DN500
MOTION CONTROL
Short-Circuit Protection
for Power Inverters
THE POWER MANAGEMENT LEADER
By Andrea Merello, International Rectifier
DC+
This gate driver family is designed for medium power, half bridge
gate driving. High current capability (2A source, 3A sink) and 20Vcapable output stages allow this device to control a wide range of
power devices. Each output stage has three separate pins for gate
control to allow flexible customization of the IGBT gate charge.
The two separate channels allow safe inverter control thanks to
the anti-shoot-through input circuit and minimum deadtime
insertion of 330ns. The floating channel can be easily supplied by
the widely used bootstrap technique because of its low quiescent
current. Under-voltage conditions in floating and low voltage
circuits are managed independently and, when an under-voltage
condition occurs, the respective power switch is turned off.
The gate driver I/Os are 3.3V CMOS/TTL-compatible to ease
communication with the system controller. Separated inputs are
available for high- and low-side driver control. A shutdown pin is
also available and it is shared with the open drain fault output that
becomes active (low) in the case of under-voltage or desaturation
detection event.
For more information, call 310.252.7105 or visit us at www.irf.com
Supply
VS
SSDH
HO P
HO N
LO P
DSL
LO N
SSDL
COM
IR2x14-1SS
V ss
VB
MONOLITHIC 1200V GATE DRIVING CAPABILITY
IR’s monolithic high voltage technology allows the IR2x14 and
IR2x141 families to safely drive 110Vac to 380Vac applications and
provide capability to withstand up to 600Vdc or 1200Vdc voltages.
Typical half bridge configurations require only 14 components.
V cc
H IN
L IN
F LTC LR
SY F LT
S D /F A U L T
The IR2x14 and IR2x141 gate driver families are designed specifically
to protect half bridge and three-phase inverter switches.
Desaturation detection of the power switch is fully integrated,
resulting in increased system reliability and drastically reduced part
count and layout space. Moreover, this gate driver family features
gate driving capability of up to 3A with anti-shoot-through and undervoltage lockout for both high- and low-voltage side.
DSH
INTRODUCTION
Short-circuit protection on low- and medium-power inverterized
motor drives is becoming essential to comply with safety
standards. However, the implementation of such a feature can
consistently increase board component count and system
complexity when using traditional sensors and optocouplers.
P
Figure 1: Typical application.
The logic ground and power ground are separated to decouple the
large amount of noise caused by inverter switching noise while, at
the same time, meeting the requirement of having separated
grounds for applications using emitter shunt topologies for
current sensing.
DESATURATION PROTECTION
Inverter power switch short-circuit protection is fully integrated. A
desaturation detection circuit is embedded in both the high- and
low-side output stages and monitors the IGBT collector-to-emitter
voltage by means of an external high voltage diode.
Diode sensing is made by an internal circuit that compares the
anode voltage with an internal reference voltage of 8V. The same
circuit also manages high frequency spikes, rejecting noise
coupling and provides an active diode biasing by means of a
patented structure (IR2x141 family).
Under short-circuit conditions, current in the power switch can be
as high as 10 times the nominal current (Figure 3 shows an
example using a 25A IGBT power module). Whenever the switch is
turned-off to block the current path, this high current generates
relevant voltage transients in the power stage that need to be
smoothed out to avoid definitive inverter failure. The gate driver
DN500
SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR POWER INVERTERS
Soft
Shutdown
Desaturated
IGBT
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
OFF
FAULT
reported to
controller
IR2214xSS
IR2214xSS
Phase-to-phase
short-circuit
IR2214xSS
Desaturation
detection
Freeze other channels
(SYFLT local network)
Figure 2: Phase-to-phase short circuit.
accomplishes the transients’ control by smoothly turning off the
desaturated switch by means of the SSD pin (typ. 90Ω series
resistor internally provided).
In a multi-phase system, the half bridge gate drivers share a
dedicated local network to properly manage phase-to-phase
short-circuits as illustrated in Figure 3. The gate drivers
synchronize each other to freeze their state, becoming insensitive
to input commands until the short-circuit current is exhausted.
This procedure is necessary to avoid undesired hard shutdown
due to controller command during the soft shutdown sequence.
The fault pin becomes active as soon as the soft shutdown
procedure has finished. The fault clear pin is used to restore the
normal operation mode.
CONCLUSION
Figure 3: Phase-to-DC minus short-circuit condition:
The IR2x14-1 half bridge gate driver family is well suited to lowCH1: phase voltage
CH2: SY_FLT
and medium-power designs up to 10kW, providing high
CH3: phase current (200A/div)
performance drive capability as well as including valuable
CH4: desaturated IGBT gate turning off smoothly
protection features. Low external component count and an
CHA: FAULT
SSOP-24 package with a 8.13x8.2 mm2 footprint design of the gate
driving section design particularly small and simple.
IRMD2214SS and IRMD22141SS Reference Design Kits are also
available at www.irf.com.
For more information, call 310.252.7105 or visit us at www.irf.com
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising