An Evaluation of Energy Advice Centres in Scotland

An Evaluation of Energy Advice Centres in Scotland
University of Strathclyde
Department of Mechanical Engineering
An Evaluation of Energy Efficiency
Advice Centres in Scotland
By Carina Goepfert
MSc in Energy Systems and the Environment
Thesis
September 2006
Supervised by Dr. Paul Strachan
Energy Systems Research Unit
University of Strathclyde
COPYRIGHT DECLARATION
The copyright of this thesis belongs to the author under the terms of the United
Kingdom Copyright Acts as qualified by the University of Strathclyde Regulation
3.49. Due acknowledgement must always be made of the use of any material
contained in, or derived from this thesis.
ABSTRACT
The intention of this thesis has been to evaluate the merit of supporting the work of
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres (EEACs). This has been done by means of a
detailed evaluation study of two Scottish advice centres which belong to the UK
network of 52 EEACs managed by the Energy Saving Trust. The two advice centres
chosen for this project work in different environments where one is based in Ayr
covering a dominantly rural area and the other one is located in Glasgow providing
energy advice in an urban environment. As part of this thesis an evaluation
methodology has been developed with which the benefits of the work of both advice
centres in the form of energy, carbon and cost savings as well as other quantifiable
outcomes have been assessed. This assessment has been undertaken for the previous
financial year for both advice centres.
It has been found that the work of the advice centre in Ayr benefits in lifetime carbon
savings of 17,103 tonnes and 23,865 tonnes cumulative carbon savings originate from
the work of the advice centre in Glasgow. Furthermore, it can be said that £1 of
government funding of the two energy advice centres that were studied leads to
energy savings worth an average of £32.
Considering the continued increase of fuel prices and the growing demand in energy
advice it is predicted that the effectiveness of Scottish Energy Efficiency Advice
Centres will further rise over the coming years.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all I want to express my appreciation to all individuals who have in one way
or the other contributed to the completion of this project.
I would like to thank my supervisor Paul Strachan for the guidance and support he has
offered throughout the project. I would also like to thank Alan McGonigle and Liz
Marquis and the team from the Energy Agency in Ayr as well as Patrick Thompson
and the team from the Strathclyde & Central Energy Efficiency Advice Centre in
Glasgow for their helpful insights, guidance, and efforts to provide all the information
required for the accomplishment of this thesis.
Furthermore I would like to express my appreciation to following people:
Susan Coplett (Ofgem) for making the EEC Spreadsheet 2005-2008 available
Paul Tuohy (ESRU) for explaining and providing the latest version of the University
of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool (SERT)
Martin Sambale (eza!) for his insights on the work of the advice centre eza! in
Germany
Kostas Zapounidis (PIERIKI) for his insights on the work of the advice centre
PIERIKI EAC in Greece
Robin Sadler (New Perspectives) for his assistance with the set-up of a brief and
effective customer survey
Janet MacKechnie (EST) for the provision of records on the SCHRI grant
commitments to households
Cameron Johnston (ESRU) for his advice on the evaluation of small-scale renewable
energy projects
Mathieu Whitehead (EST) for his insights on the EST evaluation procedure
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CHP
Combined Heat and Power
DASU
Design Advice Support Unit
Defra
Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
DTI
Department of Trade and Industry
EAPG
Energy Advice Providers Group
EDAS
Energy Design Advice Scheme
EE
Energy Efficiency
EEAC
Energy Efficiency Advice Centre
EEC
Energy Efficiency Commitment
EELS
Energy Efficiency Loan Scheme
EST
Energy Saving Trust
HECA
Home Energy Conservation Act
LESP
Local Energy Support Programme
PV
Photovoltaic
RE
Renewable Energy
RURASU
Rural Advice Support Unit
SCHRI
Scottish Community and Householder Initiative
SERT
Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1
CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND
2.1
Establishment of UK’s Energy Advice Network
2.2
The Role of EEACs for UK’s Energy Policy
2.3
Energy Advice Support Groups and Partnerships
2.4
References
3
3
5
8
10
CHAPTER 3 ACTIVITIES OF ENERGY ADVICE CENTRES
3.1
Energy Efficiency Advice to Householders
3.2
Energy in Education Initiatives
3.3
Renewable Energy Initiatives
3.4
Local Authority Support
3.5
Business Advice
3.6
Training
3.7
References
12
13
14
15
16
18
19
19
CHAPTER 4 FUNDING
4.1
Financing EEAC Activities
4.2
Grant and Loan Schemes
4.3
Reference
20
20
21
26
CHAPTER 5 QUANTIFYING ENERGY ADVICE
5.1
Effectiveness of Energy Advice to Households
5.2
Benefits of Energy Advice to Households
5.3
Savings from Behavioural Changes
5.4
References
27
27
31
31
33
CHAPTER 6 ENERGY ADVICE IN OTHER COUNTRIES
6.1
Energy Advice Work in Germany
6.2
Energy Advice Work in Greece
6.3
References
34
34
37
38
CHAPTER 7 EVALUATION OF ENERGY ADVICE CENTRES IN THE
PAST AND AT PRESENT
7.1
Evaluation of the Energy Design Advice Scheme
7.2
Evaluation of EEACs by the Energy Savings Trust
7.3
References
39
39
41
43
CHAPTER 8 A NEW APPROACH TO THE EVALUATION OF ENERGY
ADVICE CENTRES
8.1
Introduction to the Methodology
8.2
Quantifiable Energy, Carbon and Cost Savings
8.3
Other Quantifiable Outcomes
8.4
Non-Quantifiable Outcomes
8.5
Application of the Methodology
8.6
References
44
44
45
57
59
59
60
CHAPTER 9 CASE STUDY: SOUTH WEST SCOTLAND EEAC
9.1
Description of the Region
9.2
EEAC Structure
9.3
Evaluation of the EEAC’s Effectiveness
9.4
Conclusion
9.5
References
62
62
65
67
80
82
CHAPTER 10
CASE STUDY: STRATHCLYDE & CENTRAL EEAC
10.1 Description of the Region
10.2 EEAC Structure
10.3 Evaluation of EEAC Effectiveness
10.4 Conclusion
10.5 Reference
83
83
85
85
97
98
CHAPTER 11
A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EVALUATED
ENERGY ADVICE CENTRES
11.1 Comparison of the Advice Work
11.2 Comparison of the Effectiveness
11.3 Conclusion
100
100
102
104
CHAPTER 12
PROSPECTS FOR THE WORK AND ITS
EFFECTIVENESS OF SCOTTISH EEACS
12.1 Development of Public Demand for Sustainable Energy
12.2 Development of Fuel Prices
12.3 Scope for Improvements
12.4 Conclusion
12.5 Reference
106
106
109
111
113
114
CHAPTER 13
CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE
WORK
115
13.1 Conclusions
115
13.2 Recommendations
118
13.3 Future Work
122
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: UK's EEAC network
Figure 2.2: Network of energy efficiency advice support
Figure 3.1: Activities of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres
Figure 4.1: Funding sources for EEAC activities
Figure 5.1: Ways people consider installing energy efficient measures
Figure 5.2: Energy efficiency measures installed after receiving energy advice
Figure 5.3: Following behavioural advice
Figure 6.1: Uptake rates for the advised measures
Figure 8.1: EEC spreadsheet 2005-2008
Figure 8.2: University of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool (SERT)
Figure 8.3: Small Scale Renewable Energy Rating Tool
Figure 9.1: Operational area of South West Scotland EEAC
Figure 9.2: Energy consumption by sector in South Ayrshire
Figure 9.3: Fuel poverty indicator for East Ayrshire
Figure 9.4: Process involved in the Renewable Energy Project
Figure 9.5: Sample structure of customer telephone survey
Figure 9.6: How customers heard about the Energy Agency’s insulation grant
Figure 10.1: Council areas covered by Strathclyde & Central EEACs
Figure 10.2: Fuel poverty indicator map of Glasgow City
Figure 10.3: Ways households received energy advice
Figure 11.1: Comparison of the provision of energy advice to domestic customers
Figure 11.2: Comparison of energy efficiency installations
Figure 11.3: Comparison of renewable energy installations
Figure 12.1: Web site statistics for South West Scotland EEAC web site
Figure 12.2: Annual household enquiries on renewable energy systems
Figure 12.3: Annual household RE projects over the last years
Figure 12.4: Fuel price scenarios
Figure 12.5: NHER bands by age of dwelling (Scottish housing stock)
Figure 12.6: South Ayrshire council housing stock carbon footprint projection
4
8
12
21
28
29
29
36
52
54
55
62
63
64
66
67
77
83
84
88
101
102
103
107
107
108
110
111
112
TABLE OF TABLES
Table 5.1: Annual savings per area of behavioural advice followed
Table 7.1: Cumulative carbon savings per form of EEAC advice to households
Table 8.1: Annual savings estimated for the 4 types of behavioural changes
Table 8.2: Fuel prices in p/kWh including VAT
Table 9.1: Annual savings from installed measures
Table 9.2: Estimated uptake rates in % for different recommendations
Table 9.3: Annual savings based on customer survey outcomes
Table 9.4: Characteristics of community wind projects
Table 9.5: Characteristics of community biomass project
Table 9.6: Characteristics of community GSHP system
Table 9.7: Annual savings from community renewable energy projects
Table 9.8: Annual savings from household renewable projects
Table 9.9: Number of public presentations and information forums
Table 9.10: Number of school presentations on energy efficiency and renewable
energy
Table 9.11: Number of press releases, articles and adverts
Table 9.12: Number of staff trainings
Table 9.13: Local authority support
Table 9.14: Number of potential jobs created by EEAC activities
Table 10.1: Annual savings from installed measures
Table 10.2: Annual savings based on customer survey outcomes
Table 10.3: Professional business installations
Table 10.4: Annual savings from professional business installations
Table 10.5: Annual savings from low cost business installations
Table 10.6: Characteristics of community solar water heating system
Table 10.7: Characteristics of community biomass system
Table 10.8: Characteristics of community ground source heat pump
Table 10.9: Annual savings from community renewable energy projects
Table 10.10: Annual savings from household renewable energy projects
Table 10.11: Number of public presentations and exhibitions
Table 10.12: Business advice
Table 10.13: Local authority support
Table 10.14: Number of potential jobs created
32
41
56
57
69
70
71
72
72
73
73
74
75
76
76
77
78
79
87
89
89
90
90
91
91
91
92
93
94
95
95
96
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
There is a network of 52 Energy Efficiency Advice Centres throughout the UK which
act as registered charities and provide free and impartial advice to domestic
customers, communities, small businesses and local authorities. The overall objective
of this thesis has been to construct a review of the work of such advice centres in
Scotland, evaluate the outcomes of the advice work by means of two case studies,
identify present barriers and problems and to recommend potential improvements.
The focus of the initial phase of the project was to gain a historical perspective and an
understanding of the current energy advice network. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview
of the establishment of this network and the role of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres
for the country’s energy policy. It also outlines the existence and work of other energy
advice support groups and partnerships which presently complement the work of the
UK’s EEACs. Chapter 3 characterises the services energy advice centres provide
while chapter 4 describes how this advice work is financed in Scotland and which
financial sources Scottish customers can access in order to uptake advised
recommendations.
Having gained an understanding of the purpose, work and funding of energy advice
centres, the effectiveness and benefits of energy advice to domestic customers are
quantified in chapter 5 which summarises and comments on some significant
outcomes of recent studies that have explored the effects of energy advice to
households.
Chapter 6 is concerned with the energy advice work in other countries. It provides a
brief overview of the work of two successful European energy advice centres of
which one is based in Germany and the other one in Greece. That chapter quite stands
on its own but its purpose is to demonstrate the differences in the advice work of other
countries to that of the UK’s EEACs and to generate ideas for potential expansions of
their advice service. Chapter 6 also serves as reference for some recommendations
stated at the end of this report.
Aiming to create an evaluation method applicable to today’s energy advice centres an
evaluation technique has been studied in chapter 7, which was used for the Energy
-1-
Design Advice Scheme in the past. The purpose of this was to extract possible
measures of effectiveness that can be applied in this project. Additionally the
evaluation procedure currently used by the Energy Saving Trust is explored and the
need for a new approach to the evaluation of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres is
identified. This has been the focus of the next step of this project.
An evaluation methodology that could be easily adopted by energy advice centres
themselves has been developed and is documented in chapter 8. This methodology
classifies in benefits in terms of energy, carbon and cost savings, other quantifiable
outcomes and non-quantifiable outcomes. The tools used to assess possible energy
savings include a spreadsheet supplied by Ofgem, the University of Strathclyde’s
Energy Rating Tool and savings identified for behavioural changes which have been
identified in chapter 5 of the thesis. The methodology is in the following two chapters
applied to 2 different Scottish EEACs and their effectiveness has been evaluated for
the previous financial year. The outcomes of both advice centres are compared in
chapter 11 and some recommendations on potential improvements are made.
Information provided by both advice centres and the Energy Saving Trust as well as
fuel price scenarios developed by the Association for Conservation of Energy, and the
outcomes of the 2004 Scottish Housing Condition Survey have been used to
investigate the future perspectives for the work and its effectiveness of Scottish
energy advice centres. This is discussed in chapter 12.
Overall conclusions and recommendations for the future work of Scottish Energy
Efficiency Advice Centres are presented in chapter 13.
-2-
Chapter 2 BACKGROUND
2.1 Establishment of UK’s Energy Advice Network
In 1992 the government signed the Rio agreement on the environment which included
a commitment to reduce the levels of carbon emissions. In the same year the first
national Energy Design Advice Scheme (EDAS) was initiated as one of the actions
taken by the UK to limit greenhouse gas emissions under the Climate Change
Convention. EDAS was launched as a Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)
discretionary initiative aimed at improving the energy and environmental performance
of the UK’s building stock by making low energy design expertise more widely
available. The regional pilot for this national scheme was the Scottish energy advice
centre which was operated between 1987 and 1992 receiving technical support from
the ABACUS Unit at the University of Strathclyde [1]. Its success was the reason for
expanding it to a national scheme (EDAS) that consisted of four regional centres –
EDAS Scotland, EDAS South, EDAS North and a Northern Ireland Centre. These
acted as regional information resource centres and were staffed by building
professionals and academics with expertise in low energy design. Despite its primary
purpose of project-specific design advice EDAS also intended to expand awareness
and understanding of low energy design expertise throughout the construction
industry.
In 1993 Energy Efficiency Advice Centres (EEACs) were setup as part of the UK
Government’s commitment to reduce carbon emissions in line with the agreement
made in Rio
[2]
. These advice centres were set up to provide, complementary to the
work of EDAS, free and impartial advice to householders on energy efficiency and
renewable energy. Today EEACs provide advice to the domestic, business and public
sector and support the uptake of energy saving measures and renewable energy
technologies. At present the UK possesses a network of 52 Energy Efficiency Advice
Centres of which 8 are based in Scotland, 3 in Wales, 1 in Northern Ireland and the
remainder in England.
-3-
Figure 2.1: UK's EEAC network
The map above illustrates the various areas throughout the UK that are covered by
individual advice centres. All advice centres are managed by the Energy Saving Trust
(EST). They are operated locally which means that their activities only cover a certain
region, which generally consist of several councils. The different activities of these
advice centres are explained in chapter 3 and are evaluated at a later stage of this
report.
After the national Energy Design Advice Scheme finished in 1998 the building design
advice work has been taken over by the Carbon Trust which was launched in 2001.
The Carbon Trust now provides free or discounted design advice for non-domestic
renovation or new built projects. This is done in close work with a leading team of
consultants.
-4-
2.2 The Role of EEACs for UK’s Energy Policy
The work of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres supports several government
strategies both at national and local levels including the UK’s Climate Change
Programme, the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC), the Home Energy
Conservation Act (HECA) and UK’s Fuel Poverty Strategy. These are in some ways
related to another and seek as a superior designation sustainability of energy demand
and supply.
2.2.1
UK’s Climate Change Programme
The UK Government’s sustainable energy policy is set out in the 2003 Energy White
Paper and the UK Climate Change Programme published in 2000. In a news release
on the 28th March 2006
[3]
the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
(Defra) announced, amongst others, three measures of the UK’s Climate Change
Programme with the intention to tackle greenhouse gas emissions. These are:
•
Measures to improve household energy efficiency
•
Renewed emphasis on encouraging and enabling the general public, businesses
and public authorities to help achieve Government’s targets
•
Increased levels of microgeneration
Therefore, investing in advice that shows customers why being energy efficient and
the use of renewable energy is advantageous, and how and with which financial
support it can be achieved is a key delivery mechanism of these measures.
Consequently, the potential benefits which Energy Efficiency Advice Centres can
realise by promoting more sustainable energy use and renewable energy technologies
to the public, local authorities and small businesses are:
•
Lower energy bills and better value for money
•
Reduced carbon dioxide emissions
•
More sustainable building stock
•
More efficient use of natural resources
•
Reinforcement of the market for low carbon technologies and services
-5-
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres, therefore, lead one way to successfully reach
UK’s legally binding target under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce its greenhouse gas
emissions by 12.5% below the base year (1990) levels between 2008 and 2012 as well
as the domestic goal to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by some 20% below 1990
levels by 2020 [4].
2.2.2
Energy Efficiency Commitment
The Energy Efficiency Commitment is one of the main vehicles for delivering energy
efficiency in households. It is a Government legislation that sets out targets on gas
and electricity suppliers to achieve improvements in energy efficiency across the UK.
This requires utility companies to assist households with the take up of energy
efficiency measures as for example by subsidising the cost of installation. It makes up
part of the Climate Change Programme and started in April 2002 requiring suppliers
to spend an equivalent of £13.60 per customer per fuel on energy saving measures in
order to achieve an energy saving target of 130TWh set by Defra
[5]
. The gas and
electricity regulator Ofgem is responsible for overseeing the delivery of the EEC.
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres can act as project partners for energy suppliers by
providing grant schemes that encourage and assist customers to make energy savings
by installing certain measures. Such schemes are then part-funded by the energy
supplier.
2.2.3
Home Energy Conservation Act
The Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 (HECA) came into force in 1996 and
requires every UK local authority with housing responsibilities to achieve significant
improvements in the energy efficiency of their respective housing stocks, across all
tenures, over the following 10 to 15 years. Under this act local authorities should
achieve a 30% improvement in energy efficiency in homes by 2010 which contributes
to UK’s Climate Change commitments [6]. In Scotland the Communities Scotland, the
Scottish Executive’s housing and regeneration agency, monitors progress on targets
set for the Home Energy Conservation Act on behalf of Scottish Ministers [7].
-6-
In order to achieve these targets local authorities have been working with local
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres. These help to focus the attention of local
authorities more closely on the energy efficiency of all residential accommodation,
and on developing an integrated approach to their housing and energy strategies.
2.2.4
UK Fuel Poverty Strategy
The UK Fuel Poverty Strategy was published by the Government in 2001 with the
aim to seek an end to the problem of fuel poverty in particular to the blight of fuel
poverty for vulnerable households by 2010. According to the Department of Trade
and Industry a household is said to be in fuel poverty if it needs to spend more than
10% of its income on fuel to maintain a satisfactory heating regime which is usually
21˚C for the main living area, and 18˚C degrees for other occupied rooms
[8]
. Fuel
poverty is caused by the interaction of a number of factors, but three specifically stand
out. These are [8]:
•
The energy efficiency status of the property
•
The cost of energy
•
Household income
The latest estimates suggest that, in 2003, there were approximately 2 million fuel
poor households in the UK, with one and a half million of those in the vulnerable
category
[9]
. Using the definition of fuel poverty it was estimated that approximately
369,000 Scottish households were living in fuel poverty in 2003 [10].
Energy advice centres provide practical solutions to help people on low incomes to
keep their homes warm and dry without spending more than they can afford on fuel.
They furthermore support local authorities in developing strategies to tackle fuel
poverty and help to work towards the 2016 target for eradicating fuel poverty and
providing affordable warmth as it is stated in 2005’s Annual Progress Report on the
UK Fuel Strategy [9].
-7-
2.3 Energy Advice Support Groups and Partnerships
Promoting energy efficiency advice nationally involves a large number of
stakeholders and is supported by different organisations and partnerships which are
chiefly interconnected. This creates a complex network of energy efficiency advice
support throughout the UK. Figure 2.2 demonstrates the structure of energy advice
support with respect to the work of the UK’s network of Energy Efficiency Advice
Centres.
Representatives
Department for Environment,
Food and Rural Affairs
Representatives
Energy Savings
Trust
Network of
Energy Efficiency
Advice Centres
Energy Efficiency
Partnership for
Homes
Energy Advice
Providers Group
Representatives
Energy Advice
Code of Practice
Figure 2.2: Network of energy efficiency advice support
Figure 2.2 shows three significant institutions – Energy Saving Trust, Energy
Efficiency Partnership for Homes and Energy Advice Provider Group – whose work
supports the UK’s network of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres. These are discussed
in the following sections.
2.3.1
The Energy Savings Trust
The Energy Saving Trust (EST) is an independent, government-funded body (funded
by Defra) that works in partnership with organisations and businesses with the shared
goal of promoting sustainable and efficient use of energy. It runs the UK’s main
-8-
energy efficiency advice scheme for the domestic sector including the UK-wide
network of 52 local Energy Efficiency Advice Centres. Every year Defra issues
targets to the Energy Savings Trust in the form of numbers which need to be achieved
during the year e.g. number of customers receiving energy efficiency advice. These
targets will be allocated by the EST to the different Energy Efficiency Advice Centres
with respect to the size and population intensity of the region to which the EEAC is
assigned to.
The Energy Saving Trust’s activities are designed to underpin and complement the
work of the advice centres and other organisations active in the energy efficiency
market. Hence, the EST supports the supply of energy efficiency products and
services as well as energy efficiency training, and provides advice and support for
actions. Furthermore, it facilitates partnerships concerned with energy issues.
2.3.2
The Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes
The Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes is a partnership of organisations that
are concerned with energy efficiency in the home and alleviation of fuel poverty. It is
a network of over 395 organisations from the public, private and voluntary sector.
These can be local authorities, central government departments, charities or
companies. The Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes is an independent
partnership but is facilitated by the Energy Savings Trust.
The Members of this partnership work together by sharing information and
undertaking joint projects to [11]:
•
Achieve more effective marketing of energy efficiency in homes
•
Discuss, inform and influence public policy related to domestic energy
efficiency
•
Secure long-term government support for all involved in the UK domestic
energy efficiency market
•
Drive more rapid and effective development of national standards for energy
efficiency and quality control
•
Encourage industry best practice
-9-
Most of this work is coordinated through the operation of sector working groups who
bring together major companies and organisations in each sector concerned with
energy efficiency.
2.3.3
The Energy Advice Providers Group
The Energy Advice Providers Group (EAGP) is an important sector working group of
the Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes, which brings together representatives
from energy suppliers, Energy Efficiency Advice Centres, self-funded energy
agencies, the Federation of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres, Defra and the Energy
Savings Trust. Although the Energy Advice Providers Group is funded by the Energy
Savings Trust, the representatives of all non-governmental organisations invest their
time voluntarily in order to develop together standards for domestic energy advice.
A vital achievement of the group has been the establishment of the Energy Advice
Code of Practice which provides a Best Practice standard for the whole energy
efficiency advice industry and is the key to ensuring that energy advice is effective
independently wherever it comes from. The standards within the Code of Practice are
designed to ensure that an advice provider is well run and has its own quality control
mechanisms in place. According to the agenda of the EAPG meeting on the 4th April
2006 in London EST is responsible for delivering the Code of Practice, with EAPG
acting as an Advisory Group
[12]
.
2.4 References
1. Eclipse Research Consultants. Monitoring the Energy Design Advice Scheme –
Final Report on the Operation of the Energy Design Advice Scheme 1992–1997,
Cambridge March 1998
2. Strathclyde & Central Energy Efficiency Advice Centre,
http://www.eeac.co.uk/aboutus.htm [accessed 13 May 2006]
3. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. New climate change
programme sets out UK agenda for action domestically and international, News
Release 28 March 2006, Ref: 130/06
http://www.defra.gov.uk/news/2006/060328a.htm [accessed 22 May 2006]
-10-
4. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.UK Climate Change review
– consultation document, Section 2 Introduction,
www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/consult/ukccp-review/ccpreview-two.pdf
[accessed 22 May 2006]
5. Energy Saving Trust. Energy Efficiency Commitment,
http://www.est.org.uk/housingtrade/eec/ [accessed 23 May 2006]
6. Association for the Conservation of Energy. Home Energy Conservation Act
Updates – the latest figures (July 2005), 2005 HECA returns published by Defra,
http://www.ukace.org/campaign/ - heca [accessed 24 May 2006]
7. Scottish Executive. Third HECA progress report for the Scottish Parliament,
February 2005, ISBN 0 7559 4420 8
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/development/hecar5-00.asp
[accessed 18 May 2006]
8. Department of Trade and Industry. Fuel Poverty, What is Fuel Poverty?,
http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/fuel-poverty/index.html [accessed 23 May 2006]
9. Department of Trade and Industry. The UK Fuel Poverty Strategy - 3rd Annual
Progress Report 2005,
www.dti.gov.uk/files/file10717.pdf [accessed 17 May 2006]
10. SCARF, http://www.scarf.org.uk/aboutus.htm
[accessed 23 May 2006]
11. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. About the Partnership,
http://www.eeph.org.uk/about/ [accessed 22 May 2006]
12. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. Energy Advice Providers Group
Meeting - Agenda, London 4th April 2006, page 2
http://www.est.org.uk/partnership/sector/swg.cfm?group_id=3
[accessed 22 May 2006]
-11-
Chapter 3 ACTIVITIES OF ENERGY ADVICE CENTRES
The principal activity of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres is the energy advice to
households which is accompanied by public information days on energy efficiency
and the use of the local media to communicate the EEAC’s advice service to the
public. However, due to the procurement of increased local and national funding
energy advice centres have developed their service since their establishment in 1993.
Figure 3.1: Activities of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres
Figure 3.1 demonstrates a summary of all possible activities with energy advice to
households as the core service.
The intensity with which the different services are provided by each EEAC depends
on its experience in the respective field, the demand for the different advice activities
in the area, and the funding available. Energy Efficiency Advice Centres are
furthermore active in procuring funding for various projects and the management of
those. Such activities can be relatively time taking. However, these will find no
further consideration in this report because of their administrative nature which has no
direct impact on the benefits of the advice work. In this chapter the EEAC services
outlined in Figure 3.1 are explained in detail.
-12-
3.1 Energy Efficiency Advice to Householders
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres provide free and impartial advice on energy
efficiency measures and energy efficient behaviour to householders in the following
ways:
•
Verbally face-to-face
•
Over the telephone
•
Home Energy Check (HEC) reports
•
Through its own web site
•
Presentations and exhibitions (information stands)
•
Leaflets on energy saving recommendations
Householders are encouraged to complete Home Energy Check forms which are then
processed by the advice centre to produce a detailed energy efficiency report. This
report is sent directly to the householders and provides advice on how to save energy
in their home and improve comfort. As part of the report the energy advice centre
makes suggestions on changes customers can make in their home by installing
specific energy efficiency measures. It also provides a list of registered energy
efficiency installers who can carry out the recommended work as well as information
on any grants that are available to help cover at least part of the costs. Verbal advice is
given to enquirers through a free hotline and is sometimes backed-up with
information sent to the householder specific to their enquiry. In addition energy
efficiency advice centres provide face-to-face advice to householders at presentations,
exhibitions, directly in the office or in some cases at home visits. In most cases faceto-face advice is provided at information stands in supermarkets and other public
places or through presentations to certain community groups e.g. elderly people.
Leaflets on energy efficiency and renewable technologies are available at exhibitions,
from the advice centres directly or from their web sites. In order to provide energy
advice to customers electronically, EEAC web pages contain guides on energy
efficiency measures and behavioural advice as well as overviews and case studies on
renewable energy. Several advice centres additionally provide some brief advice on
waste minimisation and recycling as well as on transport on their websites.
-13-
Energy efficiency measures advised by the EEAC can be classed into two categories low cost and professional measure. Low cost measures can be for example low energy
light bulbs, hot water tank insulation, room thermostats or draught proofing on doors
and windows. Professional measures can be loft and wall insulation, a modern
condensing boiler or energy efficient rated appliances. According to the Department
of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs professional measures will save between 0.3
and 0.6 Mt of carbon in 2010 [1]. Alongside advising on installation of these measures
energy advice centres point out ways in which customers can save energy by
changing certain behaviour. A number of behavioural advice examples are stated in
the following.
•
“Ensure that thermostat on the water tank is set around 60°C.”
•
“Set room thermostat between 18°C and 21°C.”
•
“Run washing machine with a full load and a cool wash cycle of 30°C or
40°C.”
•
“Only boil as much water in the kettle as needed.”
•
“Draw the curtains when it is cold outside and the heating is on.”
These are simple measures which are part of the Energy Saving Trust’s ‘Save your
20%’ campaign. They are associated with no capital investment for the household and
are important to raise people’s awareness for areas of energy wastage.
Additionally energy advice centres try to reach domestic customers with help of the
local press by occasionally circulating press releases on some EEAC activities or
advertising certain grant schemes. However such press releases in the majority lack
technical information and are written in a very basic way.
3.2 Energy in Education Initiatives
Many energy advice centres provide energy efficiency awareness sessions in schools
targeting primary and secondary school children. For these school projects advice
centres deliver a range of services such as class lessons, energy games, prize draws as
well as energy and environmental resource packs. Another activity arranged at the end
-14-
of every year are energy calendar competitions where children are asked to provide
pictures illustrating the best way to save energy at home.
Class lessons commonly cover conventional energy production, renewable energy and
energy efficiency including ways to keep your home warm. All school activities shall
motivate the pupils to learn about energy efficiency and renewable energy and to
change their behaviour in order to save money on energy and keep their homes warm.
South West Scotland EEAC, for example, delivers energy advice to first and second
year pupils who take part in energy efficiency lessons through the Home Economics
Department and as part of a ‘Green Issues’ topic. These lessons are accompanied with
a prize draw where the winner receives a solar powered radio. Additionally pupils fill
in questionnaires about energy use in their home and receive a free energy advice
report.
Strathclyde and Central EEAC also provided an education programme in Glasgow
schools which was aimed to raise awareness of recycling and waste management
additionally to energy awareness. However, the funding for this project ended and the
project therefore had to be stopped.
3.3 Renewable Energy Initiatives
Energy advice centres employ, depending on the size of their region and the funding
they receive for promoting renewable energy, a certain number of Renewable
Development Officers who aim to provide local communities with expertise, support
and in some cases grants helping them to take forward renewable energy projects
successfully. The objectives of employing Renewable Energy Officers are:
•
To support the development of community scale renewable projects
•
To support the installation of household renewable systems
•
To raise awareness of renewable technologies and their benefits
The role of the Renewable Development Officers can include contacting and meeting
with partners to discuss potential projects and develop proposals, applying for funding
to support projects, carrying out energy audits and feasibility studies, presenting
project proposals or results of feasibility studies, and providing advice to
-15-
householders, community groups, local authorities and housing associations on
installation, costs and benefits of micro-renewable technologies.
If a community considers investing in microgeneration for their power supply the
Renewable Project Officer continues to provide technical advice and support in order
to help the community to develop and deliver their project. The development of
community projects can sometimes last over several years.
Supporting homeowners, schools and communities with the development of smallscale renewable energy projects, the advice centre will refer the client to the eligible
grant available to fund the installation costs. Available grant schemes will be
discussed in chapter 4 of this project.
Renewable Development Officers furthermore can support local installers and
construction firms with starting an establishment in the field of renewable energy
systems installation. In such cases companies usually approach their local EEAC for
help with getting a recognised renewable installer. In South Ayrshire for example the
South West Scotland EEAC is currently supporting a local company, whose
traditional service includes retail refurbishment and building maintenance, to become
a recognised renewable installer for solar water heating and ground source heat pumps
in Ayrshire.
3.4 Local Authority Support
The Energy Saving Trust funds staff across the UK to provide dedicated energy
saving advice and support to local authorities, housing associations and partner
organisations. Working with local authorities includes a variety of projects that are
accomplished by so called LESP (Local Energy Support Programme) Officers. These
work with the above named groups in many ways, including [5]:
•
Support with developing sustainable energy strategies
•
Identifying funding opportunities and assisting with grant bids
•
Coordination of local and regional energy partnerships
One main objective of LESP is to assist local councils in developing fuel poverty
strategies. This is done with the aim to remove all households from fuel poverty.
-16-
LESP Officers work with local authorities and housing associations in order to
promote energy efficiency in their housing stock and provide information on available
funding streams. The Strathclyde & Central EEAC for example has been doing mail
drops with Local Authorities for several years sending Home Energy Checks to those
areas identified to have a high rate of fuel poverty.
An important task of the LESP Officer when providing energy advice for new council
buildings is ensuring the interaction between housing associations, architects, builders
and future tenants in order to encourage the construction of energy efficient buildings
but considering these are uncomplicated to build and to use. Additionally support is
provided to private landlords who contact the EEAC to seek help with implementing
sustainable strategies in all their properties.
Energy advice centres do not provide direct building design advice, in the way it was
done by EDAS, because of the missing technical expertise. In order to promote
energy efficient building design advice centres occasionally arrange information
forums on these topics for architects and housing associations or other interest groups.
For these workshops the advice centre organises experts in energy conscious building
design to hold presentations on specific topics and provide all interested groups with
technical information on current best practice.
Local authority support furthermore includes keeping local authorities up to date with
government initiatives and strategies regarding energy efficiency. Presently all
Scottish LESP officers have to inform their local authorities on the Scottish
Declaration on Climate Change which is based on its English equivalent the
Nottingham declaration. This programme, which will be in place by the end of 2007,
promises to ‘co-ordinate and strengthen the wide range of activity taking place at
local authority level and set the strategic framework and direction for future action’
[2]
. Paragraph 5.176 of the declaration indicates that all Scottish LESP Officers are
committed to preparing the local authority declaration on Climate Change as well as
to providing additional resources to assist the Sustainable Scotland Network develop a
climate change programme for local government in Scotland [2].
-17-
3.5 Business Advice
Some Energy Efficiency Advice Centres employ a Business Advisor to specifically
promote and provide energy efficiency and waste management advice to local
businesses. There are 6 Business Advisors throughout Scotland who provide local
enterprises with:
•
Energy and waste audits
•
Energy advice and training
•
Access to funding packages
•
Case studies and publications
All enterprises with yearly energy expenses above £10,000 are entitled to a free
energy audit. The EEAC works with the chambers of commerce and utility companies
in order to target businesses that qualify for this free energy survey
[4]
. These
businesses will then be contacted by the EEAC offering free advice to them.
The Business Advisor in general conducts a brief survey of the business and its
energy use and advises on various measures reaching from no and low cost to
professional measures. If necessary, the business can be additionally referred to a
professional energy audit provided by an energy consultancy contracted by the EEAC.
The audit also includes quantifiable savings for measures requiring capital investment
and signposts to funding packages. Additionally staff awareness presentations and
programmes can be arranged with the advice centre which shall motivate all members
of staff to save energy at work as well as at home. Such presentations highlight issues
such as the Climate Change Levy and its effect on their organisation.
Business Advisors, furthermore work closely in partnership with Envirowise to
identify companies that can benefit from the Envirowise Fast Track visit, which
Business advisors can provide to companies that waste water or have disposal costs.
During Fast Track visits business advisors help companies recognizing the true cost of
their waste in terms of process, water or general waste. This also includes identifying
possible ways for waste minimisation.
-18-
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres only deal with small and medium sized businesses
with yearly energy expenses below £50,000 [4]. Larger businesses are directly referred
to the Carbon Trust.
3.6 Training
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres can deliver both formal and informal staff and
community group awareness training. This can include energy efficiency training to
agencies with customer-facing staff such as Citizens Advice Bureaux, Housing
Associations and Health Authorities.
For example, South West EEAC has trained groups of social workers and hospital
staff who deal with day patients in order to raise their awareness of the energy
efficiency measures and grants available. It is expected that these then pass on the
information to their clients.
Some advice centres such as SCARF, the EEAC responsible for Aberdeen and North
East Scotland, are registered examination and assessment centres for energy
efficiency qualifications and therefore can also deliver training and assessment to
industry requirements.
3.7 References
1. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. New climate change
programme sets out UK agenda for action domestically and international, News
Release 28 March 2006, Ref: 130/06,
http://www.defra.gov.uk/news/2006/060328a.htm [accessed 22 May 2006]
2. Scottish Executive. Changing Our Ways - Scotland’s Climate Change
Programme, Edinburgh 2006, page 60
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/03/30091039/0
[accessed 26 June 2006]
3. James Kane – Business Adviser for Strathclyde & Central EEAC. Personal
conversation 26 June 2006
-19-
Chapter 4 FUNDING
This chapter outlines how energy efficiency is financed in Scotland. It covers funding
sources for energy advice activities as well as grants and loan schemes provided to
Scottish citizens and businesses in order to support the uptake of energy saving
measures and renewable energy technologies.
4.1 Financing EEAC Activities
The majority of funding income is provided by the Energy Saving Trust. This covers
expenses for advice to households, business advice and the Local Energy Support
Programme. Additionally funding from the EST can be assessed through its
innovation stream. This is provided for innovative support projects (e.g. innovative
grant schemes) for which advice centres have to bid successfully.
EEACs have widened their activities since they have been established and work now
on a variety of projects which have different funding streams. Each project can have a
number of different stakeholders who provide funding in order to satisfy their own
interests e.g. achieve certain government set targets. Before a new project can be
started the EEAC has to identify and procure the required funding from the Energy
Savings Trust, local authorities, or other interest groups or initiatives. The funding
structure, therefore, is likely to vary over time and is in general different for each
advice centre, always depending on successful bidding for funds available. The
project duration depends on the period of time for which funding is accessible.
Contracts for funded projects can last from as little as 2 months up to 3 years. Figure
4.1 briefly describes possible funding streams for the different EEAC activities. This
is based on information provided by the South West Scotland and Strathclyde &
Central EEAC.
-20-
Figure 4.1: Funding sources for EEAC activities
Funded by the Scottish Executive and managed jointly by the Energy Savings Trust,
the Scottish Community & Householder Renewable Initiative (SCHRI) provides
advice and project support to assist the development of new community and
household renewable schemes in Scotland. SCHRI funds the work of Renewable
Development Officers employed by Scottish Energy Efficiency Advice Centres.
There are SCHRI Development Officers in five EEACs in Southern, Central and
Eastern Scotland and in the Highlands and Islands Enterprise offices in the north.
Due to their regulatory obligations to meet targets set for saving energy in the
domestic electricity and gas market (EEC targets) energy suppliers like Scottish
Power try to encourage and assist their domestic customers with installing measures
such as cavity wall and loft insulation. One way of doing so is to support EEAC
activities which promote energy efficiency in the home.
4.2 Grant and Loan Schemes
Since EEACs have been established numerous grant and loan schemes have been set
up in order to complement the work by providing financial support for installing the
advised energy efficiency measures as well as renewable technologies.
4.2.1
Grants for Energy Efficiency Measures
Each advice centre generally provides its own grant schemes which can apply to the
whole area of coverage or only to several councils. The number of local grants
-21-
available depends on the number of projects for which the advice centre could
successfully procure funding. Most of the grant schemes are funded by the 3 partners:
1) The Energy Savings Trust
2) Local Authorities
3) Energy Suppliers
The problem with this funding structure is that local grants are often only provided
temporary since it happens that project partners (especially utility companies)
suddenly stop funding the scheme when achieving their own targets.
The government furthermore provides grants to households where people are on
certain benefits or aged above 60 years. This way the government aims to tackle fuel
poverty by strategically improving energy efficiency in households with low incomes.
In Scotland this scheme is known as Warm Deal and is run by EAGA Ltd on behalf of
the Scottish Executive. Warm Deal provides grants of up to £500 to households on
benefits and maximum £125 to people aged over 60 years
[1]
. It applies to the
installation of:
•
Cavity wall insulation
•
Loft insulation
•
Draught proofing
•
Hot and cold tank, and pipe insulation
The Warm Deal scheme has so far insulated over 220,000 homes since its start in
1999. This accounts approximately for 10% of all of Scotland’s housing stock [2].
The EST also maintains a database of currently available insulation and other energy
related offers, which are in many cases provided by the different utility companies.
This
database
can
be
accessed
via
http://www.est.org.uk/myhome/gid/index.cfm?sec=1
-22-
the
following
link:
4.2.2
Grants for Renewable Energy
The Scottish Executive and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) both have
grants available for the installation of renewable energy technologies. The Scottish
Executive scheme is provided through Scottish Community & Householder
Renewables Initiative (SCHRI) to which Scottish energy advice centres intend to refer
in the first place. The DTI runs a grant scheme called Low Carbon Building
Programme which covers a wider range of technology than SCHRI.
4.2.2.1 SCHRI Grants
The Scottish Community & Householder Renewable Initiative (SCHRI) offers grants
to Scottish homeowners and house builders for the installation of renewable energy
technologies and grants to Scottish communities for capital projects and development
initiatives such as feasibility studies. In this context the community has to be a
Scotland based, legally constituted non-profit organisation (e.g. charity, housing
association, school). Additionally community grants are available for energy
efficiency improvements in connection with a renewable system installation.
SCHRI provides grants for households of 30% of the installed costs up to a maximum
of £4000. The amount of funding awarded to communities is determined on a case by
case basis with the average grant being in the region of 50% where SCHRI can
provide up to £10,000 for technical assistance and a maximum of £100,000 for capital
expenditure
[3]
. Technical assistance funding is available for feasibility or scoping
studies to a wide range of projects during their formative stage.
Technologies that are eligible for funding under SCHRI are:
•
Micro hydro-electric
•
Micro wind
•
Solar, water and space heating
•
Ground source heat pumps
•
Automated wood-fuelled stoves and boilers
-23-
As this scheme will not fund photovoltaic installations, Scottish energy advisers
would refer their customers, who plan to install such, to the Low Carbon Buildings
Programme.
It has to be mentioned that SCHRI does not fund existing installations. This means
customers have to wait for the grant application to be approved before the work can
be carried out. However, this bureaucracy can present problems for new build projects
and make the installation of renewable systems less attractive.
4.2.2.2 Low Carbon Buildings Programme
This programme started in April 2006 and is funded by the Department of Trade and
Industry (DTI). It offers UK-wide grants for renewable energy technologies to
householders, community organisations, schools, the public sector and businesses.
The programme will run over 3 years and replaces the DTI’s Clear Sky and Solar PV
programmes which existed until March 2006 [4]. This grant scheme differs to previous
programmes in that there are a number of energy efficient measures applicants must
undertake before being eligible to apply for a grant. This way the programme
promotes a more holistic approach to reducing carbon from buildings by encouraging
applicants to consider energy efficiency alongside micro-generation.
The following technologies which are not covered by SCHRI are eligible for funding
under the Low Carbon Building Programme:
•
Solar photovoltaic
•
Water and air source heat pumps
•
Micro CHP
•
Fuel Cells
The grant level available to householders depends on the type of technology, but it is
in many cases subject to an overall 30% limit [5].
According to March 2006’s budget statement the overall budget for the 3-year
programme is around £80million of which around £30million are already assigned.
The additional £50million will be allocated throughout the programme [5].
-24-
4.2.3
Loan Schemes
Despite grant schemes there are also interest free loan schemes available to clients of
Scottish energy advice centres. Loans are mainly provided to businesses but some
EEACs also offer loan schemes to their domestic customers.
4.2.3.1 Loan Action Scotland
This is a loan scheme offered only to Scottish businesses. If a business had an energy
audit completed by an approved energy consultant there is the opportunity for an
eligible company to gain a loan helping to invest into the advised energy reducing
measures. Loan Action Scotland provides interest free loans to businesses from
£5,000 to £50,000
[6]
. Funded by the Scottish Executive the scheme is managed by
Strathclyde & Central EEAC and aims to support small and medium sized companies
taking action to reduce their energy bills. To be eligible the enterprise must have no
more than 250 employees and a maximum turnover of £25million per year. This loan
scheme supports a wide range of energy saving measures, including:
•
Improved lighting and controls
•
High efficiency heating
•
Boiler/heating controls
•
Heat recovery systems
•
Building/piping insulation
The loans can be repaid over a period of up to 5 years for which it is assumed that the
energy savings will cover the cost of repayments.
4.2.3.2 Other Loan Schemes
Sometimes interest free loans are also provided to domestic customers. The
Strathclyde & Central EEAC for manages instance the 2 loan schemes HeatCare and
EELS (Energy Efficiency Loan Scheme) that offer different interest free loans to
Glasgow residents above and under 60 years. Through these schemes loans are
available up to £2,500 and can be repaid over 36 months [7].
-25-
4.3 Reference
1. Eaga Group. Warm Deal,
http://www.eagagroup.com/grants/warmdeal/qualify.htm [accessed 08 June 2006]
2. Scottish Executive. Changing Our Ways - Scotland’s Climate Change
Programme, Edinburgh 2006, page 54,
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/03/30091039/0
[accessed 26 June 2006]
3. Energy Saving Trust. Scottish Community and Householder Initiative,
http://www.est.org.uk/schri/ [accessed 06 June 2006]
4. Energy Saving Trust. Low Carbon Buildings Programme,
http://www.est.org.uk/housingbuildings/funding/lowcarbonbuildings/
[accessed 06 June 2006]
5. Department of Trade and Industry. Low Carbon Buildings Programme,
http://www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/about/
[accessed 06 June 2006]
6. Energy Saving Trust. Loan Action Scotland,
http://www.energy-efficiency.org/howto/help/loan/index.html
[accessed 08 June 2006]
7. Strathclyde & Central EEAC. Grant & Loans,
http://www.eeac.co.uk/grants.htm [accessed 19 May 2006]
-26-
Chapter 5 QUANTIFYING ENERGY ADVICE
This chapter focuses on the quantification of energy advice in the domestic sector. A
number of studies over the past few years have explored the effects of giving energy
advice to domestic customers. In autumn 2001 the Energy Advice Providers Group
commissioned the first major study to evaluate domestic energy advice across all
delivery mechanisms and all significant advice providers
[1]
. The survey was
conducted by New Perspectives in association with BMRB International. The
research aimed to:
•
Evaluate the overall impact of energy advice and the relative effectiveness of
different methods of delivering the advice
•
Determine what actions result from giving energy advice and identify the
benefits of following that advice
A follow-up study in 2004 then aimed to attribute energy savings to the actions in the
form of behavioural changes which customers claimed to undertake as a result of
being given behavioural advice.
The objectives of this chapter are to construct a review of the significant outcomes of
both studies, which play an important role for the present valuation of domestic
energy advice in the UK. Comments are made on some of the outcomes and
conclusions are drawn where possible.
5.1 Effectiveness of Energy Advice to Households
The major part of the survey was carried out in January 2002, through a telephone
survey of 1,900 interviews with people who had received energy advice from a
variety of sources (e.g. EEACs, fuel companies, local authorities) between October,
2000 and March, 2001.
One of the first significant outcomes of the 2002 research project was that 70% of
people who were questioned could remember getting advice and could recall at least
some of the topics it covered. It should be mentioned that the Energy Advice
-27-
Providers Group who state in their campaign that “85% of consumers can remember
getting that advice” [2] has misrepresented this fact.
The survey has furthermore shown that all forms of advice (except leaflets alone) can
be effective in communicating at least two energy saving measures which customers
should install in their homes, where loft and cavity wall insulation as well as low
energy light bulbs and draught proofing were the measures most people recalled.
Figure 5.1 indicates the ways people consider installing the energy efficient measures
which they recall receiving advice on.
Just go ahead and install measures
Discuss with other members of the household
Look at products in DIY stores
Apply for grants
Make further contact with advice source
Ask for quotations
None of these
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Percentage of respondents
Figure 5.1: Ways people consider installing energy efficient measures
According to the survey only 14% of those who recall any measures advised do not
consider installing anything, but over 50% of the people just go ahead and install
advised measures. However, these outcomes are doubted, since it has been
experienced during this project that the majority of people would not install measures
such as insulation or a new boiler without the help of available grants. It is assumed
that most of the people who replied that they just went ahead and installed measures
might have installed a low energy light bulb, which in most cases they received for
free.
Figure 5.2 demonstrates the types of measures which are identified to be installed in
most instances within 9 to 15 month after receiving energy advice.
-28-
Insulation in loft
Draughtproofing on doors and windows
Cavity wall insulation
Hot water tank insulation
Double glazing
New heating system
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Percentage of respondents
Figure 5.2: Energy efficiency measures installed after receiving energy advice
This figure demonstrates that loft and cavity wall insulation is installed more often
than for example hot water tank insulation which is much cheaper. It is suspected this
is the case because of the relatively large number of grants available for insulation.
Additionally the outcomes of the study have shown that 48% of all clients advised by
an EEAC install any energy saving measures, and 28% do this with help of grants or
discounts [1].
As result of the survey it has been estimated that on average those who recall advice
about energy saving measures go on to install about 1.5 measures each
[1]
. However,
according to the report on the 2002 survey many homes lack around four to nine
desirable energy efficiency measures and thus a further improvement of energy advice
services is recommended in order to enable households to fulfil their full potential
[1]
.
Despite installing recommended measures, households were questioned about
changing their habits after receiving behavioural advice on e.g. the use of appliances,
heating and lighting. Figure 5.3 demonstrates the percentage of clients who follow the
different types of behavioural advice, where simple recommendations such as closing
the curtains and internal doors are summarised as other energy saving tips.
Other energy saving tips
Advice on the use of light
Advice on the use of heating and hot water
Advice on cooking and the use of appliances
0%
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
Percentage of respondents
Figure 5.3: Following behavioural advice
-29-
When quantifying the effectiveness of behavioural advice it has been found that
council and private tenants seem more likely to follow such advice rather than invest
in costly energy saving measures which they might see as the landlord’s
responsibility. Hence, it is suggested that energy efficiency improvements have to be
made more attractive to private landlords.
The main findings of New Perspective’s report ‘Benefits of Energy Advice’ published
in March 2002 were since then used by the Energy Saving Trust and the Energy
Efficiency Partnership for Homes as part of their energy advice support campaign.
These findings were published in an A4 leaflet ‘Energy Advice – A Good Investment’
[2]
and are stated in the following.
•
70% of all households who receive any advice on measures do install some of
the recommended measures within 9 to 15 months
•
75% of all behavioural advice is followed in some way
•
Written reports and the combinations of written and verbal advice are the more
effective ways of communicating advice about measures to install and the
availability of grants
•
Verbal advice is more effective at encouraging behavioural changes, and
reports and leaflets on their own are less effective
•
Client-led advice is followed more often than opportunistic advice
It has to be pointed out that this survey conducted by New Perspectives in 2002 aimed
to quantify the effectiveness of energy advice which was provided by various sources.
However, the results of the survey have further shown that in comparison to
customers who were advised by Energy Efficiency Advice Centres rather fewer of
those who received advice through local authority, fuel poverty schemes or from
electricity companies went ahead to install measures or make use of grants and
discounts
[1]
. It is therefore justified that energy advice centres are more effective in
communicating energy advice to customers than local authorities or utility companies
on their own.
-30-
5.2 Benefits of Energy Advice to Households
Another focus point of the survey was to identify benefits resulting from taking up
recommendations. All respondents who followed any energy advice were asked about
different improvements they had noticed since. The results were that:
•
63% have benefited from warmer and more comfortable homes
•
34% reported lower fuel bills, rising to 47% among those who received written
reports and verbal advice
•
23% reported an improvement in health
With help of these outcomes it has been demonstrated that following energy advice
brings real benefits to domestic customers.
5.3 Savings from Behavioural Changes
In April 2004 a second research project was conducted for the Energy Advice
Providers Group by New Perspectives with support from Energy Inform and the
Energy Saving Trust. Its work was based on the evidence from the interviews
conducted in January, 2002. This second research project aimed to estimate the
savings being made by customers who were advised on behavioural changes. Savings
were expressed in terms of cost, energy and CO2 savings.
In order to estimate the average savings likely to arise from each individual action,
assumptions were made about annual space and water heating loads, CO2 emissions
per kWh fuel use, fuel costs and the space heating mix, on which many calculations
were based. This was done through discussion between the different research partners.
These savings figures were then applied to the number of households identified in the
January, 2002 survey who acted upon certain energy advice [3].
Table 5.1 demonstrates a summary of results of the research project for the following
four areas of behavioural advice:
•
Advice on cooking behaviour and the use of appliances
•
Advice on the use of heating and hot water
-31-
•
Advice on the use of lighting
•
Other tips for saving energy (e.g. block up unused chimneys)
Every area covers a number of different items of advice given to customers for each
of which annual cost, energy and CO2 were estimated for a common UK household.
However the following figures only list the average savings estimated across the four
main areas where all data are extracted from the report conducted by New
Perspectives [3].
Table 5.1: Annual savings per area of behavioural advice followed
It is shown that the highest savings are reached by changing behaviour regarding
heating and hot water use. The study demonstrated that the average annual savings
made by each household following behavioural advice are:
•
£58 off fuel bills
•
1,971kWh energy saved
•
CO2 emissions reduced by 494kgs
One significant finding of the 2004 research project was that to realise the full
potential from behavioural changes, energy advice has to encourage changes in
behaviour in all four of the main areas. This is justified by the survey outcomes which
have shown that “households which followed all four main areas of behavioural
advice may be saving as much as £150 p.a.”
[3]
in comparison to the annual average
savings of £58 from following any single item of behavioural advice.
-32-
5.4 References
1. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. Benefits of Energy Advice – Report on
a Survey March 2002, prepared by New Perspectives and BMRB International,
http://portal.est.org.uk/partnership/resource/partnership/index.cfm?mode=view&S
tart=11&category_id=5 [accessed 04 May 2006]
2. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. Energy Advice – A Good Investment,
www.goodenergyadvice.co.uk/Documents/Information/A4%20landscape%20v8%
20leaflet.pdf [accessed 12 June 2006]
3. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. Savings from Behavioural Changes
Following Energy Advice – Report on a Survey April 2004, prepared by New
Perspectives with Energy Inform and Energy Saving Trust,
http://portal.est.org.uk/partnership/resource/partnership/index.cfm?mode=view&c
ategory_id=5 [accessed 04 May 2006]
-33-
Chapter 6 ENERGY ADVICE IN OTHER COUNTRIES
Energy Advice Centres are established in various European Countries. Three of these
are currently involved in the European RURASU (Rural Advice Support Units)
project together with the University of Strathclyde and the Energy Agency in Ayr.
The three European advice centres are located in Germany, Greece and Spain. The
RURASU project is concerned with the work of the different advice centres, also
called DASUs (Design Advice Support Units), and the knowledge transfer across
them in order to optimise the activities of all involved parties. The work of the two
DASUs eza!, energie & umweltzentrum allgau in southern Germany and PIERIKI
Energy Advice Unit in northern Greece is seen as highly successful and their
knowledge shall be transferred to existing and new advice centres. Both come from
very different backgrounds and work in very differing environments.
In this chapter the work of both advice centres is explained with the objective to
demonstrate differences in the advice work compared to energy advice centres in the
UK. It is hoped that this chapter will give an impulse for generating ideas for possible
improvements of UK’s EEACs. Some recommendations are drawn from it which are
mentioned in chapter 13 of this report.
6.1 Energy Advice Work in Germany
The German energy advice centre called eza! is a non-profit making company which
has been established since 1998 in order to promote renewable energy and efficient
use of energy in the built environment in the region Allgau in southern Germany. The
area has 7 rural districts with a population of over 600,000.
The energy advice centre covers 4 main areas of work [1]. These are:
•
Public work, media work and public consultations
•
Education for architects and building design and service engineers
•
Energy management in public buildings
•
A partner network of 120 EZA partners (Architects, Engineers, RE installers)
-34-
The advice centre offers consultations on renewable energy systems and energy
reducing measures for customers who are planning to build or renovate their home. In
order to reach as many people as possible eza! possesses 40 consultation stations
located in different council areas of its region. At these stations energy consultants,
which are trained by eza!, can be approached by those who are interested for an initial
free consultation. Additionally to an initial consultation, the advice centre also offers a
building survey together with information on renovation opportunities for which
customers have to pay a discounted fee. The way the advice centre targets households
is in the form of large public exhibitions and through the local press as well as its web
site. eza! is very successful in spreading its message through the yearly organised
exhibition ‘Altbautage’ which focuses on ways and technologies to improve the
energy efficiency of existing buildings and rehabilitation plans. Over 30% of all eza!
customers got to know the advice centre and its work through this two-day event
which attracts around 10,000 visitors
[2]
. In contrast to energy efficiency advice
centres in the UK eza! makes intensive use of the media. It publishes its work nearly
every week in form of press releases which contain extensive technical information
and details on cost savings for different measures. Through these press releases eza!
also informs about upcoming regulations such as the Energy Performance in Building
Directive. Research has shown that an additional 29% of eza! customers have heard
about the advice centre through a specific journal [2].
As mentioned above another main activity is training courses to members of the
building sector from all over Germany. Such training courses on energy efficient
building design and restoration cover various topics, including:
•
Thermographic building analyses
•
Insulation
•
Energy efficient heating and ventilation design
•
Renewable technologies
•
Modelling and simulation software
Training courses have a duration over several weeks and are provided by qualified
energy consultants registered with eza!. Additionally eza! offers consultation in the
first project after completing the course.
-35-
Regarding energy management, eza! has more than 100 public buildings under
contract with the aim to improve their control system as well as teaching house
keepers how to reduce the building’s energy bill and make investment suggestions.
A customer survey was conducted by a business management student in 2003
concerning the success of the eza! consultancy work
[2]
. Figure 6.1 demonstrates one
significant outcome of this survey. It shows the percentage of respondents who have
installed a certain measure after being advised on it in a consultation report following
a building survey.
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
w
Ne
he
n
n
s
ng
ng
tem
tio
ti o
ow
ati
a ti
ys
ul a
ul a
ind
s
he
s
Vs
n
w
r
n
i
i
P
a
l
w
ll
ft
So
Ne
Lo
Wa
Figure 6.1: Uptake rates for the advised measures
Out of all eza! customers who were consulted on a new energy efficient heating
system 70% actually installed a new system. In comparison to the results of the 2002
UK survey where only 6% of advised customers installed a new heating system
[3]
,
this is a very strong result. The overall success of the energy advice centre can be
explained with its intense media work as well as detailed costumer consultation which
on average last 45 minutes for initial consultation
[4]
and are followed by a second
consultation in many cases.
Eza! is financed in a complete different way compared to UK’s EEACs. The German
advice centre works with funding from different levels where the main funding comes
from its shareholders as well as the building and energy industries (architects,
craftsmen and building contractors) for membership in eza! Partner Network and the
participation in training sessions. Other funding for the work of eza! are the fees paid
by customers for on-site energy consultancy services.
-36-
6.2 Energy Advice Work in Greece
The Greek advice centre called Pieria Energy Advice Unit (EAC) PIERIKI is part of
the company-Pieriki Anaptixiaki S.A which is a local Development Agency. Its
characteristic is that the profit of the company are not distributed to shareholders but
are redistributed to other development projects. The advice centre is based locally in
Pieria Prefecture, while the scientific support is conducted by the National University
of Athens and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
Its main areas of work are [5] [6]:
•
Consultations on renewable energy projects
•
Energy audits and advice for enterprises
•
Energy efficient building refurbishment plans
Regarding consultation on renewable energy systems the advice center conducts
consultations related to major RES projects as well as small scale renewable and
energy efficiency projects for local citizens. Initial consultations are provided by the
advisers at local level who are experienced engineers. Further detailed consultations
can be provided by the scientific partners of the advice centre who have advanced
technical expertise. Additional to the scientific consultation the energy advice centre
also deals with possible funding for each (major) project.
Energy efficiency advice to local enterprises is done in form of energy audits which
are strongly related to the adoption of national legislations leading to energy and/or
environmental certification of enterprises. Between 2002 and 2004 the advice centre
carried out 66 business consultations following which 16 businesses (24% of the
advised businesses) undertook energy efficiency improvements during the year 2005
[5]
.
Furthermore, the advice centre undertakes extended studies in retrofitting and
rehabilitation of existing buildings mainly in the public sector but also in private
buildings. PIERIKI EAC possesses a partnership network of professionals who are
able to undertake the work required.
-37-
Similar to eza! in Germany and in contrast to the advice centres in the UK, the Greek
advice centre makes intensive use of the media. The PIERIKI EAC has established a
network with the local media covering newspapers, radios, TV channels and webbased newspapers. This way its actions are always published which attracts potential
clients or renewable energy systems projects. The actions of the advice centre are also
published at conferences in Greece or worldwide including the results of scientific
analysis conducted either for the purpose of European Commission co-financed
projects or for individual projects.
Unlike UK’s energy advice system there are no grants for energy saving measures and
renewable energy technologies available. Usually individuals funded under European
or national projects are advised to adapt energy saving measures and/or renewable
energy systems which are funded on a percentage depending on the programme. For
this reason PIERIKI EAC organizes workshops with investors of other projects along
with supporting actions such as architectural competitions on energy related subjects.
6.3 References
1. Martin Sambale – Directing Manager of eza!, telephone conversation
07 August 2006
2. Schock, S. Erfolgsstrategien fur die Beratungstatigkeit von eza! im Allgau,
Diploma thesis June 2003 at the University of Applied Science Munich, page 36
3. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. Benefits of Energy Advice – Report on
a Survey March 2002, prepared by New Perspectives and BMRB International,
http://portal.est.org.uk/partnership/resource/partnership/index.cfm?mode=view&S
tart=11&category_id=5 [accessed 04 May 2006]
4. eza! consultation statistics 2005, emailed by Martin Sambale 08 August 2006
5. Information on the work of PIERIKI EAC, emailed by Kostas Zapounidis
09 August 2006 and 07 September 2006
6. Zapounidis K, Pavlou C, Epp C et al. Report on the further development of DASU
work in Greece and Germany – Specifications for DASUs in Pieria, Greece and
Allgau, Germany June 2006, RURASU Deliverable D.2.2, Intelligent Energy
Europe
-38-
Chapter 7 EVALUATION OF ENERGY ADVICE CENTRES IN
THE PAST AND AT PRESENT
The first part of this chapter gives a brief overview of a previous evaluation method
that has been used for the evaluation of the nationwide Energy Design Advice
Scheme (EDAS) in 1997. It is intended to extract possible measures that are suitable
for application as part of a new evaluation method for today’s energy advice centres.
The second part of the chapter investigates how the Energy Saving Trust presently
evaluates Energy Efficiency Advice Centres and sets out targets to them. This
appraisal aims to identify whether a new approach for evaluating energy advice
centres is actual needed or whether the Energy Saving Trust’s evaluation procedure
offers satisfying results.
7.1 Evaluation of the Energy Design Advice Scheme
In the case of the nationwide Energy Design Advice Scheme the evaluation was
undertaken by an independent and experienced outside consultancy company. The
following measures of effectiveness were quantified [1]:
•
the number and type of consultation
•
The annual rate of direct energy savings potential
•
The cumulative energy savings potential
•
The indirect energy savings potential through replication
•
Feedback from customers
•
The fraction of national construction advised by EDAS
•
Dissemination of technical information
To simplify the task of monitoring EDAS various forms were used to assist in
documenting all consultancy activities. These comprised [1]:
•
A project record summary form
•
A quarterly report form
-39-
•
Customer questionnaires
The project record summary form was used by the person giving the advice to record
details of the project and the form of advice dispensed. The quarterly report form was
used by each regional centre to summarise its consultations each quarter.
Furthermore, questionnaires were sent to each customer to obtain feedback on their
views of the services and the incorporation of the advice received in their decision
making.
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres which this project aims to evaluate are operated,
unlike EDAS, at a local level and promote energy efficient measures and small scale
renewable energy in the domestic and small-scale business sector in comparison to the
nationwide scheme which focused on providing design advice to different interest
groups involved in the building sector. The evaluation procedure can, therefore, not
be completely applied to existing EEACs. However the way in which the
effectiveness of EDAS was evaluated can be in some respect applied to the evaluation
of local energy advice centres. Measures of effectiveness that are transferable to a
new approach of EEAC evaluation could be:
•
The number and type of consultations
•
The annual rate of direct energy savings potential
•
The cumulative energy savings potential
•
Feedback from customers
It will be difficult for energy advice centres to estimate possible savings from
replication but this is another aspect that could be taken in consideration. As it has
been done for EDAS customer questionnaires can be used to document the impact of
the advice provided. Furthermore for the EDAS evaluation a ratio of energy savings
generated per expenditure was used. The same could be applied to EEACs in order to
identify the amount of energy savings generated per £1 of government funding.
-40-
7.2 Evaluation of EEACs by the Energy Savings Trust
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres are given a number of targets for each financial
year which they are required to achieve in order to secure funding for the following
year. The targets concerning energy efficiency advice to households are given to each
EEAC in terms of customer contacts and carbon savings. According to Mathieu
Whitehead, Evaluation Manager from the Energy Savings Trust, the targets set to all
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres are in the form of carbon savings rather than the
number of customers who have been advised on energy efficiency [2].
To assess the amount of carbon savings enhanced by the EEAC work, every advice
centre has to provide at the end of each financial year the details of all customers it
has advised as well as the form in which advice was provided. The Energy Saving
Trust then allocates a specific amount of carbon savings by separating into two
principal ways in which energy advice was provided. These are [3]:
•
Verbal advice
•
Home energy check reports
Additionally a bonus of carbon savings is allocated to [3]:
•
Follow-up advice
•
Grant referrals
The respective carbon savings, which have been identified by the Energy Saving
Trust based on the results of surveys conducted over the past years [3], are listed in the
following table [4].
Table 7.1: Cumulative carbon savings per form of EEAC advice to households
-41-
The carbon savings calculated with the help of the figures listed in table 7.1 are
monitoring data that do not take into account customer’s actions resulting from the
advice given i.e. whether customers actually follow the recommendations.
Therefore, the Energy Saving Trust adjusts these figures in a follow up step after
undertaking customer research in the form of a customer telephone survey [2]. For this
research customers from different geographical areas, who have received energy
advice in the previous year, are chosen in order to implement a survey which reflects
the work of the whole EEAC network. These are interviewed on [2]:
•
Their satisfaction with the advice given
•
The number of measures installed
•
Any behavioural changes made
•
Any other energy advice providers contacted
The survey aims to assess how crucial the energy advice provided was for improving
energy efficiency in the household. The outcomes of the survey will then be reflected
in the carbon savings enhanced by each advice centre [2].
The following aspects of EST’s evaluation method are particularly critical and are felt
to reduce the quality of the evaluation considerably.
1) The carbon savings used for evaluation are based on the outcome of a survey
with a small sample size
2) The carbon savings associated with grant referrals are comparably small
3) The evaluation only considers advice on energy efficiency and renewable
energy to householders
The sample sizes of the surveys (2002 survey – 1900 respondents) on which the
carbon figures are based seem to be too small to apply these figures nationwide.
Furthermore, it has been experienced during customer questionnaires, which have
been done as part of the project, that people referred to grants are more likely to go
ahead with installing energy saving measures. Thus, the carbon savings associated
with grant referrals do not seem to be large enough. Furthermore the Energy Saving
-42-
Trust does not take into consideration business advice or the work with local
authorities. It also does not consider any installations that have been carried out by
EEAC customers and recorded by the advice centres, such as insulation and heating as
well as renewable energy installations.
Although the above described evaluation method is satisfying for the Energy Saving
Trust and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, it is regarded, for
the purpose of this project, as a relatively poor evaluation method. Therefore this
project aims to find a better approach to the evaluation of the effectiveness of Energy
Efficiency Advice Centres.
7.3 References
1. Eclipse Research Consultants. Monitoring the Energy Design Advice Scheme –
Final Report on the Operation of the Energy Design Advice Scheme 1992–1997,
Cambridge March 1998
2. Mathieu Whitehead – EST Evaluation Manager; telephone conversation 13 June
2006
3. Alan McGonigle – Assistant Manager of the Energy Agency in Ayr, personal
conversation 21 June 2006
4. EST cumulative carbon savings, provided by Patrick Thompson 19 June 2006
-43-
Chapter 8 A NEW APPROACH TO THE EVALUATION OF
ENERGY ADVICE CENTRES
In order to evaluate the merit of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres, it is necessary to
demonstrate the benefits that they bring. In the previous chapter it was discussed that
the present evaluation by the Energy Saving Trust is a poor one since it, on the one
hand, only evaluates the energy advice given to customers and therefore ignores the
benefits of all other EEAC activities and, on the other hand, uses a very limited
approach for calculating the achieved carbon savings. Hence, a new approach for
evaluating the benefits of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres is required.
Although many aspects of EEAC operation are difficult to quantify, this chapter tries
to set out a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of individual energy advice
centres which will be applied at a later stage of the project.
8.1 Introduction to the Methodology
The project’s methodology was framed by Dr Paul Strachan from the University of
Strathclyde as part of the European RURASU project (Work Package 7, December
2005) [1] and has been further developed during this project. Some ideas are based on
the previous evaluation undertaken for the nationwide Energy Design Advice Scheme
(EDAS).
The evaluation criteria that are suggested are subdivided into three categories:
•
Quantifiable energy, carbon and cost savings
•
Other quantifiable outcomes
•
Non-quantifiable outcomes
These evaluation criteria can be applied to the various EEAC activities e.g. energy
efficiency advice to households, business advice, and renewable initiatives. The
criteria are expanded in the following sections.
-44-
8.2 Quantifiable Energy, Carbon and Cost Savings
The energy, carbon and cost savings can be obtained from an analysis of the advice
and support undertaken by the advice centre. The analysis requires:
•
Documentation of the advice to households, communities, small businesses,
local authorities and other interest groups
•
Estimation of the number of recommendations that are actually implemented
•
Estimation of the energy, carbon and cost savings occurring from implemented
recommendations
For the project the cost savings are defined as savings in fuel costs. Initial investments
as well as maintenance cost are neglected in this report but should be included for a
more detailed analysis. Benefits in terms of energy savings can be presented as annual
or cumulative savings where cumulative savings require assumptions on the lifetime
of the installed measures and can take into account lifetime reductions.
Additionally there is also the potential for benefits from replication of the advice
given. This could fall into the following categories:
1) Neighbours and friends of householders, who implemented the
recommendations for energy efficient or renewable systems, may also follow
the same recommendations once they see the benefits
2) Communities who hear about successful renewable community projects may
also install some renewable energy systems
3) Businesses who install measures to reduce high energy bills when they hear
about other businesses that have done so after receiving an energy audit
The savings attributable to replication potential have to be estimated for each advice
centre individually depending on its activities, focus groups, promotion of available
grants and any form of customer response collected. Assuming a uniform percentage
of replication for all advice centres would not provide a satisfying result due to
varying EEAC projects and target groups. The survey undertaken in 2002 by New
Perspectives showed that 33% of all respondents had told others outside their own
-45-
household how to save energy
[2]
. This figure can be taken into consideration when
estimating the savings attributable to replication from other households.
8.2.1
Documentation
It is essential that every advice centre records and files the details of the advice given
to its customers. This way it is possibly to give customers time (at least 6 month) to
act on the received advice, and check at a later stage which recommendations have
been implemented. However, the huge amount of customers targeted through energy
efficiency exhibitions and presentations makes it difficult to keep a detailed
documentation on customer details and the type of advice provided. For the 2 case
studies of this report (chapter 9 and 10) the documentations that were available at the
time of evaluation have been used.
Appendix A shows an example of a record form that is currently used to log phone
calls. If there is no detailed documentation available, the number of households
advised on energy efficiency, for instance, can be ascertained with help of:
•
Number of phone logs
•
Number of HEC reports sent out
•
Number of home visits
•
Number of presentations and exhibitions + average number of attendees
Furthermore, energy efficiency measures and renewable energy systems that are
installed by customers with the help of a grant or loan scheme provided by the advice
centre have to be recorded. This way actual savings and improvements can be
identified through estimations as well as through follow-up contact. It is
recommended to document the following information for each installation:
•
Type of installation & level of upgrade
•
Type & size of the property
•
Main fuel for heating
•
Customer contact details
•
How the customer heard about the EEAC’s service
-46-
Additional information need to be recorded for renewable energy installations
depending on the type of system
8.2.2
Estimating the Number of Implemented
Recommendations
The numbers of implemented recommendations are estimated in the following two
steps:
a) Determining the number of implemented energy efficiency measures and
renewable energy systems using records on installations undertaken with help of:
•
Grant and loan schemes for energy efficiency measures
•
Loan schemes for businesses
•
Grant schemes for renewable energy systems
b) Undertake a phone-based survey with a subset of advised customers to estimate
the likelihood of uptakes of:
•
Recommended energy efficiency measures
•
Recommended behavioural changes
The results obtained from the telephone survey can then be extrapolated to all
customers advised. The sample size for a telephone survey should ideally include a
mixture of customers who received energy advice in its various forms, since the rate
of uptakes can depend on the form of advice received. A simple questionnaire has
been designed which can be used to capture information about the customer property,
the uptake of recommendations as well as the helpfulness of the advice given and
planned improvements. The questionnaire is available on request but not attached to
this document due to its length.
Another way of assessing the uptake rate of recommendations could be with help of
feedback forms issued to all advised clients. However, the experience of the EEACs is
that the response rate using feedback forms is poor [3].
-47-
8.2.3
Estimating Resulting Energy, Carbon and Cost
Savings
Wherever records on installation of energy efficient measures or renewable systems
are available energy, carbon and cost savings can be calculated by using the detailed
information available on the type of installation, the type of building and the main
fuel used. The savings resulting from the installation of renewable energy systems are
defined as savings in the renewable energy supply requirement. Hence, there are no
energy savings resulting from replacing a conventional heating system with a biomass
system, but there are possible carbon and cost savings.
Additionally for every energy efficiency advice provided to households the benefits in
form of energy, carbon and cost savings shall be calculated using the outcomes of the
phone-based customer survey. The savings shall be calculated using the following
equations.
i
EnergySavings = N ∗ ∑ ( x n ∗ a n )
n =1
i
CarbonSavings = N ∗ ∑ ( xn ∗ bn )
n =1
i
CostSavings = N ∗ ∑ ( xn ∗ cn )
n =1
Where
N:
number of customers advised
xn:
estimated percentage of customers acting on a certain advice ‘n’
(installing certain measures ‘n’)
an:
Average energy savings associated with following the advice ‘n’
(installation of measure ‘n’)
-48-
bn:
Average carbon savings associated with following the advice ‘n’
(installation of measure ‘n’)
cn:
Average cost savings associated with following the advice ‘n’
(installation of measure ‘n’)
Using the above stated equations the savings can be estimated in the following two
scenarios:
Scenario I - Detailed analysis: It uses a different estimated percentage ‘x’ of
customers acting on a certain advice ‘n’ dependent on the way the customer
received energy advice.
Scenario II - Simplified analysis: It uses a uniform percentage ‘x’ of customers
acting on a certain advice ‘n’ estimated across all advised customers
The former is assumed to give a qualitative better result. However, it will be rather
time consuming. As part of this project both strategies are used by means of a case
study on South West Scotland EEAC. The results are compared and conclusions on
the usefulness are drawn in section 9.4 of the report.
For estimating resulting energy, carbon and cost savings the following tools and
figures can be used:
1) EEC spreadsheet 2005-2008
2) University of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool (SERT)
3) University of Strathclyde’s Small Scale Renewable Energy Rating Tool
4) Savings estimated for following behavioural advice (extracted from New
Perspective’s research on ‘Savings from Behavioural Advice’)
5) DTI fuel price projections
The above stated tools and figures and their application in this project are discussed in
the following sections.
-49-
8.2.3.1 EEC Spreadsheet 2005-2008
The EEC Scheme Submission Spreadsheet 2005-2008 is an administrative tool that
Ofgem provides to suppliers obligated under the Energy Efficiency Commitment. The
spreadsheet has been developed by Ofgem to detail the annual energy savings
(kWh/a) associated with the common energy efficiency measures. It has the
functionality to automatically calculate the annual carbon as well as lifetime carbon
savings to an action and is available from Ofgem under certain copyright conditions.
For insulation and heating measures the savings are derived from BRE data with some
adjustments made for differences between national average heating energy
consumption per household and the heating demand assumed in the Building
Research Establishment’s Domestic Energy Model (BREDEM)
[4]
. For the other
measures the savings are mainly based on the current market mix. The energy savings
resulting from insulation measures include an average comfort discount rate of 30%
[5]
, since in practice some of the energy saving is taken in improved comfort – the
home is kept at a higher temperature, or more rooms are heated. This allowance for
comfort is based on the EST paper ‘ Monitoring Energy Savings achieved from
Insulation Measures installed in Gas Heated Homes in SoP3 or EEC Schemes’ as well
as on the ‘The measurement of heating standards and temperature in gas heated
houses’ which was conducted by an independent Energy Monitoring Company in
2004 [5]. The input screen of the EEC Spreadsheet 2005-2008 states the annual energy
savings excluding this comfort discount. However, when using the spreadsheet the
annual energy savings including the 30% comfort factor are calculated in a separate
step and stated in the output section of the spreadsheet. The annual savings including
the comfort discount are used for this project’s evaluation.
The spreadsheet can be easily used to estimate energy and carbon savings when the
following customer details are available:
•
Type of installation (including level of upgrade)
•
Type of property
•
Number of bedrooms
•
Main fuel for heating
-50-
The annual carbon savings resulting from each installation are calculated using the
annual energy saving (minus the comfort taken) and the carbon intensity of the fuel
saved. The carbon intensities for each fuel are consistent with Defra’s Environmental
Reporting – Guidelines for Company Reporting on Greenhouse Gas Emissions [4].
Figure 8.1 shows an example of an input and output section of the EEC spreadsheet
2005-2008 that has been provided by Ofgem as support of this project [6].
-51-
Figure 8.1: EEC spreadsheet 2005-2008
-52-
The energy savings regarding heating and insulation extracted from the spreadsheet
are relatively high. This can be due to the consideration of increased heating
efficiency projected for 2010 for which adjustments have been made to the BRE data
as it is discussed in the consultation proposal from May 2004
[4]
. Therefore, when
using this tool for EEAC evaluation the savings estimated reflect an optimum
situation. It shall be kept in mind that the actual savings could possibly be lower.
8.2.3.2 University of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool
This tool has been developed at the University of Strathclyde with the aim to provide
a building energy rating tool which, unlike the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP)
[7]
, does not require a building survey. It builds on the previous University of
Strathclyde work on informing upgrade strategy for Scottish housing stock [8]. During
the development stage of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool (SERT) all results were
checked by accurate modeling using ESP-r, an integrated building simulation tool.
Defaults where used are based on the knowledge of the Scottish housing stock and
supply systems which has been accumulated from a variety of sources including the
Scottish House Condition Survey, the BRE Domestic Energy Fact File and the
Building Market Transformation database
[8]
.
The tool calculates the annual energy use, running cost and carbon dioxide emissions
for an individual dwelling or a number of dwellings. The input data for the
calculations can be entered manually using the Java data input screen, or the tool can
be run from an input file. SERT allows estimating the annual energy use of a building
considering building fabric and systems options that are found in the current housing
stock and compare with annual energy use of the building when improvements such
as advanced insulation, double glazing, air or ground source heat pump, solar hot
water, micro-CHP or a biomass system are applied.
Figure 8.2 shows an example of the input screens and an output screen from the beta
version of the java tool.
-53-
Figure 8.2: University of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool (SERT)
SERT, in contrast to the EEC spreadsheet, allows the creation of a combination of
energy efficient measures for which the resulting energy savings can be calculated.
On the other hand SERT requires a more detailed specification on the type of property
which in many cases is not recorded when documenting on customer installations e.g.
through a grant scheme. For this report the tool shall be used where detailed
information on the existing building design and operation as well as the improvements
undertaken are known. This way the annual energy use of the building can be
-54-
ascertained with help of SERT in a before and after scenario and the resulting energy
and carbon savings can be calculated. Generally the tool can be of very practical use
for energy advice centres when estimating the savings from household renewable
installations when collecting all the required information on the building where the
renewable system is installed.
8.2.3.3 University of Strathclyde’s Small Scale Renewable Energy Rating Tool
The tool has been developed at the University of Strathclyde for planning of small
scale renewable energy systems and can be used to estimate the energy and CO2
savings for different systems depending on their size, location and other significant
factors. It is a Java based tool that is easy to use and produces outcomes accurate
within a tolerance of 10% to 15% [9].
Figure 8.3: Small Scale Renewable Energy Rating Tool
The tool can calculate the annual energy savings for solar heating systems, PV
systems, wind turbines and ventilation heat recovery systems. The wind turbine and
PV calculations here assume that grid electricity from the current generation mix
(coal, gas, nuclear) is displaced by the generated electricity. For solar heating
calculations the fuel displaced is assumed to be mains gas. The carbon savings
achieved by displacing these fuels are based on the carbon intensity figures published
by Defra [9]. Additionally to the outcomes from this tool it has to be taken into account
the actual percentage of produced electricity used, which requires considering
additional factors such as the battery system employed.
-55-
This Small Scale Renewable Energy Rating Tool shall be used in this report for
calculating energy and CO2 savings resulting from household and community
renewable installations where detailed information on the building envelope are
unknown.
8.2.3.4 Savings from Following Behavioural Advice
The average annual energy savings estimated in the 2004 research project
[10]
for the
four main groups of behavioural changes are the most appropriate figures available
for calculating savings that result from following advice on energy efficient
behaviour. However, due to increases in fuel prices over the last 2 years the cost
savings have been increased by 30% for the use in this project. This percentage
increase has been derived from a comparison of the assumption made in the 2004
research with DTI’s fuel price projection for 2006 (section 8.3.3.5). The data used in
this project for estimating savings from following behavioural advice are listed in the
table below.
Table 8.1: Annual savings estimated for the 4 types of behavioural changes
The CO2 savings have been converted into equivalent carbon savings using a
multiplication factor of 12/44 (1 kg C = 12/44 * 1kg CO2) [11].
8.2.3.5 DTI Fuel Price Projections
The fuel prices projected by the Department of Trade and Industry (except for LPG)
are used in this report to quantify the annual cost savings resulting from an energy
efficiency or renewable energy installation. Table 8.2 demonstrates the fuel prices in
pence per kWh for the different types of fuel as they have been extracted from DTI’s
projections (October 2004) [5].
-56-
Table 8.2: Fuel prices in p/kWh including VAT
These values are projections for the year 2006 and were felt to be reasonable for
calculating the annual cost savings of recommendation uptakes between April 2005
and March 2006. However since fuel prices have started to rise drastically after
August 2006 and are predicted to increase continuously, up-to-date fuel prices have to
be used for future calculations.
8.3 Other Quantifiable Outcomes
Other quantifiable benefits can fall into the following categories:
1) Increasing householder awareness
2) Increasing business awareness
3) Increasing local authority awareness
4) Job creation
These are explained in the following.
Increasing householder awareness:
Increasing householder awareness can be justified using the following information:
•
Public presentations and exibitions on energy efficiency and renewable
technologies (number, average number of attendees)
•
Class presentations in local schools (number, average number of attendees)
•
Local newsletters (number of newsletters and distribution)
-57-
•
Articles in local newspapers (number, newspaper circulation figures)
•
Television and radio publicity (number)
•
Website (statistics)
Increasing business awareness:
The following information can be used to justify increasing business awareness as one
outcome of the energy advice:
•
Number of energy awareness presentations to businesses
•
Number of staff trainings
•
Number of energy surveys
Increasing local government awareness:
The benefits in form of increasing local authority awareness can be justified with help
of the following statistics:
•
Meetings with local authorities (number)
•
Information forums/workshops for local authorities (number, average number
of attendees)
Job creation:
The jobs created due to renewable energy systems deployment and energy efficiency
refurbishments are practically difficult to estimate. For this project an assessment
method is used which has been suggested in the 4th HECA Progress Report of North
Ayrshire Council and is based on a case study on direct and indirect job creation
published by the Energy Saving Trust in 1997. It is estimated that one job is directly
created for every £40,000 of investment, and another indirect job for every £70,000
[12]
. For the use of this report investment is defined as expenditure for installation of
energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies. This only includes
recorded installations undertaken with help of grant or loan schemes provided by the
energy advice centre.
-58-
8.4 Non-Quantifiable Outcomes
There are other potential benefits from EEACs operation which are difficult to
quantify. One of the most important of these is that the EEAC is perceived by its users
to be free, unbiased and independent.
Other possible benefits include:
•
General public and professional awareness of the importance of sustainable
energy use and supply
•
The promotion of best practice throughout the region
•
Abatement of fuel poverty
•
Increased awareness of new legislations amongst professionals
•
Development of local climate change strategies and action plans
Some of these benefits result from the work of all energy advice centres and can not
be identified individually.
8.5 Application of the Methodology
In the following two chapters the methodology is applied to 2 Scottish Energy
Efficiency Advice Centres, one of these located in Ayr and the other one in Glasgow.
A detailed evaluation has been done for the former of which some assumptions have
been used for the case study of the EEAC in Glasgow. In both cases the evaluation
period is the last financial year which lasted from April 2005 to March 2006. Existing
records have been used in order to assess the outcomes of the work of both advice
centres.
The benefits in form of energy, carbon and cost savings are estimated in form of
annual savings. Additionally lifetime (cumulative) carbon savings are calculated for
comparison with possible lifetime carbon savings identified using the EST evaluation
procedure. It is assumed that the annual savings are achieved constantly over the
whole lifetime of each measure. A lifetime discount is not included.
-59-
Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness of both advice centres is demonstrated. Costeffectiveness of the EEAC work is simply defined as the amount of money saved over
the lifetime of the induced improvements compared with the costs associated with all
EEAC projects and activities. For this the associated costs equal government funding
and do not include any additional expenditure for the different services (e.g. through
Scottish Power funding). This way energy savings resulting from £1 government
funding are estimated. For comparison purpose the ratio energy savings per customer
advised will additionally be used.
8.6 References
1. Strachan, P, RURASU Work Package 7 - D7.1 Evaluation of Design Advice
Support Units, ESRU, University of Strathclyde December 2005
2. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. Benefits of Energy Advice – Report on
a Survey March 2002, prepared by New Perspectives and BMRB International,
http://portal.est.org.uk/partnership/resource/partnership/index.cfm?mode=view&S
tart=11&category_id=5 [accessed 04 May 2006]
3. Patrick Thompson – Advice Services Manager of Strathclyde & Central EEAC,
personal conversation 19 June 2006
4. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). The Energy
Efficiency Commitment from April 2005 - Consultation Proposals May 2004,
http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/consult/eec/index.htm [accessed 10 July 2006]
5. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). Energy Efficiency
Commitment 2005-2008 - Background Information on the Illustrative Mix,
February 2005, page 4,
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/energy/eec/index.htm
[accessed 10 July 2006]
6. EEC Spreadsheet 2005-2008, emailed by Susan Corbett 28 June 2006
7. http://projects.bre.co.uk/sap2005/ [accessed 04 May 2006]
8. Sanchez de la Flor F J, Tuohy P, Strachan P et al. Report on the database of the
existing building stock in Cordillera Subbetica, Spain and South Ayrshire,
Scotland; RURASU Deliverable D.3.2 July 2006, Intelligent Energy Europe
9. Dr Cameron Johnston - University of Strathclyde, personal conversation 21 July
2006
-60-
10. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. Savings from Behavioural Changes
Following Energy Advice – Report on a Survey April 2004, prepared by New
Perspectives with Energy Inform and Energy Saving Trust
http://portal.est.org.uk/partnership/resource/partnership/index.cfm?mode=view&c
ategory_id=5 [accessed 04 May 2006]
11. http://www.ch4.org.uk/glossary.php/Carbon+equivalent?term=C
[accessed 10 July 2006]
12. North Ayrshire Council. Home Energy Conservation Act – 4th HECA Progress
Report, 1st April 2003 – 31st March 2005, page 19,
provided by Alan McGonigle 01 August 2006
-61-
Chapter 9 CASE STUDY: SOUTH WEST SCOTLAND EEAC
The South West Scotland EEAC is managed and operated by the Energy Agency in
Ayr. The Energy Agency was established in February 1999 as South Ayrshire Energy
Agency. It began as an innovative project using a combination of European Union and
Local Authority funding. In April 2000 it bid successfully for a contract to be part of
the network of 52 Energy Efficiency Advice Centres in the UK. In this report both
names ‘South West Scotland EEAC’ and ‘Energy Agency’ are used when referring to
this energy advice centre.
9.1 Description of the Region
South West Scotland EEAC operates in the 4 local authority areas of South Ayrshire,
East Ayrshire, North Ayrshire and Dumfries & Galloway as shown in the map below.
Figure 9.1: Operational area of South West Scotland EEAC
-62-
The area has a population of over 500,000 and around 250,000 households
[1]
. It is a
predominately rural area with the main towns of Dumfries, Ayr, Prestwick,
Kilmarnock and Irvine. The area has a thriving small business community with scope
for developing the growth of small to medium-sized enterprises. Figure 9.2 shows the
energy breakdown by sector for South Ayrshire which is the principal target area due
to the agency’s location in Ayr.
Figure 9.2: Energy consumption by sector in South Ayrshire
The majority of the public buildings in the region are old and relatively inefficient.
There is a high proportion of privately owned properties. However, these are in a
worse condition than the social housing stock in terms of repair and energy efficiency.
Hence, there is an excellent potential for energy efficient improvements to the area’s
housing stock.
In East Ayrshire most areas are above average risk of containing households in fuel
poverty. This is indicated in figure 9.3 (red and yellow areas) which shows the fuel
poverty indicator for East Ayrshire, based on variables from the 2001 Census.
-63-
Figure 9.3: Fuel poverty indicator for East Ayrshire
In the other 3 local authorities there are comparably small areas in which households
are most at risk of being fuel poor.
There is also good potential of utilising renewable energy as an energy source for
remote communities. Due to the area’s coastal location the potential for utilising wind
as renewable energy has a very high potential. There would be many rural
communities and remote dwellings in the area that could benefit from small-scale
wind energy developments.
-64-
9.2 EEAC Structure
Its main aims are to encourage the implementation of energy efficiency measures and
small-scale renewable energy systems. The main sector of operation is the domestic
sector with assistance also given to community groups. The Energy Agency has 8
full-time members of staff including 1 LESP and 2 Renewable Project Officers. A
flowchart demonstrating the process involved in the Energy Agency’s rural renewable
energy project [2] is show in figure 9.4. However, the advice centre does not posses its
own business adviser, since the area is covered by one of the two business advisers
based in the Strathclyde & Central advice centre.
The energy agency possesses its own grant schemes provided to customers for taking
up energy efficiency measures as well as a grant scheme for renewable energy
systems (additionally to the SCHRI grant). These are:
•
Warm Homes (insulation grant) for home owners (currently on hold)
•
New Boiler Grant Scheme for home owners
•
Boiler and Insulation Grant Schemes for private landlords
•
Renewable Energy Grant Scheme for homeowners in rural communities with
no access to the mains gas network (started in April 2006)
The grants are partly funded by the councils, Scottish Power and the Energy Saving
Trust, where the schemes for private landlords and rural communities are successfully
funded through the EST innovation stream. When targeting households by sending
out letters on behalf of the council including referrals to these grant schemes, the
energy agency experienced a response rate of 8% to 10% of which approximately
67% of the respondents install a heating or insulation measure. These figures have
been derived from targeting 3000 households in Kilwinning. The energy agency
currently does not directly target fuel poor households, but it is planned for future
projects.
-65-
Figure 9.4: Process involved in the Renewable Energy Project
-66-
9.3 Evaluation of the EEAC’s Effectiveness
The effectiveness of the EEAC is evaluated using the methodology discussed in the
previous chapter. The evaluation is done for the financial year 2005/2006 using the
following records provided by the energy agency:
1) Records on customer who installed energy efficiency measures with the help
of local grants scheme
2) Records on installations of renewable systems by households and communities
with the help of a SCHRI grant
3) Records on the total number of customers advised (including the form in
which energy advice was received)
4) Records on all performed activities (presentations, information forums, school
visits, press releases etc.)
Additionally a customer survey is conducted that aims to collect some customer
feedback. A simple questionnaire has been designed which is used to capture
information about the customer property, the uptake of recommendations as well as
planned improvements and the helpfulness of the advice given. The questionnaire is
available on request but not attached to this document due to its length. The survey
consisted of 20 interviews with people who had received energy advice in a variety of
ways. The sample structure of the survey is illustrated in Figure 9.5.
phoned in (Dec
05 - Jan 06)
15%
info stand at
Acricultur
Show (May 06)
50%
presentation
on behavioural
advice (Jun 06)
5%
HEC (Jun - Oct
05)
30%
Figure 9.5: Sample structure of customer telephone survey
-67-
More than a half of the people interviewed received energy advice only shortly before
the survey was conducted and therefore didn’t have sufficient time to react on the
advice they received. The reason for interviewing these customers was a lack of
customer details currently accessible that predate April 06. Therefore, customers were
also asked about planned installations which was taken into account for estimating the
uptake rate for different measures at a later stage of this evaluation. The principal
outcomes of the telephone survey are listed in Appendix B.1 of the report.
The benefits in terms of energy, carbon and cost savings are calculated, using the
tools discussed in the previous chapter of this report, for 2 domains. These are:
A. Energy efficiency advice to households
B. Renewable energy initiatives
The benefits of the remaining activities (e.g. local authority support and education
initiatives) are quantified in form of increasing awareness for energy efficiency and
sustainable development.
9.3.1
Quantifying Energy, Carbon and Cost Savings
The energy, carbon and cost savings advanced by the energy agency through
provision of direct energy efficiency advice to households (excluding pure provision
of leaflets and guides) are quantified in the following two steps:
Step 1: Quantify savings resulting from installations through local grant schemes
based on detailed records available
Step 2: Quantify savings resulting from uptakes of advised measures as well as
behavioural changes based on the outcomes of the customer survey
In order to estimate the benefits in form of energy, carbon and cost savings a number
of assumptions had to be made. All assumptions made are based on information
confirmed by the Energy Agency and are stated in Appendices B.2 and B.3 of the
report.
-68-
Step 1
To quantify the annual energy and carbon savings resulting from installations
undertaking through the grant schemes, the records of installations have been
processed by the type and size of the property in which measures were installed and
have been feed into the EEC spreadsheet 2005-2008 which was supplied by Ofgem in
order to support this research. Annual cost savings were calculated separately using
the energy savings extracted from the spreadsheet together with average fuel costs
predicted by DTI for the year 2006 (see section 8.3.3.3).
Table 9.1 summarises all quantified annual energy, carbon and cost savings for the
different installed measures
[3]
. A detailed summary on installations undertaken as
well as assumptions made to quantify the resulting savings can be found in Appendix
B.2 of this report.
Table 9.1: Annual savings from installed measures
The total lifetime carbon savings of all the installed measures are assessed with 5,314
tonnes C or equivalent 19,485 tonnes CO2.
Step 2
Using the outcomes of the customer survey (Appendix B.1) for estimating the
percentage of advised customers who follow diverse recommendations has taken into
account the uptake of recommendations as well as planned improvements.
Estimations are made for 3 main groups of advised customers as previous UK surveys
have shown that the rate of uptakes depends on the form in which energy advice is
received. The 3 groups are:
Group A: Customers who received home energy report or a home visit
-69-
Group B: Customers who phoned the energy agency
Group C: Customers who received advice at presentations/information stands
The estimated rate of uptakes for each group as well as for the average across all
groups is listed in the following table. The uptake rate for low energy light bulbs is
comparably high due to a free CFL bulb distributed to each customer who has
received face-to-face advice from the energy advisers.
Table 9.2: Estimated uptake rates in % for different recommendations
The percentage rates are based on the following assumptions:
1) The uptake rate for measures which are supported by local grant schemes is
estimated by assuming that only 20% of all customers who install these
measures do so without the help of a local grant. The remaining 80% are
automatically recorded by the agency through their own grant schemes.
2) Only a half of all planned improvements will be realised
3) For recommendations which none of the respondents had implemented or plan
to do so the uptake rate is assumed to be 1%.
In case the number of own grant schemes run by the energy agency decreases the
percentage of customers who install measures without being recorded by the EEAC
would automatically increase since customers would alternatively make use of
-70-
national grants and grants offered by utility companies. This has to be taken into
account when using the values of table 9.2 for future evaluation.
Using the percentages listed in table 9.2 the number of installations as well as the
number of behavioural changes have been estimated for 2 different scenarios. These
are:
Scenario I: The benefits are calculated for each main group of customers advised
using the differing uptake rates.
Scenario II: The benefits are calculated for the total number of customers advised
using the average uptake rate which has been estimated across the 3 groups.
For each scenario the benefits in terms of energy, carbon and cost savings are
calculated using the EEC spreadsheet 2005-2008 as well as the savings estimated for
behavioural changes (see section 8.3.3.4). According to the statistics received from
Alan McGonigle, Assistant Manager of the energy agency, and statistics extracted
from the agency’s ‘event records’ database a total number of 6,339 domestic
customers have received any form of energy advice by the energy agency during the
assessed financial year. Out of these 6,339 customers 2,107 belong to Group A, 2,569
to Group B and 1,663 fit into Group C. Table 7 shows the benefits estimated for both
scenarios. Since some people phone the energy agency for information on certain
events but do not directly receive energy advice, a discount rate of 5% has been
assumed. Thus, the calculation for Group B is based on 2440 customers advised.
Appendix A.3 outlines all estimations leading to the results in table 9.3 as well as all
assumptions made.
Table 9.3: Annual savings based on customer survey outcomes
-71-
The total lifetime carbon savings are estimated at 10,888 tonnes C or equivalent
39,923 tonnes CO2 for scenario I and at 9,621 tonnes C or equivalent 45,277 tonnes
CO2 for scenario II.
The benefits in form of energy, carbon and cost savings for all renewable energy
systems installed with support of the energy agency are estimated in the following
part of this section.
There have been 4 community renewable projects put into practice during April 2005
and March 2006 [4]. These are:
1) A 6kW wind turbine for a sport centre in Largs
2) A 50kW wind turbine for Gatehouse community initiative
3) A 45kW wood pellet heating system for Glenkens community & arts trust
4) A ground source heat pump (radiator heating) together with improved loft
insulation (200mm top-up) for Beattock village hall
The specifications known for these installations are listed in the following tables.
Table 9.4: Characteristics of community wind projects
Table 9.5: Characteristics of community biomass project
-72-
Table 9.6: Characteristics of community GSHP system
Table 9.7 summarises the benefits in form of annual savings for the 4 renewable
developments. The energy and carbon savings resulting from both wind turbines are
calculated with help of the Small Scale Renewable Energy Tool. For the GSHP
system these are estimated using SERT and for the wood pellet burner the savings are
based on basic calculations. The carbon emissions associated with using wood fuel
(emitted in harvesting, drying and transport) strongly depend on the individual system
especially its distance from the source of wood. For this report a specific analysis of
the carbon emissions is not conducted. The carbon emissions are assumed with
0.0109kg/kWh
[5]
as extracted from a feasibility study for Penrose National Trust
Estate. All assumptions made for the outcomes of table 9.7 are stated in Appendix
B.4.
Table 9.7: Annual savings from community renewable energy projects
The total lifetime carbon savings for the 4 community renewable installations are
calculated with 901 tonnes C or equivalent 3,304 tonnes CO2.
Additionally information on the number of household renewable projects within the
assessed financial year have been provided by the Energy Saving Trust
[6]
since
SCHRI grant offers to households are not recorded by EEACs themselves. The
following renewable energy projects have been developed by households in the
energy agency’s area of coverage:
-73-
•
18 Solar water heating systems
•
17 Ground source heat pumps
•
2 Wind turbines
•
2 Biomass systems
The values provided represent the number of grants offered for each technology
including completed projects and those still in progress. Some additional information
on the different systems is provided which enables a rough estimation of the annual
savings. These are summarised in table 9.8. The energy and carbon savings resulting
from the solar water heating systems as well as from both wind turbines are calculated
with help of the Small Scale Renewable Energy Tool. For the GSHP and biomass
systems savings are estimated using basic calculations. All assumptions made are
stated in Appendix B.5 of this report.
Table 9.8: Annual savings from household renewable projects
The total lifetime carbon savings for all installations are estimated at 1,267 tonnes C
or equivalent 4,646 tonnes CO2.
For this report benefits attributable to replication are assumed to be in form of
increasing public awareness rather than quantifiable energy and carbon savings. This
assumption has been made in close cooperation with the energy agency. It is
identified to be a very reasonable estimation considering the EEAC’s focus groups as
well as the ways the advice centre promotes its grant schemes.
-74-
9.3.2
Other Quantifiable Outcomes
There are other benefits from the work of the South West Scotland EEAC which
could not be quantified inform of energy and carbon savings. These are the increasing
awareness of householders, businesses and local authorities as well as possible jobs
created in the area.
Increasing householder awareness
The energy agency organises information stands at a variety of locations such as
supermarkets, Bingo galas and open information days at local resource centres in
order to raise the public awareness for energy efficiency. Additionally, presentations
were held to different target groups such as elderly people, hospital staff or private
landlords, which inform about various ways to improve energy efficiency. There were
additional presentations specifically on renewable energy held throughout the year.
All these activities are listed in the following table.
Table 9.9: Number of public presentations and information forums
There has been a renewable energy fair in November 2005. It was the first one of its
kind and has received a very good response with around 600 visitors during the two
day period.
The energy agency has a large contribution to increasing energy awareness among
school children. The table below lists the details on class presentations in local
schools for the assessed financial year.
-75-
Table 9.10: Number of school presentations on energy efficiency and renewable energy
An increased public awareness is also achieved by the advice centre through press
releases and articles in local papers as well as TV or radio adverts which do not only
call attention to the necessity of energy efficiency but also point out the activities of
the advice centre as well as local grants on offer. The press is also used to advertise
the yearly renewable energy fair. Around 15 newspapers are used for publicity
including the Ayrshire Post, the Irvine Herald and the Garrick Gazette.
Table 9.11: Number of press releases, articles and adverts
In addition an Energy Guide was circulated to approximately 35,000 households in
South Ayrshire (together with a grant referral) which resulted in around 120
applications for the Private Households Insulation Scheme.
Studying the statistics of the energy agency’s website
[7]
2983 web page visits have
been identified for the assessed period. It can be said that on average more than 8
people visit the agency’s web page per day.
The benefits of increasing householder awareness is also reflected in the 238 calls
between April 05 and March 06, of which 60% were from rural areas, requesting
advice about renewable energy and information on specific technologies as well as
respective grants available. Of these 238 customers who approached the energy
agency at least 20% heard about the EEAC service through word of mouth, 15% via
different web sites (e.g. EST, utility companies), 16% through the local press and at
least 5% got to know the EEAC through presentations.
-76-
All the people who installed an insulation measure with help of the energy agency’s
insulation grant have been asked how they heard about this grant scheme. The chart
below demonstrates the outcome of the recordation.
50%
Percentage of customers (%)
45%
40%
40%
through press
35%
through general
enquiries
word of mouth
30%
25%
20%
20%
15% 15%
10%
15%
targeted by the
EEAC
from council
10%
5%
0%
Figure 9.6: How customers heard about the Energy Agency’s insulation grant
The outcomes indicate the high influence the energy agency has on the installation of
energy efficiency measures in households by advertising their grant schemes through
the local press.
Increasing business awareness
Although the energy agency does not posses its own business advisor its effectiveness
in increasing business awareness can be quantified in the form of energy efficiency
training provided to members of staff of local businesses.
Table 9.12: Number of staff trainings
Increasing the expertise of architects in renewable energy use and encouraging them
to consider renewable technologies in their building design can lead to additional
-77-
energy and carbon savings when the knowledge gained is applied to future building
projects.
Increasing local authority awareness
The increasing awareness of local authorities and housing associations as benefit of
the energy agency’s work is indicated in this report in the form of presentations and
seminars given to them as well as key meetings with them and the number of local
authorities that signed a strategy aiming to reduce energy consumption. It shall be
mentioned that additionally several meetings were held with other interest groups
(e.g. Scottish Power) in order to prepare events or discuss future projects.
Table 9.13: Local authority support
Most key meetings with local authorities were held to initiate fuel poverty targeting
and home energy projects. The events organised by the EEAC with the aim to
increase the awareness of local authorities as well as housing associations towards
energy efficient housing design and sustainable energy use include 2 Housing
Association Forums of which the initial one was launched in September 2005. The
EEAC (through LESP), furthermore, organised a Housing & Building Seminar for
councillors, architects, housing associations and energy managers as well as a
Renewable Energy Conference. In addition a presentation was held to 50 members of
the Ayr Presbytery Committee to update on current energy efficiency measures as
well as an energy efficiency training to Irvine Housing Association.
Job creation
The energy agency works with 3 local insulation installers for installing loft and
cavity wall insulation, and 34 different heating installers have been used for a total of
146 jobs. Out of these the biggest insulation contractor is Clyde Insulation Contracts
Ltd, and O’Neil Gas Services (30%) and Ayrshire Gasworks (16%) have installed
-78-
most of the condensing boilers. There are also 5 of the renewable systems installers,
which are provisionally accredited under the SCHRI grant scheme, located in the
energy agency’s area of coverage and are likely to be contracted by EEAC customers.
It is estimated that one job is directly created for every £40,000 of investment, and
another indirect job for every £70,000
[8]
. Based on the expenditure for documented
installation works of energy efficiency and renewable systems, table 9.14 shows an
estimate of the jobs created from EEAC activities. The expenditure listed in table 9.14
includes:
•
£539,446 for installation of insulation and heating measures [9]
•
£318,905 for community renewable projects [9]
•
£316,360 for household renewable projects [6]
Expenses are provided by the energy agency directly and by the Energy Saving Trust
for householder renewable energy projects.
Table 9.14: Number of potential jobs created by EEAC activities
The expenditure is for installation only. They do not include staff time or overheads to
run the schemes. There is also the possibility for job creation through the work with
local authorities which could lead to the creation of certain positions within the
council (e.g. Environmental Advisers). However, it is not included in this evaluation.
9.3.3
Non-Quantifiable Outcomes
Non-quantifiable benefits resulting from the energy agency’s effort are the provision
of free and impartial advice on energy matters, development of sustainable local
energy strategies as well as the promotion of best practice.
The promotion of best practice throughout the region is achieved through training on
energy efficient heating and insulation installations provided to all by the energy
agency contracted installers. In order to ensure the quality of heating installations
-79-
undertaken for domestic customers the energy agency spot checks around 10% of the
jobs installed. This way the advice centre ensures that the condensing boilers installed
through the local grant scheme have been installed to energy efficiency standards. For
insulation measures spot checks are done by Scottish Power. The provision of best
practice advice is secured with help of training courses and workshops to the EEAC
staff provided by the industry itself or the Energy Saving Trust.
Another important outcome is the procurement of funding for grants. This is very
important to the EEAC’s effectiveness, since grants provide motivation for people to
implement certain energy saving installations. The outcomes of the conducted
customer survey have shown that the minority of people carry out installations
without the help of a grant.
9.4 Conclusion
The Energy Agency’s major work is concerned with promoting energy efficiency and
renewable energy to homeowners, tenants, private landlords and community groups
but also extensively to our future householders – schoolchildren of primary and
secondary schools. Public energy efficiency awareness is raised through presentations
to community groups, public exhibitions, provision of phone and written advice and
the promotion of local grant schemes. The customer survey conducted in this project
has shown that only 5% of the advised customers evaluate the advice given as ‘not
very useful’. The majority of customers feel the advice provided to them is useful
(48%) or even evaluate it as very useful (21%). The reason for dissatisfaction with the
advice provided could be the relatively general layout of HEC reports that do not
necessarily provide household specific advice. Despite this positive customer
response the outcomes of the customer survey have shown that some advised
measures such as energy efficient appliances, draught proofing or heating control for
the existing heating system only find little uptake. Insulation and heating measures
find the most interest since there are grants available. However, the uptake rates for
all energy efficiency measures are relatively small when compared to the outcomes of
the German advice centre eza! (Figure 6.1).
Assessing the energy savings resulting from the provision of energy advice to
domestic customers in its various forms it has been shown that the savings, which are
-80-
based on customer survey outcomes, can be reasonably calculated using uniform
uptake rates across all groups of advised customers. The results of both scenarios
assessed in this case study do not extremely differ and in some instances the average
uptake rate (scenario II) seems rather reasonable. Hence, this report suggests using
average uptake rates for future estimations.
A substantial amount of annual energy, carbon and cost savings have been quantified
as result of the various activities of the energy agency throughout the period from
April 2005 to March 2006. Across all evaluated activities the project has identified
annual energy savings potential through energy efficiency installations of 11,484
MWh and 771 MWh through renewable energy projects. It can be said that the South
West Scotland EEAC generated annual cost savings of £355,950 for its customers and
reduced annual carbon emissions by 775 tonne. These furthermore lead to lifetime
energy savings worth £6,736,266.
Furthermore, the evaluation identified carbon savings of 17,103 tonnes over the
lifetime of the installed energy saving measures and followed recommendations
which have been provoked during the assessed period. Applying the evaluation
method that is used by the Energy Saving Trust would result in lifetime carbon
savings of approximately 9,000 tonnes. It is shown that the actual savings are by far
higher.
Taking into consideration the complete funding income
[10]
of South West Scotland
EEAC it can be said that for each £1 of government funding energy savings worth
£23.23 are generated. Its cost-effectiveness, of course, is influenced by the many
assumptions in the calculation. It is based on direct energy savings through energy
efficiency and renewable energy advice and support. As such it does not include:
•
Any savings achieved through replication of the advice
•
Possible savings resulting from the work with local authorities
•
Any savings achieved through improving the energy consciousness of school
children
•
Any savings achieved through staff training presentations
-81-
Taking into consideration all additional benefits such as the general increase in public
awareness towards reducing energy demand as well as the increase in energy
awareness of local governments and the creation of 45 potential jobs in the region the
outcomes of the advice centre’s work are certainly satisfying. However, there is still
vast scope for improvements.
9.5 References
1. Energy Agency Ayr, http://www.energyagency.org.uk/ [accessed 11 July 2006]
2. Manzano Laguna M J, Marnie A, Marquis L et al, Report on the set-up and
operation of the rural DASUs-Operation – Specification for DASUs in South
Ayrshire, Scotland and Cordillera Subbetica, Spain; RURASU Deliverable D.2.1
June 2006, Intelligent Energy Europe
3. Records on insulation and heating installations 2005-2006, provided by Alan
McGonigle 18 July 2006
4. Records on community renewable energy projects 2005-2006, provided by Joe
Fergusson 22 June 2006
5. Dulas Ltd. June 2004, A Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for Penrose National
Trust Estate, produced by Dulas Ltd, page 6,
http://www.clear-skies.org/CaseStudies/Documents/2124907%20%20The%20National%20Trust%20-%20Penrose%20estate.pdf
[accessed 27 July 2006]
6. Records on household renewable projects (SCHRI household grant commitments),
emailed by Janet MacKechnie 11 August 2006
7. Energy Agency website statistics, emailed by Arnold van de Brug 11 July 2006
8. North Ayrshire Council. Home Energy Conservation Act – 4th HECA Progress
Report, 1st April 2003 – 31st March 2005, page 19,
provided by Alan McGonigle 01 August 2006
9. Installation costs for EE and community RE installations, provided by Alan
McGonigle 03 August 2006 and 15 August 2006
10. EEAC funding income for the financial year April 05 to March 06, emailed by
Alan McGonigle 28 August 2006
-82-
Chapter 10
CASE STUDY: STRATHCLYDE & CENTRAL
EEAC
The Strathclyde & Central EEAC is managed and operated by the Wise Group in
Glasgow. Its official launch took place in 1994 after a successful tender from the
Wise Group who had already provided energy and benefits advice to the residents of
Glasgow in the past. Strathclyde & Central is operated as one advice centre but
actually consists of two EEACs covering the area of the Strathclyde and Central
regional authorities. However, this project only evaluates the work of one EEAC Strathclyde & Central West.
10.1 Description of the Region
The 2 advice centres managed by the Wise Group are called Strathclyde & Central
West and Strathclyde & Central East. Figure 10.1 shows a map of the council areas
covered by the two centres.
Figure 10.1: Council areas covered by Strathclyde & Central EEACs
-83-
Strathclyde & Central West, which is assessed in this report, operates in the 5 local
authority areas of Glasgow City, East Renfrewshire, Renfrewshire, Inverclyde, and
Argyll & Bute. The region has a population of over 1,000,000 and around 450,000
households with the majority of people living in urban areas. With Argyll & Bute the
advice centre also covers a large rural area with a low population density and a good
potential for renewable energy developments due to its remote location and potential
wind resources.
In Glasgow City more than 50% of all areas are above average risk of containing
households in fuel poverty. This is indicated in figure 10.2 (red and yellow areas).
Figure 10.2: Fuel poverty indicator map of Glasgow City
In the other 4 local authorities there are also significant areas in which households are
most at risk of being fuel poor. However in these council areas households are below
average risk in most of the regions.
-84-
10.2 EEAC Structure
Strathclyde & Central West’s main sector of operation is the domestic sector
sustained by a strong emphasis on local authority support in order to secure grant and
support schemes for households. As part of its local authority support programme the
EEAC supported a successful bid by Glasgow City Council for funding from
HECAction (EST funding stream) to manage the Energy Efficiency Loan Scheme
(EELS) as well as HeatCare, an interest-free loan and grant scheme for over-60s home
owners in Glasgow. The EEAC also specialised on targeting fuel poor households.
Last year two additional projects started in conjunction with East Renfrewshire and
Inverclyde council and are funded by Scottish Power. These projects target
households in the two councils who have been identified for significant improvements
through previously completed Home Energy Checks. Grants are available for cavity
wall and loft insulation.
Strathclyde & Central EEAC (West and East) has 21 full-time members of staff
including 3 LESP Officers and 1 Renewable Development Officer. The work of some
members of staff (e.g. Renewable Development Officer) applies to both advice
centres. Strathclyde & Central also posses 2 Outreach Energy Advisors contracted on
behalf of Glasgow Housing Association in order to provide energy efficiency advice
in form of home visits to their tenants. In contrast to the Energy Agency in Ayr, the
advice centre also posses 2 business advisers and offers a loan (Loan Action Scotland)
to support the uptake of energy saving equipment by enterprises.
10.3 Evaluation of EEAC Effectiveness
The effectiveness of the EEAC is evaluated using the same methodology as for the
South West EEAC. The evaluation is done for the financial year 2005/2006 using the
following records which were provided by the advice centre:
1) Records on insulation and heating installations through local loan or grant
schemes
2) Records on installations of renewable systems by households and communities
with the help of a SCHRI grant
-85-
3) Records on energy saving installations by businesses with the help of Loan
Action Scotland
4) Records on the total number of customers advised
5) Records on all performed activities (presentations, information forums, school
visits, press releases etc.)
The benefits in terms of energy, carbon and cost savings are calculated using
wherever applicable the tools discussed in chapter 8 of this report. Savings are
estimated for 3 domains. These are:
A. Energy efficiency advice to households
B. Energy efficiency advice to businesses
C. Renewable energy initiatives
The benefits of the remaining activities (e.g. local authority support and education
initiatives) are quantified in form of increasing awareness for energy efficiency and
sustainable development.
Due to a limited period of time and in some instances the lack of records a detailed
assessment of these activities was not achievable but the outcomes are reasonable for
demonstrating the EEAC’s effectiveness. It has not been possible to conduct a
customer survey for estimating the uptake of different recommendations. Therefore,
the uptake rates estimated in the previous case study shall be used to quantify the
benefits of the advice centre’s work concerning energy advice to householders. The
uptake rates used are the average percentages estimated across all groups of advised
customers.
10.3.1
Quantifying Energy, Carbon and Cost Savings
The energy, carbon and cost savings advanced by the advice centre through the
provision of direct energy efficiency advice to households (excluding the provision of
leaflets and guides only) are quantified in the following two steps:
-86-
Step 1: Quantify savings resulting from installations through grant and loan
schemes based on records available
Step 2: Quantify savings resulting from uptakes of advised measures as well as
behavioural changes, using the uptake rates stated in table 9.2 of the report
In order to estimate the benefits in form of energy, carbon and cost savings a number
of assumptions had to be made. All assumptions made are based on information
confirmed by the advice centre.
Step 1
To quantify the annual energy and carbon savings resulting from installation of
energy efficiency installations, records have been processed in the same way as in the
previous case study. Records on installations of cavity wall and loft insulation were
available only for East Renfrewshire and Inverclyde Council where grants were made
accessible through funding from Scottish Power
[1]
. It is not known whether loft
insulation was virgin or top-up installations. According to Patrick Thompson, Advice
Service Manager of Strathclyde & Central, the common type of installation in the
region is top-up loft insulation. This has been used for estimation based on a top-up
level from 50mm to 250mm. Additionally there are records of 20 condensing boiler
installations through the loan schemes EELS and HeatCare
[1]
. Due to missing
customer details calculations have been done for a gas fired condensing boiler
installed in a 2-bedroom semi-detached house, since this is assumed to be a common
property type in Glasgow City Council. The table below summarises all quantified
annual energy, carbon and cost savings for the different installed measures. A detailed
summary on installations undertaken can be found in Appendix C.1 of this report.
Table 10.1: Annual savings from installed measures
-87-
The total lifetime carbon savings of all the installed measures are assessed with 2,156
tonnes C or equivalent 7,905 tonnes CO2. It should be noticed that the savings would
be significantly higher if installation of virgin loft insulation had been assumed.
Step 2
According to the statistics provided by Patrick Thompson a total number of 14,672
domestic customers have received any form of energy advice from the advice centre
during the financial year 2005/2006. Figure 10.3 indicates the number of customers
and the form of advice given [2].
HEC report
9659
Advice calls
844
Home visits
532
Presentations
189
Exhibitions
3448
Figure 10.3: Ways households received energy advice
Using the uptake rates quantified in the previous case study (table 9.2) the advised
number of households who installed different energy saving measures or followed
various behavioural advices have been estimated and are summarised in Appendix
C.2. The benefits in terms of energy, carbon and cost savings are calculated using the
EEC spreadsheet 2005-2008 as well as the savings estimated for behavioural changes.
The common property type across all 5 council areas is a 3-bedroom semi-detached
house with a gas heating system for which the savings from installations are
estimated. All additional assumptions equal the assumptions made in chapter 9 and
can be found in Appendix B.3. All estimations leading to the results in table 10.2 are
outlined in Appendix C.2.
-88-
Table 10.2: Annual savings based on customer survey outcomes
The total lifetime carbon savings are estimated at 17,561 tonnes C or equivalent
64,390 tonnes CO2.
In addition to household installations, three local companies have taken action to
reduce their energy consumption after receiving an energy visit from the EEAC as
well as an energy audit from an energy consultancy working on behalf of the Scottish
Executive or the Carbon Trust. The energy reducing technologies have been installed
by the 3 businesses with help of Loan Action Scotland.
Table 10.3: Professional business installations
Unfortunately there are no technical specifications available for each installation. The
annual energy, carbon and cost savings used in this report have been estimated by the
contracted consultancies. The calculations for the insulation and heating system were
carried out by the Campbell Palmer Partnership Ltd and the estimates for the steam
system by an independent Environmental Engineer. All estimates were derived by
considering the current energy usage and efficiency rating of the machinery and its
comparison to modern equipment. Table 10.4 summarises the annual savings that
have been assessed for the 3 business installations [3].
-89-
Table 10.4: Annual savings from professional business installations
The total lifetime carbon savings resulting from the 3 business installations are
calculated with 2,611 tonnes C or equivalent 9,573 tonnes CO2.
Additionally to savings resulting from these medium and high cost installations there
are also savings attributable to the implementation of no and low cost measures by
some businesses after receiving an energy audit. This for example includes
behavioural changes of the staff as well as the installation of low energy lighting.
According to Angela Graham, Business Adviser of Strathclyde & Central, at least
10% of all businesses advised will cut down their energy bills with help of such low
and no cost measures which can reduce their annual energy consumption by 10% to
20%
[4]
. For this project’s evaluation such savings are estimated with 20% additional
to the savings from the above stated installations. A lifetime of 10 years is assumed.
Table 10.5 lists the total savings attributable to installation of low cost energy
efficient business improvements.
Table 10.5: Annual savings from low cost business installations
The total lifetime carbon savings attributable to no and low cost business installations
are estimated at 340 tonnes C or equivalent 1247 tonnes CO2.
The benefits in form of energy, carbon and cost savings for all renewable energy
systems installed with support of the Renewable Development Officer of Strathclyde
& Central EEAC are estimated in the following part of this section.
-90-
There have been 3 community renewable projects carried out between April 2005 and
March 2006. These are:
1) A solar water heating (flat plate) system for a new built housing block (8 flats)
for Partick Housing Association in addition to advanced wall (0.2 W/m2K) and
roof (0.12 W/m2K) insulation and the use of two 60kW gas condensing boilers
instead of eight 200W combi boilers
2) A 60kW wood chip heating system for Coachhouse Trust
3) A ground source heat pump (under floor heating) for Kirkhaven Hostel
The specifications for these installations have been provided by the Renewable
Development Officer [5] and are listed in the following tables. Additionally
assumptions are made as indicated.
Table 10.6: Characteristics of community solar water heating system
Table 10.7: Characteristics of community biomass system
Table 10.8: Characteristics of community ground source heat pump
-91-
Table 10.9 summarises the benefits in form of annual savings for these 3 renewable
developments. The energy and carbon savings resulting from the solar water heating
system are calculated with help of the Small Scale Renewable Energy Tool.
Additionally the savings resulting from the advanced insulation and heating system
have been estimated by John Gilbert Architects during the project development phase.
For the GSHP system and the wood pellet burner the savings are based on basic
calculations. All additional assumptions made for the outcomes of table 10.9 are
stated in Appendix C.3.
Table 10.9: Annual savings from community renewable energy projects
The total lifetime carbon savings resulting from all 3 renewable community projects
are calculated with 286 tonnes C or equivalent 1049 tonnes CO2.
Additionally information of the number of household renewable projects has been
provided by the Energy Saving Trust. The following renewable energy projects have
been developed by households in the total Strathclyde & Central (East and West) area
of coverage [6]:
•
21 Solar water heating systems
•
24 Ground source heat pumps
•
3 Biomass systems
•
1 Wind turbine (South Lanarkshire)
These in turn represent the number of grants offered for each technology including
completed projects and those still in progress. Since this project’s evaluation only
considers Strathclyde & Central West it is assumed that 11 solar heating systems, 12
ground source heat pumps, and 2 biomass systems have been installed by advised
households between March 05 and April 06 in the respective area. The energy and
-92-
carbon savings resulting from the solar water heating systems are calculated with help
of the Small Scale Renewable Energy Tool. For the GSHP and biomass systems
savings are estimated using basic calculations. All assumptions made are as indicated
in Appendix B.5 of this report.
Table 10.10: Annual savings from household renewable energy projects
The total lifetime carbon savings resulting from all installations are estimated with
911 tonnes C or equivalent 3,340 tonnes CO2.
Similar to the previous case study the benefits attributable to replication are thought to
be in form of increasing public awareness rather than quantifiable energy and carbon
savings.
10.3.2
Other Quantifiable Outcomes
There are other benefits resulting the work of the Strathclyde & Central West EEAC
which could not be quantified inform of energy and carbon savings but generally in
form of increasing awareness towards sustainable energy matters. Furthermore a
number of potential jobs created are estimated in this section.
Increasing householder awareness
The EEAC’s outcomes in form of increasing public awareness towards energy
efficiency can be quantified with help of the indicators listed in table 10.11. The
advice centre, similar to the Energy Agency in Ayr, aims to increase household
awareness also by promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy in the education
sector. Two lessons were held to 55 school classes with a period of 2 weeks in
between.
-93-
Table 10.11: Number of public presentations and exhibitions
The advice centre furthermore organised an Energy Saving Week event at the three
main universities in Glasgow where free energy efficiency advice was offered to
students and university staff. Another initiative which aimed to promote renewable
energy to domestic customers was an 8-day Renewable Energy mobile exhibition in
various towns in the West of Scotland.
Additionally to increasing public awareness through the provision of energy
efficiency presentations to community groups and information forums (exhibitions) in
supermarkets and other public places, the advice centre also uses the local press for
communicating sustainable energy use to the public. This has been done through 12
articles in newspapers and magazines, and 1 radio interview between March 2005 and
April 2006. Information provided by Strathclyde & Central EEAC demonstrates a
total of 4868 web site visits during the assessed period. It can be said that in average
13 people visit the EEAC’s web page per day.
Increasing business awareness
The contribution of the EEAC towards increasing company awareness of the
importance of reducing energy demand in the business sector is quantified inform of
the number of energy visits, and energy and Envirowise audits to individual
businesses as well as advice presentations to a group of representatives of various
companies. These figures are listed in the following table. A Continuous Professional
Development training session on renewable energy use was, furthermore, held to a
group of architects with an attendance of 12 staff.
-94-
Table 10.12: Business advice
Although there are only records of 3 business installations of energy efficient
measures, there have been 7 other applications for a Loan Action Scotland grant.
There are different reasons why these have not been realised as for instance annual
savings did not exceed the required £1000. However it indicates the awareness of the
potential for reducing the company’s energy consumption after receiving an energy
audit organised by the energy advice centre.
Increasing local authority awareness
Another outcome of the work of its LESP officers is the enhancement of energy
efficiency awareness of the 5 local authorities. As in the previous case study this work
is indicated in the form of presentations and seminars held as well as key meetings
with and strategies signed by the local authorities. Additionally several meetings were
held with other interest groups in order to prepare events or discuss future projects.
Table 10.13: Local authority support
Several events were organised by the EEAC with the aim to increase the awareness of
local authorities as well as housing associations towards energy efficient housing
design and sustainable energy use. These include:
•
Energy Efficiency Strategy Consultation event
•
Glasgow Fuel Poverty event
•
2 Social Housing Energy Forum events
-95-
•
‘Taking the Lead: Planning and Sustainable Energy’ event
•
EE presentation & Workshop
The Glasgow Fuel Poverty Event for instance aimed to highlight the issues
surrounding fuel poverty and to consult on the development of effective fuel poverty
strategies.
The energy efficiency presentation with additional workshop was provided to
Renfrewshire and Inverclyde stock transfer team as part of a project for which Faber
Maunsell, a local consultancy company, has been employed in order to ensure that
sustainable energy remains on the agenda throughout the existing process of stock
transfer.
Job creation
Similar to the previous case study it is estimated that one job is directly created for
every £40,000 of investment, and another indirect job for every £70,000
[7]
. The
accessible expenses include:
•
£45,529 for heating installations (EELS and HeatCare) [8]
•
£90,950 for insulation installations (estimated based on records of installations)
•
£100,000 for the 3 business installation [9]
•
£139,475 for community renewable projects [10]
•
£225,466 for household renewable projects [6]
Table 10.14 demonstrates the estimated number of potential jobs created.
Table 10.14: Number of potential jobs created
The estimation is based on installations recorded by the advice centre itself or the
Energy Saving Trust. Potentially there are much larger expenses on energy efficiency
-96-
measures which are induced by the advice centre, but are not directly recorded by the
EEAC itself.
10.3.3
Non-Quantifiable Outcomes
Non-quantifiable benefits resulting from the work of the energy advice centre are
comparable to those of the Energy Agency in Ayr due to their similar operation.
These are the provision of free and impartial advice on energy matters, development
of sustainable local energy strategies as well as the promotion of best practice.
An additional benefit of the work of the advice centre is the decrease of fuel poverty
in the area through selective promotion of energy saving measures and the grants
available to fuel poor households. It has been identified that 40% of all recorded
insulation installations have been undertaken in priority households where people
were not able to pay for installation themselves.
Another important outcome is the procurement of funding for grants. Again this is a
very important drive for the effectiveness of the advice centre, since grants provide
motivation for people to implement certain energy saving measures and support
people who are not able to pay for installation themselves.
10.4 Conclusion
The major work of the advice centre is concerned with promoting energy efficiency
and renewable energy to householders and community groups. Promoting energy
efficiency measures and supporting the installation of these is done in conjunction
with local authorities and utility companies such as Scottish Power. Another
significant activity is the consultation of small and medium scale businesses in form
of energy site visits and energy or environmental audits. However during the assessed
period only 3 businesses carried out major energy efficiency improvements with help
of Loan Action Scotland after being given an energy audit by a contracted energy
consultancy. This is a surprisingly low result which indicates that there have to be
greater impulsions for local businesses to invest in energy saving technologies.
Significant benefits in the form of annual energy, carbon and cost savings have been
quantified as result of the various activities of Strathclyde & Central West EEAC
-97-
throughout the period from April 2005 to March 2006. It have been found annual
energy savings potential through energy efficiency installations in the domestic sector
of 18,539 MWh and 2,821 MWh in the business sector, as well as energy savings of
576 MWh per annum through renewable energy projects. It can be said that the advice
centre generated annual cost savings of £719,679 for its customers and reduced
annual carbon emissions by 1,400 tonnes. This furthermore leads to lifetime energy
savings worth £10,641,411.
The evaluation identified carbon savings of 23,865 tonnes over the lifetime of all
installed measures and followed recommendations that have been provoked during the
assessed period. Using the Energy Saving Trust’s evaluation procedure would result
in lifetime carbon savings of approximately 15,000 tonnes. Thus, it is demonstrated
that the actual savings by far exceed the EST estimation.
Estimating cost-effectiveness based on the funding income
[11]
of the Strathclyde &
Central West EEAC it can be said that for each £1 of government funding energy
savings worth £40.46 are generated. The cost-effectiveness again is influenced by the
many assumptions in the calculation and does not take into account possible savings
attributable to replication or local authority support initiatives. Taking into
consideration all additional benefits such as increasing awareness, decrease in fuel
poor households as well as the creation of 23 potential jobs in the area, the outcome of
the advice centre’s work is certainly rewarding but there is, similar to the South West
Scotland EEAC, still scope for improvements.
10.5 Reference
1. Records of insulation and heating installations 2005-2006, provided by Patrick
Thompson 25 July 2006
2. Records of EEAC activities and the number of advised customers 2005-2006,
emailed by Patrick Thompson 26 July 2006
3. Estimations of savings from the 3 business installations (Loan Action Scotland),
emailed by Brian Canning 03 August 2006
4. Angela Graham - Business Adviser of Strathclyde & Central EEAC, telephone
conversation 09 August 2006
-98-
5. Records on community renewable energy projects 2005-2006, provided by Neil
Phillips 03 August 2006
6. Records on household renewable projects (SCHRI household grant commitments),
emailed by Janet MacKechnie 11August 2006
7. North Ayrshire Council. Home Energy Conservation Act – 4th HECA Progress
Report, 1st April 2003 – 31st March 2005, page 19,
provided by Alan McGonigle 01 August 2006
8. EELS and HeatCare installation costs 2005-2006, emailed by Patrick Thompson
14 August 2006
9. Installation costs for the 3 business projects (loans provided), emailed by Brian
Canning 09 August 2006
10. Installation costs for the 3 community RE projects, provided by Neil Phillips
16 August 2006
11. EEAC funding income for the financial year April 05 to March 06,emailed by
Patrick Thompson 25 August 2006
-99-
Chapter 11
A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EVALUATED
ENERGY ADVICE CENTRES
In this chapter a comparison of the work and its effectiveness of the two evaluated
energy advice centres is drawn. This mainly concerns the energy efficiency advice to
households as well as renewable energy initiatives. It is aimed to conclude potential
points of weakness and strength for both EEACs and to make some recommendations
on possible improvements.
11.1 Comparison of the Advice Work
The two Scottish Energy Efficiency Advice Centres that have been evaluated in the
previous two chapters differ significantly regarding the area they are covering. The
work of Strathclyde & Central West mainly applies to urban regions, with Argyll &
Bute the only remote rural area of coverage. On the other side the South West
Scotland EEAC mainly works in rural areas with numerous remote communities and
households. The business sector is extremely stronger in Strathclyde & Central West
Scotland, not alone because of Glasgow City as covered council. That’s why the
advice centre in Glasgow in comparison to the one in Ayr employs a business advisor.
Otherwise the remaining activities and services are similar for both advice centres
apart from differences in the form of energy advice provision to domestic customers.
The ways energy advice is provided to domestic customers are in general similar for
both advice centres. However the different forms of advice provision are used with
differing intensities by both EEACs. This is indicated in figure 11.1 which
demonstrates the percentage of households who received energy advice in a certain
way.
-100-
Energy Agency
65.8%
70.0%
Number of customers in %
Strathclyde & Central West
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
40.5%
30.9%
23.5%
30.0%
18.3%
20.0%
5.8%
10.0%
2.4% 3.6%
8.0%
1.3%
0.0%
HEC
rep
ort s
c
ice
Adv
alls
Hom
e vi
sits
t
se n
Pre
n
atio
s
o
ibiti
Exh
ns
Figure 11.1: Comparison of the provision of energy advice to domestic customers
It can be said that the Strathclyde & Central West EEAC processes twice as many
Home Energy Check forms as the Energy Agency in Ayr and thus its main form of
advice provision is in a written form. According to the outcomes of the customer
survey conducted in 2002 by New Perspectives written advice is rather remembered
than verbal advice, and both forms of advice together are most effective. Therefore
the approach of Strathclyde & Central West EEAC can be seen as effective. However,
an increased emphasis on verbal advice provision could further improve its work but
also create a closer relationship to its customers and further encourage general public
awareness for example through more public presentations. In contrast, the Energy
Agency in Ayr provides a majority of energy advice to households in verbal form. Its
large fraction of advice calls demonstrates that many of its customers approach the
EEAC themselves. This demand in energy specific advice possibly follows from its
stronger public works in form of presentations and exhibitions but also due to more
intensive media work. However, the advice centre should back up its verbal advice by
encouraging people to fill in a HEC form which will lead to a report being sent to
them. This is especially of importance for people advised at information stands in
public places since this is often in a busy environment and specific advice might not
be remembered but only the existence of the advice centre itself.
-101-
11.2 Comparison of the Effectiveness
The number of recorded energy saving installations, which have been carried out by
advised customers during the last financial year with help of local grants or loan
schemes, are compared for both advice centres in the figure below.
Energy Agency
Number of installations
250
235
Strathclyde & Central West
219
174
200
155
146
150
100
20
50
0
i
Loft
n
latio
nsu
n
all i
ity w
v
a
C
tion
sula
Co
ns in
nde
il
g bo
er
Figure 11.2: Comparison of energy efficiency installations
Surprisingly the number of installations in South West Scotland is significantly higher
than for Strathclyde & Central West, although the number of people who received
energy efficiency advice is less than the half. This could have various reasons. One
important reason is the difference in promotion and recording of the grant schemes.
Unlike the advice centre in Glasgow the Energy Agency in Ayr provides its grants to
all its council areas and promotes it through letters sent out on behalf of the council, at
presentations and exhibitions, on the telephone and sometimes in local newspapers.
Customers wanting to take up a grant need to get in direct contact with the advice
centre and every installation is recorded in detail including information on the way
customers heard about the grant. On the other side Strathclyde & Central EEAC does
not provide unique grant schemes to all its council areas and information on an area
specific grant scheme is mainly provided through letters sent out on behalf of the
councils (Inverclyde and East Renfrewshire). There is also a lack of records on all
installations undertaken. Another explanation could be a higher uptake of national
grants (e.g. Warm Deal) and offers provided by utility companies in Strathclyde &
Central West due to the large number of vulnerable households in the coverage area.
-102-
In general the advice centre in Glasgow tries to target fuel poor households by
promoting available grants to those, which the Energy Agency in Ayr has not
specifically done.
There is also an outstanding difference between the two advice centres regarding
renewable energy projects that have been developed within the assessed period.
Figure 11.3 demonstrates the total number of renewable energy installations
supported by both advice centres. These include community and household
installations.
Energy Agency
18
Number of installations
20
Strathclyde & Central West
18
18
16
13
12
14
12
10
8
4
6
3
4
3
0
2
0
ar h
S ol
in
ea t
g
t pu
He a
d
Win
s
mp
m
Bio
ass
Figure 11.3: Comparison of renewable energy installations
Both EEACs have achieved the implementation of numerous renewable energy
projects. In South West Scotland the number of renewable energy developments is
higher than in Strathclyde & Central West Scotland. One obvious reason is the
occurrence of many rural communities and remote dwellings in South West Scotland
that can benefit from renewable energy developments. Furthermore, its coastal
location is advantageous for small-scale wind energy developments. However, both
characteristics also apply to Argyll & Bute, which is covered by the energy advice
centre in Glasgow, but there have been no community renewable energy projects
developed during the assessed period. The 3 community renewable installations are
all based in Glasgow which leads to the conclusion that the distance between the
advice centre and its customers is a significant aspect of the effectiveness of its work.
Additionally Strathclyde & Central EEAC only possess one Renewable Development
-103-
Officer who covers both areas, West and East. This possibly leads to a shortage of
intensive work in the remote regions which make 50% of the coverage area.
The lifetime energy savings resulting from the work of the energy advice centre can
be applied to the total number of the EEAC customers. This ratio indicates the
effectiveness of the EEAC work in its area and is rather appropriate for comparison
purpose than the use of energy savings on its own. It estimated that the activities of
the South West Scotland EEAC lead to annual energy savings worth £1062 per
customer. Lifetime energy savings generated by the Strathclyde & Central West
EEAC are worth £725 per customer when considering all services provided and £624
per customer when excluding savings resulting from business advice. Hence, the
effectiveness of the South West Scotland EEAC is higher when demonstrated in form
of this ratio. Looking at the cost-effectiveness of the advice centres on the other hand,
the Strathclyde & Central West EEAC, however, seems to be more effective in
generating energy savings per £1 of government funding provided. Its cost
effectiveness has been estimated with energy savings worth £40.46 per £1 of
government funding in comparison to the South West Scotland EEAC where £1 of
government funding only leads to energy savings worth £23.23. However it has to be
kept in mind that government funding only covers a part of the total EEAC
expenditure, which is significantly influenced by the set-up of the organisation. In this
report the cost-effectiveness based on total EEAC expenditure could not be evaluated
but it is believed to be more suitable for comparison purpose.
11.3 Conclusion
The evaluation of both advice centres has shown that their activities result in
significant savings in energy consumption and hence in the emission of carbon as
green house gas. They furthermore generate savings in their customer’s fuel bill and
enhance general public awareness for efficient and renewable energy use. However,
both advice centres should provide energy advice to households in a better balance of
verbal and written energy advice.
In conclusion the South West Scotland EEAC seems to be more successful in
realising energy saving installations with help of its grant schemes. However, it lacks
in targeting fuel poor households. That should be part of its future work.
-104-
In order to enhance the installation of energy saving measures Strathclyde & Central
West EEAC should provide a unique grant scheme available to households of all 5
council areas. All installations should be recorded by the advice centre directly with
documentation on customer and property details. Additionally, Strathclyde & Central
EEAC requires a second Renewable Development Officer due to its large working
region of 12 council areas. This way it would be able to reach even remote areas such
as Argyll & Bute where there is a good potential for renewable energy developments.
-105-
Chapter 12
PROSPECTS FOR THE WORK AND ITS
EFFECTIVENESS OF SCOTTISH EEACS
The future development of the effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Advice Centres is
affected by 3 main factors. These are:
•
The development of public demand for sustainable energy
•
The development of fuel prices
•
The scope for improvements
It is obvious that the development of fuel prices significantly influences the demand
for energy saving measures and renewable systems, but there are also other factors of
influence such as the confidence in renewable energy technologies.
This chapter outlines the prospects for Energy Efficiency Advice Centres in Scotland
by studying these factors with attention especially paid to the domestic sector.
12.1 Development of Public Demand for Sustainable Energy
The development of the public demand for sustainable energy is discussed by means
of records available from the two evaluated energy advice centres and the Energy
Saving Trust. This development study covers the demand for energy efficiency and
renewable energy advice as well as the progression of sustainable installations over
the last few years.
The hits on the web site of South West Scotland EEAC
[1]
show an extremely
increasing public interest in energy efficiency after August 2005. This signifies the
reaction to the rising fuel prices in the same month. The hits on the website have
tripled since, which demonstrates that many people become more and more interested
in eliminating wasted energy in order to keep their fuel bills as low as possible.
-106-
Figure 12.1: Web site statistics for South West Scotland EEAC web site
This development will be pushed further with the introduction of the Energy
Performance Certificates for buildings in the year 2009, since that will lead to the
direct confrontation with the energy performance of people’s homes and that of other
homes in comparison.
An increasing interest in sustainable energy is also demonstrated through the increase
of household enquiries over the last 3 years. Figure 12.2 demonstrates the number of
annual household enquiries on renewable energy systems and the grants available.
This information has been collected by the Renewable Development Officers of the
two EEACs since the start of the SCHRI grant scheme in 2003.
South West Scotland
Strathclyde & Central
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
Year
Figure 12.2: Annual household enquiries on renewable energy systems
A growing number of people are becoming aware of the financial benefits of
renewable energy technologies considering the constantly price rise of conventional
energy sources. But there is also an increasing amount of people who are generally
enthusiastic about sustainable energy solutions since they choose to act socially
-107-
responsible. The existence of the grant scheme additionally generates demand.
Looking at the previous development of domestic demand for renewable energy it can
certainly be said that in future this will develop with a similar or even stronger ascent.
The increasing establishment of renewable energy installers in the UK also boosts this
development.
The progression of sustainable energy installations over the last few years is
demonstrated by means of household renewable installations which were funded by
the Scottish Community and Household Renewable Initiative. The data was made
available by the Energy Saving Trust
[2]
. The data given for Strathclyde & Central
cover both areas, East and West. Community renewable projects have not been taken
into consideration due their long-lasting development stage.
South West Scotland
Strathclyde & Central
Trend - South West Scotland
Trend - Strathclyde & Central
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Year
Figure 12.3: Annual household RE projects over the last years
The number of renewable installations for the year 2006, as demonstrated in the graph
above, has been estimated by doubling the number of projects approved before July
2006. Based on the recorded renewable energy projects in the two EEAC areas it can
be said that over the last 3 years the number of Scottish households installing
renewable energy systems has enhanced by 140% on average each year. The reason
for this trend is apart from the increasing fuel prices the growing confidence in microgeneration. Following this trend, it is estimated that in the year 2009 over 160
domestic renewable energy installations will be supported by South West Scotland
-108-
EEAC and just over 140 households will receive support from Strathclyde & Central
EEAC.
12.2 Development of Fuel Prices
Looking at current fuel prices it can be said that these are already significantly higher
than the fuel prices on which all estimations in chapter 9 and 10 are based. Oil prices
for example are twice as high as the ones used for calculations. The annual savings for
the following years therefore will be higher than in the year of installation. This has a
very important positive impact on the cost effectiveness of both assessed EEACs.
Studying the cumulative price rises for example of Powergen it is shown that since the
start of 2006 gas prices have gone up by 47.3% and electricity prices by 29.9%. This
means that the company’s gas prices have risen by 107.5% since 2003 with electricity
prices up by 62.1%. An average annual gas bill has therefore increased by £333 since
2003 with electricity bills up by £151
[3]
. Considering that these rises in energy bills
would, for instance, more than finance professional cavity wall insulation, which in
turn will save £130 to £160
[4]
a year on fuel bills, makes the investment in energy
saving measures more and more attractive. Increasing fuel prises will bit by bit also
decrease large payback periods for some domestic renewable energy systems. This is
a very important issue, as lower payback periods will result in an improved
desirability for micro-generation.
A set of fuel price scenarios has been developed by the Association for the
Conservation of Energy in October 2005 for a thirty-year period, which is the
maximum product lifetime amongst a number of energy saving measures considered
to improve hard to heat homes. The scenarios are based on well-established fuel and
economic scenarios. These scenarios, shown in the graph below
[5]
, aim to help users
select a view of the future that they consider to give plausible percentage changes in
fuel prices.
-109-
Figure 12.4: Fuel price scenarios
Considering the fuel price development within the previous year, after these scenarios
have been developed, it is felt that the future fuel price development of scenario 4 is
currently the most reasonable prediction. The fuel prices predicted for 2035 according
to this scenario are up to 20 pence per kWh for electricity and 5 pence per kWh for
gas, with oil prices rising similarly to the gas prices
[5]
. In this case the cost-
effectiveness of the EEAC work would be much higher than at present, since energy
savings resulting from advised measures will be worth more than double.
Rising fuel prices are of particular concern to those who are, or are at risk of
becoming, fuel poor. Because fuel is paid for per unit consumed (i.e. per kWh), a
percentage change in fuel prices has a much greater impact on a large fuel bill than on
a small bill. This means there is even greater urgency to reduce fuel bills for the fuel
poor when they live in homes that are costly to keep warm. The perspective of
constantly rising fuel prices puts pressure on local authorities and social housing
providers to intensively plan affordable warmth strategies (fuel poverty strategies).
Hence, local authorities will further work in conjunction with the Local Energy
Support (LESP) Officers of their local EEAC and more strategies are believed to be
implemented.
-110-
12.3 Scope for Improvements
As part of the Scottish Housing Condition Survey in 2003/2004 an analysis of energy
efficiency and fuel poverty for the domestic housing sector has been undertaken.
Energy efficiency was measured with help of the National Home Energy Rating
(NHER) and the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP). Using NHER all dwellings
are rated on a scale of 0 (poor) to 10 (excellent) based on the total energy costs per
square metre of floor area. SAP on the other side rates dwellings on a scale of 1 to
100. The National Home Energy Rating of the Scottish housing stock resulted in a
median of 6 and a median of 59 was assessed using SAP
[6]
. Based on the outcomes it
can be said that the energy efficiency of the Scottish housing stock is on average
moderate with only 40% of all dwellings rated at a ‘good’ and only 0.4% rated at an
‘excellent’ standard [6]. The majority of houses date pre 1964 with 18% of the housing
stock built before 1919. These form the majority of those with a ‘poor’ NHER score
as it is shown in the chart [6] below.
Figure 12.5: NHER bands by age of dwelling (Scottish housing stock)
Figure 12.5 indicates that there is great scope for energy efficiency improvements in
the Scottish housing sector. The survey results furthermore demonstrated that
especially private owned dwellings require significant improvements in order to
achieve a ‘good’ or even ‘excellent’ energy efficient building performance.
-111-
In order to determine the magnitude of possible improvements to the current housing
stock realistic upgrade scenarios were identified for the South Ayrshire council
housing stock (7876 dwellings) as part of the European RURASU project. For each
upgrade scenario the benefits in terms of energy and carbon savings were then
calculated using the University of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool (SERT). The
chart [7] below illustrates the impact of building fabric and energy technologies on the
carbon footprint, where scenario ‘as is’ describes the current stock without any
upgrades applied. Fabric upgrades class A are defined as advanced low cost fabric
improvements including loft and floor insulation. Upgrades class B are major fabric
upgrades resulting in U-values of 0.15 W/m2K for the roof, 0.3 W/m2K for walls and
0.6 W/m2K for windows, which exceeds the current standards for new buildings
according to the Scottish Building Regulations
[8]
. In the other scenarios energy
supply options such as heat pumps, micro-CHP, community-CHP, biomass, solar
water heating, photovoltaic or domestic wind turbines have been considered. The
upgrades have only been applied to categories of dwellings where appropriated.
Figure 12.6: South Ayrshire council housing stock carbon footprint projection
The results show the carbon footprint per dwelling to be on average 4.9 tonnes of
carbon dioxide per year while future scenarios are presented with emissions below 1
tonne. For the whole council housing stock in South Ayrshire this would lead to
annual reductions of carbon dioxide emissions up to 30,987 tonnes or equivalent
-112-
8,451 tonnes of carbon [8]. Furthermore, it has been estimated that the combination of
fabric improvements and heating system upgrades (scenario 5) on its own will already
result in savings of more than a half of the annual carbon emissions. The outcomes of
the South Ayrshire study demonstrate that there is massive scope for improvements of
the current housing stock in Scotland and similar in the rest of the UK. It should be
noted that the same upgrade scenarios applied to the private housing stock would
result in even higher savings.
In this context it has to be mentioned that in this report the energy savings resulting
from loft insulation are based on an insulation level of 250mm. However, this is
changing to 300mm and above. The energy savings generated by energy advice
centres when motivating households to install insulation will therefore be higher for
future estimations which will increase the cost-effectiveness of the advice work.
12.4 Conclusion
In conclusion it can be said that the future perspectives for energy advice centres in
Scotland are promising. Their effectiveness is predicted to grow for various reasons.
To begin with, the advice provided will be seriously considered by a growing number
of people and more and more customers will approach energy advice centres
themselves. Reasons for this are extensively increasing energy bills as well as the
growing confidence in renewable energy technologies and in the cost effectiveness of
energy efficiency upgrades. Increasing public awareness will lead to a raising number
of energy saving and renewable energy installations undertaken with support of the
local advice centre. The effectiveness of the energy advice work is furthermore
significantly influenced by rising fuel prices themselves as well as changes in levels
of upgrading. Both will result in increased energy savings over the whole lifetime of
the installed measures, which in turn will lead to a higher rate of savings generated
per £1 of EEAC expenditure.
In this chapter it has been demonstrated that there is enormous scope for improving
Scotland’s housing stock. This certainly presents a challenge to Scottish energy
advice centres to promote energy efficient upgrades and micro-generation with the
goal to achieve an average energy efficiency of country’s housing stock rated with
‘good’ including a rising number of houses rated with ‘excellent’.
-113-
12.5 Reference
1. Energy Agency website statistics, emailed by Arnold van de Brug 11 July 2006
2. SCHRI household grant commitments 2003 -2006, emailed by Janet MacKechny
11 August 2006
3. Energywatch. Press releases – Powergen price rise makes it a dirty dozen
(17 August 2006),
http://www.energywatch.org.uk/media/news/show_release.asp?article_id=981
[accessed 22 August 2006]
4. Energy Saving Trust. Cavity wall insulation,
http://www.est.org.uk/myhome/insulation/cwi/ [accessed 24 August 2006]
5. Smith, W et al. Rising Fuel Prices: the challenge for affordable warmth in hard to
heat homes, Final Report October 2005, Association for the Conservation of
Energy,
http://www.ukace.org/research/fuelprophet/risingfuelprices.htm
[accessed 23 August 2006]
6. Scottish Executive and Communities Scotland. Scottish House Condition Survey Key Findings for 2003-2004,
http://www.shcs.gov.uk/ [accessed 24 August 2006]
7. Sanchez de la Flor F J, Tuohy P, Strachan P et al. Report on the database of the
existing building stock in Cordillera Subbetica, Spain and South Ayrshire,
Scotland; RURASU Deliverable D.3.2 July 2006, Intelligent Energy Europe
8. Scottish Building Standards Agency. Domestic Handbook – May 2006, Section 6
– Energy, Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004,
http://www.sbsa.gov.uk/current_standards/tbooks.htm [accessed 25 August 2006]
-114-
Chapter 13
CONCLUSIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS
AND
FUTURE WORK
13.1 Conclusions
The project has proven that a new approach to the evaluation of energy advice centres
is needed in order to assess the real benefits of their work. After studying the work of
Energy Efficiency Advice Centres in detail a methodology has been created as part of
this research to help quantify the benefits of the advice work in terms of energy,
carbon and cost savings but also considering further outcomes such as increasing
awareness towards sustainable energy and potential jobs created through the work of
the advice centre. The rationale behind the establishment of this methodology has
been to demonstrate the real merit of supporting energy advice centres in Scotland.
The approach of this methodology is the evaluation of energy advice centres using 3
categories of evaluation criteria. These are:
•
Quantifiable energy, carbon and cost savings
•
Other quantifiable outcomes (e.g. increasing awareness, job creation)
•
Non-quantifiable outcomes (e.g. promotion of best practice)
The main focus has been on quantifying the energy, carbon and cost savings resulting
from various EEAC activities. Therefore a number of tools and figures have been
identified that could be easily adopted by energy advice centres themselves. These
are:
•
The EEC spreadsheet 2005-2008
•
The University of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool (SERT)
•
The University of Strathclyde’s Small Scale Renewable Energy Rating Tool
•
The Savings estimated for following behavioural advice (extracted from New
Perspective’s research on ‘Savings from Behavioural Advice’)
Additionally updated fuel prices should be used for the estimation of cost savings.
However, before estimating the energy, carbon and cost savings resulting from
-115-
implemented recommendations, the different advice activities have to be documented
and the number of implemented recommendations has to be identified. Implemented
recommendations are identified in the following two steps:
a) Determining the number of implemented energy efficiency measures and
renewable energy systems using records on installations undertaken with help
of grant or loan schemes
b) Undertaking a phone-based survey with a subset of advised customers to
estimate the likelihood of uptakes of the recommended energy efficiency
measures as well as behavioural advice
The methodology has been applied to 2 different Scottish EEACs and their
effectiveness has been evaluated for the previous financial year. A customer survey
has been conducted as part of the evaluation study of the South West Scotland EEAC.
The significant outcomes of this survey are:
•
69% of customers find the advice given useful or very useful
•
55% of customers advised install low energy light bulbs
•
10% to 15% of customers install loft insulation, cavity wall insulation or a
condensing boiler
•
The majority of customers undertake installations with help of a grant
•
Measures such as draught proofing, heating control for the existing heating
system or energy efficient appliances generate little customer interest
•
30% of customers would like to receive follow up advice
When applying the developed methodology to the 2 Scottish EEACs – South West
Scotland EEAC (Ayr) and Strathclyde & Central West EEAC (Glasgow) –significant
benefits resulting from the work of both advice centres have been identified. These
are:
Annual energy savings of 12,255 MWh for South West Scotland EEAC and 21,935
MWh for Strathclyde & Central West EEAC
-116-
It has been estimated that the work of South West Scotland EEAC leads to annual
energy savings worth £354,477 and lifetime savings worth £6,736,266. Annual energy
savings resulting from the work of Strathclyde & Central West are worth £719,679,
leading to lifetime savings worth £10,641,411.
Lifetime carbon savings of 17,103 tonnes for South West Scotland EEAC and
23,865 tonnes for Strathclyde & Central West EEAC
Both case studies have shown that the EEAC activities result in lifetime carbon
savings far higher than estimated by the Energy Saving Trust. It has been
demonstrated that the quantified lifetime carbon savings are on average 75% higher
than estimated by the Energy Saving Trust.
Cost-effectiveness ratio of 23.23 for South West Scotland EEAC and of 40.46 for
Strathclyde & Central West EEAC
It has been identified that £1 of government funding leads to energy savings worth
£23.23 resulting from the effort of South West Scotland EEAC and savings worth
£40.46 generated through the work of Strathclyde & Central West EEAC. Based on
the results of both case studies it can be said that the merit of supporting the work of
Scottish EEACs is on average energy savings worth £32 generated for each £1 of
government funding, and is even predicted to increase in future. The difference
between the two EEAC’s is largely a result of differences in their activities.
Creation of 45 potential jobs through South West Scotland EEAC and 23 potential
jobs through Strathclyde & Central West EEAC
It is shown that despite their cost-effectiveness the merit of their work also includes
other benefits, such as the establishment of potential jobs, which are created through
the investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy general, Further benefits
identified in this project are an increasing awareness of householders, businesses and
local authorities, the decrease of fuel poor households, the promotion of good practice
as well as the development of sustainable local energy strategies.
The future perspectives for advice centres in Scotland have been proven to be
promising. Studying the current housing stock has identified an enormous scope for
energy efficient improvements. This combined with the increasing demand for energy
-117-
advice, rising fuel prices and changing levels of upgrades will positively influence the
cost-effectiveness of Scottish EEACs.
13.2 Recommendations
A number of problems and barriers that Energy Efficiency Advice Centres are
currently facing have been identified throughout this project. To begin with the targets
set by the Energy Saving Trust since April 2006 in the form of customer contacts are
extremely high, as the number of domestic customers who are required to receive
energy advice are up to twice as high as the amount of people consulted in the
previous financial years. It has been found that this only leads to target hunting, in
many cases through a very shallow provision of energy advice at information stands
e.g. in supermarkets with the aim to get as many contact details as possible. The
project certainly disagrees with that form of target setting, since it significantly
reduces the quality of the advice provided and therefore the likelihood of customers
acting on the advice.
It is believed that Scottish (and all UK) energy advice centres should provide more
face-to-face consultations in their offices or in customer homes. At the moment
energy advice provided to customers is often relatively general and might not take
into consideration property specific characteristics. There have been even problems
with the Home Energy Check reports in the past as these sometimes contain
conflicting information and therefore might not seem trustworthy or are confusing for
customers. Eza!, the advice centre in Germany, has demonstrated that customers are
more likely to take up recommendations after receiving an individual consultation
lasting around 45 minutes and a follow up consultation if necessary. It is
recommended that advice centres in Scotland employ more people with technical
experience who are able to provide such detailed consultations. Furthermore the
provision of property surveys and energy efficiency reports based on the specific
survey outcomes is felt to generate a larger awareness of potential improvements in
the owner’s home and customers will therefore more likely invest in recommended
energy saving measures. Additionally the outcomes of New Perspectives study in
2002 have shown that customers who received both written and verbal advice seemed
more likely to discuss the uptake of recommendations, to apply for a grant, or just to
-118-
go ahead and install the recommended measures. This suggests that it is important to
encourage those who get only written reports or telephone advice to keep in touch
with their energy adviser to secure their support and help until recommended
measures have been installed. The result of the customer survey conducted in this
project further justifies this since at least 30% of the respondents would like to get
additional information and support but did not contact the EEAC themselves. The
results of the 2002 survey have also shown that client-led advice is followed more
often. It is important for future EEAC work not only to generate increasing public
awareness but also to generate an increasing interest for saving energy in the home
and investing into EE and RE technologies. Therefore, Scottish energy advice centres
have to communicate their work and the benefits more intensively through the local
press as done by both advice centres in Greece and Germany. The work of the EEACs
should be published in a certain frequency at least every fortnight. Such press releases
need to contain more technical information and should demonstrate case studies on
renewable energy developments in the area as well as potential savings from installing
advanced insulation, a new heating system or various renewable technologies. More
advertisement has also to be made for energy saving measures which currently have a
very low uptake such as energy efficient appliances, draught proofing or heating
control for the existing heating system. It is believed that people’s interest will grow
when they are confronted with the amount of money they can save on their fuel bill
especially at this time where fuel prices are rising constantly. Press releases should
further educate the public about future legislation such as the upcoming European
Building Performance Directive and their influence on property owners.
Another problem currently facing EEACs is the missing customer feedback on the
quality of installation undertaken with help of a local grant scheme. Furthermore no
feedback is received on the actual benefits customers experience after installing
recommended measures. That’s why it should be mandatory that customers who make
use of a grant have to provide feedback on the work of the installer as one condition
for receiving the grant. This could be done by filling in a questionnaire on the
installer’s work and the satisfaction with the installation itself, which is then sent to
the advice centre in order to claim a part of the installation cost back. Such feedback
would support the promotion of best practice throughout the region as installers who
got an unsatisfying rating could receive training in order to improve their work up to
-119-
the required standard. Additionally several renewable energy installations should be
monitored. This would provide information on the actual energy savings which could
be compared with the estimated savings and possible conclusions on e.g. the influence
of customer behaviour on the effectiveness of the system can be drawn. Generally, all
installations (e.g. insulation and heating measures) should be recorded in detail and
processed in a spreadsheet depending on the level of upgrade type as well as the type
and size of the property and the main type of fuel. This way resulting energy and
carbon savings can be easily estimated by feeding this information into the EEC
spreadsheet 2005-2008, which has been identified in this project as a handy tool for
self-evaluation for energy advice centres.
A different barrier to the effectiveness of the advice work of Scottish EEACs is the
insecure funding for several EEAC projects. At the moment many projects (grant
schemes) are partly funded by utility companies such as Scottish Power which
withdraw the funding as soon as they achieve their EEC targets. In such a case the
EEAC has to stop the whole project. It often happens when the projects start to be
successful. It has been experienced during this project’s customer survey that this
situation leads to customer frustration and mistrust in the EEAC service. Other
projects such as education programmes in Glasgow schools were stopped because of
the withdrawal of funding. In order to create a consistent service Scottish advice
centres would have to procure other funding sources. One option could be the creation
of a partner network of architects, building designers, and installers etc. as it has been
successfully developed and run by eza! in Germany. The partners then financially
support the work of the advice centre and benefit from advertisement for and referrals
to them in turn.
Scottish EEACs currently do not provide energy design advice to architects and
building designers due to missing technical experience as well as equipment.
However, training courses could be provided to them on energy efficient design
strategies such as the passive house approach and the use of renewable energy in the
building envelope. Similar to the German advice centre, these training courses could
last over several weeks and should be held by a contracted professional energy
adviser. A fee for the course would have to be paid by the participants, since a free
provision is financially not feasible. When successfully completing the course
-120-
participants could then be offered the opportunity to become a member of the EEAC
partnership network.
Other recommendations for complementing the work of Scottish Energy Efficiency
Advice Centres are the use of Strathclyde’s Energy Rating Tool for local authority
support initiatives and the employment of more practical workshops on renewable
energy in local schools. SERT could be used by LESP officers to support the
development of strategies for upgrading the current council housing stock and
identifying the potential benefits of several upgrade plans. The final version of SERT,
which should be available by the end of the year, will provide additional capital costs
and payback period for a number of different fuel cost projections. It is recommended
that all LESP officers are familiar with the tool and its use should support the advice
provided to local authorities, housing associations as well as private landlords. It is
furthermore thought that EEACs should use more hands-on workshops in schools to
get students, especially secondary school children, interested in renewable energy and
let them experience how it works. Ideas for workshops, such as building a solar car, as
well as project guides can be obtained from ‘Plugging into the sun’, a UK registered
charity, or the European Sustainable Energy Education Forum (ESEEF) from the
following web sites:
1) http://www.pluggingintothesun.org.uk/
2) http://ssf.ises.org/ssf/index.xsp
Overall this thesis recommends an extension of the energy advice network in
Scotland. The evaluation of the South West Scotland EEAC has demonstrated that
60% of all customers advised on installing renewable energy systems live in rural
areas. It is beneficial for the promotion and development of renewable energy projects
that EEACs are located where there is a good potential for utilising wind, water or
biomass or where people live in remote areas and can benefit from renewable
systems. It has been shown by means of Argyll & Bute that it is difficult to support
regions if there is a large distance to their nearest advice centre. It is felt that the
approach of the German advice centre eza! is rather successful because it possesses 40
consultation stations throughout its region which form contact points for interested
customers. A similar approach could be implemented in Scotland to build up a closer
contact between the advice centres and their clients.
-121-
13.3 Future Work
The thesis forms a good starting point for quantifying the merit of supporting energy
advice centres in Scotland as well as in other countries.
The customer survey undertaken in this project has a relative small sample size
including customers who have received energy advice only one month before the
survey was undertaken. For future work estimating the uptake of recommendations by
domestic customers requires a more detailed analysis. Each advice centre could
conduct an individual customer survey with a sample size of at least 100 advised
customers. Customer should be questioned who have received energy advice 9 to 15
month in advance. This way they can still remember the advice given and had time to
act upon it.
The investigation into benefits resulting from energy advice to businesses could be
extended and the outcomes from Local Authority Support initiatives could be further
explored, since this project was not able to identify possible energy savings resulting
from the Local Energy Support Programme. Similar to the survey conducted with
households in 2002, surveys could be carried out with advised businesses, but also
with advised housing associations and private landlords in order to identify the
benefits of energy advice in these sectors.
It is also suggested that a more detailed analysis of energy savings attributable to
replication is undertaken, as it was not possible to quantify this within the scope of the
project.
Furthermore, the benefits in the form of job creation could be considered in more
detail. In this project the estimation of possible jobs created is purely based on the
expenditure for energy efficient and renewable energy installations. Thus, an
investigation into job creation resulting from the advice centre’s work with Local
Authorities as well as resulting from energy audits given to businesses could identify
a much higher potential for new jobs.
-122-
APPENDIX A – Phone Advice Record Form
-123-
APPENDIX B – South West Scotland EEAC
B.1 Principal Outcomes of Customer Survey
-124-
-125-
B.2 Installations through local grant scheme
-126-
Assumptions on which the following estimations are based
1. For the use of solid fuel calculations are based on coal as fuel
2. Loft insulation: Professional loft insulation of 250mm according to Building
Regulations; top-up insulation assumed from 50mm existing insulation.
3. Cavity wall insulation: Savings calculated for pre 1976 properties. Assumption
made based on the housing stock outlined in RURASU Deliverable D.3.2, page
32.
4. Condensing boiler: Savings are calculated for upgrading from ‘Exceptions to the
Building Regulations’ as this is the minimum standard in Scotland. Source
Technical Guidance Manual Issue 1 to the EEC 05-08, page 25.
-127-
-128-
B.3 Uptake of recommendations based on survey outcomes
-130-
-131-
Assumptions on which the above estimations are based
1. All assumptions made in Appendix B.2 apply.
2. The common property type for the area is a 3 bedroom detached house with a
gas heating system for which the savings from installations (EEC2 figures) are
estimated.
3. Savings estimated for using low energy light bulbs are based on the use of 2
retail CFLs.
4. Savings estimated for the use of energy efficient appliances are based on the use
of one appliance with annual energy savings that equal the average savings of all
listed A+ appliances.
5. For heating control the use of a room thermostat (installed without a replacement
boiler) is assumed.
6. For estimation of lifetime savings from following behavioural advice it is assumed
that the advice is followed for 5 years.
B.4 Community renewable energy installations – additional assumptions
1. Wind turbines: Generated electricity is assumed to be 100% utilised replacing
electricity from the grid.
2. Wood pellet system: Calculations are based on 90% boiler efficiency alternative
to an electrical heating system; Fuel costs are assumed with 3.50 pence per kWh
delivered energy from wood pellets, source
http://www.nef.org.uk/logpile/pellets/cost.htm; carbon emissions are
0.01091kg/kWh for wood and 0.11727kg/kWh for electricity.
3. GSHP: Calculations based on Midterrace property built before 1945 with 2 double
and 2 single large sized and high ceiled bedrooms, mixed single and double
glazed, electrical space and water heating.
B.5 Household renewable energy installations – assumptions
1. All assumptions made use as far as possible information provided by the EST.
2. Solar water heating systems: Calculation based on an average system using a
flat plate collector, 3m2 area, 30% efficiency, south facing on a 30deg tilted roof;
the existing heating fuel is assumed to be gas.
3. GSHP systems: Calculation based on an average system with a CoP of 4; annual
requirements are assumed with 23,300kWh for space heating and 3000kWh for
DWH, source: Sutherland Tables for Comparable Heating Costs Scotland (May
2006) – Space and Water Heating for Houses; replaced heating system is oil
heating with 70% (35% for DWH) efficiency.
4. Biomass boilers: Calculation based on wood pellet boiler with 90% efficiency;
annual heating requirements are assumed as above, replacement of electrical
heating with 100% (70% for DWH) efficiency, for fuel prices and carbon
emissions see appendix B.4.
5. Wind turbines: 2.5kW and 6kW Proven turbine with rotor diameters of 3.5m and
5.5m; annual average wind speed assumed with 5.5m/s; 100% utilisation of
generated electricity replacing electricity from the grid.
-132-
APPENDIX C – Strathclyde & Central West EEAC
C.1 Installations through local grant schemes
-134-
Assumptions on which the above estimations are based
1. Loft insulation: Professional top-up loft insulation from 50mm to 250mm.
2. Cavity wall insulation: Savings calculated for pre 1976 properties. Assumption
made based on property details provided by the advice centre.
3. Condensing boiler: Savings are calculated for upgrading from ‘Exceptions to the
Building Regulations’. Estimations based on a 2-bedroom semi-detached house.
-135-
C.2 Uptake of recommendations based on Energy Agency customer survey
-136-
-137-
C.3 Community renewable energy installations – additional assumptions
1. Wood pellet system: Calculations are based on 90% efficient boiler replacing
warm air heaters (LPG) of 90% efficiency; Fuel costs are assumed with 2.1 pence
per kWh delivered energy from wood chips, source
http://www.nef.org.uk/logpile/pellets/cost.htm; carbon emissions are
0.01091kg/kWh for wood and 0.11727kg/kWh for electricity.
2. GSHP: Calculations based on CoP of 4 for under floor heating assuming 100%
space heating; Efficiency of alternative gas combi boiler assumed to be 85%.
-138-
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising