# UDS Overview

```UDS OVERVIEW
A Utility Distribution System is a stainless steel enclosure consisting of a horizontal raceway and vertical end
riser(s) containing electrical bussing and plumbing manifolds with connections for multiple kitchen appliances. It is
built in two versions: Wall mounted or Island. The electrical distribution is one of two types: Copper busbar, or a
Circuit breaker panel (Wireway).
Electrical Distribution
The Electrical distribution can be 1 of 2 types, Busbar or Wireway. A busbar are solid copper bars mounted on
insulating blocks. The insulating blocks separate the bars from each other and other metal components of the UDS
such as the chase. In a 3 phase system there is one copper bar per phase, one bar for the neutral, and one bar for
safety ground. The branch breakers are mounted along the raceway and tapped off the busbars for power then
wired to the receptacle for each of the equipment.
A wireway is a circuit breaker panel containing all branch breakers mounted in the riser. The branch breakers are
plugged in the breaker panel for power and wired to the receptacle for the equipment.
In both bussing types a main breaker with 120V shunt trip is mounted on the riser and wired to the bussing. The
breaker is mounted with a reset handle or with a weather proof cover for low amperage.
Basic Electrical Theory
The UDS electrical is sized by the equipment that will be connected to it. We start by sizing each breaker for each
piece of equipment. We need to know the following electrical information per equipment: Voltage! Amperage!
Wattage! As long as we have the watts and volts the amperage can be derived.
Equations:
Single Phase Kilowatts = Volts x Amps x Power Factor
1000
Three Phase Kilowatts = Volts x Amps x Power Factor x 1.732.
1000
Since we normally don’t know the power factor of each equipment we will assume it is 1. For example Market Forge
steamer is rated at 480 VAC/3ph at 24KW and the given amperage is 32 amps (note this is per Phase). Using the
Three Phase Kilowatts formula (No. 2 above) the calculation is as follows:
Three Phase Kilowatts = 480x32x Ix 1.732
1000
Three Phase Kilowatts = 26.60 KW
As you can see the calculated value is very close to the one specified by the manufacture. If we use the
manufacture values and solve for the PF (Power Factor) it comes out to be 0.90.
Sizing The Main Breaker And Service
To size the main breaker and service for the UDS we need to know the Kilowatts of every piece of equipment
connected. Usually the UDS is a 3 phase system so we need to know what amperage will be required to supply to
the UDS. By using formula 2 and solving for the amperage this value can be found, for example: The total KW is
18.01KW, and the voltage is
208 V/3ph = 18.01KW x 1000
3 ph Amps or Amps per phase = 208 x 1.732
3 ph Amps or Amps per phase = 50 A
So the service and its wiring needs to handle a minimum of 50 amps; however, we also need to add in a safety
factor of 25% for future loads and equipment startup currents.
Rev. 6/4/2012
1
Continuing our example 25% of 18.01KW is 4.5KW for a total of 22.51KW, which calculates to be 62.49 amps. We
now specify the service size to be in increments of 5 greater than the required load and in this case 70 amps.
There are three KW and their corresponding Amperage values we need to know, they are:
o
o
o
Connected Load - The total of every piece of equipment all turned on.
Future Load - The connected load plus 25% plus any DCO’s that could be powered in the future.
From the system capacity value we can determine the main breaker and service size required. The main breaker is
sized equal to or to the next available breaker size. The main breakers are usually in increments of 10, for example
50, 60, 70, etc. In our example the Main breaker needs to be 70 Amps and the service size has to be equal or
greater. One thing to keep in mind is a circuit breaker is purposely the weak link in the electrical chain. We want the
breaker to open before the equipment, wiring, or receptacle, melt; each of these devices need to be equal or
greater than the amperage of the breaker protecting them.
This would be from a direct short to (safety) ground. A 120V/1ph circuit contains 3 wires Hot, Neutral (the return),
and (safety) ground. Electricity needs a closed loop, in other words, a complete circuit to operate. A break in the
circuit (circle) stops current flow, referred as an Open Circuit. Every circuit needs a load to drive or to use power. If
there is no load then the circuit is said to be a Short Circuit which will open the breaker. In a 12OVAC/ 1ph/ 60Hz
circuit current flows through the hot wire and back through the Neutral and then reverses direction hence AC
(Alternating Current). AC alternates directions 60 times per second, at 60 Hz. The Safety Ground does not carry
any current unless the equipment short circuits. The purpose of GFI is to trip the breakers quicker than they would
normally trip on there own.
The Safety Ground is connected to the metal case of the equipment and when the hot wire touches the case then
the current will flow through the case and back to the breaker box. In and only in the breaker box the Neutral and
Safety ground are physically connected together. This creates a short circuit and will allow current to flow through
the equipment breaker through the Safety Ground back to the panel where it is connected to Neutral. This is a no
load condition which will allow the current to instantaneously increase to its maximum capacity. The only thing
stopping this condition is the breaker; it will open upon exceeding its current rating.
Circuit Breaker
Circuit breakers are thermo devices, which means the current flowing through them heats up the bimetallic metals
internal to the breaker and once they exceed their designed rating the internal contacts open and lock open. This
heating up takes time which could allow the current to be “live”, short circuit condition, to the equipment case for a
few seconds. The purpose of GFI is to decrease this time to 100 milliseconds or 0.1 seconds.
Busbar bussing
The busbar is where the power from the main breaker connects to and the branch breakers are tapped off for
power. The width and thickness of the bar is dictated by the amperage they must carry. For example from 20 to 100
amps the bars are 1 inch wide by 1/8” inch thick. The thickness goes to 4” greater than 100 and so on. Each phase
requires a copper bar, the neutral requires a bar, and the safety ground also requires a bar. Since the safety ground
does not carry any current under normal conditions it is smaller in size, ¼” x ¼” for 20 to 100 amps service. The
busbar must be able to handle the total current, because we want the main breaker to open way before the copper
bar melts; therefore, the larger the bar the better the results.
The copper bars are mounted in insulating blocks which hole the bars at 1” spaced separation from each other and
the metal enclosure. The insulating blocks are required to be spaced no greater than 18” apart. Two bolts are
bolted on each side of the blocks on the bar to prevent the bar from moving from side to side. A front insulating
cover is placed over the front of the bars to keep them from falling out.
Main Breaker
The main breaker is where the field electrician connects the service. He would connect to the top of the breaker
terminals, so 1 wire per phase. The neutral service connects to a insulated neutral block normally mounted next to
the main breaker. The safety ground is connected to the chase. The safety ground is connected to neutral in the
breaker panel feeding the UDS. Wire is continued from the main breaker and the neutral block and connected to its
respective phase copper busbar. In a wireway the bussing is in the circuit breaker panel (Square D Load Center)
and the wires are connected to the terminals at the top of the bussing.
Rev. 6/4/2012
2
In both bussing types the main breaker is mounted with a reset handle to the outside of the riser. Turning the
handle will turn the main breaker either off or on. The only exception is when the main breaker is small in size 40
amps or less where the reset handle will not mount on the breaker. In this case the breaker switch will be
accessible to the outside of the riser with a weatherproof cover.
All main breakers will contain a shunt trip device for fire system shut down. The shunt trip will normally be 120V AC.
This will be dedicated power from the fire system switch. In a fire condition the switch will connect 120 VAC/1ph to
the shut trip device to open the main breaker removing power to the UDS and its equipment.
Branch breaker(s)
The branch breakers are sized to the equipment. The increments are 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80,
90, and 100. The next available breaker size should be chosen for the equipment. Any amperage less than 10
amps will get a 10 amp breaker. Equipment that requires 13.9 amps will get a 15 amp breaker, and so on.
On a busbar system the wires are tapped off of the busbar to the branch breaker and from the branch breaker to
the equipment receptacle. All single pole breakers are divided between the 3 phases to keep the system balanced.
The physically construction of a busbar UFI branch breaker contains the following items:
•
•
Branch breaker with a shunt trip added.
A current transformer (donut)
The shunt trip on the branch breaker will physically trip electrically. I have chosen the shunt trip to be 120VAC/1ph
although they can be 12VAC/DC, 24VACIDC, or other voltages. The current transformer is a circle with the Hot
wires from the equipment breaker pass through. The current flowing in the wire creates a magnetic field which
induces in the current transformer. When this current reaches its setting its relay contact closes sending 120V AC
power to the shunt trip of the equipment breaker. The current transformer induction is much quicker than the
breaker tripping by itself.
A wireway breaker with GFI circuitry built internally to the breaker can be ordered; however, they are limited to 1
and 2 pole breakers and also available in limited ratings. All 3 pole breakers will use a shunt trip, which takes up an
additional 1 pole space in the panel, and a current transformer for GFI.
Wireway bussing
The branch breakers are sized to the equipment. The increments are 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80,
90, and 100. The next available breaker size should be chosen for the equipment. Any amperage less than 10
amps will get a 10 amp breaker. Equipment that requires 13.9 amps will get a 15 amp breaker, and so on.
In a wireway system the breakers are plugged into the circuit breaker panel. The balancing is already accomplished
by its construction by the phase connection alternating in the breaker panel.
Cable Bus (proposed adding to listing, competitors spec.)
This is just large insulated cable (wire) with its insulation removed at various spots along its length to tap off for the
branch breakers. We do not build this type of bussing, because it is limited to 100 amps, it is more labor intensive,
and would not be as flexible as a busbar system. The only reason to consider adding this to the Ut listing would be
to meet a spec.; however, we normally spec. busbar to meet this specification.
Receptacle connections
All equipment up to 60 amps will have a receptacle, greater than 60 amps will be direct wired to the bussing. The
only exception is to go to Pin & Sleeve type Receptacles. The receptacles will be mounted with weatherproof
covers in the one of the following locations:
•
The bottom of the raceway (normally on a Island style UDS).
•
The front side of the raceway (normally on a wall style UDS).
•
On an electrical plate beside its breaker. (rarely done).
Straight blade receptacles are normally used in home construction, their connecting blades are straight. Straight
blade receptacles are rated up to a maximum of 60 Amps. The receptacles have to be rated equal to or greater
than the branch breaker protecting the equipment.
3
Twist Lock
The blades for the twist lock are arched with one of the blades having an L shaped arched blade. The L shaped
blade is the safety ground. Twist Lock receptacles are rated up to a maximum of 60 Amps. The receptacles have to
be rated equal to or greater than the branch breaker protecting the equipment.
Pin & Sleeve
Pin & Sleeve receptacles are rated up to a maximum of 100 Amps. The receptacles have to be rated equal to or
greater than the branch breaker protecting the equipment. This type of receptacle is bulky and rarely used.
Direct Connection
The only other option for larger than 60 amps is to direct connect the equipment to the bussing, this would only be
capable on a busbar system.
Cord & Plugs
All cords and plugs are supplied to equipment that is not supplied with its own from the manufacture. The plugs
supplied with the equipment are normally straight blade. The appropriate receptacle is supplied for this situation.
The cords are assembled to the plugs in 6 foot lengths, longer or shorter lengths can specified.
4
Plumbing Distribution
The plumbing in the UDS can be hot and cold water, gas, steam supply and return, and compressed air. These
lines are just manifold with the supply being connected from service lines.
Water, hot and cold
The water manifolds and drops are copper with soldered joints. A drop is a Tee in the manifold reducing it down to
the required size with a ball valve connected on the end. For example a 3/4" manifold with a 1/2” drop will contain a
3/4” x 3/4" x 1/2" Tee and a 1/2" ball valve. The manifolds are insulated with pipe insulation approximately 1” thick.
The standard size manifolds are either 3/4” or 1”, 1/2" manifold can be built, however, the price is the same for
either 1/2" or 3/4". The more volume required the larger the size manifold required. The UDS specifications usually
state the required size. A rule of thumb is to size the manifold by the largest size drop, also a large number of drops
would require a larger size manifold.
Gas
The gas manifolds usually range from 1-1/4”, 1-1/2”, 2”, 2-1/2”, and 3”. The size is dictated by the required total
BTU of the UDS and the length of The manifold (UDS). Any run greater than lOft and 975,000 BTU’s at 5” of w.c.
pressure (water column) will require to be “looped service.” Looped service is when the gas supply is connected to
both ends of the manifold. The reason to use looped service is to keep from starving the equipment at the far end of
the UDS on a non-looped manifold. The following table is a rule of thumb that is currently used for sizing:
Pipe Size
in Inches
BTU/HR (in thousands) per length of raceway - at 5” w. c.
10 ft
15 ft
20 ft
30 ft
40 ft
1-1/2”
975
1-1/4”
1-1/2”
1200
1950
Single Service (One End)
790
675
550
Looped Service (Both Ends)
960
840
700
1580
1350
1100
2”
4100
3400
2900
2350
50 ft
N/A
N/A
590
930
540
850
1980
1800
Main service size from meter is dependent on building piping system and pressure. Main service looped to feed
both ends when more than 3 appliances in 10 ft. Pressure drop varies according to number of appliances and
quick-disconnects, normal pressure drop is 0.3” to 0.5” w.c.
Normally the manifold size is stated in the UDS specification and should only need to be check to check if it is
Gas valve reset and power interruption device.
All gas service requires a gas valve to shutoff supply in a fire condition. Normally a 120 VAC electric gas valve is
used and built into the manifold in the UDS. If the manifold is looped there are 2 gas valves, one on each end in the
risers. When AC power is lost to the building the AC gas valves will immediately close (they are powered and
maintained open). A power interrupting device will allow the gas valves to reopen automatically if the power is
restored in certain amount of time. This time is set at 0.3 seconds. After the delay time the gas valve will have to be
manually opened by pressing an electric reset button. The reason for this control is due to the pilot light on the gas
equipment will extinguish and would allow raw gas to flood the room if not shut off. The gas would not be reset until
they are ready to re-light all equipment pilot lights.
The standard is to use 120 VAC gas valve, because, when AC power is lost the exhaust fan(s) are also AC and will
shut down. They are not allowed to cook without exhaust fans.
Steam Supply
Steam supply line can be sized using the table below. Steam is usually low pressure around 5 PSI and use 2” or 21/2”. A 3” supply line is very large and makes the plumbing construction difficult; it should only be used for
necessary supply demands.
5
SATURATED STEAM CAPACITIES -OD TUBE Capacities in lb/h
Tube Size ( O.D X 0.065 inch wall)
Pressure Velocity
PSI
ft/sec
50
5
80
120
50
10
80
120
50
1/4”
-
3/8”
5
5
5
5
10
5
1/2”
5
10
15
10
15
20
10
3/4”
20
30
45
25
35
55
30
1”
35
60
85
45
70
110
60
1-1/2”
90
145
215
110
180
270
155
2”
170
270
405
210
330
500
285
2-1/2”
270
430
650
335
535
800
460
3”
395
635
950
490
785
1175
675
20
80
-
10
20
50
100
245
460
735
1080
120
5
10
25
75
150
370
685
1105
1620
50
80
120
50
80
120
50
80
120
50
80
120
50
80
120
50
80
120
50
80
120
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
10
5
5
10
5
10
15
10
10
20
10
15
20
10
15
25
15
20
30
15
25
35
20
30
40
15
30
35
15
25
40
20
30
50
25
35
55
30
45
70
35
55
85
40
65
95
40
65
95
50
75
115
55
90
135
65
105
155
80
130
195
95
155
230
115
180
270
80
125
190
95
150
230
110
180
265
125
205
305
160
255
380
190
305
455
220
355
535
195
310
465
235
375
565
275
440
660
315
505
755
395
630
950
470
755
1135
550
885
1325
365
580
870
440
700
1050
515
820
1235
590
940
1411
735
1175
1764
880
1410
2115
1030
1645
2465
58ff
935
1400
705
1125
1690
825
1320
1980
945
1510
2265
1180
1890
2835
1415
2265
3395
1650
2640
3965
855
1370
2050
1035
1655
2480
1210
1935
2905
1385
2215
3325
1730
2770
4155
2075
3320
4975
2420
3875
5810
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
Condensate return
The steam supply line connects to a sideways “U” shaped piping containing:
•
Strainer
•
Thermostatic Steam Trap
•
Unions
•
Ball Valves
The Thermostatic Steam Trap drains the water from the steam condensing in the supply line to the return line to
maintain steam only in the line and not water.
Air
An Air manifold can be installed in the plumbing section of the UDS. It would be pipe and drops capable of
withstanding the pressure. We have not built a UDS in the past that contained an air manifold.
6
Stainless Steel Chase
The body of the UDS by our ETL listing is constructed with 16 gauge stainless steel. The chase consists of Risers,
Raceway, Pedestals, and Access Doors.
Raceway
The raceway is enclosure mounted horizontally between the risers and if required by length supported in the middle
with a pedestal. The raceway is divided into 2 sections electrical and plumbing. They are isolated (water tight) from
each other. On a Island style the electrical is on one side which contains the following for a busbar system, busbar,
receptacles, wire, and branch breakers; and which contains the following for a wireway system, receptacles, and
wire. The receptacles are mounted with weatherproof covers on the bottom of the electrical side raceway.
The pluming side contains all pluming manifolds and their drops are routed out the bottom of the plumbing side.
Risers
The end risers contain the mains. The main plumbing connections each contain a ball valve; water (hot and cold),
gas, steam. The main breaker, DCO’s, light switch, and fan switch are usually mounted on the riser. A riser is
usually mounted at each end of the raceway; one is dedicated to the electrical and the other to the plumbing. Loop
gas line is also routed through the electrical riser so we have to make the electrical water tight. This means running
liquid tight conduit and building special stainless steel boxes to contain every electrical component.
The standard size risers width is either 24” or 30” and the thickness is normally 12”. These sizes can vary
depending on the specifications and what will be mounted on and in the riser. If we have to turn the riser
perpendicular to the raceway, the top is sloped to prevent hood notching. The riser’s standard height is 6’-6” which
is the bottom of the hood when hung from the ceiling. The risers can be made to extend behind the hood if needed.
It has been suggested to increase the height to 6’-8” to allow a better seal to be made between the riser and the
hood. The risers come with leveling bolts to level the UDS (standard).
Access doors
We provide access doors on the risers on one side and along the raceway. This provides field access for installing
and also in construction. The doors on the risers are made to lift out to give access when cooking equipment is in
front of the riser. This is convenient on a wireway to provide access to the circuit breaker panel for branch breaker
access.
Pedestals
Pedestals are used when the raceway length exceeds 12 feet. It is mounted below the raceway for support. The
pedestal is equipped with leveling bolts standard to level the UDS. A 2 “diameter post can be use as a pedestal;
however it is not as ascetically appealing and does shift slightly.
Electrical plates
The electrical plates have changes over the years and this year is no exception. The standard electrical plate is
used to mount the branch breaker for a busbar system along the peaked top on the raceway. The dimensions are
7-1/2” x 10”. Various plates are have been cut to mount DCO’s, light switches, and Fan switches.
Fabricated boxes
All of out water tight boxes for the electrical components are fabricated in-house. The only exception is pre-wire
packages and circuit breaker panels.
Labels
Every equipment connection electrical and plumbing are color coded, labeled by item number, and description of
the cooking equipment. They are plastic engraved labels from Hermes.
7
Options
Control panels, AM2, TAC-3000, and AQUA-FOG, mounted in the risers.
All of our Aquamatic control panels are ETL listed to be mounted in the UDS. The manifolds are mounted in the
riser and the electrical is enclosed in a water tight box and usually with a hinged door just like the one used for the
control panel. They are treated just like an independent panel that would be mounted on the wall. The electrical
power for the panels must be independent from the UDS. The water wash manifolds are normally connected to the
hot water supply that the UDS uses.
DCO’s (Dual Convenience Outlet(s))
This is a outlet with its own breaker mounted on a electrical plate usually one is mounted on each riser end. The
standard outlet we use is a GFI protected device. It is powered from the UDS electrical bussing. When the UDS
shunt trip breaker opens this device loses power.
Light switch
This is powered from the UDS with terminal blocks on its electrical plate for field wiring to the hood lights. When the
UDS shunt trip breaker opens this device loses power.
Fan switch
This is powered from the UDS with terminal blocks on its electrical plate for field wiring to the hood lights. When the
UDS shunt trip breaker opens this device loses power. This option is used normally if the fan control is supplied by
others. If this switch will connect to one of our pre-wires then its power must be independent from the UDS to allow
the exhaust in fire condition.
Indicator lights
This option mounts a green light connected (and powered by) each branch breaker to indicate if the receptacle is
powered. Under normal conditions the light is illuminated and extinguishes when the breaker opens. This option is
most of the time specified with a wireway since the branch breakers are concealed in the risers.
Fill Faucets
A stainless steel enclosure is built on the raceway and water connections are made faucet mounted on the
enclosure. This is seen with kettles and normally mounted between two kettles.
Bumper guards
This is plastic guards to prevent mobile equipment from scraping against the UDS.
Requirements for quoting a UDS
Equipment cut sheets
A UDS is built around what will be connected to it. Every cooking equipment connections dictate the connection
size and required service for the UDS. This is a must know information to quote and also generate a drawing for a
UDS.
UDS job specifications
The specification states the options that are required on the UDS and usually list the equipment to be connected to
the UDS. The shape (Chase length, width, height) of the chase is spelled out in specs. The main service feed sizes
for Electrical and Plumbing are usually also spelled out. This is used to compare equipment service requirement to