_password password
-agent_name agentName
-agent_key_size keySize
-agent_key_type keyType
-agent_cert_subject cert_subject_name
-ldap_host hostname
-ldap_port port
-bind_dn bindDN
-bind_password password
-base_dn search_base_DN
-db_name dbName
-key_size keySize
-key_type keyType
5
Chapter 2. Silent Installation
-token_name HSM_name
-token_pwd HSM_password
-save_p12 export-p12-file
-backup_pwd password
This tool has the following syntax for the RA subsystem:
perl pkisilent ConfigureRA
-help,-?
displays help information
-cs_hostname CS Hostname
-cs_port CS SSL port
-sd_hostname Security Domain Hostname
-sd_ssl_port Security Domain SSL port
-sd_admin_name Security Domain username
-sd_admin_password Security Domain password
-ca_hostname CA Hostname
-ca_port CA non SSL port
-ca_ssl_port CA SSL port
-client_certdb_dir Client CertDB dir
-client_certdb_pwd client certdb password
-preop_pin pre op pin
-domain_name domain name
-admin_user Admin User Name
-admin_email Admin email
-admin_password Admin password
-agent_name Agent Cert Nickname
-token_name HSM/Software Token name
-token_pwd HSM/Software Token password
-key_size Key Size
-key_type Key type [rsa]
-agent_key_size Agent Cert Key Size
-agent_key_type Agent cert Key type [rsa]
-agent_cert_subject Agent cert Subject
-ra_subsystem_cert_subject_name RA subsystem cert
subject name
-ra_server_cert_subject_name RA server cert subject
name
-subsystem_name RA subsystem name
This tool has the following syntax for the DRM, OCSP, and TKS subsystems:
perl pkisilent ConfiguresubsystemType -cs_hostname hostname
-cs_port SSLport
-ca_hostname hostname
-ca_port port
-ca_ssl_port SSLport
-ca_agent_name agentName
-ca_agent_password password
-client_certdb_dir certDBdir
-client_certdb_pwd password
-preop_pin preoppin
-domain_name domain_name
6
Syntax
-admin_user adminUID
-admin_email admin@email
-admin_password password
-agent_name agentName
-ldap_host hostname
-ldap_port port
-bind_dn bindDN
-bind_password password
-base_dn search_base_DN
-db_name dbName
-key_size keySize
-key_type keyType
-agent_key_size keySize
-agent_key_type keyType
-agent_cert_subject cert_subject_name
-backup_pwd password
This tool has the following syntax for the TPS subsystem:
perl pkisilent ConfigureTPS -cs_hostname hostname
-cs_port SSLport
-ca_hostname hostname
-ca_port port
-ca_ssl_port SSLport
-ca_agent_name agentName
-ca_agent_password password
-client_certdb_dir certDBdir
-client_certdb_pwd password
-preop_pin preoppin
-domain_name domain_name
-admin_user adminUID
-admin_email admin@email
-admin_password password
-agent_name agentName
-ldap_host hostname
-ldap_port port
-bind_dn bindDN
-bind_password password
-base_dn search_base_DN
-db_name dbName
-key_size keySize
-key_type keyType
-agent_key_size keySize
-agent_key_type keyType
-agent_cert_subject cert_subject_name
-ldap_auth_host ldap_auth_host
-ldap_auth_port ldap_auth_port
-ldap_auth_base_dn ldap_auth_base_dn
Java™ Class Name
Subsystem
ConfigureCA
For the CA.
ConfigureRA
For the RA.
7
Chapter 2. Silent Installation
Java™ Class Name
Subsystem
ConfigureDRM
For the DRM.
ConfigureOCSP
For the OCSP.
ConfigureTKS
For the TKS.
ConfigureTPS
For the TPS.
Table 2.1. Subsystem Java™ Classes for pkisilent
NOTE
The ConfigureCA script is used to create a security domain or to add the new
CA to an existing domain. The other scripts only add the subsystem to an
existing security domain.
Parameter
Description
cs_hostname
The hostname for the Certificate System
machine.
cs_port
The SSL port number of the Certificate
System.
ca_hostname
The hostname for the CA subsystem which
will issue the certificates for the DRM, OCSP,
TKS, or TPS subsystem.
ca_port
The non-SSL port number of the CA.
ca_ssl_port
The SSL port number of the CA.
ca_agent_name
The UID of the CA agent.
ca_agent_password
The password of the CA agent.
client_certdb_dir
The directory for the subsystem certificate
databases.
client_certdb_pwd
The password to protect the certificate
database.
preop_pin
The preoperation PIN number used for the
initial configuration.
domain_name
The name of the security domain to which the
subsystem will be added.
admin_user
The new admin user for the new subsystem.
admin_email
The email address of the admin user.
admin_password
The password for the admin user.
8
Syntax
Parameter
Description
agent_name
The new agent for the new subsystem.
agent_key_size
The key size to use for generating the agent
certificate and key pair.
agent_key_type
The key type to use for generating the agent
certificate and key pair.
agent_cert_subject
The subject name for the agent certificate.
ldap_host
The hostname of the Directory Server
machine.
ldap_port
The non-SSL port of the Directory Server.
bind_dn
The bind DN which will access the Directory
Server; this is normally the Directory Manager
ID.
bind_password
The bind DN password.
base_dn
The entry DN under which to create all of the
subsystem entries.
db_name
The database name.
key_size
The size of the key to generate. The
recommended size for an RSA key is 1024
bits for regular operations and 2048 bits for
sensitive operations.
key_type
The type of key to generate; the only option is
RSA.
save_p12
Sets whether to export the keys and
certificate information to a backup PKCS #12
file. true backs up the information; false
does not back up the information. Only for the
CA subsystem.
backup_pwd
The password to protect the PKCS #12
backup file containing the subsystem keys
and certificates. Not for use with TPS
installation.
token_name
Gives the name of the HSM token used to
store the subsystem certificates. Only for the
CA subsystem.
token_password
Gives the password for the HSM. Only for the
CA subsystem.
ldap_auth_host
Gives the hostname of the LDAP directory
database to use for the TPS subsystem token
database. Only for the TPS subsystem.
ldap_auth_port
Gives the port number of the LDAP directory
9
Chapter 2. Silent Installation
Parameter
Description
database to use for the TPS subsystem token
database. Only for the TPS subsystem.
ldap_auth_base_dn
Gives the base DN in the LDAP directory tree
of the TPS token database under which to
create token entries. Only for the TPS
subsystem.
Table 2.2. Parameters for pkisilent
2. Usage
The options are slightly different between the subsystems; all subsystems except for the CA
subsystem require extra options specifying the Certificate Authority to which to submit the
certificate requests.
This silent installation script example installs a CA subsystem:
perl pkisilent ConfigureCA -cs_hostname localhost -cs_port 9543
-client_certdb_dir /tmp/ -client_certdb_pwd password -preop_pin
sYY8er834FG9793fsef7et5
-domain_name "testca" -admin_user admin -admin_email "admin@example.com"
-admin_password password -agent_name "rhpki-ca2 agent" -agent_key_size 2048
-agent_key_type rsa -agent_cert_subject "ca agent cert" -ldap_host server
-ldap_port 389 -bind_dn "cn=directory manager" -bind_password password
-base_dn "o=rhpki-ca2" -db_name "rhpki-ca2" -key_size 2048
-key_type rsa -save_p12 true -backup_pwd password
This silent installation script example installs a TKS subsystem; this script has extra options to
point to the CA server:
perl pkisilent ConfigureTKS -cs_hostname localhost -cs_port 13543
-ca_hostname server.example.com -ca_port 9080 -ca_ssl_port 9443
-ca_agent_name agent -ca_agent_password password
-client_certdb_dir /tmp/ -client_certdb_pwd password -preop_pin
fS44I6SASGF34FD76WKJHIW4
-domain_name "testca" -admin_user admin -admin_email "admin@example.com"
-admin_password password -agent_name "rhpki-tks2 agent" -ldap_host server
-ldap_port 389 -bind_dn "cn=directory manager" -bind_password password
-base_dn "o=rhpki-tks2" -db_name "rhpki-tks2" -key_size 2048
-key_type rsa -agent_key_size 2048 -agent_key_type rsa
-agent_cert_subject "tks agent cert" -backup_pwd password
This silent installation script example installs a TPS subsystem; this script has extra options to
point to the LDAP authentication database used for storing token information:
10
Usage
perl pkisilent ConfigureTPS -cs_hostname localhost -cs_port 7988
-ca_hostname server.example.com -ca_port 9080 -ca_ssl_port 9443
-ca_agent_name agent -ca_agent_password password
-client_certdb_dir /tmp/ -client_certdb_pwd password -preop_pin
fS44I6SASGF34FD76WKJHIW4
-domain_name "testca" -admin_user admin -admin_email "admin@example.com"
-admin_password password -agent_name "rhpki-tks2 agent" -ldap_host server
-ldap_port 389 -bind_dn "cn=directory manager" -bind_password password
-base_dn "o=rhpki-tks2" -db_name "rhpki-tks2" -key_size 2048
-key_type rsa -agent_key_size 2048 -agent_key_type rsa
-agent_cert_subject "tps agent cert" -ldap_auth_host server
-ldap_auth_port 389 -ldap_auth_base_dn "o=TPS DB,dc=example,dc=com"
11
12
Chapter 3.
TokenInfo
This tool is used to determine which external hardware tokens are visible to the Certificate
System subsystem. This can be used to diagnose whether problems using tokens are related to
the Certificate System being unable to detect it.
1. Syntax
The TokenInfo tool has the following syntax:
TokenInfo /directory/alias
Option
Description
/directory/alias
Specifies the path and file to the certificate
and key database directory; for example,
/var/lib/rhpki-ca/alias/.
Table 3.1.
13
14
Chapter 4.
SSLGet
This tool is similar to the the wget command, which downloads files over HTTP. sslget
supports client authentication using NSS libraries. The configuration wizard uses this utility to
retrieve security domain information from the CA.
1. Syntax
The sslget tool has the following syntax:
sslget [-e profile information] -n rsa_nickname [-p password | -w pwfile]
[-d dbdir] [-v] [-V] -r url hostname[:port]
Option
Description
e
Optional. Submits information through a
subsystem form by specifying the form name
and the form fields. For example, this can be
used to submit certificate enrollments through
a certificate profile.
n
Gives the CA certificate nickname.
p
Gives the certificate database password. Not
used if the -w option is used.
w
Optional. Gives the password file path and
name. Not used if the -p option is used.
d
Optional. Gives the path to the security
databases.
v
Optional. Sets the operation in verbose mode.
V
Optional. Gives the version of the sslget
tool.
r
Gives the URL of the site or server from which
to download the information.
hostname
Gives the hostname of the server to which to
send the request.
port
Optional. Gives the port number of the server.
Table 4.1.
2. Usage
It is possible to use sslget to submit information securely to Certificate System subsystems.
15
Chapter 4. SSLGet
For example, to submit a certificate request through a certificate profile enrollment for to a CA,
the command is as follows:
sslget -e
"profileId=caInternalAuthServerCert&cert_request_type=pkcs10
&requestor_name=TPS-server.example.com-7889
&cert_request=MIIBGTCBxAIBADBfMSgwJgYDVQQKEx8yMDA2MTEwNngxMi
BTZmJheSBSZWRoYXQgRG9tYWluMRIwEAYDVQQLEwlyaHBraS10cHMxHzAdBgNVBA
MTFndhdGVyLnNmYmF5LnJlZGhhdC5jb20wXDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAANLADBIAk
EAsMcYjKD2cDJOeKjhuAiyaC0YVh8hUzfcrf7ZJlVyROQx1pQrHiHmBQbcCdQxNz
YK7rxWiR62BPDR4dHtQzj8RwIDAQABoAAwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQADQQAKpuTYGP
%2BI1k50tjn6enPV6j%2B2lFFjrYNwlYWBe4qYhm3WoA0tIuplNLpzP0vw6ttIMZ
kpE8rcfAeMG10doUpp
&xmlOutput=true&sessionID=-4771521138734965265
&auth_hostname=server.example.com&auth_port=9443"
-d "/var/lib/rhpki-tps/alias" -p "password123" -v -n "Server-Cert
cert-rhpki-tps"
-r "/ca/ee/ca/profileSubmit" server.example.com:9443
16
Chapter 5.
AuditVerify
1. About the AuditVerify Tool
The AuditVerify tool is used to verify that signed audit logs were signed with the private
signing key and that the audit logs have not been compromised.
Auditors can verify the authenticity of signed audit logs using the AuditVerify tool. This tool
uses the public key of the signed audit log signing certificate to verify the digital signatures
embedded in a signed audit log file. The tool response indicates either that the signed audit log
was successfully verified or that the signed audit log was not successfully verified. An
unsuccessful verification warns the auditor that the signature failed to verify, indicating the log
file may have been tampered with (compromised).
2. Setting up the Auditor's Database
AuditVerify needs access to a set of security databases containing the signed audit log
signing certificate and its chain of issuing certificates. One of the CA certificates in the issuance
chain must be marked as trusted in the database.
The auditor should import the audit signing certificate into certificate and key databases before
running AuditVerify. The auditor should not use the security databases of the Certificate
System instance that generated the signed audit log files. If there are no readily accessible
certificate and key database, the auditor must create a set of certificate and key databases and
import the signed audit log signing certificate chain.
To create the security databases and import the certificate chain, do the following:
1. Create the security database directory in the filesystem.
mkdir /var/lib/instance_ID/logs/signedAudit/dbdir
2. Use the certutil tool to create an empty set of certificate databases.
certutil -d /var/lib/instance_ID/logs/signedAudit/dbdir -N
3. Import the CA certificate and log signing certificate into the databases, marking the CA
certificate as trusted. The certificates can be obtained from the CA in ASCII format.
If the CA certificate is in a file called cacert.txt and the log signing certificate is in a file
called logsigncert.txt, both in the Certificate System alias/ directory, then the certutil
is used to set the trust for the new audit security database directory pointing to those files, as
follows:
17
Chapter 5. AuditVerify
certutil -d /var/lib/instance_ID/logs/signedAudit/dbdir -A -n "CA
Certificate" -t \
"CT,CT,CT" -a -i /var/lib/instance_ID/alias/cacert.txtcertutil -d \
/var/lib/instance_ID/logs/signedAudit/dbdir -A -n "Log Signing
Certificate" -a -i \
/var/lib/instance_ID/alias/logsigncert.txt
3. Syntax
The AuditVerify tool has the following syntax:
AuditVerify -d dbdir -n signing_certificate_nickname -a logListFile [-P
cert/key_db_prefix] [-v]
Option
Description
d
Specifies the directory containing the security
databases with the imported audit log signing
certificate.
n
Gives the nickname of the certificate used to
sign the log files. The nickname is whatever
was used when the log signing certificate was
imported into that database.
a
Specifies the text file containing a comma
separated list (in chronological order) of the
signed audit logs to be verified. The contents
of the logListFile are the full paths to the audit
logs. For example:
/var/lib/rhpki-ca/logs/signedAudit/ca_cert-ca_audit,
\
/var/lib/rhpki-ca/logs/signedAudit/ca_cert-ca_audit.2
\
/var/lib/rhpki-ca/logs/signedAudit/ca_cert-ca_audit.2
P
18
Optional. The prefix to prepend to the
certificate and key database filenames. If
used, a value of empty quotation marks (“”)
should be specified for this argument, since
the auditor is using separate certificate and
key databases from the Certificate System
instance and it is unlikely that the prefix
Return Values
Option
Description
should be prepended to the new audit security
database files.
Optional. Specifies verbose output.
v
Table 5.1.
4. Return Values
When AuditVerify is used, one of the following codes is returned:
Return Value
Description
0
Indicates that the signed audit log has been
successfully verified.
1
Indicates that there was an error while the tool
was running.
2
Indicates that one or more invalid signatures
were found in the specified file, meaning that
at least one of the log files could not be
verified.
Table 5.2.
5. Usage
After a separate audit database directory has been configured, do the following:
1. Create a text file containing a comma-separated list of the log files to be verified. The name
of this file is referenced in the AuditVerify command.
For example, this file could be logListFile in the /etc/audit directory. The contents are
the comma-separated list of audit logs to be verified, such as "auditlog.1213,
auditlog.1214, auditlog.1215."
2. If the audit databases do not contain prefixes and are located in the user home directory,
such as /usr/home/smith/.redhat, and the signing certificate nickname is
“auditsigningcert”, the AuditVerify command is run as follows:
AuditVerify -d /usr/home/smith/.redhat -n auditsigningcert -a
/etc/audit/logListFile -P "" -v
19
20
Chapter 6.
PIN Generator
For the Certificate System to use the UidPwdPinDirAuth authentication plug-in module, the
authentication directory must contain unique PINs for each end entity which will be issued a
certificate. The Certificate System provides a tool, the PIN Generator, which generates unique
PINs for end-entity entries in an LDAP directory. The tool stores these PINs as hashed values in
the same directory against the corresponding user entries. It also copies the PINs to a text file
so that the PINs can be sent to the end entities.
1. The setpin Command
This chapter describes the syntax and arguments of the setpin tool and the expected
responses. For information on generating and storing PINs in the user authentication directory,
see the Certificate System Administration Guide.
1.1. Editing the setpin.conf Configuration File
The setpin tool can use a configuration file, setpin.conf, to store some of its required
options. Before running setpin, modify this file to reflect the directory information, and set the
setpin tool to use this file by doing the following:
1. Open the setpin.conf file.
cd /usr/lib/rhpki/native-tools
vi setpin.conf
2. Edit the directory parameters in the file to match the directory installation information.
#------- Enter the hostname of the LDAP server
host=localhost
#------- Enter the port number of the LDAP server
port=389
#------- Enter the DN of the Directory Manager user
binddn=CN=Directory Manager
#------- Enter the password for the Directory manager user
bindpw=
#
Enter the DN and password for the new pin manager user
pinmanager=cn=pinmanager,o=example.com
pinmanagerpwd=
#
Enter the base over which this user has the power
#
to remove pins
basedn=ou=people,o=example.com
21
Chapter 6. PIN Generator
## This line switches setpin into setup mode.
## Please do not change it.
setup=yes
3. Run setpin, and set the option file to setpin.conf.
setpin optfile=/usr/lib/rhpki/native-tools/setpin.conf
1.2. Syntax
The setpin has the following syntax:
setpin host=host_name [port=port_number] binddn=user_id
[bindpw=bind_password] filter="LDAP_search_filter" [basedn=LDAP_base_DN]
[length=PIN_length | minlength=minimum_PIN_length |
maxlength=maximum_PIN_length]
[gen=character_type] [case=upperonly] [hash=algorithm]
[saltattribute=LDAP_attribute_to_use_for_salt_creation] [input=file_name]
[output=file_name] [write] [clobber] [testpingen=count]
[debug] [optfile=file_name] [setup [pinmanager=pinmanager_user]
[pinmanagerpwd=pinmanager_password]]
Option
Description
host
Required. Specifies the LDAP directory to
which to connect.
port
Specifies the LDAP directory port to which to
bind. The default port number is the default
LDAP port, 389.
binddn
Required. Specifies the user as whom the PIN
Generator binds to the LDAP directory. This
user account must have read/write access to
the directory.
bindpw
Gives the password for the user ID set in the
binddn option. If the bind password is not
given at the command line, the tool prompts
for it.
filter
Required. Sets the search filter for those DNs
in the directory for which the tool should
generate PINs.
basedn
Specifies the base DN under which to search
for DNs. If this argument is not specified, the
22
Syntax
Option
Description
filter searches from the root.
length
Specifies the exact number a PIN must
contain; the default is 6. Do not use with
minlength or maxlength.
minlength
Sets the minimum length of the generated
PINs. If used with maxlength, this sets the
lower end of the range of the PIN length. Do
not use with length.
maxlength
Sets the maximum length of the generated
PINs. If used with minlength, this sets the
upper end of the range of the PIN length. Do
not use with length.
gen
Specifies the character type for PINs. The
characters in the password can be
constructed out of alphabetic characters
(RNG-alpha), alphanumeric characters
(RNG-alphanum), or any printable ASCII
characters (printableascii).
case
Restricts the character cases to uppercase
only; otherwise, the case is mixed. Restricting
alphabetic characters to uppercase reduces
the overall combinations for the password
space significantly. Use case with gen.
hash
Specifies the message digest algorithm with
which to hash the PINs before storing them in
the authentication directory. If SHA-1 or MD5
is used, set an output file for storing PINs in
plain text. A user needs the PINs in plain text
for delivering them to end entities. The default
is sha1, which produces a 160-bit message
digest. md5 produces a 128-bit message
digest. none does not hash the PINs.
saltattribute
Specifies the LDAP attribute to use for salt
creation. If an attribute is set, the tool
integrates the value of the attribute with each
PIN and hashes the resulting string with the
hash routine. The default is to use the entry
DN. For details, refer to Section 2.3, “How
PINs Are Stored in the Directory”.
input
Specifies the file that contains the list of DNs
to process. If this is used, the tool compares
the filtered DNs to the ones in the input file
23
Chapter 6. PIN Generator
Option
Description
and generates PINs for only those DNs .
output
Specifies the absolute path to the file to write
the PINs as setpin generates them. If a file is
not set, then the output is written to the
standard output. Regardless of whether an
output file is set, all error messages are
directed to the standard error.
write
Sets whether the tool should write PINs to the
directory. If specified, the PINs are written to
the directory as they are generated.
Otherwise, the tool does not make any
changes to the directory. Do not write PINs to
the directory if the PINs are to be checked.
The PINs can be viewed in the output file to
make sure that they are being assigned to the
correct users and that they conform to the
length and character restrictions. For more
information, see Section 2.2, “Output File”.
clobber
Overwrites pre-existing PINs, if any,
associated with a DN. If this option is not
used, any existing PINs are left in the
directory.
testpingen
Tests the PIN-generation mode. count sets
the total number of PINs to generate for
testing.
debug
Writes debugging information to the standard
error. If debug=attrs is specified, the tool
writes more detailed information about each
entry in the directory.
optfile
Sets the tool to read options, one per line,
from a file. This allows all arguments to be put
in a file, instead of typing them at the
command line. One configuration file,
setpin.conf, is located in the
/usr/lib/rhpki/native-tools directory.
setup
Switches to setup mode, which allows the tool
to add to the directory schema.
pinmanager
Specifies the PIN manager user that has
permission to remove the PIN for the basedn
specified. Used with the setup option.
pinmanagerpwd
Gives the password for the PIN manager
user. Used with the setup option.
24
Usage
Table 6.1.
1.3. Usage
The following command generates PINs for all entries that have the CN attribute in their
distinguished name in an LDAP directory named csldap listening on port 19000. The PIN
Generator binds to the directory as Directory Manager and starts searching the directory from
the base DN dn=o=example.com in the directory tree. Any existing PINs are overwritten with the
new ones.
setpin host=csldap port=19000 binddn="CN=directory manager" bindpw=password
filter="(cn=*)" \
basedn="o=example.com" clobber write
2. How setpin Works
The PIN Generator generates PINs for user entries in an LDAP directory and updates the
directory with these PINs. To run the setpin command, the following five options are required:
• The host name (host) and port number (port) of the LDAP server
• The bind DN (binddn) and password (bindpw)
• An LDAP filter (filter) for filtering out the user entries that require PINs
The setpin command looks like the following:
setpin host=csldap port=19000 binddn="CN=Directory Manager" bindpw=redhat
filter="(ou=employees)" \
basedn="o=example.com"
This example queries the directory for all the entries in the employees organizational unit (ou).
For each entry matching the filter, information is printed out to standard error and to the
standard output.
Note
Because the PIN Generator makes a lot of changes to the directory, it is
important to use the correct filter, or the wrong entries are modified. Using the
write option is a safeguard because no changes are made to the directory
25
Chapter 6. PIN Generator
unless that option is used. This allows the PINs to be verified before any entries
are modified.
The information can be written to a different output file by using the output option; see
Section 2.2, “Output File” for more information. The entries returned by the LDAP search filter
can be further restricted by using an ASCII input file which lists the entry DNs; only entries
matching those in the file are updated. The input file is set with the input option. The input file
is not a substitute for the LDAP directory entries; the filter attribute must still be provided. For
more information about the input file, refer to Section 2.1, “Input File”. Figure 6.1, “Using an
Input and Output File When Generating PINs” shows how the input and output files work with
the setpin tool.
Figure 6.1. Using an Input and Output File When Generating PINs
26
Input File
The output file contains the entry and PIN information from running setpin, as shown in the
following example:
Processing: cn=QA Managers,ou=employees,o=example.com
Adding new pin/password
dn:cn=QA Managers,ou=employees,o=example.com
pin:lDWynV
status:notwritten
Processing: cn=PD Managers,ou=employees,o=example.com
Adding new pin/password
dn:cn=PD Managers,ou=employees,o=example.com
pin:G69uV7
status:notwritten
The output also contains the status of each entry in the directory. The status values are listed in
Table 6.2, “PIN Generator Status ”.
Exit Code
Description
notwritten
The PINs were not written to the directory
because the write option was not used.
writefailed
The tool tried to modify the directory, but the
write operation was unsuccessful.
added
The tool added the new PIN to the directory
successfully.
replaced
The tool replaced an old PIN with a new one;
this means the clobber option was used.
notreplaced
The tool did not replace the old PIN with a
new one; this means the clobber option was
not used.
Table 6.2. PIN Generator Status
If a PIN already exists for a user, it is not changed if the setpin command is run a second time.
This allows new PINs to be created for new users without overwriting PINs for users who have
already received a PIN. To overwrite a PIN, use the clobber option.
After making sure that the filter is matching the right users, run the setpin command again with
the write option and with output set to the name of the file to capture the unhoused PINs. For
details about the output file, refer to Section 2.2, “Output File”.
2.1. Input File
27
Chapter 6. PIN Generator
The PIN Generator can receive a list of DNs to modify in a text file specified by the input
argument. If an input file is specified, then the tool compares the DNs returned by the filtered to
the ones in the input file and updates only those DNs that match in the input file.
The input enables the user to provide the PIN Generator with an exact list of DNs to modify; it is
also possible to provide the PIN Generator with PINs in plain text for all DNs or for specific DNs.
There are two common situations when using an input file is useful:
• If PINs have been set for all entries in the user directory, and new users join the organization.
For the new users to get certificates, the directory must contain PINs. PINs should be
generated for only those two entries without changing any of the other user entries. Instead of
constructing a complex LDAP filter, using an input file allows using a general filter, and the
modified entries are restricted to the DNs of the two users listed in the input file.
• If a particular values, such as Social Security numbers, should be used as PINs, then the
Social Security numbers can be put in the input file and provide those numbers as PINs to the
PIN Generator. These are then stored as hashed values in the directory.
The format of the input file is the same as that of the output file (refer to Section 2.2, “Output
File”) except for the status line. In the input file, PINs can be set for all the DNs in the file, for
specific DNs, or for none of the DNs. If the PIN attribute is missing for a DN, the tool
automatically generates a random PIN.
An input file looks like the following example:
dn:cn=user1, o=example.com
dn:cn=user2, o=example.com
...
dn:cn=user3, o=example.com
PINs can also be provided for the DNs in plain-text format; these PINs are hashed according to
the command-line arguments.
dn:cn=user1, o=example.com
pin:pl229Ab
dn:cn=user2, o=example.com
pin:9j65dSf
...
dn:cn=user3, o=example.com
pin:3knAg60
28
Output File
NOTE
Hashed PINs cannot be provided to the tool.
2.2. Output File
The PIN Generator can capture the output to a text file specified by the output option.
The output contains a sequence of records in the following format:
dn: user_dn1
pin: generated_pin1
status: status1
dn: user_dn2
pin: generated_pin2
status: status2
...
dn: user_dn#
pin: generated_pin#
status: status#
where user_dn is a distinguished name matching the DN filter or listed in the input file. By
default, the delimiter is a semi-colon (;) or the character defined on the command line.
generated_pin is a string of characters of fixed or variable length, depending on the length
parameters used. status is one of the values listed Table 6.2, “PIN Generator Status ”.
The first line in each record is always the DN. The subsequent lines for pin and status are
optional. The record ends with a blank line, using the Unix end of line sequence, (\n).
2.3. How PINs Are Stored in the Directory
Each PIN is concatenated with the corresponding LDAP attribute named in the saltattribute
argument. If this argument is not specified, the DN is used. That string is hashed with the
routine specified in the hash argument; the default algorithm is SHA-1. One byte is prepended
to indicate the hash type used. The PIN is stored as follows:
byte[0] = X
The value of X depends on the hash algorithm chosen during the PIN generation process.
29
Chapter 6. PIN Generator
X
Hash Algorithm
0
SHA-1
1
MD5
45
none
Table 6.3.
The PIN is stored in the directory as a binary value, not as a base-64 encoded value.
2.4. Exit Codes
When the PIN Generator is finished running, it returns a result code showing how it ended.
These result codes are listed in Table 6.4, “Result Codes Returned by the PIN Generator”.
Result Code
Description
0
The PIN generation was successful; PINs
were set for all the DNs in the specified
directory.
4
The tool could not bind to the directory as the
user specified in the binddn parameter.
5
The tool could not open the output file
specified in the output parameter.
7
There was an error parsing command-line
arguments.
8
The tool could not open the input file specified
in the input parameter.
9
The tool encountered an internal error.
10
The tool found a duplicate entry in the input
file.
11
The tool did not find the salt attribute specified
in the saltattribute parameter in the
directory.
Table 6.4. Result Codes Returned by the PIN Generator
30
Chapter 7.
ASCII to Binary
The Certificate System ASCII to binary tool converts ASCII base-64 encoded data to binary
base-64 encoded data.
1. Syntax
The ASCII to binary tool, AtoB, has the following syntax:
AtoB input_file output_file
Option
Description
input_file
Specifies the path and file to the base-64
encoded ASCII data.
output_file
Specifies the file where the utility should write
the binary output.
Table 7.1.
2. Usage
The example command takes the base-64 ASCII data in the ascii_data.in file and writes the
binary equivalent of the data to the binary_data.out file.
AtoB /usr/home/smith/test/ascii_data.in /usr/home/smith/test/binary_data.out
31
32
Chapter 8.
Binary to ASCII
The Certificate System binary to ASCII tool, BtoA converts binary base-64 encoded data to
ASCII base-64 encoded data.
1. Syntax
The BtoA tool uses the following syntax:
BtoA input_file output_file
Option
Description
input_file
Specifies the path and file of the base-64
encoded binary data.
output_file
Specifies the path and file to which the tool
should write the ASCII output.
Table 8.1.
2. Usage
The following example of the BtoA utility takes the base-64 encoded binary data in the
binary_data.in file and writes the ASCII equivalent of the data to the ascii_data.out file.
BtoA /usr/home/smith/test/binary_data.in /usr/home/smith/test/ascii_data.out
33
34
Chapter 9.
Pretty Print Certificate
The Pretty Print Certificate utility, PrettyPrintCert, prints the contents of a certificate stored
as ASCII base-64 encoded data to a readable format.
1. Syntax
The PrettyPrintCert command has the following syntax:
PrettyPrintCert [-simpleinfo] input_file [output_file]
Option
Description
simpleinfo
Optional. Prints limited certificate information
in an easy to parse format.
input_file
Specifies the path to the file containing the
ASCII base-64 encoded certificate.
output_file
Optional. Specifies the path and file to which
the tool should write the certificate. If this
option is not specified, the certificate
information is written to the standard output.
Table 9.1.
2. Usage
The following example converts the ASCII base-64 encoded certificate in the ascii_cert.in
file and writes the certificate in the pretty-print form to the output file ascii_cert.out.
PrettyPrintCert /usr/home/smith/test/ascii_cert.in
/usr/home/smith/test/ascii_cert.out
The base-64 encoded certificate data in the ascii_cert.in looks like the following:
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----MIIC2DCCAkGgAwIBAgICEAwwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQAwfDELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxIzA
hBgNVBAoTGlBhbG9va2FWaWxsZSBXaWRnZXRzLCBJbmMuMR0wGwYDVQQLExRXaWRnZX
QgTWFrZXJzICdSJyBVczEpMCcGA1UEAxMgVGVzdCBUZXN0IFRlc3QgVGVzdCBUZXN0I
FRlc3QgQ0EwHhcNOTkwMjE4MDMMzM5WhcNMDAwMjE4MDM0MzM5WjCBrjELMAkGA1UEB
hMCVVMxJjAkBgNVBAoTHU5ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bmljYXRpb25zIENvcnAuMRUwEwYD
VQQLEwOZXRzY2FwZSBDTVMxGDAWBEBEwhtaGFybXNlbjEfMB0GA1UEAxWaW50ZGV2Y2
EgQWRtaW5pcwp0frfJOObeiSsia3BuifRHBNw95ZZQR9NIXr1x5bE
35
Chapter 9. Pretty Print Certificate
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
The certificate in pretty-print format in the ascii_cert.out file looks like the following:
Certificate:
Data:
Version: v3
Serial Number: 0x100C
Signature Algorithm: OID.1.2.840.113549.1.1.5 -1.2.840.113549.1.1.5
Issuer: CN=Test CA,OU=Widget Makers 'R'Us,O=Example Corporation,
Widgets\,Inc.,C=US
Validity:
Not Before: Wednesday, February 17, 1999 7:43:39 PM
Not After: Thursday, February 17, 2000 7:43:39 PM
Subject: MAIL=admin@example.com,CN=testCA Administrator, UID=admin, OU=IS,
O=Example Corporation,C=US
Subject Public Key Info:
Algorithm: RSA - 1.2.840.113549.1.1.1
Public Key:
30:81:89:02:81:81:00:DE:26:B3:C2:9D:3F:7F:FA:DF:
24:E3:9B:7A:24:AC:89:AD:C1:BA:27:D1:1C:13:70:F7:
96:59:41:1F:4D:21:7A:F5:C7:96:C4:75:83:35:9F:49:
E4:B0:A7:5F:95:C4:09:EA:67:00:EF:BD:7C:39:92:11:
31:F2:CA:C9:16:87:B9:AD:B8:39:69:18:CE:29:81:5F:
F3:4D:97:B9:DF:B7:60:B3:00:03:16:8E:C1:F8:17:6E:
7A:D2:00:0F:7D:9B:A2:69:35:18:70:1C:7C:AE:12:2F:
0B:0F:EC:69:CD:57:6F:85:F3:3E:9D:43:64:EF:0D:5F:
EF:40:FF:A6:68:FD:DD:02:03:01:00:01:
Extensions:
Identifier: 2.16.840.1.113730.1.1
Critical: no
Value: 03:02:00:A0:
Identifier: Authority Key Identifier - 2.5.29.35
Critical: no
Key Identifier:
EB:B5:11:8F:00:9A:1A:A6:6E:52:94:A9:74:BC:65:CF:
07:89:2A:23:
Signature:
Algorithm: OID.1.2.840.113549.1.1.5 - 1.2.840.113549.1.1.5
Signature:
3E:8A:A9:9B:D1:71:EE:37:0D:1F:A0:C1:00:17:53:26:
6F:EE:28:15:20:74:F6:C5:4F:B4:E7:95:3C:A2:6A:74:
92:3C:07:A8:39:12:1B:7E:C4:C7:AE:79:C8:D8:FF:1F:
D5:48:D8:2E:DD:87:88:69:D5:3A:06:CA:CA:9C:9A:55:
DA:A9:E8:BF:36:BC:68:6D:1F:2B:1C:26:62:7C:75:27:
E2:8D:24:4A:14:9C:92:C6:F0:7A:05:A1:52:D7:CC:7D:
E0:9D:6C:D8:97:3A:9C:12:8C:25:48:7F:51:59:BE:3C:
2B:30:BF:EB:0A:45:7D:A6:49:FB:E7:BE:04:05:D6:8F:
The following example command takes the ASCII base-64 encoded certificate in the
ascii_cert.in file and writes the information contained within the certificate to the simple
36
Usage
format output file cert.simple.
PrettyPrintCert -simpleinfo /usr/home/smith/test/ascii_cert.in
/usr/home/smith/test/cert.simple
The base-64 encoded certificate data in ascii_cert.in file looks similar to the following:
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----MIIC2DCCAkGgAwIBAgICEAwwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQAwfDELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxIzA
hBgNVBAoTGlBhbG9va2FWaWxsZSBXaWRnZXRzLCBJbmMuMR0wGwYDVQQLExRXaWRnZX
QgTWFrZXJzICdSJyBVczEpMCcGA1UEAxMgVGVzdCBUZXN0IFRlc3QgVGVzdCBUZXN0I
FRlc3QgQ0EwHhcNOTkwMjE4MDMMzM5WhcNMDAwMjE4MDM0MzM5WjCBrjELMAkGA1UEB
hMCVVMxJjAkBgNVBAoTHU5ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bmljYXRpb25zIENvcnAuMRUwEwYD
VQQLEwOZXRzY2FwZSBDTVMxGDAWBEBEwhtaGFybXNlbjEfMB0GA1UEAxWaW50ZGV2Y2
EgQWRtaW5pcwp0frfJOObeiSsia3BuifRHBNw95ZZQR9NIXr1x5bE
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
The simple certificate information in the cert.simple output file looks like the following:
MAIL=admin@example.com
CN=testCA Administrator
UID=admin
OU=IS
O=Example Corporation
C=US
37
38
Chapter 10.
Pretty Print CRL
The Pretty Print CRL tool, PrettyPrintCrl, prints the contents of a certificate revocation list
(CRL) in an ASCII base-64 encoded file in a readable form.
1. Syntax
The PrettyPrintCrl utility has the following syntax:
PrettyPrintCrl input_file [output-file]
Option
Description
input_file
Specifies the path to the file that contains the
ASCII base-64 encoded CRL.
output_file
Optional. Specifies the path to the file to write
the CRL. If the output file is not specified, the
CRL information is written to the standard
output.
Table 10.1.
2. Usage
The following example PrettyPrintCrl command takes the ASCII base-64 encoded CRL in
the ascii_crl.in file and writes the CRL in the pretty-print form to the output file
ascii_crl.out.
PrettyPrintCrl /usr/home/smith/test/ascii_crl.in
/usr/home/smith/test/ascii_crl.out
The base-64 encoded CRL in the ascii_crl.in file looks like the following:
-----BEGIN CRL----MIIBkjCBAIBATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADAsMREwDwYDVQQKEwhOZXRzY2FwZTEXMBUG
A1UEAxMOQ2VydDQwIFRlc3QgQ0EXDTk4MTIxNzIyMzcyNFowgaowIAIBExcNOTgxMjE
1MTMxODMyWjAMMAoGA1UdFQQDCgEBMCACARIXDTk4MTINTEzMjA0MlowDDAKBgNVHRU
EAwoBAjAgAgERFw05ODEyMTYxMjUxNTRaMAwwCgYDVR0VBAMKAQEwIAIBEBcNOTgxMj
E3MTAzNzI0WjAMMAoGA1UdFQQDCgEDMCACAQoXDTk4MTEyNTEzMTExOFowDDAKBgNVH
RUEAwoBATANBgkqhkiG9w0BQQFAAOBgQBCN85O0GPTnHfImYPROvoorx7HyFz2ZsuKs
VblTcemsX0NL7DtOa+MyY0pPrkXgm157JrkxEJ7GBOeogbAS6iFbmeSqPHj8+
-----END CRL-----
39
Chapter 10. Pretty Print CRL
The CRL in pretty-print format in the ascii_crl.out output file looks like the following:
Certificate Revocation List:
Data:
Version: v2
Signature Algorithm: MD5withRSA - 1.2.840.113549.1.1.4
Issuer: CN=Test CA,O=Example Corporation
This Update: Thu Dec 17 14:37:24 PST 1998
Revoked Certificates:
Serial Number: 0x13
Revocation Date: Tuesday, December 15, 1998 5:18:32 AM
Extensions:
Identifier: Revocation Reason - 2.5.29.21
Critical: no
Reason: Key_Compromise
Serial Number: 0x12
Revocation Date: Tuesday, December 15, 1998 5:20:42 AM
Extensions:
Identifier: Revocation Reason - 2.5.29.21
Critical: no
Reason: CA_Compromise
Serial Number: 0x11
Revocation Date: Wednesday, December 16, 1998 4:51:54 AM
Extensions:
Identifier: Revocation Reason - 2.5.29.21
Critical: no
Reason: Key_Compromise
Serial Number: 0x10
Revocation Date: Thursday, December 17, 1998 2:37:24 AM
Extensions:
Identifier: Revocation Reason - 2.5.29.21
Critical: no
Reason: Affiliation_Changed
Serial Number: 0xA
Revocation Date: Wednesday, November 25, 1998 5:11:18 AM
Extensions:
Identifier: Revocation Reason - 2.5.29.21
Critical: no
Reason: Key_Compromise
Signature:
Algorithm: MD5withRSA - 1.2.840.113549.1.1.4
Signature:
42:37:CE:4E:D0:63:D3:9C:77:C8:99:83:D1:3A:FA:28:
AF:1E:C7:C8:5C:F6:66:CB:8A:B1:56:E5:4D:C7:A6:B1:
7D:0D:2F:B0:ED:39:AF:8C:C9:8D:29:3E:B9:17:82:6D:
79:EC:9A:E4:C4:42:7B:18:13:9E:A2:06:C0:4B:A8:85:
6E:67:92:A8:F1:E3:F3:E2:41:1F:9B:2D:24:D9:DF:4C:
2B:A1:68:CE:96:C7:AF:F7:5B:F7:3D:2F:06:57:39:74:
CF:B2:FA:46:C6:AD:18:60:8D:3E:0C:F7:C1:66:52:37:
CF:89:42:B0:D7:33:C4:95:7E:F4:D9:1E:32:B8:5E:12:
40
Chapter 11.
TKS Tool
The TKS utility, tksTool, manages keys, including keys stored on tokens, the TKS master key,
and related keys and databases.
1. Syntax
The tksTool can be used to manage certificates and keys in several different ways. The syntax
for these different operations is as follows:
• Deleting a key from a token.
tksTool -D -n keyname -d dbdir [-h token_name] [-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
• Inputting shares to generate a new transport key.
tksTool -I -n keyname -d dbdir [-h token_name] [-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
• Displaying the key check value (KCV) of the specified key.
tksTool -K -n keyname -d dbdir [-h token_name] [-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
• Listing a specified key or all keys.
tksTool -L -n keyname -d dbdir [-h all | -h token_name]
[-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile] [-x]
• Generating a new master key.
tksTool -M -n keyname -d dbdir [-h token_name] [-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
• Creating a new key database.
tksTool -N -d dbdir [-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
• Changing the key database password.
41
Chapter 11. TKS Tool
tksTool -P -d dbdir [-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
• Renaming a symmetric key.
tksTool -R -n keyname -r new_keyname -d dbdir [-h token_name]
[-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
• Listing all security modules.
tksTool -S -d dbdir [-p dbprefix] [-x]
• Generating a new transport key.
tksTool -T -n keyname -d dbdir [-h token_name]
[-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile] [-z noiseFile]
• Unwrapping a wrapped master key.
tksTool -U -n keyname -d dbdir -t transport_keyname -i inputFile
[-h token_name] [-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
• Wrapping a new master key.
tksTool -W -n keyname -d dbdir -t transport_keyname -o outputFile
[-h token_name] [-p dbprefix] [-f pwfile]
NOTE
Chrysalis-ITS version 2.3 is required to support version 1.0 of the -R option of
the tksTool.
Transport keys residing on Chrysalis-ITS hardware tokens created by an earlier
version of tksTool cannot have their KCV values determined with the -K option
of the tksTool because the CKA_ENCRYPT and CKF_ENCRYPT bits were not set
when they were created by the previous tool.
42
Syntax
The tksTool options are as follows:
Option
Description
D
Deletes a key from the token.
d
Required. Gives the security module
database (HSM, if allowed for that operation)
or the key database directory (software).
f
Gives the path and filename of the password
file, if one is used.
h
Gives the token name for the toke which
contains the key to be managed. Some
operations allow an all option to manage all
keys in the token.
I
Inputs shares to generate a new transport
key.
i
Required with -U. Gives the path and filename
of the input file which contains the wrapped
master key.
K
Displays the KCV of the specified key.
L
Lists the specified key or all keys.
M
Generates a new master key.
N
Creates a new key database (software).
n
Required for every operation except -N, -P,
and -S. Gives the name of the key being
managed.
o
Required with -W. Gives the path and
filename for the file to which to output the new
wrapped master key.
P
Changes the key database password
(software).
p
Gives the prefix to the key database directory.
R
Renames a symmetric key.
r
Required with -R. Gives the new key name.
S
Lists all security modules.
T
Generates a new transport key.
t
Required with -U and -W. Gives the name of
the transport key being managed.
U
Unwraps the wrapped master key.
W
Wraps the new master key.
x
Forces the database to be read/write.
43
Chapter 11. TKS Tool
Option
Description
z
Gives the path and filename of the noise file
to generate the key.
Table 11.1.
There are two additional options which can be used with tksTool to get more information about
the utility.
Option
Description
H
Displays the extended help information.
V
Display the version number of the tksTool
tool.
Table 11.2.
2. Usage
1. Check the version of tksTool by running the following command:
tksTool -V
This should return output similar to the following:
tksTool: Version 1.0
2. Create new software databases.
tksTool -N -d .
Enter a password which will be used to encrypt your keys.
The password should be at least 8 characters long,
and should contain at least one non-alphabetic character.
Enter new password:
Re-enter password:
44
Usage
NOTE
A hardware HSM can be used instead of the software database if the modutil
utility is first used to insert the HSM slot and token into the secmod.db database.
If an HSM is used, then the option -h hsm_token must be added to each of
commands below.
3. List the contents of the local software key database.
tksTool -L -d .
slot: NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services
token: NSS Certificate DB
Enter Password or Pin for "NSS Certificate DB":
tksTool: the specified token is empty
4. Create a transport key called transport.
tksTool -T -d . -n transport
5. When prompted, fill in the database password, then type in some noise to seed the random
number generator.
6. The session key share and corresponding KCV are displayed. Write down both of these.
7. Run the following command to produce an identical transport key; this is generally used
within another set of databases which need to use identical transport keys. When this is run,
multiple session key shares and KCVs are generated. Write down all of this information.
tksTool -I -d . -n verify_transport
Responses similar to the following appear:
Generating first symmetric key . . .
Generating second symmetric key . . .
Generating third symmetric key . . .
Extracting transport key from operational token . . .
transport key KCV: A428 53BA
Storing transport key on final specified token . . .
Naming transport key "transport" . . .
45
Chapter 11. TKS Tool
Successfully generated, stored, and named the transport key!
8. List the contents of the key database again.
tksTool -L -d .
slot: NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services
token: NSS Certificate DB
Enter Password or Pin for "NSS Certificate DB":
0 transport
9. Use the transport key to generate and wrap a master key, and store the master key in a file
called file.
tksTool -W -d . -n wrapped_master -t transport -o file
Enter Password or Pin for "NSS Certificate DB":
Retrieving the transport key (for wrapping) from the specified token . . .
Generating and storing the master key on the specified token . . .
Naming the master key "wrapped_master" . . .
Successfully generated, stored, and named the master key!
Using the transport key to wrap and store the master key . . .
Writing the wrapped data (and resident master key KCV) into the file
called "file" . . .
wrapped data:
47C0
FE91
master key KCV: CED9
(computed KCV of the
06DB 7D3F D9ED
7E6F A7E5 91B9
4A7B
master key residing inside the wrapped data)
10.List the contents of the software key database again.
tksTool -L -d .
slot: NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services
token: NSS Certificate DB
Enter Password or Pin for "NSS Certificate DB":
0 wrapped_master
1 transport
46
Usage
NOTE
The order of the keys is not important, and some systems may display the keys
in a different order.
11.Use the transport key to generate and unwrap a master key called unwrapped_master stored
in a file called file.
tksTool -U -d . -n unwrapped_master -t transport -i file
Enter Password or Pin for "NSS Certificate DB":
Retrieving the transport key from the specified token (for unwrapping) . . .
Reading in the wrapped data (and resident master key KCV) from the file
called "file" . . .
wrapped data:
47C0
FE91
master key KCV: CED9
(pre-computed KCV of
06DB 7D3F D9ED
7E6F A7E5 91B9
4A7B
the master key residing inside the wrapped data)
Using the transport key to temporarily unwrap the master key to
recompute its KCV value to check against its pre-computed KCV value . . .
master key KCV: CED9 4A7B
(computed KCV of the master key residing inside the wrapped data)
master key KCV: CED9 4A7B
(pre-computed KCV of the master key residing inside the wrapped data)
Using the transport key to unwrap and store the master key on the
specified token . . .
Naming the master key "unwrapped_master" . . .
Successfully unwrapped, stored, and named the master key!
12.List the contents of the key database to show all keys.
tksTool -L -d .
slot: NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services
token: NSS Certificate DB
Enter Password or Pin for "NSS Certificate DB":
0 unwrapped_master
1 wrapped_master
2 transport
13.Delete a key from the database.
47
Chapter 11. TKS Tool
tksTool -D -d . -n wrapped_master
Enter Password or Pin for "NSS Certificate DB":
tksTool: 1 key(s) called "wrapped_master" were deleted
14.List the contents of the key database again to show all keys.
tksTool -L -d .
slot: NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services
token: NSS Certificate DB
Enter Password or Pin for "NSS Certificate DB":
0 unwrapped_master
1 transport
48
Chapter 12.
CMC Request
The CMC Request utility, CMCRequest, creates a CMC request from one or more PKCS #10 or
CRMF requests. The utility can also be used to revoke certificates.
1. Syntax
The CMCRequest command uses a configuration file (.cfg) as a parameter. The .cfg file must
include the path to the file of the formatted CMC request:
CMCRequest /path/to/file.cfg
For revocation requests, the revRequest.enable parameter must be set to true, and related
parameters must contain the appropriate information.
The .cfg file contains the following parameters:
Parameters
Description
numRequests
The total number of PKCS #10 or CRMF
requests. In some cases, the value of this
parameter can be 0.
For example, numRequests=1.
input
The full path and filename of the PKCS #10 or
CRMF request, which must be in base-64
encoded format. Multiple filenames are
separated by white space. This parameter is a
required if the value for numRequests is
greater than 0.
For example, input=crmf1.
output
Required. The full path and filename for the
generated binary CMC request.
For example, output=cmc.
nickname
Required. The nickname of the agent
certificate used to sign the full CMC request.
For example, nickname=CS
Agent-102504a's 102504a ID.
dbdir
49
Chapter 12. CMC Request
Parameters
Description
Required. The full path to the directory where
the cert8.db, key3.db, and secmod.db
databases are located.
For example, dbdir=/u/smith/db/.
password
Required. The token password for cert8.db,
which stores the agent certificate.
For example, password=redhat.
format
The request format, either pkcs10 or crmf.
For example, format=crmf.
Table 12.1.
The following .cfg file parameters set CMC controls:
Parameters
Description
confirmCertAcceptance.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
control. If this parameter is not set, the value
is assumed to be false.
For example,
confirmCertAcceptance.enable=false.
confirmCertAcceptance.serial
The serial number for the
confirmCertAcceptance control.
For example,
confirmCertAcceptance.serial=3.
confirmCertAcceptance.issuer
The issuer name for the
confirmCertAcceptance control.
For example,
confirmCertAcceptance.issuer=cn=Certificate
Manager,ou=102504a,o=102504a,c=us.
getCert.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
attribute. If this parameter is not set, the value
is assumed to be false.
50
Syntax
Parameters
Description
For example, getCert.enable=false.
getCert.serial
The serial number for the getCert control.
For example, getCert.serial=300.
getCert.issuer
The issuer name for the getCert control.
For example,
getCert.issuer=cn=Certificate
Manager,ou=102504a,o=102504a,c=us.
dataReturn.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
control. If this parameter is not set, the value
is assumed to be false.
For example, dataReturn.enable=false.
dataReturn.data
The data contained in the dataReturn
control.
For example, dataReturn.data=test.
transactionMgt.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
control. If this parameter is not set, the value
is assumed to be false.
For example, transactionMgt.enable=true.
transactionMgt.id
The transaction identifier for transactionMgt
control. VeriSign recommends that the
transaction ID should be an MD5 hash of the
public key.
senderNonce.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
control. If this parameter is not set, the value
is assumed to be false.
For example, senderNonce.enable=false.
senderNonce.id
The ID for the senderNonce control.
For example, senderNonce.id=testing.
revRequest.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
control. If this parameter is not set, the value
51
Chapter 12. CMC Request
Parameters
Description
is assumed to be false.
For example, revRequest.enable=true.
revRequest.nickname
The nickname for the certificate being
revoked.
For example,
revRequest.nickname=newuser's 102504a
ID.
revRequest.issuer
The issuer name for the certificate being
revoked.
For example,
revRequest.issuer=cn=Certificate
Manager,ou=102504a,o=102504a,c=us.
revRequest.serial
The serial number for the certificate being
revoked.
For example, revRequest.serial=75.
revRequest.reason
The reason for revoking this certificate. The
allowed values are unspecified,
keyCompromise, caCompromise,
affiliationChanged, superseded,
cessationOfOperation, certificateHold,
and removeFromCRL.
For example,
revRequest.reason=unspecified.
revRequest.sharedSecret
The shared secret for the revocation request.
For example,
revRequest.sharedSecret=testing.
revRequest.comment
A text comment for the revocation request.
For example,
revRequest.comment=readable comment.
revRequest.invalidityDatePresent
If set to true, the current time is the invalidity
date for the revoked certificate. If set to
false, no invalidity date is present.
52
Usage
Parameters
Description
For example,
revRequest.invalidityDatePresent=false.
identityProof.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
control. If this parameter is not set, the value
is assumed to be false.
For example, identityProof.enable=false.
identityProof.sharedSecret
The shared secret for identityProof control.
For example,
identityProof.sharedSecret=testing.
popLinkWitness.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
control. If this parameter is not set, the value
is assumed to be false.
For example,
popLinkWitness.enable=false.
LraPopWitness.enable
If set to true, then the request contains this
control. If this parameter is not set, the value
is assumed to be false.
For example, LraPopWitness.enable=false.
LraPopWitness.bodyPartIDs
The space-delimited list of body part IDs for
the LraPopWtiness control.
For example,
LraPopWitness.bodyPartIDs=1 .
Table 12.2.
2. Usage
Once a simple CMC request, a PKCS #10 request, has been generated, do the following to
send it to the CA:
1. Run the AtoB tool to convert the base-64-encoded PKCS #10 request to binary.
2. Use the HttpClient utility to send the request.
53
Chapter 12. CMC Request
By default, the URI of the servlet that processes a simple CMC request is
/ca/ee/ca/profileSubmitCMCSimple; this must be specified in the HttpClient
configuration.
54
Chapter 13.
CMC Enrollment
The CMC Enrollment utility, CMCEnroll, is used to sign a certificate request with an agent's
certificate. This can be used in conjunction with the CA end-entity CMC Enrollment form to sign
and enroll certificates for users.
1. Syntax
This utility has the following syntax:
CMCEnroll -d directory_containing_agent_cert -h db_password -n
certificate_nickname
-r certificate_request_file -p certificate_DB_passwd [-c comment]
Option
Description
d
The directory containing the cert8.db,
key3.db, and secmod.db files associated with
the agent certificate.
h
Password to the directory specified in the d
option.
n
The nickname of the certificate.
r
The filename of the certificate request.
p
The password to the browser certificate
database.
c
Optional. Includes comments about the
request.
Table 13.1.
NOTE
Surround values that include spaces with quotation marks.
2. Usage
Signed requests must be submitted to the CA, either by sending them directly to the Certificate
Authority or by using the CA agent page. Certificate System provides a Certificate Authority
Certificate Enrollment form called CMCEnrollment.html. The default configuration of this form
does not include the necessary field to paste an enrollment request. To use this form to submit
55
Chapter 13. CMC Enrollment
requests, change the configuration so that this field is available.
To enable the CMC Enrollment form for the CA end-entity interface, do the following:
1. Open the CA's web directory in /var/lib/rhpki-ca/web-apps/ca/ee/ca.
2. Open the CMCEnrollment.html file.
3. Find the following line:
form method="post" action="/enrollment" onSubmit="return
validate(document.forms[0])"
4. Add the following line below that line:
input type="hidden" name="authenticator" value="CMCAuth"
5. After configuring the HTML form, test CMCEnroll and the form by doing the following:
a. Create a certificate request using certutil.
b. Copy the PKCS #10 ASCII output to a text file.
c. Run the CMCEnroll command to sign the certificate request. If the input file is
request34.txt, the agent's certificate is stored in the /export/certs directory, the
certificate common name for this CA is CertificateManagerAgentsCert, and the
password for the certificate database is 1234pass, the command is as follows:
CMCEnroll -d "/export/certs" -n "CertificateManagerAgentsCert" -r
"/export/requests/request34.txt" -p "1234pass"
The output of this command is stored in a file with the same filename and .out appended
to the filename.
d. Submit the signed certificate through the CA end-entities page.
i. Open the end-entities page.
ii. Select the CMC Enrollment profile form.
iii. Paste the content of the output file into the first text area of this form.
iv. Remove -----BEGIN NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST----- and ----END NEW
CERTIFICATE REQUEST----- from the pasted content.
v. Select Certificate Type User Certificate, fill in the contact information, and submit the
56
Usage
form.
e. The certificate is immediately processed and returned since a signed request was sent
and the CMCAuth plug-in was enabled.
f. Use the agent page to search for the new certificates.
57
58
Chapter 14.
CMC Response
The CMC Response utility, CMCResponse, parses a CMC response received by the utility.
1. Syntax
The CMC Response utility uses the following syntax:
CMCResponse -d directoryName -i /path/to/CMCResponse.file
Options
Description
d
Specifies the path to the cert8.db directory.
i
Specifies the path and filename of the CMC
response file.
Table 14.1.
The parsed output is printed to the screen.
59
60
Chapter 15.
CMC Revocation
The CMC Revocation utility, CMCRevoke, signs a revocation request with an agent's certificate.
1. Syntax
This utility has the following syntax:
CMCRevoke -d directoryName -n nickname -i issuerName -s serialName
-m reasonToRevoke -c comment
Option
Description
d
The path to the directory where the cert8.db,
key3.db, and secmod.db databases
containing the agent certificates are located.
n
The nickname of the agent's certificate.
i
The issuer name of the certificate being
revoked.
s
The decimal serial number of the certificate
being revoked.
m
The reason the certificate is being revoked.
The reason code for the different allowed
revocation reasons are as follows:
• 0 - Unspecified.
• 1 - Key compromised.
• 2 - CA key compromised.
• 3 - Affiliation changed.
• 4 - Certificate superseded.
• 5 - Cessation of operation.
• 6 - Certificate is on hold.
c
Text comments about the request.
Table 15.1.
61
Chapter 15. CMC Revocation
NOTE
Surround values that include spaces in quotation marks.
2. Testing CMC Revocation
Test that CMC revocation is working properly by doing the following:
1. Create a CMC revocation request for an existing certificate. For example, if the directory
containing the agent certificate is /var/lib/rhpki-ca/alias/, the nickname of the
certificate is CertificateManagerAgentCert, and the serial number of the certificate is 22,
the command is as follows:
CMCRevoke -d "/var/lib/rhpki-ca/alias" -n "CertificateManagerAgentCert" -i
"cn=agentAuthMgr" -s 22 -m 0 -c "test comment"
2. Open the CA's end-entities page.
3. Select the Revocation tab.
4. Select the CMC Revoke link in the menu.
5. Paste the output from the CMCRevoke operation into the text box. Remove the -----BEGIN
NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST----- and ----END NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST----- lines
from the pasted content.
6. Click Submit.
7. The results page displays that certificate 22 has been revoked.
62
Chapter 16.
CRMF Pop Request
The CRMFPopClient utility is a tool to send a Certificate Request Message Format (CRMF)
request to a Certificate System CA with the request encoded with proof of possession (POP)
data that can be verified by the CA server. If a client provides POP information with a request,
the server can verify that the requester possesses the private key for the new certificate.
The tool does all of the following:
1. Has the CA enforce or verify POP information encoded within a CRMF request.
2. Makes simple certificate requests without using the standard Certificate System agent page
or interface.
3. Makes a simple certificate request that includes a transport certificate for key archival from
the DRM.
1. Syntax
There are two syntax styles for the CRMFPopClient utility, depending on the intended use:
CRMFPopClient token_password authenticator host port username password
[pop_option] subject_dn [OUTPUT_CERT_REQ]
CRMFPopClient token_password [pop_option] OUTPUT_CERT_REQ subject_dn
Option
Description
token_password
The password for the cryptographic token.
authenticator
The authentication manager within the
Certificate System; this is most often set to
nullAuthMgr
host
The hostname of the CA instance.
port
The non-SSL port of the Certificate System
CA.
username
The Certificate System user for whom the
certificate request is issued.
63
Chapter 16. CRMF Pop Request
Option
Description
password
The password of the Certificate System user.
pop_option
Optional. Sets the type of POP request to
generate; since this can generate invalid
requests, this option can be used for testing.
There are three values:
• POP_SUCCESS. Generates a request with the
correct POP information; the server verifies
that the information is correct.
• POP_FAIL. Generates a request with
incorrect POP information; the server
rejects this request if it is submitted. This is
used to test server configuration.
• POP_NONE. Generates a CRMF request with
no POP information. If the server is
configured to verify all the POP information,
then it rejects this request. In that case, it
can be used to test the server configuration.
subject_dn
The distinguished name of the requested
certificate.
OUTPUT_CERT_REQ
Optional. Prints the generated certificate
request to the screen.
Table 16.1.
2. Usage
The following example generates a CRMF/POP request for the Certificate System user admin,
has the server verify that the information is correct, and prints the certificate request to the
screen:
CRMFPopClient password123 nullAuthMgr host.redhat.com 1026 admin redhat \
POP_SUCCESS CN=MyTest,C=US,UID=MyUid OUTPUT_CERT_REQ
The following example generates a CRMF/POP request that includes a transport for key
archival in the DRM. The transport.txt file containing the base-64 encoded transport
64
Usage
certificate must be in the same directory from which the utility is launched; the tool picks up this
file automatically.
CRMFPopClient password123 POP_SUCCESS OUTPUT_CERT_REQ
CN=MyTest,C=US,UID=MyUid
NOTE
A file named transport.txt containing the transport certificate in base-64
format must be created in the directory from which the utility is launched. This file
must be available for archival to a DRM.
65
66
Chapter 17.
Extension Joiner
The Certificate System provides policy plug-in modules that allow standard and custom X.509
certificate extensions to be added to end-entity certificates that the server issues. Similarly, the
Certificate Setup Wizard that generates certificates for subsystem users allows extensions to be
selected and included in the certificates. The wizard interface and the request-approval page of
the agent interface contain a text area to paste any extension in its MIME-64 encoded format.
The text field for pasting the extension accepts a single extension blob. To add multiple
extensions, they must first be combined into a single extension blob, then pasted into the text
field. The ExtJoiner tool joins multiple extensions together into a single MIME-64 encoded
blob. This new, combined blob can then be pasted in the wizard text field or the
request-approval page of the agent interface to specify multiple extensions at once.
1. Syntax
The ExtJoiner utility has the following syntax:
ExtJoiner ext_file0 ext_file1 ... ext_fileN
Option
Description
ext_file#
Specifies the path and names for files
containing the base-64 DER encoding of an
X.509 extension.
Table 17.1.
2. Usage
ExtJoiner does not generate an extension in its MIME-64 encoded format; it joins existing
MIME-64 encoded extensions. To join multiple custom extensions and add the extensions to a
certificate request using ExtJoiner, do the following:
1. Find and note the location of the extension program files.
2. Run ExtJoiner, specifying the extension files. For example, if there are two extension files
named myExt1 and myExt2 in a directory called /etc/extensions, then the command would
be as follows:
ExtJoiner /etc/extensions/myExt1 /etc/extensions/myExt2
67
Chapter 17. Extension Joiner
This creates a base-64 encoded blob of the joined extensions, similar to this example:
MEwwLgYDVR0lAQHBCQwIgYFKoNFBAMGClGC5EKDM5PeXzUGBi2CVyLNCQYFU
iBakowGgYDVR0SBBMwEaQPMA0xCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVT
3. Copy the encoded blob, without any modifications, to a file.
4. Verify that the extensions are joined correctly before adding them to a certificate request by
converting the binary data to ASCII using the AtoB utility and then dumping the contents of
the base-64 encoded blob using the dumpasn1 utility. For information on the AtoB utility, see
Chapter 7, ASCII to Binary. The dumpasn1 tool can be downloaded at
http://fedoraproject.org/extras/4/i386/repodata/repoview/dumpasn1-0-20050404-1.fc4.html.
a. Run the AtoB utility to convert the ASCII to binary.
AtoBinput_file output_file
where input_file is the path and file containing the base-64 encoded data in ASCII and
output_file is the path and file for the utility to write the binary output.
b. Run the dumpasn1 utility.
dumpasn1output_file
where output_file is the path and file containing the binary data. The output looks similar to
this:
0 30 76: SEQUENCE {
2 30 46: SEQUENCE {
4 06 3: OBJECT IDENTIFIER extKeyUsage (2 5 29 37)
9 01 1: BOOLEAN TRUE
12 04 36: OCTET STRING
: 30 22 06 05 2A 83 45 04 03 06 0A 51 82 E4 42 83
: 33 93 DE 5F 35 06 06 2D 82 57 22 CD 09 06 05 51
: 38 81 6A 4A
: }
50 30 26: SEQUENCE {
52 06 3: OBJECT IDENTIFIER issuerAltName (2 5 29 18)
57 04 19: OCTET STRING
: 30 11 A4 0F 30 0D 31 0B 30 09 06 03 55 04 06 13
: 02 55 53
: }
: }
68
Usage
0 warnings, 0 errors.
If the output data do not appeat to be correct, check that the original Java™ extension files
are correct, and repeat converting the files from ASCII to binary and dumping the data until
the correct output is returned.
5. When the extensions have been verified, copy the base-64 encoded blob that was created by
running ExtJoiner to the Certificate System wizard screen, and generate the certificate or
the certificate signing request (CSR).
69
70
Chapter 18.
Key Usage Extension
The GenExtKeyUsage tool creates a base-64 encoded blob that adds ExtendedKeyUsage (OID
2.5.29.37) to the certificate. This blob is pasted into the certificate approval page when the
certificate is created.
1. Syntax
The GenExtKeyUsage tool has the following syntax:
GenExtKeyUsage [true|false] OID ...
Option
Description
true | false
Sets the criticality. true means the extension
is critical; false means it is not critical. The
criticality value is used during the certificate
validation process. If an extension is marked
as critical, then the path validation software
must be capable of interpreting that
extension.
OID
The OID numbers that represent each
certificate type selected for the certificate.
Table 18.1.
For more information on the OIDs that can be used for each certificate type, refer to appendix A,
"Certificate and CRL Extensions," in the Certificate System Administrator's Guide.
71
72
Chapter 19.
Issuer Alternative Name Extension
The GenIssuerAltNameExt creates a base-64 encoded blob that adds the issuer name
extensions, IssuerAltNameExt (OID 2.5.29.18), to the new certificate. This blob is pasted into
the certificate approval page when the certificate is created.
1. Syntax
The GenIssuerAltNameExt tool uses parameter pairs where the first parameter specifies the
general type of name attribute which is used for the issuer and the second parameter gives that
name in that format. The tool has the following syntax:
GenIssuerAltNameExt general_type0 general_name0 ... general_typeN
general_nameN
Parameter
Description
general_type
Sets the type of name. It can be one of the
following strings:
• RFC822Name
• DirectoryName
• DNSName
• EDIPartyName
• URIName
• IPAddress
• OIDName
• OtherName
general_name
A string, conforming to the name type, that
gives the name of the issuer.
• For RFC822Name, the value must be a valid
Internet mail address. For example,
testCA@example.com.
• For DirectoryName, the value must be a
string form of X.500 name, similar to the
subject name in a certificate. For example,
cn=SubCA, ou=Research Dept,
73
Chapter 19. Issuer Alternative Name Extension
Parameter
Description
o=Example Corporation, c=US.
• For DNSName, the value must be a valid
fully-qualified domain name. For example,
testCA.example.com.
• For EDIPartyName, the value must be an
IA5String. For example, Example
Corporation.
• For URIName, the value must be a
non-relative URI following the URL syntax
and encoding rules. The name must include
both a scheme, such as http, and a fully
qualified domain name or IP address of the
host. For example,
http://testCA.example.com.
• For IPAddress, the value must be a valid
IP address. An IPv4 address must be in the
format n.n.n.n or n.n.n.n,m.m.m.m. For
example, 128.21.39.40 or
128.21.39.40,255.255.255.00. An IPv 6
address with netmask is separated by a
comma. For example,
0:0:0:0:0:0:13.1.68.3, FF01::43,
0:0:0:0:0:0:13.1.68.3,FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:2
and
FF01::43,FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FF00:0000.
• For OIDName, the value must be a unique,
valid OID specified in dot-separated
numeric component notation. For example,
1.2.3.4.55.6.5.99.
• OtherName is used for names with any
other format; this supports
PrintableString, IA5String,
UTF8String, BMPString, Any, and
KerberosName. PrintableString,
IA5String, UTF8String, BMPString, and
Any set a string to a base-64 encoded file
specifying the subtree, such as
/var/lib/rhpki-ca/othername.txt.
KerberosName has the format
Realm|NameType|NameStrings, such as
74
Usage
Parameter
Description
realm1|0|userID1,userID2.
Table 19.1.
2. Usage
The following example sets the issuer name in the RFC822Name and DirectoryName formats:
GenIssuerAltNameExt RFC822Name TomTom@redhat.com DirectoryName cn=TomTom
75
76
Chapter 20.
Subject Alternative Name Extension
The GenSubjectAltNameExt creates a base-64 encoded blob to add the alternate subject name
extension, SubjectAltNameExt (OID 2.5.29.17), to the new certificate. This blob is pasted into
the certificate approval page when the certificate is created.
1. Syntax
The GenSubjAltNameExt tool uses parameter pairs where the first parameter specifies the type
of name format, and the second parameter gives that name in the specified format.
This tool has the following syntax:
GenSubjectAltNameExt general_type0 general_name0 ... general_typeN
general_nameN
Parameter
Description
general_type
Sets the type of name that is used. This can
be any of the following strings:
• RFC822Name
• DirectoryName
• DNSName
• EDIPartyName
• URIName
• IPAddress
• OIDName
• OtherName
general_name
A string, conforming to the specified format, of
the subject name.
• For RFC822Name, the value must be a valid
Internet mail address. For example,
testCA@example.com.
• For DirectoryName, the value must be a
string form of X.500 name, similar to the
subject name in a certificate. For example,
77
Chapter 20. Subject Alternative Name Extension
Parameter
Description
cn=SubCA, ou=Research Dept,
o=Example Corporation, c=US.
• For DNSName, the value must be a valid
fully-qualified domain name. For example,
testCA.example.com.
• For EDIPartyName, the value must be an
IA5String. For example, Example
Corporation.
• For URIName, the value must be a
non-relative URI following the URL syntax
and encoding rules. The name must include
both a scheme, such as http, and a fully
qualified domain name or IP address of the
host. For example,
http://testCA.example.com.
• For IPAddress, the value must be a valid
IP address. An IPv4 address must be in the
format n.n.n.n or n.n.n.n,m.m.m.m. For
example, 128.21.39.40 or
128.21.39.40,255.255.255.00. An IPv 6
address with netmask is separated by a
comma. For example,
0:0:0:0:0:0:13.1.68.3, FF01::43,
0:0:0:0:0:0:13.1.68.3,FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:2
and
FF01::43,FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FF00:0000.
• For OIDName, the value must be a unique,
valid OID specified in dot-separated
numeric component notation. For example,
1.2.3.4.55.6.5.99.
• OtherName is used for names with any
other format; this supports
PrintableString, IA5String,
UTF8String, BMPString, Any, and
KerberosName. PrintableString,
IA5String, UTF8String, BMPString, and
Any set a string to a base-64 encoded file
specifying the subtree, such as
/var/lib/rhpki-ca/othername.txt.
KerberosName has the format
78
Usage
Parameter
Description
Realm|NameType|NameStrings, such as
realm1|0|userID1,userID2.
Table 20.1.
2. Usage
In the following example, the subject alternate names are set to the RFC822Name and
DirectoryName types.
GenSubjectAltNameExt RFC822Name TomTom@redhat.com DirectoryName cn=TomTom
79
80
Chapter 21.
HTTP Client
The HTTP Client utility, HttpClient, sends a CMC request (created with the CMC Request
utility) or a PKCS #10 request to a CA.
1. Syntax
This utility takes a single .cfg configuration file as a parameter. The syntax is as follows:
HttpClient /path/to/file.cfg
The .cfg file has the following parameters:
Parameters
Description
host
The hostname for the Certificate System
server. For example: host=server.com
port
The port number for Certificate System
server. For example: port=1028
secure
true for an HTTPS connection, false for an
HTTP connection. For example: secure=true
input
The full path and filename for the enrollment
request, which must be in binary format. For
example: input=cmcReqCRMFBin
output
The full path and filename for the response in
binary format. For example: output=cmcResp
dbdir
The full path to the directory where the
cert8.db, key3.db, and secmod.db
databases are located. This parameter is
ignored if secure=false. For example:
dbdir=/usr/bin
clientmode
true for client authentication, false for no
client authentication. This parameter is
ignored if secure=false. For example:
clientmode=true
password
The password for the cert8.db database.
This parameter is ignored if secure=false
and clientauth=false. For example:
password=redhat
nickname
The nickname of the client certificate. This
parameter is ignored if clientmode=false.
For example: nickname=CS
Agent-102504a's 102504a ID
81
Chapter 21. HTTP Client
Parameters
Description
servlet
The URI of the servlet that processes full
CMC requests. The default value is
/ca/profileSubmitCMCFull. For example:
servlet=/ca/profileSubmitCMCFull
Table 21.1.
82
Chapter 22.
OCSP Request
The OCSP request utility, OCSPClient, creates an OCSP request conforming to RFC 2560,
submits it to the OCSP server, and saves the OCSP response in a file.
1. Syntax
The OCSPClient tool has the following syntax:
OCSPClient host port dbdir nickname serial_number output times
Option
Description
host
Specifies hostname of the OCSP server.
port
Gives the port number of the OCSP server.
dbdir
Gives the location of the security databases
(cert8.db, key3.db, and secmod.db) which
contain the CA certificate that signed the
certificate being checked.
nickname
Gives the CA certificate nickname.
serial_number
Gives the serial number of the certificate
that's status is being checked.
output
Gives the path and file to which to print the
DER-encoded OCSP response.
times
Specifies the number of times to submit the
request.
Table 22.1.
83
84
Chapter 23.
PKCS #10 Client
The PKCS #10 utility, PKCS10Client, generates a 1024-bit RSA key pair in the security
database, constructs a PKCS#10 certificate request with the public key, and outputs the request
to a file.
PKCS #10 is a certification request syntax standard defined by RSA. A CA may support multiple
types of certificate requests. The Certificate System CA supports KEYGEN, PKCS#10, CRMF,
and CMC.
To get a certificate from the CA, the certificate request needs to be submitted to and approved
by a CA agent. Once approved, a certificate is created for the request, and certificate attributes,
such as extensions, are populated according to certificate profiles.
1. Syntax
The PKCS10Client tool has the following syntax:
PKCS10Client -p certDBPassword -d certDBDirectory -o outputFile -s subjectDN
Option
Description
p
Gives the password for the security
databases.
d
Gives the path to the security databases.
o
Sets the path and filename to output the new
PKCS #10 certificate.
s
Gives the subject DN of the certificate.
Table 23.1.
85
86
Chapter 24.
Bulk Issuance Tool
The bulkissuance utility sends a KEYGEN or a CRMF enrollment request to the bulk issuance
interface of a CA to create certificates automatically. The bulkissuance utility does not
generate the certificate request itself. It submits the content in the input file to the CA server's
bulk issuance interface.
The bulk issuance interface is part of the agent interface of the CA. If the request is submitted
through the agent interface, the request is processed, and the certificate is created immediately.
1. Syntax
The bulkissuance command has the following syntax:
bulkissuance -n rsa_nickname [-p password | -w passwordFile]
[-d dbdir] [-v] [-V] -f inputFile hostname:[port]
Option
Description
n
Gives the agent certificate nickname.
p
Gives the certificate database password. Not
used if the -w option is used.
w
Optional. Gives the path to the password file.
Not used if the -p option is used.
d
Optional. Gives the path to the security
databases.
v
Optional. Sets the operation in verbose mode.
V
Optional. Gives the version of the
bulkissuance tool.
f
Gives the path and filename of the input file
containing an HTTP request to send to the
specified hostname.
hostname
Gives the hostname of the server to which to
send the request.
port
Optional. Gives the port number of the server.
Table 24.1.
NOTE
87
Chapter 24. Bulk Issuance Tool
This utility requires an input file which includes the URI to the CA's bulk issuance
interface and the certificate request.
88
Chapter 25.
Revocation Automation Utility
The revoker utility sends revocation requests to the CA agent interface to revoke certificates.
To access the interface, revoker needs to have access to an agent certificate that is acceptable
to the CA.
The revoker tool can do all of the following:
• Specify which certificate or a list of certificates to revoke by listing the hexadecimal serial
numbers.
• Specify a revocation reason.
• Specify an invalidity date.
• Unrevoke a certificate that is currently on hold.
1. Syntax
The revoker utility has the following syntax:
revoker -s serialNumber -n rsa_nickname [-p password
| -w passwordFile] [-d dbdir] [-v] [-V] [-u] [-r reasoncode]
[-i numberOfHours] hostname:[port]
Option
Description
s
Gives the serial numbers in hexadecimal of
the certificates to revoke.
n
Gives the agent certificate nickname.
p
Gives the certificate database password. Not
used if the -w option is used.
w
Optional. Gives the path to the password file.
Not used if the -p option is used.
d
Optional. Gives the path to the security
databases.
v
Optional. Sets the operation in verbose mode.
V
Optional. Gives the version of the revoker
tool.
u
r
Gives the reason to revoke the certificate. The
following are the possible reasons:
89
Chapter 25. Revocation Automation Utility
Option
Description
• 0 - Unspecified (default).
• 1 - The key was compromised.
• 2 - The CA key was compromised.
• 3 - The affiliation of the user has changed.
• 4 - The certificate has been superseded.
• 5 - Cessation of operation.
• 6 - The certificate is on hold.
i
Sets the invalidity date in hours from current
time for when to revoke the certificate.
hostname
Gives the hostname of the server to which to
send the request.
port
Optional. Gives the port number of the server.
Table 25.1.
90
Index
A
ASCII to Binary tool , 31
example , 31
syntax , 31
B
Binary to ASCII tool , 33
example , 33
syntax , 33
C
command-line utilities
ASCII to Binary , 31
Binary to ASCII , 33
extension joiner , 67
for adding extensions to CMS certificates ,
67
PIN Generator , 21
Pretty Print Certificate , 35
Pretty Print CRL , 39
sslget , 15
TKS tool , 41
TokenInfo , 13
24
Pretty Print Certificate tool , 35
example , 35
syntax , 35
Pretty Print CRL tool , 39
example , 39
syntax , 39
S
setpin command , 21
sslget tool , 15
syntax , 15
T
TKS tool
options , 43
sample , 44
syntax , 41
TokenInfo tool , 13
syntax , 13
E
Extension Joiner tool , 67
extensions
tools for generating , 67
ExtJoiner tool
example , 67
syntax , 67
P
PIN Generator tool , 21
exit codes , 30
how it works , 25
how PINs are stored in the directory , 29
output file , 29
checking the directory-entry status , 27
format , 29
reasons to use an output file , 27
overwriting existing PINs in the directory ,
91
92
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