Aironet | BR2000-E | Wireless LANs - Monash University

Wireless Technologies
& Networks
Part 2. Wireless LANs. IEEE 802.11
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
1
Recommended
Recommended References
References
A. Tanenbaum, Computer networks. 3rd edition, Prentice Hall,
1996
T.Imielinski, H. Korth “Mobile Computing”, Kluwer Academic
publishers, 1996
G. Forman & J. Zahorjan “The challenges of mobile computing”,
IEEE Computer, April 1994, pp.38-47
J. Mikkonen, “Wireless ATM overview”,
http://www.tele.pw.edu.pl/Pl-iso/~kwrona/watm/wireless.html
Wireless LAN Alliance – WLANA, http://www.wlana.com
Wireless 5GHz Industry Meetings (Redmond and Amsterdam)
http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/wireless/presentations/wireless5ghz.zip
Microsoft Wireless Technology, http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/wireless/
Aironet/Cisco Training materials
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
2
Wireless
Wireless LANs:
LANs: What
What we’ll
we’ll discuss
discuss ??
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction & background
IEEE 802.11
Aironet/Cisco wireless LANs
Demo
Current infrastructure
Future/target infrastructure
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
3
The wireless data
challenge
To enable people to
communicate/compute effortlessly,
where they want, when they want,
without “Wires”
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
4
Wireless
Wireless LANs
LANs
• The work on radio-based computer networks goes back to the early
seventies and the work on Aloha network.
• Wireless LANS are providing data rates typically 2 orders of magnitude
higher than outdoor radio. Thus, data rates exceeding 1 Mb/s are quite
common.
• WaveLAN provides peer-to-peer communication in 902-928 MHZ (in the
US) and uses direct sequence spreading with the CSMA/CA (carrier
sense, multiple acess, with collision avoidance) protocol.
• Standards such as IEEE 802.11 are being developed in the US and in
Europe. In general, the goal is to provide data rates exceeding 1 Mb/s and
also to support architectures with infrastructure (base stations) as well as
ad-hoc architectures where the terminals communicate directly with each
other (peer to peer) without the mediation of a fixed base station.
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
5
Architecture
Architecture of
of aa Wireless
Wireless LAN
LAN
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
6
Wireless
Wireless will
will replace
replace wired?
wired?
3000
2500
2000
1500
$M
1000
500
0
Revenues from Worldwide Wireless LAN shipments
'94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
7
WLAN
WLAN APPLICATIONS
APPLICATIONS
E d u c a tio n
F a c to r y
W a re h o u se
M e d ic a l
R e ta il
M o b ile
P r o f e s s io n a l
M is c e lla n e o u s
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
1 9 9 5 (% )
3 3 1 ,0 0 0 L A N s
3
2 0 0 0 (% )
4 .1 m illio n
9
6
9
38
8
3
16
34
16
3
28
13
14
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
8
W
-LAN APPLICATIONS
W-LAN
APPLICATIONS
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
9
RESEARCH
RESEARCH ISSUES
ISSUES
• Internetworking of fixed and mobile networks
• Naming, locating and load balancing techniques
for mobile clients and servers
• Traffic monitoring and control mechanisms to
maintain
• Quality of Service (Qos)
• Power management
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
10
WLAN Evolution: 2000
Small
and Medium
Sized Businesses
Home
Networking
Small
Office /
Home Office
860 Kbps
Speed
1 &12&Mbps
2 Mbps
11 Mbps
Proprietary
Proprietary
Network
900 MHz
Radio
Standards-based
2.4 GHz
2.4 GHz
1986
1988
1990
1992
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
1994
1996
IEEE 802.11
Ratified
1998
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
2000
2002
11
Wireless
Wireless LAN
LAN Applications
Applications
• LAN extension: hospitals, factory floors, branch offices, offices with wiring
•
•
•
•
•
•
difficulties
Inter-LAN bridges: Cross-building point-to-point connection, high speed
distance access.
Ad-hoc networking: conference registrations, campaign headquarters,
military camps
Nomadic access: laptop to printer access
Infopad: fusion of computer and communication in ship boards, research
labs
Campus area networks (CAN): wireless class rooms, wireless Internet
access
Body LAN: for soldiers in the battlefield
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
12
Wireless
Wireless Data
Data Networks
Networks
10 Mbps
4 Mbps
Data Rates
2 Mbps
1 Mbps
Infrared
Wireless
LANs
Spread
Spectrum
Wireless
LANs
Broadband PCS
56 Kbps
Metricom
Circuit & Packet Data
19.6 Kbps
9.6 Kbps
Narrow Band
Wireless LANs
Local
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Cellular, CDPD, RAM, ARDIS
Narrowband PCS
Coverage Area
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
Satellite
Wide
13
Global
Global Wireless
Wireless Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Global
Satellite
Suburban
Urban
In-Building
Macro-Cell
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Micro-Cell
Pico-Cell
dik ©
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
14
Wireless
Wireless problems
problems
•
•
•
•
•
•
Typically slower than wired networks
Higher transmission bit error rates (BER)
Uncontrolled population
Difficult to ensure Quality of Service (QoS)
Asymmetric bandwidth
Limited communication bandwidth aggravates the
problem of limited battery life
• Security
• Relative cost !!!
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
15
ISM
ISM Unlicensed
Unlicensed
Frequency
Frequency Bands
Bands
Short Wave RadioFM Broadcast
Infrared wireless LAN
AM Broadcast
Television
Cellular (840MHz)
Audio
NPCS (1.9GHz)
ExtremelyVery Low MediumHighVeryUltra SuperInfraredVisible Ultra- X-Rays
Low Low
HighHigh High
Light violet
902 - 928 MHz
26 MHz
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
2.4 - 2.4835 GHz
83.5 MHz
(IEEE 802.11)
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
16
Industrial,
Industrial, Scientific
Scientific and
and
Medical
Medical (ISM)
(ISM) Bands
Bands
902 to 928MHz
2.400 to 2.4835GHz
26MHz
83.5MHz
1
2
5.725 to 5.850GHz
125MHz
3
4
FREQUENCY (GHz)
5
6
• SPREAD SPECTRUM ALLOWED TO MINIMIZE INTERFERENCE
• 2.4GHz ISM BAND
- More Bandwidth to Support Higher Data Rates and Number of Channels
- Available Worldwide
- Good Balance of Equipment Performance and Cost Compared with
5.725GHz Band
- IEEE 802.11 Global WLAN Standard
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
AP96358 334
17
Direct
Direct Sequence
Sequence Spread
Spread Spectrum
Spectrum
•
•
•
•
DATA SIGNAL SPREAD BY A PN CODE
PROPERTIES OF PN CODE
CHIP RATE
DS PROCESSING GAIN
GP (dB) = 10LOG (
CHIP RATE
DATA RATE
CW SIGNAL
AMPLITUDE
(dBm)
dBm)
)
• PN CORRELATION AT RECEIVER
• PSK DATA MODULATION
1
0
DATA
CHIP
CLOCK
SPREAD SIGNAL
AMPLITUDE
(dBm)
dBm)
18
1.2
15
1.0
12
0.8
9
0.6
6
0.4
3
0.2
0
0
2.43
2.44
2.45
2.46
2.47
FREQUENCY (MHz)
BARKER
CODE
SPREAD
DATA
AP96358 22-11
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
18
Frequency
Frequency Hopping
Hopping Spread
Spread Spectrum
Spectrum
f5
AMPLITUDE
f4
f3
f2
FREQUENCY
f1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
TIME
•
•
•
•
•
FSK DATA MODULATION
PERIODIC CHANGES IN THE CARRIER FREQUENCY SPREADS THE SIGNAL
CARRIER FREQUENCY CHANGES AT A SPECIFIED HOP RATE
CARRIER FREQUENCY HOPS AFTER A PRESCRIBED TIME
TOTAL SYSTEM BANDWIDTH INCLUDES ALL OF THE CHANNEL FREQUENCIES USED IN
HOPPING
AP96358 22-13
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
19
802.11
802.11 Protocol
Protocol Layers
Layers
Media Access Control Layer
MAC - Layer
MAC - PHY
Sublayers
PHY - Layer
PROTOCOL AND PHYSICAL LAYER
MANAGEMENT
MAC-PHY Sublayers
CONFIGURE DATA FRAMES AND PREAMBLES
FOR TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE MODE
Physical Layer
RADIO TRANSMISSION MEDIA FOR EITHER
DSSS, FHSS OR INFRARED
AP96358 33-10
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
20
Global
Global RF
RF Regulations
Regulations
900 MHz & 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Usage
2.4 GHz Unlicensed Usage
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
21
Access
Access Point
Point Coverage
Coverage
2 Mbps FHSS
175 feet radius
2 Mbps DSSS
1 Mbps FHSS
350 feet radius
5.5 Mbps DSSS
175 feet radius
11 Mbps DSSS
125 feet radius
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
22
IEEE
IEEE 802.11
802.11 Standard
Standard
• IEEE 802.11 became a standard in July 1997
• Three technologies defined:
♦ FHSS - 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps
♦ DSSS – 2+ Mbps
♦ Infrared
• 802.11 defines a high-performance radio
• 802.11 promises true vendor interoperability (over the
air)
• Every vendor must have a viable 802.11 product
strategy
♦ 802.11 compliant products
♦ Current proprietary products
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
23
Glossary
Glossary of
of 802.11
802.11 Wireless
Wireless Terms
Terms
• Station (STA): A computer or device with a wireless network
•
•
•
•
•
•
interface.
Access Point (AP): Device used to bridge the wireless-wired
boundary, or to increase distance as a wireless packet repeater.
Ad Hoc Network: A temporary one made up of stations in mutual
range.
Infrastructure Network: One with one or more Access Points.
Channel: A radio frequency band, or Infrared, used for shared
communication.
Basic Service Set (BSS): A set of stations communicating wirelessly
on the same channel in the same area, Ad Hoc or Infrastructure.
Extended Service Set (ESS): A set BSSs and wired LANs with
Access Points that appear as a single logical BSS.
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
24
Glossary
Glossary of
of 802.11
802.11 Wireless
Wireless Terms,
Terms, cont.
cont.
• BSSID & ESSID: Data fields identifying station’s BSS & ESS.
• Clear Channel Assessment (CCA): A station function used to
•
•
•
•
determine when it is OK to transmit.
Association: A function that maps a station to an Access Point.
MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU): Data Frame passed between
user & MAC.
MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU): Data Frame passed between
MAC & PHY.
PLCP Packet (PLCP_PDU): Data Packet passed from PHY to
PHY over the Wireless Medium.
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
25
Overview,
Overview, IEEE
IEEE 802,
802, and
and 802.11
802.11 Working
Working Group
Group
• IEEE Project 802 charter:
•
♦ Local & Metropolitan Area Networks
♦ 1Mb/s to 100Mb/s and higher
♦ 2 lower layers of 7 Layer OSI Reference Model
IEEE 802.11 Working Group scope:
♦ Wireless connectivity for fixed, portable and moving stations within a
limited area
♦ Appear to higher layers (LLC) the same as existing 802 standards
⇒ Transparent support of mobility (mobility across router ports is being
address by a higher layer committee)
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
26
IEEE
IEEE 802.11a
802.11a Current
Current Status
Status
• Uses same MAC as IEEE 802.11b
•
♦ 802.11a is a PHY extension only
5 GHz PHY formally adopted in Fall ‘99
♦ mandatory rates to 24 Mbps, optional rates to 54 Mbps
♦ PHY is nearly identical to HiperLAN2 (result of cooperation of both
groups)
• Products
•
♦ Expected rollout in late ‘00 or early ‘01
WECA position
♦ Support IEEE802.11a @ 5 GHz
♦ Support efforts toward single global standard
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
27
IEEE
IEEE 802.11x
802.11x Enhancements
Enhancements
• Task Group E
♦ QoS
⇒ MAC enhancements to support time bounded services
• classes of service
• prioritization
♦ Security
⇒ standardize 128 bit encryption
⇒ key management
⇒ enhanced authentication algorithm
• Task Group F
•
♦ Roaming & Load Balancing
Finalize enhancements late ‘00/ early ‘01
⇒ first products very shortly thereafter
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
28
2.4GHz
2.4GHz Protocol
Protocol Issues
Issues
One reason for the threats at 2.4 GHz is protocols that
are incompatible and can cause significant interference if
run simultaneously in the same location.
2.4 GHz protocols - Independently developed to support specific
usage models
Coded data rates
End-user throughput
Multimedia support
Low-power operation
Range
True network
Supports roaming
Cost
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
802.11b
11 Mbps
5.5 Mbps
No
No
150ft.
Yes
Yes
High
HomeRF
1.6 Mbps
0.8 Mbps
Audio
No
150ft.
Yes
No
Medium
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
Bluetooth
1.0 Mbps
0.7 Mbps
Audio
Yes
30ft.
No
No
Low
29
2.4GHz
2.4GHz // 5GHz
5GHz Industry
Industry Issues
Issues
The entire WLAN industry loses if we let the 5 GHz band
devolve into the same situation as the 2.4 GHz band.
• 2.4 GHz is being perceived as a band that is overcrowded
with incompatible protocols and interfering devices and
will result in dissatisfied WLAN users
• At 5 GHz
♦ Neither Hiperlan2 or 802.11a adequately addresses the issue of
low cost, low power, low speed devices
♦ Hiperlan2 and 802.11a have incompatible MAC/data link control
(DLC) layers
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
30
The
The Industry
Industry Opportunity
Opportunity -- A
A 5GHz
5GHz Unified
Unified
Protocol
-UP)
Protocol (5
(5-UP)
5-UP is a concept for a protocol extension that works
with 802.11a and Hiperlan2 to improve scaleability,
interoperability, and marketability of 5GHz WLANs.
A single, compatible, evolutionary extension to both Hiperlan
2 and 802.11a that:
♦ Supports and extends both existing WLAN standards, and does
not impede the delivery of first generation products based on
those standards
♦ Allows for scalability in power, price and performance - 125 kbps
through high rates (~100 Mbps)
♦ Allows devices with the extension to work in either an Hiperlan 2
or an 802.11a network
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
31
Information
Information Anytime,
Anytime, Anywhere
Anywhere
Connecting
ConnectingEverything
Everything
Microsoft Wireless
Technology
Windows 98
Windows 2000
Desktop
Windows NT® Embedded
Windows CE
Intelligent appliance
Smart object
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Micro-browser
Smart Card for
Windows
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
32
Local
-Area Wireless
Local-Area
Wireless
Local Area Network
Technology
Q1
1999
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
2000
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
2001
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
2002
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
2003
Q2
Q3
Q4
802.11 (FHSS) 2.4 GHz
1 Mbps
Freq. Hopped Spread Spectrum
802.11 (DSSS) 2.4 GHz
1 or 2 Mbps
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
Hiperlan
Initial
23.5 Mbps
Shipment
High Performance Radio LAN
s
P802.11b (DSSS) 2.4 GHz
Initial
11 Mbps
Shipments
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
Final
Specification
P802.11a 5 GHz
Specifications
54 Mbps
Approved
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Initial Mobile
Shipments
Materials from Andrew
-Microsoft
Seybold
LectureSeybold3: Wireless
LANs Exchange Conference 1999
33
Personal
Personal Area
Area Wireless
Wireless
Local Area Network
Technology
1999
Q1
Q2
Q3
2000
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
2001
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
2002
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
2003
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
IrDA
4Mbps
Bluetooth wireless technology
721 Kbps
Initial Shipments
Integrated Handsets
PC Card and CF Module
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Computer Integrated Products
Materials from Andrew
-Microsoft
Seybold
LectureSeybold3: Wireless
LANs Exchange Conference 1999
34
Scenarios
Scenarios
• Adhoc
• Home
• Small business
• Enterprise
• ISP
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
35
Ad
Ad Hoc
Hoc Networks
Networks
Many diverse
devices to be
connected
Desktops,
Notebooks
TVs, games
Books, tablets,
handheld PCs
Phones, Pagers
PC companions
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
36
A
A Connected
Connected Home
Home
1394
STB
IrDA
802.11
Ethernet/1394b
Internet
Bluetooth
PLC
xDSL
Cable
Satellite
POTS, ISDN
Residential
Gateway
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Phone
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
37
A
A Connected
Connected Small
Small Office
Office
Phone
Internet
T1, T3, …
Small
Business
Server
802.11
Bluetooth
Ethernet
Edge Server
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
38
Enterprise
Enterprise
GPRS
GPRS
IrDA
• Information at
your fingertips
♦ At meetings, in the office, on the
road
♦ Reliable, secure, multimedia LAN
GPRS
Bluetooth
Internet
Web Server
802.11
T1, T3, …
Ethernet
Proxy Server
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
39
Enterprise
Enterprise
• End-user can access the enterprise wireless network
transparently over a secure connection
♦ The network administrator has control over which users have
access to the enterprise wireless LAN
• Enterprise can offer its employees access via ISPs which
outsource their authentication to
the enterprise
♦ End-user has IP connectivity as soon as a CDPD or a GPRS
modem is plugged in
♦ Make cellphones an always connected Internet access point
using GPRS
• End-User can use Netmeeting with wireless LAN, when
out of range of LAN can continue to conference via IP
connected cellphone
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
40
An
An ISP
ISP Connected
Connected Public
Public Space
Space
• Discovery of proximity services
Bluetooth
(flight schedules at airport, mall
directories, …)
Phone
GPRS
IrDA
Internet
Web Server
802.11
T1, T3, …
Ethernet
Proxy Server
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
41
ISP
ISP
• Need mixed technologies
♦ Higher speed in hot spots, e.g., 802.11
• Need authentication so ISPs can charge
• Allow ISPs to integrate into existing systems
♦ Allows ISP roaming agreements
⇒ Same as outsource dial
• Need to be able to provision unauthenticated users
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
42
Wireless
Wireless Architecture
Architecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“Just works”
Always connected
Unified transport: IP
Mobility
Unified security model
Adhoc
QoS
Performance
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
43
Wireless
Wireless Architecture
Architecture
WinSock 2.0
TAPI 3.0
Routing
APIs
DialDial-up
Networking
APIs
Network
streaming
(DirectX)
Networking
APIs
Network
Location
802.1X
DNS
DHCP
Networking
Services
RSVP
UPnP
NetBT
IP packet
filtering
IP
forwarder
TCP/IP
Protocol
stacks
Route table
Packet classifier
Packet scheduler
NDIS WAN
PPTP
IGMP
Ethernet
Async
Bluetooth
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
RNDIS
IRDP
TR
NDIS 5.1
802.11
802.1D
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
Affected by
Wireless
44
Overview,
Overview, 802.11
802.11 Architecture
Architecture
ESS
Existing
Wired LAN
AP
STA
BSS
AP
STA
STA
BSS
STA
Infrastructure
Network
STA
Ad Hoc
Network
STA
BSS
BSS
STA
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Ad Hoc
Network
STA
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
45
WLAN’s
WLAN’s Association
Association Process
Process
-- Passive
Passive Scanning
Scanning
Steps to Association:
Access
Point
A
Access
Point
B
Client sends probe
AP sends Probe Response
Client evaluates AP
response, selects best AP.
Client sends authentication
request to selected AP (A).
AP A confirms authentication
and registers client.
Client sends association
request to selected AP (A).
Initial connection to an Access Point
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
AP A confirms association
and registers client.
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
46
WLAN’s
-association Process
WLAN’s Re
Re-association
Process ––
Passive
Passive Scanning
Scanning
Steps to Re-association:
Access
Point
A
Access
Point
B
Roaming from Access Point A
to Access Point B
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Adapter listens for beacons
from APs.
Adapter evaluates AP
beacons, selects best AP.
Adapter sends association
request to selected AP (B).
AP B confirms association
and registers adapter.
AP B informs AP A of
re-association with AP B.
AP A forwards buffered packets
to AP B and de-registers adapter.
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
47
Implementations
Implementations and
and Applications
Applications
Wireless Bridging
• LAN to LAN connectivity
Wireless Networking
• Mobile user connectivity
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
48
Wireless
Wireless Local
Local Area
Area Network
Network (WLAN)
(WLAN)
Ethernet
Server
Access
Point
Internet
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
49
Microcellular
Microcellular Architecture
Architecture
Roaming
Mobility Support Software
Roaming
Load Balancing
Power Management
Wireless Repeater
Internet
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
50
LAN
LAN Topologies
Topologies
Peer to Peer Configuration
(Ad Hoc mode)
Wireless
“Cell”
Wireless Clients
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
51
Typical
Typical Single
Single Cell
Cell Configuration
Configuration
LAN Backbone
Wireless Clients
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
52
Typical
Typical Multi
Multi Cell
Cell Configuration
Configuration
Wireless
“Cell”
LAN Backbone
Access Point
Wireless Clients
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
53
Wireless
Wireless Repeater
Repeater
Wireless
Repeater
“Cell”
LAN Backbone
Access Point
Wireless Clients
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
54
System
System Redundancy
Redundancy
Wireless
“Cell”
LAN Backbone
Access Point
Wireless Clients
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
55
ARLAN/Cisco
ARLAN/Cisco Product
Product Families
Families
Aironet 3500 - 2.4 GHz FH- 2Mbps (802.11)
Aironet 4500 - 2.4 GHz DS- 2Mbps (802.11)
Aironet 4800 - 2.4 GHz DS- 11Mbps (802.11)
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
•
Access Points
•
LAN Adapters
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
• Ethernet
• Token Ring
• PC Card
• ISA
• PCI
• Serial
• Ethernet
56
In
-Building WLAN:
In-Building
WLAN: Product
Product Lines
Lines
4800 Series
4500 Series
3500 Series
IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11
Max. Data Rate
11 Mbps
2 Mbps
2 Mbps
Typical Range
125' - 350'
250' - 350'
150' - 250'
2.4 GHz
2.4 GHz
2.4 GHz
Direct Sequence
Direct Sequence
Frequency Hopping
Standard
Band
Spread Radio
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
57
4800
4800 Series
Series
• All the features of the
4500 plus…
• 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mbps
⇒ 4 Mbps not supported
⇒ uses CCK to achieve 11
Mbps in same 22 MHz
channels
⇒ 3 independent channels
@ 11Mbps each!!!
• Same drivers, APs,
antennas as 4500
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
58
Access
Access Points
Points
• Menu Driver Configuration
• Minimum Setup required for normal operation
•
•
•
♦ As little as 2 parameters to set up
Maximum flexibility with option menus
Internal testing for RF link
Out -of-Band management
♦ SNMP
♦ Telnet
♦ FTP
♦ HTML (Web Browser)
♦ BootP/ DHCP
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
59
Access
Access Point
Point Menus
Menus
• Menus include:
♦ Configuration
♦ Diagnostics
♦ Statistics
• Serial Communication- 9600, N,8,1
• Straight thru 9 pin cable
• Standard ANSI terminal
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
60
Top
Top Panel
Panel LED’s
LED’s
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
61
Connect
Connect to
to Console
Console
9600 Baud
8 Data Bits
No Parity
1 Stop Bit
Flow Control Xon/Xoff
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
62
Main
Main Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1 - Configuration
2 - Statistics
3 - Association
4 - Filter
5 - Logs
6 - Diagnostics
7 - Privilege
8 - Help
Main Menu
Value
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ write ]
AP4800E_263097
Description
- General configuration
- Display statistics
- Association table maintenance
- Control packet filtering
- Alarm and log control
- Maintenance and testing commands
- Set privilege level
- Introduction
Enter an option number or name
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
63
Configuration
Configuration Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
Value
1 - Radio
2 - Ethernet
3 - Ident
4 - Console
5 - Mobile-IP
6 - Time
7 - Tip
8 - Dump
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
Configuration Menu
AP4800E_263097
Description
- Radio network parameters
- Ethernet configuration
- Identification information
- Control console access
- Mobile IP Protocol Configuration
- Network Time Setup
- TIP Configuration
- Dump configuration to console
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
64
Config
Config Radio
Radio menu
menu (AP’s)
(AP’s)
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
AP4800E_263097
Option
1 - Ssid
2 - Root
3 - Rates
megabits/second
4 - Basic_rates
5 - Frequency
6 - I80211
7 - Linktests
8 - Extended
Configuration Radio Menu
Value
Description
[ "tsunami" ]
[
on
]
[
1_11
]
- Service set identification
- Enable root mode
- Allowed bit rates in
[
[
[
[
[
-
1
2437
menu
menu
menu
]
]
]
]
]
Basic bit rates in megabits/second
Center frequency in MHz
802.11 parameters
Test the radio link
Extended parameters
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
65
Config
Config Radio
Radio menu
menu (BR’s)
(BR’s)
Aironet BR500E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
Ssid
Root
Rates
Basic_rates
Frequency
Distance
I80211
Linktests
Extended
Configuration Radio Menu
Value
[ "fred" ]
[
on
]
[ 1_11 ]
[
1
]
[ 2437 ]
[
0
]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
BR500E_263097
Description
-
Service set identification
Enable root mode
Allowed bit rates in megabits/second
Basic bit rates in megabits/second
Center frequency in MHz
Maximum separation in kilometers
802.11 parameters
Test the radio link
Extended parameters
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
66
802.11
802.11 Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
AP4800E_263097
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
Beacon
Dtim
Extend
Bcst_ssid
Rts
Privacy
Encapsulation
Configuration Radio I80211 Menu
Value
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
100
2
on
on
2048
menu
menu
Description
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
-
Beacon period in Kusec
DTIM interval
Allow proprietary extensions
Allow broadcast SSID
RTS/CTS packet size threshold
Privacy configuration
Configure packet encapsulation
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
67
Encryption
Encryption Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11 Configuration Radio I80211 Privacy Menu
Option
Value
1 - Encryption
2 - Client
3 - Key
[ off ]
[ open ]
AP4800E_263097
Description
- Encrypt radio packets
- Client authentication modes allowed
- Set the default key
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
68
802.11
802.11 Encapsulation
Encapsulation Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11 Configuration Radio I80211 Encapsulation Menu AP4800E_263097
Option
1 - Encap
2 - Show
3 - Add
4 - Remove
Value
[ 802.1H ]
Description
- Default encapsulation method
- Show encapsulation table
- Add a protocol encapsulation method
- Remove a protocol encapsulation method
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
69
Encapsulation
Encapsulation Menu
Menu (cont.)
(cont.)
Aironet AP4800E V7.11 Configuration Radio I80211 Encapsulation Menu AP4800E_263097
Option
1 - Encap
2 - Show
3 - Add
4 - Remove
Value
[ 802.1H ]
Description
- Default encapsulation method
- Show encapsulation table
- Add a protocol encapsulation method
- Remove a protocol encapsulation method
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
70
Radio
Radio Extended
Extended Menu
Menu (AP’s)
(AP’s)
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
Time_retry
Count_retry
Balance
Diversity
Modulation
Power
Fragment
Configuration Radio Extended Menu
Value
[
[
[
[
[
8
0
off
on
cck
]
]
]
]
]
[ 2048 ]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Number of seconds to retry transmit
Maximum number transmit retries
Load balancing
Enable the diversity antennas
- Transmit power level
- Maximum fragment size
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
71
Radio
Radio Extended
Extended Menu
Menu (BR’s)
(BR’s)
Aironet BR500E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
Bridge_mode
Time_retry
Count_retry
Balance
Diversity
Modulation
Power
Fragment
Configuration Radio Extended Menu
Value
Description
[ access_point ]
[
8
]
[
0
]
[
off
]
[
off
]
[
cck
]
[
2048
BR500E_263097
]
-
Bridging mode
Number of seconds to retry transmit
Maximum number transmit retries
Load balancing
Enable the diversity antennas
- Transmit power level
- Maximum fragment size
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
72
Ethernet
Ethernet Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
1
2
3
4
Option
Value
- Active
- Size
- Port
- Fallback
[ off ]
[ 1518 ]
[ auto ]
[ off ]
Configuration Ethernet Menu
AP4800E_263097
Description
- Connection active
- Maximum frame size
- Port selection
- Become repeater on LAN cable fault
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
73
Identification
Identification Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
01
02
03
04
-
Inaddr
Inmask
Gateway
Routing
Dns1
Dns2
Domain
Nid
Name
Location
Contact
Bootp_DHCP
Class
Configuration Ident Menu
Value
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
000.000.000.000
000.000.000.000
000.000.000.000
menu
000.000.000.000
000.000.000.000
""
004096263097
"AP4800E_263097"
""
""
on
"AP4800E"
AP4800E_263097
Description
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
-
Internet address
Internet subnet mask
Internet default gateway
IP routing table configuration
DNS server 1
DNS server 2
Domain name
Network address
Node name
System location
System contact name
Use BOOTP/DHCP on startup
DHCP class id
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
74
Identification
Identification Routing
Routing Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
-
Display
Host
Net
Delete
Value
Configuration Ident Routing Menu
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Display Route Table Entries
Add a Static Host Route
Add a Static Network Route
Delete a Static Route
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
75
Console
Console Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
01
-
Rpassword
Wpassword
Remote
Display
Add
Delete
Communities
Type
Port
Linemode
Configuration Console Menu
Value
[
on
AP4800E_263097
Description
]
[
menu
]
[ teletype ]
[
menu
]
[
off
]
-
Set readonly privilege password
Set write privilege password
Allow remote operators
Display the remote operator list
Add an operator host
Remove an operator host
SNMP community properties
Terminal type
Serial port set-up
Console expects complete lines
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
76
Mobile
-IP Menu
Mobile-IP
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
AgentType
Mobile
Visitors
Add
Remove
Display
Setup
Advert
Configuration Mobile-IP Menu
Value
[ off ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Home / Foreign Agent
Home Agent Active Mobile Nodes
Foreign Agent Visitor List
Add Mobile Nodes
Remove Mobile Nodes
Display Home Agent Authorized Addresses
Agent Configuration
Advertisement Setup
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
77
Mobile
-IP Setup
Mobile-IP
Setup Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
- Lifetime
- ReplayProt
- Broadcasts
- RegRequired
- HostRedirects
Configuration Mobile-IP Setup Menu
Value
[
600
]
[ timestamps ]
[
off
]
[
on
]
[
off
]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Max Registration Lifetime
Replay Protection Method
Broadcast Forwarding
Registration Required
Enable ICMP Host Redirects to MN
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
78
Mobile
-IP Advert
Mobile-IP
Advert Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11 Configuration Mobile-IP Advert Menu
Option
1
2
3
4
-
AdvertType
AdvertInterval
PrefixLen
AdvertRtrs
Value
[ multicast ]
[
5
]
[
off
]
[
on
]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Advertisment type
Advertisement interval
Advertise prefix length extension
Advertise routers
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
79
Time
Time Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
-
Time_server
Sntp_server
Offset
Dst
Configuration Time Menu
Value
[ 000.000.000.000 ]
[ 000.000.000.000 ]
[
0
]
[
off
]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Time protocol server
Network time server
GMT offset in minutes
Use daylight savings time
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
80
Statistics
Statistics
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
01
-
Throughput
Radio
Status
Map
Watch
History
Nodes
ARP
Display_time
IpAdr
Statistics Menu
Value
[ 10 ]
[ off ]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Throughput statistics
Radio error statistics
Display general status
Show network map
Record history of a statistic
Display statistic history
Node statistics
ARP table
Time to re-display screens
Determine client IP addresses
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
81
Throughput
Throughput Statistics
Statistics
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Cleared 3:56:55 ago
THROUGHPUT STATISTICS
AP4800E_263097
Recent
Ave
Highest
Statistic
Rate/S
Total
Rate/S
Rate/S
------------------------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------Radio Receive
Packets
0
2004
0
20
Bytes
0
100928
7
11029
Filtered
0
0
0
0
Errors
0
21
0
0
Radio Transmit
Packets
Multicasts
Bytes
Errors
0
0
0
0
621
517
112690
21
0
0
7
0
20
0
11040
4
Ethernet Receive
Packets
Bytes
Filtered
Errors
Misses
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Ethernet Transmit
Packets
Bytes
Errors
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Enter space to redisplay, C[lear stats], q[uit] :
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
82
Radio
Radio Statistics
Statistics
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Cleared 0:02:15 ago
RADIO ERROR STATISTICS
Receive
-------------------------------------Buffer full frames lost
0
Duplicate frames
0
CRC errors
0
Decrypt errors
0
AP4800E_263097
Transmit
-------------------------------------Retries
0
Max retries / frame
0
Excessive retries
0
Queue full discards
0
Holdoffs
32 +32
Holdoff timeouts
0
Enter space to redisplay, C[lear stats], q[uit] :
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
83
Status
Status
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Uptime : 0:02:22
Status
AP4800E_263097
IP: 000.000.000.000
------------------------------------ Radio -----------------------------------SID
: tsunami
Bitrate
: 1_11 Mb/s
Radio
: 4800
Root
: on
Frequency : 2437 MHz
Carrier : US_Can
Power
: full
Autoreg
: on
Nodes
: 0 connected
----------------------------------- Ethernet ---------------------------------Active
: off
Rcv/Xmt : 0/0 Pkt/sec
----------------------------------- Filters ----------------------------------Multicast : forward (0 set)
Protocols : off
(0 set)
Source
: off
(0 set)
Enter space to redisplay, q[uit] :
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
84
Radio
Radio Node
Node Statistics
Statistics
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
RADIO NODE STATISTICS
AP4800E_263097
Id
Address
Signal
Tx Pkt
Tx Byte Retry
Rx Pkt
Rx Byte Rate
--- ------------ ------- --------- ---------- ------- --------- ---------- ---1 004096125e10 1/0
1
102
0
0
0
2
Enter space to redisplay, C[lear stats], q[uit] :
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
85
Association
Association Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
Display
Summary
Maximum
Autoreg
Add
Remove
Niddisp
Association Menu
Value
[ 1024
[
on
AP4800E_263097
Description
]
]
[ numeric ]
-
Display the table
Display the table summary
Maximum allowed child nodes
Allow automatic table additions
Control node access
Remove access control
Node Ids display mode
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
86
Association
Association Table
Table
Enter one of [all, connected, radio-only, hierarchy, controlled] : all
Aironet BR500E V7.11
Association Table Entries
Address
Device Type
Parent
------------- --------- ---- -----------0000c00ece4b Eclient
004096125e10
004096125e10 UC4500E
Local
00409624eb81
BR500E Rep
Local
004096263097
BR500E Me
00c04ff4da63
Enode
Local
02608c6d03c8
Unkwn
00409624eb81
Name
Src
------------------ --Fwd
UC_client
BR500E_24eb81
BR500E_263097
Fwd
BR500E_263097
Edst
---Fwd
Fwd
Fwd
Fwd
Rdst
---Fwd
Fwd
Enter space to redisplay, q[uit] :
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
87
Filter
Filter Menu’s
Menu’s
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
-
Multicast
Node
Protocols
Proxy_arp
Direction
Filter Menu
Value
[ menu
[ menu
[ menu
[ off
[ to_radio
AP4800E_263097
Description
]
]
]
]
]
-
Multicast address filtering
Node address filtering
Protocol filters
Activate proxy ARP function
Packet direction affected by filters
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
88
Multicast
Multicast Filters
Filters
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
-
Default
Show
Add
Remove
Radio_mcst
Filter Multicast Menu
Value
[ forward
AP4800E_263097
Description
]
[ everywhere ]
-
Default multicast action
Display the multicast filters
Add a multicast address filter
Remove a multicast address filter
Where to forward multicasts from radio
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
89
Node
Node Filtering
Filtering
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
-
Source
Display
Ipdisplay
Add
Remove
Filter Node Menu
Value
[ off ]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Source addresses
Display the node address filters
Display the IP address filters
Add a node address filter
Remove a node address filter
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
90
Protocol
Protocol Filtering
Filtering
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
Option
Value
Default
Unicast
Display
Add
Remove
Length
Monitor
Show
Clear
[ off ]
[ off ]
[ 22 ]
[ off ]
Filter Protocols Menu
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Default action
Filter unicast packets
Display the protocol filters
Add a protocol filter
Remove a protocol filter
Length of packet data to log
Protocol monitoring enabled
Show forwarded protocol list
Clear forwarded protocol list
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
91
Protocol
Protocol Monitor
Monitor
Aironet Bridge Vx.xx
PROTOCOLS FOUND
BR2000 _11090b
--------LLC---------Name
Source
1. IPX
Lan
2. NetBIOS Lan
3. IP
Lan
4. ARP
Lan
Count Protocol SAPs OUI Protocol
1063
ffff
11
f0f0
36 0800
1
0806
Enter space to redisplay, C[lear stats], q[uit] :
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
92
Logs
Logs Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
History
Clear
Printlevel
Loglevel
Ledlevel
Statistics
Network
Syslog
Snmp
Logs Menu
Value
[
all
[
all
[ error/severe
AP4800E_263097
Description
]
]
]
[
off
]
[ 000.000.000.000 ]
[
menu
]
-
Log and alarm history
Clear the history buffer
Type of logs to print
Type of logs to save
Type of logs to light status led
Set alarms on statistics
Log network roaming
Unix syslogd address
Set-up SNMP traps
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
93
Snmp
Snmp Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
-
Trapdest
Trapcomm
Loglevel
Authtrap
Logs Snmp Menu
Value
[ none ]
[ "public" ]
[ off
]
[ off
]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
IP destination for SNMP traps
Community for SNMP traps
Type of logs to cause a trap
Enable authentication failure trap
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
94
Diagnostics
Diagnostics
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
Network
Linktests
Restart
Shutdown
Defaults
Reset
Load
Diagnostics Menu
Value
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
[ menu ]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Network connection commands
Test the radio link
Restart the unit
Prepare to power off unit
Return to default configuration
Default parts of the configuration
Load new version of firmware
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
95
Diagnostics
Diagnostics Network
Network Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
-
Connect
Escape
Ping
Find
Diagnostics Network Menu
Value
Description
[ "^X^Y^Z" ]
[
off
AP4800E_263097
]
-
Start telnet session
Connection escape sequence
Send an IP PING packet
Flash LEDs to find unit
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
96
Linktests
Linktests Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
01
02
-
Strength
Carrier
Multicast
Unicast
Remote
Destination
Size
Count
Errors
Autotest
Continuous
Diagnostics Linktests Menu
Value
[ any
[ 512
[ 100
]
]
]
[ once ]
[ 0
]
AP4800E_263097
Description
-
Run a signal strength test
Carrier busy statistics
Run a multicast echo test
Run a unicast echo test
Run a remote echo test
Target address
Packet size
Number of packets to send
Radio error statistics
Auto echo test
Repeat echo test once started
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
97
Carrier
Carrier Busy
Busy Statistics
Statistics
Enter space to redisplay, q[uit] :
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
*
*
*
*
*
*
* * *
1 1 2
2 7 2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
2
7
*
*
*
*
*
3
2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
3
7
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
4
2
*
*
*
*
*
4
7
CARRIER BUSY / FREQUENCY
AP4800E_263097
*
*
*
5 5 6
2 7 2
Highest point = 18% utilization
Enter space to redisplay, q[uit] :
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
98
Load
Load Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
Xmodem
Crc-xmodem
Ftp
Distribute
Bootp_DHCP
Class
Diagnostics Load Menu
Value
[
menu
[
menu
[
on
[ "AP4800E"
AP4800E_263097
Description
]
]
]
]
-
Xmodem load from serial port
Xmodem-CRC load from serial port
Load using FTP
Distribute the firmware
Use BOOTP/DHCP on startup
DHCP class id
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
99
Load
Load Ftp
Ftp Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
Get
Put
Config
Dest
Username
Password
Filename
Diagnostics Load Ftp Menu
Value
Description
[ 000.000.000.000 ]
[
""
]
[
""
AP4800E_263097
]
-
Load
Send
Send
Host
Host
Host
Host
a firmware/config file
a firmware file
a configuration file
IP address
username
password
filename
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
100
Load
Load Distribute
Distribute Menu
Menu
Aironet AP4800E V7.11
Option
1 - Go
2 - Type
3 - Control
Diagnostics Load Distribute Menu
Value
[ firmware ]
[ newer
]
AP4800E_263097
Description
- Start a distribution
- What to distribute
- How to control distributions
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
101
STP
STP Menu
Menu for
for BR’s
BR’s
Aironet Bridge Vx.x
Option
1 - Active
2 - Bridge
3 - Port
4 - Display
5 - State
Value
Configuration Stp Menu
BR500 _11090b
Description
[ on ]
- Protocol enabled
[ menu ] - Bridge parameters
[ menu ] - Port parameters
- Protocol status
[ "Forward" ] - Local ethernet port state
Enter an option number or name, "=" main menu, <ESC> previous menu
>
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
102
WIN
WIN DGS
DGS Utilities
Utilities
• Windows based Graphical User Interface
software utility
⇒ Flash upgrade to the client
⇒ Reconfigure the PC Card
⇒ Link Test
⇒ Site Survey capability using the Link Test
• Users can more easily upgrade firmware,
assess link integrity and performance, and
optimize client connections
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
103
Network
Network Drivers
Drivers
• Client Cards supplied with:
♦ Novel type-
⇒ ODI drivers
♦ Microsoft products Drivers⇒ NDIS 2.0- DOS, Windows 3.1, Windows for Workgroups
⇒ NDIS 3.1- Win 95, Win NT
♦ FTP- TCP/IP
⇒ Packet driver
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
104
Aironet
Aironet Model
Model Numbers
Numbers
• Product model numbers consist of a 2 or 3-letter code for
product type, followed by the family number, followed by an
optional code for interface type.
• The product types are:
♦ AP
Access Point
♦ BR
Bridge
♦ ISA
ISA Card
♦ PCI
PCI Card
♦ PC
PCMCIA Card
♦ UC
Universal Client (Serial, Ethernet)
♦ MC
Multi Port Client
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
105
Wireless
Wireless Bridging
Bridging
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
106
Point
-to-Point Configuration
Point-to-Point
Configuration
Building A
Building B
Optional
Antenna
Bridge
0 to 25 miles
(line of sight)
Ethernet
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
107
Point
-to-Multipoint Configuration
Point-to-Multipoint
Configuration
Ethernet
Building A
Bridge
Omni-directional
Antenna
Building B
Building C
Directional
Antenna
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
108
New
New Addition
Addition to
to the
the system!
system!
ISA or PCI
Bridge
MC
Hub
Bridge
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
109
Distances
Distances Limited
Limited by
by 802.11
802.11 Specification
Specification
ISA or PCI
1 Mile @ any Datarate
Access Point to ANY Client- Maximum Distance
ISA or PCI
25 Miles @ 2Mb
12 Miles @11Mb
Bridge to ANY Client- Maximum Distance
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
110
TOOLS’97
TOOLS’97 Conference
Conference Wireless
Wireless LAN
LAN
11.5km
300m
omni
grid antenna
coaxial - 2m
Caulfield
Chisolm Tower
grid antenna
coaxial - 0.25m
Centra
Building
omni
0.25m
Centra
Building
0.25m
MCC
Lev 5
Cable
Bridge 2
Bridge 3
Bridge 4
Cable
20m
Bridge 1
Ethernet
35m
Mobile Node
Mobile Node
omni
IBM Compatible
Monash - Melbourne Convention Centre
Mobile Node
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
MCC
Lev 2
Bridge 5
Mobile Node
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
111
WLAN
WLAN Infrastructure
Infrastructure
•Omni-directional
•Amplifier
•Root mode
•10-12 km radius
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
•Omni-directional
+ grid
•Root
•10-12 km radius
•802.11
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
112
WLAN
WLAN resources
resources (1)
(1)
• Aironet Wireless Communications, Inc.
•
•
•
•
•
♦ http://www.aironet.com/
Wireless LAN Alliance Web Site
♦ http://www.wlana.com
WaveLAN Wireless Computing
♦ http://www.wavelan.com/
Wireless Data Group
http://www.mot.com/MIMS/WDG/
Wireless LAN Group Home Page
♦ http://www.ecs.umass.edu/ece/wireless/
Wireless LAN/MAN Modem Product Directory
♦ http://hydra.carleton.ca/info/wlan.html
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
113
WLAN
WLAN resources
resources (2)
(2)
• Wireless and Mobility Products – Nortel Networks
•
•
♦ http://www.nortelnetworks.com/products/wireless/
The Wireless Web: A Directory of Industry Web Sites
♦ http://www.wirelessweek.com/websites/websites.htm
Wireless Today
♦ http://www.wirelesstoday.com/links.htm
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
114
Suggested
Suggested Reading
Reading
• WCCN Handbook: RF Terminals & LANs
•
•
•
•
•
by Tom Polizzi
Wireless Data Networking (Telecommunications Library)
by Nathan J. Muller, Linda Lee Tyke (Illustrator)
Wireless LAN Systems (The Artech House Telecommunications
Library)
by A. Santamaria, F.J. Lopez-Hernandez (Editor)
Wireless LANs
by Raymond P. Wenig
Wireless Local Area Networks: Technology, Issues, and Strategies
(McGraw-Hill Computer Communications)
by Peter T. Davis, Craig R. McGuffin
Wireless Networking Handbook
by James T. Geier, Jim Geier
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
115
Suggested
Suggested Reading
Reading
• Muller, N. Mobile Telecommunications Factbook,
McGraw-Hill, 1998. ISBN 0-07-044461-7
• Mobile IP: Design Principles and Practices C. Perkins
(1998) 0-201-63469-4
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
116
What
What have
have we
we considered
considered ??
-- Technology
Technology Overview
Overview
Wireless LANs – IEEE 802.11
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
117
What’s
What’s next
next ??
• Bluetooth
• WAP
• GPRS & 3G
• Mobile IP
CSE5501: MOBILE & DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Lecture 3: Wireless LANs
118
Download PDF