Magnetics Catalog (
MagneticInstrument
Measurement
Magnetic
andControl
Control Catalog
and
Catalog
2
Introduction
3-year warranty and technical support
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Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Introduction
Magnetics
Contents
Introduction
Magnetic Device Selection Guide
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gaussmeter Lineup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field Measurement Technology
Model 475 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model 455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model 460 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model 425 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model 410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hall Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Built-to-Order Hall Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Probes Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hall Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flux Measurement Technology
Model 480 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Search Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helmholtz Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Magnetic Solutions and Accessories
Field Control Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electromagnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model 643 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model 648 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
3
4
Introduction
Magnetic
Device Selection Guide
Applications for Hall gaussmeters and probes
University and commercial research
Any lab application where researchers need magnetic measurement capabilities
Automotive manufacturing
In-process verification of motors, valves, and other vehicle components
Speaker manufacturing
Field verification of speaker assemblies
Magnetic shielding assembly
For testing enclosures designed to isolate electronics from magnetic fields
Machine and fabrication shops
To inspect parts for residual magnetic particles after machining
Magnet manufacturing
To assess magnet field strength, uniformity, and shape
Transportation, particularly overseas shipping containers
To inspect for magnetic field leakage in order to meet IATA regulations
M
easuring magnetic fields is required in many research and development fields today. In the
university lab, gaussmeters and Hall effect probes enable scientists to detect and compare
the magnetic fields for various materials studied, and to explore magnetic phenomena.
These experiments can lead to the development of improved magnetic materials and devices for
the medical, geology, energy, and computing fields.
But the need to measure magnetic fields extends far beyond the university lab. Magnetics have
become increasingly common in modern technical products, appliances, automotive, and industrial
products and systems. Factors such as the continuing emphasis on energy efficiency and the drive
to reduce cost and parts count have prompted a revived interest in using magnets.
What’s more, a number of products such as motors, speakers, interlock switches, and magnetic
separators benefit from magnetic components due to their ability to transmit force across a space
without physical connection. Then there’s the increasing use of rare earth materials. The use of rare
earths has increased the efficiency of magnetic products by producing high magnetic fields, often
in very compact spaces, such as in lightweight electronics, toys, and handheld telecommunications
devices.
With this rise in the use of magnets, there’s a greater need for the right testing tools. Some of
the instrumentation conventionally used in various phases of inspection may test magnets and
magnetic assemblies
indirectly, but this type of
testing can often provide
questionable results or
disclose critical flaws too
late in the process. Indirect testing might, for instance, fail to detect a faulty or under-performing
magnet in a multiple-magnet assembly, or it might fail to identify a magnet that is only marginally
defective before it is integrated into a product.
“
With this rise in the use of magnets,
there’s a greater need for the right
testing tools.
”
This is why direct testing of magnetic components using gaussmeters, probes, and other
sophisticated testing instrumentation is often necessary. If your goal is to determine magnetic field
strength at a point or in a gap, field uniformity, or field shape, then a Lake Shore gaussmeter is the
instrument of choice.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Introduction
Types of Hall testing for manufacturing QC
Use the results of magnetic field measurement for:
• Sorting sub-assemblies
• Confirming magnetic field characteristics vs. applied current
• Mapping magnetic field shape for a component
• Measuring fringe fields or residual fields
• Diagnosing detrimental effects of an external field
• Measuring operator exposure to magnetic fields
At various points in the manufacturing process, from incoming inspection to final assembly and performance testing, quality control
engineers must ensure that magnetic components, and the products using them, meet specifications. This process often involves test
and measurement activities that confirm the accuracy, location, shape, and stability of the magnetic fields that are generated.
Hall gaussmeters and probes offer real value to manufacturing QC. But, suprisingly, the instrumentation and methods used in these
tests may be unfamiliar to the average product engineer or technician. And, until recently, magnetics knowledge and expertise
were not high on the list of QC skill priorities. Furthermore, the relatively high level of technical knowledge required for thorough
magnetic analysis and testing has also been
a deterrent.
“
Quality control is key to a manufacturer’s
customer satisfaction and profits.
But this is all beginning to change.
Lake Shore provides the technical guidance necessary for manufacturers to correctly
apply magnetic measurement tools and processes. With minimal investment,
design and quality control managers can accurately perform magnetic
testing for modern products and equipment, avoiding costly
assembly rework in later stages of production.
”
Failure to detect and correct design or
production problems at an early stage
can lead to later problems, including
final inspection rejections and field
failures that require costly revisions
or rework. In the worst case, inability
to quickly identify problems related
to magnet performance can lead to
product recalls and even raise safety
concerns.
Q
uality control is key to a
manufacturer’s customer
satisfaction and profits. Lake
Shore’s magnetic and measurement
solutions help ensure your product
will perform as the designer
intended.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
5
6
Introduction
Magnetic
Device Selection Guide
Hall Probe — ­Information
Choosing a Probe: General Guidelines
Proper selection of a Hall probe is probably the most difficult and
important decision to make after choosing a gaussmeter. Using the improper
probe could lead to less than optimal accuracy or, even worse, costly damage.
The next few pages will help you make an informed probe choice. If you have
additional questions, contact Lake Shore. Our experts can guide you through the
selection process. Lake Shore can even custom design a Hall probe to meet your
specific application requirements.
Durability versus Versatility
More Durable
Less Accurate
More Accurate
Less Durable
Use these guidelines to help choose a probe:
DD Choose a probe to match the application. Do not buy more accuracy, field range, or
thinness than is actually needed.
DD The thinner a probe, the more fragile it is. Try to avoid selecting an easy-to-damage
probe based on a possible, but not required, future application. For instance, avoid
using an exposed-device probe such as a model HMFT-3E03-type for general field
measurements. (Also, once you have a thin probe in use, be sure to use proper fixtures
that hold it in a non-stressed manner and eliminate physical contact with measured
items. Once a stem or sensor has been damaged, the probe is not repairable.)
DD Metal-enclosed probes, such as the HMMT-6J04 and HMMA-2504 types, offer good
protection to the Hall sensor. Brass stem transverse probes are even more rugged than
the aluminum type probes and offer the greatest amount of protection.
DD Be cautious about using aluminum‑stemmed transverse probes, such as the
HMMT-6J04-type, where AC magnetic fields are to be measured. Eddy currents in the
stem material can affect reading accuracy. A superior choice for AC measurements
would be the HMNT-4E04-type fiberglass-epoxy stem probes. Consult the probe’s
frequency range specifications when selecting a suitable probe.
DD Several stem lengths are offered for each probe type. User preference or test set-up
dimensions usually determine the final selection. Longer stems are more susceptible to
accidental bending (in many cases not catastrophic, but bothersome). Typically, stem
length does not affect performance.
DD Be aware of the differences in the probe “active areas” shown on the data sheet.
A Hall effect probe will indicate the average field value sensed over that total active area.
Thus, when measuring magnetic fields with a high gradient across the sensor width,
choose the smallest active area practical. Keep in mind the fragility rule (see the second
bullet above).
DD L ake Shore gaussmeter probes exhibit different ranges of magnetic fields over which
they will provide valid readings. Check the specification sheet and the tables at the right
for these usable ranges.
DD Be aware that when operating a high-sensitivity (HSE) probe below 100 G, the
temperature coefficient of offset becomes more significant during low-field readings and
that these changes can contribute to field error. So be sure to keep this in mind when
evaluating sensitivity of a probe when ordering. For more information, please call us.
NOTE: If none of the probe configurations listed in this catalog fit your needs, Lake Shore can provide custom
probes to meet your physical, temperature, and accuracy requirements. Please contact us with your special
requirement details.
Handle Hall probes with care
All Hall probes are fragile. The sensor, normally located
at the tip of the probe stem, must not be bent, physically
shocked, or abraded. Also, it may be tempting to choose
a probe with the thinnest transverse stem or smallest
diameter axial stem; however, it is always best to choose the
most robust probe that fits the immediate application. For
example, the HMMT-6J04-VR (aluminum stem) is less prone
to damage than the HMFT-3E03-VR (flexible stem), and the
HMMA-2502-VR (1/4 in diameter aluminum) is more durable
than the HMNA-1904-VR (³⁄₁₆ in diameter fiberglass) with its
exposed Hall sensor.
NOTE: Never fasten a probe stem to another object. If a
probe is clamped, always apply the clamp to the handle.
Usable Full-Scale Ranges vs. Probe Type for Model 425, 455, and 475
HST-3
HST-4
HSE
UHS
—
—
—
35 mG
—
—
—
350 mG
—
—
3.5 G
3.5 G
35 G
35 G
35 G
35 G
350 G
350 G
350 G
—
3.5 kG
3.5 kG
3.5 kG
—
35 kG
35 kG
35 kG
—
350 kG
—
—
—
Usable Full-Scale Ranges vs. Probe Type for Models 460, 450, and 421
HST-1
HST-2
HSE-1
UHS-1
—
—
—
300 mG
—
—
—
3G
—
—
30 G
30 G
300 G
300 G
300 G
—
3 kG
3 kG
3 kG
—
30 kG
30 kG
30 kG
—
300 kG
—
—
—
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Probe — ­Information
Introduction
Magnetic Device Selection
Guide
7
Magnitude
Orientation
Typical Hall probes cover an operating range of 3 to 5 orders of
magnitude. Operation beyond this field range requires some compromise
in performance, often including higher noise or loss of resolution.
Choosing the correct probe type ensures optimal performance in the
desired measurement range.
Getting to the field is part of the challenge in selecting a probe. Field
orientation dictates the most basic probe geometry choice of transverse
versus axial. Other variations are also available for less common, more
challenging applications. Listed below are the standard configurations for
HSE and HST probes; UHS probes require special packaging that is not
described here.
High stability (HST-1, HST-2, HST-3, HST-4):
With a high field range of up to 350 kG1 (35 T), high stability probes are
used when fields exceed the limit of other probe types. Their low field
performance is slightly degraded with a minimum sensitivity of 50 mG
(5 µT). HST probes are also inherently more temperature stable than other
probes, and should be used when large temperature fluctuations are
expected. They are offered in a variety of stem geometries.
High sensitivity (HSE and HSE-1):
High sensitivity probes are the most common for general-purpose field
measurement. They operate effectively in fields up to 35 kG2 (3.5 T) with
excellent sensitivity. At low fields, their sensitivity can be as low as 5 mG
(0.5 µT). Convenient for many applications because of their relatively
small active area, HSE probes are offered in the same geometries as HST
probes.
Ultra high sensitivity (UHS and UHS-1):
See “Gamma” under “Advanced geometries” on the next page.
Radiation effects on Hall probes
The HST and HSE probes use a highly doped indium arsenide active material.
The HST material is the more highly doped of the two and therefore will be
less affected by radiation. Some general information relating to highly doped
indium arsenide Hall generators is as follows.
DD Gamma radiation seems to have little effect on the Hall generators
DD Proton radiation up to 10 Mrad causes sensitivity changes less than 0.5%
DD Neutron cumulative radiation (>0.1 MeV, 1015 per cm2) can cause
a 3% to 5% decrease in sensitivity
Common geometries
Transverse:
Transverse probes, most often rectangular in shape, measure fields
normal to their stem width. They are useful for most general-purpose field
measurements and are essential for work in magnet gaps. Several stem
lengths and thicknesses are available as standard probes. To identify
the polarity of a transverse probe, the output will be positive when the
direction of the flux density vector is into the Lake Shore logo (i.e., the
logo is toward the north pole).
N
(+B)
S
Flexible transverse:
Flexible probes have a flexible portion in the middle of their stem,
while the active area at the tip remains rigid and somewhat exposed.
This unique feature makes them significantly more fragile than other
transverse probes. Flexible probes should only be selected for narrowgap measurement applications.
Axial:
Axial probes, usually round, measure fields normal to their end. They can
also be used for general-purpose measurements, but are most commonly
used to measure fields produced by solenoids. Several stem lengths and
diameters are available as standard probes. To identify the polarity of
an axial probe: (except in rare, special cases) the output will be positive
when the field vector is into the tip of the probe.
In all cases, the radiation effects seem to saturate and diminish with
length of time exposed
1
2
Magnetic Flux
Density Vector
350 kG with Models 475 and 455, 300 kG range with Models 460, 450, and 421
35 kG with Models 475 and 455, 30 kG range with Models 460, 450, and 421
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
N
S
Magnetic Flux (+B)
Density Vector
8
Introduction
Magnetic
Device Selection Guide
Hall Probe — General Information
Advanced geometries
Gradient
Tangential:
Tangential probes are transverse probes designed to measure fields
parallel to and near a surface. The active area is very close to the stem
tip. They are intended for this specific application and should not be
selected for general transverse measurements.
Probe selection would be easier if all fields were large and uniform,
but most fields are limited in volume and contain gradients (changes in
magnitude). Hall probes measure an average magnitude over their active
area, so be sure to understand the relationship between active area and
field gradients. Severe field gradients are always experienced as the
active sense element is moved away from a permanent magnet pole,
making it important to know the distance between the active area and
probe tip. The distance between probe tip and active area is specified for
axial probes, but is less easily defined for transverse probes.
Multi-axis:
These probes measure two or three vectors of field simultaneously,
important in directional applications such as field mapping.
Gamma:
These axial probes are best for measuring small variations or low values
of large volume fields, such as that of the earth or finge fields around
large solenoids. Resolutions of several gammas (10-5 G) to tens of
gammas are available with these ultra-high sensitivity (UHS) probes. For
measuring low magnitude in large volume fields with little gradient, they
offer superior low field resolution to 0.02 mG (2 nT). However, they should
never be used in fields over 30 G. They’re larger than other probes and
have a very large active area with an active length up to 3.5 in (89 mm),
making them impractical for small volume fields or tight spaces.
Cryogenic:
Cryogenic Hall probes come in axial and transverse configurations and
are specially designed to withstand extreme thermal contraction of
probe materials while measuring at ultra-low temperatures. The probe
construction helps prevent shifts in operating points when measuring
fields in cryogenic applications. In addition, cryogenic probes are coldcycled in liquid nitrogen during the manufacturing process to verify stable
performance before shipment to the customer.
Frequency
Gaussmeters are equally well suited for measuring either static DC or
periodic AC fields, but proper probe selection is required to achieve
optimal performance.
Metal stem:
Metal stem probes are best for DC and low-frequency AC measurements.
Non-ferrous metals are used for the stems because they provide the best
protection for the delicate Hall sensor without altering the measured field.
Aluminum is the most common stem material, but brass can also be
used. Metal stems do have one drawback: eddy currents are generated
in them when they’re placed in AC fields. These currents oppose the field
and cause measurement error. The error magnitude is proportional to
frequency and is most noticeable above 800 Hz.
Non-metal stem:
Non-metal stems are required for higher-frequency AC fields and for
measuring pulse fields. Fiberglass/epoxy is a common non-metal material.
Alternatively, the sensor can be left exposed on its ceramic substrate,
which provides less protection for the sensor. Eddy currents do not limit the
frequency range of these non-conductive materials, but other factors may.
NOTE: No gaussmeter probe type is suitable for direct exposure to high voltage.
Nominal active area:
HSE and HST probes have a nominal active area on the order of 1 mm
diameter, which is useful for all but the most stringent applications.
The measured field is the average of the active area but without severe
gradients. Therefore, the measured value accurately represents the true
field. Field mapping with standard probes is also practical if a mapping
resolution of 1 mm or greater is acceptable.
Small active area:
HSE and HST probes with a smaller active area are also available
as custom products for measurements in severe gradients, or for
high­‑resolution mapping applications.
Other considerations
Minor differences in probe position or angle can drastically change a
reading; therefore you need to be precise when positioning it for some
types of components. With magnet pole surface testing, for instance, be
aware of the extreme falloff of the field strength near the surface. Only
a few thousandths of an inch difference in distance between the sensor
active area and the magnet surface can change the gaussmeter reading
by more than the tolerance allowed by the test engineer. Similarly,
another factor to consider is the change in reading with magnetic field
vector angle. Be sure to ensure that the field is perpendicular to the probe
sensor active area in order to achieve the most accurate reading. An
even better option is to maximize the field reading by slightly rotating a
transverse probe during test. Accurately aligning the longitudinal axis of
an axial probe in a test fixture is also suggested.
Pole
fieldField
gradientGradient
Pole
S N
Field varies about
16 G/ 0.001 in (53 mT/mm)
NOTE: One of the greatest sources of repeatability errors is variable distance
to the probe’s active area.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Probe — Calibration
Introduction
Magnetic Device Selection
Guide
Calibration and NIST traceable standards
All Lake Shore probes and instruments ship to you factory calibrated for accuracy and interchangeability. Because the Hall probes feature a
programmable read-only memory (PROM) in the probe connector, calibration data can be read automatically by the instrument. This way, you’re
assured that the probe you receive is ready to use out of the box.
But our calibration capabilities don’t end there. Lake Shore also offers a full-service recalibration lab for probes, gaussmeters, and gaussmeter/probe
combinations returned for calibration on a regular (typically annual) basis. This way, manufacturers and engineers who use our instruments for quality
control can be sure of accurate measurements in product performance testing.
Point-by-point calibration on probes
Technicians at our on-site recalibration stations ensure that the
instrument or probe you ship back to us is calibrated to the same
performance specifications as our new products. With probes, this
process involves performing a point-by-point calibration, placing
the devices into a magnetic field with a preset reference standard.
If required, we will perform a field sweep to create a curve that
incorporates measurements taken. Typically, a Hall probe calibration
involves 28 points, but can be more depending on the instrument
type. Gaussmeters are adjusted electrically or electronically to
ensure they meet published specifications.
And to ensure that you’re not without your Hall probe or gaussmeter
for long, we offer quick turnaround. With most devices, we target
between 7 and 10 business days.
Recalibrated to ISO 9001-2008 standards
With every recalibrated device returned to you, you get a certificate of calibration, indicating that the instrument and/or probe has been recalibrated
to a standard that’s traceable to an original NIST standard. For our own certification, Lake Shore has an independent, accredited calibration company
inspect and verify our recalibration systems and tools.
All Lake Shore probes and instruments are provided with certification indicating ISO 9001-2008 compliance, documentation required by many
international manufacturers whose metrology instruments or labs play a key role in their overall quality management systems. If required, we can also
provide traceability trees for specific models.
Pre- and post-calibration data available for many models
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Depending on the instrument, we can also provide reports relating to preand post-calibration data, as well as technical data relating to measurement
uncertainties, errors we encountered, and other metrology factors, as well as a list
of every type of equipment used to perform the calibration.
This level of certification is required by many aerospace and government lab
customers who require before and after data in order to meet standards of other
national and international accrediting bodies. For details about our calibration data
services, please contact us at service@lakeshore.com.
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Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Gaussmeters — Information
Gaussmeters
Also known as teslameters, gaussmeters come in various sizes and capabilities and are easy to use. You can use them to measure both AC and
DC magnetic fields, but if you have a permanent magnet application, only DC magnetic field capability is required. All Lake Shore gaussmeters are
supported by industry-leading experts in magnet measurement instrumentation, sensor, and Hall probe technology.
For most manufacturing operations, the affordable Model 425 benchtop instrument may be all that you need. However, if you intend to map
surface and volumetric magnetic fields, then our Model 460 may be your best solution. For advanced research measurements using filtering with
fast pulse applications, order the top-of-the-line Model 475. And if you’re looking for a low-cost manufacturing solution, our handheld Model 410
will likely do the job. For questions about which model will work best for you, contact Lake Shore today.
Our most popular models:
Model 455 DSP gaussmeter
Ideal for both industrial and research
applications, the Model 455 combines DSP
technology with other advanced features at a
moderate price. And, for added value, it comes
with a standard Lake Shore probe. To learn
more about the Model 455, see page 19.
Model 425 gaussmeter
Designed to meet the demanding
needs of the permanent magnet
industry, the Model 425 gaussmeter
(featured on page 30) provides highend functionality and performance in an
affordable desktop instrument.
Other high-quality solutions:
Model 475 DSP gaussmeter
Intended for use in demanding applications,
the Model 475 features superior fieldmeasurement performance and DSP
technology. It is also offers field control and
high-performance filtering with high-speed
pulses. Please see page 12 for more
information regarding the Model 475.
Model 460 3-channel gaussmeter
When you need 3-axis or 3 simultaneous single-axis measurements, the Model 460 is an
excellent value. This three-channel benchtop instrument combines the performance of three
gaussmeters into one integrated package. A more detailed look at the Model 460 3-channel
gaussmeter begins on page 26.
Model 410 hand-held gaussmeter
Most operating functions on the Model 410 can be selected via the front-panel keypad
with one or two keystrokes, so you can easily perform measurements in the field. Order it
when you need an affordable, portable gaussmeter. On page 35 you’ll find more information
regarding the Model 410.
Need to measure flux? See our Model 480 fluxmeter
An advanced tool designed primarily for use in industrial and measurement systems settings,
the Model 480 fluxmeter (featured on page 59) measures total flux from which B, flux
density, and/or H, magnetic field strength, can be determined. It’s valuable for magnetizing,
manual and automated magnet testing and sorting, and as the main component in BH
loop or hysteresis measurement system applications. Use it, for instance, if you need to
sort magnets in accordance with field strength and uniformity or test an assembly after the
magnets have been installed. The Model 480 fluxmeter is compatible with most sensing coils
and fixtures.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Information
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
A Comparison
of Lake Shore Gaussmeters
A Comparison of Approximate Frequency and DC Field Ranges
Field ranges and frequency ranges by model
Model 410
G
Hz
0.3 G
20 kG
10 kHz
20 Hz
Model 425
G
Hz
0.003 mG
350 kG
10 kHz
10 Hz
Model 455
G
Hz
350 kG
0.001 mG
20 kHz
10 Hz
Model 475
G
Hz
0.001 mG
350 kG
20 kHz
1 Hz
Model 460
G
Hz
0.003 mG
300 kG
400 Hz
10 Hz
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10,000
100,000
Applications and product recommendations
Primary Task:
Model
410
Model
425
Model
455
Model
460
Model
475
Magnetizing
Magnet sorting (manual)
Magnet sorting (automated)
Magnet testing (manual)
Magnet testing (automated)
Magnetic sensing/switching
Fringe field and safety
Hall electromagnet*
Hall superconducting
B/H looper
Field mapping
Magnetic levitation testing
Testing shielding effectiveness
Portable testing (manual)
Field control of magnet
Filtering with high-speed pulses
*For measuring Hall electromagnetic flux, see our Model 480 fluxmeter.
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1
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12
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Gaussmeters — Model 475
Model 475 DSP Gaussmeter
Model 475 features
BB Full-scale ranges from 35 mG to 350 kG
BB DC measurement resolution to 0.02 mG
BB Basic DC accuracy of ±0.05%
BB DC to 50 kHz frequency range (probe-dependent)
BB 15 band-pass and 3 low-pass AC filters
BB Peak capture to 20 µs pulse widths
BB Data buffer sampling rates to 1000 readings per s
BB Computer interface sampling rates to 100 new readings per s
BB Integrated electromagnet field control algorithm
BB Standard probe included
BB Specialized and custom probes available
BB CE mark certification
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 475
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Advanced features
The Model 475 combines hardware and
firmware elements to create advanced
features that facilitate automation and
materials analysis.
For the most demanding DC and AC applications
Lake Shore combined the technical advantages of digital signal processing with over
a decade of experience in precision magnetic field measurements to produce the first
commercial digital signal processor (DSP) based Hall effect gaussmeter, the Model 475.
DSP technology creates a solid foundation for accurate, stable, and repeatable field
measurement while simultaneously enabling the gaussmeter to offer an unequaled set of
useful measurement features. The Model 475 is intended for the most demanding DC and AC
applications. In many cases, it provides the functionality of two or more instruments in a field
measurement system.
The power of DSP technology is demonstrated in the superior performance of the Model 475
in DC, RMS, and Peak measurement modes.
Field control
A built-in PI control algorithm turns the
Model 475 into an essential building block
for magnetic field control in electromagnet
systems. It, along with a voltageprogrammable magnet power supply, is all
that is needed to control stable magnetic
fields in an electromagnet at the userspecified setpoint. One of the built-in analog
voltage outputs drives the program input
of the power supply for either bipolar or
unipolar operation. See page 67 for more
information.
High-speed data transfer
The IEEE-488 interface can be set to send
readings in binary format rather than the
more common ASCII format. This reduces
interface overhead, enabling real-time
reading rates up to 100 new readings per
second. Temperature compensation is not
available at the highest interface rate.
Data buffer
Internal memory provides storage for 1024
field readings in a data buffer. The buffer
can be filled at high speed, up to 1000
readings per second, which is as much
as ten times faster than the computer
interface. Stored readings can then be
retrieved over interface at slower speed
and processed offline. A trigger input can
be used to initiate the data log sequence.
Slower sample rates can be programmed if
desired.
Trigger in and trigger out
A TTL-level hardware trigger into the
instrument can be used to initiate the
data log sequence. A TTL-level hardware
trigger out indicates when the instrument
completes a reading, and can be used
to synchronize other instruments in the
system. An IEEE-488 software-based trigger
can be used like the hardware trigger in.
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Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Gaussmeters — Model 475
DC measurement mode
Field uniformity plot across an electromagnet pole face
2.3800
2.3700
2.3600
Field (Tesla)
Static or slowly changing fields are measured in DC mode, where the
accuracy, resolution, and stability of the Model 475 are most evident.
In this mode, the gaussmeter takes advantage of the internal auto zero
function and probe linearity compensation to provide its best accuracy.
Measurement resolution is enhanced by advanced signal processing
capability, allowing users the choice of high reading rates to 100
readings per second or high resolution to 5¾ digits. The Model 475 also
features front-end amplification specifically designed to complement
DSP data acquisition, providing high stability and repeatability. That,
along with probe temperature compensation, makes the Model 475 the
most stable gaussmeter ever produced by Lake Shore, suiting it perfectly
for demanding DC measurement applications such as field mapping and
field control.
2.3500
2.3400
2.3300
2.3200
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
X position (mm)
RMS measurement mode
Selective bandpass filters (4 of a possible 15)
1
BP7
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Pulsed fields are measured in Peak mode, which is a natural extension
of the high-speed data acquisition necessary for DSP operation. Fast
instrument sample rates permit capture of positive and negative field
pulses as narrow as 20 µs in width, which can be held for an unlimited
length of time with no sag. This is ideal for most magnetizers and
other fast pulse applications. For more moderate field changes, the
Model 475 can process the captured data to create other features. The
gaussmeter can be configured to follow the peak of a periodic waveform
for evaluation of crest factor. The Model 475 can also be used to sample
field changes at 1000 readings per second that can later be read over
the interface to illustrate the shape of pulses or other waveforms.
The Model 475 is only half of the magnetic field measurement equation.
For the complete solution, Lake Shore offers a full complement of
Hall effect probes in a variety of sizes and sensitivities. See the
table on page 18 for our stock probes recommended for use with
this gaussmeter. We also offer other probes beginning on page 37.
If you don’t see the probe you need, give us a call.
BP4
BP5
Peak measurement mode
The probe connection
BP1
0.8
Magnitude
Periodic, AC fields are measured in RMS mode, which highlights the
uniquely flexible filter functions of the Model 475. An overall frequency
range of 1 Hz to 50 kHz is offered by the gaussmeter. Selectable bandpass and low-pass filters allow users to reject unwanted signals and
improve measurement performance. The exclusive Lake Shore DSP
algorithms also free the Model 475 from the limitations of conventional
RMS conversion hardware and provide better dynamic range, resolution,
and frequency response than ever before. These improvements permit
meaningful RMS field measurements with broad frequency content or in
noisy environments.
10
100
1000
Frequency (Hz)
Selective bandpass filters (4 of a possible 15)
3T
(30 kG)
Field
14
14
40 µs
60 µs
Time
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10000
Gaussmeters — Model 475
Measurement features
Instrument probe features
The Model 475 offers a variety of features to
enhance the usability and convenience of the
gaussmeter.
The Model 475 has several capabilities that
allow the best possible measurements with
Lake Shore probes. These firmware-based
features work in tandem with the probe’s
calibration and programming to ensure
accurate, repeatable measurements and ease
of setup. Many of the features require probe
characteristics that are stored in the probe
connector’s non-volatile memory.
Autorange: In addition to manual range
selection, the instrument automatically
chooses an appropriate range for the
measured field. Autorange works in DC
and AC measurement modes.
Auto probe zero: Allows the user to zero all
ranges for the selected measurement mode
with the push of a key.
Display units: Field magnitude can be
displayed in units of G, T, Oe, and A/m.
Max/min hold: The instrument stores the
fully processed maximum and minimum
DC or RMS field value. This differs from the
faster peak capture feature that operates
on broadband, unprocessed field reading
information.
Relative reading: Relative feature calculates
the difference between a live reading and the
relative setpoint to highlight deviation from a
known field point. This feature can be used in
DC, RMS, or Peak measurement mode.
Instrument calibration: Lake Shore
recommends an annual recalibration
schedule for all precision gaussmeters.
Recalibrations are always available from
Lake Shore, but the Model 475 allows users
to field calibrate the instrument if necessary.
Recalibration requires a computer interface
and precision low resistance standards of
known value.
Probe field compensation: The Hall effect
devices used in gaussmeter probes produce
a near linear response in the presence of
magnetic field. The small non-linearities
present in each individual device can be
measured and subtracted from the field
reading. Model 475 probes are calibrated
in this way to provide the most accurate DC
readings.
Probe temperature compensation: Hall
effect devices show a slight change in
sensitivity and offset with temperature.
Probe sensitivity temperature effects can
be measured and subtracted out of field
readings. A temperature sensor in the probe
tip relays real time temperature to the
gaussmeter, enabling compensation. Although
temperature effects contribute only a small
fraction of the overall probe measurement
accuracy, temperature compensation will
often improve measurement and control
stability.
Probe temperature display: The gaussmeter
can display the probe’s temperature in °C
along with a field reading when using a probe
that includes a temperature sensor.
Frequency display: When operating in
RMS mode, the gaussmeter can display the
frequency of the measured AC field along
with a field reading (up to 20 kHz).
Probe information: The gaussmeter
reads the probe information on power up
or any time the probe is changed to allow
hot swapping of probes. Critical probe
information can be viewed on the front panel
and read over the computer interface to
ensure proper system configuration.
Extension cables: The complex nature of
Hall effect measurements make it necessary
to match extension cables to the probe when
longer cables are needed. Keeping probes
and their extensions from getting mixed up
can become a problem when more than one
probe is in use. The Model 475 alleviates
most of the hassle by allowing users to
match probes to extensions in the field.
Stored information can be viewed on the front
panel and read over the computer interface to
ensure proper mating.
Hall effect generators (magnetic field
sensors): The Model 475 will operate with a
discrete Hall effect generator when a suitable
probe is not available. Users can program
nominal sensitivity and serial number into an
optional MCBL-6 blank connector to provide
all gaussmeter functions except field and
temperature compensation. If no sensitivity
information is available, the Model 475
reverts to resistance measurement.
➋
➊
Model 475 rear panel
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
➊ Line input assembly
➋ Serial I/O interface
➌ IEEE-488 interface
➍ Auxillary I/O
➎ Probe input
➌
➍
➎
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15
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Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
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16
Gaussmeters — Model 475
Display and interface features
Display
The Model 475 has a 2-line by 20-character
vacuum fluorescent display. During normal
operation, the display is used to report field
readings and give results of other features
such as max/min or relative. The display
can also be configured to show probe
temperature or frequency. When setting
instrument parameters, the display gives the
operator meaningful prompts and feedback
to simplify operation. The operator can also
control display brightness.
Following are four examples of the various
display configurations:
Normal reading—the display configured to show
the RMS field value and frequency, and the probe
temperature
Max DC hold on—the display configured to show
both the Maximum and Minimum DC field values
Max peak hold on—the display configured to both
show the positive and negative Peak readings
Field control on—the display configured to show the
field control setpoint and current field value, when
field control is active
Keypad
The instrument has a 22-position keypad
with individual keys assigned to frequently
used features. Menus are reserved for less
frequently used setup operations. The keypad
can be locked out to prevent unintended
changes of instrument setup.
Alarm and relay
High and low alarms are included in the
instrument. Alarm actuators include display
annunciator, audible beeper, and two relays.
The relays can also be controlled manually
for other system needs.
Voltage output 1
The first voltage output gives access to
amplified voltage signal directly from the
probe. This voltage is corrected for the
nominal sensitivity of the probe and provides
the widest bandwidth of the three voltage
outputs. In wide band AC mode, the signal
can be viewed on an oscilloscope to observe
the shape of AC fields. In Peak mode, the
output can be used to view a pulse shape or
other characteristic of a momentary signal.
Output 1 serves only as a diagnostic tool
in DC and narrow band AC modes because
modulation of the probe signal prevents a
clear view of the field response.
Voltage output 2
The second voltage output provides a
voltage proportional to measured field with
the benefits of some signal processing. The
output is produced by the DSP through a fast
D/A converter. The output signal is updated at
40 kHz, giving good response for low to mid
frequency fields. Signal quality degrades at
high frequency because of the sampling rate.
This voltage can be corrected for probe offset
and for the nominal sensitivity of the probe.
Voltage output 3
The third voltage output provides a voltage
proportional to measured field with the
most signal processing of the three outputs.
All probe compensation available to the
display readings, including temperature
compensation, can be performed on this
output. The output is produced by the
microprocessor through a high-resolution,
16-bit, D/A converter updated at 30 readings
per second. This output can also be used for
field control.
Computer interface
Two computer interfaces are included with
the Model 475, serial RS-232C and parallel
IEEE-488. Both allow setup of all instrument
parameters and read-back of measured
values. The reading rate over the interface
is nominally 30 readings per second but
settings from 10 to 100 readings per second
are available. LabVIEW™ drivers are provided
to instrument users — consult Lake Shore for
availability.
Model 475 specifications
General measurement
(Does not include probe error, unless otherwise
specified)
Input type: Single Hall effect sensor
Probe features: Linearity Compensation, Temperature
Compensation, Auto Probe Zero, and Hot Swap
Measurement features: Autorange, Max/Min Hold,
Relative Mode, and Frequency
Connector: 15-pin D style
DC measurement
Probe type
ranges
HST Probe
350 kG
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
HSE Probe
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
3.5 G
UHS Probe
35 G
3.5 G
350 mG
35 mG
5¾-digit
resolution
4¾-digit
resolution
3¾-digit
resolution
000.001 kG
00.0001 kG
0.00001 kG
000.003 G
00.0030 G
000.01 kG
00.001 kG
0.0001 kG
000.02 G
00.015 G
000.1 kG
00.01 kG
0.001 kG
000.1 G
00.04 G
00.0001 kG
0.00001 kG
000.001 G
00.0003 G
0.00030 G
00.001 kG
0.0001 kG
000.01 G
00.002 G
0.0015 G
00.01 kG
0.001 kG
000.1 G
00.01 G
0.004 G
00.0001 G
0.00001 G
000.003 mG
00.0030 mG
00.001 G
0.0001 G
000.02 mG
00.015 mG
00.01 G
0.001 G
000.1 mG
00.04 mG
Measurement resolution (RMS noise floor): Indicated
by value in above table for shorted input (probe effects not
included); value measured as peak-to-peak divided by 6.6
Display resolution: Indicated by number of digits in
above table
3 dB
bandwidth:
Time constant:
Maximum
reading rate:
5¾-digit
resolution
4¾-digit
resolution
3¾-digit
resolution
1 Hz
10 Hz
100 Hz
1s
0.1 s
10 rdg/s
30 rdg/s
0.01 s
100 to
1000 rdg/s*
*Limited feature set, interface dependent
DC accuracy: ±0.05% of rdg ±0.005% of range
DC temperature coefficient: ±0.01% of rdg ±0.003%
of range/°C
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 475
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
AC RMS measurement
Probe type
ranges
HST Probe
350 kG
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
HSE Probe
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
3.5 G
UHS Probe
35 G
3.5 G
350 mG
35 mG
4¾-digit
resolution
000.01 kG
00.001 kG
0.0002 kG
000.02 G
00.020 G
00.001 kG
0.0001 kG
000.02 G
00.002 G
0.0020 G
00.001 G
0.0002 G
000.02 mG
00.020 mG
Measurement resolution (RMS noise floor): Indicated
by value in above table for shorted input
Display resolution: Indicated by number of digits in
above table
Max reading rate: 30 rdg/s (100 to 1000 rdg/s; limited
feature set, interface dependent)
AC accuracy: ±1% of reading ≥ 1% of full-scale range
AC frequency range: 1 Hz to 1 kHz, narrow band mode;
100 Hz to 20 kHz, wide band mode
AC band limiting (filters): 18 user-selected frequencies
of 3 low-pass or 15 band-pass
Peak measurement
Probe type
ranges
HST Probe
350 kG
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
HSE Probe
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
3.5 G
UHS Probe
35 G
3.5 G
350 mG
35 mG
4¾-digit
resolution
000.01 kG
00.001 kG
0.0002 kG
000.02 G
00.020 G
00.001 kG
0.0001 kG
000.02 G
00.002 G
0.0020 G
00.001 G
0.0002 G
000.02 mG
00.020 mG
Measurement resolution (RMS noise floor): Indicated
by value in above table for periodic mode and shorted
input
Display resolution: Indicated by number of digits in
above table
Max reading rate (periodic mode): 30 rdg/s (100 to
1000 rdg/s; limited feature set, interface dependent)
Peak accuracy (5 Hz to 20 kHz): ±2% of rdg ≥ 1% of
full-scale range (20 µs or longer pulse width)
Peak accuracy (20 kHz to 50 kHz): ±5% of rdg ≥ 1% of
full-scale range (20 µs or longer pulse width)
Peak frequency range (periodic mode): 50 Hz to 5 kHz
Peak frequency range (pulse mode): 5 Hz to 50 kHz
Temperature measurement
Temperature range: Probe dependent (typically 0 °C to
75 °C)
Measurement resolution: 0.01 °C
Temperature display resolution: 0.01 °C
Electronic accuracy: ±0.7 °C
Front panel
Display type: 2-line × 20-character, vacuum fluorescent
with 9 mm high characters
Display resolution: To ±5¾ digits
Display update rate: 5 rdg/s
Display units: gauss (G), tesla (T), oersted (Oe), and
ampere per meter (A/m)
Units multipliers: µ, m, k, M
Display annunciators:
DC – DC measurement mode
RMS – AC RMS measurement mode
PK – Peak measurement mode
MX – Max hold value
MN – Min hold value
SP – Relative setpoint value
CSP – Field control setpoint value
LED annunciators:
Relative reading mode
Alarm active
Remote IEEE-488 operation
Keypad: 22 full-travel keys
Front panel features: Display prompts, front panel
lockout, and brightness control Interfaces
RS-232C
Baud: 9600, 19200, 38400, and 57600
Update rate: 30 rdg/s (ASCII)
Software support: LabVIEW™ driver
Connector: 9-pin D-style, DTE configuration
IEEE-488.2
Capabilities: SH1, AH1, T5, L4, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT1,
C0, and E1
Update rate: 30 rdg/s (ASCII), to 100 rdg/s (binary, no
temperature compensation)
Software support: LabVIEW™ driver
Data buffer
Capacity: 1024 field readings
Reading rate: 1 to 1000 rdg/s
Data transfer: Through computer interface after data is
logged
Trigger: Hardware trigger to begin data log sequence
Alarm
Settings: High/low setpoint, Inside/outside, Audible, and
Sort
Actuators: LED annunciator, beeper, and relays
Relays
Number: 2
Contacts: Normally open (NO), normally closed (NC), and
common (C)
Contact rating: 30 VDC at 2 A
Operation: Follows alarm or operated manually
Connector: In 25-pin I/O connector
Voltage output 1
Configuration: Real-time analog voltage output of wideband AC signal
Range: ±3.5 V
Scale: ±3.5 V = ±full scale on selected range
Frequency response: 1 Hz to 40 kHz (wide-band AC)
Accuracy: Probe-dependent
Noise: ±1.0 mV
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: In 25-pin I/O connector
Voltage output 2
Configuration: Voltage output of field value, generated by
DAC
Range: ±5 V
Scale: ±3.5 V = ±full scale on selected range
Resolution: 16-bit, 0.15 mV
Update rate: 40,000 updates/s
Accuracy: ±10 mV
Noise: ±0.3 mV
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: In 25-pin I/O connector
Voltage output 3
Configuration: Voltage output of compensated DC or RMS
field value, generated by DAC (also used for field control)
Range: ±10 V
Scale: User-specified (defaults same as Voltage Output 2)
Resolution: 16-bit, 0.3 mV
Update rate: 30 updates/s
Accuracy: ±2.5 mV
Noise: ±0.3 mV
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: In 25-pin I/O connector
General
Ambient temperature: 15 °C to 35 °C at rated accuracy,
5 °C to 40 °C with reduced accuracy
Power requirement: 100, 120, 220, and 240 VAC (+6%,
-10%), 50 Hz or 60 Hz, 20 VA
Size: 216 mm W × 89 mm H × 318 mm D (8.5 in × 3.5 in ×
12.5 in), half rack
Weight: 3 kg (6.6 lb)
Approval: CE mark
Probes and extensions
Probe compatibility: Full line of probes available —see
page 18 for recommended stock probes available.
Hall sensor compatibility: Front panel programmable
sensitivity and serial number for user-supplied Hall sensor.
Extension cable compatibility: Calibrated or uncalibrated
probe extension cables with an EEPROM are available from
10 ft to 100 ft.
Lake Shore calibrated extension cables maintain the same
accuracy as the Model 475 probe.
The uncalibrated version requires the operator to load the
matching probe data file into the cable PROM directly from
the Model 475 front panel. Additional errors caused by the
uncalibrated extension cables are ±0.02% of field reading
error and 1 °C temperature reading error.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
17
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Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
18
18
Gaussmeters — Model 475
Stock probes
The most commonly ordered probes for this gaussmeter. Others available starting on page 39.
Model
Orientation
Axial
Model
475
Stem
material
Stem
length (in)
Probe part
number
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMA-2504-VF
DC to 800 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
Fiberglass
4
HMNA-1904-VF
DC to 10 kHz
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMA-2504-VR
DC to 20 kHz
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNA-1904-VR
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMT-6J04-VF
HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNT-4E04-VF
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMT-6J04-VR
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNT-4E04-VR
Transverse DC to 800 Hz
DC to 20 kHz
Ordering information
Part number
475
475-HMXX-XXXX-XX
Description
Model 475 DSP gaussmeter
Model 475 DSP gaussmeter with stock
probe choice — specify probe number for
HMXX-XXXX-XX from list above
gaussmeter/probe
combo package!
Please indicate your power/cord configuration:
1 100 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
2 120 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
3 220 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
4 240 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
5 240 V—U.K. cord (BS 1363)
6 240 V—Swiss cord (SEV 1011)
7 220 V—China cord (GB 1002)
Accessories included
106-253
106-264
4060
119-036
I/O mating connector
I/O mating connector shell
Zero gauss chamber
Model 475 user manual
Accessories available
4005
1 m (3.3 ft) long IEEE-488 (GPIB) computer interface cable assembly—
includes extender required for simultaneous use of IEEE cable and
auxiliary I/O connector
4065
Large zero gauss chamber for gamma probe
HMCBL-6
User programmable cable with EEPROM (1.8 m [6 ft])
HMCBL-20
User programmable cable with EEPROM (6.1 m [20 ft])
HMPEC-10
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (3 m [10 ft]), calibrated
HMPEC-10-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (3 m [10 ft]), uncalibrated
HMPEC-25
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (7.6 m [25 ft]), calibrated
HMPEC-25-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (7.6 m [25 ft]), uncalibrated
HMPEC-50
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (15 m [50 ft]), calibrated
HMPEC-50-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (15 m [50 ft]), uncalibrated
HMPEC-100
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (30 m [100 ft]), calibrated
HMPEC-100-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (30 m [100 ft]), uncalibrated
RM-1/2
Rack mount kit for one ½-rack gaussmeter in 483 mm (19 in) rack
RM-2
Rack mount kit for two ½-rack gaussmeters in 483 mm (19 in) rack
Calibration services
CAL-N7-DATA
New instrument calibration for Model 455/475 with certificate and data
CAL-475-CERT
Instrument recalibration with certificate
CAL-475-DATAInstrument recalibration with certificate and data
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Other probes available — see page 39
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 455
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Model 455 Gaussmeter
Model 455 features
BB Field ranges from 35 mG to 350 kG
BB DC measurement resolution to 0.02 mG
BB Basic DC accuracy of ±0.075%
BB DC to 20 kHz AC frequency range
BB AC narrow and wide band modes
BB Standard probe included
BB Specialized and custom probes also available
BB CE mark certification
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
19
19
20
20
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Gaussmeters — Model 455
Introduction
The Model 455 digital signal processing (DSP)
gaussmeter combines the technical advantages
of DSP technology with many advanced
features at a moderate price. DSP technology
creates a solid foundation for accurate, stable,
and repeatable field measurements. Advanced
features including DC to 20 kHz AC frequency
range, peak field detection to 50 µs pulse
widths, DC accuracy of 0.075%, and up to 5¾
digits of display resolution make the Model
455 ideal for both industrial and research
applications. For added functionality and value,
the Model 455 includes a standard Lake Shore
Hall probe.
DC measurement mode
Static or slowly changing fields are measured
in DC mode. In this mode, the Model 455 takes
advantage of the internal auto zero function
and probe linearity compensation to provide a
basic DC accuracy of ±0.075%. Measurement
resolution is enhanced by advanced signal
processing capability, allowing users the
choice of reading rates to 30 readings per
second or high resolution to 5¾ digits. Frontend amplification specifically designed to
complement DSP data acquisition provides
high stability and repeatability. That, along with
probe temperature compensation, provides
superior stability ideally suited for demanding
DC measurement applications such as field
mapping.
RMS peak mode
Periodic AC fields are measured in RMS
mode. The Model 455 provides an overall
RMS frequency range of 10 Hz to 20 kHz and
Measurement features
is equipped with both narrow and wide
band frequency modes. While in narrow
band mode, frequencies above 1 kHz are
filtered out for improved measurement
performance. The exclusive DSP algorithms
free the Model 455 from the limitations of
conventional RMS conversion hardware
and provide for an excellent dynamic range,
resolution, and frequency response.
The Model 455 offers a variety of features to
enhance the usability and convenience of the
gaussmeter.
Peak measurement mode
Pulsed fields are measured in Peak mode,
which is a natural extension of the highspeed data acquisition necessary for DSP
operation. Fast instrument sample rates
permit capture of positive and negative
transient fields as narrow as 50 µs pulse
widths. The peak reading can be held for
an unlimited length of time with no sag.
This is ideal for most magnetizers and other
fast pulse applications. The Model 455
can also be configured to follow the peak
of a periodic waveform for evaluation of
crest factor.
Auto probe zero: Allows the user to zero all
ranges for the selected measurement mode
with the push of a key.
The probe connection
The Model 455 is only half of the
magnetic measurement equation. For the
complete solution, Lake Shore offers a
full complement of standard and custom
Hall effect probes in a variety of sizes and
sensitivities. See the table on page 25 for
our stock probes recommended for use
with this gaussmeter. We also offer other
probes beginning on page 37. If you don’t
see the probe you need, give us a call.
Autorange: In addition to manual range
selection, the instrument automatically
chooses an appropriate range for the
measured field. Autorange works in DC and
AC measurement modes.
Display units: Field magnitude can be
displayed in units of G, T, Oe, and A/m.
Max/min hold: The instrument stores the
fully processed maximum and minimum
DC or RMS field value. This differs from the
faster peak capture feature that operates
on broadband, unprocessed field reading
information.
Relative reading: Relative feature calculates
the difference between a live reading and the
relative setpoint to highlight deviation from a
known field point. This feature can be used in
DC, RMS, or Peak measurement mode.
Instrument calibration: Lake Shore
recommends an annual recalibration
schedule for all precision gaussmeters.
Recalibrations are always available from
Lake Shore, but the Model 455 allows users
to field calibrate the instrument if necessary.
Recalibration requires a computer interface
and precision low resistance standards of
known value.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 455
Instrument probe features
The Model 455 has the best measurement
performance when used along with Lake
Shore Hall probes. Firmware-based features
work in tandem with the probe’s calibration
and programming to ensure accurate,
repeatable measurements and ease of
setup. Many of the features require probe
characteristics that are stored in the probe
connector’s non-volatile memory.
Probe field compensation: The Hall effect
devices used in gaussmeter probes produce
a near linear response in the presence of
magnetic field. The small nonlinearities
present in each individual device can be
measured and subtracted from the field
reading. Model 455 probes are calibrated
in this way to provide the most accurate DC
readings.
Probe temperature compensation: Hall
effect devices show a slight change in
sensitivity and offset with temperature.
Probe temperature effects can be measured
and subtracted out of field readings. A
temperature sensor in the probe tip relays
real time temperature to the gaussmeter,
enabling compensation. Although
temperature effects contribute only a small
fraction of the overall probe measurement
accuracy, temperature compensation will
often improve measurement and control
stability.
Probe temperature display: The gaussmeter
can display the probe’s temperature in °C
along with a field reading when using a probe
that includes a temperature sensor.
Frequency display: When operating in
RMS mode, the gaussmeter can display the
frequency of the measured AC field along
with a field reading.
Probe information: The gaussmeter
reads the probe information on power up
or any time the probe is changed to allow
hot swapping of probes. Critical probe
information can be viewed on the front panel
and read over the computer interface to
ensure proper system configuration.
Extension cables: The complex nature of
Hall effect measurements make it necessary
to match extension cables to the probe when
longer cables are needed. Keeping probes
and their extensions from getting mixed up
can become a problem when more than one
probe is in use. The Model 455 alleviates
most of the hassle by allowing users to
match probes to extensions in the field.
Stored information can be viewed on the front
panel and read over the computer interface to
ensure proper mating.
Hall effect generators (magnetic field
sensors): The Model 455 will operate with a
discrete Hall effect generator when a suitable
probe is not available. Users can program
nominal sensitivity and serial number into an
optional MCBL-6 blank connector to provide
all gaussmeter functions except field and
temperature compensation. If no sensitivity
information is available, the Model 455
reverts to resistance measurement.
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Display and interface features
Display
The Model 455 has a 2-line by 20-character
vacuum fluorescent display. During normal
operation, the display is used to report field
readings and give results of other features
such as max/min or relative. The display
can also be configured to show probe
temperature or frequency. When setting
instrument parameters, the display gives the
operator meaningful prompts and feedback
to simplify operation. The operator can also
control display brightness.
Following are three examples of the various
display configurations:
The display configured to show the RMS field value and
frequency and the probe temperature
The display configured to show both the maximum
and minimum DC field values
The display configured to simultaneously show the
positive and negative Peak readings
50 µs wide magnetizing pulse
Field
3T
(30 kG)
50 µs
Time
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
21
21
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
2
22
Gaussmeters — Model 455
Model 455 specifications
Keypad
Voltage output 2
The instrument has a 22-position keypad
with individual keys assigned to frequently
used features. Menus are reserved for less
frequently used setup operations. The keypad
can be locked out to prevent unintended
changes of instrument setup.
The second voltage output provides a
voltage proportional to measured field with
the benefits of some signal processing.
The output is produced by the DSP through
a fast D/A converter. The output signal is
updated at 40 kHz, giving good response for
low- to mid-frequency fields. Signal quality
degrades at high frequency because of the
sampling rate. This voltage can be corrected
for probe offset and for the nominal sensitivity
of the probe.
Alarms and relays
High and low alarms are included in the
instrument. Alarm actuators include display
annunciator, audible beeper, and two relays.
The relays can also be controlled manually
for other system needs.
Voltage output 1
The first voltage output gives access to
amplified voltage signal directly from the
probe. This voltage is corrected for the
nominal sensitivity of the probe and provides
the widest bandwidth of the three voltage
outputs. In wide band AC mode, the signal
can be viewed on an oscilloscope to observe
the shape of AC fields. In peak mode, the
output can be used to view a pulse shape or
other characteristic of a momentary signal.
Output 1 serves only as a diagnostic tool
in DC and narrow band AC modes because
modulation of the probe signal prevents a
clear view of the field response.
General measurement
(Does not include probe error, unless otherwise specified)
Input type: Single Hall effect sensor
Probe features: Linearity compensation, temperature
compensation, auto probe zero, and hot swap
Measurement features: Autorange, max/min hold,
relative mode, and frequency
Connector: 15-pin D style
DC measurement
Probe type
ranges
HST Probe
350 kG
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
HSE Probe
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
3.5 G
UHS Probe
35 G
3.5 G
350 mG
35 mG
Voltage output 3
The third output provides a voltage
proportional to measured field with the
most signal processing of the three outputs.
All probe compensation available to the
display readings, including temperature
compensation, can be performed on this
output. The output is produced by the
microprocessor through a 16-bit D/A
converter updated at 30 readings per second.
Computer interface
Two computer interfaces are included with
the Model 455: serial (RS-232C) and parallel
(IEEE-488). Both allow setup of all instrument
parameters and read-back of measured
values. The reading rate over the interface is
nominally 30 readings per second. LabVIEW™
drivers are provided to instrument users—
consult Lake Shore for availability.
5¾-digit
resolution
000.001 kG
0 0.0001 kG
0.00001 kG
000.003 G
00.0030 G
4¾-digit
resolution
000.01kG
00.001 kG
0.0001 kG
000.02 G
00.015 G
3¾-digit
resolution
0 00.1 kG
00.01 kG
0.001 kG
000.1 G
00.04 G
0 0.0001 kG
0.00001 kG
000.001 G
00.0003 G
0.00030 G
00.001 kG
0.0001 kG
000.01 G
00.002 G
0.0015 G
0 0.01 kG
0.001 kG
000.1 G
00.01 G
0.004 G
00.0001 G
0 .00001 G
000.003 mG
00.0030 mG
00.001 G
0.0001 G
000.02mG
00.015mG
0 0.01 G
0.001 G
000.1 mG
00.04 mG
Measurement resolution (RMS noise floor): Indicated
by value in above table for shorted input (probe effects not
included); value measured as peak-to-peak divided by 6.6
Display resolution: Indicated by digit number in above table
3 dB
bandwidth
Time
constant
Max reading
rate
5¾-digit
resolution
4¾-digit
resolution
3¾-digit
resolution
1 Hz
10 Hz
100 Hz
1s
0.1 s
0.01 s
10 rdg/s
30 rdg/s
30 rdg/s
DC accuracy: ±0.075% of reading ±0.005% of range
DC temperature coefficient: ±0.01% of reading ±0.003%
of range per °C
Model 455 rear panel
➊
➋
➊ Line input assembly
➋ Serial I/O interface
➌ IEEE-488 interface
➍ Auxillary I/O
➎ Probe input
➌
➍
➎
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 455
AC RMS measurement
Probe type
ranges
HST Probe
350 kG
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
HSE Probe
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
3.5 G
UHS Probe
35 G
3.5 G
350 mG
35 mG
4¾-digit
esolution
000.01 kG
00.001kG
0.0002kG
000.02G
00.020G
00.001 kG
0.0001kG
000.02G
00.002G
0.0020G
00.001 G
0.0002G
000.02mG
00.020mG
Measurement resolution (RMS noise floor): Indicated by
value in above table for shorted input
Display resolution: Indicated by digit number in above table
Max reading rate: 30 rdg/s
AC accuracy: ±1% of reading ≥1% of full scale range,
10 Hz to 20 kHz
AC frequency range: 10 Hz to 1 kHz, narrow band mode;
135 Hz to 20 kHz, wide band mode
Peak measurement
Probe type
ranges
HST probe
350 kG
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
HSE probe
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
3.5 G
UHS probe
35 G
3.5 G
350 mG
35 mG
4¾-digit
resolution
000.01 kG
00.001kG
0.0002kG
000.02G
00.020G
00.001 kG
0.0001kG
000.02G
00.002G
0.0020G
00.001 G
0.0002G
000.02mG
00.020mG
Measurement resolution (RMS noise floor): Indicated by
value in above table for periodic mode and shorted input
Display resolution: Indicated by digit number in above table
Max reading rate (periodic mode): 30 rdg/s
Peak accuracy (5 Hz to 20 kHz): ±2% of reading ≥1% of
full scale range (50 µs or longer pulse width)
Peak frequency range (periodic mode): 50 Hz to 5 kHz
Peak frequency range (pulse mode): 5 Hz to 20 kHz
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Temperature measurement
Temperature range: Probe dependent (typically 0 °C to
75 °C)
Measurement resolution: 0.01 °C
Temperature display resolution: 0.01 °C
Electronic accuracy: ±0.7 °C
Front panel
Display type: 2-line × 20-character, vacuum fluorescent
with 9 mm high characters
Display resolution: To ±5¾ digits
Display update rate: 5 rdg/s
Display units: gauss (G), tesla (T), oersted (Oe), and ampere
per meter (A/m)
Units multipliers: µ, m, k, M
Display annunciators:
DC—DC measurement mode
RMS—AC RMS measurement mode
PK—Peak measurement mode
MX—Max hold value
MN—Min hold value
SP—Relative setpoint value
LED annunciators:
Relative reading mode
Alarm active
Remote IEEE-488 operation
Keypad: 22 full-travel keys
Front panel features: Display prompts, front panel lockout,
and brightness control
Interfaces
RS-232C
Baud: 9600, 19200, 38400, and 57600
Update rate: 30 rdg/s (ASCII)
Software support: LabVIEW™ driver
Connector: 9-pin D-style, DTE configuration
IEEE-488.2
Capabilities: SH1, AH1, T5, L4, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT1,
C0, and E1
Update rate: 30 rdg/s
Software support: LabVIEW™ driver
Alarm
Settings: High/low setpoint, inside/outside, and audible
Actuators: LED annunciator, beeper, and relays
Relays
Number: 2
Contacts: Normally open (NO), normally closed (NC), and
common (C)
Contact rating: 30 VDC at 2 A
Operation: Follows alarm or operated manually
Connector: Shared 25-pin I/O connector
Voltage output 2
Configuration: Voltage output of field value, generated by
DAC
Range: ±5 V
Scale: ±3.5 V = ±full scale on selected range
Resolution: 16-bit, 0.15 mV
Update rate: 40,000 updates/s
Accuracy: ±10 mV
Noise: ±0.3 mV RMS
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: Shared 25-pin I/O connector
Voltage output 3
Configuration: Voltage output of compensated DC or RMS
field value, generated by DAC
Range: ±10 V
Scale: User specified (defaults same as voltage output 2)
Resolution: 16-bit, 0.3 mV
Update rate: 30 updates/s
Accuracy: ±2.5 mV
Noise: ±0.3 mV RMS
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: Shared 25-pin I/O connector
General
Ambient temperature: 15 °C to 35 °C at rated accuracy,
5 °C to 40 °C with reduced accuracy
Power requirement: 100, 120, 220, and 240 VAC (+6%,
-10%), 50 Hz or 60 Hz, 20 VA
Size: 216 mm W × 89 mm H × 318 mm D (8.5 in × 3.5 in
× 12.5 in), half rack
Weight: 3 kg (6.6 lb)
Approval: CE mark
Probes and extensions
Probe compatibility: Full line of probes available—see
page 25 for recommended stock probes available.
Hall sensor compatibility: Front panel programmable
sensitivity and serial number for user-supplied Hall sensor
Extension cable compatibility: Calibrated or
uncalibrated probe extension cables with an EEPROM are
available from 10 ft to 100 ft.
Lake Shore calibrated extension cables maintain the
same accuracy as the Model 455 probe.
The uncalibrated version requires the operator to load
the matching probe data file into the cable PROM directly
from the Model 455 front panel. Additional errors caused
by the uncalibrated extension cables are ±0.02% of field
reading error and 1 °C temperature reading error.
Voltage output 1
Configuration: Real-time analog voltage output of wide
band AC signal
Range: ±3.5 V
Scale: ±3.5 V = ±full scale on selected range
Frequency response: 10 Hz to 20 kHz (wide band AC)
Accuracy: Probe dependent
Noise: ±1.0 mV RMS
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: Shared 25-pin I/O connector
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
23
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Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Gaussmeters — Model 455
Technically speaking:
Model 455 theory of operation
The Model 455 gaussmeter uses digital
signal processing (DSP), as opposed to
analog signal processing, for filtering. In
analog processing, the components used
have different values from component to
component and are temperature dependent.
Using DSP gives better measurement
repeatability and increases the temperature
stability of the instrument.
How the Model 455 handles sampling
Digital signals are different from continuous
analog signals in the fact that they are
sampled in time and quantized in amplitude.
Both of these properties limit the ability
of the digital representation to match the
original analog signal. An ADC will sample a
signal at fixed intervals of time. Quantization
results from the fact that an ADC has a
limited amount of resolution. When both
the sampling frequency and resolution are
properly chosen however, the digital signal
is an accurate representation of the original
analog signal.
The sampling frequency of the Model 455
allows an accurate RMS measurement to
be made on signals of up to 20 kHz. The
sampling and filtering in the Model 455 can
allow realizable resolutions of 20 bits, which is
in the noise floor of the instrument.
Sampled data systems do have their
limitations because a continuous analog
signal is being sampled and digitized. This
inherently limits the frequency of the signal
that can be read as well as the resolution at
which it can be read. Typically, the resolution
is high enough and enough averaging is done
that it does not present a problem. But the
frequency limitation can in certain situations
cause unique problems. There are notches
in the frequency response as the input
signal approaches one-half the sampling rate
and its harmonics. As the measured signal
approaches these harmonic frequencies, the
reading will fall off due to the null in the
filter.
Also, the rate at which
an analog signal must be
sampled depends on the
frequency content of the
signal. A signal is said to
be properly sampled if the
original signal can be exactly
reconstructed from the digital
information. It turns out that
a signal can only be properly
reconstructed if the signal
does not contain frequencies
above one-half of the
sampling rate. This is referred
to as the Nyquist frequency.
In the case of the Model
455, the ADC is sampled at
40 kHz in wide-band AC mode. In
this mode, the highest frequency signal that
can be accurately represented out of analog
output 2 is 20 kHz due to the limit of the
Nyquist frequency. In this case, analog output
1 should be used to monitor the signal.
How the Model 455 handles Hall voltage
The Model 455 uses a 100 mA, 5 kHz square
wave excitation to drive the Hall sensor in
DC mode and narrow band AC mode. In
wide band AC mode, it uses a 100 mA, DC
excitation to drive the sensor. The Hall voltage
produced by the sensor is fed back into the
instrument and sent through a programmable
gain stage. The signal is then AC coupled into
the A/D where it is read at up to 50 kHz.
Those signals are then sent to the digital
signal processing (DSP) circuitry where the
signal processing is done and the readings
are filtered. The data is then transferred to
the microprocessor where the readings can
be sent to the display or out to the computer
interface.
The Model 455
has three different analog
outputs, each one providing different
information. Analog Output 1 is a pure analog
output being taken just before the A/D and
is corrected for nominal probe sensitivity.
In wide-band AC mode, this represents the
actual signal being generated by the Hall
sensor. It is not as useful in narrow-band AC
and DC modes where the output is going
to contain the 5 kHz excitation frequency.
Analog Output 2 is generated from a high
speed D/A converter controlled by the DSP.
This output is generated from the data after
the product detector and is a representation
of the actual field being measured. A
measured DC field will appear as a DC signal
and an AC field will appear as an AC signal.
Analog Output 2 is corrected for nominal
probe sensitivity and probe zero offset.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 455
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Stock probes
The most commonly ordered probes for this gaussmeter. Others available starting on page 39.
Model
Orientation
Axial
Model
455
Stem
material
Stem
length (in)
Probe part
number
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMA-2504-VF
DC to 800 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNA-1904-VF
Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
DC to 10 kHz
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMA-2504-VR
DC to 20 kHz
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNA-1904-VR
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMT-6J04-VF
HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNT-4E04-VF
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMT-6J04-VR
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNT-4E04-VR
Transverse DC to 800 Hz
DC to 20 kHz
Ordering Information
Part number
Description
455
Model 455 DSP gaussmeter
455-HMXX-XXXX-XXModel 455 DSP gaussmeter with standard
probe choice—specify probe number for
HMXX-XXXX-XX from list above
gaussmeter/probe
combo package!
Please indicate your power/cord configuration:
1 100 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
2 120 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
3 220 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
4 240 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
5 240 V—U.K. cord (BS 1363)
6 240 V—Swiss cord (SEV 1011)
7 220 V—China cord (GB 1002)
Accessories included
106-253
106-264
4060
119-040
I/O mating connector
I/O mating connector shell
Zero gauss chamber
Model 455 user manual
Accessories available
4005
1 m (3.3 ft) long IEEE-488 (GPIB) computer interface cable assembly—
includes extender required for simultaneous use of IEEE cable and
auxiliary I/O connector
4065
Large zero gauss chamber for gamma probe
HMCBL-6
User programmable cable with EEPROM (1.8 m [6 ft])
HMCBL-20
User programmable cable with EEPROM (6.1 m [20 ft])
HMPEC-10
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (3 m [10 ft]), calibrated
HMPEC-10-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (3 m [10 ft]), uncalibrated
HMPEC-25
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (7.6 m [25 ft]), calibrated
HMPEC-25-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (7.6 m [25 ft]), uncalibrated
HMPEC-50
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (15 m [50 ft]), calibrated
HMPEC-50-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (15 m [50 ft]), uncalibrated
HMPEC-100
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (30 m [100 ft]), calibrated
HMPEC-100-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (30 m [100 ft]), uncalibrated
RM-1/2
Rack mount kit for one ½-rack gaussmeter in 483 mm (19 in) rack
RM-2
Rack mount kit for two ½-rack gaussmeters in 483 mm (19 in) rack
Calibration services
CAL-N7-DATA
CAL-455-CERT
CAL-455-DATA
New instrument calibration for Model 455/475 with certificate and data
Instrument recalibration with certificate
Instrument recalibration with certificate and data
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Other probes available — see page 39
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Introduction
Magnetic
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Gaussmeters — Model 460
Model 460 3-Channel Gaussmeter
Model 460 features
BB Displays each axis simultaneously
BB Vector magnitude reading
BB Resolution to 5¾ digits (1 part out of ±3000,000)
BB Accuracy to ±0.10% of reading
BB Peak capture
BB Analog voltage outputs
BB IEEE-488 and serial interface
BB Can be operated with three individual probes,
a single 2-axis probe and one individual probe,
or a single 3-axis probe
BB CE mark certification
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 460
Introduction
The Model 460 3-channel Hall effect
gaussmeter is the best choice for applications
requiring 3-axis measurements or three
simultaneous single axis measurements. The
Model 460 combines the performance of
three gaussmeters into one package, making
it an excellent value for materials analysis
and field mapping applications. The large
vacuum fluorescent display shows readings
for all three channels simultaneously as well
as vector magnitude or differential readings.
The full-function keypad provides easy
access to measurement features.
Measurement modes
The Model 460 operates in DC, RMS, and
Peak modes, with superior accuracy and
resolution in DC measurement mode.
Measurements to 5¾ digits are possible due
to the low noise floor. With low noise and high
stability, the Model 460 is ideal for multipleaxis field mapping applications. Changing
fields that are often used in material analysis
systems can be measured on all three inputs
up to 18 times per second over the computer
interface, with excellent resolution.
Best suited for fringe field measurements
or measurement of magnets and solenoids
driven at line frequency, RMS mode measures
periodic AC fields from 10 Hz to 400 Hz.
Instrument circuitry accommodates wave
forms with crest factors up to 7, with true
RMS conversion.
Peak circuitry in the Model 460 captures
single event peaks or monitors the peak
amplitude of periodic wave forms from 10
Hz to 400 Hz, with reproducible single peak
measurements down to 5 ms rise time.
Instrument software accommodates indefinite
hold time with no decay. The Model 475 DSP
gaussmeter is a good choice if faster peak or
RMS measurements are required.
Range and resolution
When used with appropriate probes, the
Model 460 3-channel gaussmeter offers
full scale ranges from 300 mG to 300 kG. A
different range can be used with each input.
With 5¾-digit resolution, DC field variations
approaching 0.010 mG can be detected;
in larger DC fields, resolution to one part
in 300,000 is possible. For RMS and Peak
measurement, resolution is 4¾ digits or
one part in 30,000 because in these modes
environmental noise is more difficult to
separate from the desired signal. The filter
feature of the Model 460 improves resolution
in noisy environments by taking a running
average of field readings. DC mode requires
filtering to achieve 5¾-digit resolution.
Interface
The Model 460 is equipped with both parallel
(IEEE-488) and serial (RS-232C) computer
interfaces for command and data exchange;
maximum reading rate can be achieved
with the IEEE-488 interface. Nearly every
function on the Model 460 front panel can
be performed via computer interface. The
Model 460 also includes one corrected
and three monitor analog voltage outputs.
Corrected for sensor linearity, offset, and
temperature effects, the corrected output
is a DC voltage proportional to the display
reading. It is generated by a digital-to-analog
converter programmed at the update rate of
the Model 460, with software error correction.
Corrected output is compatible with the Model
460 vector calculation software. The three
monitor outputs are real time analog voltages
proportional to each input’s field; uncorrected,
they provide output across the full DC to 400
Hz bandwidth at real-time speed.
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Display and interface features
The Model 460 has a 4-line by 20-character
vacuum fluorescent display. During normal
operation, the display is used to report field
readings and give results of other features
such as max/min or relative. When setting
instrument parameters, the display gives the
operator meaningful prompts and feedback
to simplify operation. The operator can also
control display brightness.
Following are four examples of the various
display configurations:
Normal reading—the display configured to show the
live DC field readings for the X, Y, and Z axis, as well
as the vector magnitude
Max DC hold on—the display configured to show the
live DC field readings for the X, Y, and Z axis, as well
as the maximum field reading (settable to any axis)
Differential reading on—the display configured to
show the live DC field readings for the X and Y axis,
as well as the X-Y axis differential reading
3 separate probe readings on—the display
configured to show the X, Y, and Z axis as three
separate gaussmeters: the X axis as a DC field reading
with audible and visual alarm, the Y axis as an RMS
field value, and the Z axis as a peak field value
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Introduction
Magnetic
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Gaussmeters — Model 460
Model 460 specifications
General measurement
Number of inputs: 3
Update rate: Up to 4 rdg/s on display; up to 18 rdg/s with
IEEE-488 interface
Measurement modes: DC, RMS, Peak
Probe compatibility: Standard, multi-axis, and custom
probes
Probe features: Linearity Correction, Temperature
Correction, Auto Probe Zero
Measurement features: Autorange, Max Hold, Relative
Mode, Filter, Vector Magnitude, Differential Reading
Probe connector: 15-pin D style
DC measurement
Probe type
Range
HST probe
300 kG
30 kG
3 kG
300 G
HSE probe
30 kG
3 kG
300 G
30 G
UHS probe
30 G
3G
300 mG
5¾ digits with
filter
4¾ digits without
filter
0.001 kG
0.0001 kG
0.00001 kG
0.001 G
0.01 kG
0.001 kG
0.0001 kG
0.01 G
0.0001 kG
0.00001 kG
0.001 G
0.0001 G
0.001 kG
0.0001 kG
0.01 G
0.001 G
0.0001 G
0.00001 G
0.001 mG
0.001 G
0.0001 G
0.01 mG
➊ Line input assembly
➋ IEEE-488 interface
➌ Serial I/O interface
➍ Corrected analog output
➎ Monitor analog outputs
➏ Probe inputs
Interfaces
AC display resolution: 4¾ digits
Probe type
Range
RMS resolution
HST probe
0.01 kG
300 kG
30 kG
0.001 kG
3 kG
0.0001 kG
300 G
0.01 G
HSE probe
0.001 kG
30 kG
3 kG
0.0001 kG
300 G
0.01 G
30 G
0.001 G
UHS probe
0.001 G
30 G
3G
0.0001 G
300 mG
0.01 mG
RS-232C capabilities
Baud: 300, 1200, 9600
Connector: RJ-11 configuration
Update rate: Up to 14 rdg/s at 9600 baud
Peak resolution
0.01 kG
0.001 kG
0.0001 kG
×
0.001 kG
0.0001 kG
0.01 G
×
0.001 G
0.0001 G
×
IEEE-488 capabilities
Complies with IEEE-488.2 SH1, AH1, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1,
DT0, C0, E1
Update rate: 18 rdg/s with vector off, 14 rdg/s with
vector on
Alarm
Settings: High and low setpoint, inside/outside, audible
Actuators: Display annunciator, beeper
Monitor analog output (3)
Configuration: Real time analog voltage output
Scale: ±3 V = ±full scale on selected range
Frequency response: DC to 400 Hz
Accuracy: Probe dependent
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: BNC
AC frequency range: 10 Hz to 400 Hz
AC RMS accuracy: ±2% of reading (50 Hz to 60 Hz)
AC RMS frequency response: 0 to -3.5% of reading
(10 Hz to 400 Hz)
(All AC RMS specifications for sinusoidal input >1% of
range)
AC peak accuracy: ±5% typical
AC peak speed: 5 ms for single peak
Corrected analog output (1)
Configuration: Voltage output generated by DAC
Range: ±3 V; ±10 V for the Model 460-10
Scale: User-defined
Resolution: 0.366 mV of ±3 V
Update rate: Same as field measurement
Accuracy: ±0.1% full scale in addition to measurement
error
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: BNC
Front panel
General
Display type: 4-line × 20-character, vacuum fluorescent
Display resolution: Up to ±5¾ digits
Display update rate: 4 rdg/s with vector off, 3 rdg/s with
vector on
Displays units: Gauss (G), tesla (T)
Units multipliers: µ, m, k
Annunciators: RMS: AC input signal, DC: DC input signal,
MAX: max hold value, s: relative reading, R: remote
operation, : alarm on
Keypad: 25 full-travel keys
Front panel features: Display prompts, front panel
lockout, brightness control
DC accuracy: ±0.10% of reading ±0.005% of range
DC temperature coefficient: ±0.05% of reading
±0.003% of range per °C
Model 460 rear panel
AC RMS and peak measurement
Ambient temperature: 15 to 35 °C at rated accuracy; 5
to 40 °C with reduced accuracy
Power requirement: 100, 120, 220, 240 VAC (+5%,
-10%), 50 or 60 Hz, 40 VA
Size: 432 mm W × 89 mm H × 368 mm D (17 in × 3.5 in
× 14.5 in), full rack
Weight: 7.5 kg (16.5 lb)
Approval: CE mark
➊
➋
➌
➍
➎
➏
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 460
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Stock probes
The most commonly ordered probes for this gaussmeter. Others available starting on page 39.
Model
Orientation
Axial
Model
460
Transverse
3-Axis
Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
DC and 10 Hz HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 400 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
DC
HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
DC and 10 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 100 Hz
DC and 10 Hz HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 400 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
DC and 10 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 400 Hz
Probes and sensors
Stem
material
Stem
length (in)
Probe part
number
Aluminum
4
MMA-2504-VG
Fiberglass
4
MMA-2504-VH
Aluminum
4
MMT-6J04-VG
Aluminum
4
MMT-6J04-VH
Fiberglass
4
MNT-4E04-VG
Fiberglass
4
MNT-4E04-VH
Aluminum
8
MMZ-2508-UH
Ordering information
Lake Shore offers an extensive line of single, two-, and three-axis probes,
standard Hall sensors, and probe accessories. Lake Shore probes are
factory calibrated for accuracy and interchangeability. Factory-calibrated
probes feature a PROM in the probe connector so that calibration data can
be read automatically by the instrument. If the probe is equipped with a
temperature sensor, the Model 460 reads both temperature and field signal
and continuously adjusts the calculated field value. The customer can also
download sensitivity for discrete Hall sensors. In addition, Lake Shore can
custom design probes and assemblies to meet specific application needs.
Part number
460
460-10
Model 460 rear panel configurations
Accessories included
4060
Zero gauss chamber
119-012
Model 460 user manual
Model 460 configured as 3 separate gaussmeters
Model 460 configured as a 2-axis and single axis gaussmeter
Description
Model 460 gaussmeter
Model 460 gaussmeter with corrected analog output set to
±10 V instead of ±3 V
Please indicate your power/cord configuration:
1 100 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
2 120 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
3 220 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
4 240 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
5 240 V—U.K. cord (BS 1363)
6 240 V—Swiss cord (SEV 1011)
7 220 V—China cord (GB 1002)
Accessories available—also see Gaussmeter Accessories section
4001
RJ-11 4-wire cable assembly used with RS-232C interface—
cable is 4.3 m (14 ft) long
4002
RJ-11 to DB-25 adapter—connects computer to RS-232C port
4003
RJ-11 to DE-9 adapter—connects computer to RS-232C port
4004
IEEE-488 interface cable connects customer-supplied
computer to IEEE-488 interface—cable is 1 m (3.3 ft) long
CAL-460-CERT Instrument recalibration with certificate
CAL-460-DATA Instrument recalibration with certificate and data
CAL-N6-DATA Calibration data for a new Model 460
RM-1
Rack mounting shelf to attach one Model 460 gaussmeter to a
483 mm (19 in) rack mount space
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Probes ordered separately (see above)
Other probes available — see page 39
Model 460 configured as a 3-axis gaussmeter
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Introduction
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Gaussmeters — Model 425
Model 425 Gaussmeter
Model 425 features
BB Field ranges from 350 mG to 350 kG
BB DC measurement resolution to 4¾ digits (1 part of ±35,000)
BB Basic DC accuracy of ±0.20%
BB DC to 10 kHz AC frequency
BB USB interface
BB Large liquid crystal display
BB Sort function (displays pass/fail message)
BB Alarm with relay
BB Standard probe included
BB Standard and custom probes available
BB CE mark certification
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 425
Introduction
Designed to meet the demanding needs of
the permanent magnet industry, the Lake
Shore Model 425 gaussmeter provides
high-end functionality and performance in
an affordable desktop instrument. Magnet
testing and sorting have never been easier.
When used in combination with the built-in
relay and audible alarm features, the Model
425 takes the guesswork out of pass/fail
criteria. Additional features including DC to
10 kHz AC frequency response, max hold and
relative measurement make the Model 425
the ideal tool for your manufacturing, quality
control and R&D flux density measurement
applications. For added functionality and
value, the Model 425 also includes a standard
Lake Shore Hall probe. Put the Model 425
gaussmeter to use with confidence knowing
it’s supported by industry leading experts in
magnet measurement instrument, sensor,
and Hall probe technology.
Throughput
Throughput involves much more than just
the update rate of an instrument. An intuitive
menu navigation and keypad, along with
overall ease of use are equally important. The
Model 425 is designed with these qualities
in mind. The operation is straightforward,
with user display prompts to aid set-up. We
understand that time is money! In addition to
being user friendly, the automated magnet
testing and sorting features of the Model 425
streamline sorting and testing operations. In
addition, hot swapping of Hall probes allows
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Measurement features
you to switch probe types without powering
the instrument off and back on. These
features support increased productivity,
allowing you to spend less time setting up
your instrument and more time working on
the task at hand.
DC measurement mode
Static or slowly changing fields are measured
in DC mode. In this mode, the Model 425
uses probe field compensation to correct
for probe nonlinearities, resulting in a DC
accuracy to ±0.20%. Measurement resolution
is enhanced with internal filtering, allowing
resolution to 4¾ digits with reading rates
to 30 readings per second over the USB
interface.
AC measurement mode
In addition to the DC measurement mode,
the Model 425 offers an AC measurement
mode for measuring periodic AC fields. The
instrument provides an overall frequency
range of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and is equipped
with both narrow and wide band frequency
modes. While in narrow band mode,
frequencies above 400 Hz are filtered out for
improved measurement performance.
The Model 425 offers a variety of features to
enhance the usability and convenience of the
gaussmeter.
Autorange: In addition to manual range
selection, the instrument automatically
chooses an appropriate range for the
measured field. Autorange works in DC and
AC measurement modes.
Probe zero: Allows you to zero all ranges
while in DC mode with the simple push of a
key.
Display units: Field magnitude can be
displayed in units of G, T, Oe, and A/m with
resistance in Ω.
Max hold: The instrument stores and
displays the captured maximum DC or AC
field reading.
Relative reading: The relative mode
calculates the difference between a
live reading and the relative setpoint to
highlight deviation from a known field
point. This feature can be used in DC or AC
measurement modes.
Instrument calibration: Lake Shore
recommends an annual recalibration
schedule for all precision gaussmeters.
Recalibrations are always available from
Lake Shore, but the Model 425 allows you to
field calibrate the instrument if necessary.
Recalibration requires a computer interface
and precision low resistance standards of
known value.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Gaussmeters — Model 425
Instrument probe features
Display and interface features
The Model 425 offers the best measurement
performance when used along with Lake
Shore Hall probes. Firmware-based features
work in tandem with the probe’s calibration
and programming to ensure accurate,
repeatable measurements and ease of
setup. Many of the features require probe
characteristics that are stored in the probe
connector’s non-volatile memory.
Keypad
Probe field compensation: The Hall effect
devices used in gaussmeter probes produce
a near linear response in the presence of
a magnetic field. The small nonlinearities
present in each individual device can be
measured and subtracted from the field
reading. Model 425 probes are calibrated
in a way to provide the most accurate DC
readings.
Probe information: The gaussmeter
reads the probe information on power up
or any time the probe is changed to allow
hot swapping of probes. Critical probe
information can be viewed on the front panel
and read over the computer interface to
ensure proper system configuration.
Extension cable: The complex nature of Hall
effect measurements makes it necessary to
match extension cables to the probe when
longer cables are needed. Keeping probes
and their extensions from getting mixed up
can become a problem when more than
one probe is used. The Model 425 alleviates
most of the hassle by allowing you to match
probes to extension cables in the field. Stored
information can be viewed on the front panel
and read over the computer interface to
ensure proper mating.
Hall effect generators (magnetic field
sensors): The Model 425 will operate with
a discrete Lake Shore Hall effect generator
when a suitable probe is not available. You
can program the nominal sensitivity and
serial number into an optional HMCBL blank
connector to provide all gaussmeter functions
except field compensation. If no sensitivity
information is available, the Model 425
reverts to resistance measurement.
The instrument keypad has 14 keys with
individual keys assigned to frequently
used features. Menus are reserved for less
frequently used setup operations. The keypad
can be locked out to prevent unintended
changes of instrument setup.
Alarm, relay and sort
High and low alarm functions and one relay
are included with the instrument, and can be
used to automate repetitive magnet testing
and sorting operations. Alarm actuators
include display annunciator, audible beeper,
and a relay. The alarm can be configured to
display a pass or fail message and the relay
can be configured to activate a mechanism to
separate parts that meet pre-set fail criteria.
The relay can also be controlled manually for
other system needs.
The Model 425 has a 2-line by 20-character
liquid crystal display. During normal
operation, the display is used to report field
readings and give results of other features
such as max or relative. When setting the
instrument parameters, the display gives you
meaningful prompts and feedback to simplify
operation.
Display configuration examples
Normal reading—the default mode with the
display of the live DC field reading.
Max DC hold on—the maximum value is shown in
the lower display while the upper display contains
the live DC field reading.
Monitor output
The monitor output provides an analog
representation of the reading that is
corrected for probe offset and nominal
sensitivity. This feature makes it possible to
view the analog signal, which has not been
digitally processed. The monitor output can
be connected to an oscilloscope or data
acquisition system.
Computer interface
The Model 425 is equipped with a universal
serial bus (USB) interface. It emulates an
RS-232C serial port at a fixed baud rate of
57,600, but with the physical connections of
a USB. In addition to gathering data, nearly
every function of the instrument can be
controlled through the USB interface. The
reading rate over the interface is nominally
30 readings per second. A LabVIEW™ driver is
available from the downloads section of the
Lake Shore website at www.lakeshore.com.
Alarm on—the alarm gives an audible and visual
indication of when the field value is selectively
outside or inside a user specified range. The relay
can be associated with the alarm.
Sort on—the live reading is shown in the upper
display while the lower display contains the pass/
fail (repetitive sorting or testing) message. The
relay facilitates pass/fail operation.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 425
Model 425 specifications (Does not
Probe type
ranges
HST probe
350 kG
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
HSE probe
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
UHS probe
35 G
3.5 G
350 mG
General measurement
Input type: Single Hall effect sensor
Maximum update rate: 30 rdg/s
Probe features: Linearity compensation, probe zero, and
hot swap
Measurement features: Autorange, max hold, relative
mode, and filter
Probe connector: 15-pin D-sub
DC measurement
Probe
type
ranges
HST probe
350 kG
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
HSE probe
35 kG
3.5 kG
350 G
35 G
UHS probe
35 G
3.5 G
350 miG
Filter on
4¾-digit
resolution
000.01 kG
00.001 kG
0.0001 kG
000.02 G
00.001 kG
0.0001 kG
000.01 G
00.001 G
00.001 G
0.0001 G
000.02 mG
Filter off
3¾-digit
resolution
000.1 kG
00.01 kG
0.001 kG
000.1 G
00.01 kG
0.001 kG
000.1 G
00.01 G
00.01 G
0.001 G
000.1 mG
Measurement resolution (RMS noise floor): Indicated
by value in above table for shorted input
Display resolution: Indicated by number of digits in above
table
DC accuracy: ±0.20% of reading ±0.05% of range
DC temperature coefficient: -0.01% of reading -0.003%
of range/°C
DC filter: 16-point moving average
Front panel
AC measurement
include probe error, unless otherwise specified)
3¾-digit resolution
000.1 kG
00.01 kG
0.001 kG
000.1 G
00.01 kG
0.001 kG
000.1 G
00.01 G
00.01 G
0.001 G
000.1 mG
Measurement resolution (RMS noise floor): Indicated
by value in above table, measured at mid-scale range
Display resolution: Indicated by number of digits in above
table
AC
accuracy
AC
frequency
response
Minimum
input
signal
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Narrow band mode
Wide band mode
±2% of rdg,
±0.05% of rng
(20 to 100 Hz);
±2.5% of rdg,
±0.05% of rng
(10 to 400 Hz)
±2% of rdg,
±0.05% of rng
(50 Hz to 10 kHz)
10 Hz to 400 Hz
50 Hz to 10 kHz
>1% of rng
>1% of rng,
except >2% of rng
on lowest rng
AC specifications based on sine wave inputs or
signals with crest factors <4.
AC temperature coefficient: ±0.01% of reading
±0.006% of range/°C
Display: 2-line × 20-character LCD display module with
5.5 mm high characters and LED backlight
Display units: Gauss (G), tesla (T), oersted (Oe), and
ampere per meter (A/m)
Display update rate: 3 rdg/s
Display resolution: To ±4¾ digits
Units multipliers: µ, m, k, M
Display annunciations: DC — DC measurement mode;
RMS — AC RMS measurement mode; MAX — Max hold
value; — Alarm on
Keypad: 14-key membrane
Front panel features: Display contrast control and
keypad lock-out
Interfaces
USB
Function: Emulates a standard RS-232 serial port
Baud rate: 57,600
Connector: B-type USB connector
Reading rate: To 30 rdg/s
Software support: LabVIEW™ driver (consult Lake Shore
for availability)
Alarm
Settings: High setpoint, low setpoint, deadband, inside or
outside, algebraic or magnitude, audible on/off, and sort
Actuators: Display annunciator, sort message, beeper,
and relay
Relays
Number: 1
Contacts: Normally open (NO), normally closed (NC), and
common (C)
Contact rating: 30 VDC at 2 A
Operation: Follows alarm or operated manually
Connector: Shared 25-pin D-sub
Monitor output
Configuration: Real time analog voltage output proportional to measured field
Range: ±3.5 V
Scale: ±3.5 V = ± full scale on selected range
Frequency response: DC to 10 kHz
Accuracy: Offset and single point gain corrected to
±0.5% of reading ±0.1% of range, linearity is probe
dependent
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ (short circuit protected)
Connector: Shared 25-pin D-sub
General
The Model 425 is the replacement for the Model 421 with
a new software command set.
Ambient temperature: 15 °C to 35 °C at rated accuracy,
5 °C to 40 °C with reduced accuracy
Power requirement: 100 VAC to 240 VAC, 50 Hz to 60
Hz, 40 VA
Size: 216 mm W × 89 mm H × 318 mm D (8.5 in × 3.5 in
× 12.5 in), half rack
Weight: 2.1 kg (4.6 lb)
Approvals: CE mark, RoHS
Model 425 rear panel
➊ Line input assembly
➋ USB
➌ Auxiliary I/O
➍ Probe input
➊
➋
➌
➍
Probes and extensions
Probe compatibility: Full line of probes available—see
page 34 for recommended stock probes available.
Hall sensor compatibility: Front panel programmable
sensitivity and serial number for user supplied Hall sensor
using HMCBL cable
Extension cable compatibility: Calibrated or
uncalibrated probe extension cables with an EEPROM are
available from 10 ft to 100 ft
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
3
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Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
34
34
Gaussmeters — Model 425
Stock probes
The most commonly ordered probes for this gaussmeter. Others available starting on page 39.
Model
Orientation
Axial
Model
425
Stem
material
Stem
length (in)
Probe part
number
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMA-2504-VF
DC to 800 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNA-1904-VF
Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
DC to 10 kHz
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMA-2504-VR
DC to 20 kHz
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNA-1904-VR
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMT-6J04-VF
HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNT-4E04-VF
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMT-6J04-VR
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNT-4E04-VR
Transverse DC to 800 Hz
DC to 20 kHz
Ordering information
Part number
Description
425
Model 425 gaussmeter
425-HMXX-XXXX-XX Model 425 gaussmeter with standard
probe choice—specify probe number
for HMXX-XXXX-XX from list below
Please indicate your power/cord configuration:
1 100 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
2 120 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
3 220 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
4 240 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
5 240 V—U.K. cord (BS 1363)
6 240 V—Swiss cord (SEV 1011)
7 220 V—China cord (GB 1002)
gaussmeter/probe
combo package!
Accessories included
G-106-253
I/O mating connector
G-106-264
I/O mating connector shell
4060
Zero gauss chamber
119-053
Model 425 user manual
Accessories available
4065
Large zero gauss chamber for gamma probe
HMCBL-6
User programmable cable with EEPROM (6 ft)
HMCBL-20
User programmable cable with EEPROM (20 ft)
HMPEC-10-U
Probe extension cable with EEPROM (10 ft), uncalibrated
HMPEC-25-UProbe extension cable with EEPROM (25 ft), uncalibrated
HMPEC-50-UProbe extension cable with EEPROM (50 ft), uncalibrated
HMPEC-100-UProbe extension cable with EEPROM (100 ft), uncalibrated
RM-1/2Rack mount kit for one ½-rack gaussmeter in 483 mm
(19 in) rack
RM-2Rack mount kit for two ½-rack gaussmeter in 483 mm
(19 in) rack
Calibration service
CAL-N7-DATANew instrument calibration for Model 425/455/475 with
certificate and data
CAL-425-CERT
Instrument recalibration with certificate
CAL-425-DATA
Instrument recalibration with certificate and data
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Other probes available — see page 39
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Gaussmeters — Model 410
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Model 410 Gaussmeter
Model 410 features
BB Ranges (Autoranging): ±200 G, ±2 kG, and ±20 kG ranges
BB Frequency response: DC and 20 Hz to 10 kHz
BB Resolution to 3½ digits (1 part out of ±2000)
BB Custom liquid crystal display
BB Accuracy: ±2% of reading
BB CE mark certification
BB Handheld
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
35
35
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
36
36
Introduction
This handheld gaussmeter is designed for
accurate magnetic field measurements
from 0.1 G to 20 kG (0.01 mT to 2 T).
Most operating functions can be selected
via the front-panel keypad with one or
two keystrokes. The Model 410 displays
in gauss or tesla, AC or DC values with
resolution to 100 mG.
Operating functions include:
Gaussmeters — Model 410
the display indicator flashes when the
measured field is higher than keypadentered alarm point.
Zero probe—Used to eliminate probe
offsets and small external fields.
Relative reading—Used to show small
variations in large background fields.
When activated, Relative function displays
deviation from a specific setpoint.
Autoranging—Automatically selects the
Max hold—The largest field magnitude
appropriate range.
measured (since the last reset) is displayed
Memory hold—On power down, the
with the Max Hold function.
Model 410 stores the complete instrument
Filter—When the field being measured is configuration in nonvolatile memory,
noisy, using the Filter function will average including the calibration number and probe
readings to produce a more stable display. offset, making it unnecessary in most
Alarm—An audible alarm is sounded and cases to go through a setup procedure on
power up.
Model 410 specifications
Display: Digital liquid crystal display (LCD), 3½ digits
Resolution: 0.1 G on the 200 G range
DC accuracy: 2% reading ±0.1% full scale (at 25 °C) includes
instrument, probe, and a calibration transfer
AC accuracy: ±5% of reading
Frequency response: DC and 20 Hz to 10 kHz
Ranges: ±200.0 G (±20.00 mT); ±2.000 kG (±200.0 mT); ±20.00 kG
(±2.000 T)
Temperature range: 0 °C to 50 °C (operating)
Instrument temperature coefficient: 0.05% rdg/°C
Instrument and probe temperature coefficient: 0.1% rdg/°C
Weight: 0.45 kg (1 lb)
Size: 193 mm H × 99 mm W × 43.2 mm D (7.6 in × 3.9 in × 1.7 in)
Power: 4 AA battery operated (battery life > 160 h)
Approval: CE mark
410 probe examples
Axial probe
Transverse probe
Stock probes
The most commonly ordered probes for this gaussmeter.
Orientation
Axial
Transverse
Frequency
range
Full-scale field
ranges
Stem
material
DC
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Brass
Brass
Flexible Plastic
Tubing
Brass
Brass
Flexible Plastic
Tubing
DC to 10 kHz 200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
DC
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
DC to 10 kHz 200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Stem
Probe part
length (in)
number
2
4
MSA-2202-410
MSA-2204-410
2.6
MSA-410
2
4
MST-9P02-410
MST-9P04-410
2.6
MST-410
Ordering information
Part number Description
410-SCT
410 in soft case with transverse probe
410-SCA
410 in soft case with axial probe
410-SCAT
410 in soft case with transverse & axial probe
410-HCAT410 in a hard case with transverse & axial probe
Accessories included
MST-410/ MSA-410Transverse and/or axial probe
MPEC-410-3
Extension cable
4106
Set of 4 AA batteries
119-002
Model 410 user manual
Accessories available
4060
Zero gauss chamber
4106
Set of 4 AA batteries
4107
Model 410 bench support
4141
Soft case
4142
Hard case
CAL-410-CERTInstrument recalibration with certificate
CAL-410-DATAInstrument recalibration with certificate & data
CAL-N1-DATA Calibration data for a new Model 410
MSA-410
Axial probe for Model 410
MST-410 Transverse probe for Model 410
MSA-2202-410 51 mm (2 in) brass axial probe for Model 410
MSA-2204-410 102 mm (4 in) brass axial probe for Model 410
MST-9P02-410 51 mm (2 in) brass transverse probe for
Model 410
MST-9P04-410 102 mm (4 in) brass transverse probe for
Model 410
MPEC-410-3
Probe extension cable, 1 m (3 ft)
MPEC-410-10 Probe extension cable, 3 m (10 ft)
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Probes — Ordering Information
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Hall Probes
Hall probe features
BB Axial, transverse, multi-axis, gamma, and tangential
Hall probes for measuring magnetic flux density
BB Choose from a wide range of lengths and
thicknesses
BB Probes also available for cryogenic applications
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
37
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Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
38
38
Hall Probes — Ordering Information
Stock Probes—Ordering Information
Shown in the tables below are our recommended in-stock Hall probes for use with your gaussmeter. They are the ones most commonly ordered
by our customers and require no special configuration. Because they are in stock, they offer shorter lead time when ordered.
For other probes, including versions for tangential, multi-axis, gamma, and cryogenic applications, see the specialized probes begining on the
next page. Also, for technical specifications and illustrations related to the probes listed (as well as others in this catalog), see the end of the Hall
probes section.
Don’t see the probe you need in this catalog? Please contact us. We also offer custom configured Hall probes.
Model
Orientation
Axial
Models
425, 455
and 475
Stem
material
Stem
length (in)
Probe part
number
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMA-2504-VF
DC to 800 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Frequency
range
Fiberglass
4
HMNA-1904-VF
DC to 10 kHz
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMA-2504-VR
DC to 20 kHz
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNA-1904-VR
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMT-6J04-VF
HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNT-4E04-VF
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
4
HMMT-6J04-VR
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass
4
HMNT-4E04-VR
Transverse DC to 800 Hz
DC to 20 kHz
Model
Orientation
Axial
Models
421, 450
and 460
460 Only
Transverse
3-Axis
Full-scale field ranges
Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
DC and 10 Hz HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 400 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
DC
HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
DC and 10 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 100 Hz
DC and 10 Hz HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 400 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
DC and 10 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 400 Hz
Stem
material
Stem
length (in)
Probe part
number
Aluminum
4
MMA-2504-VG
Fiberglass
4
MMA-2504-VH
Aluminum
4
MMT-6J04-VG
Aluminum
4
MMT-6J04-VH
Fiberglass
4
MNT-4E04-VG
Fiberglass
4
MNT-4E04-VH
Aluminum
8
MMZ-2508-UH
NOTE: The Model 421 and Model 450 are legacy gaussmeters no longer available from Lake Shore.
Model
Orientation
Axial
Frequency
range
DC
DC to 10 kHz
Model
410
Transverse
DC
DC to 10 kHz
Full-scale field ranges
Stem
material
Stem
length (in)
Probe part
number
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Brass
2
MSA-2202-410
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Brass
4
MSA-2204-410
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Flexible Plastic Tubing
2.6
MSA-410
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Brass
2
MST-9P02-410
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Brass
4
MST-9P04-410
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Flexible Plastic Tubing
2.6
MST-410
For the specifications of each probe, please see the individual probe product spec sheets, starting on page 43.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Probes — Ordering Information
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Built-to-Order Probes—Ordering Information
Follow these steps to order the probe you need from the tables on the following pages:
Built-to-Order Probes
Axial probes for Model 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Step 1:
Full-scale field ranges
Frequency
range
DC
HST-2:
HST-1:
HST-2:
DC and 10
Hz to 400
Hz
HST-1:
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
Stem material
Stem
diameter (in)
Aluminum
Aluminum
0.08
0.25
0.06
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
Aluminum
Fiberglass epoxy
Aluminum
Aluminum
HST-2:
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Fiberglass epoxy
Flexible plastic tubing
and aluminum
Stem lengths (in)
02, 04, 08
04, 36
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
04, 08
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
15
Probe part number
*
MMA-08XX-UH
MMA-25XX-WL
MMA-06XX-TH
MMA-18XX-VG
MMA-25XX-VG
MNA-19XX-VG
MMA-18XX-WL
MMA-18XX-VH
MMA-25XX-VH
MNA-19XX-VH
MFA-18XX-VH
* Cable length can be changed. See below.
Look for the table header identifying
your Lake Shore gaussmeter model
and your desired field orientation
(axial, transverse) or specialized
application (tangential, cryogenic,
multi-axis, or gamma).
Probe part number
*
Built-to-Order Probes
Axial probes for Model 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Step 2:
DC
HST-2:
HST-1:
HST-2:
DC and 10
Hz to 400
Hz
HST-1:
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
Stem material
Stem
diameter (in)
Aluminum
Aluminum
0.08
0.25
0.06
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
Aluminum
Fiberglass epoxy
Aluminum
Aluminum
HST-2:
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Fiberglass epoxy
Flexible plastic tubing
and aluminum
Stem lengths (in)
02, 04, 08
04, 36
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
04, 08
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
15
MMA-08XX-UH
MMA-25XX-WL
MMA-06XX-TH
MMA-18XX-VG
MMA-25XX-VG
MNA-19XX-VG
MMA-18XX-WL
MMA-18XX-VH
MMA-25XX-VH
MNA-19XX-VH
MFA-18XX-VH
* Cable length can be changed. See below.
Within the table, choose the
probe frequency range and
field range.
Full-scale field ranges
Frequency
range
Probe part number
*
Built-to-Order Probes
Axial probes for Model 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Step 3:
DC
HST-2:
HST-1:
HST-2:
DC and 10
Hz to 400
Hz
HST-1:
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
Stem material
Stem
diameter (in)
Aluminum
Aluminum
0.08
0.25
0.06
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
Aluminum
Fiberglass epoxy
Aluminum
Aluminum
HST-2:
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Fiberglass epoxy
Flexible plastic tubing
and aluminum
Stem lengths (in)
02, 04, 08
04, 36
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
04, 08
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
15
MMA-08XX-UH
MMA-25XX-WL
MMA-06XX-TH
MMA-18XX-VG
MMA-25XX-VG
MNA-19XX-VG
MMA-18XX-WL
MMA-18XX-VH
MMA-25XX-VH
MNA-19XX-VH
MFA-18XX-VH
* Cable length can be changed. See below.
Choose your stem material and
diameter/thickness.
Full-scale field ranges
Frequency
range
Probe part number
*
Built-to-Order Probes
Axial probes for Model 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Step 4:
Full-scale field ranges
Frequency
range
DC
HST-2:
HST-1:
HST-2:
DC and 10
Hz to 400
Hz
HST-1:
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
Stem material
Stem
diameter (in)
Aluminum
Aluminum
0.08
0.25
0.06
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
Aluminum
Fiberglass epoxy
Aluminum
Aluminum
HST-2:
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Fiberglass epoxy
Flexible plastic tubing
and aluminum
Stem lengths (in)
02, 04, 08
04, 36
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
04, 08
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
15
MMA-08XX-UH
MMA-25XX-WL
MMA-06XX-TH
MMA-18XX-VG
MMA-25XX-VG
MNA-19XX-VG
MMA-18XX-WL
MMA-18XX-VH
MMA-25XX-VH
MNA-19XX-VH
MFA-18XX-VH
* Cable length can be changed. See below.
Specify stem length by filling
in the “XX.” This gives you the
probe part number.
Step 5 (optional): By default, most probes come with a 2 m cable. However, other cable lengths are available.
For 3 m, 6 m, 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m probe cable lengths, add -03, -06, -10, -20, or -30 to end of the probe part number.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
39
39
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
40
40
Hall Probes — Ordering Information
Built-to-Order Probes
Axial probes for Model 475, 455, and 425 gaussmeters
Frequency
range
DC
Stem
diameter (in)
HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
0.08
02, 04, 08
HMMA-08XX-UH
HST-3: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG, 350 kG
Aluminum
0.25
04, 36
HMMA-25XX-WL
0.06
02, 04, 08, 18
HMMA-06XX-TH
0.18
02, 04, 08, 18
HMMA-18XX-VF
0.25
02, 04
04, 08, 12
HMMA-25XX-VF
HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
HST-3: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG, 350 kG
Aluminum
Stem lengths
(in)
Probe part number
Aluminum
0.18
04, 08
HMMA-18XX-WL
Fiberglass epoxy
0.187
02, 04
04, 08
HMNA-19XX-VF
0.18
02, 04, 08, 18
HMMA-18XX-VR
0.25
02, 04
04, 08, 12
HMMA-25XX-VR
Flexible
plastic tubing
and aluminum
0.18
15
HMFA-18XX-VR
DC to 20 kHz HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass epoxy
0.187
02, 04
04, 08
HMNA-19XX-VR
DC to 50 kHz HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Fiberglass epoxy
0.25
18
DC to 800 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Aluminum
DC to 10 kHz HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
*
* Cable length can be changed. See below.
DC to 400 Hz
Stem material
Full-scale field ranges
HMNA-25XX-VR-HF
Transverse probes for Model 475, 455, and 425 gaussmeters
Frequency
range
DC
Stem
thickness (in)
HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Brass
0.061
02, 04, 08
HMMTB-6JXX-VF
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Brass
0.061
02, 04, 08
HMMTB-6JXX-VR
Aluminum
0.061
02, 04
04, 08, 12, 18
HMMT-6JXX-VF
Aluminum
0.061
02, 04
04, 08, 12, 18
HMMT-6JXX-VR
Fiberglass epoxy
0.045
02, 04
04
HMNT-4EXX-VF
0.02
03
HMFT-29XX-VH
0.025
03
HMFT-3EXX-VF
0.045
15
HMFT-4FXX-VF
0.045
02, 04
04
HMNT-4EXX-VR
0.02
03
HMFT-29XX-VJ
0.025
03
HMFT-3EXX-VR
Flexible plastic tubing
and epoxy fiberglass
0.045
15
HMFT-4FXX-VR
Flexible plastic tubing
and epoxy fiberglass
0.045
15
HMFT-4FXX-VRHF
DC to 400 Hz HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
DC to 800 Hz
HST-4: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Flexible plastic tubing
Fiberglass epoxy
DC to 20 kHz HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
DC to 50 kHz HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
04
*
Flexible plastic tubing
Stem
lengths (in)
Probe part number
*
* Cable length can be changed. See below.
Stem material
Full-scale field ranges
Indicates probe characteristic and length that is offered as a stock probe. This item would not need to be “built-to-order.” See page 38 for our stock probes.
By default, most probes have a 2 m long cable. Also available: 3 m, 6 m, 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m lengths. To specify a length other than default length, add -03, -06, -10, -20, or -30 to end of the probe part number.
For the specifications of each probe, please see the individual probe product spec sheets, starting on page 43.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Probes — Ordering Information
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
41
41
Built-to-Order Probes
Axial probes for Model 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
Aluminum
Aluminum
0.08
0.25
0.06
0.18
0.25
0.187
0.18
0.18
0.25
0.187
02, 04, 08
04, 36
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 18
02, 04
04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
04, 08
02, 04
04, 08, 18
02, 04, 08, 12
02, 04, 08
MMA-08XX-UH
MMA-25XX-WL
MMA-06XX-TH
MMA-18XX-VG
MMA-25XX-VG
MNA-19XX-VG
MMA-18XX-WL
MMA-18XX-VH
MMA-25XX-VH
MNA-19XX-VH
0.18
15
MFA-18XX-VH
Aluminum
HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Fiberglass Epoxy
Aluminum
HST-1: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
DC and 10
Hz to 400 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Stem
diameter (in)
Aluminum
Fiberglass epoxy
Flexible plastic tubing
and aluminum
Probe part number
Stem
lengths (in)
*
* Cable length can be changed. See below.
HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
HST-1: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
DC
Stem material
Transverse probes for Model 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
Stem material
Stem
lengths (in)
Probe part number
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Aluminum
Brass
Brass
0.061
0.061
0.061
02, 04
04, 08, 12, 18
02, 04, 08
02, 04, 08
MMT-6JXX-VG
MMTB-6JXX-VG
MMTB-6JXX-VH
DC and 10 Hz HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 100 Hz
Aluminum
0.061
02, 04
04, 08, 12, 18
MMT-6JXX-VH
Fiberglass epoxy
0.045
0.02
0.025
02, 04
04
03
03
MNT-4EXX-VG
MFT-29XX-VH
MFT-3EXX-VG
0.045
15
MFT-4FXX-VG
0.045
0.02
0.025
02, 04
04
03
03
MNT-4EXX-VH
MFT-29XX-VJ
MFT-3EXX-VH
0.045
15
MFT-4FXX-VH
HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
DC
HST-2: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Flexible plastic tubing
Flexible plastic tubing
and epoxy fiberglass
Fiberglass epoxy
DC and 10
Hz to 400 Hz
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Flexible plastic tubing
Flexible plastic tubing
and epoxy fiberglass
*
* Cable length can be changed. See below.
Stem
thickness (in)
Transverse and axial probes for Model 410 gaussmeters
Orientation
Axial
Transverse
04
*
Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
Stem
material
DC
DC to 10 kHz
DC
DC to 10 kHz
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
Brass
Flexible plastic tubing
Brass
Flexible plastic tubing
Stem
lengths (in)
02, 04
02
2.6
2.6
02
02, 04
2.6
2.6
Probe part
number
MSA-22XX-410
MSA-410
MST-9PXX-410
MST-410
Indicates probe characteristic and length that is offered as a stock probe. This item would not need to be “built-to-order.” See page 38 for our stock probes.
By default, most probes have a 2 m long cable. Also available: 3 m, 6 m, 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m lengths. To specify a length other than default length, add -03, -06, -10, -20, or -30 to end of the probe part number.
For the specifications of each probe, please see the individual probe product spec sheets, starting on page 43.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
42
42
Hall Probes — Ordering Information
Specialized Probes—Built-to-Order
Tangential probes for Model 475, 455, 425, 460, 460, and 421 gaussmeters
Probes to measure tangential fields, which are fields parallel to and near a surface
Model
Orientation Frequency
range
HSE: 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
Plastic
0.11
1.5
HMNTAN-DQ02-TH
Plastic
0.11
1.5
MNTAN-DQ02-TH
475, 455,
425
N/A
DC to 400
Hz
460, 450,
421
N/A
DC and 10
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
to 400 Hz
Stem
Stem
Probe part number
thickness (in) length (in)
*
changed. See below.
Stem
material
* C able length can be
Full-scale field ranges
Cryogenic probes for Model 475, 455, 425, 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Probes designed to withstand thermal contraction of probe materials while measuring at ultra-low temperatures
Model
460, 450,
421
Frequency
range
Axial
DC
HST-3: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG, 350 kG
Stainless
steel
0.25
60
HMCA-2560-WN
Transverse
DC to 800
Hz
HST-3: 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG, 350 kG
Stainless
steel
0.25
61
HMCT-3160-WN
Axial
DC
HST-1: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
Stainless
steel
0.25
60
MCA-2560-WN
DC and 10
HST-1: 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
Hz to 400 Hz
Stainless
steel
0.25
61
MCT-3160-WN
Transverse
Full-scale field ranges
Stem
material
Stem
Stem
diameter (in) length (in)
Probe part
number
*
*Cryogenic probes have a standard 3 m
cable; length can be changed. See below.
475, 455,
425
Orientation
Multi-axis probes for Model 460 gaussmeter
Multi-sensor probes designed to measure two or three vectors of magnetic field simultaneously
Model Orientation Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
Stem
material
Probe part
number
02, 04, 08, 18, 36
MMY-18XX-UH
2-Axis
DC and 10
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG Aluminum
Hz to 400 Hz
0.18
3-Axis
DC and 10
HSE-1: 30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG Aluminum
Hz to 400 Hz
0.25
460
02, 04, 08 ,12, 18, 36, 60 MMZ-25XX-UH
*
changed. See below.
Approximate Stem
lengths (in)
* C able length can be
Stem
diameter (in)
Gamma probes for Model 475, 455, 425, 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Special axial probes designed to measure small variations or low values of large volume fields
Model
Orientation Frequency
range
Full-scale field ranges
Probe part number
Probe
Probe
thickness (in) length (in)
DC to 400
Hz
UHS: 35 mG, 350 mG, 3.5 G, 35 G
0.5
5.7
HMLA-5006-HJ
460, 450,
421
N/A
DC and 10
to 400 Hz
UHS-1: 300 mG, 3 G, 30 G
0.5
5.7
MLA-5006-HJ
04
*
changed. See below.
N/A
* C able length can be
475, 455,
425
*
Indicates probe characteristic and length that is offered as a stock probe. This item would not need to be “built-to-order.” See page 38 for our stock probes.
By default, most probes have a 2 m long cable. Also available: 3 m, 6 m, 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m lengths. To specify a length other than default length, add -03, -06, -10, -20, or -30 to end of the probe part number.
For the specifications of each probe, please see the individual probe product spec sheets, starting on page 43.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Probes — Specifications
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Hall Probe Specifications
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
43
43
4
44
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Axial probes
cable length
2 m (6.5 ft)
Hall Probes — Specifications
64 mm (2.5 in)
L
D
A
+B field
9.1 ± 0.76 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
L mm (in)
D mm (in)
A mm (in)
Active
area mm
(in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable full
scale ranges
for Models 475, 455, and 425
HMMA-0602-TH
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
HMMA-0604-TH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMA-0608-TH
1.52 dia +0.03/-0.08
0.13 ±0.08
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125) (0.060 dia +0.001/-0.003) (0.005 ±0.003)
HMMA-0618-TH
457 ±3.2 (18 ±0.25)
HMMA-0802-UH
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
HMMA-0804-UH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMA-0808-UH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
HMNA-1902-VR
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
HMNA-1904-VR
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMNA-1908-VR
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
HMMA-1802-VR
50.8 ±1.6 (2 ±0.063)
HMMA-1804-VR
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMA-1808-VR
HMMA-1818-VR
HMMA-1836-VR
4.75 dia ±0.13
(0.187 dia ±0.005)
0.13 ±0.08
(0.005 ±0.003)
0.38 ±0.13
(0.015 ±0.005)
914 ±6.4 (36 ±0.25)
50.8 ±1.6 (2 ±0.063)
HMMA-2504-VR
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMA-2508-VR
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
HMMA-2512-VR
305 ±6.4 (12 ±0.25)
HMNA-2518-VR-HF
457 ±12.7 (18 ±0.5)
HMNA-1902-VF
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
HMNA-1904-VF
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMNA-1908-VF
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
HMMA-1802-VF
50.8 ±1.6 (2 ±0.063)
HMMA-1804-VF
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMA-1818-VF
0.25 ±0.13
(0.010 ±0.005)
Aluminum
Fiberglass
epoxy
Aluminum
914 ±6.4 (36 ±0.25)
HMMA-2502-VF
50.8 ±1.6 (2 ±0.063)
HMMA-2504-VF
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMA-2508-VF
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
HMMA-2512-VF
305 ±6.4 (12 ±0.25)
HMMA-1804-WL
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
±0.25% to
10 kG
±0.13 G/°C
0.64 ±0.13
(0.025 ±0.005)
4.75 dia ±0.13
(0.187 dia ±0.005)
Approx
0.13 ±0.08
0.76 dia
(0.005 ±0.003) (0.030 dia)
4.57 dia +0.05/-0.10
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125) (0.180 dia +0.002/-0.004)
HMMA-2504-WL
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMA-2536-WL
914 ±6.4 (36 ±0.25)
6.35 dia ±0.15
(0.25 dia ±0.006)
No
DC to
10 kHz
HSE
3.5 G, 35 G,
350 G, 3.5 kG,
35 kG
455/475:
±0.015%/°C
±0.20% to
30 kG and
±0.25% 30 to
35 kG
±0.09 G/°C
425:
-0.04%/°C
0 °C to
+75 °C
6.35 dia ±0.13
(0.25 dia ±0.005)
HMMA-1808-WL
±0.01%/°C
±0.25% to
20 kG
6.35 dia ±0.15
(0.25 dia ±0.006)
6.35 dia ±0.15
(0.25 dia ±0.006)
Temp
Operating
Temp
Contains
coefficient
temp range coefficient
temp
(max) of
sensor
(°C)
(max) zero
sensitivity
DC to
20 kHz
DC to 50
kHz
Fiberglass
epoxy
DC to
800 Hz
4.57 dia +0.05/-0.10
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125) (0.180
dia +0.002/-0.004)
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
HMMA-1836-VF
HST-4
35 G, 350 G,
3.5 kG, 35 kG
DC
4.57 dia +0.05/-0.10
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125) (0.180
dia +0.002/-0.004)
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
HMMA-2502-VR
HMMA-1808-VF
2.03 dia ±0.13
(0.080 dia ±0.005)
Approx
0.51 dia
(0.020 dia)
DC to
400 Hz
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg
at 25 °C)
Yes
HST-4
35 G, 350 G,
3.5 kG, 35 kG
0.38 ±0.13
(0.015 ±0.005)
±0.10% to
30 kG and
±0.15% 30 to
35 kG
±0.13 G/°C –0.005%/°C
DC to
400 Hz
Aluminum
DC
HST-3
35 G, 350 G,
3.5 kG, 35 kG,
350 kG
±1% to 100 kG
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Probes — Specifications
Axial probes
cable length
2 m (6.5 ft)
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
45
45
L
64 mm (2.5 in)
D
A
+B field
9.1 ± 0.76 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
L mm (in)
D mm (in)
A mm (in)
Active
area mm
(in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable full
scale ranges
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg
at 25 °C)
Temp
Operating
Temp
Contains
coefficient
temp range coefficient
temp
(max) of
sensor
(°C)
(max) zero
sensitivity
for Models 460, 450, and 421
MMA-0602-TH
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MMA-0604-TH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMA-0608-TH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMA-0618-TH
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
MMA-0802-UH
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MMA-0804-UH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMA-0808-UH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MNA-1902-VH
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MNA-1904-VH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MNA-1908-VH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMA-1802-VH
50.8 ±1.6 (2 ±0.063)
MMA-1804-VH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMA-1808-VH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMA-1818-VH
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
MMA-2502-VH
50.8 ±1.6 (2 ±0.063)
MMA-2504-VH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMA-2508-VH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMA-2512-VH
305 ±6.4 (12 ±0.25)
MNA-1902-VG
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MNA-1904-VG
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MNA-1908-VG
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMA-1802-VG
50.8 ±1.6 (2 ±0.063)
MMA-1804-VG
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMA-1808-VG
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMA-1818-VG
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
MMA-2502-VG
50.8 ±1.6 (2 ±0.063)
MMA-2504-VG
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMA-2508-VG
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMA-2512-VG
305 ±6.4 (12 ±0.25)
MMA-1804-WL
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMA-1808-WL
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMA-2504-WL
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMA-2536-WL
914 ±6.4 (36 ±0.25)
0.13 ±0.08
1.52 dia +0.03/-0.08
(0.005
(0.060 dia +0.001/-0.003) ±0.003)
2.03 dia ±0.13
(0.080 dia ±0.005)
0.25 ±0.13
(0.010
±0.005)
4.75 dia ±0.13
(0.187 dia ±0.005)
0.13 ±0.08
(0.005
±0.003)
Approx
0.51 dia
(0.020
dia)
DC and
10 Hz to
400 Hz
Aluminum
±0.25% to 10 kG
HST-2
300 G, 3 kG,
30 kG
DC
±0.13 G/°C ±0.01%/°C
±0.25% to 20 kG
Fiberglass
epoxy
4.57 dia +0.05/-0.10
(0.180 dia +0.002/-0.004)
HSE-1
30 G, 300 G,
3 kG, 30 kG
0.38 ±0.13
(0.015
±0.005)
±0.25% to 30 kG
±0.09 G/°C
Aluminum
6.35 dia ±0.15
(0.25 dia ±0.006)
4.75 dia ±0.13
(0.187 dia ±0.005)
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
421:
-0.04%/°C
0.13 ±0.08
(0.005
±0.003)
Approx
0.76 dia
(0.030
dia)
Fiberglass
epoxy
DC and
10 Hz to
400 Hz
HST-2
300 G, 3 kG,
30 kG
±0.15% to 30 kG
±0.13 G/°C -0.005%/°C
0.38 ±0.13
(0.015
±0.005)
Aluminum
4.57 dia +0.05/-0.10
(0.180 dia +0.002/-0.004)
6.35 dia ±0.15
(0.25 dia ±0.006)
Yes
0 °C to
+75 °C
4.57 dia +0.05/-0.10
(0.180 dia +0.002/-0.004)
6.35 dia ±0.15
(0.25 dia ±0.006)
No
DC
HST-1
300 G, 3 kG,
30 kG, 300 kG
±1% to 100 kG
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
No
46
46
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Hall Probes — Specifications
Transverse probes
cable length 2 m (6.5 ft)
L
64 mm (2.5 in)
T
+B field
A
9.1 ± 0.76 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
L mm
(in)
T mm
(in)
W mm (in)
A mm (in)
Active
area mm
(in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Aluminum
DC to 800
Hz
Usable
full scale
ranges
W
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg at 25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp
coefficient
(max) zero
Temp
coefficient
(max) of
sensitivity
Contains
temp
sensor
for Models 475, 455, and 425
HMMT-6J02-VR
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
HMMT-6J04-VR 101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
1.55
4.57 ±0.13
HMMT-6J08-VR 203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125) (0.061) (0.180
±0.005)
max
HMMT-6J12-VR 305 ±6.4 (12 ±0.25)
HMMT-6J18-VR
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
1.14
3.81 ±0.13
(0.045) (0.150 ±0.005)
3.81 ±1.27
HMNT-4E04-VR 101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125) max
(0.150
±0.050)
HMMT-6J02-VF 50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
HMNT-4E02-VR
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
HMMT-6J04-VF 101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMT-6J08-VF 203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
HMMT-6J12-VF
305 ±6.4 (12 ±0.25)
HMMT-6J18-VF
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
HMNT-4E02-VF
HMNT-4E04-VF
Approx
1.02 dia
(0.040
dia)
Aluminum
1.14
3.81 ±0.13
(0.045) (0.150 ±0.005)
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125) max
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
Fiberglass
epoxy
DC to 400
Hz
455/475:
±0.015%/°C
±0.20% to
30 kG; ±0.25%
30 to 35 kG
Fiberglass DC to 20 kHz
epoxy
1.55
4.57 ±0.13
(0.061) (0.180 ±0.005)
max
HSE
3.5 G,
35 G,
350 G,
3.5 kG,
35 kG
±0.09 G/°C
425:
-.04%/°C
0 °C to
+75 °C
Yes
HST-4
35 G,
350 G,
3.5 kG,
35 kG
±0.10% to
30 kG; ±0.15%
30 to 35 kG
±0.13 G/°C
HSE-1
30 G,
300 G,
3 kG,
30 kG
±0.25% to
30 kG
±0.09 G/°C
–0.005%/°C
DC to 800
Hz
for Models 460, 450, and 421
MMT-6J02-VH
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MMT-6J04-VH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMT-6J08-VH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMT-6J12-VH
305 ±6.4 (12 ±0.25)
MMT-6J18-VH
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
1.55
4.57 ±0.13
(0.061) (0.180 ±0.005)
max
MMT-6J02-VG
1.14
3.81 ±0.13
(0.045) (0.150 ±0.005)
3.81 ±1.27
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125) max
(0.150
±0.050)
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MMT-6J04-VG
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MNT-4E02-VH
MNT-4E04-VH
MMT-6J08-VG
MMT-6J12-VG
DC and 10
Aluminum Hz
to 100 Hz
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
1.55
4.57 ±0.13
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125) (0.061) (0.180
±0.005)
max
305 ±6.4 (12 ±0.25)
MMT-6J18-VG
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
MNT-4E02-VG
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MNT-4E04-VG
101.6±3.2 (4±0.125)
1.14
3.81 ±0.13
(0.045) (0.150
±0.005)
max
Approx
1.02 dia
(0.040
dia)
Fiberglass
epoxy
DC and
10 Hz to
400 Hz
Aluminum
DC
Fiberglass
epoxy
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
421:
-0.04%/°C
Yes
0 °C to
+75 °C
HST-2
300 G,
3 kG,
30 kG
±0.15% to
30 kG
±0.13 G/°C
-0.005%/°C
DC and
10 Hz to
400 Hz
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
No
Hall Probes — Specifications
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
47
47
Brass stem transverse probes (short)
cable length 2 m (6.5 ft)
64 mm (2.5 in)
+B field
end view
T
A
44.5 mm,
1.75 in
L
9.4 mm (0.37 in) diameter
T mm
(in)
L mm (in)
Width
mm (in)
A mm
(in)
Active
area mm
(in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable
full scale
ranges
DC
HSE
3.5 G, 35 G,
350 G,
3.5 kG,
35 kG
HST-4
35 G, 350 G,
3.5 kG,
35 kG
±0.20% to
30 kG
and ±0.25%
30 to 35 kG
HSE-1
30 G, 300 G,
3 kG, 30 kG
±0.25% to
30 kG
HST-2
300 G, 3 kG,
30 kG
±0.15% to
30 kG
for Models 475, 455, and 425
HMMTB-6J02-VR
50.8 ±3.2 1.55 (0.061)
(2 ±0.125)
max
5.59
(0.22)
HMMTB-6J02-VF
3.81
Approx
±1.27
1.02 dia
(0.150 (0.040
dia)
±0.050)
Brass
for Models 460, 450, and 421
50.8 ±3.2
(2 ±0.125)
MMTB-6J02-VH
5.59
(0.22)
1.55 (0.061)
max
50.8 ±3.2
(2 ±0.125)
MMTB-6J02-VG
3.81
Approx
±1.27
1.02 dia
(0.150 (0.040
dia)
±0.050)
Brass
DC
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg at 25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp
coefficient
(max) of
sensitivity
Temp
coefficient
(max) zero
455/475:
±0.015%/°C
±0.09 G/°C
425:
-0.04%/°C
0 °C to
+75 °C
±0.10% to
30 kG
and ±0.15%
30 to 35 kG
0 °C to
+75 °C
Contains
temp
sensor
±0.13 G/°C
-0.005%/°C
±0.09 G/°C
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
Yes
Yes
421:-0.04%/°C
±0.13 G/°C
-0.005%/°C
No
Brass stem transverse probes (long)
cable length 2 m (6.5 ft)
64 mm (2.5 in)
+B field
end view
T
A
9.4 mm (0.37 in) diameter
5.1 mm (0.20 in) dia max
L
L mm (in)
T mm
(in)
Width
mm (in)
Active
Stem
A mm (in) area mm material
(in)
Frequency Usable full
range
scale ranges
89 – 102 mm
(3.5 – 4.0 in) flat
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg at 25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp
coefficient
(max) zero
Temp
coefficient
(max) of
sensitivity
Contains
temp
sensor
for Models 475, 455, and 425
HMMTB-6J04-VR
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMTB-6J08-VR
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
HMMTB-6J04-VF
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
HMMTB-6J08-VF
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
1.54
(0.061)
max
5.58
(0.22)
Approx
3.81 ±1.27 1.02
dia
(0.150
(0.040
±0.050)
dia)
Brass
DC
HSE
3.5 G, 35 G,
350 G, 3.5 kG,
35 kG
±0.20%
to 30 kG and
±0.25%
30 to 35 kG
HST-4
35 G, 350 G,
3.5 kG, 35 kG
±0.10%
to 30 kG and
±0.15%
30 to 35 kG
HSE-1
30 G, 300 G,
3 kG, 30 kG
±0.25% to 30 kG
HST-2
300 G, 3 kG,
30 kG
±0.15% to 30 kG
±0.09 G/°C
0 °C to
+75 °C
±0.13 G/°C
455/475:
±0.015%/°C
425:
-0.04%/°C
Yes
-0.005%/°C
for Models 460, 450, and 421
MMTB-6J04-VH
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMTB-6J08-VH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMTB-6J04-VG
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
MMTB-6J08-VG
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
1.54
(0.061)
max
5.58
(0.22)
Approx
3.81 ±1.27 1.02
dia
(0.150
(0.040
±0.050)
dia)
Brass
±0.09 G/°C
0 °C to
+75 °C
DC
±0.13 G/°C
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
421:
-0.04%/°C
-0.005%/°C
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Yes
No
48
48
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Hall Probes — Specifications
Flexible axial probes
cable length
2 m (6.5 ft)
64 mm
(2.5 in)
25 mm
(1 in)
L
A
+B field
9.1 ± 0.76 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
L mm (in)
D mm
(in)
3.2 mm (0.125 in) diam max
Active area
mm (in)
A mm (in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable full scale
ranges
for Models 475, 455, and 425
+0.05/-0.10
381 ±12.7 4.52
+0.002/(15 ±0.5) (0.180
0.004)
HMFA-1815-VR
D
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg at
25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp
coefficient
(max) zero
0.38
±0.13
(0.015
±0.005)
Flexible
Approx 0.76
plastic
dia (0.030 dia) tubing and
aluminum
DC to
10 kHz
HSE
3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G,
3.5 kG, 35 kG
±0.20%
to 30 kG;
±0.25% 30
to 35 kG
0 °C to +75 °C ±0.09 G/°C
0.38
±0.13
(0.015
±0.005)
Flexible
Approx 0.76
plastic
dia (0.030 dia) tubing and
aluminum
DC and
10 Hz
to 400 Hz
HSE-1
30 G, 300 G, 3 kG,
30 kG
±0.25% to
30 kG
0 °C to +75 °C ±0.09 G/°C
for Models 460, 450, and 421
+0.05/-0.10
381 ±12.7 4.52
+0.002/(15 ±0.5) (0.180
0.004)
MFA-1815-VH
Temp
coefficient
(max) of
sensitivity
Contains
temp
sensor
455/475:
±0.015%/°C
425:
-0.04%/°C
450:
±0.015%/°C
421:
-0.04%/°C
Yes
Yes
Flexible transverse probes
64 mm (2.5 in)
cable length 2 m (6.5 ft)
L
S
+B field
9.1 ± 0.76 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
L mm
(in)
W mm T mm
(in)
(in)
A mm S mm Active area Stem Frequency
(in)
(in)
mm (in) material range
Usable full scale ranges
for Models 475, 455, and 425
HMFT-3E03-VR
HMFT-3E03-VF
76.2 +12.7/-3.18
(3 +0.5/-0.125)
3.18
3.42
0.64 ±0.13
(0.135) (0.025) (0.125
max
max ±0.005)
Approx 1.02
dia (0.040
dia)
9.52
(0.375)
1.65
2.16
0.51 ±0.13
(0.085) (0.020) (0.065
max
max ±0.005)
HMFT-2903-VJ
HMFT-2903-VH
HMFT-4F15-VR
HMFT-4F15-VR-HF
381 ±12.7
(15 ±0.5)
HMFT-4F15-VF
Flexible
plastic
tubing
Approx 0.76
dia (0.030
dia)
Flexible
3.81
3.81
1.14 ±1.27 19.1 Approx 1.02 plastic
±0.13 (0.045)
dia
(0.040
tubing
(0.150
(0.150 (0.75)
dia)
and epoxy
±0.005) max ±0.050)
fiberglass
MFT-3E03-VG
76.2 +12.7/-3.18
(3 +0.5/-0.125)
MFT-2903-VJ
MFT-2903-VH
MFT-4F15-VH
MFT-4F15-VG
381 ±12.7
(15 ±0.5)
3.18
3.42
0.64 ±0.13
(0.135) (0.025) (0.125
max
max ±0.005)
1.65
2.16
0.51 ±0.13
(0.085) (0.020) (0.065
max
max ±0.005)
Approx 1.02
dia (0.040
dia)
9.52
(0.375)
Approx 0.76
dia (0.030
dia)
HSE
±0.20% to 30
3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, kG; ±0.25%
35 kG
30 to 35 kG
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
±0.09 G/°C 421:
-0.04%/°C
DC to
800 Hz
±0.10% to 30
HST-4
±0.15%
35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG kG;
30 to 35 kG
±0.13 G/°C –0.005%/°C
DC to
20 kHz
HSE
3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG,
35 kG
±0.50% to
35 kG
DC to
800 Hz
DC to
20 kHz
DC to
50 kHz
DC to
800 Hz
HST-4
35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG
±0.25% to
35 kG
Flexible
plastic
tubing
Flexible
3.81
3.81
1.14 ±1.27
1.02 plastic
±0.13 (0.045)
19.1 Approx
(0.040 tubing
(0.150
(0.150 (0.75) dia dia)
and epoxy
±0.005) max ±0.050)
fiberglass
Corrected
Temp
Temp
accuracy (% Operating coefficient
coefficient Contains
temp
rdg
temp range (max) zero (max) of
at 25 °C)
sensitivity sensor
DC to
20 kHz
for Models 460, 450, and 421
MFT-3E03-VH
A
W
T
3.2 mm (0.125 in) diam max
DC and
10 Hz to
400 Hz
0 °C to
+75 °C
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
±0.09 G/°C 421:
-0.04%/°C
±0.10% to 30
HST-4
±0.15%
35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG kG;
30 to 35 kG
±0.25% to
30 kG
HST-2
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
±0.15% to
30 kG
HSE-1
30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
±0.50% to
30 kG
HST-2
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
HSE-1
30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
HST-2
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Yes
±0.13 G/°C –0.005%/°C
HSE
±0.20% to 30
3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, kG; ±0.25%
35 kG
30 to 35 kG
HSE-1
30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
±0.09 G/°C 421:
-0.04%/°C
±0.13 G/°C –0.005%/°C
0 °C to
+75 °C
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
±0.09 G/°C 421:
-0.04%/°C
Yes
±0.13 G/°C -0.005%/°C
No
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
±0.09 G/°C 421:
-0.04%/°C
Yes
±0.13 G/°C -0.005%/°C
No
±0.25% to
30 kG
450/460:
±0.015%/°C
±0.09 G/°C 421:
-0.04%/°C
Yes
±0.15% to
30 kG
±0.13 G/°C -0.005%/°C
No
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Probes — Specifications
Tangential probes
cable length 2 m (6.5 ft)
76 mm (3 in)
L
T
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
+B field
A
9.1 ± 0.8 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
L mm (in)
T mm
(in)
W mm
(in)
Active
area
mm (in)
A mm (in)
Usable full scale ranges
HSE
DC to 400 Hz 3.5 G, 35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG,
35 kG
0.25% to
20 kG
0 °C to
+75 °C
0.25% to
20 kG
0 °C to
+75 °C
Frequency
range
for Models 475, 455, and 425
2.8 6.6 (0.26) 0.76 ±0.18
Approx
38.1 ±1.52 (0.11)
HMNTAN-DQ02-TH (1.5
(0.030
0.51 dia
±0.060) max
max
±0.005) (0.020 dia)
Plastic
for Models 460, 450, and 421
2.8 6.6 (0.26) 0.76 ±0.18
Approx
38.1 ±1.52
(0.030
0.51 dia
(1.5 ±0.060) (0.11)
max
max
±0.005) (0.020 dia)
MNTAN-DQ02-TH
W
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg
at 25 °C)
Stem
material
DC and
10 Hz to
400 Hz
Plastic
49
49
HSE-1
30 G, 300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG
Temp
coefficient
(max) of
sensitivity
Contains
temp
sensor
±0.1 G/°C
455/475:
±0.02%/°C
425:
-0.05%/°C
Yes
±0.1 G/°C
-0.05%/°C
No
Temp
Operating coefficient
temp range (max)
zero
2-axis probes
0.3 m (1 ft)
to end (all)
end view
L
86 mm (3.4 in)
2m
(6.5 ft)
By
4.6 mm
(0.18 in)
diameter
12.7 mm (0.5 in) diameter
L mm
(in)
Stem
material
Bx
Usable full scale
ranges
Corrected accuracy
(% rdg at 25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp coefficient
(max) zero
Temp coefficient
(max) of
sensitivity
Contains
temp sensor
HSE-1 30 G, 300 G,
3 kG, 30 kG
0.25% to 20 kG;
0.5% from 20 kG to 30 kG
10 °C to 40 °C
±0.09 G/°C
±0.015%/°C
Yes
Frequency
range
for Model 460 ONLY
MMY-1802-UH
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MMY-1808-UH
203.2 ±3.2 (8 ±0.125)
MMY-1818-UH
457 ±6.4 (18 ±0.25)
MMY-1836-UH
914 ±6.4 (36 ±0.25)
and 10 Hz
Aluminum DC
to 400 Hz
3-axis probes
0.3 m (1 ft)
to end (all)
2m
(6.5 ft)
83 mm (3.25 in)
12.7 mm
(0.5 in)
12.7 mm (0.5 in) diameter
8.9 mm (0.35 in) square
L mm
(in)
L
6.4 mm
(0.25 in)
4.6 mm
(0.18 in)
square
By
Bz Bx
end view
16 mm
(0.63 in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable full scale
ranges
Corrected accuracy
(% rdg at 25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp coefficient
(max) zero
Temp coefficient
(max) of
sensitivity
Contains
temp
sensor
Aluminum
DC and 10 Hz
to 400 Hz
HSE-1 30 G, 300 G,
3 kG, 30 kG
0.25% to 20 kG;
0.5% from 20 kG to 30 kG
10 °C to 40 °C
±0.09 G/°C
±0.015%/°C
Yes
for Model 460 ONLY
MMZ-2502-UH
54±3.2 (2.125±0.125)
MMZ-2504-UH
104.8±3.2 (4.125±0.125)
MMZ-2508-UH
206.4±3.2 (8.125±0.125)
MMZ-2512-UH
308±3.2 (12.125±0.125)
MMZ-2518-UH
460±6.4 (18.125±0.25)
MMZ-2536-UH
918±6.4 (36.125±0.25)
MMZ-2560-UH
1534±6.4 (60.375±0.5)
NOTE: The sensors at the ends of the multi-axis probes are quite fragile and susceptible to damage. Lake Shore offers an assortment of brass covers for probe protection during use with DC
fields. For more information, contact Lake Shore.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
50
50
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
Hall Probes — Specifications
Gamma probes
cable length
2 m (6.5 ft)
Small variations in, or low values of large volume magnetic
fields, such as that of the earth or fringe fields around large
solenoids, can be measured with these ultra high sensitivity
probes. Resolutions of several gammas (10-5 G) to tens of
gammas are available depending on the mating gaussmeter.
Application is optimum when fields are homogeneous over
lengths greater than 300 mm. The active sensing length of
the gamma probe is approximately 79.38 mm.
T mm
(in)
W mm (in)
A mm
(in)
L mm
(in)
Frequency
range
L
T
W
+B field
active sensing
length 79.38 mm
(3.125 in)
A
NOTE: For absolute zero, a 4065 zero gauss chamber is required.
The standard 4060 zero gauss chamber is too small for the gamma probe.
Usable full scale ranges
to center of active volume
Corrected accuracy
(% rdg at 25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp
coefficient
(max) zero
Temp coefficient
(max) of sensitivity
Contains
temp
sensor
for Models 475, 455, and 425
HMLA-5006-HJ
6.4 ±0.8 (0.25 ±0.03)
12.7
(0.5)
55.9
(2.2)
144.8 DC to 400 Hz
UHS
(5.7)
35 mG, 350 mG, 3.5 G, 35 G
±0.5% to 2 G
0 °C to +75 °C
1 mG/°C
455/475:
±0.02%/°C
425: -0.05%/°C
Yes
55.9
(2.2)
144.8 DC and 10 Hz
(5.7)
to 400 Hz
±0.5% to 2 G
0 °C to +75 °C
1 mG/°C
450/460: ±0.02%/°C
421:-0.05%/°C
Yes
for Models 460, 450, and 421
MLA-5006-HJ
6.4 ±0.8 (0.25 ±0.03)
12.7
(0.5)
UHS-1
300 mG, 3 G, 30 G
Axial probes for cryogenic applications
cable length
3 m (10 ft)
64 mm
(2.5 in)
L
A
D
+B field
9.1 ± 0.76 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
L mm (in)
D mm
(in)
A mm
(in)
Active area
mm (in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable full
scale ranges
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg at
25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp
coefficient
(max) zero
for Models 475, 455, and 425
HMCA-2560-WN
6.35 dia
0.64 ±0.13
1524 ±12.7 ±0.15
(0.25
(0.025
(60 ±0.50) dia ±0.006)
±0.005)
for Models 460, 450, and 421
MCA-2560-WN
6.35 dia
0.64 ±0.13
1524 ±12.7 ±0.15
(0.25
(0.025
(60 ±0.50) dia ±0.006)
±0.005)
Approx 0.76
dia (0.030
dia)
Stainless
steel
DC
HST-3
±2% to 100
35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG,
kG
350 kG
Approx 0.76
dia (0.030
dia)
Stainless
steel
DC
HST-1
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
±2% to
100 kG
1.5 K to
350 K
±0.13 G/°C
1.5 K to
350 K
±0.13 G/°C
Operating
temp range
Temp
coefficient
(max) zero
Temp error
(approx)
calibration
Contains
temp
sensor
300 K ref
200 K +0.05%
100 K -0.04%
80 K -0.09%
20 K -0.40%
4 K -0.70%
1.5 K -1.05%
No
No
Transverse probes for cryogenic applications
cable length 3 m (10 ft)
64 mm (2.5 in)
L
D
+B field
A
9.1 ± 0.76 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
L mm (in)
D mm
(in)
A mm
(in)
Active
area mm
(in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable full scale ranges
Corrected
accuracy
(% rdg
at 25 °C)
for Models 475, 455, and 425
HMCT-3160-WN
1549
6.35 dia ±0.25 5.33 ±1.27
±25.4 (61
(0.25 dia
(0.210
±1)
±0.010)
±0.050)
300 K Approx 1
dia (0.040
dia)
Stainless DC to 800 Hz
steel
HST-3
35 G, 350 G, 3.5 kG, 35 kG,
350 kG
MCT-3160-WN
Contains
temp
sensor
ref
200 K +0.05%
±2% to
100 kG
1.5 K to
350 K
±0.13 G/°C
100 K -0.04%
No
80 K -0.09%
for Models 460, 450, and 421
1549
6.35 dia ±0.25 5.33 ±1.27
±25.4 (61
(0.25 dia
(0.210
±1)
±0.010)
±0.050)
Temp error (approx)
calibration
20 K -0.40%
Approx 1
dia (0.040
dia)
Stainless
steel
DC and
10 Hz to
400 Hz
HST-1
300 G, 3 kG, 30 kG, 300 kG
±2% to
100 kG
1.5 K to
350 K
±0.13 G/°C
4 K -0.70%
1.5 K -1.05%
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
No
Hall Probes — Specifications
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
51
51
Transverse probes for Model 410 gaussmeter
114 ±6.4 mm
(4.5 ±0.25 in)
L
+B field 4.4 mm (0.175
in)
1.1 mm (0.045 in)
3.2 mm (0.125 in)
nominal diameter
flexible stem
MST-410
1.5 mm (0.060
28
in) max
±1.5 mm
(1.1 ±0.06 in)
L mm
(in)
Active area mm
(in)
Stem material
Frequency
range
Usable full scale
ranges
Accuracy
(% rdg
at 25 °C)
66 ±6.4
(2.6 ±0.25)
0.13 x 0.13
(0.005 × 0.005)
Flexible plastic
tubing
DC to 10 kHz
200 G, 2 kG,
20 kG
2%
Operating temp Temp coefficient
range
(max) zero
-10 °C to +75 °C
0.1 G/°C
Temp coefficient
Contains
(max)
temp sensor
calibration
-0.06%/°C
No
Brass stem transverse probes for Model 410 gaussmeter
+B field
rigid brass stem 5.6
mm (0.22 in) dia (max)
51 mm
(2 in approx)
cable length 1 m (39 in)
2.39 mm
(0.094 in) flat
7.9 mm (0.31
in) width of
flat section
end view
44.5+3-0mm
9.1 mm
(0.36 in) dia
L mm (in)
MST-9P02-410
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MST-9P04-410
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
1.3 mm
(0.050 in)
max to sensor
(1.75+0.1-0.0 in)
L
Active area mm
(in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable full scale
ranges
Accuracy
(% rdg
at 25 °C)
0.13 x 0.13
(0.005 × 0.005)
Brass
DC
200 G, 2 kG,
20 kG
2%
Temp coefficient
Contains temp
(max)
sensor
calibration
Operating temp Temp coefficient
range
(max) zero
-10 °C to +75 °C
0.1 G/°C
-0.06%/°C
No
Axial probes for Model 410 gaussmeter
Active area
mm (in)
4.4 mm
(0.175 in)
66±6.4 mm
(2.6±0.25 in)
+B field
3.2 mm (0.125 in) nominal
diameter flexible stem
114±6.4 mm (4.5±0.25 in)
28 ±1.5 mm
(1.1±0.06 in)
MSA-410
2.3 mm
(0.09 in)
max
0.13 x 0.13
(0.005 × 0.005)
Frequency
range
Stem material
Usable full scale
ranges
Accuracy
(% rdg)
Flexible plastic tubing DC to 10 kHz 200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
2%
Operating temp
range
Temp coefficient
(max) zero
Temp coefficient (max)
calibration
Contains temp
sensor
-10 °C to +75 °C
0.1 G/°C
-0.06%/°C
No
Brass stem axial probes for Model 410 gaussmeter
cable length 1 m (39 in)
rigid brass stem
5.6 mm
(0.22 in) dia
51 mm
(2 in approx)
end view
+B field
9.1 mm (0.36
in) dia
L mm (in)
MSA-2202-410
50.8 ±3.2 (2 ±0.125)
MSA-2204-410
101.6 ±3.2 (4 ±0.125)
1.3 mm (0.050 in)
max to sensor
L
Active area
mm (in)
Stem
material
Frequency
range
Usable full scale
ranges
Accuracy
(% rdg
at 25 °C)
Operating
temp range
Temp
coefficient
(max) zero
0.13 x 0.13
(0.005 × 0.005)
Brass
DC
200 G, 2 kG, 20 kG
2%
-10 °C to
+75 °C
0.1 G/°C
Temp coefficient
Contains temp
(max)
sensor
calibration
-0.06%/°C
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
No
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
52
52
Accessories — General Information
Magnetics accessories
Reference magnets
High quality reference magnets are available in transverse (flat) and axial (round)
configurations—also see Helmholtz coil low field references on page 64.
100.1 mm dia.
(3.94 in)
55.6 mm
(2.19 in)
104.8 mm
(4.125 in)
46.9 mm dia.
(1.845 in)
39.6 mm
(1.56 in) O.D.
12.7 mm
(0.5 in) dia.
entry hole
Axial 7.92 mm (0.312 in) diameter working space
MRA-312-100: 1% accuracy
MRA-312-200: 1% accuracy
100.1 mm
(3.94 in) dia.
85.85 mm
(3.38 in) dia
12.7 mm
(0.5 in) dia.
entry hole
105.2 mm
(4.14 in)
12.7 mm
(0.5 in) dia.
entry hole
86.61 mm
(3.41 in)
52.58 mm
(2.07 in)
calibrated field on
center line of gap
31.75 mm (1.25 in) to
8.71 mm (0.343 in) gap
MRT-343-1K: 1% accuracy
MRT-343-2K: 1% accuracy
8.1 mm
(0.32 in) min dia.
working space
calibrated field on
center line of gap
30.48 mm (1.2 in) to
8.71 mm (0.343 in) gap
MRT-343-50: 1% accuracy
MRT-343-100: 1% accuracy
MRT-343-200: 1% accuracy
To obtain a null field reference, a zero gauss chamber must be used to
shield the probe sensing area from external field. The 4065 should be
ordered with the gamma probe and can be used with the other probes.
4065 – Large (for
gamma probe)
50.3 mm
(1.98 in) O.D.
57.2 mm
(2.25 in)
gap
41.91 mm
(1.65 in)
Zero gauss chambers
4060 – Standard
28.7 mm
(1.13 in)
gap
Transverse 1.57 mm (0.062 in) gap,
12.7 mm (0.5 in) wide
MRT-062-200: 1% accuracy
MRT-062-500: 1% accuracy
MRT-062-1K: 0.5% accuracy
MRT-062-2K: 0.5% accuracy
MRT-062-5K: 0.5% accuracy
center line of magnet is center of gap
Transverse 1.57 mm (0.062 in) gap,
12.7 mm (0.5 in) wide
MRT-062-10K: 0.5% accuracy
+B
39.6 mm
(1.56 in)
7.92 mm
(0.312 in) min dia.
working space
Size
Bore
33 mm × 33 mm × 61 mm
(1.3 in × 1.3 in × 2.4 in)
58 mm × 53 mm × 305 mm
(2.3 in × 2.1 in × 12 in)
13 mm diameter × 51 mm
(0.5 in diameter × 2 in)
19 mm diameter × 279 mm
(0.75 in diameter × 11 in)
Axial 8.1 mm (0.32 in) diameter working space
MRA-312-2K: 1% accuracy
MRA-312-1K: 1% accuracy
4060 Zero gauss chamber
front view
side view
61 mm(2.4 in)
33 mm
(1.3 in)
33 mm
(1.3 in)
4065 Zero gauss chamber
front view
19 mm (0.8 in)
diameter opening
58 mm
(2.3 in)
32 mm
(1.25 in)
53 mm
(2.1 in)
side view
305 mm (12 in)
depth of opening 279 mm (11 in)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Accessories — General Information
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Hall probe stands
These moveable probe stands consist of a 30 mm (1.2 in) square post
mounted on a 180 mm × 130 mm × 22.5 mm (7.1 × 5.1 × 0.9 in)
thick base plate. A probe holder is integrated into the stand. The holder
can be moved up or down and fixed at any angle and location along
the post. Two standard models are available. Consult Lake Shore for
other post heights.
Ordering information
Part number Description
Extension cables
HMPEC-10
475/455 probe extension cable with EEPROM (10 ft), calibrated
HMPEC-10-U 475/455 probe extension cable with EEPROM (10 ft), uncalibrated
HMPEC-25
475/455 probe extension cable with EEPROM (25 ft), calibrated
HMPEC-25-U 475/455 probe extension cable with EEPROM (25 ft), uncalibrated
HMPEC-50
475/455 probe extension cable with EEPROM (50 ft), calibrated
HMPEC-50-U 475/455 probe extension cable with EEPROM (50 ft), uncalibrated
HMPEC-100 475/455 probe extension cable with EEPROM (100 ft), calibrated
HMPEC-100-U 475/455 probe extension cable with EEPROM (100 ft),
uncalibrated
MPEC-10
460/450/421 calibrated probe extension cable (10 ft)
MPEC-25
460/450/421 calibrated probe extension cable (25 ft)
MPEC-50
460/450/421 calibrated probe extension cable (50 ft)
MPEC-100
460/450/421 calibrated probe extension cable (100 ft)
MPEC-410-10 410 universal probe extension cable (10 ft)
MPEC-410-3 410 universal probe extension cable (3 ft)
Hall probe stands
4030-12
Hall probe stand, 12 in post, accepts 3/8 in dia. Hall probe handle
4030-24
Hall probe stand, 24 in post, accepts 3/8 in dia. Hall probe handle
Zero gauss chambers
4060
Zero gauss chamber
4065
Zero gauss chamber for gamma probe
Extension cables
To maintain probe accuracy, probes and extension cables for Models
460, 450, and 421 must be calibrated together at Lake Shore. When
ordering an extension cable and more than one probe, it is necessary to
specify with which probe the cable will be used. It should be noted that
probes will exhibit their full accuracy specifications when used without
an extension cable. Model 460 2- and 3-axis probes require 2- and
3-extension cables, respectively. Extension cables for Models 475 and
455 are field programmable, but can be ordered factory-calibrated.
Probe extension cables for Model Probe extension cables for Model
460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
475 and 455 gaussmeters
MPEC-10
MPEC-25
MPEC-50
MPEC-100
Length
3 m (10 ft)
7.6 m (25 ft)
15 m (50 ft)
30 m (100 ft)
HMPEC-10
HMPEC-10-U
HMPEC-25
HMPEC-25-U
HMPEC-50
HMPEC-50-U
HMPEC-100
HMPEC-100-U
Length
3 m (10 ft) calibrated
3 m (10 ft) uncalibrated
7.6 m (25 ft) calibrated
7.6 m (25 ft) uncalibrated
15 m (50 ft) calibrated
15 m (50 ft) uncalibrated
30 m (100 ft) calibrated
30 m (100 ft) uncalibrated
Reference magnets
MRA-312-100 Axial reference magnet: 0.312 in inside diameter, 100 G, 1%
MRA-312-200 Axial reference magnet: 0.312 in inside diameter, 200 G, 1%
MRA-312-300 Axial reference magnet: 0.312 in inside diameter, 300 G, 1%
MRA-312-500 Axial reference magnet: 0.312 in inside diameter, 500 G, 1%
MRA-312-1K Axial reference magnet: 0.312 in inside diameter, 1 kG, 1%
MRA-312-2K Axial reference magnet: 0.312 in inside diameter, 2 kG, 1%
MRT-062-200 Transverse reference magnet: 0.062 in gap, 200 G, 1%
MRT-062-500 Transverse reference magnet: 0.062 in gap, 500 G, 1%
MRT-062-1K Transverse reference magnet: 0.062 in gap, 1 kG, 0.5%
MRT-062-2K Transverse reference magnet: 0.062 in gap, 2 kG, 0.5%
MRT-062-5K Transverse reference magnet: 0.062 in gap, 5 kG, 0.5%
MRT-062-10K Transverse reference magnet: 0.062 in gap, 10 kG, 0.5%
MRT-343-50 Transverse reference magnet: 0.343 in gap, 50 G, 1%
MRT-343-100 Transverse reference magnet: 0.343 in gap, 100 G, 1%
MRT-343-200 Transverse reference magnet: 0.343 in gap, 200 G, 1%
MRT-343-1K Transverse reference magnet: 0.343 in gap, 1 kG, 1%
MRT-343-2K Transverse reference magnet: 0.343 in gap, 2 kG, 1%
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
53
53
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
54
54
Hall Sensors — General Information
Magnetic Field Sensors (Hall Generators)
Hall generator theory
A Hall generator is a solid state sensor which provides an output
voltage proportional to magnetic flux density. As implied by its name,
this device relies on the Hall effect. The Hall effect is the development
of a voltage across a sheet of conductor when current is flowing and
the conductor is placed in a magnetic field.
CAUTION: These sensors are sensitive
to electrostatic discharge (ESD). Use
ESD precautionary procedures when
handling, or making mechanical
or electrical connections to these
devices in order to avoid performance
degradation or loss of functionality.
Electrons (the majority carrier most often used in practice) “drift” in the
conductor when under the influence of an externally produced electric
field. These moving electrons experience a force proportional and
perpendicular to the product of their velocity and the magnetic field
vector. This force causes the charging of the edges of the conductor,
one side positive with respect to the other, resulting in an internally
generated transverse electric field which exerts a force on the moving
electrons equal and opposite to that caused by the magnetic-fieldrelated Lorentz force. The resultant voltage potential across the width
of the conductor is called the Hall voltage and can be measured by
attaching two electrical contacts to the sides of the conductor.
+B
Transverse
The Hall voltage can be given by the expression:
VH= YBB sinθ
+B
whereVH = Hall voltage (mV)
γB = Magnetic
sensitivity
(mV per kG, at a fixed current)
Axial
B = Magnetic field flux density (kG)
θ = Angle between magnetic flux vector and the plane of Hall generator
Hall generators come in axial and transverse configurations.
Transverse devices are generally thin and rectangular in shape.
They are applied successfully in magnetic circuit gaps, surface
measurements, and general open field measurements.
As can be seen from the above formula, the Hall voltage varies
with the angle of the sensed magnetic field, reaching a maximum
when the field is perpendicular to the plane of the Hall generator.
Axial sensors are mostly cylindrical in shape. Their applications
include ring magnet center bore measurements, solenoids, surface
field detection, and general field sensing. See the individual Hall
generator illustrations for physical dimensions.
A typical Hall effect measurement scheme
Active area
+I c
Ic
Model 121 CS
Current source
Hall generator
+VH
-V H
VH
-I c
RL
Digital
voltimeter
Load resistor
required for
optimum
linearity
(if specified)
The Hall generator assembly contains the sheet of semiconductor
material to which the four contacts are made. This entity is normally
called a “Hall plate.” The Hall plate is, in its simplest form, a
rectangular shape of fixed length, width and thickness. Due to the
shorting effect of the current supply contacts, most of the sensitivity
to magnetic fields is contained in an area approximated by a circle,
centered in the Hall plate, whose diameter is equal to the plate
width. Thus, when the active area is given, the circle as described
above is the common estimation.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Hall Sensors — General Information
Using a Hall generator
A Hall generator is a 4-lead device. The control current (Ic) leads
are normally attached to a current source such as the Lake Shore
Model 121. The Model 121 provides several fixed current values
compatible with various Hall generators.
IC (+)
(red)
V
conventional
current
B
F
F = -e(V × B)
(force on electron)
VH (+)
(blue)
+
+
+
+
-
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Attaching discrete Hall generators to Lake Shore
gaussmeters
Lake Shore provides cable assemblies containing the electronic
memory (EEPROM) to interface a Hall generator to a gaussmeter.
This allows users to assemble a Hall sensor into a difficult to
access area prior to gaussmeter attachment. The figure below
shows the general cable configuration. While convenient, this
method provides less than optimum performance. Because
of the intricacies involved with proper calibration, the user
is responsible for the measurement accuracy. A probe fully
calibrated by Lake Shore is always suggested. Special probe
mechanical configurations are also available.
1.8 m (6 ft)
or
6.1 m (20 ft)
VH (-)
(clear or yellow)
v
e
High mobility III-V
semiconductor
a) Indium arsenide
b) Gallium arsenide
IC (-)
(green or black)
Caution: Do not exceed the maximum continuous control current
given in the specifications.
The Hall voltage leads may be connected directly to a readout
instrument, such as a high impedance voltmeter, or can be attached
to electronic circuitry for amplification or conditioning. Device signal
levels will be in the range of microvolts to hundreds of millivolts.
The Hall generator input is not isolated from its output. In fact,
impedance levels on the order of the input resistance are all that
generally exist between the two ports. To prevent erroneous current
paths, which can cause large error voltages, the current supply must be
isolated from the output display or the down stream electronics.
Certain Hall generator sensitivity constraints are applicable:
Sensitivities between 5.5 and 10.5 mV/kG at 100 mA control
current.
Sensitivities between 0.55 and 1.05 mV/kGat 100 mA control
current.
For the Model 475 and 455 gaussmeters
2 m (6 ft) and 6.1 m (20 ft) cables are available.
The Model 475 and Model 455 offer the convenience of front
panel programming. No external computer is required. The Hall
generator serial number and single-point sensitivity are directly
entered using the keypad.
For the Model 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters
Ordering information
2 m (6 ft) and 6.1 m (20 ft) cables are available.
Part number
MCBL-6
MCBL-20
HMCBL-6
HMCBL-20
The cable is shipped with a disk containing the small program
“Hallcal.exe,” which is used to transfer the Hall generator
single-point sensitivity data to the cable EEPROM through the
gaussmeter serial port. This program must be installed on a
computer. (A null modem cable or adapter is required).
Description
1.8 m (6 ft) long cable for Model 460, 450, and 421
6.1 m (20 ft) long cable for Model 460, 450, and 421
1.8 m (6 ft) long cable for Model 475 and 455
6.1 m (20 ft) long cable for Model 475 and 455
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
5
55
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
56
56
Hall Sensors — Specifications
Axial Hall generators
Lead colors:
Red+IC
Green-IC
HGA-2302
HGA-2303
4.95 mm (0.195 in)
diameter (max)
254 mm (10 in)(min)
4.45 mm (0.175 in)
Blue+VH
Clear-VH
+B
3.18 mm (0.125 in)
+B
4.24 mm (0.167 in)
diameter (max)
2.67 mm (0.105 in)
diameter (max)
2.79 mm (0.11 in)
HGA-2010
HGA-3010*, HGA-3030*
2.29 mm
(0.09 in)
(max)
4.45 mm
(0.075 in)
(max)
254 mm (10 in)(min)
4.06 mm (0.16 in)
3.30 mm (0.130 in)
diameter (max)
31.75 mm (1.25 in)
254 mm (10 in)(min)
5.08 mm (0.20 in)
6.35 mm
(0.25 in)
diameter
127 ±12.7 mm (5±0.5 in)
+B
+B
5.08 mm (0.20 in) diameter
2.67 mm (0.105 in)
*The active area is symmetrical with the center line of the assembly and is
located approximately 0.030 in behind the front surface of the assembly
active area
HGA-2010†
HGA-2302
HGA-2303
General purpose axial;
high sensitivity
General purpose axial;
3.30 mm (0.13 in) diameter
General purpose axial;
4.95 mm (0.195 in) diameter
0.127 × 0.127 mm
(0.005 in × 0.005 in) square
0.51 × 1.02 mm
(0.020 × 0.040 in) rectangle
0.51 × 1.02 mm
(0.020 × 0.040 in) rectangle
Instrumentation quality axial;
low temperature coefficient;
phenolic package
0.76 mm (0.030 in) diameter
circle
Input resistance (approx)
450 Ω to 900 Ω
2Ω
2Ω
1Ω
2Ω
Output resistance (approx)
550 Ω to 1350 Ω
2Ω
2Ω
1Ω
2Ω
Description
Active area (approx)
Nominal control current (ICN)
Maximum continuous current
(non-heat sinked, 25 °C)
Magnetic sensitivity
(IC = nominal control current)
Maximum linearity error
(sensitivity vs. field, % rdg)
Zero field offset voltage
(IC = nominal control current)
1 mA
10 mA
150 mA
200 mA
11 mV/kG to 28 mV/kG
5.5 mV/kG to 11.0 mV/kG
5.5 mV/kG to 11.0 mV/kG
±1 (-10 kG to +10 kG)
±2 (-20 kG to +20 kG)
±2.8 mV (max)
Temperature coefficient of resistance
Leads
Data
HGA-3030
Instrumentation quality
axial; phenolic package
0.76 mm (0.030 in)
diameter circle
100 mA
300 mA
0.55 mV/kG to 1.05 mV/kG
6.0 mV/kG to 10.0 mV/kG
±1 (-10 kG to +10 kG)
±1 (-30 kG to +30 kG)
±1.5 (-100 kG to +100 kG)
±0.30 (-10 kG to +10 kG)
±1.25 (-30 kG to +30 kG)
±100 µV (max)
±50 µV (max)
±75 µV (max)
Operating temperature range
Temperature coefficient of magnetic
sensitivity
Temperature coefficient of offset
(IC = nominal control current)
HGA-3010
-40 °C to +100 °C
-0.06%/°C (max)
-0.08%/°C (max)
-0.005%/°C (max)
-0.04%/°C (max)
±1.2 µV/°C (approx)
±1 µV/°C (approx)
±0.4 µV/°C (approx)
±0.3 µV/°C (approx)
+0.15%/°C (approx)
+0.18%/°C (approx)
+0.18%/°C (approx)
+0.15%/°C (approx)
+0.18%/°C (approx)
34 AWG copper with
poly-nylon insulation
Single sensitivity value at
IC = 1 mA
36 AWG copper with
poly-nylon insulation
Single sensitivity value at
IC = 100 mA
34 AWG copper with
poly-nylon insulation
Single sensitivity value at
IC = 100 mA
34 AWG copper with poly-nylon
insulation
34 AWG copper with
poly-nylon insulation
Room temperature, 30 kG data supplied
Compatible with Lake Shore Model 410 gaussmeter only
†
Ordering information
Part number
HGA-2010
HGA-2302
HGA-2303
HGA-3010
HGA-3030
Description
General purpose axial Hall generator; plastic package
General purpose axial Hall sensor; phenolic shoulder
General purpose axial Hall sensor; phenolic shoulder
Instrumentation quality axial Hall generator; phenolic package
Instrumentation quality axial Hall generator; phenolic package
Accessories available
CAL-1X-DATA 1-axis Hall generator recalibration with certificate and data
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Introduction
Magnetic Field
Technology
Hall Sensors — Specifications
HGT-1020
Transverse Hall generators
HGT-1050
1.65 mm
(0.065 in)
CL active area
Lead Colors
12.7 mm
(0.50 in)
2.03 mm
(0.080 in)
CL active area
254 mm (10 in)(min)
2.16 mm
(0.085 in)
(max)
Red+IC
Green-IC(1070—black)
+B
Clear-VH(1070—yellow)
+B
0.51 mm (0.020 in)
(max) over Hall plate
HGT-1010
0.64 mm (0.025 in)(max) over leads
HGT-2010
1.65 mm (0.065 in)
0.9 mm (0.035 in)
254 mm (10 in)(min)
+Ic -VH
3.30 mm
(0.130 in)
(max)
1.65 mm
(0.065 in)
+B
2.08 ± 0.08 mm
(0.082 ±0.003 in)
4.45 mm
(0.175 in)
1.14 mm (0.045 in) center of active area
1.52 mm (0.060 in)(max)
+VH -IC
0.76 mm
(0.030 in)
0.71 mm (0.028 in)(max) over leads
5.21 mm
(0.205 in)
(max)
0.30 mm
(0.012 in)
(typical)
190.5 ±12.7 mm
(7.5 ±0.5 in)
HGT-3010, HGT-3030
0.6 ± 0.08 mm
(0.024 ±0.003 in)
6.10 mm
(0.240 in)(max)
BLACK (34GA Teflon, typ)
YELLOW
+B
4.57 mm
(0.180 in)
1.09 mm (0.043 in)(max)
protective ceramic case
BLUE
RED
Description
Active area (approx)
Input resistance (approx)
Output resistance (approx)
Nominal control current (ICN)
Maximum continuous current
(non-heat sinked, 25 °C)
Magnetic sensitivity
(IC = nominal control current)
Maximum linearity error
(sensitivity versus field)
Zero field offset voltage
(IC = nominal control current)
Operating temperature range
Temperature coefficient of
magnetic sensitivity
Temperature coefficient of offset
(IC = nominal control current)
Temperature coefficient of
resistance
Data
254 mm (10 in)(min)
lead length
center of active area
16.00 mm
(0.63 in)
+B
5.21 mm
(0.205 in)
(max)
HGT-1010
Leads
127 ±12.7 mm (5 ±0.5 in)
31.75 mm
(1.25 in)(max)
+B
2.5 mm
(0.098 in)
+B
0.51 mm (0.020 in)(max)
over Hall plate
HGT-1070
blue epoxy encapsulation
0.51 mm (0.020 in)(max) over active area and leads
HGT-2101
12.7 mm
(0.50 in)
254 mm (10 in)(min)
3.18 mm
(0.125 in)
Blue+VH
3.18 mm
(0.125 in)
6.73 mm
(0.265 in)
HGT-1020
HGT-1050
HGT-1070*
General purpose Low field for
General purpose transverse
transverse;
magnetic circuit
flat mount
applications
1.02 mm
0.76 mm
1.52 × 2.03 mm
(0.040 in)
(0.030 in)
(0.06 × 0.08 in)
——
diameter circle diameter circle
rectangle
2Ω
4 Ω (max)
2Ω
4 Ω (max)
100 mA
200 mA
250 mA
200 mA
250 mA
7.5 mV/kG to 12.5 mV/kG
±1.0% rdg (-10 to 10 kG)
±1.0% rdg
(0 to 10 kG)
±100 µV (max)
-40 °C to +100 °C
HGT-2010**
General purpose
transverse;
high sensitivity
450 Ω to 900 Ω
550 Ω to 1350 Ω
600 Ω to 2000 Ω
1 mA
-0.08%/°C (max)
±1 µV/°C (approx)
+0.18%/°C (approx)
±2.0% rdg
(-10 to 10 kG)
±2.8 mV (max)
-40 °C to
+125 °C
-40 °C to +100 °C
-0.15%/°C
(max)
±3 µV/°C
(approx)
1.02 mm (0.040 in) diameter circle
1Ω
1Ω
2Ω
2Ω
100 mA
300 mA
11 mV/kG to 28 mV/kG
150 µV (max)
-65 °C to
100 °C
HGT-3030
10 mA
±1% rdg (-10 to 10 kG)
±2% rdg (-20 to 20 kG)
——
HGT-3010
Low cost;
Instrumentation quality
Instrumentation quality
high sensitivity;
transverse; low temp
transverse ceramic package
surface mount coefficient; ceramic package
0.127 mm (0.005 in) square
300 mA
8 mV at 100 Oe
(min)
HGT-2101**†
-0.06%/°C (max)
±1.2 µV/°C (approx)
+0.15%/°C (approx)
34 AWG copper 36 AWG copper 34 AWG copper 34 AWG copper
34 AWG copper with
with poly-nylon with poly‐nylon with poly‐nylon
with Teflon®
poly‐nylon insulation
insulation
insulation
insulation
insulation
Single
Single sensitivity value
Single sensitivity value at IC = 100 mA
sensitivity value
at IC = 1 mA
at H = 100 Oe
±6 µV/°C
(approx)
+0.3%/°C
(approx)
0.55 mV/kG to
1.05 mV/kG
±1% rdg (-30 to 30 kG)
±1.5% rdg (-100 to 100 kG)
6.0 mV/kG to
10.0 mV/kG
±0.30% rdg (-10 to 10 kG)
±1.25% rdg (-30 to 30 kG)
±50 µV (max)
±75 µV (max)
-40 °C to +100 °C
-0.005%/°C max
-0.04%/°C (max)
±0.4 µV/°C (approx)
±0.3 µV/°C (approx)
+0.15%/°C (approx)
+0.18%/°C (approx)
NA
34 AWG copper with poly‐nylon insulation
Uncalibrated
Room temperature, 30 kG data supplied
*Cannot be used with Lake Shore gaussmeters.
**Compatible with Lake Shore Model 410 gaussmeter only.
†
The Model 2101 is a replacement for the Model 2100; consult Lake Shore for comparison.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
57
57
Introduction
Magnetic
Field Technology
58
58
Hall Sensors — Specifications
Cryogenic Hall generators
Lead Colors:
Red+IC
Green-IC
Blue+VH
Clear-VH
HGCT-3020
HGCA-3020
6.35 mm (0.25
in) diameter
254 mm (10 in)(min)
5.08 mm (0.20 in)
6.10 mm (0.240 in)(max)
+B
2.67 mm (0.105 in)
Description
Active area (approx)
Input resistance (approx)
Output resistance (approx)
Nominal control current (ICN)
Maximum continuous current
(non-heat sinked, 25 °C)
Magnetic sensitivity
(IC = nominal control current)
Maximum linearity error
(sensitivity vs field)
Zero field offset voltage
(IC = nominal control current)
Operating temperature range
Mean temperature coefficient
of magnetic sensitivity
Mean temperature coefficient
of offset
(IC = nominal control current)
Mean temperature coefficient
of resistance
Leads
Data
5.08 mm (0.20 in) diameter
HGCA-3020
Cryogenic axial;
phenolic package
0.76 mm (0.030 in)
diameter circle
HGCT-3020
Cryogenic transverse;
ceramic package
1.02 mm (0.040 in)
diameter circle
1Ω
1Ω
100 mA
300 mA
0.55 mV/kG to 1.05 mV/kG
±1.0% rdg (-30 kG to +30 kG) ±2.0% rdg (-150 kG
to +150 kG)
±200 µV (max)
1.5 K to 375 K
see temperature error table below
±0.4 µV/K (approx)
+0.6%/K (max)
34 AWG copper with Teflon® insulation
Room temperature, 30 kG data supplied
+B
254 mm (10 in)(min)
lead length
center active area
protective ceramic case
4.57 mm (0.180 in)
Ordering information
Axial Hall generators
Part number
HGA-2010
HGA-2302
HGA-2303
HGA-3010
HGA-3030
Description
General purpose axial Hall generator; plastic package
General purpose axial Hall sensor; phenolic shoulder
General purpose axial Hall sensor; phenolic shoulder
Instrumentation quality axial Hall generator; phenolic package
Instrumentation quality axial Hall generator; phenolic package
Transverse Hall generators
Part number
HGT-1010
HGT-1020
HGT-1050
HGT-1070
HGT-2010
HGT-2101
HGT-3010
HGT-3030
Description
General purpose transverse Hall generator
General purpose transverse Hall generator
General purpose transverse Hall generator; flat mount
Ferrite embedded transverse Hall generator
General purpose transverse Hall generator
Surface mount transverse Hall generator
Instrumentation quality transverse Hall generator; ceramic package
Instrumentation quality transverse Hall generator; ceramic package
Cryogenic Hall generators
Part number Description
HGCA-3020
Cryogenic axial Hall generator; phenolic package
HGCT-3020Cryogenic transverse Hall generator; ceramic package
Accessories available
CAL-1X-DATA 1-axis Hall generator recalibration with certificate and data
Temperature error table
The magnetic sensitivity generally increases as the temperature drops below 300 K.
However, this trend reverses between 200 K and 100 K, and the sensitivity decreases
at an increasing rate as the temperature cools. The sensitivity increase versus room
temperature is as follows:
Room Temp
200 K
100 K
80 K
20 K
4K
1.5 K
1.14 mm
(0.045 in)
(max)
16 mm
(0.63 in)
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Change in Magnetic Sensitivity (approximate)
Ref
+0.05%
–0.04%
–0.09%
–0.4%
–0.7%
–1.05%
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Flux Technology — Model 480
Introduction
Flux Measurement
Technology
Model 480 Fluxmeter
Model 480 features
DD 5¾-digit DC resolution (1 part out of ±300,000)
DD Automatic drift compensation
DD Very fast peak capture
DD AC frequency response to 50 kHz
DD IEEE-488 and serial interfaces
DD Storage of parameters for up to 10 existing coils
DD CE mark certification
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
59
59
60
60
Introduction
Flux
Measurement Technology
Flux Technology — Model 480
Product description
An advanced tool designed primarily for
use in industrial and measurement systems
settings, the Model 480 fluxmeter measures
total flux from which B, flux density, and H,
magnetic field strength, can be determined.
The Model 480 is valuable for magnetizing,
manual and automated magnet testing and
sorting, and as the main component in BH
loop or hysteresis measurement system
applications. The Model 480 is compatible
with most sensing coils and fixtures.
Manual magnet testing
A bright display and fast update rate make
the Model 480 ideal for manual magnet
sorting and testing. The instrument’s low
drift improves productivity with fewer
adjustments. Remote terminals allow for foot
pedal reading reset to keep hands on the
work, not the instrument. Configurable alarms
give an audible signal or relay closure to
signify pass/fail.
Automated magnet testing
In automated testing, time is money. The
Model 480 has many features to enhance
throughput. The instrument has a fast update
rate and fast settling time. It recovers quickly
from reading reset to start a new reading
cycle. The IEEE-488 and serial interfaces
included with the Model 480 can be used to
control most instrument functions. Relays and
analog outputs can be used for automation
without a computer interface.
Magnetizing
The magnetizing process places unique
demands on all associated electronics. The
Model 480 responds with a very fast peak
capture that can keep up with the fastest
magnetizing pulses. Both a positive and
negative peak can be captured from the
same pulse. The input of the Model 480 is
protected against the high voltages present
during magnetizing.
Materials analysis
High resolution and low drift define a
fluxmeter’s role in analytical measurement.
The high resolution of the Model 480 is
reinforced by a low noise floor. A configurable
filter helps keep the readings quiet.
Automatic and manual drift adjustment
modes help optimize the integrators’ low
drift characteristics. The IEEE-488 and serial
computer interfaces included with the 480
allow automated data taking.
the instrument and coil are idle. It is ready
when you are to make precision low-drift
measurements. The adjustment algorithm has
no effect during flux integration. Manual drift
adjustment is also available.
Display
The Model 480 has a 2-line by 20-character
vacuum fluorescent display. During normal
operation, the display is used to report field
readings and give results of other features
such as max/min or relative. When setting
instrument parameters, the display gives the
operator meaningful prompts and feedback
to simplify operation. The operator can also
control display brightness.
Following are three examples of the various
display configurations:
AC magnetic fields
Sensing coils are sensitive to AC magnetic
fields but many conventional integrating
fluxmeters can not measure AC fields. The
Model 480 has an AC mode that enables it to
measure fields over a wide frequency range
using simple sensing coils. Applications are
limited to field volumes as large as or larger
than the coil, but for some it is an inexpensive
way to make low drift AC field measurements.
Drift adjustment
Adjusting or nulling the drift of an analog
integrator wastes time—it can be the only
unpleasant part of using an integrating
fluxmeter. Lake Shore innovation brings some
relief. The Model 480 has a built-in drift
algorithm that continually adjusts drift when
Normal reading—the default mode with the display
of the live DC flux reading
DC positive and negative peak on—the display shows
both the positive and negative DC peak readings
Alarm on—the alarm gives an audible and visual
indication of when the flux value is selectively outside
or inside a user-specified range
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Flux Technology — Model 480
Introduction
Flux Measurement
Technology
Helmholtz and search coils
FH-series Helmholtz coils
Coils and probes wound by the user or from other manufacturers
can be easily used with the Model 480. The Model 480 allows
the user to save parameters for up to 10 existing coils/probes
and quickly switch between them. Lake Shore also offers several
sensing coils and probe assemblies for use with the Model 480
that have several conveniences. They are factory calibrated for
accuracy and interchangeability. Calibration data is loaded into
memory in the probe connector so it does not have to be entered
by the user. Special coil assemblies are also available and can be
designed to meet customer specifications.
Lake Shore coils can be used with the
Model 480 fluxmeter as well as
with other fluxmeters. When
used with a Model 480
fluxmeter, calibration
and set up data are
automatically loaded into
the instrument. These
probes and coils are
accurately calibrated,
using field standards
maintained at Lake
Shore. Most standards are
traceable to physical standards
such as a coil or probe of carefully
controlled dimensions, or in some cases, to
proton resonance. The coil constants are measured on the basis of
the field generated by a current through the coil.
See pages 63, 64, and 65 for more information about available
Helmholtz and search coils.
Model 480 rear panel
➊
➋
➌
➍
Line input assembly
➎
➏
Coil input for user coils
➊
➋
Serial I/O interface
➎
IEEE-488 interface
Terminal block
(for relays and analog signals)*
Probe input for Lake Shore probes
➌
➍
➏
* The Model 480 terminal block has connections for external reset. With this feature. a foot pedal or
programmable logic controller (PLC) can be used to start a new measurement cycle. The external reset is
TTL-compatible and a logic low will activate a reset. The signal is internally pulled up to allow operation with a
simple switch closure between pins 12 and 13.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
61
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Introduction
Flux
Measurement Technology
62
62
Flux Technology — Model 480
Model 480 specifications
Measurement
Number of inputs: 1
Input type: 2-lead, ground referenced
Input resistance: 100 kΩ or 10 kΩ
Maximum operating input voltage: 60 V
Absolute maximum input voltage: 100 V—WARNING—voltages between 60 V and
100 V will not damage the instrument but could result in personal injury or damage to
other instruments
Update rate: 5 rdg/s display; 30 rdg/s IEEE-488; 30 rdg/s serial
DC
DC resolution: To 5¾ digits
DC integrator capacitance: 1 µF nominal
DC input resistance
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
DC ranges
300 mVs
30 mVs
30 mVs
3 mVs
DC resolution
0.001 mVs 0.0005 mVs 0.0005 mVs 0.0005 mVs
DC accuracy: Offset: ±10 µVs ±DC integrator drift; gain: ±0.25% of reading (<10 Vs/s
maximum rate of change)
DC minimum dΦ/dt: 20 µVs/min
DC maximum dΦ/dt: 60 Vs/s
DC integrator drift: ±1 µVs/min, 0.0004% full scale/min on 300 mVs range (100 kΩ input
resistance constant temperature environment)
DC peak
DC peak resolution: 4¾ digits
DC peak integrator capacitance: 1 µF nominal
DC peak input resistance
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
DC peak ranges
300 mVs
30 mVs
30 mVs
3 mVs
DC peak resolution
0.01 mVs 0.001 mVs 0.001 mVs 0.001 mVs
DC peak minimum reading 0.05 mVs 0.005 mVs 0.005 mVs 0.005 mVs
DC peak accuracy: Offset: ±100 µVs ±DC integrator drift; gain: ±5% of reading
(<10 Vs/s maximum rate of change)
DC peak maximum dΦ/dt: 60 Vs/s
DC peak update rate: Reduces update rate to ¼ normal
AC
AC resolution: 4¾ digits (reduced to 3¾ digits on the 30 µVs range)
AC integrator capacitance: 0.1 µF nominal
AC input resistance
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
AC ranges
30 mVs
3 mVs
300 µVs
30 µVs
AC resolution
0.001 mVs 0.0001 mVs 0.01 µVs
0.01 µVs
AC minimum reading
3.000 mVs 0.3000 mVs 30.00 µVs 3.00 µVs
AC frequency response: 2 Hz to 50 kHz
AC accuracy: ±1% rdg ±10 µVs (10 Hz to 10 kHz sinusoidal); ±5% rdg ±10 µVs
(2 Hz to 50 kHz sinusoidal)
AC integrator drift: NA
AC peak
AC peak resolution: 3¾ digits
AC peak integrator capacitance: 0.1 µF nominal
AC input resistance:
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
AC peak ranges:
30 mVs
3 mVs
300 µVs
AC peak resolution:
0.01 mVs 0.001 mVs
1 µVs
AC minimum reading:
0.01 mVs 0.001 mVs
5 µVs
AC peak accuracy: ±5% rdg ±10 µVs (10 Hz to 10 kHz sinusoidal); ±10% rdg ±10 µVs
(2 Hz to 50 kHz sinusoidal)
AC peak update rate: Reduces update rate to ¼ normal
Front panel
Display type: 2-line × 20-character vacuum fluorescent display
Display resolution: To ±5¾ digits
Display update rate: 5 rdg/s
Display units: Vs, MxN, WbN, VsΦ, MxΦ, WbΦ, G, T, Wbcm, A, %
Units multipliers: p, n, µ, m, k, M, G
Annunciators: AC—AC input signal, DC—DC input signal,
—positive and negative
peaks, R—remote operation, —alarm on
Keypad: 21 full-travel keys
Interfaces
IEEE-488.2 capabilities: SH1, AH1, T5, L4, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT0, C0, E1
Serial interface: RS-232C electrical, DA-9 connector, 9600 baud
External reset type: Contact closure
Alarms
Number: 2
Settings: High and low setpoint, Inside/Outside, Audible
Actuators: Display annunciator, beeper, relays
Relays
Number: 3
Contacts: Normally open (NO), normally closed (NC), and common (C)
Contact rating: 30 VDC at 2 A
Operation: Follow high, low alarms with third relay indicating no alarm state—can be
operated manually
Connector: Detachable terminal block
Monitor analog output
Scale: ±3 V = ±full scale on Vs range
Accuracy: ±1% of reading ±10 mV, (DC to 10 kHz); ±5% of reading ±10 mV,
(10 kHz to 50 kHz)
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ
Connector: Detachable terminal block
Corrected analog output
Scale: User selected
Range: ±10 V
Resolution: 0.3 mV
Accuracy: ±2.5 mV
Minimum load resistance: 1 kΩ
Connector: Detachable terminal block
General
Ambient temperature: 15 °C to 35 °C at rated accuracy, 5 °C to 40 °C with reduced
accuracy
Power requirement: 100, 120, 220, 240 VAC, +5% -10%, 50 or 60 Hz, 20 VA
Size: 216 mm W × 89 mm H × 318 mm D (8.5 in × 3.5 in × 12.5 in), half rack
Weight: 3 kg (6.6 lb)
Approval: CE mark, RoHS
Ordering information
Part number
Description
480
Model 480 fluxmeter
Please indicate your power/cord configuration:
1
100 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
2
120 V—U.S. cord (NEMA 5-15)
3
220 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
4
240 V—Euro cord (CEE 717)
5
240 V—U.K. cord (BS 1363)
6
240 V—Swiss cord (SEV 1011)
7
220 V—China cord (GB 1002)
Accessories included
106-739
Two 8-pin terminal block mating connectors
119-028
Model 480 user manual
Accessories available
40051 m (3.3 ft) long IEEE-488 (GPIB) computer interface cable
assembly—includes extender required for simultaneous use of
IEEE cable and auxiliary terminal block
CAL-480-CERT
Instrument recalibration with certificate
CAL-480-DATA
Instrument recalibration with certificate and data
CAL-N8-DATA
Calibration data for a new Model 480
Rack mount kit for mounting one Model 480 in 483 mm
RM-1/2
(19 in) rack
RM-2
Rack mount hit for mounting two Model 480s in 483 mm
(19 in) rack
Coils—see pages 63, 64, and 65 for more information
FNT-6R04-100
100 cm2 search coil
FNT-5P04-30
30 cm2 search coil
FH-2.5
Helmholtz coil, 64 mm (2.5 in) ID
FH-6
Helmholtz coil, 152 mm (6 in) ID
FH-12
Helmholtz coil, 305 mm (12 in) ID
FCBL-6
User programmable cable with PROM, 1.5 m (5 ft) long
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Flux Technology — Search Coils
Introduction
Flux Measurement
Technology
63
63
Search coils
(for use with the Model 480 fluxmeter only)
The 100 cm2 field probe is the most commonly used search coil, while the 30 cm2 field probe is useful for measurements in narrow gaps or where
field gradients dictate the use of a smaller coil diameter.
FNT-6R04-100
0.25%
100 cm2
6.5 Ω
10.4 mm
Calibration accuracy
Area-turns (approx)
Coil resistance (approx)
Average coil diameter
Operating temperature range
Input resistance (fluxmeter)
DC ranges
FNT-5P04-30
0.35%
30 cm2
110 Ω
3.9 mm
0 °C to 60 °C
10 kΩ
Φ
30 mV·s
3 mV·s
300 µV·s
30 µV·s
3 µV·s
Additional AC ranges
100 kΩ
Β
3T
300 mT
30 mT
3 mT
300 µT
Φ
300 mV·s
30 mV·s
3 mV·s
300 µV·s
30 µV·s
10 kΩ
Β
30 T
3T
300 mT
30 mT
3 mT
Φ
30 mV·s
3 mV·s
300 µV·s
30 µV·s
3 µV·s
100 kΩ
Β
10 T
1T
100 mT
10 mT
1 mT
Φ
300 mV·s
30 mV·s
3 mV·s
300 µV·s
30 µV·s
Β
100 T
10 T
1T
100 mT
10 mT
FNT-5P04-30
FNT-6R04-100
1.5 m (5 ft)
19.1 mm (0.75 in) dia (max)
102 mm (4 in)
(approx)
plastic stem
+Φ
1.57 mm
(0.062 in)
9.1 mm
(0.36 in) dia
plastic stem
76 mm (3 in)
102 ±3.18mm
(4±0.125) in)
8.9 mm (0.35 in)
1.5 m (5 ft)
+Φ
102 ±3.18mm
(4±0.125) in)
coil
5.84 mm (0.23 in)
17.8 mm
(0.7 in)
sensing coil
sensing coil
NOTE: +Φ is designated as that flux passing
through the coil, into the side with the Lake Shore
logo on the probe handle
1.40 mm
(0.055 in)
8.13 mm
(0.32 in)
NOTE: +Φ is designated as that flux passing
through the coil, into the side with the Lake Shore
logo on the probe handle
Ordering information
Part number
FNT-5P04-30
FNT-6R04-100
Description
Field probe: 30 cm2
Field probe: 100 cm2
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
64
64
Introduction
Flux
Measurement Technology
Flux Technology — Helmholtz Coils
Helmholtz Coils
Field standards
DD Field accuracy of 0.75%
DD Field uniformity of 0.5%*
DD Standard field coil (field generation)
DD Maximum field strengths from ≈26 G to ≈60 G
DD Single axis configuration with 2.5 in, 6 in, and 12 in diameter coils
Magnet moment measurement
DD Calibration accuracy of 0.5%
DD Use with Model 480 fluxmeter only
DD Inspection and research of magnets (measure moment)
DD Single and 2-axis configurations with 2.5 in, 6 in and 12 in diameter coils
*Model dependent, see technical specifications
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Introduction
Flux Measurement
Technology
Flux Technology — Helmholtz Coils
Magnet moment measurement
for use with the Model 480 fluxmeter only
We offer 3 Helmholtz coils for fluxmeter moment measurements: 64 mm (2.5 in), 152 mm (6 in), and 305 mm (12 in) diameter.
FH-2.5
Calibration accuracy
Inside diameter
Coil resistance (approx)
Operating temperature range
Coil constant (approx)
Input resistance (fluxmeter)
Range (approx)
FH-6
0.75%
152 mm (6 in)
110 Ω
0 °C to 60 °C
0.016 Wb·cm/V·s
64 mm (2.5 in)
35 Ω
0.013 Wb·cm/V·s
10 kΩ
100 kΩ
390 µWb·cm
3.9 mWb·cm
39 µWb·cm
390 µWb·cm
10 kΩ
480 µWb·cm
48 µWb·cm
FH-2.5
100 kΩ
4.8 mWb·cm
480 µWb·cm
FH-12
305 mm (12 in)
140 Ω
0.047 Wb·cm/V·s
10 kΩ
100 kΩ
1.4 mWb·cm
14 mWb·cm
140 µWb·cm
1.4 mWb·cm
FH-6
102 mm (4.0 in)
64 mm
(2.5 in) bore
32 mm
(1.25 in)
wide 25 mm
(1.00 in)
high
opening
through
both sides
152 mm
(6.0 in) ID
203 mm
(8 in)
+B
+B
127 mm
(5.0 in)
76 mm
(3.0 in)
banana jacks
(current input)
102 mm
(4 in)
88.9 mm
(3.5 in)
banana jacks
(voltage output)
FH-12
59.2 mm
(2.33 in)
107 mm (4.2 in)
142 mm
(5.6 in)
305 mm
(12 in) ID
381 mm
(15 in)
137 mm (5.4 in)
Ordering information
Part number
FH-2.5
FH-6
FH-12
Bx
220 mm
(8.65 in)
Description
64 mm (2.5 in) Helmholtz coil
152 mm (6 in) Helmholtz coil
305 mm (12 in) Helmholtz coil
All specifications are subject to change without notice
NOTE: The FH Series coils are for use with the Lake Shore Model 480 fluxmeter only.
They cannot be used with the Model 475, 455, 460, 450, or 421 gaussmeters.
200 mm
(7.875 in)
305 mm (12 in)
241 mm
(9.5 in)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Introduction
Flux
Measurement Technology
6
66
Flux Technology — Helmholtz Coils
Field standards
for use with current source or power supply only
We offer 4 Helmholtz coils for field standards: 64 mm (2.5 in), 152 mm (6 in), and 305 mm (12 in) diameter single-axis, and the MX-2X-10 double-axis.
MH-2.5
MH-6
MH-12
Field accuracy (center)
Inside diameter
64 mm (2.5 in)
152 mm (6 in)
305 mm (12 in)
≈30 G/A
≈25 G/A
≈13 G/A
Field strength
Max continuous current
Field uniformity
MH-2X-10
0.75%
305 mm (12 in) x-axis and 248 mm
(9.75 in) y-axis
≈30 G/A
(note: coils are not exactly matched)
2 A (DC or RMS)
0.5% within a cylindrical volume 19 0.5% within a cylindrical volume
0.5% within a cylindrical volume
mm (0.75 in) long, 19 mm (0.75 in) 41 mm (1.6 in) long, 41 mm (1.6 in) 76 mm (3.0 in) long, 76 mm (3.0 in)
diameter, at center of coil
diameter, at center of coil
diameter, at center of coil
DC coil resistance/
inductance (approx)
Operating temp range
3 Ω/6.3 mH
10 Ω/36 mH
20 Ω/93 mH
≈0.5% within a 64 mm (2.5 in) cube, at
center of coil
20 Ω (x-axis), 15 Ω (y-axis)/128 mH
(x-axis), 74 mH (y-axis)
-20 °C to 40 °C (-4 °F to 104 °F)
MH-12
MH-2.5
102 mm
(4.0 in)
64 mm
(2.5 in)
bore
32 mm
(1.25 in)
wide 25 mm
(1.00 in)
high opening
through
both sides
142 mm
(5.6 in)
305 mm
(12 in) ID
107 mm
(4.2 in)
Bx
+B
381 mm
(15 in)
127 mm
(5.0 in)
76 mm
(3.0 in)
200 mm
(7.875 in)
banana jacks
(current input)
241 mm
(9.5 in)
305 mm (12 in)
MH-6
59.2 mm
(2.33 in)
MH-2X-10
305 mm (12 in)
ID of x-coil
381 mm
(15 in)
152 mm
(6.0 in) ID
203 mm
(8 in)
248mm
(9.75 in)
ID of
y-coil
By
Bx
+B
banana jacks
(current input)
102 mm
(4 in)
88.9 mm
(3.5 in)
220 mm
(8.65 in)
support
platform
with 1/4-20
tapped holes
200 mm
(7.875 in)
to center
of field
108 mm
(4.25 in)
to top of
support
platform
137 mm (5.4 in)
305 mm (12 in)
254 mm (10 in)
Ordering Information
Part number
Description
MH-2.5
64 mm (2.5 in) inside diameter, maximum field approximately 60 G
MH-6
152 mm (6 in) inside diameter, maximum field approximately 50 G
MH-12305 mm (12 in) inside diameter, maximum field approximately 26 G
MH-2X-10305 mm (12 in) inside diameter (x-axis), 248 mm (9.75 in) inside
diameter (y-axis), maximum field approximately 30 G
NOTE: The MH Series coils are for use as low field standards. They cannot be used with the
Model 480 fluxmeter.
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Electromagnet Platforms
Introduction
Field Control
and Power
Field Controlled Electromagnet Platforms
FCP features
DD Ideal for user designed magnetic measurement systems
DD Fields exceeding 3 T
DD Solid and optical access pole caps available
DD 4-, 7-, and 10-inch electromagnet configurations
DD Continuously variable air gap electromagnets available
DD Linear, bipolar, true 4-quadrant electromagnet power supplies
DD Stable field control with the Lake Shore Model 475 gaussmeter
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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68
68
Introduction
Field
Control and Power
Electromagnet Platforms — Information
Product description
The electromagnet field control platform
(FCP) integrates hardware and firmware
components to form a variable magnetic
field platform that can be used independently
or as the foundation for a user-designed
magnetic measurement system.
The FCPs include a Lake Shore electromagnet, a bipolar magnet power supply, a
DSP gaussmeter with integrated field control
firmware, and a gaussmeter Hall probe and
holder.
Lake Shore FCPs can be configured to
accommodate specific user requirements
based on magnetic field strength, field
uniformity, sample size, and custom
measurement applications. The platforms
are ideally suited for integration into
user-designed magnetic test systems for
applications including magneto-optical
studies, in-line annealing, Hall effect studies,
susceptibility measurements, spin magnetic
resonance demonstrations, B-H curves, and
precision sensor calibration.
System features
The FCP electromagnets feature continuously
adjustable air gaps, allowing rapid air gap
changes to suit individual experiments. They
have water-cooled coils and precision yokes
made of magnetically soft, ultra-pure steel,
assuring precise pole cap alignment as well
as excellent field homogeneity and stability.
The H-yoke configurations are oriented at a
45° angle for optimum air gap accessibility.
The electromagnets also incorporate compact
size with steel eyebolts, permitting bench-top
mounting to optical tables.
The FCP magnet power supplies provide
stable current regulation and bipolar power
output. The bipolar output allows rapid
uniform magnetic field ramping and field
reversal, avoiding discontinuities that occur
during zero crossover when using unipolar
power supplies. The bipolar output also
eliminates the need for current reversal
contactors or relays. The magnet power
supplies are CE compliant and include
features such as automatic power output
disable upon failure detection, operation as
Gaussmeter display
a current or voltage source, and operation in
either manual or remote mode.
Unlike other commercial solutions, the
Lake Shore FCP system incorporates
closed-loop field control (also called feedback
control) capability directly into the Model
475 DSP gaussmeter, eliminating the need
for a separate computer with redundant
software control. The Model 475 includes
the electronics and firmware to perform
closed-loop, digital PI field control of the
electromagnet and magnet power supply.
The Model 475 has a 2-line by 20-character
vacuum fluorescent display. During normal
operation, the display is used to report the
current field value and field control setpoint.
When setting instrument field control
parameters, the display provides prompts
for turning the control on/off, entering the
control setpoint, entering the control P and I
values, entering a ramp rate, and entering the
control slope limit. When field control is not
active, the display can be configured to show
features such as maximum and minimum DC
field values, RMS field value, frequency, or
probe temperature.
Control features
The Model 475 attempts to keep the
magnetic field density at exactly the userentered control setpoint, expressed in
gauss, tesla, oersted, or ampere/meter. To
do this, the Model 475 uses feedback from
the gaussmeter Hall probe to calculate and
actively adjust the control (analog) output. In
order to maximize control stability, the Model
475 updates the analog output every 33 ms.
The result is an internal PI controller providing
peak-to-peak field stability of 0.5 G*.
When the setpoint ramp is enabled, the
instrument will start ramping from the current
field reading, rather than the current setpoint,
based on the user settable P and I settings. In
addition, the 475 can be configured to ramp
the control setpoint from the present field
reading to a new value by using a smooth
linear transition in field rather than the step
response PI control.
Open-loop field control is also possible by
using the Model 475 analog output in manual
output, meaning feedback is ignored and
the analog output stays at the manual user
setting. This method makes the magnet
power supply operate in constant current
mode.
Keypad
The instrument has a 22-position keypad
with individual keys assigned to frequently
used features. Menus are reserved for less
frequently used setup operations. The keypad
can be locked out to prevent unintended
changes of instrument setup.
Computer interface
Two computer interfaces are included with
the Model 475, serial RS-232C and parallel
IEEE-488. Both allow setup of all instrument
parameters and read-back of measured
values. The maximum reading rate over the
interface is nominally 30 readings per second
during field control. LabVIEW™ driver for the
Model 475 is provided. Application software
is not included with the FCP.
compliant to both the
low voltage directive
and the electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC) directive,
which includes the radiated
emissions requirements
The Model 475 also incorporates usersettable control slope limits and analog
output voltage limits. These software limits
assure that the magnet power supply is
not damaged if the field control system is
improperly tuned or begins to oscillate.
*Measured at 0 G and 1000 G
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Electromagnet Platforms — Specifications
Introduction
Field Control
and Power
Specifications
The features and specifications of Lake Shore field control platforms are consistent with
their individual components and are summarized below. Detailed component specifications
are included in their individual sections. Typical system performance illustrates how the
components behave as a system. Field stability values were measured on a FC-EM7 system.
Results will vary with magnet size, magnet gap, and system setup.
Typical system performance
FC-EM4
FC-EM7
FC-EM10
Field stability (peak-to-peak)
—
0.5 G at 0 G and 1 kG
—
Control type
Closed loop PI
Control output resolution
0.001% of full// scale output
Control output update period
33 ms
Electromagnet
EM4-HVA
EM7-HV
EM10-HV
See page 71 for field plots and detailed specifications
Frame, gap
H frame, variable gap
Nominal coil (Ω)
0.5 Ω
1.0 Ω
0.25 Ω
Coil connection
Series
Parallel
Series
Pole size
Customer specified
Up to 102 mm (4 in),
Up to 178 mm (7 in),
Up to 160 mm (6.3 in),
Air gap
continuously variable
continuously variable
continuously variable
Field strength
See page 71
Consult Lake Shore
Power supply
643
648
648
See page 77 for detailed specifications
Output
Linear, bipolar
Current output
±35 A per coil
±67.5 A per coil
±67.5 A per coil
Voltage
±35 V nominal
±67.5 V nominal
±67.5 V nominal
Power output
2450 W
9.1 kW nominal
9.1 kW nominal
204/208, 220/230, 380, 200. 208, 220, 230, 380, 200. 208, 220, 230, 380,
AC line input
400/415 VAC, 3-phase 400, 415 VAC, 3-phase (3 400, 415 VAC, 3-phase (3
(3 wire plus ground)
wire plus ground)
wire plus ground)
Gaussmeter
475
See page 16 for detailed specifications
Resolution
5 3/4 digit (1 part out of ±350,000)
Ranges
8 ranges from 35 mG to 350 kG full scale
Basic DC accuracy
±0.05%
Frequency ranges
DC, 1 Hz to 1 kHz, and 50 Hz to 20 kHz
Update rate
Display: 5 readings per s; IEEE-488: 30 rdg/s
Hall probe
HMMT-6J02-VF
HMMT-6J04-VF
HMMT-6J08-VF
See page 43 for detailed specifications
5.1 ±3.2 mm
10.2 ±3.2 mm
20.3 ±3.2 mm
Length
(2 ±0.125 in)
(4 ±0.125 in)
(8 ±0.125 in)
Size/weight (H × D × W)
0.81 × 0.51 × 0.54 m
0.94 × 0.66 × 1.02 m
0.87 × 0.64 × 0.92 m
Electromagnet
(32 × 21 × 33 in);
(37 × 26 × 40 in);
(34 × 25 × 36 in);
247 kg (545 lb)
614 kg (1350 lb)
1800 kg (3970 lb)
0.31 × 0.57 × 0.48 m
1.35 × 0.70 × 0.60 m
1.35 × 0.70 × 0.60 m
Power supply
(12 × 23 × 19 in);
(53 × 28 × 24 in);
(53 × 28 × 24 in);
74 kg (163 lb)
250 kg (550 lb)
354 kg (780 lb)
Gaussmeter/Hall probe
89 × 318 × 216 mm (3.5 × 12.5 × 8.5 in); 3 kg (6.6 lb)
Gaussmeter Hall probe
cable length up to 30 m
2.5 in
T
L
+B
A
9.1 ± 0.76 mm (0.36 ±0.030 in) diam
W
Following are examples of the various
display configurations and setup screens:
The display configured to turn the field control On/Off
The display configured to enter the field control setpoint
The display configured to enter the field control ‘P’ value
The display configured to enter the field control ‘I’ value
The display configured to enter the field control ramp rate
The display configured to set the field control slope limit
The display configured to show the field control setpoint
and current field value, when field control is active
Ordering information
Customer specifies single-phase voltage,
3-phase voltage, and pole cap diameter
Part number
Description
FC-EM4-HVA
Field controlled platform with
EM4-HVA-S electromagnet
FC-EM7
Field controlled platform with
EM7-HV electromagnet
FC-EM10
Field controlled platform with
EM10-HV electromagnet
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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70
70
Introduction
Field
Control and Power
Electromagnets
Electromagnets
EM4-HVA, EM7-HV
DD Continuously adjustable poles allow rapid air gap changes to suit
individual experiments, assuring magnet versatility
DD Exceptional field intensities achieved with cylindrical or tapered
pole caps
DD Water-cooled coils provide excellent field stability and uniformity
DD Removable pole caps facilitate variable pole face configurations
and easy pole cap exchange
DD Single axis configuration with 2.5 in, 6 in, and 12 in diameter coils
DD Accurate pole alignment by precise construction of the air gap
adjustment mechanism
DD The EM7 yoke is oriented at a 45° angle and the EM4 yoke at a
40° angle for optimum air gap accessibility
DD Compact size of the EM4 permits convenient bench-top mounting
DD Optional optical access pole caps available
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Electromagnets — Information
Introduction
Specifications
The Lake Shore EM4 and EM7 series
electromagnets (EM) produce variable
magnetic fields with a variety of air gap
and pole cap configurations. The EM
series are ideally suited for integration into
customer-designed magnetic test platforms
for applications including magneto-optical
studies, magnetic hysteresis studies, in-line
annealing, Hall effect studies, susceptibility
measurements, spin magnetic resonance
demonstrations, and biological studies.
Typical field uniformity (EM4 magnets)
The HV series feature continuously adjustable
poles, allowing rapid air gap changes to
suit individual experiments, and threaded
or bolt-on mounting that provides easy pole
cap exchange. The EM series incorporate
water-cooled coils and precision yokes
made of magnetically soft, ultra-pure steel,
assuring precise pole cap alignment as well
as excellent field homogeneity and stability.
The EM7 yoke is oriented at a 45° angle and
the EM4 yoke at a 40° angle for optimum air
gap accessibility. The EM4 series are also
compact in size and have steel eyebolts,
permitting convenient bench-top mounting to
optical tables.
The EM series coupled with a Lake Shore
magnet power supply (MPS) form a versatile
laboratory electromagnet characterization
system. This system, with true bipolar
MPS power output, provides rapid uniform
magnetic field ramping and field reversal
to avoid discontinuities that occur during
zero crossover when using unipolar power
supplies.
Larger magnets are also available from
Lake Shore.
Magnet configuration
Pole cap
Air gap
mm (in)
mm (in)
102 (4.0)
51 (2.0)
102 (4.0)
25 (1.0)
76 (3.0)
25 (1.0)
51 (2.0)
25 (1.0)
51 (2.0)
13 (0.5)
Introduction
Field Control
and Power
Uniformity
over 1 cm3
±0.15%
±0.05%
±0.06%
±0.35%
±0.16%
1% cylindrical volume
Diameter
Length
mm (in)
mm (in)
18 (0.7)
51 (2.0)
64 (2.5)
25 (1.0)
46 (1.8)
25 (1.0)
18 (0.7)
25 (1.0)
36 (1.4)
13 (0.5)
Typical field uniformity (EM7 magnet)
Magnet configuration
Pole cap
Air gap
mm (in)
mm (in)
51 (2.0)
16 (0.6)
51 (2.0)
25 (1.0)
102 (4.0)
16 (0.6)
102 (4.0)
25 (1.0)
102 (4.0)
38 (1.5)
102 (4.0)
51 (2.0)
Uniformity
over 1 cm3
±0.11%
±0.33%
±0.03%
±0.03%
±0.05%
±0.08%
1% cylindrical volume
Diameter
Length
mm (in)
mm (in)
28 (1.1)
16 (0.6)
10 (0.4)
25 (1.0)
74 (2.9)
16 (0.6)
66 (2.6)
25 (1.0)
48 (1.9)
38 (1.5)
23 (0.9)
51 (2.0)
NOTE: The third column gives uniformity over one cubic centimeter volume centered in the magnet gap. The last two
columns give the cylindrical volume within which the magnetic field deviates by less than 1% from the central field. The
cylindrical volume is coaxial with the magnet poles and centered in the gap.
Air gap
Coil resistance, nominal
Standard pole cap diameter
Optional pole cap diameter
Cooling water
Water flow rate
Pressure drop
Water chiller cooling capacity
Water inlet temperature
Coil over temperature limit
Coil spacing, nominal
Coil size-width, nominal
Coil size-diameter, nominal
Current
(maximum continuous operating)
Voltage, nominal
Continuous input power, nominal
Lake Shore power supply
(suggested)
EM4-HVA
Up to 109 mm (4.3 in)
continuously variable
0.25 Ω per coil
(0.5 Ω total wired in series)
51 mm (2 in)
EM7-HV
Up to 178 mm (7 in)
continuously variable
1.0 Ω per coil
(0.5 Ω total wired in parallel)
76 mm (3 in)
51 mm, 102 mm, 152 mm (2 in, 4 in,
25 mm, 76 mm, 102 mm (1 in, 3 in, 4 in)
6 in)
Tap water or closed cooling system
7.6 L/min (2 gal/min)
11.4 L/min (3 gal/min)
200 kPa (30 psi)
220 kPa (32 psi)
2.5 kW (8,530 BTU/h)
5.0 kW (17,060 BTU/h)
15 °C to 25 °C (59 °F to 77 °F)
45 °C (113 °F)
121 mm (4.75 in)
178 mm (7 in)
121 mm (4.75 in)
132 mm (5.2 in)
311 mm (12.25 in)
445 mm (17.5 in)
±70 A per coil
±50 A per coil
±35 V
2.5 kVA
±50 V
5 kVA
Model 643
Model 648
Size
Height
Width
Depth
Weight
Shipping weight
Shipping dimensions
0.39 m at 40° angle (15.25 in)
without stand
0.84 m (33.25 in)
0.51 m (20 in)
201.9 kg (445 lb)
215.5 kg (475 lb)
0.97 m × 0.58 m × 0.56 m
(38 in × 23 in × 22 in)
0.94 m (37 in)
1.02 m (40 in)
0.66 m (26 in)
635 kg (1400 lb)
660 kg (1500 lb)
0.86 m × 1.22 m × 1.19 m
(34 in × 48 in × 47 in)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Electromagnets — Specifications
Introduction
Field
Control and Power
72
72
EM4-HVA 25 mm (1 in) pole face field plot
35
EM4-HVA 51 mm (2 in) pole face field plot
30
5 mm (0.20 in)
5 mm (0.20 in)
30
15 mm (0.59 in)
16.3 mm (0.64 in)
15 mm (0.59 in)
16.3 mm (0.64 in)
20
20 mm (0.79 in)
22.9 mm (0.90 in)
25 mm (0.98 in)
28.4 mm (1.12 in)
15
38.1 mm (1.5 in)
10
Magnetic Field (kG)
25
Magnetic Field (kG)
10 mm (0.39 in)
25
10 mm (0.39 in)
20
20 mm (0.79 in)
22.9 mm (0.90 in)
25 mm (0.98 in)
28.4 mm (1.12 in)
15
38.1 mm (1.5 in)
10
50 mm (1.97 in)
50.8 mm (2.00 in)
50 mm (1.97 in)
50.8 mm (2.00 in)
5
75 mm (2.95 in)
5
75 mm (2.95 in)
100 mm (3.94 in)
110 mm (4.33 in)
100 mm (3.94 in)
110 mm (4.33 in)
0
0
0
10
20
30
Current (A)
40
50
60
0
70
EM4-HVA 76 mm (3 in) pole face field plot
25
20
30
40
Current (A)
50
60
70
EM4-HVA 102 mm (4 in) pole face field plot
25
5 mm (0.20 in)
10
10 mm (0.39 in)
20
5 mm (0.20 in)
20
15 mm (0.59 in)
16.3 mm (0.64 in)
10 mm (0.39 in)
22.9 mm (0.90 in)
25 mm (0.98 in)
28.4 mm (1.12 in)
15
38.1 mm (1.5 in)
10
50 mm (1.97 in)
50.8 mm (2.00 in)
Magnetic Field (kG)
Magnetic Field (kG)
20 mm (0.79 in)
15 mm (0.59 in)
16.3 mm (0.64 in)
20 mm (0.79 in)
22.9 mm (0.90 in)
25 mm (0.98 in)
28.4 mm (1.12 in)
15
38.1 mm (1.5 in)
10
50 mm (1.97 in)
50.8 mm (2.00 in)
75 mm (2.95 in)
5
75 mm (2.95 in)
5
100 mm (3.94 in)
110 mm (4.33 in)
0
0
0
10
20
30
Current (A)
40
50
60
70
0
EM7-HV 51 mm (2 in) pole face field plot
35
10
20
30
40
Current (A)
50
60
70
EM7-HV 76 mm (3 in) pole face field plot
30
5 mm (0.20 in)
10 mm (0.39 in)
5 mm (0.20 in)
30
25
15 mm (0.59 in)
16.3 mm (0.64 in)
20 mm (0.79 in)
22.9 mm (0.90 in)
25 mm (0.98 in)
28.4 mm (1.12 in)
20
38.1 mm (1.5 in)
15
50 mm (1.97 in)
50.8 mm (2.00 in)
10
Magnetic Field (kG)
10 mm (0.39 in)
25
Magnetic Field (kG)
100 mm (3.94 in)
110 mm (4.33 in)
15 mm (0.59 in)
16.3 mm (0.64 in)
20 mm (0.79 in)
22.9 mm (0.90 in)
25 mm (0.98 in)
28.4 mm (1.12 in)
20
38.1 mm (1.5 in)
15
50 mm (1.97 in)
50.8 mm (2.00 in)
10
75 mm (2.95 in)
75 mm (2.95 in)
100 mm (3.94 in)
125 mm (4.92 in)
133.5 mm (5.256 in)
5
100 mm (3.94 in)
125 mm (4.92 in)
133.7 mm (5.265 in)
5
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Current (A)
60
70
80
90
100
0
EM7-HV 102 mm (4 in) pole face field plot
25
10
20
30
40
50
Current (A)
60
70
80
90
EM7-HV 152 mm (6 in) pole face field plot
25
5 mm (0.20 in)
5 mm (0.20 in)
Magnetic Field (kG)
15
38.1 mm (1.5 in)
50 mm (1.97 in)
50.8 mm (2.00 in)
10
75 mm (2.95 in)
100 mm (3.94 in)
125 mm (4.92 in)
133.5 mm (5.256 in)
5
10 mm (0.39 in)
20
Magnetic Field (kG)
10 mm (0.39 in)
15 mm (0.59 in)
16.3 mm (0.64 in)
20 mm (0.79 in)
22.9 mm (0.90 in)
25 mm (0.98 in)
28.4 mm (1.12 in)
20
100
15 mm (0.59 in)
16.3 mm (0.64 in)
20 mm (0.79 in)
22.9 mm (0.90 in)
25 mm (0.98 in)
28.4 mm (1.12 in)
15
38.1 mm (1.5 in)
50 mm (1.97 in)
50.8 mm (2.00 in)
10
75 mm (2.95 in)
100 mm (3.94 in)
125 mm (4.92 in)
150 mm (5.91 in)
177.8 mm (7.00 in)
5
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Current (A)
60
70
80
90
100
0
10
20
30
40
50
Current (A)
60
70
80
90
100
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Electromagnets — Specifications
Introduction
Field Control
and Power
EM4-HVA (without stand) and EM4-HVA-S (with stand)
83.6 cm (32.9 in)
031.1 cm (12.25 in)
43.8 cm (17.25 in)
33.7 cm (13.25 in)
10.7 cm (4.2 in)
42.5 cm
(16.75 in)
32.4 cm
(12.75 in)
12.1 cm
(4.75 in)
15.2 cm (6 in)
19.5 cm (7.68 in)
2.5 cm (1 in)
3.8 cm (1.5 in)
80.9 cm
(31.86 in)
3.2 cm (1.25 in)
30.5 cm (12 in)
41.9 cm
(16.5 in)
0.78 cm (0.32 in) through
2 places
12.3 cm (4.85 in)
4.5 cm (1.77 in)
STAND
7.6 cm (3 in)
28.9 cm (11.36 in)
1/4 × 20 (in) tap
through 2 places
61.4 cm
(24.18 in)
7.6 cm (3 in)
7.6 cm (3 in)
7.6 cm (3 in)
6.6 cm (2.61 in)
45.1 cm (17.75 in)
51.7 cm (20.36 in)
44.1 cm (17.7 in)
EM7-HV
3/8-16 tap holes (2)
6.1 cm
(2.4 in)
101.6 cm (40 in)
44.5 cm (17.5 in)
6.1 cm
(2.4 in)
12.2 cm
(5.2 in)
6.1 cm
(2.4 in)
Ø = 4.1 cm (1.6 in)
35 cm (13.75 in)
52 cm (20.5 in)
intercoil space
17.8 cm (7 in)
44.5 cm
(17.5 in)
air gap
0-17 cm
(0-7 in)
6.1 cm
(2.4 in)
63.5 cm
(25 in)
31 cm
(12.2 in)
31 cm
(12.2 in)
94 cm
(37 in)
25 cm
(9.9 in)
30.5 cm
(12 in)
55.9 cm (22 in)
2.5 cm (1 in)
50.8 cm (20 in)
1.5 cm (0.6 in)
Ø holes (4)
for mounting to floor
1.5 cm (0.6 in)
Ø holes (4)
for mounting to floor
5.1 cm (2 in)
45.8 cm (18 in)
30.5 cm
(12 in)
35.6 cm (14 in)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Introduction
Field
Control and Power
Electromagnets — Ordering Information
Ordering information
102 mm (4 in) electromagnets
EM4-HVA-S
H yoke, variable gap (up to 102 mm (4 in) with stand
EM4-HVA-O-S H yoke, variable gap (up to 102 mm (4 in)
with optical access & stand
Accessories included
1 set of pole caps (EM4-2PB, 51 mm [2 in] pole cap standard —
different size can be specified at time of order); corresponding pair of lead screws;
flow switch; 3 m (10 ft) #4 AWG cables
Accessories available
EM4-1PB
Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) dia. tapered to 25 mm (1 in) face
EM4-2PB
Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) dia. tapered to 51 mm (2 in) face
EM4-3PB
Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) dia. tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face
EM4-4PB
Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) dia. with 102 mm (4 in) face
EM4-1PB-O-1-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 25 mm (1 in) face, 3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM4-1PB-O-2-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 25 mm (1 in) face, 3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM4-1PB-O-1-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 25 mm (1 in) face, 6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM4-1PB-O-2-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 25 mm (1 in) face, 6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM4-2PB-O-1-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 51 mm (2 in) face, 3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM4-2PB-O-2-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 51 mm (2 in) face, 3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM4-2PB-O-1-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 51 mm (2 in) face, 6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM4-2PB-O-2-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 51 mm (2 in) face, 6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM4-3PB-O-1-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face, 3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM4-3PB-O-2-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face, 3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM4-3PB-O-1-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face, 6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM4-3PB-O-2-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face, 6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM4-4PB-O-1-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) dia. with 102 mm (4 in) face, 3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM4-4PB-O-2-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) dia. with 102 mm (4 in) face, 3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM4-4PB-O-1-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) dia. with 102 mm (4 in) face, 6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM4-4PB-O-2-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 102 mm (4 in) dia. with 102 mm (4 in) face, 6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM4-CABLE
EM4-FLOW
Cable from magnet to supply (#4 AWG, 3 m [10 ft])
Flow switch, replacement
178 mm (7 in) electromagnets
EM7-HV H yoke, variable gap (up to 178 mm [7 in]) with stand
EM7-HV-O H yoke, variable gap (up to 178 mm [7 in]) with optical access and stand
Accessories included
1 set of pole caps, corresponding pair of lead screws, flow switch, 3 m (10 ft) #4 AWG
cables
Accessories available
EM7-2P-FECO Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) dia. tapered to 51 mm (2 in) face, FeCo
EM7-2P
Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) dia. tapered to 51 mm (2 in) face
EM7-3P
Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) dia. tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face
EM7-4P
Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) dia. tapered to 102 mm (4 in) face
EM7-6P
Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) dia. tapered to 152 mm (6 in) face
EM7-3P-O-1-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face,
3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM7-3P-O-2-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face,
3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM7-3P-O-1-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face,
6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM7-3P-O-2-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) tapered to 76 mm (3 in) face,
6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM7-6P-O-1-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) tapered to 152 mm (6 in) face,
3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM7-6P-O-2-2 Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) tapered to 152 mm (6 in) face,
3.2 mm (1/8 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM7-6P-O-1-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) tapered to 152 mm (6 in) face,
6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through one pole
EM7-6P-O-2-4 Pole cap, 1 pair, 178 mm (7 in) tapered to 152 mm (6 in) face,
6.4 mm (1/4 in) dia. bore for optical access through both poles
EM7-CABLE
EM7-FLOW
Cable from magnet to supply (#4 AWG, 3 m [10 ft])
Flow switch, replacement
Consult Lake Shore for FeCo and other pole cap materials
Additional requirements for EM4 and EM7 electromagnets:
1.Water supply (see flow rate in specifications table) or
recirculating water chiller (see www.lakeshore.com for
available chillers)
2.Crane or lifting equipment capable of lifting or moving the
weight of magnet (see specifications)
3.
Magnet power supply
4.
Area that can support the magnet weight
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Power Supply — Model 643
Introduction
Field Control
and Power
Model 643 Electromagnet Power Supply
Model 643 features
DD Low noise
DD Compact design
DD CE mark certification
DD ±70 A/±35 V, 2450 W
DD Built-in fault protection
DD Analog programming and
IEEE-488 and USB interfaces
DD Bipolar, linear, true 4-quadrant output
DD 0.1 mA of programmed current resolution
DD Can be modulated to frequencies up to 0.17 Hz at ±70 A
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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76
Introduction
Field
Control and Power
Power Supply — Model 643
Introduction
The Model 643 electromagnet power supply
is a linear, bipolar current source providing
true 4-quadrant output, eliminating the need
for external switching or operator intervention
to reverse current polarity. The Model 643
is capable of supplying ±70 A/±35 V to a
nominal 0.5 Ω, 0.5 H load, and the output
can be modulated from an external source
to frequencies up to 0.17 Hz at ±70 A.
Internally programmed output provides 20-bit
resolution, while externally programmed
output provides unlimited resolution.
The compact, low noise design of the
Model 643 makes it the ideal supply for use
in laboratory settings. When combined with
a Lake Shore EM4 4-inch electromagnet
and Model 475 DSP gaussmeter, the Model
643 provides a versatile field control system
ideal for a wide range of user defined
applications. These include but are not limited
to magneto-optical, magnetic hysteresis and
susceptibility, and Hall effect measurements,
as well as in-line annealing.
Output architecture
The Model 643 output architecture relies
on low noise linear input and output stages.
The linear circuitry of the Model 643
permits operation with less electrical noise
than switch-mode electromagnet power
supplies. The clean field background
allows greater resolution and finer detail in
results drawn from data taken during high
sensitivity experiments. One key benefit of
this architecture is CE compliance to the
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) directive,
including the radiated emissions requirement.
The true 4-quadrant output capability of the
Model 643 is ideal for sweeping through both
positive and negative fields. Tightly integrated
analog control of the 4-quadrant output
provides smooth current change with very
low overshoot. This eliminates the need for
external switching or operator intervention to
reverse the polarity, significantly simplifying
system design. The transition through zero
current is smooth and continuous, allowing
the user to readily control the magnetic
field as polarity changes. This is achieved
without reversal contactors or relays, which
would produce unintended field spikes
and other discontinuities. As a result, field
hysteresis and other biases are avoided in the
experimental data.
Output programming
The Model 643 output current is programmed
internally via the keypad or the computer
interface, externally by analog programming
input, or by the sum of the external and
internal settings. For internal programming,
the Model 643 incorporates a proprietary
20-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) that
is monotonic over the entire output range
and provides resolution of 0.1 mA. External
programming provides unlimited resolution.
The Model 643 generates extremely smooth
and continuous ramps with virtually no
overshoot. The digitally generated constant
current ramp rate is variable between
0.1 mA/s and 50 A/s. To ensure smooth ramp
rate, the power supply updates the highresolution DAC 23.7 times per second. A lowpass filter on the output DAC smooths the
transitions at step changes during ramping.
Output reading
The Model 643 provides high-resolution
output readings. The output current reading
reflects the actual current in the magnet,
and has a resolution of 0.1 mA. The output
voltage reading reports the voltage at the
output terminals with a resolution of 0.1
mV. All output readings can be prominently
displayed on the front panel and read over
the computer interface.
Protection
The Model 643 provides built-in protection
against short circuit, open circuit, line loss,
low line voltage, high line voltage, output
over voltage, output over current, over
temperature, and abrupt change of the
external programming input. In the event
of water flow failure, flow sensors provide
feedback to the Model 643 and output
current is set to 0 A. Internal heat sink, cold
plate, and transformer temperatures are also
monitored. Warnings are displayed before
temperature limits are exceeded and current
is set to 0 A. If temperatures continue to
increase over safety limits, the Model 643
turns off.
A proprietary circuit limits the power
dissipated in the water-cooled cold plate
should low resistance and high line
conditions exist. The Model 643 protects
itself if operated into resistances outside of
nominal limits. By limiting current output,
the power supply will safely operate into a
shorted load, and it operates safely into high
resistance loads by limiting voltage output.
The Model 643 is also protected against
power loss under full operation and nominal
magnet load. Both low and high power line
conditions are reported on the front panel
display.
Interfaces
The Model 643 includes both parallel IEEE488 and universal serial bus (USB) computer
interfaces that provide access to operating
data, stored parameters, and remote control
of all front panel operating functions. The
USB interface emulates an RS-232C serial
port at a fixed 57,600 baud rate, but with
the physical connections of a USB. This
allows you to download firmware upgrades,
ensuring your power supply is using the
most current firmware version with no
need for any physical changes. The Model
643 also provides two analog monitors for
output current and voltage. Each monitor
is a buffered, differential, analog voltage
representation of the signal being monitored.
The current monitor has a sensitivity of
7 V/70 A output, while the voltage monitor
has a sensitivity of 3.5 V/35 V output.
Display and keypad
The Model 643 incorporates a large 8-line
by 40-character vacuum fluorescent display.
Output current and output voltage readings
are displayed simultaneously. Five front panel
LEDs provide quick verification of instrument
status, including ramping, compliance,
fault, power limit, and computer interface
mode. Error conditions are indicated on the
main display along with an audible beeper.
Extended error descriptions are available
under the status key.
The keypad is arranged logically to separate
the different functions of the power supply.
The most common functions of the power
supply are accessed using a single button
press. The keypad can be locked in order
to secure either all changes or just the
instrument setup parameters allowing the
supply output to be changed.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Power Supply — Model 643
Model 643 specifications
Output
Type: Bipolar, 4-quadrant, DC current source
Current generation: Fully linear regulation with digital
setting and analog control
Current range: ±70 A
Compliance voltage (DC): ±35 V nominal
Power: 2450 W nominal
Nominal load: 0.5 Ω, 0.5 H
Maximum load resistance: 0.6 Ω for ±70 A DC
operation at +10% to -5% line voltage
Minimum load resistance: 0.4 Ω for ±70 A DC operation
at +5% to -10% line voltage
Load inductance range: 0 H to 1 H
Current ripple: 5 mA RMS (0.007%) at 70 A into nominal
load
Current ripple frequency: Dominated by the line
frequency and its harmonics
Temperature coefficient: ±15 ppm of full scale/°C
Line regulation: ±60 ppm of full scale/10% line change
Stability (1 h): 1 mA/h (after warm-up)
Stability (24 h): 5 mA/24 h (typical, dominated by
temperautre coefficient and line regulation)
Isolation: Differential output is optically isolated from
chassis to prevent ground loops
Slew rate: 50 A/s into nominal load, 100 A/s maximum
into a resistive load
Compliance voltage (AC): ±43 V at +10% to -5% line
Settling time: <1 s for 10% step to within 1 mA of
output into nominal load
Modulation response: ≤0.17 Hz at ±70 A sine wave into
nominal load, <0.02% THD; ≤1 Hz at ±10 A sine wave
into nominal load, <0.05% THD; ≤10 Hz at ±1 A sine
wave into nominal load, <0.10% THD
Attenuation: -0.5 dB at 10 Hz
Protection: Short circuit, line loss, low line voltage, high
line voltage, output over voltage, output over current, and
over temperature
Connector: Two lugs with 6.4 mm (0.25 in) holes for M6
or 0.25 in bolts
Output programming
Internal current setting
Resolution: 0.1 mA (20-bit)
Settling time: 600 ms for 1% step to within 1 mA (of
internal setting)
Accuracy: ±10 mA ±0.05% of setting
Operation: Keypad, computer interface
Protection: Programmable current setting limit
Internal current ramp
Ramp rate: 0.0001 A/s to 50.0000 A/s (compliance
limited)
Update rate: 23.7 increments/s
Ramp segments: 5
Operation: Keypad, computer interface
Protection: Programmable ramp rate limit
External current programming
Sensitivity: 10 V/70 A
Resolution: Analog
Accuracy: ±10 mA ±1% of setting
Input resistance: 20 kΩ
Operation: Voltage program through rear panel, can be
summed with internal current setting
Limits: Internally clamped at ±10.1 V and bandwidth
limited at 40 Hz to protect output
Connector: Shared 15-pin D-sub
Readings
Output current
Resolution: 0.1 mA
Accuracy: ±10 mA ±0.05% of rdg
Update rate: 2.5 rdg/s display, 10 rdg/s interface
Output voltage (at supply terminals)
Resolution: 1 mV
Accuracy: ±5 mV ±0.05% of rdg
Update rate: 2.5 rdg/s display, 5 rdg/s interface
Front panel
Display type: 8-line by 40-character graphic vacuum
fluorescent display module
Display readings: Output current, output voltage, and
internal water temperature
Display settings: Output current and ramp rate
Display annunciators: Status and errors
LED annunciators: Fault, Compliance, Power Limit,
Ramping, Remote
Audible annunciator: Errors and faults
Keypad type: 26 full-travel keys
Keypad functions: Direct access to common operations,
menu-driven setup
Power: Green flush ON and red extended OFF push
buttons
Interface
IEEE-488.2 interface
Features: SH1, AH1, T5, L4, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT0,
C0, E1
Reading rate: To 10 rdg/s
Software support: National Instruments LabVIEW™ driver
(consult Lake Shore for availability)
USB interface
Function: Emulates a standard RS-232 serial port
Baud rate: 57,600
Reading rate: To 10 rdg/s
Connector: B-type USB connector
Software support: National Instruments LabVIEW™ driver
(consult Lake Shore for availability)
Output current monitor
Sensitivity: 7 V/70 A
Accuracy: ±1% of full scale
Noise: 1 mV RMS
Source impedance: 20 Ω
Connector: Shared 15-pin D-sub
Output voltage monitor
Sensitivity: 3.5 V/35 V
Accuracy: 1% of full scale
Noise: 1 mV RMS
Source impedance: 20 Ω
Connector: Shared 15-pin D-sub
Power supply cooling water
Remote enable input: TTL low or contact closure to
enable output; jumper required if unused
Valve power output: 24 VAC at 1 A maximum, automatic
or manual control
Connector: Shared 4-pin detachable terminal block;
Flow switch and water valve optional
Magnet cooling water
Remote enable input: TTL low or contact closure to
enable output; jumper required if unused
Valve power output: 24 VAC at 1 A maximum, automatic
or manual control
Connector: Shared 4-pin detachable terminal block
Flow, temperature switch, and water valve not included
Auxiliary
Emergency stop: Requires 1 A, 24 VAC normally closed
(NC) contact to enable power-up; jumper required if
unused
Fault output: Relay with normally open (NO) or normally
closed (NC) contact, 30 VDC at 1 A
Remote enable input: TTL low or contact closure to
enable output; jumper required if unused
Connector: Shared 8-pin detachable terminal block
Emergency stop and inhibit switches not included
Introduction
Field Control
and Power
7
77
General
Line power
Power: 5500 VA max
Voltage and current: 200/208 VAC ±10%, 13 A/phase; 220/230
VAC ±10%, 12 A/phase; 380 VAC ±10%, 7 A/phase; 400/415 VAC
±10%, 6.5 A/phase
Protection: 3-phase thermal relay with adjustable current setting;
two class CC 0.25 A fuses; over-voltage lockout circuit
Frequency: 50 Hz or 60 Hz
Configuration: 3-phase delta
Connector: 4-pin terminal block
Features: Soft start circuit, rear panel voltage selection indicator
Line voltage must be specified at time of order but is field
reconfigurable; cable from power supply to facility power not
included
Cooling water
Flow rate: 5.7 L (1.5 gal)/min minimum
Pressure range: 34 kPa (5 psi) to 552 kPa (80 psi)
Pressure drop: 10 kPa (1.5 psi) at 5.7 L (1.5 gal)/min minimum
for power supply only
Temperature: 15 °C to 30 °C (non-condensing)
Connection: Two 10 mm (0.38 in) hose barbs
CAUTION: Internal condensation can cause damage to the power
supply
Enclosure type: 7 U high, 19 in rack mount with integral rack
mount ears (25 mm (1 in) air space required on each side for
ventilation)
Size: 483 mm W × 310 mm H × 572 mm D
(19 in × 12.2 in × 22.5 in) with handles removed
Weight: 74 kg (163 lb)
Shipping size: 635 mm W × 559 mm H × 736 mm D
(25 in × 22 in × 29 in)
Shipping weight: 103.4 kg (228 lb)
Ambient temperature: 15 °C to 35 °C at rated accuracy, 5 °C to
40 °C at reduced accuracy
Humidity: Non-condensing
Warm-up: 30 min at output current setting
Approvals: CE mark pending—low voltage compliance to
EN61010-3, EMC compliance to EN55022-1
Ordering information
Part #
643 Description
Model 643 ±70 A ±35 V, 2.5 kW—
specify 204/208 VAC, 220/230 VAC, 380 VAC,
or 400/415 VAC
Accessories included
6031
Two front handles
6032
Two rear handles
6051
Terminal block, 4-pin
6052
Terminal block, 8-pin
6252
15-pin D-sub mating connector, analog I/O
—
Hose clamps
—
Power cable strain relief
(power cable not included)
—
Calibration certificate
119-056 Model 643 user manual
Accessories available
6201 1 m (3.3 ft long) IEEE-488 (GPIB) computer
interface cable assembly
6261
3 m (10 ft) magnet cable kit, AWG 4
6262
6 m (20 ft) magnet cable kit, AWG 4
CAL-643-CERT Instrument recalibration w/ certificate
CAL-643-DATA Instrument recalibration w/ certificate & data
6041
Water flow switch
6042
Water valve
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
78
78
Introduction
Field
Control and Power
Power Supply — Model 648
Model 648 Bipolar Magnet Power Supply
Model 648 features
DD Low noise
DD CE mark certification
DD ±135 A/±75 V, 9.1 kW
DD Built-in fault protection
DD Bipolar, linear, 4-quadrant output
DD 1 mA of programmed current resolution
DD Analog programming and IEEE-488
and USB interfaces
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Power Supply — Model 648
Introduction
Output programming
The Model 648 electromagnet power supply
is a robust, fault-tolerant 9 kW supply
optimized for powering large 7 or 10 in
research electromagnets. It is specifically
designed for high precision laboratory use
requiring extremely low electrical noise. The
linear design removes undesirable higher
frequency noise typical of switch mode
power supplies. Eliminating the need for
external switching or operator intervention to
reverse current polarity, the Model 648 uses
convenient bipolar, 4-quadrant operation. It
is capable of supplying ±135 A/±75 V to a
nominal 0.5 Ω, 0.5 H load. The Model 648 is
built to last with a rugged design, integrated
fault protection, and a simple, clean interior
electronic design.
The Model 648 output current is programmed
internally via the keypad or the computer
interface, externally by analog programming
input, or by the sum of the external and
internal settings. External programming via
analog input signal provides analog resolution.
The Model 648 generates extremely smooth
and continuous ramps — the digitally
generated constant current ramp rate is
variable between 0.1 mA/s and 50.000 A/s. To
ensure a smooth ramp rate, the power supply
updates the high-resolution DAC 12.3 times
per second.
This robust power supply is developed to
minimize downtime. It uses worry-free water
cooling for quiet efficient operation compared
to air-cooled power supplies. The seamless
water lines only have external junctions,
eliminating internal water leaks. In addition,
safety interlocks ensure that cooling water is
always flowing to the supply while operating.
Magnet water can also be interlocked into
the power supply if desired. Internal software
controls manage water usage intelligently.
Output architecture
The low electrical noise design of the Model
648 makes it the ideal power supply for use
with large electromagnets in high precision
laboratory settings, ensuring greater
resolution and finer detail in data taken during
highly sensitive measurements. Because low
noise is critical to measurement systems, the
Model 648 implements both a linear design
and bipolar architecture. Linear magnet
power supplies have several advantages
over switch mode power supplies, primarily
smooth field generation that is nearly free
from offending electromagnetic signatures.
The bipolar, 4-quadrant operation required
to safely operate an inductive load provides
clean transitions through zero without
discontinuities.
Introduction
Field Control
and Power
Output reading
The Model 648 provides high-resolution
output current readings that reflect the actual
current in the magnet, and have a resolution
of 1 mA. The output voltage reading reports
the voltage at the output terminals with a
resolution of 1 mV. All output readings can be
prominently displayed on the front panel and
read over the computer interface.
Protection
The Model 648 provides built-in protection
against short circuit, open circuit, line loss,
low line voltage, high line voltage, output
over voltage, output over current, over
temperature, and abrupt change of the
external programming input. A proprietary
circuit limits the power dissipated in the
water-cooled cold plate should low resistance
and high line conditions exist. The Model
648 protects itself if operated into resistances
outside of nominal limits. By limiting current
output, it will safely operate into a shorted load,
and operate safely into high resistance loads
by limiting voltage output. The Model 648 is
also protected against power loss under full
operation and nominal magnet load. Both low
and high power line conditions are reported
on the front panel display.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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79
Introduction
Field
Control and Power
80
80
Power Supply — Model 648
Specifications
Output
Readings
Type: Bipolar, 4-quadrant, DC voltage/current source
Current generation: Fully linear regulation with digital
setting and analog control
Current range: ±135 A nominal
Compliance voltage (DC): ±75 V
Power: 9.1 kW nominal
Nominal load: 0.5 Ω, 0.5 H
Maximum load resistance: 0.55 Ω for ±135 A DC
operation at +10% to -5% line voltage
Minimum load resistance: 0.41 Ω for ±135 A DC
operation at +5% to -10% line voltage
Load inductance range: 0 H to 1 H
Current ripple: 10 mA RMS (0.007%) at 135 A into
nominal load
Current ripple frequency: Dominated by the line
frequency and its harmonics
Temperature coefficient: ±50 ppm of full scale/°C
Line regulation: ±75 ppm of full scale/10% line change
Stability (1 h): 2 mA/h (after warm-up, internal setting)
Stability (24 h): 10 mA/24 h (typical, internal setting,
dominated by temperature coefficient and line regulation)
Isolation: Differential output is optically isolated from
chassis to prevent ground loops
Slew rate: 50 A/s into nominal load (dominated by
magnet characteristics), 100 A/s maximum into a resistive
load
Settling time: <1 s for 10% step to within 1 mA of output
into nominal load
Harmonic distortion: ≤0.1 Hz at ±135 A sine wave into
resistive load, <0.02% THD; ≤10 Hz at ±10 A sine wave
into resistive load, <0.30% THD
Attenuation: -0.5 dB at 10 Hz (external programming input)
Protection: Short circuit, line loss, low line voltage, high
line voltage, output over voltage, output over current, and
over temperature
Connector: Two lugs with 8.64 mm (0.34 in) holes for M8
or 5/16 in bolts
Output current
Resolution: 1.0 mA
Accuracy: ±20 mA ±0.05% of rdg
Update rate: 2.5 rdg/s display, 10 rdg/s interface
Output programming
Internal current setting
Resolution: 1.0 mA (20-bit)
Settling time: 600 ms for 1% step to within 1 mA
(of internal setting)
Accuracy: ±20 mA ±0.05% of setting
Operation: Keypad, computer interface
Protection: Programmable current setting limit
Output voltage (at supply terminals)
Resolution: 1.0 mV
Accuracy: ±10 mV ±0.05% of rdg
Update rate: 2.5 rdg/s display, 5 rdg/s interface
Front panel
Display type: 8-line by 40-character graphic vacuum
fluorescent display module
Display readings: Output current, output voltage, and
internal water temperature
Display settings: Output current and ramp rate
Display annunciators: Status and errors
LED annunciators: Fault, Compliance, Power Limit,
Ramping, Remote
Audible annunciator: Errors and faults
Keypad type: 20 full-travel keys
Keypad functions: Direct access to common operations,
menu-driven setup
Power: Green flush ON and red extended OFF push
buttons
Interface
IEEE-488.2 interface
Features: SH1, AH1, T5, L4, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT0,
C0, E1
Reading rate: To 10 rdg/s
Software support: National Instruments LabVIEW™ driver
(consult Lake Shore for availability)
USB interface
Function: Emulates a standard RS-232 serial port
Baud rate: 57,600
Reading rate: To 10 rdg/s
Connector: Type B USB connector
Software support: National Instruments LabVIEW™ driver
(consult Lake Shore for availability)
Output current monitor
Sensitivity: 7 V/135 A
Accuracy: ±1% of full scale
Noise: 5 mV RMS
Source impedance: 20 Ω
Connector: Shared 15-pin D-sub
Internal current ramp
Ramp rate: 0.1 mA/s to 50.000 A/s (compliance limited)
Update rate: 12.3 increments/s
Ramp segments: 5
Operation: Keypad, computer interface
Protection: Programmable ramp rate limit
Output voltage monitor
Sensitivity: 7 V/70 V
Accuracy: 1% of full scale
Noise: 2 mV RMS
Source impedance: 20 Ω
Connector: Shared 15-pin D-sub
External current programming
Sensitivity: 10 V/135 A
Resolution: Analog
Accuracy: ±20 mA ±1% of setting
Input resistance: 20 kΩ differential, 50 kΩ commonmode
Operation: Voltage program through rear panel, can be
summed with internal current setting
Limits: Internally clamped at ±10.1 V and bandwidth
limited -3 dB at 40 Hz (2 pole, low pass filter)
Connector: Shared 15-pin D-sub
Power supply cooling water
Remote enable input: TTL low or contact closure to
enable output; used for mandatory 1 gal/min flow switch
(included)
Connector: 2-pin detachable terminal block connector
Valve power output: 24 VAC at 1.5 A maximum,
automatic or manual control
Connector: 2-pin detachable terminal block connector
Water valve optional
Magnet cooling water
Remote enable input: TTL low or contact closure to
enable output; jumper required if unused
Valve power output: 24 VAC at 1.5 A maximum,
automatic or manual control
Connector: Shared 4-pin detachable terminal block
Flow, temperature switch, and water valve not included
Auxiliary
Emergency stop: Requires 1 A, 24 VAC normally closed
(NC) contact to enable power-up; jumper required if
unused
Fault output: Relay with normally open (NO) or normally
closed (NC) contact, 30 VDC at 1 A
Remote enable input: TTL low or contact closure to
enable output; jumper required if unused
Connector: Shared 8-pin detachable terminal block;
Emergency stop and inhibit switches not included
General
Line power
Power: 15.5 kVA max
Voltage and current: 200 VAC ±10%, 41 A/phase;
208 VAC ±10%, 40 A/phase; 220 VAC ±10%, 38 A/phase;
230 VAC ±10%, 37 A/phase; 380 VAC ±10%, 23 A/phase;
400 VAC ±10%, 21 A/phase; 415 VAC ±10%, 21 A/phase
Protection: 3-phase thermal relay with adjustable current
setting; two class CC 2 A fuses; over-voltage lockout
circuit
Frequency: 50 Hz or 60 Hz
Configuration: 3-phase delta
Connector: 4-pin terminal block;
Line voltage must be specified at time of order but is field
reconfigurable; cable from power supply to facility power
not included
Cooling water
Flow rate: 7.6 L (2.0 gal)/min minimum
Maximum pressure: 552 kPa (80 psi)
Pressure drop: 159 kPa (23 psi) at 7.6 L (2.0 gal)/min
minimum for power supply and mandatory flow switch
Temperature: 15 °C to 30 °C (non-condensing)
Connection: Two 12.7 mm (0.5 in) hose barbs
CAUTION: Internal condensation can cause damage to the
power supply
Enclosure type: Custom 19 in rack cabinet
Size: 559 mm W × 673 mm D × 1054 mm H
(22 in × 26 in × 42 in)
Weight: 225 kg (495 lb)
Shipping size: 914 mm W × 1168 mm D × 1219 mm H
(36 in × 46 in × 48 in)
Shipping weight: 281 kg (620 lb)
Ambient temperature: 15 °C to 35 °C at rated accuracy,
5 °C to 40 °C at reduced accuracy
Humidity: Non-condensing
Warm-up: 30 min at output current setting
Approvals: CE mark—low voltage compliance to
EN61010-1, EMC compliance to EN61326-1
Ordering information
Part number
648 Description
Model 648—specify 200 VAC,
208 VAC, 220 VAC, 230 VAC,
380 VAC, 400 VAC, or 415 VAC
All specifications are subject to change without notice
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Reference Information
Introduction
Reference
and Notes
Units for magnetic measurement
Symbol
Gaussian & cgs emua
Conversion Factor, Cb
SI & rationalized mksc
B
gauss (G)d
10-4
tesla (T), Wb/m2
Φ
maxwell (Mx), G·cm2
10-8
weber (Wb), volt second (V·s)
U, F
gilbert (Gb)
10/4π
ampere (A)
H
oersted (Oe),e Gb/cm
103/4π
A/mf
(Volume) magnetizationg
M
emu/cm3h
103
A/m
(Volume) magnetization
4πM
G
3
10 /4π
A/m
J, I
emu/cm3
4π × 10-4
T, Wb/m2i
σ, M
emu/g
1
4π × 10-7
A·m2/kg
Wb·m/kg
Magnetic moment
m
emu, erg/G
10-3
A·m2, joule per tesla (J/T)
Magnetic dipole moment
j
emu, erg/G
4π × 10-10
Wb·mi
χ, κ
dimensionless, emu/cm3
4π
(4π)2 × 10-7
dimensionless
henry per meter (H/m), Wb/(A·m)
(Mass) susceptibility
χρ, κρ
cm3/g, emu/g
4π × 10-3
(4π)2 × 10-10
m3/kg
H·m2/kg
(Molar) susceptibility
χmol, κmol
cm3/mol, emu/mol
4π × 10-6
(4π)2 × 10-13
m3/mol
H·m2/mol
µ
dimensionless
4π × 10-7
H/m, Wb/(A·m)
Magnetic flux density,
magnetic induction
Magnetic flux
Magnetic potential
difference, magnetomotive
force
Magnetic field strength,
magnetizing force
Magnetic polarization,
intensity of magnetization
(Mass) magnetization
(Volume) susceptibility
Permeability
Relative permeability
µr
not defined
—
dimensionless
(Volume) energy density,
energy productk
W
erg/cm3
10-1
J/m3
Demagnetization factor
D, N
dimensionless
1/4π
dimensionless
j
a. Gaussian units and cgs emu are the same for magnetic properties. The defining relation is B = H + 4πM.
b. Multiply a number in Gaussian units by C to convert it to SI (e.g., 1 G × 10-4 T/G = 10-4 T).
c. SI (Système International d’Unités) has been adopted by the National Bureau of Standards. Where two conversion factors are given,
the upper one is recognized under, or consistent with, SI and is based on the definition B = µ0(H + M), where µ0 = 4π × 10-7 H/m.
The lower one is not recognized under SI and is based on the definition B = µ0H + J, where the symbol I is often used in place of J.
d. 1 gauss = 105 gamma (γ).
e. Both oersted and gauss are expressed as cm-1/2·g1/2·s-1 in terms of base units.
f. A/m was often expressed as “ampere-turn per meter” when used for magnetic field strength.
g. Magnetic moment per unit volume
h. The designation “emu” is not a unit
i. Recognized under SI, even though based on the definition B = µ0H + J. See footnote c.
j.µr = µ/µ0 = 1 + χ, all in SI. µr is equal to Gaussian µ.
k. B · H and µ0M · H have SI units J/m3; M · H and B · H/4π have Gaussian units erg/cm3.
R. B. Goldfarb and F. R. Fickett, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado 80303, March 1985
NBS Special Publication 696 for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Introduction
Reference
and Notes
Notes
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
Introduction
Reference
and Notes
Notes
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. | t. 614.891.2244 | f. 614.818.1600 | e. info@lakeshore.com | www.lakeshore.com
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Gaussmeters, Hall Probes, and Accessories
Gaussmeters
Hall Probes
Hall Generators
Fluxmeters
Search Coils
Helmholtz Coils
Field Control Platforms
Electromagnets
Power Supply
112015
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082
Tel 614-891-2244
Fax 614-818-1600
info@lakeshore.com
www.lakeshore.com
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