Mitsubishi Delica SpaceGear 1997 User Manual, eng., pdf, 2,75 МБ

Mitsubishi Delica SpaceGear 1997 User Manual, eng., pdf, 2,75 МБ
Users manual: Mitsubishi
Delica SpaceGear
The following data have
been collected from
various sources,
including verbal
discussions and
opinions of others. The
author makes no claim
for the accuracy of the
data nor accepts any
liability in connection
with their use. Most of
the data are for the
1997 2.8 turbo diesel
Dr D John Pons
This manual may be freely reproduced.
Contact me at to provide feedback, corrections, and any additional information.
Edition E12 December 2005
0 Vehicle details
Useful details when you buy spare parts
Engine type
Engine number
Chassis number
Transaxle number
Color int opt
1 Getting started
This is a quick driving tutorial.
Driving the Delica
Gearbox must be in park mode (P).
Turn ignition key until instrument lights are illuminated (see Figure 1).
Wait until glow plug light (see Figure 1) is extinguished. This usually happens
very fast, or even instantly if the engine is already warm.
Turn the key further to swing the engine - release when successful.
If engine struggles to start2, then turn off ignition, switch on again immediately,
wait for glow plug light to go off, wait a further 5 seconds or so until a click is
heard from the engine, and then turn the engine [1].
Footbrake must be applied before 'drive' can be engaged.
Ensure drive is in appropriate range. Usually two wheel drive (2H) is fine for
town driving. Use ‘Super Select’ gear shift (on floor, see description below) to
change as necessary.
Use column mounted gear shift to select reverse (R) or drive (D) as
After driving, key can only be removed from ignition if automatic transmission
is in park (P).
Driving a diesel engine
Driving a diesel engine is much the same as a petrol engine. Except that the
acceleration is generally slower3, and the torque at low engine revolutions (revs) is
lower. Therefore it is generally better to keep the revs slightly higher than in a petrol
engine vehicle, especially if climbing hills. Diesel engines have better thermodynamic
efficiency under part load than petrol engines4.
For engines that are hard to start or emit copious smoke, there can be several causes and
solutions. These include replace batteries (both), clean or replace straps to glow plugs, replace glow
plugs, replace or service fuel pump. Search and for
more clues.
Diesels tend not to accelerate much more when the pedal is floored. A tip that might be
useful: "A diesel however won't go much faster and any foot planting results in unburnt fuel going out
the tail pipe. When you get to that point where it won't go any faster try taking your foot off slightly and
you will find you won't go any slower and save a heap of fuel" [11].
The superior efficiency of a diesel compared to petrol engine is due to the different
thermodynamic cycle. Petrol engines throttle the air intake to reduce power, and this is inefficient
compared to the diesel method of injecting less fuel.
2 Instruments
and gears
This section describes the main driver controls.
Instrument panel Delica 1997
Figure 1 Instrument panel
See Figure 1 for the layout.
Gearbox: Shows gear position for automatic gearbox. Also an ‘O/D off’
indicator if overdrive has been deselected by the driver.
‘HOLD’ - usually off. If on, it shows driver has used the A/T switch to force
the gearbox to try to start in second rather than first gear (useful on ice or mud
to reduce slip).
‘PWR’ - usually off. If on, it shows driver has used the A/T switch to force the
gearbox to a 'power' mode: faster acceleration by going to higher revs before
changing up a gear.
‘A/T’ warning - usually off. Indicates over-temperature in gearbox if it comes
on while driving. Stop and idle for 5 minutes in park. Check ATF fluid level
with engine on and in neutral. Consider switching overdrive OFF.
Oil pressure warning - usually off. Indicates loss of engine oil pressure if it
comes on while driving - may cause major engine damage if driven in this
condition. Check oil level in engine.
Glow plug status (coil symbol)- usually on momentarily when ignition is
energised. Wait for this light to extinguish before turning the engine.
Engine revolutions per minute (revs). The information is of no real value if
you have an automatic gearbox and mainly use drive (D). But if you are
heavily laden, then it’s useful to check that the revs are not too low - low revs
under high load will generate more heat in the gearbox.
Battery charge warning - usually off when driving. If on (which it should be at
start-up), it shows that the battery is not being charged. If it comes on while
driving it means there is an electrical fault, in battery, alternator, or alternator
drive belt (the belt could be broken or simply slipping). You might be able to
continue driving for some time especially if you can limit the amount of
electrical load.
Fuel filter warning - usually off. If on, there is water that needs to be drained
from the base of the fuel filter.
High beam (brights)
Seat belt status - strap yourself in.
Door warning - lights up if a door is open when the ignition is on.
Temperature gauge - should be well below the ‘hot’ mark.
Fuel gauge.
4WD transmission status - shows what the driver has selected with the 4WD
selector. See Figure 2 for detail.
19-20 <unknown>
Low fuel indicator (lights when the tank is down to about 9 litres [ref 13]).
22-24 <unknown>
Anti-skid braking (ABS) - usually off. Performs self-test of ABS system when
ignition is turned on, and then light goes off.
Brake status - lights up if handbrake is on. Might also light up when brake
fluid is low or pads are worn?
Supplementary restraint system (SRS) - usually off. This is the air bag
system. The light should come on for a few minutes when the ignition is
turned on - this shows that the self-test is being done. When the test is
completed successfully then the light is extinguished. If the light stays on then
it is a warning that the air-bag will not work.
Button for odometer - one push toggles the display (29) between odometer
and trip distance. A sustained push will reset the trip distance to zero.
Odometer display. Only on when ignition is on.
Selecting the right gear
Gear shift
The automatic gearshift is mounted on the steering column. The side of the steering
column shows the stepped gear pattern. Note that it is basically a valley with N at the
lowest point (furthest away from the driver).
Lift the gear directly towards your chest to move it out of park (P). Thereafter it is
away from your chest until it gets to neutral (N). From N to low gear (L) the gear
lever needs to again be lifted towards your chest.
Overdrive selection
Overdrive (O/D) is activated/ deactivated by a button at the end of the automatic
gearshift. When deactivated then the 'O/D Off' light illuminates (see Figure 1: 1).
Overdrive ON can safely be used for town driving and a lightly loaded vehicle.
Overdrive ON permits the automatic transmission control logic to make use of (1) an
overdrive clutch and (2) a lock on the torque converter [3]. Consequentially with
overdrive on the driver will feel several small gear changes between the three main
gears. With overdrive ON the vehicle effectively has another top gear.
Switch overdrive OFF if you need slower speeds with greater torque, e.g. heavily
loaded or difficult terrain. With overdrive OFF the gearbox controller is limited to
using only the three main gears. If the vehicles is repeatedly making multiple small
gear changes when under load, then move overdrive to OFF until conditions change.
This will make the vehicle easier to drive. This also has the important benefit of
reducing heat generation in the gearbox. Over temperature of gearbox will activate
the A/T warning light. (Stop and idle for 5 minutes in park.)
4WD transmission selection
The driver has to manually engage and disengage four wheel drive (4WD) using the
"Super Select" selection lever. This is typical of a full 4WD vehicle, and gives the
Delica full 4WD capability (the same capability as the Mitsubishi Pajero for
example). By comparison some other vehicles (e.g. Mitsubishi RVR SportsGear)
have permanently engaged 4WD over which the driver has no control.
For driving in town and on sealed roads (bitumen or concrete), two wheel drive is
The 4WD selection lever is floor mounted, see Figure 2.
Two wheel drive in high
range: Rear wheel drive suitable for driving in
conditions where a
normal car could go. Ideal
for town driving.
Four wheel drive in high
range: Front and rear
wheels drive (4WD) suitable for slippery or
rough or steep conditions
- wherever you need
better traction or steering.
“H” is for high range. You Figure 2: 4WD transmission selection.
can safely use 4H for
normal driving conditions
including bitumen and
concrete roads. But front tyre wear may be heavier than in 2H.
Driver may shift from 2H to 4H and back while driving, but take your foot off
the accelerator pedal when you do, and preferably try to be steering straight
ahead (to minimise gear engagement forces).
Transmission may not immediately shift when commanded, but will wait until
the torque permits the change - dashboard lights Fig 1: 18 will flash during
this period.
4HLc Four wheel drive in high range with locked central differential: For extra
traction in low-grip terrain. This is the same as 4H, with the addition that the
transfer case (central differential) is locked. With standard 4H there is still the
possibility of slipping since all the power could go to one of the axles only.
With 4HLc this possibility is prevented: both the front and the rear axle will get
torque. Can this gear be engaged and disengaged while driving? Yes, it
should be possible [3] (some disagree [6]), but only engage on slippery
surface, don’t accelerate, and try to be steering straight.
Warning: Use locked centre differential only when surfaces are slippery or
have a lot of give for the tyres. Do not use on hard surfaces for extended time
as the transmission or tyres may be damaged.
4LLc Four wheel drive in low range with locked central differential: Same as 4HLc,
but with a lower gear range. Vehicle will be slower, but will have increased
torque on wheels. Stop completely before engaging or disengaging this
gear. Same warning applies as for 4HLc, i.e don’t use on high-grip surfaces.
The low range ‘L’ always has locked central differential ‘Lc’. You can’t have
low range on its own with the Mitsubishi design.
Additional controls
Door controls
Controls located on the driver’s door are shown in Figure 3.
Switch to select left or right external mirror.
Switch to fold both mirrors in/out. Note, if a mirror
gets shoved in, do not force it out again manually.
Instead, use the motor drive to bring it fully in, and
then motor drive it out again.
Joystick pad to adjust mirror as selected by (1).
Door lock - locks/unlocks all doors.
Window lock - locks/unlocks all electrically driven
Driver side window control.
Passenger side window control.
Figure 3: Door controls
Sub-steering wheel
The controls under the steering wheel
are shown in Figure 4.
Idle adjustment.
Bonnet catch - pull to release
bonnet (engine hood).
Turbo timer - after market
device, used to keep engine
running for a few minutes after
power down. This is supposed to
cool the turbocharger. Hard to
see why this would be necessary
in town driving but maybe it has Figure 4: Controls under steering wheel.
value for hard driving. Mitsubishi
designers have not included it as a standard feature.
Fuel tank catch - pull to release. The filler cap is between the front passenger
and sliding door.
Steering wheel angle adjustment - permits wheel to be adjusted for different
driver height.
Windscreen wiper controls
The controls are shown in
Figure 5.
Rear wiper - twist
anticlockwise to
activate. Water squirt
at the end of the
range in both
directions. Water fill
bottle is at left rear of
vehicle, see Figure 6.
Front wipers - rotate
downwards to
activate intermittent, Figure 5: Windscreen wiper controls
then normal wiper
speed, then fast wipers.
Pull whole lever towards driver to spray
water on front windscreen. Front water fill
bottle is under the front bonnet. The rear
water bottle is at the back left - open the
rear hatch and find it as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6: Fill location for rear
windscreen water spray.
3 Solving simple
Changing a wheel
The spare wheel is underneath at the rear.
The tools are inside at the rear right, see
Figure 7.
Figure 7: Jack and tools for changing
tyre. Extra socket for 12 V power also
visible (round black cap) - takes
cigarette lighter type fitting.
Remove the tools and use them to
unscrew the bolt next to the rear door
latch, see Figure 8. The bolt will need to
be turned anti-clockwise for many turns,
and it may be stiff.
Figure 8: Lowering the spare wheel. Use
the socket spanner to turn the bolt head
Once the bolt has been unscrewed
sufficiently, it lowers the cage holding the
spare wheel. The spare wheel can now be
removed, see Figure 9.
Figure 9: Releasing the spare wheel.
Slide it out backwards.
Remove the plastic wheel cap (if fitted) with
the tool provided, or a flat screwdriver, see
Figure 10.
Before you jack up the flat wheel, loosen all
the screws by a small amount, see Figure
11. The screws may be very tight.
Loosening them on the ground is necessary
because the wheel will turn if you try to do
this when it is raised.
You don’t want the van moving and falling
off the jack, so make sure the hand brake is Figure 10: Remove plastic wheel cap,
on. If the ground slopes, then put rocks or by prising with flat bar or screwdriver.
bricks in front of and behind some of the
good wheels. Now use the jack to raise the
vehicle. Raise it until the tyre easily clears
the ground. Then remove all the wheel
screws completely, and take off the flat
If possible, put some oil or grease on the
screw threads and where the head faces the
rim. This ensures that your tightening efforts
will go into clamping the wheel onto the van,
not just overcoming friction. Screws that
squeal, or need the spanner the whole way,
have too much friction and might be
Figure 11: Undoing screws on wheel.
ineffective. Obviously it is sometimes
Turn anti-clockwise to loosen, i.e. push
impractical to lubricate the screws if you are down from this position.
changing the wheel at the roadside.
Offer up the spare wheel to the hub. The wheel is heavy so be careful with your
back. The best position is to sit on the ground facing the wheel, with your feet on
each side of the tyre. Then you can use your feet to raise the tyre to its position, and
you still have your hands free to insert the screws. If the wheel will not go on
properly, check that the vehicle has been raised enough. Tighten the screws as far
as you can. Turn them clockwise. You don’t want the wheel to be on skew, so tighten
each screw a little in turn: don’t concentrate all your effort on one screw.
Then lower the jack and remove it. Tighten all the wheel screws as tight as you can.
You can exert more force pulling the spanner up than pushing it down, so arrange
your position accordingly.
Roof racks
The vehicle will accept roof racks, but special types are required because of the high
roof, and the non-structural trim attached to the gutter.
The following products are candidates (prices at 2004):
Thule roof rack kit 426. This has a special foot with (a) a long tongue and (b) a
special shape to the claw. It attaches to the gutter. Part (426) is unique to the
Delica, and only for high-top models from 1996 onwards. (A similar part, 425,
is for a low top Delica). Available in NZ from Hampco for NZ$430 for a set (4
feet plus two bars). In Australia the price is AU$250.
Prorack pad mount rack SB1000. This is permanently rivetted to the roof5.
Available in NZ ex Repco for $230. Fitting by a panel beater is additional.
Prorack track system. This has a pair of long tracks (ST14) which are
permanently attached to the roof, and then racks (SB3000) which slide into to
the track. Available in NZ ex Repco for $160 and $389 respectively. Fitting is
Second hand car dealers may sometimes have racks that they have removed
at the time of import. Pajero racks can be modified to fit.
The Delica is already a high vehicle, and adding roof racks may mean that it no
longer fits into the garage! You could extend the radio aerial (at front right, high up)
as a reminder not to drive into low spaces.
One wonders how much load this type of design can take, since the stresses go into the flat
roof rather than the gutter.
Tow bars are readily
available for the Delica.
However, the factory rear
chrome bars usually have
to be taken off. The
standard electrical wiring in
Australia and New Zealand
is a 7-pin flat plug. The
wiring of the pins is shown
in Figure 12.
Figure 12: Wiring for trailer 7-pin flat plug.
Jump starting
The following excellent description was provided by Exide [27] on starting the engine
when the battery is flat. The text applies to vehicles in general.
“STEP 1- WARNING! Jump starting can damage the vehicle electronics.
Check the vehicle operating manual. If there are no specific instructions then
follow the steps below. If the failed battery is open circuit* do not attempt to
*Open circuit batteries can be detected by:
a) battery volts reading zero immediately a high rate discharge test is applied.
b) when the battery will not accept charge current.
STEP 2 - Make sure both vehicle ignitions are switched OFF and all electrical
equipment is OFF.
STEP 3 - Connect the vehicles in the following EXACT sequence and make
sure the jumper leads are clear of any moving parts.
Take the RED jumper lead and connect to the POSITIVE terminal
(marked “+” or POS) of the discharged battery.
Connect the other end of the RED jumper lead to the positive terminal
of the charged battery.
Take the BLACK jumper lead and connect one end to the NEGATIVE
terminal (marked “-“ or NEG) of the charged battery.
Make the final connection to the engine block or chassis of the stalled
vehicle. (Negative earth vehicles only).
STEP 4 - After starting the vehicle with the discharged battery, allow the
engine to run at idle for five minutes before disconnecting the jumper leads.
This allows the electrical systems of both cars to balance.
STEP 5- Remove the BLACK cable first from the vehicle with the discharged
battery then the opposite end from the charged battery. Repeat for the RED
cable.” [27]
4 Engine
The overall view of the engine bay6 is
shown in Figure 13-16.
Not shown is the oil filter, which is
underneath at front right.
Figure 13: Overall view of engine bay. See
following figures for details.
Figure 14: Right side of engine bay.
Fuse box.
Brake fluid reservoir
and fill cap.
Air cleaner.
Dipstick for engine
oil (partly hidden by
Oil fill cap for
engine. Fill engine
oil here.
Dipstick for
transmission (AT).
Fill ATF slowly down
this pipe.
The Delica is unusual in having the engine at the front, whereas other coaches (e.g. Toyota)
tend to have it under the driver seat. The Delica layout is a consequence of the design philosophy that
adopts the Pajero layout. As a result, the bonnet for the Delica engine bay is short, and the firewall
wraps around the engine.
Hose and clamp
for compressed
air flowing from
through intercooler, and into
Intercooler - cools
down hot air ex
Fill cap for power
Battery terminal.
There are two
Figure 15: Left side of engine bay.
batteries in
parallel in this model. Other models may have only a single battery.
Reservoir and fill cap for radiator. Use anti-freeze and water.
Fill cap for front windscreen washer water.
A turbo-charger ('turbo') increases the power of an engine by forcing more air into it. This
means more fuel can be burned (because of the increased oxygen) and hence more power produced.
A turbo charger does work compressing air and needs energy. It gets this from the hot and slightly
pressurised exhaust gases which spin an internal part called a turbine. The turbine drives the
compressor (fan). The other way of increasing the power of a given engine size is a super-charger,
which is a shaft driven compressor. A turbo-charger is more efficient than a supercharger, but not as
responsive at low engine speeds.
5 Driving tips
This section is a basic introduction for new users.
Delica manoeuvrability
For town driving, the Delica behaves much as a normal sedan. It's light to steer
(requires no special physical strength) due to the power steering. The engine is
powerful so it accelerates reasonably well.
Figure 16: Parking method - initial.
Figure 17: Go in some of the way.
Figure 18: Reverse partly out again.
Figure 19: Drive forward again.
The one important difference is manoeuvrability: it is harder to park. This is because
it is a long vehicle with a larger turning circle than a sedan. Also, it takes a little while
to judge how close the corners of the vehicle are to obstacles. Drivers who are not
used to the vehicle would be wise to initially avoid difficult parking situations.
Getting into parallel parking is straightforward, although a longer space is necessary
than a sedan.
The difficult parking situation is bays that are at right angles to the road. These you
will probably not be able to drive straight into. However, you can still easily get into
them by doing it in stages with a small reverse manoeuvre in between. This is
shown in Figures 16-19.
Roll-over Stability
The Delica, like any full 4WD, has a greater risk of rolling sideways than a sedan.
This is because the centre of gravity is higher though the width is comparable.
In normal town driving there are few, if any, circumstances where the slope of the
land is so steep that the vehicle can roll when stationary. However, it is still easy to
roll the vehicle, even on flat ground, simply by driving fast around a sharp corner.
The tyres on the inside of the curve will lift, and the
vehicle will roll outwards. Control of the vehicle could
be lost even before the tyres lift. When a normal sedan
corners too tightly, the tyres tend to lose grip and
squeal, preventing the car from rolling. However the
Delica, with its higher centre of gravity, might not
squeal its tyres under the same conditions - but simply
roll over on its side.
Slow down in corners. Especially sharp corners.
Driving along the contour of a sufficiently steep slope is Figure 20: Inclination meter.
the other way of causing a roll. This terrain is
encountered in off-road use. Corners and bumps plus a slope can be particularly
The inclination meter (Figure 20) on the dashboard measures the combined effect of
the slope and the cornering force. It shows the equivalent static slope.
When off-road, try to drive straight up and down slopes. Avoid driving along the
6 Off-road
Many if not most Delica owners are families who expect to do only minor off-road
activities. Consequently they are at risk of being under-prepared and inexperienced
when they do occasionally venture off-road. This section provides basic guidance to
reduce this risk. It is not intended to replace training and experience learned by
being with experts.
Basic rules
Some Basic rules (from [18] and others)
Use 4WD, i.e. 4H - remember you have to manually engage this gear, it will
not automatically engage.
Slow down.
Don't change gears when in the middle of mud, sand or a river.
Be gentle with the brakes.
If in doubt, go slowly.
There are three main issues, steering, traction, stability.
(1) Steering
Slippery surface (gravel, sand, mud, wet grass or ice) decrease the effectiveness of
steering - the vehicle tends to skid.
Change to four wheel drive 4H in these conditions. Preferably beforehand, but you
can change to 4H even when you are already in difficulty (see above).
(2) Traction
Surfaces that are slippery cause reduced grip for the tyres - the vehicle tends to spin
the wheels on the spot. Soft surfaces (mud, sand, snow) are particularly troublesome
as the wheels can rapidly dig themselves pits out of which they cannot climb.
The prevention is to use 4H or 4HLc or 4LLc before getting stuck. And keep the revs
low at take off (e.g. use A/T HOLD mode, see Figure 1:2) to prevent ripping up the
Also, reduce tyre pressure - this gives a bigger ground footprint, hence lower
pressure on the soft surface. A pressure of 140 - 70 kPa (1.4 - 0.7 bar or 20-10 psi)
has been reported as fine for Delica in soft sand [7]. Generally inner tubes8 would be
recommended at these low pressures. But drive slowly with deflated tyres, and don't
turn too sharply or they may fall off the rim, and don't drive on hard surfaces. Reinflate tyres when on hard surface. Reinflation may be done with a manual or an
electric9 pump.
(3) Stability: see above.
Tips for particular conditions
These tips have been collected from various sources and are for 4WD vehicles in
general, so they may not specifically apply to the Delica.
The automatic gearbox will select the right gear going up. Maybe set
overdrive OFF. For manual gearboxes, ‘choose a gear that will allow you to
get to the top without having to change gear’ [20].
Going down is more problematic than up - force the gearbox to use a lower
gear in descent [18]. This will reduce the need to use brakes, thereby
reducing the likelihood of skidding. ‘If it starts sliding, touch the throttle enough
to overcome (out run) the slide, then release the pedal once again letting the
engine do its thing’ [25].
Use 4LLc on steep hills?
If things start going wrong: ‘Should your vehicle stall part way up, don’t panic!
Quickly hold the brakes, engage reverse (re-start engine if needed) and
release all pedals, letting the vehicle back down in gear via engine braking,
stay off the brakes! With the engine now above you, and the weight shifted
onto the rear axle, your vehicle is quite unstable and can go into
roll-over-mode very easy. If... the front end begins to slide to one side, quick
use of the throttle will straighten the vehicle out, as soon as its once again
straight with the trail, release the throttle, DO NOT touch the brakes, as the
front end will try to pass the rear when the weight shifts further’ [25].
Use low range 2nd or 3rd to prevent excessive wheel spin [18, 20].
High speed may help? [18] If the path is clear and there are no obstacles then
speed can help [25].
Use normal tyre pressure at the first attempt [20].
Tyres tend to be tubeless now, which requires a good seal between the tyre bead (the inside
edge) and the rim of the metal wheel. Inner tubes prevent the bead dislodging as easily.
One owner [7] reported: "For a compressor I recommend one of the high capacity ones and if
it comes with only a cigarette lighter socket connection get a female adapter with battery clips and run
direct from the battery. (I burnt out the lighter socket in 5 mins and still havent replaced it....very tricky
job) A decent compressor can be had for [AUD] 80-150 bucks that is 4wd and truck suitable."
Snow chains are useful [25].
If slippage develops, slow down to regain traction [21].
Carry an air pump, at least manual.
There are different opinions about speed: some say slow down [18], others
say use high speed [20].
Use 4H
Drive a straight course [18]
In general, deflate the tyres to 140 kPa (20 psi) [20]. For Delica the range
seems to be 140 - 70 kPa (1.4 - 0.7 bar or 20-10 psi) [7]
Drive straight up slopes (not along the contour)
Avoid sandy beaches if possible [18]
Driving on beaches: take a tide chart, drive at low tide, park on the dry sand
(never the wet sand), front towards the sea [20]. Take off downhill [20] as this
reduces the weight on the rear wheels, and allows speed to build up. When
driving along the beach the rear of the vehicle may try to slip downwards - the
solution is to steer slightly towards rather than away from the sea to build up
speed [20].
Avoid undamaged dunes, and areas where there are plants (however small).
(10) Keep speed under 60km/hr on sand on deflated tyres (50km/hr on hard
surfaces), reinflate tyres as soon as possible [20]
Get out and check. Forget it if the flow is fast [18] - find an alternative route
Walk through. But not in Australian rivers where there are crocodiles.
Check what the river bottom consists of. Check for holes. Find a shallow route
Be cautious: ‘Most 4WD vehicles can only cross about 0.6m depth of water
before the risk of damage; drivers should check their owner’s manual. Even if
the vehicle is capable of a deeper crossing, the strong current can easily
wash 4WDs away!’ [19]. Also, ‘if the water level is above tyre height or axle
deep you should not cross unless you have prepared your vehicle’ [20], since
deeper water can result in water in the differentials and the engine stalling. A
depth half way up the wheels of the Delica might be a sensible limit.
Open all windows and unlock doors in case you need to escape in a hurry
Look for any markers left by other drivers [18].
Don’t drive against the current - go straight across or slightly downstream [25].
Select the gear needed to get up the other side riverbank [18].
Drive slowly.
Keep a constant speed [18].
Don’t change gears mid stream.
Don’t drive up or down shallow rivers as this destroys the river habitat.
Afterwards, dry out the brakes by driving a short distance with them lightly
applied [25].
May have to check air cleaner for water [25].
‘The problem isn’t the snow, but the ice under it’ [21].
Starting: clear off the accumulated snow. Clear the exhaust pipe [24]. Put
sand or cat litter on the road if necessary [24]. Take flashlight, blankets etc.
Use chains on wheels. Some suggest putting them on the front wheels so that
steering is better. Leave the tyres at normal pressure [23]. If you are not using
4WD, or driving uphill or towing then the chains should go on the driving
wheels, which for Delica are the rear [25]. (For front-wheel drive cars, the
chains should always go on the front wheels, as this is where the propulsion
and the steering takes place.)
Use 4WD.
Try 4H to start with.
Can change to ALT gearbox mode.
Lights on so others can see you.
Drive slowly.
Don’t accelerate around corners [24] or the vehicle will skid.
(10) Test the brakes before you need them [24]. Some Delicas have ABS and this
produces a hammering sensation, which is normal.
(11) Coast over particularly slippery looking surfaces [24].
(12) Don’t brake when sliding [22]. Turn into the skid if it happens [23].
(13) Don’t accelerate harder when slipping uphill [22].
(14) Lightly loaded trailers skid easily [22].
(15) Leave a large following distance [22].
(16) Off-road driving in snow requires additional considerations, e.g. see [23, 25].
Once stuck:
First try to reverse out [20].
Deflate tyres further if possible (min 70 kPa or 10 psi),
Dig ramps in front and behind each wheel and try to drive out.
Try repeated forwards and backwards [21].
Dig out a space for the differential (if necessary).
Add sticks, stones, clothing etc. to provide better traction. Fit snow chain if
possible. Steel ladders are useful in sand.
Jack the vehicle up (not always possible) and fill in the holes under the
Remove payload from vehicle [25].
Carry a towing rope/strap as a precaution, so that others can help you out.
With a conventional rope or wire rope, take up the slack gradually to prevent
damage to the mounting points.
With a semi-elastic strap (see Figure 21) the method is to start moving with a
slack strap. This gives a greater pull-out force. Technically, the kinetic energy
of the towing vehicle is converted into pull out force. The strap is therefore
superior to a rope for recovery.
Towing ropes/straps should be
firmly attached, preferably with a
shackle. Spectators should stand
well aside in case the rope breaks
or the mounting points pull out. Do
not tow using the factory fitted
chrome bars, as these can rip off
[12]. Do not tow in reverse [8].
The recommended recovery kit
from ExplorerOZ [17] includes the
Basic capability: long
handled shovel, bottle jack,
Figure 21: Towing strap and shackle.
hi-lift jack, jacking plate,
snatch strap, tyre levers and mallet, heavy duty air compressor, tyre pressure
gauge, tyre valve tool, wheel brace.
For winching capability: winch strap, wire cable, hand winch and or electric or
power take-off winch, tree trunk protector, 2 shackles, "D" or "Bow", snatch
For dragging capability: chain 2.5m and 6m.
7 Service
Service intervals
5 000
Change engine oil and
oil filter
20 000
40 000
100 000
Filter RZ372 and 6.5 litre
of oil 15W40
CF/B2-96 or better
Fuel tank - drain 2
litres and check
amount of dirt
Check brake pads
at change of ownership
X (10k)
Check Brake fluid and
replace if doubtful
minimum 2 mm lining
at two
Lubricate propeller
shaft joints
Replace Fuel filter
Bleeding sequence RR,
LF, RF (?)
Drain and refill cooling
Replace automatic
transmission fluid
X (4050k)
Change air filter
(‘cleaner element’)
Replace oil in front
and rear Differentials
80W90, 3.8 litre total
Replace oil in transfer
X (50k)
75W85 or 75W90
2.5 litre
Replace Engine timing
<Different opinions!>
Dextron II automatic
transmission fluid, up to
8.5 litre
There is some uncertainty about the oil change frequency. It is possible that 5000 km may
be conservative, i.e. that longer times between oil change may be acceptable. However, there is no
harm in changing oil more frequently, but a lot of potential damage if changed too late.
Purchasers of a used vehicle might consider doing all the items in the 40 000 km
column and before, as the previous owner might not have done them.
Changing engine oil
The best thing you can do to prolong the life of
your diesel engine is to replace the engine oil
frequently. Since this is required the most
frequently of all the many oil changes, it may be
worth doing it yourself. The job is actually quite
simple, and takes about an hour. Here is how to
do it.
You will need:
Oil and filter: Filter RZ372 and 6.5 litre of
oil 15W40 CF/B2-96 or better. See Figure Figure 22: Oil filter
Tools: socket 14mm, 17mm, and oil filter
wrench, see Figure 23.
Mat or cardboard under engine to protect
floor from inevitable oil spills. Plus some
Container to catch oil.
How to do it:
It is best to replace oil when the engine is
warm (the oil flows better), but not when it
Figure 23: Tools needed.
is hot (difficult to work near it).
Remove 1x steel skid guard from under
front of vehicle, see Figure 24. This
requires use of a 14mm socket to remove
6 screws.
Figure 24: Remove this steel
Oil filter and sump drain plug should now
be visible, see Figure 25.
Undo sump drain plug with 17 mm socket
and collect oil in container. Replace sump
drain plug.
Loosen oil filter, using oil filter wrench if
necessary. Place a pan underneath as
some oil will spill out. This is the stage at
which you are likely to make the most
mess. Progressively loosen the filter and
Figure 25: Oil filter (top left) and
eventually remove it altogether.
Check that the new filter matches the old drain plug (bottom right).
one. Place some used engine oil on the
rubber seal of the new filter (touch the filters together).
Clean the part of the engine where the
seal will contact.
Screw on the new filter. Use hand force
only, not tool. About 3/4 of a turn after the
seal touches is usually enough. Do not
use a wrench.
Fill engine with oil, through tappet cover.
Use a funnel to reduce spills. You can cut
a funnel from a plastic bottle. Check oil
level with dipstick. See Figure 26.
Run engine for a few minutes. Check
Figure 26: Oil cap (left) and dip
underneath for oil leaks at sump and filter. stick (right).
Switch off engine, recheck oil and top up
as needed - the oil filter will have taken up some of the oil.
Replace panels underneath.
Dispose of used oil (down the drain is socially unacceptable).
You are done.
Changing air filter
Replacing the ait filter is an easy task, and
takes only five minutes. No tools are needed.
The replacement frequency depends on the
dustiness of your environment. Unlike oil
changes, you may be able to economise on air
filter changes if you drive in clean conditions.
You will need:
Air filter: A1312
Tools: none.
Figure 27: Housing for Air filter.
Release the four clamps circled.
How to do it:
Open the engine compartment and find the housing for the air filter. Release
the four clamps, Figure 27.
Lift out the old air filter. Remove any loose dust, insects, or plant fragments
from the housing.
Inspect it. You do not need to automatically replace it. To make a decision,
look at the colour difference between inside and outside. If the outside is
noticeably darker or dustier than inside, then replace it. Look inside the pleats:
if there is noticeable dirt in most of the pleats (as viewed from the outside)
then replace it. You must also replace it if it is oily or the paper is cut or the
soft seals are damaged.
If you decide to reuse the old filter, then brush off any large pieces of dirt, and
reinsert it. Otherwise, insert the new filter.
Close the housing and snap the clips back in place. You are done.
Remove intercooler
The intercooler is the (silver) radiator at the top of the engine. It often needs to be
removed, to give access to other systems below.
You will need:
Socket or spanner 10mm
Screwdriver (star)
How to do it:
Remove 4 hex screws (10mm
socket) holding down the intercooler.
Two at front, two at rear.
Remove 2 hose clamps from air
hoses (screwdriver), and then
remove hoses from intercooler (the
other sides of the hoses may be left
Take care not to strain the wires and
tubes still connected to intercooler.
Unclip 2 electrical connections at
rear of intercooler, see Figure 28.
Figure 28: Unclip 2 electrical
Remove solenoid assemblies at rear connections at rear of intercooler
of intercooler by undoing 2 hex
screws (10mm socket).
Replacing fanbelts
The fan belts (two) drive the alternator, water pump, and radiator fan. If the belts fail
then you should definitely stop driving. Replacing the belts is a lot of work because of
the cramped engine compartment.
You will need:
Socket or spanner 10mm, 12mm, 14mm
Gloves (recommended)
And remember this:
only turn the engine crankshaft clockwise, the natural direction of rotation, to
prevent any risk of the timing chain tensioner becoming misaligned.
How to do it:
Remove intercooler (see above).
Remove air conditioner belt (if
fitted). To do this, remove
radiator hose at vehicle left
(top front right from
mechanic’s perspective) (1
big hose clip), and radiatorbottle hose (1 small hose
clip). Slacken air con idler
(two bolts), -but do not
remove- the lower one first,
then loosen (anticlockwise)
the top one and tap it
downwards if necessary to
slide the idler, try not to
remove it completely as it’s
difficult to put back). See
Figure 29: Air conditioner assembly, showing
Figure 29.
order to loosen hex screws.
Remove lower skid pan (steel,
see above for oil change, 6 hex screws).
Remove air con belt (not easy, work from underneath and prise belt off the
pulley, turn pulley to remove completely, like taking off a bicycle tyre), get new
belt if tapered sides are cut anywhere.
Slacken alternator. To do this, loosen swing arm (two hex screws, first loosen
the one to the mechanic’s right11, then the other, do not remove screws
completely), use long bar to prise the alternator inwards. It rotates about a
hinge at it’s base, and it may be necessary to loosen this base hinge if it
refuses to shift (try this from below - even then it’s not an easy job as the oil
filter is in the way). Remove old fan belts.
Check crankshaft pulley - it should not rotate independent of the engine. If it
does rotate freely then remove radiator and fix the problem (may need new
pulley). See next section.
Fit new fan belts over the three pulleys. Easy said, but takes a while as it’s
Driver’s left
very cramped in there!
Tension fan belt by prising
alternator outwards again,
then tighten (clockwise) the
hex screws in the reverse
order. Tension values in
Section 8. See Figure 30.
Replace air conditioner belt,
tension at ‘second loosen’ in
Figure 29, then lock into
position a ‘first loosen’.
Replace other hoses etc.
Figure 30: Tension the alternator belts by
tightening (clockwise) this screw. Make sure that
the second screw (right) is slack at this time.
When the belts are tight enough, then tighten
this second screw to lock the mechanism in
Replacing crankshaft pulley
This job typically becomes necessary because the two concentric parts of the pulley
have debonded. The crankshaft pulley is made of inner and outer cast-iron parts,
held together by rubber, and it is this rubber that tends to debond. You should check
the condition of the pulley (check for abnormal movement) when you change the
belts. Suspect a pulley failure if the pulley is rubbing against the fan (causes noise
and fan wear), abnormal noise from engine, cooling or charging problems.
This is a job that a skilled home mechanic can tackle, but it can be difficult in places
without the right tools. In particular, the crankshaft pulley is difficult to take off.
You will need:
Socket or spanner 10mm,
12mm, 14mm
Heavy duty torque wrench
(200 Nm) with half inch drive
or better, and 22mm socket
to match
Gloves (recommended)
Tool to secure crankshaft
(see below).
And remember this:
Only turn the engine
crankshaft clockwise, the
Figure 31: Fan and thermal clutch after removal.
natural direction of rotation, to prevent any risk of the timing chain tensioner
becoming misaligned.
Avoid bruising the radiator fins - they are delicate.
How to do it:
Remove intercooler (see above).
Loosen fan rear shroud (cowling) by removing two hoses to top tank of
radiator (tie them back) and two bolts on shroud (at top). Shroud is only
loosely retained at base.
Loosen fan by removing 4x
nuts on the cross (12 mm
flat ring spanner required these can be very tight).
See Figure 31 for removed
Remove both shroud and
fan by gently lifting
Remove skid pan under
engine. See Oil filter
You now should have clear
access to the front of the
engine. See Figure 32.
Remove the fan belts and Figure 32: Air conditioner assembly, showing
order to loosen hex screws.
air conditioner belts (See
previous section).
Secure the crackshaft pulley against rotation, and undo the hex head screw
holding the pulley to the crankshaft. Loosen the screw in the usual anticlockwise direction. This screw is very tight (e.g. 200 Nm). There are several
options for doing this: (a) purchase the special tool from Mitsubishi, (b) make
up your own tool with two dowels (or bolts) of D8-D10mm protruding about
20-36mm from a sturdy
(steel) bar and spaced at
80mm on their centres,
leave clearance in the
centre for the 22mmAF
socket, which will have an
OD of about 30mm, (c) for
the brave of heart - place a
strong wrench on the hex
head and secure the
wrench so that it can’t rotate
clockwise (e.g. strap it
underneath at vehicle’s left)
and give the starter motor a
quick half-second burst (do
not let the engine start!), (d) Figure 33: Strap method (d) used to secure
secure a strap somewhere crankshaft pulley. Use a strong strap and wrap it
convenient and wrap it three several times (e.g. three) round the crankshaft
pulley. The free end only needs gentle tension to
take up the slack.
or more times around the pulley - it will self lock and grip the pulley, see Figure 33 for
application to the tightening stage.
Remove the pulley - it slides off in the forward direction. Check that shaft and
keys are still fine.
(10) Fit new pulley - align with key and slide on. Tighten hex head firmly in the
clockwise direction <unknown torque, I used 150 Nm as a guess>. To do this
you will have to restrain the pulley with either (a), (b) or (d) above.
(11) Reassemble other components in the reverse order.
Changing cabin lights
To replace an interior light on the roof, use a
screwdriver to gently prise off the cover. You
must prise on the long edge of the fitting, see
Figure 34, not on the short edge. The
replacement bulb has pointed ends and is 10W
power. The designation is Festoon globe 12V
10W 10x31mm (e.g. Narva part 47269-1). It can
go in either way. Then clip the cover back on - it
only accepts one orientation.
Figure 34: Replace an interior light
by lifting off the cover at the long
8 Technical
These data are from various sources: information provided from discussion with
those in the trade, feedback from other Delica owners, and comments on the
internet. In some cases the various sources differ, and I leave it to the reader to
decide which values to use. Much of the numerical data is sourced from trade tables
for the Pajero 4M40 engine (shown as [1] or [2]). Data from other sources is also
Year and model
2.8 litre turbo diesel
This engine and much of the transmission is
also used in Pajero models. If you need
detailed maintenance information, e.g.
internal engine clearance, then suggest that
your mechanic look under Pajero if Delica is
not listed.
Engine type
Compression ratio
2.835 litre
Locate the engine number behind the
alternator on the right side (looking forward)
of the block [1]
Power (max)
Torque (max)
92 kW at 4000 rpm [1]
292 Nm at 2000 rpm [1]
Valve clearances
not running but hot [1]
0.20 mm
0.30 mm
Other sources [2] give the same figures for
22.6-28.4 bar [2]
Compression pressure
Chain Replacement
12 deg ATDC [1]
every 100 000 km12
This is the recommended replacement frequency. It may be a conservative value. Some
owners replace the chain less often, or only when it becomes noisy. In doing so, they rely on the
tendency for a chain to wear and become slightly elongated (hence the noise). They also rely on their
ability to distinguish chain noise above other engine noises. However, this approach is not entirely risk
free as a sufficiently worn chain rides high on the sprockets and may jump off them, or may break, in
both cases with serious consequences for the engine. Non-expert owners would be better advised to
Engine oil
Oil grade [2]
Oil classification
Oil change frequency
Oil filter type
Oil temperature
Head torque
Engine Air intake
Filter type
Replacement frequency
Cooling system
Drain frequency
Thermostat open
6.5 litre with filter [1,2] though some report
8.3 litre [4]
Cold climate
Moderate climate 15W40,
Hot climate
CF/B2-96 [2] or better13
every 6 months or 5 000 km14 [1]
(up to 10 000 km is OK by some [3])
RZ 372 (Repco)
Oil filter is at front right, under engine.
Remove front underbody panel (steel).
80 dec C [2]
100 Nm, loosen, tighten to 50 Nm, tighten 90
deg, final another 90 deg [1]
A1312 (Ryco) - or may use ‘Unifilter’
(cleanable in turpentine) [3]
check and clean 10 000 km, replace every 40
000 km
Glow plugs - use the ceramic type as
otherwise there can be problems with
unstable idling speed [3].
40 000 km [1] or 100 000 km [4]
76.5 deg C [2]
stick to the recommended replacement frequency. By the way, the replacement frequency for timing
belts (does not apply to this model) should always be followed as belts fail by loss of individual teeth, a
process that is silent and inconspicuous.
Oil classification: diesel (compression) engines use oil starting with 'C', and petrol (spark)
engines use 'S' oils. The second letter (A, B, C...) gives the performance of the oil, the further into the
alphabet the better. Example: an oil like 'CH-4/SJ' is suitable in a diesel engine like Delica, and is
superior to a 'CF' oil. The '4' denotes a high performance oil suitable for clean burning engines that use
high compression ratios and exhaust gas re-circulation: these oils have more detergents and additives
to cope with the additional combustion by-products that get into the oil. The 'SJ' denotes that this
particular oil may be also used in a petrol engine.
This part of the reference is ambiguous and could alternatively, though less likely, be
interpreted as a 10 000 km oil replacement schedule.
Alternator belt tension
Alternator and water pump/fan
Starting current
6-8 mm new, 5-6 mm used, under 10 kg load
or 9-11 mm [2]
or 8.0-11.0 mm new or old [4]
<which span is this measured at?
Gates 7385 (11A0980) Two off
negative earth
2 x 12V in parallel16
64 Ahr
173-211 A
Cold cranking amps (CCA)15
capacity recommended by
Candidate battery
‘Exide’ N70ZZ or N70EX [30] (see below)
Number of batteries required
One or two. Probably two if used in cold
Glow plugs
resistance 0.5 ohms ?
For layout of fuse box see
Batteries are rated by various methods. Perhaps one of the more robust methods is Cold
cranking amps (CCA). According to Exide CCA is ‘ the discharge load in amperes which a new fully
charged battery at -18/C can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain a minimum voltage of 1.2 volts per
cell. Therefore, the higher the CCA rating the more powerful it is in producing higher starting voltages
to meet the demands placed on it’ [29]. Another method is Reserve capacity in minutes RC(m), which
is ‘the time in minutes that a new fully charged battery will supply a constant load of 25 amps at 25/C
without the voltage falling below 10.5 volts for a 12 volt battery and 5.25 volts for a 6 volt battery.
Therefore, the higher the reserve capacity, the more powered time you have to run auxiliary items
such as lights, radio, air conditioning, electric windows etc in the event of a charging system failure’
Use identical batteries: ‘If you connect two 12-volt batteries in parallel, and they are identical
in type, age and capacity, you can potentially double you original capacity. If you connect two that are
not the same type, you will either overcharge the smaller of the two, or you will undercharge the larger
of the two’ [28].
Two lighter duty batteries might be a suitable compromise for mild climates, e.g. 2x Exide
N50 or 2x Exide NS70 were recommended to me by Exide NZ. If a single battery is used, then it
should probably be the heaviest duty type. If the engine is in good order, the battery is new, and the
weather warm, then almost any 12V battery will start the engine. If any of those factors change, then
additional battery current capability may be necessary.
Candidate ‘Exide’ batteries [30]:
From To
Power plus
Extra Heavy
Delica 1.4, 1.6, 1.8,
2.0 - Petrol
Delica 2.3, 2.4 diesel
Delica 2.5, 2.8 - Diesel
Delica Space Gear
Data for particular Exide batteries [31]:
Exide Code
12 V
600 A
620 A
Reserve Capacity
130 min
150 min
D with standard
terminal post
D with standard
terminal post
300 mm
300 mm
174 mm
174 mm
220 mm
220 mm
Transmission - automatic
ATF replacement
Transmission - manual
Dextron II automatic transmission fluid [2]
up to 8.5 litre
50 000 km [1] or 40 000 km [4]
Check level with transmission in neutral [1]
and presumably engine on. There is an
internal filter [4], which is made of gauze [3]
and should be washed down in ATF. This
requires removal of the bottom pan of the
gearbox [3].
75W85W or 75W90 [1] - use the right grade18
It has been claimed that "heavier grade oil in the [manual] transmission ... will wear the
synchro out [causing] difficult gear change" [10]
Transfer case
Oil Grade
Front differential
Oil Grade
Rear differential
Oil Grade
Propeller shaft joints, front
suspension, and steering
75W85 or 75W90 grade GL4 [1]
2.5-3.7 litre [1]
Remove plug in oil pan to drain [3]. Fill to
‘Full’ mark on dipstick. No adjustment
80W90 grade GL5 [1]
1.2 litre
80W90 grade GL5 [1] for non limited slip diff
(plug at rear of diff will usually be black [3])
2.6 litre
Lubricate every 20 000 km with lithium grease
type NLGI-2 [1]
Fuel filter
Replacement frequency
Dashboard indicator
Front left of vehicle
Replace every 20 000 km
Orange warning symbol when excess water
collected in fuel filter
Fuel tank Capacity
75 litres for 4WD models, 66 litres for 2WD [4]
Fuel tank Drain plug under at rear.
Recommend drain 2 litres after purchase of
used vehicle.
Suspension and brakes
Bleeding sequence
Disc thickness - minimum
Brake fluid replacement
Minimum shoe thickness
Minimum drum diameter
Power steering
Fluid type
Fluid replacement frequency
Discs at front, drum at rear
Replace disc pads when only 2 mm lining left
RR, LF, RF [1]
20.4 mm [1] or 22.4 mm front and 16.4 mm
rear [2]
50 000 km [1] or 24 months [4]
4.5 mm (rear shoes) [2]
198 mm (rear drum) [2]
none specified?
Air conditioner
Air conditioner belt tension
4.0 - 5.0mm new or 6.5 - 7.5 mm old [4],
presumably under 10 kg load?
Air conditioner belt
Gates 9360 (13A0915) one off
Reference [2] gives this value as 0.2 mm, but that must be an error in my opinion.
Check tyre for pressures on the
tyre itself. Otherwise these may
help [1]:
Inflation Pressure normal
Inflation Pressure laden
Lowest permissible
pressure (e.g. on sand)
Front 210 kPa, Rear 240 kPa
Front 230 kPa, Rear 270 kPa
unknown, maybe 70-100 kPa?
Inflation Pressure normal
Inflation Pressure laden
Lowest permissible
pressure (e.g. on sand)
Front 180 kPa, Rear 200 kPa
Front 180 kPa, Rear 200 kPa
unknown, maybe 70-100 kPa?
Inflation Pressure normal
Inflation Pressure laden
Lowest permissible
pressure (e.g. on sand)
Front 180 kPa, Rear 200 kPa
Front 210 kPa, Rear 240 kPa
unknown, maybe 70-100 kPa?
Overall dimensions of Delica [16]
Total length (mm)
Full-width (mm)
Total height (mm)
2060 (high roof)
Wheel base (mm)
Tread (mm)
front 1440, rear 1435
Vehicle weight (kg)
up to 2060 depending on configuration
Gross vehicle weight (kg) up to 2445 depending on configuration
Minimum turning radius
6.0 m
Fuel tank capacity
75 litre
Fuel consumption
15.5 km/litre at 60 km/hr (varies slightly with
9 Fault diagnosis
Diagnosing Delica vehicle problems can be difficult since the vehicles are imported
outside of Mitsubishi dealer networks, and workshop manuals are difficult to obtain.
This section provides some basic help.
Starting faults
Will not start
battery flat - recharge
battery dead - replace both
starter motor
glow plugs
fuel pump fault
electrical fuses
Starts with difficulty
glow plugs failed - test resistance
corrosion in joints of electrical conductors to glow plugs
Produces excess smoke at start
cold ambient temperature
quality of diesel
glow plugs failed
engine rings failed
engine valve guides worn
fuel injector pump fault
Warning lights
Warning light comes on during driving:
see Section 2 for meaning
battery and fuel filter lights come on together: loss of electrical power, check
for broken fanbelt. Do not continue driving with failed belt as water pump and
fan will also be out of action, and you could overheat the engine.
Running faults
Produces excess smoke when running [33]
black smoke: fuel injector pump is over fuelling - needs re-calibration
black smoke: worn injector nozzles - replace
black smoke: dirty air cleaner - replace
white smoke: engine rings failed
white smoke: injector pump timing needs adjustment, or opening pressure is
too low
white smoke: value problems
black smoke: exhaust gas re-circulation valve failed - replace or blank off
Idles roughly
fuel injector pump incorrect setting
exhaust gas re-circulation valve failed
Engine cuts out when idling
air leak in fuel system
fuel injector pump setting
exhaust gas re-circulation valve failed
Engine noises
fanbelt rattle (intermittent): crankshaft pulley has a rubber adhesive which can
fail, eventually causing failure of engine cooling and electrical systems [14]
timing chain excessively worn
skid pan (stone guard) under engine loose
Thermal faults
Engine overheats
radiator effectiveness failed
radiator internal blockage (sludge)
radiator external blockage
Radiator obstructed by foreign matter (oil+dust, grass seeds..)
Radiator core collapsing
lack of cooling water
previous overheating episode
thermostat (at radiator top tank) blowing off at low pressure
Thermostat seal faulty (e.g. dirt)
Thermostat faulty (opening at too low a temperature)
loss of water
Rubber hose failed
Rubber hose perished (e.g. by solvent or time)
Rubber hose ruptured
Rubber hose rubbed through (check fan cowl on Delica)
Hose clamp failed or loose
Cylinder head gasket failed (e.g. partially)
extreme operating conditions
hot weather
heavy load or steep terrain
handbrake on
Cylinder head gasket failed
engine oil failure
lack of oil
Damaged sump
drain plug absent
oil pump failure
Automatic Gearbox overheats
too high a gear for terrain or load (try switching overdrive off)
lack of automatic transmission fluid
Engine squeal, only when accelerating: fan belt or air conditioner belt too lose,
tightening if necessary
EGR Valve
The exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) valve is an active component in reducing
engine emissions, but if it fails then it can cause poor engine performance.
Consequently, some people desire to disable the valve. This section discusses the
facts about this and shows why this may not be the best solution.
The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve is
primarily there to protect
our environment. It does
this by introducing inert
burnt gas (from the
exhaust) to dilute the
oxygen concentration
thereby lowering the
combustion temperature,
thereby reducing the
formation of nitrous oxides
(NOx) and thus reducing
Figure 35: Location of EGR value on Delica (circled). If the
valve has to be blanked off, do so by inserting a plate at the
arrow point.
How the EGR valve works
The Engine control unit (ECU) detects accelerator position, Engine speed
and other transmission info, decides whether EGR is needed, and sends a
signal to the EGR. It should not activate EGR at idling, low load, or full load.
The pulsed electrical signal activates a solenoid, which opens a vacuum line.
In the 4M40 engine there are two solenoids. One controls whether the system
is on-off, and the other controls the degree to which it is on (duty).
Vacuum has separately been generated by a pump attached to the alternator.
(A diesel engine does not have vacuum at inlet manifold as does a petrol
engine.) The same vacuum is used for brake booster too.
The spindle in the second EGR valve moves when the vacuum is applied.
This permits a small amount of inert exhaust gas to be introduced to the
The inert gas (exhaust) has of course been generated by the engine.
The Engine responds to inert gas. Oxygen concentration is decreased by
addition of inert gas, resulting in lower combustion temperature, and thus less
The accompanying IDEF0 diagram shows how the system works.
Operating modes for the EGR system
There are three operating modes for the EGR system as a whole. These are listed
below with some of the failure causes. If the EGR valve is not working as expected,
then the first solution is to try and clean it. The list below gives other possible causes
if this does not work.
Mode 1:
EGR works as designed and engine produces less nitrous oxides.
This is how the designers intended it to work.
Mode 2:
Excess EGR, with symptoms of: poor idling, smoke at idling, flat
spots in acceleration, lack of power at full power.
Failure root causes for this mode include:
Fail (a): wrong signal generated by ECU - replace ECU
Fail (b): Control signal not received by solenoid - check wiring
Fail (c): solenoid not moving - replace
Fail (d): EGR valve spindle travels too far - spring has weakened replace
Fail (e): EGR valve spindle does not move - stuck with debris in open,
closed or intermediate position (intermittent or persistent) - clean valve
or replace
Fail (f): EGR valve spindle does not move - diaphragm torn - replace
Fail (m): idle speed too high (creates too much vacuum)
Fail (n): exhaust back pressure out of specification (e.g obstructed) replace exhaust
Mode 3:
No EGR effect - combustion temperature rises, adding thermal
stress to engine - possibly adverse long term reliability
consequences. Increased Nox production. Adverse environmental
Fail (a): wrong signal generated by ECU - replace ECU
Fail (b): Control signal not received by solenoid - check wiring
Fail (c): solenoid not moving - replace
Fail (e): EGR valve spindle does not move - stuck with debris in open,
closed or intermediate position (intermittent or persistent) - clean valve
or replace
Fail (f): EGR valve spindle does not move - diaphragm torn - replace
Fail (j): Vacuum line blocked or deliberately plugged - check vacuum
Fail (k): blockage (e.g blanking plate) in pipe
Overall check on EGR operation
To check operation start the engine and let it warm up to 65 deg C or above. Then
race the engine by pressing the accelerator pedal. At this point the diaphragm of the
EGR valve should lift. (Perhaps the EGR valve has to be unbolted first?).
Fail a: EGR and glow control unit
A simple set of test of voltage outputs across various terminals will determine
whether the control unit is working. However they are not practical to describe here
and require the Mitsubishi manual. The EGR control unit senses engine speed,
accelerator position, and engine temperature. Therefore a faulty sensor in any of
these locations could also affect EGR operation. Some tests follow.
Fail a: Accelerator sensor
Check that the sensor for accelerator lever position is working correctly. With the
ignition on (not started) it should read 0.3-1.5 V when idling, and 3.7 - 4.8 when fully
open. Special equipment plus a multi-meter is needed for this test, and the
accelerator cable must be loosened and the engine at operating temperature. Adjust
the sensor position to get within the above range. Turning the sensor clockwise will
decrease the voltage.
Fail a: Engine speed sensor
Disconnect the connectors. The resistance between pins 3 and 6 should be 1.3-1.9 k
ohm. It is recommended that you obtain the Mitsubishi manual.
Fail a: Engine temperature sensor
Remove sensor. The resistance should be 3.3 kohms at 20 deg C and 0.3 kohms at
80 deg C.
Fail b: Harness continuity
A simple set of resistance tests across various terminals will check for electrical
continuity between the control unit and the solenoids.
Fail c: Solenoids holding pressure
A vacuum pump is used to test that each of the two EGR solenoids holds a vacuum
whether energised or not.
Fail c: Solenoids electrical behaviour
The solenoid resistance should be 35-44 ohms for each of the two solenoids (at 20
deg C).
Fail e: EGR valve stuck
No official Mitsubishi repair methods known. However, this comment, which applies
to EGR problems in general, may be helpful:
‘If the EGR valve stem is accessible, push it against spring pressure. It should
move freely and return fully. If not, remove the valve for cleaning or
replacement. With the engine at normal operating temperature, open the
throttle enough to reach at least 2,500 rpm while watching the EGR valve
stem (use a mirror if necessary). It should move, then return. If it doesn't,
remove the hose and feel for vacuum as you rev it again. If you find some, the
valve's at fault. If you don't, check out the controls (see step #3). Of course, if
you're dealing with one of those Ford pressure-operated units, you should feel
pressure instead. If you found no vacuum at the valve and there's a
thermostatic vacuum switch in the hose, pull off the source line and feel for
vacuum above idle. If you find it, but none gets to the valve with the engine
warm, the switch is faulty. On all but the positive backpressure and
pressure-operated types, you can use a hand-operated vacuum pump to test
valve action. The engine should roughen and maybe die off when vacuum is
applied at idle. This is especially useful on valves with an enclosed stem. A
note on cleaning: GM says never to use a solvent to dissolve deposits in an
EGR valve, but Chrysler tells you it's okay providing you're careful not to get
any on the diaphragm. With most specimens, you'll be cleaning the pintle and
valve seat with a dull scraper or wire brush, and knocking out loose carbon by
tapping the pintle. But these parts are expensive, so a more satisfactory
means of cleaning them is desirable. Some GM versions, for instance, can be
disassembled for this purpose. Just make sure you don't damage the seating
surface in the process, and that you scribe marks so you can get it back
together in the proper alignment’ (Autosite, 2003).
Excess EGR (failure mode 2) can severely reduce the driveability of the vehicle. In
this case one work-around is to disable the EGR system entirely, so that it operates
in mode 3. It should be noted that this has some negative consequences: hotter
combustion temperature and the possibility (presumably small) of reduced engine
life. Also, this will be an illegal modification in countries with emission control
The work-around is achieved by either plugging the vacuum line (j) or blanking the
pipe between the exhaust manifold and the EGR valve (k). If the EGR valve is stuck
in an open position then plugging the vacuum line will be ineffective and the blanking
method is the next option. If blanking is used, then a substantial plate of several mm
thickness needs to be used. The temperature of the exhaust gases is probably
around 500 deg C if not higher, and this will readily melt aluminium (melting point
300 deg C) and erode through thin sheet steel. It would also seem sensible to place
the blanking plate at the EGR valve end of the pipe, not at the exhaust manifold, as
this reduces the temperature to which it is exposed. Stainless steel would be the
preferred material for a blanking plate and could be quite thin, with mild steel as a
second choice (several mm would be necessary). Aluminium, tin can, plastic,
silicone or gasket materials would be inappropriate.
Mitsubishi recommend replacing rather than disabling the EGR valve, for both
technical and environmental reasons.
The EGR system is designed to reduce Nox production. Usually it works fine and
there is no need to adjust it. However, if it fails and starts providing excess exhaust
gas re-circulation then the engine produces excess smoke and becomes difficult to
drive, since idling and power are affected. Several possible causes and solutions
have been described. If the EGR system fails in the shut position, or is actively
disabled by blanking it off, then near-normal engine performance is restored,
although there is the risk, presumably slight, of deceasing engine life. Mitsubishi
recommend replacing rather than disabling a faulty EGR valve. In some countries it
is illegal to disable the valve.
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Thanks to the people at various internet discussion groups especially for tips, opinions and information.
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