redp-3595
IBM
Front cover
Deploying Samba on
IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Installing Red Hat 7.3, SuSE 8.1 Linux
and IBM Director
Installing Samba
Managing Samba using
SWAT
Rufus Credle
Eric Butler
Tim Verhoeven
David Green
ibm.com/redbooks
Redpaper
International Technical Support Organization
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
November 2003
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page v.
Second Edition (November 2003)
This edition applies to IBM Eserver BladeCenter (8677-1xx), IBM Eserver BladeCenter HS20 (8678-21x
and 8678-41x), Red Hat Linux 7.3 and SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
The team that wrote this Redpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
November 2003, Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages . 1
1.1 Introduction to blade server technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 IBM eServer™ BladeCenter and BladeCenter HS20 features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Technical overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 BladeCenter chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2 IBM eServer BladeCenter HS20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.3 BladeCenter Management Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.4 BladeCenter 1200W Power Supply Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.5 BladeCenter blowers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.6 BladeCenter 4-Port Ethernet Switch Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.7 BladeCenter Layer 2-7 GbE Switch Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.8 BladeCenter 2-Port Fibre Channel Switch Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.9 BladeCenter Acoustic Attenuation Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3 The advantages of IBM eServer BladeCenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.3.1 Systems management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.3.2 High density computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.3.3 Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Chapter 2. Samba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1 What is Samba? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.2 What can you do with Samba? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 CD installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Creating the boot disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Installing Red Hat 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Applying updates and installing the latest kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Network installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Setting up the NFS install server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Setting up the FTP install server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3 Creating the network boot diskette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4 Installing from the NFS server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5 Installing a Linux operating system from the FTP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 PXE Boot installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Configuration of the PXE Boot server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Starting the installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Installation of SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
29
30
30
30
30
35
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38
40
41
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46
iii
3.6 Installation of IBM Director Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.6.1 Overview of IBM Director V4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.6.2 Installation of IBM Director Agent on Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Installing Samba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Configuring the Samba server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Samba configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 Using SWAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Encrypted password file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Starting and stopping the Samba server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Starting Samba as part of the boot process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 Sources and additional information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
58
58
58
64
76
77
77
78
Chapter 5. Samba management and troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 Checking the server status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Checking the status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 Checking resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 Checking WINS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Testing the configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Closing connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 Command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 SWAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Configuring log files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Sending Winpopup messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6 Viewing NetBIOS network traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.1 Installing ethereal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.2 Using ethereal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7 Sources of additional information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
80
80
80
82
83
85
85
87
87
89
90
90
90
94
Chapter 6. A brief introduction to Layer 4-7 Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.1 Layer 4-7 Switching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Appendix A. Samba configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Sample smb.conf with comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Referenced Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Redbooks collections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iv
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
111
111
111
112
112
Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consult
your local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area.
Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to stae or imply tha only tha IBM
produc, program, or service may be used.-1.3.4( An)11.6(y)-8.3( fun)-12.5(c)3.8(ti)-9.1(ona)-12.5(ll)-9.1(y e)-12.5(qui)-9.1(v)2
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
v
Trademarks
The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,
other countries, or both:
™
^™
Redbooks(logo)
eServer™
ibm.com®
pSeries®
xSeries®
zSeries®
AIX®
™
BladeCenter™
Chipkill™
Domino®
DB2®
DFS™
Home Director™
IBM®
Lotus Notes®
Lotus®
Netfinity®
Notes®
Predictive Failure Analysis®
PS/2®
Redbooks™
ServerProven®
Tivoli Enterprise™
Tivoli®
WebSphere®
The following terms are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation and Rational Software
Corporation, in the United States, other countries or both:
Rational Software Corporation®
Rational®
The following terms are trademarks of other companies:
Intel, Intel Inside (logos), MMX, and Pentium are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States, other
countries, or both.
Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the
United States, other countries, or both.
Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun
Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
SET, SET Secure Electronic Transaction, and the SET Logo are trademarks owned by SET Secure Electronic
Transaction LLC.
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.
vi
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Preface
As data centers have grown with the proliferation of Intel®-based servers over recent years,it
is important to note that rack space and floor space can be more efficiently used with the use
of the IBM® IBM Eserver BladeCenter™ HS20 servers. Attractive cost savings are also
possible where a large number of rack installed servers are required, since the equivalent
number of 1U servers would be much more expensive.
This IBM Redpaper describes how to set up and configure Linux and Samba on the IBM
IBM Eserver BladeCenter and provides some pointers on managing the installation. It also
describes the functionality of the IBM IBM Eserver BladeCenter in this type of environment.
The team that wrote this Redpaper
This Redpaper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the
International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center.
Rufus Credle is a Senior I/T Specialist and certified Professional Server Specialist at the
International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center. He conducts residencies
and develops Redbooks™ about network operating systems, ERP solutions, voice
technology, high availability and clustering solutions, Web application servers, pervasive
computing, and IBM and OEM e-business applications, all running IBM Eserver
xSeries® systems. Rufus’s various positions during his IBM career have included
assignments in administration and asset management, systems engineering, sales and
marketing, and IT services. He holds a BS degree in business management from Saint
Augustine’s College. Rufus has been employed at IBM for 22 years.
Eric Butler is a Network Engineer in United States of America. He has three years of
experience with Linux and Open Source software. He holds a degree in Electrical
Engineering. He has worked at IBM for seven years. His areas of expertise include network
monitoring, administration of Lotus® Domino®, AIX®, and Linux systems, DCE/DFS™,
Apache, Samba, MRTG, Cricket, and xSeries and pSeries® hardware. Eric participated
extensively in the writing of Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter, REDP3595.
Tim Verhoeven is an IT Professional in Belgium. He has four years of experience in Linux
and Open Source software. He has worked at IBM for one year. He holds a degree in
Electronics and Computer Science. His areas of expertise include Linux, Apache, Samba,
WebSphere® Application Server, Java™ and J2EE, xSeries and zSeries® hardware and
clustering. Tim participated extensively in the writing of Deploying Apache on IBM Eserver
BladeCenter, REDP3588.
David Green is a Staff Engineer at IBM in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina and works
in BladeCenter ecosystem development. He worked on the development of the Layer 2-7
GbE Switch Module and the Optical Passthrough Module for BladeCenter. He has a Bachelor
of Science degree in Information Systems from UNC-Greensboro. His areas of expertise
include IBM IBM Eserver BladeCenter, Fibre Channel, SANS and networking.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
vii
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
Tamikia Barrow, Diane O’Shea, Gail Christensen, Cecilia Bardy, Jeanne Tucker
International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center
Stephen Hochstetler
International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center
Rob Sauerwalt, Global Brand Manager and Team Lead - IBM IBM Eserver Marketing
IBM Raleigh
Amy Freeman, Manager, Brand and ISV Communications, xSeries Linux Marketing
IBM Raleigh
ITSO PC-5009 project team: David Robertson, David L Brown, Lowell Davis, Thomas Ternau
IBM Raleigh
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viii
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Summary of changes
This section describes the technical changes made in this edition of the paper and in previous
editions. This edition may also include minor corrections and editorial changes that are not
identified.
Summary of Changes
for Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
as created or updated on November 20, 2003.
November 2003, Second Edition
This revision reflects the addition, deletion, or modification of new and changed information
described below.
New information
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Added 1.2.7, “BladeCenter Layer 2-7 GbE Switch Module” on page 13
Added Chapter 6, “A brief introduction to Layer 4-7 Switching” on page 95
Added information to 1.2.4 “BladeCenter 1200W Power Supply Module”
Added URLs to the bibliography
Changed information
򐂰 None at this time
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
ix
x
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
1
Chapter 1.
Introduction to IBM eServer
BladeCenter technology and its
advantages
In this chapter, we will introduce the IBM Eserver BladeCenter. This introduction includes an
overview of the BladeCenter technology and hardware for the chassis and the blades; we
also look at blade management and the options that are currently available. We will also
discuss the advantages of blade servers over other servers in the market, where the blade
servers fit into the market and why the market is driven towards blade servers.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 Introduction to blade server technology
Blade servers are a relatively new technology that has captured industry focus because of its
modular design, which can reduce cost with a more efficient use of valuable floor space, and
its simplified management, which can help to speed up such tasks as deploying,
reprovisioning, updating and troubleshooting hundreds of blade servers. All this can be done
remotely with one graphical console using IBM Director systems management tools. In
addition, blade servers provide improved performance by doubling current rack density. By
integrating your resources and sharing key components, you will not only reduce cost but
also increase availability.
1.1.1 IBM eServer™ BladeCenter and BladeCenter HS20 features
򐂰 The IBM Eserver BladeCenter has the following features:
– Rack-optimized, 7U modular design enclosure: holds up to 14 hot-swap BladeCenter
HS20 blades with up to six enclosures in a 42U rack.
– Contains a high availability MidPlane supporting the hot-swap of individual blades.
– Two 1200-watt, hot-swap power modules and support for two optional 1200-watt power
modules: provides redundancy and power for robust configurations. See the guidelines
in 1.2.4, “BladeCenter 1200W Power Supply Module” on page 9.
– Two hot-swap 325 CFM blowers and thermal sensors throughout to monitor and alert
you to over-temperature conditions.
– Management module: lets you manage and control components in the enclosure.
– Optional hot-swap redundant Ethernet and Fibre Channel switch modules (supports up
to four network switch modules).
– Control panel : contains USB port and status LEDs.
򐂰 The IBM Eserver BladeCenter HS20 features are as follows:
– Choose between 2.0 or 2.4 GHz(1) Xeon processors with quad-pumped 400 MHz
front-side bus (FSB) and full-speed 512 KB ECC L2 caches.
– Standard 512 MB system memory with Chipkill ECC support: supports 8GB maximum,
when 2GB memory module becomes available.
– Dual Broadcom Gigabit Ethernet controllers with teaming and failover support.
– Integrated service processor: monitors critical components on each blade for remote
and local systems management.
– ATA-100 IDE controller: economical interface for up to two optional 40 GB IDE HDDs.
– SCSI expansion connector: supports optional storage unit containing an Ultra320
RAID 1 SCSI controller and backplane support for two hot-swap HDDs.
Each of these features will be discussed in greater detail later in the paper, as well as a few
other important points.
2
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
1.2 Technical overview
In this section, we will look at each of the key components individually and explain their
function within the IBM Eserver BladeCenter and the BladeCenter HS20.
1.2.1 BladeCenter chassis
The IBM Eserver BladeCenter is a 7U modular chassis capable of housing up to 14 blade
servers. The BladeCenter chassis allows individual blades to share resources such as power,
switch, management and blower modules. The front view of the BladeCenter chassis is
shown below in Figure 1-1. We can see the fourteen slots which, in this example, has been
populated by one blade server and thirteen Processor Blade Fillers. These Processor Blade
Fillers are required if a slot is not populated by a blade server or the HS20 SCSI Expansion
Option, which will be discussed later, to provide proper airflow and system cooling. The
BladeCenter Media Tray is also shown; it is located at the top of the chassis above the blade
slots. This is shown in greater detail in Figure 1-2 on page 4.
Figure 1-1 Front view of BladeCenter chassis
The Media Tray is a hot-pluggable unit that contains an interface card, CD-ROM and diskette
drive. Mounted on the interface card is a USB 1.1 port and system information LEDs which
provide status information for your IBM Eserver BladeCenter and BladeCenter HS20s.
There are five LEDs on the front panel. Figure 1-2 on page 4 illustrates the location of these
LEDs. The five LEDs are:
Power
This is a green LED which indicates the presence of power in the
BladeCenter chassis. If this LED is not on, it could indicate one of the
following conditions:
•
•
•
Location
There is no power to the chassis.
The management module is not present or has failed.
The LED has failed.
This LED is used to locate or identify the particular IBM Eserver
BladeCenter. When on, this LED is bright blue and can be set to blink
or remain constant. This LED will be on as a result of a request from
the systems administrator via the Management Module or if a
component requires maintenance.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
3
Over- temperature
This is an amber LED which will report any over-temperature
conditions that occur either in the BladeCenter chassis or the blade
servers. If an over-temperature condition occurs, the IBM Eserver
BladeCenter may increase the speed of the blower to correct this, in
which case the LED will automatically be turned off.
Information
The information LED is also amber; this LED reports non-critical
events. These events are recorded in the Error log. This LED must be
manually switched off via the management module.
System Error
Again, this is an amber LED which reports when a system error
occurs. This LED reports errors such as a failure of a power, blower or
switch modules. It will also be on if a system error occurs on a blade.
The failed component’s LED will also be on to help isolate the error.
These system LEDs are also located on the rear of the BladeCenter chassis under blower
module 2.
Figure 1-2 Media tray front view
As we discussed earlier, the BladeCenter chassis is capable of housing several hot swap and
redundant components, such as:
򐂰 Power supply modules
򐂰 Switch modules
򐂰 Management modules
򐂰 Blower modules
In Figure 1-3 on page 5, you can see where each of these components should be located in
the rear of the IBM Eserver BladeCenter.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Figure 1-3 Rear view of BladeCenter chassis
The IBM Eserver BladeCenter automatically detects all blades and modules that are
installed.
1.2.2 IBM eServer BladeCenter HS20
The IBM Eserver BladeCenter HS20 blades are high-throughput, two-way SMP-capable
Xeon-based blade servers, highly scalable by adding memory and a second processor. Two
Intel Xeon connectors are standard on the blade board to support installation of a second
processor. High-speed, PC2100 DDR SDRAM is synchronized for up to 400 MHz
processor-to-memory subsystem performance with current processors. There are four
memory DIMM connectors; due to two-way interleaving, installation of memory options in
pairs is required. Current memory options available are 256 MB, 512 MB and 1 GB size
DIMMs, which support a minimum of 512 MB and a maximum of 4 GB of system memory. In
the future, IBM will release a 2 GB memory option which will see the maximum system
memory double from 4 GB to 8 GB.
Figure 1-4 on page 6 shows the BladeCenter HS20 with its top cover removed.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
5
Figure 1-4 BladeCenter HS20 with top cover removed
Each BladeCenter HS20 has an integrated service processor on-board that communicates
with the BladeCenter Management Module to enable blade server management remotely
(see 1.2.3, “BladeCenter Management Module” on page 8 for more details on the
management module). The service processor provides the following functions:
򐂰 Loader and OS Watch Timer
򐂰 Remote soft shutdown
򐂰 POST Watchdog Timer
򐂰 Light Path support
򐂰 VPD support
򐂰 PFA for VRM/CPU/Memory/HD
򐂰 Numeric based Error log
򐂰 ASM interconnect support (RS485)
򐂰 Environmental querying and alerts (TEMP/Voltages)
򐂰 Automatic Server Restart
򐂰 Remote Power On/Off
򐂰 In-band support for UMS/Director
򐂰 I2C interface to core logic (CSB5 chip)
򐂰 Local Environmental Monitoring
򐂰 Local LED control
򐂰 RS-485 interface to the Management Modules
The BladeCenter HS20 also has two integrated Ethernet controllers for redundancy. If
redundancy is required, you must install Ethernet switch modules in switch module bays 1
and 2 (see 1.2.6, “BladeCenter 4-Port Ethernet Switch Module” on page 12 for more details).
6
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Each controller is auto-sensing and will connect at the appropriate rate, even if the transfer
rate is 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps. The controller will also set the appropriate duplex
state.
The Ethernet controller is capable of providing several teaming options that increase
throughput and fault tolerance. In your blade server, a team consists of the two Ethernet
controllers to utilize the options below:
Adapter fault tolerance (AFT)
Provides automatic redundancy for your Ethernet
controllers. You can configure either one of the
integrated Ethernet controllers as the primary Ethernet
controller. If the primary link fails, the secondary
controller takes over. When the primary link is restored
to an operational state, the Ethernet traffic switches back
to the primary Ethernet controller.
Adaptive load balancing (ALB)
Enables you to balance the transmission data flow
among the two controllers. ALB also includes the AFT
option. You can use ALB with any
100BASE-TX/1000BASE-T switch.
Cisco Fast EtherChannel (FEC)
Creates a team of two controllers to increase
transmission and reception throughput. FEC also
includes the AFT option. You can use FEC only with a
switch that has FEC capability.
The BladeCenter HS20 has a control panel which is located at the top of the blade servers, as
shown in Figure 1-5.
(Error)
Figure 1-5 Blade server operators panel
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
7
Like the IBM Eserver BladeCenter’s media tray, this control panel also has system
information LEDs. The only difference is that the blade’s panel also has control switches,
which are detailed below.
Media-select button
Press this button to associate the CD-ROM drive, diskette drive,
and USB port with this blade server. This button lights when the
ownership of the CD-ROM drive, diskette drive, and USB port
transfers to this blade server.
Blade-error
This LED is also known as the blade system-error LED. When this
amber LED is on, it indicates a system error has occurred in the
blade.
Information
When this amber LED is on, it indicates information about a system
error for this server has been placed in the BladeCenter System
Error log.
Location
This blue LED is turned on in response to a programmed condition,
or remotely by the system administrator, to aid in blade
identification for maintenance. The location LED on the
IBM Eserver BladeCenter will be on also. Turn off the location
LED after maintenance is complete.
Activity
When this green LED is on, it indicates that there is activity in the
blade server; this includes hard disk and network activity.
Power-on
While the IBM Eserver BladeCenter has AC power, this green
LED turns on and stays on when you turn on your blade server.
Console select button
Press this button to associate the keyboard, mouse, and video
ports with this blade server. This button lights when the ownership
of the keyboard, mouse, and video transfers to this blade server.
Power-control button
This button is located behind the control panel door. Press this
button to manually turn the blade server on or off.
Note: The power-control button only has effect if the local power control option is enabled
via the Management Module.
1.2.3 BladeCenter Management Module
The BladeCenter Management Module’s primary function is to provide systems management
for your IBM Eserver BladeCenter and blade servers, but it does have other important
functions such as multiplexing the keyboard/video/mouse (KVM) to provide a local console
for the individual blade servers and configuring the BladeCenter unit and switch modules. The
management module communicates with all of the key components of the IBM Eserver
BladeCenter including the switch, power and blower modules, as well as the blade servers
themselves. The management module detects the presence, absence and condition of each
of these components. A picture of the BladeCenter Management Module is shown in
Figure 1-6 on page 9.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Figure 1-6 BladeCenter Management Module
The Management Module has a standard RJ45 connector for a 10/100MB Ethernet remote
console connection, as well as two PS/2® connectors for keyboard, mouse and a 15-pin
D-shell connector for video which are provided for the local console. Although the connectors
for the keyboard and mouse are PS/2 type connectors, these devices are routed to a USB
bus, enabling them to be switched between blades.
Note: The operating system in each blade must provide USB support for the blade server
to recognize and make use of the keyboard and mouse.
The Management Module will retrieve and monitor critical information about the chassis and
blade servers such as temperature, voltages, power supply, memory, fan and HDD status;
this information will then be fed into an error and status log.
The manageability functions of the IBM Eserver BladeCenter are accessible via a Web GUI
that is contained in the management module. This GUI allows you to view the status of, and
control each blade server, which includes shutting down and restarting.
1.2.4 BladeCenter 1200W Power Supply Module
The standard BladeCenter chassis will ship with two 1200W Power Supply Modules, but,
depending on the configuration of your IBM Eserver BladeCenter, you may require all four
power modules. The standard two power modules provide power for the following
components:
򐂰 Blade slots 1 through 6
򐂰 Blowers
򐂰 Management modules
򐂰 Switch modules
򐂰 Media tray
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
9
Figure 1-7 BladeCenter 1200W Power Supply Module
Power Modules 3 and 4 are required to provide power to blade slots 7 to 14. Figure 1-8 on
page 11 shows how power is distributed by each power module. One power module is
capable of providing enough power in the event of a power module failure. Power module 2
provides redundancy for power module 1 and power module 4 does the same for power
module 3, although these power modules will effectively share the load under normal
operating conditions. Supported configurations require either two or four power supplies,
which is why when you order the optional BladeCenter 1200W Power Supply Module kit, you
will receive two of the power modules.
Important: Nonredundant power is not supported in BladeCenter products. Power
modules must always be present in power bays 1 and 2. When any blade server or option
is in blade bay 7 through 14, power modules must be present in power bays 1 and 2, as
well as in power bays 3 and 4. If a power module fails or an ac power failure occurs,
BladeCenter units configured for redundant power operation, as described in this
document, will operate in a nonredundant mode, and the blower modules will run at full
speed. You must replace the failing power module or restore ac power as soon as possible
to regain redundant power operation and to reset the blower modules to their normal
operating speed.
BladeCenter power module upgrade guidelines
This section contains information that will help you determine whether you need to upgrade
the power modules in your IBM ^ BladeCenter unit when installing IBM ^
BladeCenter HS20 blade servers.
As of the date of this printing, three BladeCenter power-module options are available: IBM
BladeCenter 1200W Power Supply Module (part number 48P7052), IBM BladeCenter 1200W
to 1400W Power Supply Upgrade Kit (part number 90P0197), and IBM BladeCenter 1800W
Power Supply Module (part number 13N0570). Go to http://www.ibm.com/pc/compat/ for
information about ordering these options. Obtain and use the Technical Update with your
BladeCenter and blade server documentation for future reference.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
The Technical Update can be obtained from the following URLs:
http://www-1.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=psg1MIGR-53353
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/pc/pccbbs/pc_servers_pdf/13n0308.pdf
Figure 1-8 MidPlane power connector
1.2.5 BladeCenter blowers
The IBM Eserver BladeCenter ships with both hot-swap blowers which are required to
provide adequate cooling; these blowers provide a total airflow of approximately 325 CFM;
however, each blower will run at approximately 50% under normal conditions. If one blower
fails, the other blower is capable of providing enough cooling for the entire chassis. However,
the failed blower should be replaced within 48 hours. The speed of the blowers is controlled
via the Management Module which receives signals from thermal monitors located in critical
locations. There are two scenarios which will cause both blowers to function at full speed:
򐂰 The management module fails and the redundant module is not present.
򐂰 One of the power supply modules fails.
In Figure 1-9 on page 12, you can see that there are four fins which are currently closed since
the blower is not operational. When operational, the blower draws the air from the front to the
rear. Each blower also has an LED which will light up in the event of an error.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
11
Figure 1-9 BladeCenter Blower Module
1.2.6 BladeCenter 4-Port Ethernet Switch Module
The Ethernet Switch Module (Figure 1-10 on page 13) has several purposes; in addition to
providing network connectivity for the IBM Eserver BladeCenter and blades, it also provide
interconnectivity between the blades and management modules. The Ethernet switch module
does not come standard with the IBM Eserver BladeCenter; it is available for purchase as
an option but it is required in most cases and should be installed in switch bay 1. This module
is a fully functional Ethernet switch which has four 1000 Mbps ports externally, two internal
10/100 Mbps links to the management modules and fourteen 1000 Mbps links to the blades,
which are also internal. Two of these switch modules can be added for redundancy. The
switch module is configured via the Management Module.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Figure 1-10 BladeCenter 4-Port Ethernet Switch Module
In Figure 1-10, the two LEDs at the top of the switch module indicate power-on and Ethernet
switch errors. There are also LEDs next to each port which indicate Ethernet link and activity.
1.2.7 BladeCenter Layer 2-7 GbE Switch Module
The Ethernet switch module (Figure 1-11 on page 14) has several purposes. In addition to
providing network connectivity for the BladeCenter unit and blade servers, it also provides
interconnectivity between the blades and management modules. The Layer 2-7 GbE Switch
Module does not come standard with the IBM Eserver BladeCenter. It is available for
purchase as an option, but it is required in most cases and should be installed in switch bay 1.
This module is a fully functional Ethernet switch that has four 1000 Mbps ports externally, two
internal 10/100 Mbps links to the Management Modules and 14 1000 Mbps links to the
blades, which are also internal. Two of these switch modules can be added for redundancy.
The switch module is configured via the Management Module. For a more in-depth look at
Layer 2-7 Switching, refer to the Redpaper IBM Eserver BladeCenter Layer 2-7 Network
Switching, REDP3755.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
13
Figure 1-11 BladeCenter 4-port Ethernet Switch Module
In Figure 1-11, the two LEDs at the top of the switch module indicate power-on and Ethernet
switch error. There are also LEDs next to each port that indicate Ethernet link and activity.
1.2.8 BladeCenter 2-Port Fibre Channel Switch Module
If you require Fibre Channel connectivity for your IBM Eserver BladeCenter, there are two
things you are required to do:
1. Install the IBM HS20 Fibre Channel Expansion Card in each blade that requires an FC
connection.
2. Install one BladeCenter 2-Port Fibre Channel Switch Module (Figure 1-12 on page 15) in
switch bay 3. If redundancy is required, a FC switch module must be installed in switch bay
4.
Each port on the FC switch module is capable of supporting transmission speeds of either 1
or 2 Gbps and must auto-negotiate to match the speed of any connected devices. A Small
Form factor Pluggable (SFP) transceiver is required to populate these ports; these SFP
transceivers are hot pluggable. The FC switch module is also managed through the
Management Module.
14
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Figure 1-12 BladeCenter 2-Port Fibre Channel Switch Module
The storage options for the IBM Eserver BladeCenter are covered in Chapter 3, “Storage
options for the BladeCenter” of the Redpaper The Cutting Edge: IBM Eserver BladeCenter,
REDP3581.
1.2.9 BladeCenter Acoustic Attenuation Module
In environments where it is important to minimize sound emissions, there is a noise reduction
option available that can be installed on the rear of the IBM Eserver BladeCenter. This
option is called the BladeCenter Acoustic Attenuation Module (acoustic module or muffler).
The acoustical noise emissions for a single BladeCenter unit configured with 14
IBM Eserver BladeCenter HS20 servers are:
򐂰 7.4 bels (operating)
򐂰 7.4 bels (idling)
The acoustical noise emissions for a single BladeCenter unit with a BladeCenter Acoustic
Attenuation Module option installed and configured with 14 IBM Eserver BladeCenter HS20
servers are:
򐂰 6.9 bels (operating)
򐂰 6.9 bels (idling)
For visibility purposes, the system LEDs on the rear of the BladeCenter unit have been
replicated on the acoustic module, as these are covered when this option is fitted. The
acoustic module also fully covers the blower modules and partly covers the other modules
installed.
Note: The BladeCenter Acoustic Attenuation Module requires approximately eight inches
between the rear of the IBM Eserver BladeCenter and the rack door. For this reason, the
NetBay 42 Enterprise Rack Cabinet should be used when installing the IBM Eserver
BladeCenter with this option.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
15
1.3 The advantages of IBM eServer BladeCenter
Unlike typical server architecture which scales up, the BladeCenter allows for the scale out
approach, yet balances performance and density. In this section, we identify the advantages
of the BladeCenter for your business, such as:
򐂰 Systems management
򐂰 High density computing
򐂰 Redundancy
1.3.1 Systems management
The systems management component for the BladeCenter is the combination of IBM
Director, the Web interface and Rapid Deployment Manager (RDM). With these tools, you
can reduce system outages, increase IT personnel productivity and reduce support costs.
IBM Director
IBM Director is a comprehensive workgroup hardware manager designed for use with
IBM Eserver xSeries servers, PCs, notebooks and now IBM Eserver BladeCenter.
IBM Director provides a comprehensive view of the xSeries servers.
򐂰 Remote access to the server regardless of its status
򐂰 Resetting or cycling of the server
򐂰 Server inventory, AssetID, blade slot numbers utilized
򐂰 Monitoring and setting thresholds on the server events, including PFA
򐂰 Flash BIOS
򐂰 Monitoring and identifying potential performance bottlenecks
IBM Director allows you to reduce system outages, increase IT personnel productivity and
reduce support costs.
These goals can be accomplished by:
򐂰 Monitoring server health
򐂰 PFA - Predictive Failure Analysis®
򐂰 Integration with enterprise system management environments
Monitoring server health
By setting thresholds on components within IBM Director, you can monitor the following:
򐂰 Operating system load
򐂰 POST time-out
򐂰 Voltage
򐂰 Temperature
PFA - Predictive Failure Analysis
Setting alerts on disk, memory and processors via PFA allows you to identify imminent
component failure. PFA can monitor the following:
򐂰 Processors
򐂰 Memory
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
򐂰 Fans
򐂰 Power supplies
򐂰 SCSI HDDs
Integration with enterprise system management environments
IBM Director agents should be installed on each of the blade servers as this allows system
management of the blades and also provides the advanced management capabilities of the
xSeries servers to be accessed from such products as:
򐂰 Tivoli® Enterprise™ and Tivoli Netview
򐂰 Computer Associates CA Unicenter TNG
򐂰 HP OpenView
򐂰 Microsoft® SMS
򐂰 BMC Patrol
򐂰 NetIQ
This is an important consideration for organizations who have already spent time, money and
resources on existing system management tools.
Web interface
The Web interface allows you to configure and remotely manage your IBM Eserver
BladeCenter via a browser; this is built into the management module.
Supported browsers and required components are:
򐂰 Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 Service Pack 1, or later
򐂰 Netscape Navigator 4.72, or later (version 6.0 is not supported)
򐂰 Java-enabled Web browser
򐂰 Support for JaveScript 1.2 or later
򐂰 HTTP 1.0, or later
򐂰 Minimum display resolution 800*600 pixels and 256 colors
Note: The Web interface does not support double-byte character set languages (DBCS).
The Management Module Ethernet port either receives a DHCP assigned address within two
minutes of connecting to the LAN or it defaults to the following IP address 192.168.70.125
with a subnet address of 255.255.255.0. The default hostname is MMxxxxxxxxxxxx where
xxxxxxxxxxxx is the MAC address.
Note: If multiple IBM Eserver BladeCenters are to be configured, only one can be
assigned the default IP address of 92.168.70.125, otherwise IP address conflicts will occur.
If your DHCP server is not on the same subnet as the BladeCenter Management Module
console, DHCP traffic needs to be allowed to traverse the router to the Management
Module console to receive an DHCP assigned address, or IBM Director Server needs to be
on the same subnet as the IBM Eserver BladeCenter.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
17
The Web interface allows you to manage and check the status of each of the modules and
blade servers. Below is a list of the functions and sub-functions available.
򐂰 Monitor
– System status
– Event log
– Vital product data
򐂰 Blade Tasks
– Power/restart
– Firmware update
– Configuration
򐂰 Switch tasks
– Power/restart
– Management
򐂰 MM console (Management Module)
– General settings
– Login profiles
– Alerts
– Network interface
– Network protocols
– Security
– Configuration file
– Fireware update
– Restore defaults
– Reset MM
򐂰 Log off
RDM - Rapid Deployment Manager
This powerful tool allows you to deploy system images to the blade servers from the
administrator's console.
RDM supports the following environments:
򐂰 Windows® 2000
򐂰 Windows 2000 Advanced Server
The advantages of Rapid Deployment Manager are:
򐂰 Rapid deployment of Operating System image to the destination server
򐂰 Hot-spare blade option: see “Hot-spare blades” on page 22.
1.3.2 High density computing
As data centers have grown with the proliferation of Wintel servers over recent years, it is
important to note that rack space and floor space can be more efficiently taken up with the
use of blade servers. A fully populated 42U rack is capable of holding six IBM Eserver
BladeCenters and 84 dual processor blade servers, for a total of 168 CPUs per rack. This is
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
twice the current density of a non-blade server. The IBM Eserver BladeCenter supports a
minimum of one 4 port 1 GB Ethernet switch for up to fourteen blade servers. A total of four
switch modules can be utilized within the IBM Eserver BladeCenter. This can be a
combination of either Fiber Channel or Ethernet.
We recommend the use of blade servers for the following situations:
򐂰 Space constrained environments
򐂰 WebSphere
򐂰 Linux clusters
򐂰 Web caching
򐂰 Collaboration applications (Lotus Notes®, Microsoft Exchange and Citrix)
򐂰 Dynamic Web serving - Load balancing
򐂰 Firewall
򐂰 Telecommunications
򐂰 Active directory services
򐂰 Scientific and technical computing
These applications are typically processor and memory intensive, and so lend themselves to
the scale out option rather then the scale up option. The scale out option is where the
strength of the IBM Eserver BladeCenter becomes obvious. Due to the highly scalable
range of components available with the BladeCenter unit, the blade server has a huge
market.
Figure 1-13 Scale up versus scale out
Attractive cost savings are also possible where a large number of rack installed servers are
required. These savings run from power usage, to hardware procurement (due to not
duplicating components), through to server management. Table 1-1 on page 20
demonstrates the input voltage required for different servers providing the same number of
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
19
CPUs. It also shows the heat output in BTUs, which can affect the cooling of your computer
room and other equipment within the computer room.
Table 1-1 Power and BTU usage
Number of
Servers
Processor
Maximum
load watts
BTU
IBM x330 4MX
14
Pentium® III 1.4GHz
3080
10502
IBM x335
14
Xeon 2.4GHz
4760
16231
IBM x342 - Dual Power
14
Pentium III 1.4GHz
5250
19821
IBM x345 - Dual Power
14
Xeon 2.4GHz
7000
23870
IBM Eserver
14
Xeon 2.4GHz
2500
8530
BladeCenter
Note: The IBM Eserver BladeCenter in Table 1-1 is utilizing the onboard IDE controller.
Deploying an IBM Eserver BladeCenter is far simpler than deploying 14 1U servers and the
associated cables. A single IBM Eserver BladeCenter only requires a KVM cable, one
power cable, one Ethernet cable and a single system management cable. Even with a
redundancy of these components, cabling can be reduced by eighty-three percent (see
Table 1-2 for a typical example).
Table 1-2 Cable utilization
1U Solution
(2 - 42U Racks)
IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Power
84
12
Ethernet
168
48
KVM
84
6 (ACT)
6 (boxes)
1 (ACT)
KVM interconnect
5
0
Management connect
84
6
Total
431
73
Switch
Solution
(2 - 42U Racks)
The IBM Eserver BladeCenter is not intended to replace any of the xSeries suite of
products, but rather to provide additional configuration options.
1.3.3 Redundancy
We all know failures occur occasionally; we also know that redundancy of key components
increases system availability. Although previously, it was expensive to purchase redundant
options for individual servers, the high availability features found in conventional xSeries rack
servers have also been included within IBM Eserver BladeCenter. These features include:
򐂰 Hot-spare blades
򐂰 Processor
򐂰 Memory protection
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
򐂰 Disk mirroring
򐂰 MidPlane
򐂰 Hot-swap power and cooling modules
򐂰 Switch modules
Figure 1-14 Module location on the rear of the IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Table 1-3 outlines which components can be redundant, hot swap, PFA or have Light Path
diagnostics.
Table 1-3 Redundant, Hot-swap, PFA or Light Path
Redundant
Hot Swap
PFA
Light Path
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Auto Recovery
No
Yes
Yes
ECC w/Auto
down size
No/Tool less
Yes
Yes
Power Supplies
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Cooling Fans
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Management
Module
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
Switch Module
Yes
Yes
TBD
TBD
Backplane
Yes
No
No
No
Front Plane
/Media Tray
No
Yes
No
No
CD ROM Drive
No
No
No
No
Floppy Drive
No
No
No
No
Hard Drive
Raid
Only with Blade
Storage
expansion (HS
SCSI drives)
Yes
Yes
Power Cable
Yes
Yes
No
No
Blade
Processor
Memory
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
21
Hot-spare blades
MidPlane supports hot-spare blade servers; this operates in the same fashion as the
hot-spare drive. By creating events within IBM Director, you can deploy an operating system
to a hot-spare blade server automatically.
Processor
In a dual processor blade server, if a CPU fails, the following steps are taken by the system.
1. Force failed processor offline
2. Automatically re-boot server
3. Generate alerts
4. Continue operating with the working processor
Memory
There are four memory slots; memory must be installed in matching pairs. The following
redundancy options are available:
򐂰 Chipkill™ ECC - provides correction for up to 4 bits per DIMM
򐂰 Memory hardware scrubbing - corrects soft memory errors automatically
򐂰 PFA - Creates alerts of imminent failure
Disk mirroring
Refer to Chapter 3, “Storage options for the BladeCenter” of the Redpaper The Cutting Edge:
IBM Eserver BladeCenter, REDP3581 for hardware and software mirroring options of IDE
and SCSI disks.
MidPlane
The middle plane provides connectivity between the blades and the modules at the rear of the
BladeCenter unit. There are two connections on each blade server to independent middle
planes for redundancy.
Hot-swap power and cooling modules
By sharing fans, power supplies, cables and other components within a BladeCenter unit and
installing the redundant options for these, your organization can reduce the number of points
of potential failure, thus increasing system availability.
Blowers
Two hot-swap blowers are standard in the IBM Eserver BladeCenter; the blower speed
varies depending on the temperature. A failed blower needs to be replaced within 48 hours.
Note: An Acoustic Attenuation Module can be fitted to reduce noise.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Shaft
Locking
handle
Acoustic muffler
Figure 1-15 Acoustic Attenuation Module
Power
The IBM Eserver BladeCenter comes with two 220 volt 1200 watt hot-swap power modules
in power bays 1 and 2. Table 1-4 outlines the power module bays and their functions.
Table 1-4 Power module bays
Power
module bays
Power module function
1
Provides power to all the BladeCenter modules in server bay slots 1-6.
2
Redundancy for Power module bay 1.
3
Provides power to all the BladeCenter modules in server bay slots 7-14.
4
Redundancy for Power module bay 3.
Note: A blade server in bay 6 with a SCSI storage expansion option requires a power
module in power module bays 3 and 4 to support the SCSI storage expansion.
Cabling modules
The IBM Eserver BladeCenter is capable of managing four switch modules of either
Ethernet or Fibre, the minimum requirement being a single Ethernet switch.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM eServer BladeCenter technology and its advantages
23
Ethernet
Two hot-swap 1 GB Ethernet four port switch models can be installed in switch module bays 1
and 2.
Fibre
Two hot-swap Fibre channel network interface switch modules can be placed in switch
module bays 3 and 4.
Note: The IBM Eserver BladeCenter also includes a hot-swap media tray, which includes
the CD-ROM and floppy drive.
24
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
2
Chapter 2.
Samba
Samba is an implementation of a Server Message Block (SMB) protocol server that can be
run on almost every variant of UNIX® in existence. Samba is an open source project, just like
Linux. Since the code is written in C, it is easily portable to all flavors of UNIX. Samba is a tool
which allows UNIX systems to peacefully coexist with Windows systems by performing file
and print sharing using the NetBIOS protocol. It allows UNIX systems to move into a
Windows “Network Neighborhood” without causing problems. With Samba, UNIX servers act
like any other Windows server, offering their resources to the SMB clients. SMB was renamed
by Microsoft to Common Internet File System (CIFS) when the protocol was updated for
Windows NT®.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
25
2.1 What is Samba?
Samba is a suite of programs that work together to allow UNIX systems to access server file
systems and printers via the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. The two key programs
are smbd and nmbd. These two programs implement the four basic modern-day CIFS
servers:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
File and print services
Authentication and authorization
Name resolution
Service announcement (browsing)
The smbd program, the SMB Daemon, handles file and print services and share mode and
user mode authentication and authorization. The name resolution and browsing parts are
handled by nmbd.
The other programs in the suite are utilities. The most commonly used of these are:
򐂰 smbclient
A simple FTP-like SMB client. It is used to access SMB shares on other compatible
servers and to allow a submission of print jobs to a printer attached to any SMB server.
򐂰 nmblookup
A NetBIOS name service client. It can be used to find NetBIOS names and look up the IP
address of systems.
򐂰 smbstatus
A tool for accessing information about the current connections to smbd.
򐂰 smbpasswd
A tool for changing LanMan and Windows NT passwords on Samba and Windows NT
servers.
򐂰 SWAT
The Samba Web Administration Tool allows the configuration of Samba using a Web
browser.
2.2 What can you do with Samba?
The Samba Linux server:
򐂰 Can act as a file/print server for Windows networks. It can replace an expensive Windows
NT file/print server in this role, creating a less expensive solution.
򐂰 Can act as a NetBIOS name server (NBNS) in a Windows world, where it is referred to as
WINS - Windows Internet Name Service.
򐂰 Can participate in NetBIOS browsing and master browser elections.
򐂰 Can provide a gateway for synchronizing UNIX and Windows NT passwords.
26
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
With the utilities in the Samba suite:
򐂰 You can access any shared directory or printer on Windows NT servers or Samba servers
and allow UNIX machines to access Windows NT files.
򐂰 You can mount any share from a Windows NT server or Samba server in your directory
structure (this is available only on Linux using Samba File System, SMBFS).
򐂰 You can look up an NetBIOS names, map them to IP address, and check the status of the
systems.
Chapter 2. Samba
27
28
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
3
Chapter 3.
Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3
and IBM Director Agent
In this chapter, we will describe in detail the basic installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3, SuSE
Linux Enterprise Server 8 (SLES 8), and IBM Director Agent on an IBM Eserver
BladeCenter system.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
29
3.1 Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3
We will discuss three methods of installing Red Hat Linux on a BladeCenter system.
򐂰 CD installation
򐂰 Network installation
򐂰 PXE boot installation
The only difference between these is the means used to start the install. Once the installation
process is started, everything else is the same.
3.2 CD installation
This is the most direct and simplest method of installing Red Hat on a blade server. Since the
HS20 blade server uses USB CD-ROM, you must make a special boot disk with USB
support.
3.2.1 Creating the boot disk
Download the diskette image from:
http://people.redhat.com/msw/boot-usb-sleep-7.3.img
The diskette can be created on a Windows or Linux system. Using a Windows system, copy
the rawrite utility for DOS on Red Hat Install CD 1 in \dosutils\ to the hard drive. In a command
prompt, run rawrite and type in image name and diskette later when prompted. Using a
Linux system, run dd if=boot-usb-sleep-7.3.img of=/dev/fd0.
3.2.2 Installing Red Hat 7.3
In this section, we will install Red Hat on an IBM Eserver BladeCenter HS20 server. Perform
the following steps:
1. Insert the boot diskette into the diskette drive and Red Hat Install CD 1 into the CD-ROM.
2. Power on the blade server and press the Media Select and Console Select buttons on
the blade server.
Note: Do not switch the KVM from the blade server until the installation has proceeded to
install the packages after the About to Install window appears, otherwise the mouse will
lose functionality.
3. At the Welcome to Red Hat Linux Version 7.3 window, press Enter.
30
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Figure 3-1 Language Selection
4. Select English and click Next.
Figure 3-2 Keyboard Selection and Configuration
5. Select the auto selected Generic 105-Keyboard, US English, Enable dead keys, and
click Next.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
31
Figure 3-3 Mouse Selection
6. Select 2 Button Mouse (USB) and click Next.
Figure 3-4 Install Options
7. Select Install, Custom, and click Next.
32
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Figure 3-5 Disk Partitioning
8. Partition the hard drive using either the automatic partition (default choice) or manually.
See:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-7.3-Manual/install-guide/s1-diskpartsetup.h
tml
for more information about partitioning the hard drive.
Figure 3-6 Boot loader options
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
33
9. Select Use GRUB as the boot loader, /dev/hda Master Boot Record (MBR), Default
boot image, and click Next.
10.Do not select Use a GRUB Password; click Next.
11.On eth0 page, deselect Activate on boot, click the eth1 tab, select Configure using
DHCP, select Activate on boot, and click Next.
12.Follow the Red Hat Linux 7.3 install instructions at:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-7.3-Manual/install-guide/s1-firewallconfig.
html
to finish the install setup process.
Figure 3-7 Boot Disk Creation.
13.Select Skip boot disk creation and click Next.
A boot diskette can be created with mkbootdisk after the diskette drive is defined, as
shown in Step 17 on page 35.
14.Follow the Red Hat Linux 7.3 install instructions at:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-7.3-Manual/install-guide/s1-xconfig.html
to finish the install. We selected the following software groups.
– Printing Support
– Classic XWindow System
– X Window System
– GNOME
– KDE
– Network Support
– Network Managed Workstation
34
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
– Utilities
– Software Development
– Kernel Source
15.After the system is rebooted, log in as root.
16.If X11 is installed, edit /etc/X11/XF86Config-4:
a. Add
Section “ServerFlags”
AllowMouseOpenFail
EndSecion
to the top of the file
b. Save and exit.
17.The diskette drive is connected to the SCSI bus. It is configured to take the last ID on the
SCSI bus. Since the blade server we are using has no SCSI hard drives, the diskette drive
resides on /dev/sda. So we perform these steps to make the diskette drive available.
a. Edit /etc/fstab and add
/dev/sda/mnt/floppyautonoauto,auto0 0
after all hard drive entries.
b. Make the /mnt/floppy directory by running mkdir /mnt/floppy
c. Mount the drive by running mount /dev/sda /mnt/floppy
18.Make a boot disk by running mkbootdisk and following the prompts.
19.Update the Ethernet drivers by editing /etc/modules so the entries for eth0 and eth1 look
like what is shown in Example 3-1.
Example 3-1 /etc/modules showing correct Ethernet drivers
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc
alias eth0 bcm5700
alias eth1 bcm5700
3.2.3 Applying updates and installing the latest kernel
In this section, we will apply updates and install the latest kernel to Red Hat. Perform the
following steps:
1. Log on to the system as root.
2. Make a directory to store the updates in a file system which has at least 600 MB of free
space. We created /usr/updates to store the updates.
3. Change to the updates directory.
4. Create kernels and noInstall directories.
5. Download all the current Red Hat 7.3 updates:
a. Anonymous ftp to updates.redhat.com
b. cd to 7.3/en/os
c. Download all the files in the i386, i686, and noarch directories
6. Move all the kernel files into the kernels directory by typing: mv kernel-* kernels
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
35
7. Move the i386 rpms that are replaced by i686 rpms into the noInstall directory using the
following command sequence:
for i in $(ls *.i686.rpm); do mv ${i/i686.rpm/i386.rpm} noInstall; done
8. Install the updates by typing rpm -Fvh *.rpm.
9. Install the kernel updates by
a. Using rpm -ivh kernels/kernel-2.4.18-18.7.x.i686.rpm to install the uni processor
kernel.
b. Using rpm -ivh kernels/kernel-smp-2.4.18-18.7.x.i686.rpm to install the smp
kernel.
c. Using rpm -Fvh kernels/kernel-source-2.4.18-18.7.x.i386.rpm to install the latest
kernel source, if it is already installed.
d. Editing /boot/grub/grub.conf, changing default=2 to default=0, and saving.
10.Reboot the system using the command shutdown -r 0.
11.Verify that the system boots without any errors.
3.3 Network installation
Network installation is useful when you are installing multiple systems and do not want to
have several copies of installation CDs. The system requirements for a Linux install server
are:
1. 2 GB of free disk space
2. Network card
3. Anonymous ftpd or NFS service
This can be installed on a Linux system that satisfies requirements 1 and 2 above.
3.3.1 Setting up the NFS install server
A desktop system with enough free hard drive space was selected to be the install server. We
transformed it into the install server by performing these steps.
1. Install nfs-utils rpm.
2. Cretae the /var/iso/RedHat directory.
3. Download Red Hat Linux 7.3 install iso images 1 through 3 and the md5 file.
– rh-7.3-en-i386-cd1.iso
– rh-7.3-en-i386-cd2.iso
– rh-7.3-en-i386-cd3.iso
– rh-7.3-en-i386.md5
Example 3-2 Output of md5sum check
[root@portal1 iso]# md5sum -c rh-7.3-en-i386.md5
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd1.iso: OK
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd2.iso: OK
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd3.iso: OK
md5sum: rh-7.3-en-i386-cd4.iso: No such file or directory
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd4.iso: FAILED open or read
md5sum: rh-7.3-en-i386-cd5.iso: No such file or directory
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd5.iso: FAILED open or read
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
md5sum: rh-7.3-en-i386-cd6.iso: No such file or directory
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd6.iso: FAILED open or read
md5sum: WARNING: 3 of 6 listed files could not be read
4. Check the files using md5sum -c rh-7.3-en-i386.md5.
If any of the files are corrupt, delete those and download again. The output should be
similar to that shown in Example 3-2 on page 36.
5. Check that other has read and execute permissions on /var/iso/RedHat and has read
permission on all the iso files.
6. Edit /etc/export and add /var/iso/RedHat *(ro) to the end of the file.
7. Make NFS reload the export file using service nfs reload.
3.3.2 Setting up the FTP install server
A desktop system with enough free hard drive space was selected to be the install server. We
transformed it into the install server by performing these steps.
1. Install the anonftp rpm package.
2. Create the /var/iso directory.
3. Download Red Hat Linux 7.3 install iso images 1 through 3 and the md5 file.
– rh-7.3-en-i386-cd1.iso
– rh-7.3-en-i386-cd2.iso
– rh-7.3-en-i386-cd3.iso
– rh-7.3-en-i386.md5
Example 3-3 Output of md5sum check
[root@portal1 iso]# md5sum -c rh-7.3-en-i386.md5
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd1.iso: OK
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd2.iso: OK
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd3.iso: OK
md5sum: rh-7.3-en-i386-cd4.iso: No such file or directory
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd4.iso: FAILED open or read
md5sum: rh-7.3-en-i386-cd5.iso: No such file or directory
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd5.iso: FAILED open or read
md5sum: rh-7.3-en-i386-cd6.iso: No such file or directory
rh-7.3-en-i386-cd6.iso: FAILED open or read
md5sum: WARNING: 3 of 6 listed files could not be read
4. Check the files using md5sum -c rh-7.3-en-i386.md5.
If any of the files are corrupt, delete and download again. The output should be similar to
the output shown in Example 3-3.
5. Create 7.3, 7.3/cd1, 7.3/cd2, 7.3/cd3, 7.3/RedHat, 7.3/RedHat/RPMS directories in
/var/ftp/pub.
Example 3-4 Mounting iso images
mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 /var/iso/rh-7.3-en-i386-cd1.iso /var/ftp/pub/cd1
mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 /var/iso/rh-7.3-en-i386-cd2.iso /var/ftp/pub/cd2
mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 /var/iso/rh-7.3-en-i386-cd3.iso /var/ftp/pub/cd3
6. Mount the three install iso images to the cd directories.
7. Change to the directory /var/ftp/pub/7.3.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
37
8. Copy all the files in cd1/RedHat/base into RedHat/base using cp -r
cd1/RedHat/base/RedHat.
9. Make symbolic links for in the rpm files in RedHat/RPMS directory on cd1, cd2, and cd3 in
/var/ftp/pub/RedHat/RPMS.
Example 3-5 Creating symbolic links
cd
ln
ln
ln
RedHat/RPMS
-s ../../cd1/RedHat/RPMS/*.rpm .
-s ../../cd2/RedHat/RPMS/*.rpm .
-s ../../cd3/RedHat/RPMS/*.rpm .
10.Configure the FTP server to start on reboot using the command:
chkconfig wu-ftpd on
11.Start the FTP server with the command:
service xinetd restart
Example 3-6 Restarting xinetd
[root@portal1 etc]# service xinetd restart
Stopping xinetd:
Starting xinetd:
[
[
OK ]
OK ]
12.Verify that the FTP server is working by connecting to the system using an FTP client and
logging in as anonymous.
Example 3-7 Testing anonymous FTP setup
[root]# ncftp 9.24.105.99
NcFTP 3.1.3 (Mar 27, 2002) by Mike Gleason (ncftp@ncftp.com).
Copyright (c) 1992-2002 by Mike Gleason.
All rights reserved.
Connecting to 9.24.105.99...
portal1 FTP server (Version wu-2.6.2-5) ready.
Logging in...
The response 'NcFTP@' is not valid
Next time please use your e-mail address as your password
for example: joe@blade4.itso.ral.ibm.com
Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
Logged in to portal1.
ncftp / >
3.3.3 Creating the network boot diskette
To perform a network installation on the IBM Eserver BladeCenter, a modified version of the
normal Red Hat network boot diskette, which includes the drivers for the blade server
Ethernet adapters, has to be created.
1. Install the kernel-BOOT-2.4.18-3.i386.rpm package from the Red Hat Linux CD 2 or from
the Red Hat FTP site using rpm -ivh kernel-BOOT-2.4.18-3.i386.rpm.
38
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
2. Create a temporary work directory for all the files and two directories for mounting images
by executing the commands:
– mkdir /tmp/newboot
– mkdir /mnt/loop0
– mkdir /mnt/loop1
3. Copy the bootnet.img file from the images directory on Red Hat Linux CD1 to the work
directory just created, cp /mnt/cdrom/images/bootnet.img /tmp/newboot.
4. Change to the working directory, cd /tmp/newboot.
5. Mount this image using the loopback device using mount -o loop
/tmp/newboot/bootnet.img /mnt/loop0.
6. Copy the initrd.img file to the work directory and add .gz extension to the end by executing
cp /mnt/loop0/initrd.img ./initrd.img.gz.
7. Unzip initrd.img.gz by executing gunzip initrd.img.gz.
8. Mount this RAMdisk image using mount -o loop initrd.img /mnt/loop1.
9. Copy the module-info and pcitable files to the working directory by executing:
– cp /mnt/loop1/modules/module-info
– cp /mnt/loop1/modules/pcitable
10.Edit module-info and add the lines in Example 3-8 to the bottom.
Example 3-8 Lines added to module-info
bcm5700
eth
"Broadcom BCM5700 10/100/1000 Ethernet adapter"
line_speed "Line speed"
11.Save and close the file.
12.Edit the file pcitable and add the lines in Example 3-9 the bottom:
Example 3-9 Lines added to pcitable
0x14e4
0x14e4
0x14e4
0x14e4
0x14e4
0x14e4
0x14e4
0x1644
0x1645
0x1646
0x1647
0x164d
0x16a6
0x16a7
"bcm5700"
"bcm5700"
"bcm5700"
"bcm5700"
"bcm5700"
"bcm5700"
"bcm5700"
"BROADCOM
"BROADCOM
"BROADCOM
"BROADCOM
"BROADCOM
"BROADCOM
"BROADCOM
Corporation|NetXtreme
Corporation|NetXtreme
Corporation|NetXtreme
Corporation|NetXtreme
Corporation|NetXtreme
Corporation|NetXtreme
Corporation|NetXtreme
BCM5700 Gigabit Ethernet"
BCM5701 Gigabit Ethernet"
BCM5702 Gigabit Ethernet"
BCM5703 Gigabit Ethernet"
BCM5702FE Gigabit Ethernet"
BCM5702X Gigabit Ethernet"
BCM5703X Gigabit Ethernet"
13.Save and close the file.
14.Copy these files over the original ones in the RAMdisk image by executing:
– cp -f module-info /mnt/loop1/modules
– cp -f pcitable /mnt/loop1/modules
15.Copy the modules.cgz file to the working directory and add the .gz extension to the end by
executing cp /mnt/loop1/modules/modules.cgz ./modules.cpio.gz.
16.Unzip the file using gunzip modules.cpio.gz.
17.Make a directory named 2.4.18-3BOOT using mkdir 2.4.18-3BOOT.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
39
18.Copy into this directory the bcm5700 module, installed on the system in step 1, by
executing:
cp /lib/modules/2.4.18-3BOOT/kernel/drivers/addon/bcm5700/bcm5700.o \
./2.4.18-3BOOT/
19.Add this driver to the modules.cpio file by executing:
ls 2.4.18-3BOOT/* | cpio -o --append -H crc -F modules.cpio
20.Zip the modules.cpio file using gzip modules.cpio.
21.Copy this file over the original in the mounted RAMdisk by executing cp -f
modules.cpio.gz /mnt/loop1/modules/modules.cgz.
22.Unmount the RAMdisk using umount /mnt/loop1.
23.Zip the RAMdisk by executing gzip initrd.img.
24.Copy the RAMdisk to the mounted boot diskette image by running cp -f initrd.img.gz
/mnt/loop0/initrd.img.
25.Unmount the boot diskette image using umount /mnt/loop0.
26.Create a boot diskette from this image by placing a diskette into the floppy drive and
executing dd if=bootnet.img of=/dev/fd0.
This install diskette is used to perform the network-based installations described in the next
two sections.
3.3.4 Installing from the NFS server
In this section, we will install Red Hat Linux via the NFS server. Perform the following steps:
1. Insert the network install diskette created in 3.3.3, “Creating the network boot diskette” on
page 38 into the IBM Eserver BladeCenter diskette drive.
2. Power on the blade server and press the Media Select and Console Select buttons on
the blade server.
Note: Do not switch the KVM from the blade server until the installation has proceeded to
install the packages after the About to Install window appears, otherwise the mouse will
lose functionality.
3. Choose English.
4. Choose us.
5. Choose NFS image.
6. Choose the interface you want to use. In our case eth1 was connected to switch 1.
7. Accept the default Use dynamic IP configuration (BOOTP/DHCP). Choose or type in
the IP address, netmask, default gateway, and primary name server.
40
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Figure 3-8 NFS install server settings
8. Type in the NFS sever IP address and the path to the iso files.
Note: If the server cannot be reached and DHCP has been used for the client
configuration, choose Back and type in the TPC/IP info. Then try again from the server.
9. Follow the CD installation process from step 3 on page 30.
3.3.5 Installing a Linux operating system from the FTP server
In this section, we will install Red Hat Linux via the FTP server. Perform the following steps:
1. Insert the network install diskette created in 3.3.3, “Creating the network boot diskette” on
page 38 into the IBM Eserver BladeCenter diskette drive.
2. Power on the blade server and press the Media Select and Console Select buttons on
the blade server.
Note: Do not switch the KVM from the blade server until the installation has proceeded to
install the packages after the About to Install window appears, otherwise the mouse will
lose functionality.
3. Choose English.
4. Choose us.
5. Choose FTP.
6. Choose the interface you want to use. In our case eth1 was connected to switch 1.
7. Accept the default Use dynamic IP configuration (BOOTP/DHCP) or type in the IP
address, netmask, default gateway, and primary name server.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
41
Figure 3-9 FTP setup window
8. Type in the IP address of the FTP server and directory path to RedHat relative to /var/ftp.
Note: If the server cannot be reached and DHCP has been used for the client
configuration, choose Back and type in the TPC/IP info. Then try again from the server.
9. Follow the CD installation process from step 3 on page 30.
3.4 PXE Boot installation
PXE stands for Pre eXecution Environment. This is a special function of modern network
adaptors that allows execution of special pieces of code during the boot process. This is
usually used to access files on other servers for booting itself; for example, you can download
the Linux kernel from another server into memory and then boot this kernel.
This enables computers to boot without the need of any local disk. We will use this process to
start the installation process without the need for diskettes and CD’s. Once the blade server
starts the installation process, it will be similar to the Network installation in the previous
section.
3.4.1 Configuration of the PXE Boot server
We will use a boot server that contains the installation media and the necessary network
services for the remote installation. The boot server will be an eServer BladeCenter HS20
server installed using the CD installation process.
1. First, complete the server setup steps for an NFS install server detailed in in 3.3, “Network
installation” on page 36. In short, make sure you have a local copy of the Red Hat
installation files and that these files are accessible using NFS. See section 3.3.1, “Setting
up the NFS install server” on page 36 for details. Also make sure that the boot server has
a static IP address.
2. Download or copy the DHCP server from the Red Hat CDs (the full name is
dhcp-2.0pl5-8.i386.rpm).
42
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
3. Install the DHCP server using rpm -ivh dhcp-2.0pl5-8.i386.rpm.
4. Copy the sample DHCP server configuration file to the /etc directory using cp
/usr/share/doc/dhcp-2.0pl5/dhcpd.conf.sample /etc/dhcpd.conf
5. Edit the /etc/dhcpd.conf file to make it look like Example 3-10.
Example 3-10 /etc/dhcpd.conf file for PXE boot
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
# --- default gateway
option routers
192.168.0.1;
option subnet-mask
255.255.255.0;
option nis-domain
option domain-name
option domain-name-servers
"itso.ral.ibm.com";
"itso.ral.ibm.com";
192.168.0.1;
option time-offset
-18000; # Eastern Standard Time
option dhcp-class-identifier
"PXEClient";
option vendor-encapsulated-options ff;
range dynamic-bootp 192.168.0.128 192.168.0.255;
default-lease-time 21600;
max-lease-time 43200;
}
}
Replace the IP addresses of the default gateway (option routers) and
domain-name-servers, and the domain-names with the correct value for your network.
6. Start the DHCP server using service dhcpd start. If you want, test to verify that the
DHCP server is working.
7. Download from the updates section on the Red Hat FTP site or any of its mirrors the latest
version of the PXE package. In our case it is pxe-0.1-31.99.7.3.i386.rpm.
8. Install the PXE using rpm -ivh pxe-0.1-31.99.7.3.i386.rpm.
9. Add the following lines to the end of the /etc/services file:
Example 3-11 Lines required in /etc/services for PXE boot
mtftp
pxe
pxe
1759/udp
67/udp
4011/udp
10.Add the following lines to /etc/xinetd.conf before the includedir /etc/xinetd.d line:
Example 3-12 Configuration of the PXE FTP server in /etc/xinetd.conf
service mtftp
{
socket_type = dgram
wait = yes
user = root
server = /usr/sbin/in.mtftpd
server_args = /tftpboot
}
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
43
11.Add the following lines to the end of the /etc/rc.d/rc.local file:
Example 3-13 Commands in rc.local file needed for PXE boot
route add -host 255.255.255.255 eth0
route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 224.0.0.0 eth0
12.Copy the Linux kernel and initial ramdisk file for PXE boot from the first CD to the TFTP
install section. In our case, it looked like this:
Example 3-14 Copying of Linux kernel and initrd for PXE boot
cp /var/ftp/pub/7.3/cd1/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz /tftpboot/X86PC/UNDI/linux-install/linux.1
cp /var/ftp/pub/7.3/cd1/images/pxeboot/initrd-everything.img \
/tftpboot/X86PC/UNDI/linux-install/linux.2
13.Open the file /etc/pxe.conf in a editor and look for the lines in Example 3-15.
Example 3-15 Default configuration of PXE daemon in /etc/pxe.conf
[UseDHCPPort]
1
Change the 1 to a 0 and save this change.
14.Open the file /etc/init.d/pxe in an editor and look for the lines in Example 3-16.
Example 3-16 Changes to /etc/init.d/pxe
# Starts the pxe daemon
#
# chkconfig: - 56 54
Change the 56 to a 98. This will make the PXE daemon start after the DHCP daemon.
15.Set up the DHCP and PXE services so that they will start up at boot using the commands
in Example 3-17.
Example 3-17 Enabling dhcpd and pxe daemon at boot
[root@portal1 root]# chkconfig dhcpd on
[root@portal1 root]# chkconfig pxe on
16.Now reboot the server using shutdown -r now.
17.In the messages displayed in the startup sequence, see if both the DHCP and the PXE
daemon start without any error messages. You can also check in /var/log/boot.log for any
errors.
Our PXE boot server is now ready for action.
3.4.2 Starting the installation
First we have to configure the blade server so that it will use PXE in its startup boot
sequence.
1. Log in to the Web interface of the IBM Eserver BladeCenter management module.
2. Select Blade Tasks -> Configuration.
3. Click Boot Sequence.
4. Click the name of the blade server you want to edit.
5. Select Network - PXE as the first device, the rest is your personal setup.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
6. Click Save.
To use PXE for the installation, press F12 at the BIOS startup window when the different
function keys are shown.
Now we will reboot the blade server so that the installation process can begin.
1. Log back in to the Web interface of the BladeCenter management module if you have
logged out.
2. Click Blade Tasks -> Power/Restart.
3. Select the checkbox on the line of the blade server where you will perform the installation.
4. Click Restart Blade.
5. Press the KVM Select button on the front of the blade server to follow the installation
process.
Note: Do not switch the KVM from the blade server until the installation has proceeded
to install the packages after the About to Install window appears, otherwise the mouse
will lose functionality.
We will now begin the actual installation process.
1. Follow the boot sequence of the blade server until you see the message Press F8 to view
menu ....
2. Select the line Remote Install Linux and press Enter.
3. When you see the line Press any key to enter kernel parameters... press the Enter
key twice. This will boot the kernel with the default parameters.
4. You should see some messages indicating that the kernel and the initrd are being
downloaded and then the Linux kernel will boot.
5. Choose English.
6. Choose us.
7. Choose NFS image.
8. Choose the interface you want to use. In our case eth1 was connected to switch 1.
9. Accept the default Use dynamic IP configuration (BOOTP/DHCP) and choose or type in
the IP address, netmask, default gateway, and primary name server.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
45
Figure 3-10 NFS install setup window
10.Type in the NFS sever IP address and the path to the iso files.
Note: If the server cannot be reached and DHCP has been used for the client
configuration, choose Back and type in the TPC/IP info. Then try again from the server.
11.Follow the CD installation process from step 3 on page 30.
3.5 Installation of SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8
In this section, we will discuss the installation of SuSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES)
version 8 for the IA-32 platform. We will only handle the CD-ROM installation. Information
about the other methods of installing SLES 8 can be found in the SLES Installation guide.
1. Start the server and insert the SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8 for IA-32 CD 1 into the
CD-ROM drive.
2. At the boot options: prompt, press Enter. You see a bar stating Loading Linux kernel
and when it reaches 100% the Linux kernel will boot.
3. When the installer is started, you get a dialog containing the end user license agreement.
Press Enter to accept.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Figure 3-11 SLES Installation - Language selection
4. For the IBM Eserver BladeCenter HS20, the mouse will not work initially when the
installer starts. Follow these directions:
a. Press Alt + A to select English (US).
b. If the Please select dialog box appears, press Alt + O to select New installation.
c. Press Alt + C and scroll, with the arrow keys, to Mouse to change the mouse, then
press Enter. Scroll down through the list to USB mouse and press Alt + T, Test, to
ensure that it is working with your mouse. Click Accept when finished.
5. At the Installation Settings display, your settings are preselected for the installation that is
specific to your system. You may not need to alter many of these settings, but make sure
you do follow the instructions under the Boot section. Click Accept when finished:
– Mode: Do not change this.
– Keyboard layout: If the language is set correctly, in most cases the correct keyboard
setting will be automatically selected. Click Keyboard Layout to modify the keyboard
mapping, if needed. Select the keyboard layout from the list. You can check that it
works properly by typing in the Keyboard test box. Click Accept when finished.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
47
Figure 3-12 SLES Installation - Mouse Configuration
– Mouse: Click Mouse if you need to change the type of mouse you are using. Changing
the mouse type is not necessary in most cases. Select the correct mouse from the list
and click Test to ensure that it is working with your mouse. Click Accept when
finished.
– Partitioning: Click Partitioning if you need to change the partitioning scheme for your
drive(s). You will see YaST2's proposed partitioning scheme and can do one of the
following:
•
Accept the suggestion, by clicking Next.
Figure 3-13 SLES Installation - Expert Partitioner
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
•
Modify the proposal, by clicking Base partition setup on this proposal and then
clicking Next.
The Expert Partitioner window opens, which allows you to view and manipulate the
existing partitions on the hard drive(s).
Click Create to add new partitions, Delete to delete partitions (highlight partition
you wish deleted first), Edit to make changes to existing partitions, and Resize to
resize ext2, ext3, ReiserFS, XFS, and swap partitions.
When finished, select Next.
•
Discard the proposal, by clicking Create custom partition setup and clicking Next.
This will bring you to the Preparing Hard Disk - Step 1 window, where you can:
Select the hard disk where you want to install SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8. Click
Next. Depending on the current state of the hard disk, you will have the opportunity
to erase the complete hard disk, delete certain partitions or install SLES 8 on the
free space currently available on the disk.
Or you can click Custom partitioning -- for experts and then click Next. This will
bring you to the Expert Partitioner window as mentioned previously.
Figure 3-14 SLES Installation - Software packages installation
– Software: Click Software to change the default software configuration. The default
configuration installs most basic networking, administrative, and development tools
needed. In the Software Selection window, select the software configuration you want.
Click Accept after you have chosen the software you want.
For a specialized selection, click Detailed selection. You can then select specific
software using the package tool. When finished, click Accept.
– Booting: Click Booting and make sure that Write GRUB to the boot disk ('MBR on
<device>') is selected. Add the parameter acpi=oldboot under the Kernel boot.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
49
– Time zone: Click Time zone to modify the default time zone for the installation. Select
the correct time zone from the list. Under the Hardware clock set to section, select
either local time or UTC, as appropriate. Click Accept.
– Language: Click Language to modify the default language for the installation. Select
the needed language from the list and click Accept.
6. If all Installation Settings are to your preference, click Accept and click Yes, install at the
Warning window.
7. You will be asked to insert the 'UnitedLinux Version 1.0' CD 1. Do so and click OK.
8. Later in the installation process, you will be asked to insert additional CDs to finish
installing the packages. You will need the 'UnitedLinux Version 1.0' CD 2 and the 'SuSE
SLES Version 8' CD1.
9. When all packages are installed, the installer will run some post installation scripts and
then reboot into the final installer section on the hard disk. Remove any CDs from the
CD-ROM drive as the prompt indicates and press Enter.
Note: In our case, the mouse did not work in the next steps of the installation process.
We had to use keyboard navigation.
10.At the Password for 'root', the system administrator window, type the administrative
password that you want twice and click Next.
Figure 3-15 SLES Installation - Adding new users
11.At the Add a New User window, type the information for one system user. You can also
add additional users and groups or change the password settings by clicking the
appropriate buttons to do so. When finished, click Next.
Note: You need to add at least one user to let the installation continue.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
12.The Desktop Settings window displays. Select one of the following options:
– Text mode only -- no graphical desktop (this setting will not configure the graphical
environment). If this setting is selected, click Next and continue to step 23.
– Graphical desktop environment (this setting is the default selection). When making this
selection, you will see some auto-detected settings for the graphical environment.
13.Click Accept to accept the settings and continue to step 23. To alter the settings, continue
with step 15.
14.Click Change to change the graphic environment settings.
15.If your monitor was not detected, you will be prompted to start the configuration dialog to
set up the display. Click Yes and then the Properties button. Select the appropriate
vendor and model. (for IBM Monitor specifications go to:
ftp://ftp.pc.ibm.com/pcicrse/psref/mbook.pdf) Click OK to return to SaX2. Click
Finish.
16.For the mouse to work, choose the following in the mouse configuration dialog. At the
General tab, select USB-Mouse and then PS/2. At the Port tab, select /dev/input/mice.
Then click OK.
Note: We needed to modify a configuration file after installation. See step 26.
17.If needed, select the correct resolution, color depth, and refresh rate (for your monitor) by
clicking Desktop (on the left), Color and Resolution, and then the Properties button. It
is possible to damage your hardware by making these settings too high. Do not make
changes if you do not know the correct settings. Click OK and then Finish when done.
18.Click Finalize >>.
19.Click Test... at the informational window.
20.A window displays, allowing you to fine tune the configuration with arrows (if the window
does not appear, press Ctrl+Alt+Backspace to return to SaX2 and change the settings).
If everything looks good, click Save.
21.Click OK at the dialog that confirms that the configuration was saved.
22.Click Accept at the Desktop Settings window if the settings are acceptable. If the settings
are not acceptable, refer to step 15 again.
23.You may receive a warning at this time asking if you want to detect your printers. Select
Skip detection unless you will be configuring a printer, in which case you should click
Yes.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
51
Figure 3-16 SLES Installation - Hardware configuration
24.The Installation Settings display enables you to configure various types of hardware. The
hardware configuration can also be done later with the program YaST2. For example, you
can set up your network interfaces here. When satisfied, click Next to finish the
installation.
25.The installer will then reboot into the installed Linux. The installation is finished.
26.In our case, we needed to change the file /etc/sysconfig/hotplug to make the mouse work
in X. Search for the line that start with HOTPLUG_USB_STATIC_MODULES=... and add
mousedev to the list at that line. At the next reboot, the mouse should work in X.
If the server starts up by default in X, you can switch to a console terminal with
Crtl+Alt+F1 or, in KDE, you can use Alt+F1 to access the menu for a terminal.
3.6 Installation of IBM Director Agent
In this section, we will give you a short overview of what IBM Director is and how to install the
IBM Director Agent section on a Linux system. For more information about IBM Director and
system management of the IBM Eserver BladeCenter, we refer you to the IBM Eserver
BladeCenter Systems Management Redpaper, REDP3582.
3.6.1 Overview of IBM Director V4
IBM Director is a comprehensive workgroup hardware manager designed for use with
IBM Eserver xSeries servers, PCs, notebooks and now IBM Eserver BladeCenter.
IBM Director V4 includes support for your IBM Eserver BladeCenter server, enabling you to
manage, deploy and monitor your system much more efficiently. IBM Director includes
features such as self-management and proactive and predictive tools which provide higher
levels of availability and reliability. The IBM Director software is made up of three
components:
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
򐂰 IBM Director Server
򐂰 IBM Director Agent
򐂰 IBM Director Console
A different combination of these components is required for each of the hardware groups in
your IBM Director environment. The management server must contain all three of these
components. The IBM Director Console must be installed on the management console or any
system from which a system administrator will remotely access the management server. The
IBM Director Agent must be installed on each system you intend to manage.
IBM Director Server
The IBM Director Server is the main component of IBM Director software. The server
component contains the management data, the server engine, and the application logic. IBM
Director Server provides basic functions such as:
򐂰 Discovery of the managed systems
򐂰 Storage of configuration and management data
򐂰 Inventory database
򐂰 Event listening
򐂰 Security and authentication
򐂰 Management console support
򐂰 Administrative tasks
IBM Director comes with the Microsoft Jet database engine, however other database
applications can be used in larger IBM Director management solutions. The IBM Director
Console and IBM Director Agent are automatically installed when you install the IBM Director
server. Every IBM Eserver xSeries comes with an IBM Director Server license.
IBM Director Agent
The IBM Director Agent allows the Director server to communicate with systems on which it is
installed. The agent provides the server with management data which can be transferred
using TCP/IP, NetBIOS and IPX protocols. The IBM Directors Agent Web-based access can
only be enabled on Windows operating systems. All IBM systems come with an IBM Director
Agent license. Additional licenses can be purchased for non-IBM systems.
IBM Director Console
The IBM Director Console enables systems administrators to manage all systems which have
an agent installed. This is done easily via the graphical user interface (GUI) by either a
drop-and-drag action or a single click. Unlike the agent, the console and server communicate
and transfer data using TCP/IP. The IBM Director Console does not require the Director agent
to be installed unless you want to manage this system as well, in which case the agent must
be installed separately. IBM Director Console does not require a license and can be installed
on as many systems as needed.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
53
3.6.2 Installation of IBM Director Agent on Linux
This section discusses the requirements and installation steps for the IBM Director.
IBM Director Agent requirements
The following are the hardware and software requirements for installing IBM Director Agent
on Linux:
Table 3-1 Requirements for IBM Director Agent
IBM Director Agent
CPU
Pentium 266+ MHz
Memory (RAM)
128 MB
Diskspace
220 MB
Supported Linux OS
Red Hat Linux, versions 7.1, 7.2, 7.3
Red Hat Linux Advanced Server, version
2.1
SuSE Linux, versions 7.2, 7.3, 8.0, 8.1
Note: The above values for the hardware are the minimum requirements; for performance
reasons and depending on the size of your Director management solution, these values
may need to be increased. These requirements are in addition to any other requirements
for software that may be running on the system.
Installation steps
Complete the following steps to install IBM Director Agent 4.1.
Note: Some packages from the IBM Director Agent require that the kernel source for the
running kernel be installed. You can find the kernel source in the package kernel-source
on the Red Hat CDs or FTP site.
1. Insert the Director 4.1 CD into the CD-ROM drive.
2. If the CD-ROM drive automounts, go to step 3. Otherwise, type the following command
and press Enter:
mount /mnt/cdrom
Where /mnt/cdrom is the mount point of the CD-ROM drive.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
3. Type the following command and press Enter:
cd /mnt/cdrom/director/agent/linux/
Where /mnt/cdrom is the mount point of the CD-ROM drive.
4. Copy the i386/ folder that contains the IBM Director Agent for Linux code to a place on the
hard disk:
cp -a i386/ /usr
5. The IBM Director Agent will be installed in the /opt directory. Depending on how you
partitioned your hard disk, there might not be enough space on the partition that contains
the /opt directory. If this is the case, then the following commands will move the /opt
directory to another partition:
a. mv /opt /usr/opt
b. ln -s /usr/opt /opt
The /opt directory has now been moved to the partition holding the /usr directory.
6. Open a text editor and modify the dirinstall script. This file is located in the i386/ directory
copied in step 4 and is fully commented.
You can specify the location of the .rpm files (if they are located in a different directory
from what is set in the dirinstall script), select the IBM Director Extensions you want to
install, and choose log file options.
7. Save the modified installation script.
8. Enable execution of the installation script with chmod a+x dirinstall.
9. Start the installation by running the command:
./dirinstall
10.To enable encryption, run the command:
/opt/IBM/director/bin/cfgsecurity
11.To start IBM Director Agent, run the command:
/opt/IBM/director/bin/twgstart
12.To unmount the CD-ROM using the command:
umount /mnt/cdrom
Where /mnt/cdrom is the mount point of the CD-ROM drive.
The IBM Director Agent is now installed on the blade server. For more information on how to
use the IBM Director Agent, refer to the IBM Director documentation and the Redpaper
IBM Eserver BladeCenter Systems Management, REDP3582.
Chapter 3. Installation of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and IBM Director Agent
55
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4
Chapter 4.
Installing and configuring Samba
In this chapter, we will perform the installation of Samba onto our IBM Eserver BladeCenter
HS20 server. This chapter describes how to:
򐂰 Install and configure Samba
򐂰 Use SWAT to configure Samba
򐂰 Stop, start, and restart Samba
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
57
4.1 Installing Samba
Since the version of Samba on the install CDs is usually downlevel, it is best to download the
latest version from http://www.samba.org/. The latest stable code is available in binary, rpm
file, and source code, tar.gz file, form. We downloaded the latest binary code for Red Hat 7.3
from http://us2.samba.org/samba/ftp/Binary_Packages/redhat/RPMS/7.3/.
1. Check whether Samba is already installed with the command:
rpm -qa |grep samba
This command will return the name and version of all the Samba packages installed on
the system. If there are Samba packages installed, uninstall these packages with the
command sequence:
for i in $(rpm -qa |grep samba); do rpm -e --nodeps $i; done
This command might return some errors while running.
2. Change to the directory where the downloaded RPM file is located and install the latest
version using the command:
rpm -ivh samba-2.2.6-1.i386.rpm
4.2 Configuring the Samba server
We will now explain how to configure Samba so it can participate as a file/print server in an
existing Windows network or as a stand-alone file/print server for Windows and Linux clients.
The Samba server configuration is stored in smb.conf. This file is usually found in the
/etc/samba directory. The file can be modified by directly editing it or by using the Samba
Web Administratin Tool (SWAT). We will configure Samba by directly editing the file. Then
we will show how SWAT can be used to configure and control Samba.
4.2.1 Samba configuration file
The SAMBA configuration file smb.conf is divided into two main sections:
1. Global Settings - these settings affect the general operation of the server.
2. Share Definitions - these settings are used in defining shares. A share is a directory on the
server that is accessible over the network by SMB client systems. There are three kinds of
shares:
a. Homes - in this subsection, the user’s home directories are defined.
b. Printers - in this subsection, available printers are defined.
c. Shares - this subsection is where all the shares are defined for the system.
We will now explain the common settings in each section of the configuration file. These
settings will configure the server so it can participate as a file/print server in an existing
Windows network or as a stand-alone file/print server for Windows and Linux clients. Only the
most necessary parameters will be covered. For more detailed information, see the manual
pages for smb.conf at:
/usr/share/doc/samba-2.2.7/docs/htmldocs/smb.conf.5.html
or the Samba documentation on the Samba project Web site at:
http://www.samba.org
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You will find our sample smb.conf configuration file in Appendix A, “Samba configuration file”
on page 99.
Global NetBIOS parameters
The NetBIOS parameters should be at the top of the global section in the configuration file.
When you open the smb.conf file, you will see something similar to Example 4-1.
Example 4-1 NetBIOS global settings
#=================== Global Settings ========================
[global]
netbios name = Blade1
workgroup = LINUX
server string = Samba Server on Red Hat Linux
The parameters are described in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1 NetBIOS parameters
Parameters
Descriptions
NetBIOS name
The Samba server is known by this name on the network, similar to the
Windows NT computer name. The default value is the first component of the
host name.
workgroup
Specifies which Windows NT domain or workgroup the server will
participate. It is equivalent to the Windows domain or workgroup name.
server string
Specifies the system description string which appears in the network
browser list next to the machine name. It serves the same role as the
Windows NT description field.
Global printing parameters
The global printing settings will look similar to what is shown in Example 4-2.
Example 4-2 Global printing settings
load printers = yes
printcap name = /etc/printcap
# printing = lprng
The parameters are described in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2 Printing parameters
Parameter
Description
load printers
This parameter controls whether Samba loads all the printers in the printcap
files for browsing by default. Possible values are yes and no.
printcap name
This parameter sets the location of the printcap file. Default value is
/etc/printcap.
printing
This parameter controls how printer status information is interpreted on your
system. Red Hat Linux uses LPRNG style by default.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
59
Global security settings
The global security settings will look similar to what is shown in Example 4-3.
Example 4-3 Global security settings
security = user
;
password server = <NT-Server-Name>
encrypt passwords = yes
smb passwd file = /etc/samba.d/smbpasswd
The parameters are described in Table 4-3.
Table 4-3 Security parameters
Parameter
Description
security
This parameter affects how clients respond to Samba. The four possible
values are: share, user, server, domain. Default settings is user.
password server
When the security parameter is server or domain, Samba will do all
username/password validation via this SMB server. The parameter value
must be the server NetBIOS name.
encrypt passwords
This parameter controls whether Samba uses the Encrypted Password
Protocol when negotiating with clients. This is required to communicate with
Windows NT Service Pack 3, Windows 2000, and Windows 98 clients.
smb passwd file
This parameter specifies the encrypted SMB password file.
The security modes are as follows:
򐂰 Share - in this security mode, clients only need to supply the password for the resource.
This mode of security is the default for the Windows 95 file/print server. It is not
recommended for use in UNIX environments, because it violates the UNIX security
scheme.
򐂰 User - the user/password validation is done on the server that is offering the resource.
This mode is most widely used.
򐂰 Server - the user/password validation is done on the specified authentication server. This
server can be a Windows NT server or another Samba server. Each username must be
associated with a UNIX user.
򐂰 Domain - this is the same as server security level with the additional requirement that the
server is part of a domain. All user/password validation is done by the Primary or Backup
Domain Controller. Since the server is part of a domain, it can anticipate in trust
relationships. Also, Samba generates a UID and GID based on the information returned
by the Primary Domain Controller.
How to create the encrypted password file and manage user IDs is discussed in 4.3,
“Encrypted password file” on page 76.
Global name resolution settings
The global name resolution settings will look similar to what is shown in Example 4-4.
Example 4-4 Global name resolution settings
name resolve order = wins lmhosts bcast
wins support = yes
;
wins server = w.x.y.z
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The parameters are described in Table 4-4.
Table 4-4 Name resolution parameters
Parameter
Description
name resolve order
This parameter determines which naming services to use and the
order used to resolve host names to IP addresses. The preferred value
is wins lmhosts bcast. See the smb.conf manual page for more
information.
wins support
This parameter controls whether the Samba server will act as a WINS
server. Default value is no.
wins server
The WINS server IP address that Samba should register with and use.
Only used with wins support parameter: set to no.
Note: Samba can act as a WINS server or a WINS client, but not both. So only one of the
parameters (wins support or wins server) can be set at the same time. If you specify the IP
address of WINS server, then wins support must be set to no.
Defining shares
The previous sections covered the general configuration parameters. In this and the next four
sections, we will explain the parameters used in defining shared resources.
A simple share definition in the smb.conf file looks similar to Example 4-5.
Example 4-5 Redbook share parameters
[redbook]
comment = Redbook files
path = /redbook
browseable = yes
printable = no
writable = yes
write list = @users
Table 4-5 describes the most important parameters for defining a share.
Table 4-5 Share parameters
Parameter
Description
comment
Discription of the share.
admin users
List of users who have administrative privileges on the share. These users
can perform all operations with root authority.
path
The full path to the directory being shared.
browsable
Controls whether this share is seen in the list of available shares in a net
view and in the browse list. Possible values are yes and no. Default value is
yes.
printable
Specifies whether this is a print share. Possible values are yes and no.
Default is no.
write list
List of users that have write access to the share. Can include group names
using the @group syntax.
writable
Controls whether the share is writable. Possible values are yes and no.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
61
Parameter
Description
read list
List of users that have read access to the share. Can include group names
using the @group syntax.
read only
If set to yes, share is read only. Possible values are yes and no.
valid users
List of users that can access the share.
Each share definition starts with the share name in brackets “[]”. Below this name are the
parameters and values that define the share.
Share masks
When files are made available through a share, Samba must translate the UNIX permissions
into Windows permissions. Share mask are used for setting and controlling UNIX file and
directory permissions or modes. The most important parameters are explained in Table 4-6.
Table 4-6 Share mask parameters
Parameter
Description
create mask
Mask used for converting DOS modes to UNIX modes when creating files.
Value is 0744 if parameter is not set.
security mask
Mask determines which UNIX modes bits a user can modify on a file from a
Windows client. Any mask bits set to 1 can be modified. Default is 0777.
force create mode
Any permission bits set to 1 will be set on all files created in this resource.
The setting can be modified after the file is created. Default setting is 000.
force security
mode
Any mode or permission bits set to 1 will be set on all files and can not be
modified from a Windows client. Default setting is 000.
directory mask
Mask used for converting DOS permissions to UNIX permission then
creating directories. Value is 0755 if parameter is not set.
directory security
mask
Mask used for determining which UNIX permission bits can be modified by
a Windows NT client through the security dialog box. Value is 0777 if
parameter is not set.
force directory
mode
Any permission bits set to 1 will be set on all directories created in this
resource. Default setting is 000.
force directory
Mask determines which UNIX permission bits on a directory can be modified
from a Windows client. Default setting is 0777.
Defining home directories
Samba has a special section called [homes] for defining user home directories. The home
directory for each user id is specified in /etc/passwd on the server.
When a client requests a connection to a file share, existing file shares are scanned for the
share. If a match is found, that share is used. If no match is found and there is a [homes]
share defined in the configuration file, the requested share is assumed to be a user name.
Samba then queries the password database for the name. If a matching entry is found, the
home directory for that ID is shared as home using the [homes] parameters. The home share
definition uses the same parameters as a normal share definition. An example of a home
share definition in the smb.conf configuration file is shown in Example 4-6 on page 63.
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Example 4-6 Home directory parameters
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
path = %H
valid users = %S
browseable = no
writable = yes
create mode = 0700
directory mode = 0700
The special variables used in this definition are explained in Table 4-7.
Table 4-7 Variable description
Variable
Description
%H
The home directory of the current user.
%S
The name of the current service. Since the requested share is the user
name, this variable is replace by the user name.
%u
The user name of the current service.
%g
The primary group name of %u.
In Example 4-6 the create mode and directory mode masks are used to limit access to
created files and directories to the owner of the home directory.
Defining printer shares
A Samba server uses the same procedure for printer shares as for home shares. If the share
does not match a defined share or a user name on the system, Samba then looks in the file
specified by the global printcap name parameter, Example 4-2 on page 59, for the name. If
there is a matching printer name, Samba creates a share named after the printer. All the
printer shares will use the parameters of the [printers] definition. Example 4-7 shows an
example of the printers definition.
Example 4-7 Printers share parameters
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/samba
browseable = no
# Set public = yes to allow user 'guest account' to print
guest ok = no
writable = no
printable = yes
create mask = 0700
As you can see, the [printers] section is just another share definition. When a user prints, the
output of the local printing system is copied into the spool directory. The only big difference
between a printer share and other share definitions is that the printable parameter is set to
yes. This means that a client can write a spool file to the directory specified under the share
definition. If the share is printable, then it is also writable by default.
The major benefit of the special [homes] and [printers] sections is not having to maintain a
share for each home directory and printer on the system.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
63
Note: After any changes are made to the configuration file, the Samba server must be
restarted. Restarting the server is detailed in 4.4, “Starting and stopping the Samba
server” on page 77.
4.2.2 Using SWAT
The Samba Web Administration Tool (SWAT) allows the remote modification of the smb.conf
configuration file through a Web browser. That means you can configure Samba in a GUI-like
environment. SWAT itself is a small Web server and CGI scripting application, designed to
run from inetd and provides access to the configuration file.
An authorized user with the root password can modify the configuration file via the SWAT
Web pages. The Web pages also have help links next to all configurable options, which is
very useful when making changes.
Before using SWAT, you must check:
1. That /etc/services has the line:
swat 901/tcp
2. That there is a swat file in the /etc/xinetd.d directory and it contains the line:
disable = no
3. And, if you want to access SWAT from another system, that the following line in the swat
file is commented out:
only_from = localhost
If any changes were made to either file, restart xinetd by executing the command:
service xinetd restart
Access to the SWAT service can be controlled through entries in the /etc/hosts.deny and
/etc/hosts.allow files.
To access SWAT, open your favorite Web browser and type in the IP address of your Samba
server appended with port 901:
http://localhost:901
After the SWAT home page is loaded, you will see a window similar to Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1 Login prompt
Type in the user name and password of the Linux user defined on your Linux server. Click OK
to continue. If the root ID is used, you will see a page similar to Figure 4-2 on page 65.
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Important: Any Linux user can access SWAT, but only a root user can make changes.
Remember, when you are logging on to SWAT from a remote machine, you are
sending the password in clear text. This can be a security issue, so we recommend
that you perform SWAT administration locally or over a secure network.
Figure 4-2 SWAT home page
As you can see in Figure 4-2, there are seven categories available:
1. Home - where you can view all the documentation you need about Samba.
2. Globals - where you can view and modify the global parameters.
3. Shares - where you can view, modify, and add shares.
4. Printers - where you can view, modify, and add printers.
5. Status - where you can check the current status, start, and stop the Samba server.
6. View - where you can view the configuration settings in smb.conf.
7. Passwords - where you can manage users and passwords.
Now we will briefly describe the functions available in SWAT.
Note: The seven function icons are at the top of all the SWAT Web pages.
After you make configuration changes, the Samba server must be restarted.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
65
Globals
Clicking the Globals icon will take you to a page similar to Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3 Globals page
From this page, any of the global parameters can be modified. The default Basic View show
only the basic options. Clicking Advanced View will show all the global options. Click Basic
View to return from the Advanced View back to the Basic View. Changes are saved to the
configuration file by clicking Commit Changes. If a pop-up window similar to Figure 4-4
appears when saving changes, click Continue to close the window. Restart the Samba
server to activate changes. This is described in “Starting, stopping, and restarting the Samba
Server” on page 73.
Figure 4-4 Security reminder
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Shares
Clicking the Shares icon will take you to a page similar to Figure 4-5.
Figure 4-5 Shares page
On this page you can:
򐂰 View the defined share
򐂰 Delete the share
򐂰 Create a new share
Viewing or modifying an existing share
To view or modify options for an existing share, follow these steps.
1. Select the share from the field to the right of the Choose Share button, as in Figure 4-6.
Figure 4-6 Selecting a defined share
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
67
2. Click Choose Share. The options will be displayed on a page similar to Figure 4-7, which
shows the basic options.
Figure 4-7 Modifying share options
3. Click Advanced View to view and modify all the share options.
4. Click Commit Changes to save any changes made.
5. Restart the Samba server. This is described in “Starting, stopping, and restarting the
Samba Server” on page 73.
Deleting an existing share
To delete a share definition, do the folllowing.
1. Select the defined share, as shown in Figure 4-6 on page 67.
2. Click Delete Share.
Note: The share is deleted immediately and without warning.
3. Restart the Samba server. This is described in “Starting, stopping, and restarting the
Samba Server” on page 73.
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Creating a new share
To create a simple share,do the following.
1. Create a directory that will be used for the share. You can do this by executing the
command from a terminal:
mkdir /home/public
In our example we created a “public” directory in the “home” directory.
2. Adjust the UNIX permissions for the directory, so that only intended users have access.
3. Type in the share name in the field next to the Create Share button, similar to Figure 4-8.
Figure 4-8 Create share
4. Click Create Share.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
69
Figure 4-9 Setting share parameters
5. Fill in the needed parameters, as in Figure 4-9. If you need to set more advanced
parameters, click Advanced View.
6. Click Commit Changes to save the new share settings.
7. Click the View icon to display the configuration file to verify that all the settings were
recorded.The page will look similar to Figure 4-10 on page 71.
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Figure 4-10 Viewing configuration file
8. Restart the Samba server is described in section “Starting, stopping, and restarting the
Samba Server” on page 73.
Printers
Clicking the Printers icon will take you to the Printer Parameters page, similar to Figure 4-11
on page 72. On this page you can view, modify, or add printers. The operations for handling
printers are the same as for handling shares.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
71
Figure 4-11 Printers page
To view the printers parameters,do the following.
1. Select printers from the list, as shown in Figure 4-12.
Figure 4-12 Selecting printer
2. Click Choose Printer to show the parameters in a page similar to Figure 4-13 on page 73.
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Figure 4-13 Modify printer settings
3. If any options are modified, clicking Commit Changes will save the changes to the
configuration file.
4. Restart the Samba server as described in “Starting, stopping, and restarting the Samba
Server” on page 73.
Status
Clicking the Status icon will take you to the server status page, similar to Figure 4-14 on
page 74. This page shows all the connections and open files. The Samba daemons can be
started or restarted from this page.
Starting, stopping, and restarting the Samba Server
If the Samba server is not running, clicking Start smbd and Start nmbd will start the two
Samba daemons and change the button names to Stop smbd and Stop nmbd.
Clicking Stop smbd will stop the Samba or smbd daemon. Clicking Stop nmbd will stop the
WINS or nmbd daemon.
When printer or share parameters have changed, clicking Restart smbd will restart Samba
and activate the changes. If global parameters have changed, restart both daemons by
clicking Restart smbd and Restart nmbd.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
73
Figure 4-14 Server status
View
Clicking the View icon will display a page with contents of the configuration file, without
comments. The page will look similar to Figure 4-10 on page 71.
Password
Clicking the Password icon will take you to the password management page, similar to
Figure 4-15 on page 75. On this page, you can change passwords and add, delete, disable,
and enable user IDs for this Samba server. Type in the user name, the new password twice
and click Change Password; change the encrypted password or click Add New User to add
the ID and set the password in the encrypted password file. To delete, disable, or enable an
user, type in the user name and click Delete User, Disable User, or Enable User.
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Figure 4-15 Password page
Users changing a password
When a non-admin ID logs into SWAT and click the Password icon, a page similar to
Figure 4-16 on page 76 will be displayed. This user can change the password on this system
by filling in four fields in the Server Password Management section and clicking Change
Password. The user can change the password on another system by filling in the five fields
in the Client/Server Password Management section and clicking Change Password.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
75
Figure 4-16 User changing password
4.3 Encrypted password file
Since password encryption is required for Windows 2000, Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 3 or
later, Windows 95, and Windows 98, you need to enable encrypted password support and
create the encrypted password file before starting the Samba server. The encrypted
password file can be created with the mksmbpasswd utility. It is recommended to first create
the user accounts on Linux and then create the Samba password file with the command:
cat /etc/passwd | /usr/bin/mksmbpasswd.sh > /etc/samba/smbpasswd
This creates the Samba password file from the Linux password file.
Note: Use the same filename specified in the smp passwd file parameter in smb.conf.
By default, the passwords for the Samba users are undefined. Before any connection
is made, a password must be set for each user ID.
Now a password must be set for each user ID that will be a connection from a SMB client.
The password can be changed or set by executing the command:
/usr/bin/smbpasswd -U <username>
You will see prompts similar to those shown in Example 4-8 on page 77.
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Example 4-8 Setting SMB encrypted password
# /usr/bin/smbpasswd -U mojoe
New SMB password:
Retype new SMB password:
Password changed for user mojoe.
#
Note: Anyone with write access to /usr/bin/smbpasswd can change passwords for the
Samba users.
Another way is to have each Samba user change the password for himself, by remotely
connecting to the Samba server and executing the command:
/usr/bin/smbpasswd
The output will be similar to Example 4-8. If the user account already has a password defined,
the person will be prompted for the old password before the new password can be entered.
A new user can be added to the encrypted password file later by typing the command:
/usr/bin/smbpasswd -a <username> <password>
This should be done after the Linux user account has been created.
Note: Only root can manage other user IDs. Standard users can only change their own
password. The smbpasswd utility uses the password file specified in smb.conf.
4.4 Starting and stopping the Samba server
You can start the Samba server by executing the command:
service smb start
This will start the smbd and nmbd daemons. Smbd is the actual Samba server and nmbd is
the WINS server.
The Samba server can be stopped by executing the command:
service smb stop
Whenever modifications are made to smb.conf, the Samba server must be restarted. This
can be done by executing the command:
service smb restart
4.5 Starting Samba as part of the boot process
The Samba server can be configured to start when the system boots. This can be done using
chkconfig by executing the command:
chkconfig smb on
Check that it will be started by executing the command:
chkconfig --list smb
The output should look similar to Example 4-9 on page 78.
Chapter 4. Installing and configuring Samba
77
Example 4-9 Setting and checking smb start on boot
[root@blade5 samba]# chkconfig smb on
[root@blade5 samba]# chkconfig --list smb
smb
0:off 1:off
2:off
3:on
4:on
5:on
6:off
4.6 Sources and additional information
You can find more information on the official Samba project Web site at:
http://www.samba.org
The Samba installation comes html documentation located on the server at:
/usr/share/samba-2.2.6/docs/htmldocs
There is a Web version of Using Samba located on the system at:
file:///usr/share/samba-2.2.6/docs/htmldocs/using_samba/index.html
There is a collection of how-to documents located on the system at:
file:///usr/share/samba-2.2.6/docs/Samba-HOWTO-Collection.pdf
There are always good how-to documents on the Linux Documentation project home page:
http://www.linuxdoc.org/
Information on joining a Samba server to a Windows domain is available at:
file:///usr/share/doc/samba-2.2.6/docs/htmldocs/Integrating-with-Windows.html
http://us1.samba.org/samba/ftp/appliance/windbind.pdf
http://us6.samba.org/samba/ftp/htmldocs/windbind.html
http://us2.samba.org/samba/docs/man/windbindd.8.html
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5
Chapter 5.
Samba management and
troubleshooting
In this chapter, we will discuss and describe the following:
򐂰 Checking server status
򐂰 Testing the configuration file
򐂰 Closing active connections
򐂰 Configuring log files
򐂰 Sending Winpopup messages
򐂰 Viewing NetBIOS network traffic
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
79
5.1 Checking the server status
The Samba suite has several programs that can be used for checking the smbd and nmbd
daemons.
5.1.1 Checking the status
The status of the Samba server can be viewed by running the smbstatus command or
through SWAT. Checking status through SWAT is shown in “Status” on page 73.
A brief status report is returned by the command:
smbstatus -b
The report will be similar to Example 5-1.
Example 5-1 Brief status report
[root@portal1 root]# smbstatus -b
Samba version 2.2.7
PID
Username Machine
Time logged in
------------------------------------------------------------------23645 eburt
m23bzzkv
Mon Nov 11 09:28:08 2002
23802 mojoe
burte
Mon Nov 11 10:34:57 2002
The more detailed report shown in Example 5-2 is returned by the command:
smbstatus -d
Example 5-2 Verbose status report
[root@portal1 root]# smbstatus -d
using configfile = /etc/samba/smb.conf
Opened /var/cache/samba/connections.tdb
Samba version 2.2.7
Service
uid
gid
pid
machine
---------------------------------------------redbook
mojoe
mojoe
23802 burte
(9.24.104.129) Mon Nov 11 10:38:43 2002
mojoe
mojoe
mojoe
23802 burte
(9.24.104.129) Mon Nov 11 10:34:57 2002
IPC$
eburt
eburt
23645 m23bzzkv (9.24.104.164) Mon Nov 11 09:28:08 2002
No locked files
5.1.2 Checking resources
Checking the available resources without using a Windows system is done with the
smbclient command. The public browsable shares can be viewed by executing the
command:
smbclient -U% -L localhost
The output will look similar to what is shown in Example 5-3 on page 81. The available shares
are shown in the Sharename column.
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Example 5-3 Public resources
[root@portal1 root]# smbclient -U% -L localhost
added interface ip=9.24.105.99 bcast=9.24.105.255 nmask=255.255.254.0
Domain=[LINUX] OS=[UNIX] Server=[Samba 2.2.7]
Sharename
--------redbook
public
IPC$
ADMIN$
Type
---Disk
Disk
IPC
Disk
Comment
-------
IPC Service (Samba Server on Red Hat Linux)
IPC Service (Samba Server on Red Hat Linux)
Server
--------PORTAL1
Comment
------Samba Server on Red Hat Linux
Workgroup
--------DUMMYBRANCH
FCD90020
FSCLAN
LINUX
MILKYWAY
PK_NW
RAL400
SCNF
WORKGROUP
WTRNTDM
Master
------M23BK62W
FCR0A307
T22ROEHM
PORTAL1
SATURN
MSGTRX01
AS4ACONSOLE
TAMAS02
M23BK60L
78-BA897
Note: No username or password was supplied after the -U option. The username
password separator, %, must be used to indicate no username and password.
The resources available for user mojoe can be seen by executing the command:
smbclient -U mojoe -L localhost
Example 5-4 shows the mojoe home directory is the only additional resource available to
mojoe.
Example 5-4 Resources available to mojoe
[root@portal1 root]# smbclient -L localhost -U mojoe
added interface ip=9.24.105.99 bcast=9.24.105.255 nmask=255.255.254.0
Password:
Domain=[LINUX] OS=[UNIX] Server=[Samba 2.2.7]
Sharename
--------redbook
public
IPC$
ADMIN$
mojoe
Type
---Disk
Disk
IPC
Disk
Disk
Comment
-------
IPC Service (Samba Server on Red Hat Linux)
IPC Service (Samba Server on Red Hat Linux)
Home Directories
Server
--------PORTAL1
Comment
------Samba Server on Red Hat Linux
Workgroup
Master
Chapter 5. Samba management and troubleshooting
81
--------DUMMYBRANCH
FCD90020
FSCLAN
LINUX
MILKYWAY
PK_NW
RAL400
SCNF
WORKGROUP
WTRNTDM
------M23BK62W
FCR0A307
T22ROEHM
PORTAL1
SATURN
MSGTRX01
AS4ACONSOLE
TAMAS02
M23BK60L
78-BA897
5.1.3 Checking WINS
Checking the WINS server from the Samba server is done with the nmblookup command. The
nmbd daemon can be queried for the special Samba server string by executing the
command:
nmblookup -B localhost __SAMBA__
The output will look similar to Example 5-5 if the nmbd daemon is responding to requests.
Example 5-5 Query local for Samba servers
[root@portal1 root]# nmblookup -B localhost __SAMBA__
querying __SAMBA__ on 127.0.0.1
9.24.105.99 __SAMBA__<00>
Note: The localhost address is being used as the broadcast address so the command will
only receive a response from the local nmbd daemon.
All the Samba servers on the network will be listed by executing the command:
nmblookup __SAMBA__
Verify that the server is a member of the LINUX workgroup by executing the command:
nmblookup -B localhost LINUX
The output will look similar to Example 5-6 if it is a member of the workgroup.
Example 5-6 Query local for members of LINUX workgroup
[root@portal1 root]# nmblookup -B localhost LINUX
querying LINUX on 127.0.0.1
9.24.105.99 LINUX<00>
All the members of the LINUX workgroup on the local network will be seen by executing the
command:
nmblookup LINUX
Example 5-7 shows all members of the LINUX workgroup on the local network.
Example 5-7 All members of LINUX workgroup
[root@portal1 samba]# nmblookup LINUX
querying LINUX on 9.24.105.255
9.24.105.99 LINUX<00>
9.24.104.129 LINUX<00>
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5.2 Testing the configuration file
The Samba configuration file can be checked with the testparm command. The program only
checks syntax, so there is no guarantee that all the defined shares will be available when the
config file is loaded by the Samba server.
Checking the configuration file, /etc/samba/smb.conf, and displaying all non-default settings
is done by executing the command:
testparm -sx
The output will look similar to the report shown in Example 5-8.
Example 5-8 Output of testparm -sx
[root@portal1 samba]# testparm -sx
Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
Processing section "[homes]"
Processing section "[redbook]"
Processing section "[printers]"
Processing section "[public]"
Loaded services file OK.
# Global parameters
[global]
workgroup = LINUX
server string = Samba Server on Red Hat Linux
encrypt passwords = Yes
log level = 0
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
max log size = 50
socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
dns proxy = No
wins support = Yes
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
path = %H
read only = No
create mask = 0700
directory mask = 0700
browseable = No
[redbook]
comment = RedBook files
path = /redbook
write list = @users
read only = No
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/lpd
printable = Yes
browseable = No
[public]
path = /home/public
write list = root
read only = No
directory mask = 0777
Chapter 5. Samba management and troubleshooting
83
Any errors will show up at the top of the report under the section where the error is located.
The rest of the report shows what parameters the Samba server will load.
Since no errors were found, Samba will run with this configuration file.
If the public share definition is modified to what is shown in Example 5-9, the report will look
similar to Example 5-10.
Example 5-9 Resource definition with two errors
[public]
path = /home/public
write list = root
read only = No
creat mask = 755
directory mask = 0777
force directory mode = 0758
The only error is noted under the public section. The report under the loaded services file
OK line displays the non-default parameters. This part of the report is useful for verifying the
share definition parameter settings. Notice that the force directory mode parameter will be
loaded with a value of 075 for the public share in Example 5-10.
Example 5-10 Output of testparm showing errors.
[root@portal1 samba]# testparm -sx
Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
Processing section "[homes]"
Processing section "[redbook]"
Processing section "[printers]"
Processing section "[public]"
Unknown parameter encountered: "creat mask"
Ignoring unknown parameter "creat mask"
Processing section "[Samba Docs]"
Loaded services file OK.
WARNING: You have some share names that are longer than 8 chars
These may give errors while browsing or may not be accessible
to some older clients
# Global parameters
[global]
workgroup = LINUX
server string = Samba Server on Red Hat Linux
encrypt passwords = Yes
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
max log size = 50
socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
dns proxy = No
wins support = Yes
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
path = %H
read only = No
create mask = 0700
directory mask = 0700
browseable = No
[redbook]
comment = RedBook files
path = /redbook
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write list = @users
read only = No
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/lpd
printable = Yes
browseable = No
[public]
path = /home/public
write list = root
read only = No
directory mask = 0777
force directory mode = 075
[Samba Docs]
comment = Samba Documentation
path = /usr/share/doc/samba-2.2.7/docs
5.3 Closing connections
Closing SMB client connections can either be done from the command line or through SWAT.
5.3.1 Command line
Closing all connections to shares is done by executing the command:
smbcontrol smbd close-share *
Example 5-11 shows the server status before and after executing the command.
Example 5-11 Closing all share connections
[root@portal1 samba]# smbstatus
Samba version 2.2.7
Service
uid
gid
pid
machine
---------------------------------------------public
eburt
eburt
25360 m23bzzkv (9.24.104.164) Mon Nov 11 15:46:05 2002
mojoe
mojoe
mojoe
25694 portal1 (9.24.105.99) Mon Nov 11 15:43:37 2002
IPC$
eburt
eburt
25360 m23bzzkv (9.24.104.164) Mon Nov 11 15:21:58 2002
No locked files
[root@portal1 samba]# smbcontrol smbd close-share '*'
[root@portal1 samba]# smbstatus
Samba version 2.2.7
Service
uid
gid
pid
machine
---------------------------------------------No locked files
Closing all connections to a share, redbook in this case, is done by executing the command:
smbcontrol smbd close-share redbook
Chapter 5. Samba management and troubleshooting
85
Example 5-12 shows the server status before and after the connection to the redbook share
is closed.
Example 5-12 Closing redbook share
[root@portal1 samba]# smbstatus
Samba version 2.2.7
Service
uid
gid
pid
machine
---------------------------------------------redbook
mojoe
mojoe
25586 portal1
public
eburt
eburt
25360 m23bzzkv
mojoe
mojoe
mojoe
25694 portal1
IPC$
eburt
eburt
25360 m23bzzkv
(9.24.105.99) Mon Nov 11 15:40:19 2002
(9.24.104.164) Mon Nov 11 15:46:05 2002
(9.24.105.99) Mon Nov 11 15:43:37 2002
(9.24.104.164) Mon Nov 11 15:21:58 2002
No locked files
[root@portal1 samba]# smbcontrol smbd close-share redbook
[root@portal1 samba]# smbstatus
Samba version 2.2.7
Service
uid
gid
pid
machine
---------------------------------------------public
eburt
eburt
25360 m23bzzkv (9.24.104.164) Mon Nov 11 15:46:05 2002
mojoe
mojoe
mojoe
25694 portal1 (9.24.105.99) Mon Nov 11 15:43:37 2002
IPC$
eburt
eburt
25360 m23bzzkv (9.24.104.164) Mon Nov 11 15:21:58 2002
No locked files
86
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
5.3.2 SWAT
Connections can be closed from the SWAT status page by clicking the button in the kill
column of the active connection row.
Figure 5-1 Closing connection from SWAT
Clicking the second button in the Kill column shown in in Figure 5-1 will close only that
connection to the redbook share. Multiple shares cannot be closed at once through SWAT.
Each connection must be closed individually.
5.4 Configuring log files
Log files are the best place to look when troubleshooting a problem or viewing what the
server is doing.
Table 5-1 lists the global parameters that control Samba logging.
Table 5-1 Log file parameters
Parameters
Descriptions
log file
Overrides default log file settings. Allows creation of log files using variable
substitution.
log level
Integer value between 0 and 10 that specifies the debug log level, where 0
sets logging errors only and 10 full debug logging. Default value is 0 when
parameter is not set. Setting of 3 will provide enough information for solving
problems.
Chapter 5. Samba management and troubleshooting
87
Parameters
Descriptions
max log size
Integer value setting the maximum size of the log file in kilobytes. File name
is appended with .old and a new file is created when this limit is reached.
Default value is 5000.
The global log parameters will look similar to what is shown in Example 5-13.
Example 5-13 Log settings
log limit = 2
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
max log size = 50
Log level setting of 2 will result in log entries similar to Example 5-14.
Example 5-14 Level 2 log entries
[2002/11/12 09:29:31, 2] libsmb/namequery.c:name_query(421)
Got a positive name query response from 9.24.104.164 ( 9.24.104.164 )
[2002/11/12 09:29:31, 0] smbd/service.c:make_connection(251)
m23bzzkv (9.24.104.164) couldn't find service ::{2227a280-3aea-1069-a2de-08002b30309d}
[2002/11/12 09:29:32, 1] smbd/service.c:close_cnum(675)
m23bzzkv (9.24.104.164) closed connection to service redbook
[2002/11/12 09:29:32, 1] smbd/service.c:close_cnum(675)
m23bzzkv (9.24.104.164) closed connection to service public
The log level parameter settings are described in Table 5-2.
Table 5-2 Log level settings
Level
Description
0
Only critical failures are recorded, such as failing to open a log file, dropping
a connection, or receiving an unknown command.
1
Connection and session information is logged.
2-4
System administration debugging information is logged.
5-9
Moderate developer debugging information is logged.
10
Full developer debugging information is logged.
There can be more than one log file parameter set in the configuration file. Each parameter
instance will result in the creation of the specified log files.
The most useful log file settings are listed in Table 5-3.
Table 5-3 Useful log file settings
Parameter setting
Log created
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
Create a log file for each connecting client.
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%S
Create a log file for recording all share activity.
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%U
Create a log file for recording all user activity.
Samba always creates log files for the smbd and the nmbd daemons in /var/log/samba. The
smbd log is usually named log.smbd and the nmbd is usually named log.nmbd. The log level
88
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
and max log size parameters do determine the amount of information logged and the
maximum log size.
5.5 Sending Winpopup messages
Before bringing down the server or restarting Samba, it would be helpful to send Winpopup
messages to all the clients that are connected to resources on the system. The smbclient
command syntax is:
smbclient -M <NetBIOS system name>
After running this command, type in the messages and press ^D (Control D) on a blank line to
indicate the end of the messages. Example 5-15 shows the command that produced the
messages box shown in Figure 5-2.
Example 5-15 Sending Winpopup message
[root@portal1 samba]# smbclient -M m23bzzkv
added interface ip=9.24.105.99 bcast=9.24.105.255 nmask=255.255.254.0
Got a positive name query response from 9.24.104.164 ( 9.24.104.164 )
Connected. Type your message, ending it with a Control-D
this is a test message
sent 24 bytes
Figure 5-2 Message box
To send a prepared message, use the command sequence:
cat theMessage | smbclient -M foobar
Sending a message without pressing ^D at the end is accomplished by the command
sequence:
echo “The server is going down in 5 minutes.” | smbclient -N foobar
Sending a message to all client systems using services can be done with the command
sequence:
for c in $(smbstatus -b |awk '/^[0-9]/ {print $3}'); do echo "Server will be going down
in 5 minutes" | smbclient -M $c -U 'the all powerful admin'; done
The message box displayed on each client will look similar to Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3 Server will be going down message
Chapter 5. Samba management and troubleshooting
89
5.6 Viewing NetBIOS network traffic
There are times when the only way to debug is to view the network traffic. There are several
tools that come with most Linux distributions for doing this. The most popular is tcpdump,
because it has been around the longest. Because some versions of tcpdump do not handle
NetBIOS traffic and other versions do not produce very useful output, we are going to use
another popular tool, ethereal.
5.6.1 Installing ethereal
Depending on how the server was installed, ethereal may already be installed. Check using
the command:
rpm -q etheral
If nothing is returned, then install it from the distribution CDs. Ethereal was installed from the
install server using the command shown in Example 5-16.
Example 5-16 Installing ethereal from install server
linux:~ # rpm -ivh
ftp://portal1/pub/SLES8/disc2/UnitedLinux/i586/ethereal-0.9.6-65.i586.rpm
Retrieving ftp://portal1/pub/SLES8/disc2/UnitedLinux/i586/ethereal-0.9.6-65.i586.rpm
ethereal
##################################################
linux:~ # rpm -q ethereal
ethereal-0.9.6-65
5.6.2 Using ethereal
The rpm installs a GUI and non-GUI version of network protocol analyzers. We are going to
use the non-GUI version, tethereal, because the traffic can be viewed live and many servers
are not installed with X11 support.
Find the active network interfaced using the ifconfig command as shown in Example 5-17.
Example 5-17 Output of ifconfig
[root@blade5 root]# ifconfig
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:09:6B:00:12:61
inet addr:9.24.104.65 Bcast:9.24.105.255 Mask:255.255.254.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:12690 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:4493 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
RX bytes:2973404 (2.8 Mb) TX bytes:1458873 (1.3 Mb)
Interrupt:17
lo
Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:113 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:113 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:8358 (8.1 Kb) TX bytes:8358 (8.1 Kb)
Network interface eth1 is the only active network interface, so it will be used. If there are more
than one active network interfaces, choose one.
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Viewing all the NetBIOS traffic to and from the server can be done using the command:
tethereal -i eth1 -p -f ‘port 137 or 138 or 139’
The p option runs the program without putting the interface into promiscuous mode. In many
companies, special permission must be granted before running a protocol analyzer in
promiscuous mode. The f option sets the filter string. Ports 137, 138, and 139 are all the
ports defined in /etc/services for NetBIOS traffic. The output of the command shown in
Example 5-18 contains mainly broadcast traffic.
Example 5-18 Show all NetBIOS traffic
linux:~ # tethereal -p -i eth1 -f 'port 137 or 138 or 139'
Capturing on eth1
0.000000 a23ff426.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
0.754595 a23ff426.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
1.509200 a23ff426.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
4.130283 78-ba897.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WTRNTDM<1c>
4.880309 78-ba897.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WTRNTDM<1c>
5.630557 78-ba897.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WTRNTDM<1c>
6.187107 ibm-qu7l6sr9cl6 -> 9.24.105.255 BROWSER Host Announcement KA6BRRA, Workstation,
Server, NT Workstation, NT Server, Backup Browser
7.085537
65652ksv -> 9.24.105.255 BROWSER Host Announcement M23CABXK, Workstation,
Server, NT Workstation, NT Server, Backup Browser
7.296587 m23x2640.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
7.761838 m23kk904.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 BROWSER Host Announcement M23KK904,
Workstation, Server, NT Workstation, NT Server, Potential Browser
8.045579 m23x2640.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
8.732341 byron5500.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WTRNTDM<1c>
8.732976 byron5500.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NETLOGON SAM LOGON request from
client
8.795417 m23x2640.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
13.443810 a23ff426.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
14.197594 a23ff426.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
14.948812 itsons.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WTRNTBAK<20>
14.952186 a23ff426.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1b>
17.196362 wtrntbak.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB ITSONS<20>
18.684232 m23x2640.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1c>
19.434101 m23x2640.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1c>
20.183985 m23x2640.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1c>
22.820827 vdputteg.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 BROWSER Host Announcement VDPUTTEG,
Workstation, Server, NT Workstation, Potential Browser
23.912973
68622ksv -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB BJD1MO<1b>
24.663972
68622ksv -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB BJD1MO<1b>
24.882039 a23ff426.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1c>
25.414963
68622ksv -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB BJD1MO<1b>
25.636634 a23ff426.itso.ral.ibm.com -> 9.24.105.255 NBNS Name query NB WORKGROUP<1c>
Filtering out all the broadcast traffic is done by including the host address in the filter string, as
shown in Example 5-19.
Example 5-19 Just NetBIOS traffic addressed to server
[root@portal1 root]# tethereal -p -i eth1 -f 'host 9.24.105.99 and (port 137 or 138 or
139)'
Capturing on eth1
0.000000 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com SMB NT Create AndX Request, Path:
\srvsvc
0.003648 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8 SMB NT Create AndX Response, FID:
0x70b4
Chapter 5. Samba management and troubleshooting
91
0.004048 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
4b324fc8-1670-01d3-1278-5a47bf6ee188 ver 3.0
0.004636 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
5680 max_recv: 5680
0.004942 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
SRV_NETSHAREENUM_ALL(...)
0.005174 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
SRV_NETSHAREENUM_ALL(...)
0.005622 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
0.006655 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
0.019751 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
0.020213 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
ctx_id:0
0.020788 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
0.021137 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
ctx_id:0
0.022742 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
\winreg
0.023053 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
0x70b5
0.025450 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
338cd001-2244-31f1-aaaa-900038001003 ver 1.0
0.025590 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
5680 max_recv: 5680
0.027634 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
0.027985 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
0.028677 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
0.029046 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
0.029369 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
0.029644 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
0.030157 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
0.030380 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
0.200396 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
Seq=2101757969 Ack=383092087 Win=16667 Len=0
3.189731 ibm-76a6i5kadj8 -> portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com
\\PORTAL1\IPC$
3.191007 portal1.itso.ral.ibm.com -> ibm-76a6i5kadj8
DCERPC Bind: UUID
DCERPC Bind ack: accept
max_xmit:
SRVSVC rqst
SRVSVC rply
SMB Close Request, FID: 0x70b4
SMB Close Response
DCERPC Request: opnum: 69 ctx_id:0
DCERPC Response: call_id: 42
DCERPC Request: opnum: 29 ctx_id:0
DCERPC Response: call_id: 43
SMB NT Create AndX Request, Path:
SMB NT Create AndX Response, FID:
DCERPC Bind: UUID
DCERPC Bind ack: accept
REG
REG
REG
REG
REG
REG
SMB
SMB
TCP
max_xmit:
rqst REG_OPEN_HKLM(...)
rply REG_OPEN_HKLM(...)
rqst REG_OPEN_ENTRY(...)
rply REG_OPEN_ENTRY(...)
rqst REG_CLOSE(...)
rply REG_CLOSE(...)
Close Request, FID: 0x70b5
Close Response
1990 > netbios-ssn [ACK]
SMB Tree Connect AndX Request, Path:
SMB Tree Connect AndX Response
Capturing all the NetBIOS traffic from host jojo to the Samba server is accomplished by
command:
tethereal -p -i eth1 -f ‘host jojoj and (port 137 or 138 or 139)’
When the summary information is not enough to find the problem, the complete packet
decode is required. Using the V option causes tethereal to print the protocol tree for each
packet. Unless there only a few packets, the output should be piped to a file. The command
string in Example 5-20 displays all the NetBIOS traffic between the Samba server and client
jojo and sends the output to file /tmp/capture.
Example 5-20 Protocol tree output
tethereal -i eth1 -V -p -f 'host jojo and (port 137 or 138 or 139)' | tee /tmp/capture
Capturing on eth1
Frame 1 (74 on wire, 74 captured)
Arrival Time: Nov 15, 2002 13:11:25.157535000
Time delta from previous packet: 0.000000000 seconds
Time relative to first packet: 0.000000000 seconds
Frame Number: 1
Packet Length: 74 bytes
Capture Length: 74 bytes
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Ethernet II
Destination: 00:02:55:7c:75:1b (IBM_7c:75:1b)
Source: 00:02:55:7c:75:18 (IBM_7c:75:18)
Type: IP (0x0800)
Internet Protocol, Src Addr: jojo (9.24.105.112), Dst Addr: portal1 (9.24.105.99)
Version: 4
Header length: 20 bytes
Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP 0x00: Default; ECN: 0x00)
0000 00.. = Differentiated Services Codepoint: Default (0x00)
.... ..0. = ECN-Capable Transport (ECT): 0
.... ...0 = ECN-CE: 0
Total Length: 60
Identification: 0x330d
Flags: 0x04
.1.. = Don't fragment: Set
..0. = More fragments: Not set
Fragment offset: 0
Time to live: 64
Protocol: TCP (0x06)
Header checksum: 0x22ac (correct)
Source: jojo (9.24.105.112)
Destination: portal1 (9.24.105.99)
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 32982 (32982), Dst Port: netbios-ssn (139), Seq:
1957020879, Ack: 0
Source port: 32982 (32982)
Destination port: netbios-ssn (139)
Sequence number: 1957020879
Header length: 40 bytes
Flags: 0x0002 (SYN)
0... .... = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not set
.0.. .... = ECN-Echo: Not set
..0. .... = Urgent: Not set
...0 .... = Acknowledgment: Not set
.... 0... = Push: Not set
.... .0.. = Reset: Not set
.... ..1. = Syn: Set
.... ...0 = Fin: Not set
Window size: 5840
Checksum: 0x19dc (correct)
Options: (20 bytes)
Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes
SACK permitted
Time stamp: tsval 17069693, tsecr 0
NOP
Window scale: 0 bytes
Frame 2 (74 on wire, 74 captured)
Since so much detailed information is produced, it will take time to understand the information
in the capture. A summary capture output showing the same client activity will help in
understanding the detailed capture output.
Chapter 5. Samba management and troubleshooting
93
5.7 Sources of additional information
There is more information about testing Samba using the programs that come with the
Samba suite in:
file:///usr/share/samba-2.2.7/docs/textdocs/DIAGNOSIS.txt
The sources Troubleshooting Techniques and Samba 2.0.x Troubleshooting Guide contain
good information about solving Samba problems. Both are available on the official Samba
projects Web site at:
http://www.samba.org
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
6
Chapter 6.
A brief introduction to Layer 4-7
Switching
This chapter provides a brief overview of how Layer 4-7 Switching works. The goals are to
present an alternative to traditional network design and to provide enough background to
understand how a Layer 2-7 switch can be beneficial to a network. While this chapter gives a
brief overview of the features and benefits of Layer 4-7 switching, it also mentions the Layer
2-7 GbE Switch Module or GbESM. For a more in-depth look at Layer 4-7 Switching, refer to
the Redpaper IBM Eserver BladeCenter Layer 2-7 Network Switching, REDP3755.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
95
6.1 Layer 4-7 Switching
Most networks employ multiple servers without server load balancing. Each server usually
specializes in providing one or two unique services. However, a server that provides
applications or data in high demand can become overutilized. If this happens, it can strain
network resources since when the server starts rejecting user requests, the users resubmit
the requests for data.This often happens on networks where several other servers are sitting
idle with resources available to service users.
Layer 4-7 Switching can harness these available idle servers without additional special
equipment such as dedicated load-balancing servers. The term L4-7 is used because these
switches are Layer 4 (TCP) aware. These switches use headers and data found at the OSI
Layer 7 to deliver many of their key features. Layer 2 and Layer 3 switches operate on and
are aware of Layers 2-3 only.
Layer 4-7 Switching can be used to improve the reliability, scalability, and performance of a
wide variety of applications and services. Layer 4-7 isolates the delivery of a service, from a
user’s point of view, from the physical reality of how that service is delivered. A Layer 4-7
switch is aware of the services provided by each server. Based on several load-balancing
algorithms, a switch can direct user session traffic to an appropriate server. This means that
in addition to using the available resources on otherwise idle servers, resources can be
provisioned “on the fly”. This lets network administrators add or subtract to the service
delivery capability to react to server failures, meet demands during peak periods and scale
back resources once demand is over. All of this happens with no knowledge or participation
from the users of that service.
To take advantage of L4-7 Switching, services or applications advertise themselves using
normal hostnames such as www.ibm.com® to the outside world. However, DNS resolution
will resolve that hostname back to a Virtual IP Address(V_IP) assigned to an L4-7 switch. A
service advertised by a V_IP is a Virtual Service. When application requests are sent from
users to a V_IP, the L4-7 switch forwards the request to one or more real servers with real IP
addresses.
The collection of real servers to which a request for a particular Virtual Service can be sent is
called the Virtual Service Pool. By adding real servers to a Virtual Service Pool, the total
application delivery throughput can be increased and application delivery times reduced. By
moving real servers between Virtual Service Pools, shifting loads and demands between
services can be met without having to provision enough servers for each application to meet
the peak demands (which would result in several unused servers in off-peak times).
Figure 6-1 on page 97 shows how the Layer 2-7 GbE Switch Module installed in BladeCenter
could be used to redeploy blades to service a few different applications according to demand.
96
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Sample L4-7 GbESM Configuration
Sales
Server Blade
GbESM
Server Blade
Server Blade
Sales
Marketing
Server Blade
Marketing
Server Blade
BladeCenter
Figure 6-1 Sample L4-7 configuration
Figure 6-1 shows how services can be deployed using Layer 4-7 Switching. Using the
GbESM in the BladeCenter, all server resources can be configured to support all applications,
with the GbESM spreading the load among them at all times. As the loads on Sales and
Marketing vary throughout the day or week or month, resources are automatically allocated in
real time to meet the need.
In this scenario, to provide load balancing for any particular type of service, each server blade
in the pool must have access to identical content, either directly (duplicated on each server)
or through a back-end network (mounting the same file system or database server).
The GbESM acts as a front end to the servers, interpreting user session requests and
distributing them among the available servers. Load balancing in the GbESM can be done in
the following ways.
Virtual server-based load balancing
This is the traditional load-balancing method. The switch is configured to act as a virtual
server and is given a V_IP for each service it will distribute. Each virtual server is assigned a
list of the IP addresses (or range of addresses) of the real servers in the pool where its
services reside. When the user stations request connections to a service, they will
communicate with a virtual server on the switch. When the switch receives the request, it
binds the session to the IP address of the best available real server and remaps the fields in
each frame from virtual addresses to real addresses. HTTP, IP, FTP, RTSP, IDS, and static
session WAP are examples of some of the services that use virtual servers for load
balancing.
Filter-based load balancing
A filter allows you to control the types of traffic permitted through the switch. Filters are
configured to allow, deny, or redirect traffic according to the IP address, protocol, or Layer 4
port criteria. In filter-based load balancing, a filter is used to redirect traffic to a real server
group. If the group is configured with more than one real server entry, redirected traffic is load
balanced among the available real servers in the group. Firewalls, WAP with RADIUS
snooping, IDS, and WAN links use redirection filters to load balance traffic.
Content-based load balancing
Content-based load balancing uses Layer 7 application data (such as URL, cookies, and Host
Headers) to make intelligent load balancing decisions. URL-based load balancing,
browser-smart load balancing, and cookie-based preferential load balancing are a few
examples of content-based load balancing.
Chapter 6. A brief introduction to Layer 4-7 Switching
97
In the example in Figure 6-1 on page 97, virtual server load balancing is used. The switch has
two different V_IPs configured which correspond to each of the services (Sales and
Marketing). DNS responds with these V_IPs when these services are requested. The GbESM
is also configured for the real IP addresses (R_IPs) that are owned by blades that support
requests coming into each V_IP. In this case, all server blades can respond to requests for all
services, so each V_IP is assigned the entire set of R_IPs.
A TCP connection consists of a series of packets sent back and forth from two destinations. If
packets are misrouted and sent to the wrong destination, the session will slow down due to
retransmissions and possibly fail if misrouting continues. Therefore, a Layer 4-7 switch needs
to be TCP-aware in the sense that it needs to be able to:
򐂰 Identify the beginning of a new TCP connection
򐂰 Assign that connection to a real server
򐂰 Make sure that all ensuing packets related to that TCP connection continue to be sent to
the same real server
This requirement is what puts the “Layer 4” in L4-7. The GbESM provides this capability. All
packets arriving that are destined to a V_IP are inspected to determine whether they are
associated with an existing TCP connection (in which case they are re-directed to the real
server already assigned) or whether they are a request to set up a new TCP connection. If the
received packet is a request to establish a new TCP connection (a TCP SYN packet), the
GbESM will determine the best available server to re-direct that request to and then do so.
The “best available” consideration can be made based upon a number of factors that are
beyond the scope of this chapter. It is enough to say that “best available” is based on a
consideration of the present health and load of each of the candidate real servers.
This chapter introduces the concepts of Layer 4-7 Switching and how it benefits customers
deploying applications on the IBM Eserver BladeCenter. For a more in-depth look at Layer
4-7 Switching, refer to IBM Eserver BladeCenter Layer 2-7 Network Switching, REDP3755.
In addition to expanding on the concepts discussed here, this Redpaper is an excellent guide
to deploying the GbESM in both Nortel and Cisco networking environments.
98
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
A
Appendix A.
Samba configuration file
This appendix provides a sample configuration file.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
99
Sample smb.conf with comments
# This is the main Samba configuration file. You should read the
# smb.conf(5) manual page in order to understand the options listed
# here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options (perhaps too
# many!) most of which are not shown in this example
# # Any line which starts with a ; (semi-colon) or a # (hash)
# is a comment and is ignored. In this example we will use a #
# for commentry and a ; for parts of the config file that you
# may wish to enable #
# NOTE: Whenever you modify this file you should run the command "testparm"
# to check that you have not made any basic syntactic errors. #
#====================== Global Settings ===============================
[global]
# workgroup = NT-Domain-Name or Workgroup-Name
workgroup = LINUX
# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
server string = Samba Server on Red Hat Linux
# This option is important for security. It allows you to restrict
# connections to machines which are on your local network. The
# following example restricts access to two C class networks and
# the "loopback" interface. For more examples of the syntax see
# the smb.conf man page
;
hosts allow = 192.168.1. 192.168.2. 127.
# if you want to automatically load your printer list rather
# than setting them up individually then you'll need this
printcap name = /etc/printcap
load printers = yes
# It should not be necessary to spell out the print system type unless
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
# yours is non-standard. Currently supported print systems include:
# bsd, sysv, plp, lprng, aix, hpux, qnx
;
printing = bsd
# Uncomment this if you want a guest account, you must add this to /etc/passwd
# otherwise the user "nobody" is used
;
guest account = pcguest
# this tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine
# that connects
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%S
# Put a capping on the size of the log files (in Kb).
max log size = 50
# Security mode. Most people will want user level security. See
# security_level.txt for details.
security = user
# Use password server option only with security = server
;
password server = <NT-Server-Name>
# Password Level allows matching of _n_ characters of the password for
# all combinations of upper and lower case.
;
password level = 8
;
username level = 8
# You may wish to use password encryption. Please read
# ENCRYPTION.txt, Win95.txt and WinNT.txt in the Samba documentation.
# Do not enable this option unless you have read those documents
encrypt passwords = yes
Appendix A. Samba configuration file
101
smb passwd file = /etc/samba/smbpasswd
# The following are needed to allow password changing from Windows to
# update the Linux sytsem password also.
# NOTE: Use these with 'encrypt passwords' and 'smb passwd file' above.
# NOTE2: You do NOT need these to allow workstations to change only
#
the encrypted SMB passwords. They allow the UNIX password
#
to be kept in sync with the SMB password.
;
UNIX password sync = Yes
;
passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u
# UNIX users can map to different SMB User names
;
username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration
# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name
# of the machine that is connecting
;
include = /etc/samba/smb.conf.%m
# Most people will find that this option gives better performance.
# See speed.txt and the manual pages for details
socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
# Configure Samba to use multiple interfaces
# If you have multiple network interfaces then you must list them
# here. See the man page for details.
;
interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24
# Configure remote browse list synchronisation here
#
102
request announcement to, or browse list sync from:
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
#
;
a specific host or from / to a whole subnet (see below)
remote browse sync = 192.168.3.25 192.168.5.255
# Cause this host to announce itself to local subnets here
;
remote announce = 192.168.1.255 192.168.2.44
# Browser Control Options:
# set local master to no if you don't want Samba to become a master
# browser on your network. Otherwise the normal election rules apply
;
local master = no
# OS Level determines the precedence of this server in master browser
# elections. The default value should be reasonable
;
os level = 33
# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. This
# allows Samba to collate browse lists between subnets. Don't use this
# if you already have a Windows NT domain controller doing this job
;
domain master = yes
# Preferred Master causes Samba to force a local browser election on startup
# and gives it a slightly higher chance of winning the election
;
preferred master = yes
# Use only if you have an NT server on your network that has been
# configured at install time to be a primary domain controller.
;
domain controller = <NT-Domain-Controller-SMBName>
# Enable this if you want Samba to be a domain logon server for
# Windows95 workstations.
;
domain logons = yes
Appendix A. Samba configuration file
103
# if you enable domain logons then you may want a per-machine or
# per user logon script
# run a specific logon batch file per workstation (machine)
;
logon script = %m.bat
# run a specific logon batch file per username
;
logon script = %U.bat
# Where to store roving profiles (only for Win95 and WinNT)
#
%L substitutes for this servers netbios name, %U is username
#
You must uncomment the [Profiles] share below
;
logon path = \\%L\Profiles\%U
# All NetBIOS names must be resolved to IP Addresses
# 'Name Resolve Order' allows the named resolution mechanism to be specified
# the default order is "host lmhosts wins bcast". "host" means use the UNIX
# system gethostbyname() function call that will use either /etc/hosts OR
# DNS or NIS depending on the settings of /etc/host.config, /etc/nsswitch.conf
# and the /etc/resolv.conf file. "host" therefore is system configuration
# dependant. This parameter is most often of use to prevent DNS lookups
# in order to resolve NetBIOS names to IP Addresses. Use with care!
# The example below excludes use of name resolution for machines that are NOT
# on the local network segment
# - OR - are not deliberately to be known via lmhosts or via WINS.
; name resolve order = wins lmhosts bcast
# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:
# WINS Support - Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable it's WINS Server
wins support = yes
# WINS Server - Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
#
;
Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both
wins server = w.x.y.z
# WINS Proxy - Tells Samba to answer name resolution queries on
# behalf of a non WINS capable client, for this to work there must be
# at least one
;
WINS Server on the network. The default is NO.
wins proxy = yes
# DNS Proxy - tells Samba whether or not to try to resolve NetBIOS names
# via DNS nslookups. The built-in default for versions 1.9.17 is yes,
# this has been changed in version 1.9.18 to no.
dns proxy = no
# Case Preservation can be handy - system default is _no_
# NOTE: These can be set on a per share basis
;
preserve case = no
;
short preserve case = no
# Default case is normally upper case for all DOS files
;
default case = lower
# Be very careful with case sensitivity - it can break things!
;
case sensitive = no
#============================ Share Definitions ==============================
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
path = %H
create mask = 0700
directory mask = 0700
browseable = no
Appendix A. Samba configuration file
105
# Un-comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons
; [netlogon]
;
comment = Network Logon Service
;
path = /home/netlogon
;
guest ok = yes
;
writable = no
;
share modes = no
# Un-comment the following to provide a specific roving profile share
# the default is to use the user's home directory
;[Profiles]
;
path = /home/profiles
;
browseable = no
;
guest ok = yes
# NOTE: If you have a BSD-style print system there is no need to
# specifically define each individual printer
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/lpd
browseable = no
# Set public = yes to allow user 'guest account' to print
guest ok = no
writable = no
printable = yes
# This one is useful for people to share files
;[tmp]
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
;
comment = Temporary file space
;
path = /tmp
;
read only = no
;
public = yes
# A publicly accessible directory, but read only, except for people in
# the "staff" group
[public]
comment = Public Stuff
path = /home/public
;
public = yes
read only = No
;
write list = @staff
ditectory mask = 0777
write list = root
# Other examples.
#
# A private printer, usable only by fred. Spool data will be placed in fred's
# home directory. Note that fred must have write access to the spool directory,
# wherever it is.
;[fredsprn]
;
comment = Fred's Printer
;
valid users = fred
;
path = /homes/fred
;
printer = freds_printer
;
public = no
;
writable = no
;
printable = yes
Appendix A. Samba configuration file
107
# A private directory, usable only by fred. Note that fred requires write
# access to the directory.
;[fredsdir]
;
comment = Fred's Service
;
path = /usr/somewhere/private
;
valid users = fred
;
public = no
;
writable = yes
;
printable = no
# a service which has a different directory for each machine that connects
# this allows you to tailor configurations to incoming
# The %m gets replaced with the machine name that is connecting.
;[pchome]
;
comment = PC Directories
;
path = /usr/pc/%m
;
public = no
;
writable = yes
# A publicly accessible directory, read/write to all users. Note that all files
# created in the directory by users will be owned by the default user, so
# any user with access can delete any other user's files. Obviously this
# directory must be writable by the default user. Another user could of course
# be specified, in which case all files would be owned by that user instead.
;[public]
108
;
path = /usr/somewhere/else/public
;
public = yes
;
only guest = yes
;
writable = yes
;
printable = no
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
# The following two entries demonstrate how to share a directory so that two
# users can place files there that will be owned by the specific users. In this
# setup, the directory should be writable by both users and should have the
# sticky bit set on it to prevent abuse. Obviously this could be extended to
# as many users as required.
;[myshare]
;
comment = Mary's and Fred's stuff
;
path = /usr/somewhere/shared
;
valid users = mary fred
;
public = no
;
writable = yes
;
printable = no
;
create mask = 0765
[Samba Docs]
path = /usr/share/doc/samba-2.2.6/docs
read only = yes
comment = Samba Documentation
Appendix A. Samba configuration file
109
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Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed
discussion of the topics covered in this Redpaper.
IBM Redbooks
For information on ordering these publications, see “How to get IBM Redbooks” on page 112.
򐂰 The Cutting Edge: IBM Eserver BladeCenter, REDP3581
򐂰 IBM Eserver BladeCenter Systems Management, REDP3582
򐂰 Deploying Citrix MetaFrame on IBM Eserver BladeCenter, REDP3583
򐂰 Deploying Lotus Domino on IBM Eserver BladeCenter, REDP3584
򐂰 Deploying Microsoft Exchange on IBM Eserver BladeCenter, REDP3585
򐂰 Deploying Apache on IBM Eserver BladeCenter, REDP3588
򐂰 Linux on IBM Netfinity Servers: A Collection of Papers, SG24-5994-00
򐂰 Red Hat Linux Integration Guide for IBM Eserver xSeries and Netfinity, SG24-5853-01
򐂰 SuSE Linux Integration Guide for IBM Eserver xSeries and Netfinity, SG24-5863-01
򐂰 IBM Eserver BladeCenter Layer 2-7 Network Switching, REDP3755.
Referenced Web sites
These Web sites are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 Location or Red Hat boot diskette
http://people.redhat.com/msw/boot-usb-sleep-7.3.img
򐂰 Red Hat documentation
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-7.3-Manual/install-guide/s1-diskpartsetup.h
tml
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-7.3-Manual/install-guide/s1-firewallconfig.
html
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-7.3-Manual/install-guide/s1-xconfig.html
򐂰 Samba home page
http://www.samba.org/
򐂰 Linux Documentation home page
http://www.linuxdoc.org/
򐂰 Samba documentation
http://us1.samba.org/samba/ftp/appliance/windbind.pdf
http://us6.samba.org/samba/ftp/htmldocs/windbind.html
http://us2.samba.org/samba/docs/man/windbindd.8.html
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2003. All rights reserved.
111
򐂰 IBM ServerProven
http://www.ibm.com/pc/compat/
򐂰 IBM Eserver BladeCenter - Power Module Upgrade Guidelines
http://www-1.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=psg1MIGR-53353
򐂰 IBM Eserver BladeCenter - Power Module Upgrade Guidelines
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/pc/pccbbs/pc_servers_pdf/13n0308.pdf
How to get IBM Redbooks
You can order hardcopy Redbooks, as well as view, download, or search for Redbooks at the
following Web site:
ibm.com/redbooks
You can also download additional materials (code samples or diskette/CD-ROM images) from
that site.
IBM Redbooks collections
Redbooks are also available on CD-ROMs. Click the CD-ROMs button on the Redbooks Web
site for information about all the CD-ROMs offered, as well as updates and formats.
112
Deploying Samba on IBM Eserver BladeCenter
Back cover
Deploying Samba on
IBM
BladeCenter
Installing Red Hat 7.3,
SuSE 8.1 Linux and
IBM Director
Installing Samba
Managing Samba
using SWAT
Considering how much data centers have grown with the proliferation
of Intel-based servers over recent years, it is important to note that
rack space and floor space can be more efficiently used with the use of
the IBM Eserver BladeCenter HS20 servers. Attractive cost savings
are also possible where a large number of rack installed servers are
required, since the equivalent number of 1U servers would be much
more expensive.
This IBM Redpaper describes how to set up and configure Linux and
Samba on the IBM Eserver BladeCenter and provides some pointers
on managing the installation. It also describes the functionality of the
IBM Eserver BladeCenter in this type of environment.
®
Redpaper
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TECHNICAL
SUPPORT
ORGANIZATION
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
IBM Redbooks are developed
by the IBM International
Technical Support
Organization. Experts from
IBM, Customers and Partners
from around the world create
timely technical information
based on realistic scenarios.
Specific recommendations
are provided to help you
implement IT solutions more
effectively in your
environment.
For more information:
ibm.com/redbooks
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