Ultrasonic Wind Sensor WS425 User's Guide

Ultrasonic Wind Sensor WS425 User's Guide
USER'S GUIDE
Vaisala WINDCAP® Ultrasonic Wind Sensor
WS425
M210361EN-D
PUBLISHED BY
Vaisala Oyj
P.O. Box 26
FI-00421 Helsinki
Finland
Phone (int.): +358 9 8949 1
Fax:
+358 9 8949 2227
Visit our Internet pages at http://www.vaisala.com/
© Vaisala 2009
No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical (including photocopying), nor may its contents be communicated to a third
party without prior written permission of the copyright holder.
The contents are subject to change without prior notice.
Please observe that this manual does not create any legally binding obligations for
Vaisala towards the customer or end user. All legally binding commitments and
agreements are included exclusively in the applicable supply contract or Conditions of
Sale.
________________________________________________________________________________
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION............................................................................ 7
About This Manual ................................................................... 7
Contents of This Manual ....................................................... 7
Version Information ............................................................... 8
Feedback............................................................................... 8
Safety....................................................................................... 10
General Safety Considerations ........................................... 10
Product Related Safety Precautions ................................... 10
Inverted Mounting .......................................................... 10
Absolute Maximum Voltages ......................................... 10
ESD Protection.................................................................... 11
Regulatory Compliances ....................................................... 12
EN55011 Class A Group 1 & EN50082-2 ........................... 12
MIL-STD-426 Method RS03................................................ 12
MIL-STD 810 Method 501 Process 1.................................. 12
MIL-STD 202 Method 213................................................... 12
MIL-STD-167-1 (SHIPS) ..................................................... 12
Third-Party Testing (Field Tests Included).......................... 13
NWS ASOS Mechanical Wind Sensor Replacement .... 13
Lawrence Livermore Labs.............................................. 13
Tennessee Valley Authority ........................................... 13
CETIAT (Centre Technique des Industries Aéraulique et
Thermiques) ................................................................... 13
Trademarks ............................................................................. 14
License Agreement ................................................................ 14
Warranty.................................................................................. 14
CHAPTER 2
PRODUCT OVERVIEW................................................................................ 15
Introduction to WS425 ........................................................... 15
Measuring Principle............................................................. 15
Sensor Operating Modes .................................................... 16
Sensor Features ..................................................................... 17
Polar Wind Speed and Direction......................................... 18
Wind Speed X and Y Components ..................................... 18
Scalar Averaging of Wind Speed and Direction.................. 18
Vector Averaging of Wind Speed and Direction.................. 19
Wind Direction Coasting...................................................... 19
Gust Wind Speed and Direction Over Time........................ 20
CHAPTER 3
INSTALLATION............................................................................................ 21
Selecting Location ................................................................. 21
Installation Procedure............................................................ 21
Unpacking Instructions........................................................ 21
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Factory Settings...................................................................22
RS-232 Default Settings for USA ...................................22
Default Settings of RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485 for
Europe ............................................................................23
Mounting..............................................................................26
Mounting Procedure on a 1-inch IPS Vertical Pipe........26
Inverted Mounting...........................................................26
Alignment.............................................................................27
Magnetic Declination Correction ....................................27
Compass Alignment with a Mast Adapter ......................28
Connections ............................................................................31
Powering..................................................................................33
Power Supplies....................................................................33
CHAPTER 4
OPERATION.................................................................................................35
Analog Mode ...........................................................................35
Wind Speed .........................................................................35
Wind Direction .....................................................................37
Missing Readings ................................................................37
Serial Mode..............................................................................38
Overview..............................................................................38
Serial Mode Default Settings for the USA ......................38
Serial Mode Default Settings for Europe........................39
Configuration Menu .............................................................39
Configuration Commands....................................................40
Handar RS-232 ..............................................................41
Identify Command I ........................................................41
Measurement Command Wx .........................................41
Missing Readings......................................................42
Measurement Unit Change Command Ux .....................43
NMEA Standard .............................................................43
Missing Readings......................................................44
NMEA Extended Message .............................................44
WAT11 Message............................................................46
Missing Readings......................................................46
Wind Speed Units................................................................47
Average Interval ..................................................................47
Averaging Method ..........................................................47
Scalar Averaging.......................................................47
Vector Averaging.......................................................48
Output Interval .....................................................................48
Sensor ID Character............................................................48
Wind Direction Coast Threshold..........................................49
Head Orientation .................................................................49
Bit Rate................................................................................49
Parity ...................................................................................50
Data Bits ..............................................................................50
Save Configuration ..............................................................50
Zero Speed Calibration .......................................................50
Resume Operation ..............................................................51
SDI-12 Protocol .......................................................................51
SDI-12 Support Group.........................................................51
SDI-12 Electrical Interface...................................................51
Serial Data Line ...................................................................52
Voltage Transitions..............................................................52
4 ___________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
________________________________________________________________________________
Impedance........................................................................... 52
SDI-12 Communications Protocol....................................... 53
Baud Rate and Byte Frame Format .................................... 53
Two Different Submodes..................................................... 54
Standard SDI-12 Commands Supported by WS425 .......... 55
Acknowledge Active Command (a!)............................... 55
Send Identification Command (aI!) ................................ 56
Address Query Command (?!) ....................................... 56
Change Address Command (aAb!)................................ 57
Start Measurement Command (aM!) ............................. 58
Send Data Command (aD0!) ......................................... 58
Continuous Measurements (aR0!) ................................. 60
Start Verification (aV!).................................................... 61
Vaisala-specific SDI-12 Commands Supported by WS425 62
Measurement Unit Change (aXUx!)............................... 62
Heater Control Command (aXHx!)................................. 63
Check Current Submode (aX?!)..................................... 63
Place Sensor in Submode B (aXQx;c.c;n;yyyy!)............ 64
Reset the Sensor to Submode A Command (aXS!) ...... 65
Check Current Measurement Unit (aX*!) ....................... 65
SDI-12 TIMING ................................................................... 66
CHAPTER 5
MAINTENANCE ........................................................................................... 69
Visual Inspection of WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor......... 69
Periodic Testing ..................................................................... 71
CHAPTER 6
TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................. 73
Common Problems ................................................................ 73
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) .................................... 73
Instructions for Opening a Serial Terminal Connection to
WS425................................................................................. 75
Technical Support .................................................................. 76
Return Instructions ................................................................ 76
Vaisala Service Centers......................................................... 77
CHAPTER 7
TECHNICAL DATA ...................................................................................... 79
Specifications ......................................................................... 79
APPENDIX A
DRAWINGS .................................................................................................. 81
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
List of Figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Different Wind Speed and Direction Presentations ..................18
Mounting the Sensor to Adapter...............................................24
WS425 Main Dimensions .........................................................25
Sketch of Magnetic Declination ................................................27
Suunto Compass MC-2 ............................................................28
Correctly Aligned WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor...................29
Adjusting the N-S Heads ..........................................................30
Open-Lead Cables for WS425 Sensors ...................................32
Frequency Connection .............................................................36
Wind Speed ..............................................................................36
Analog Connection ...................................................................37
Timing Diagram ........................................................................67
Solder Spot and Sensor Handling ............................................70
Verifier ......................................................................................72
WS425FIX30 Adapter...............................................................81
WS425FIX60 Adapter...............................................................82
WS425FIX60 Adapter...............................................................83
List of Tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Manual Revisions .......................................................................8
Sensor Ordering Options vs. Supported Data Outputs ..............9
Ordering Codes ..........................................................................9
Maximum Voltages ...................................................................11
Sensor Features .......................................................................17
Wind Direction Coasting ...........................................................20
Gust Wind Speed and Direction Over Averaging Time ............20
WS425 Sensor Pins .................................................................31
The Handar RS-232 Polling Commands ..................................41
The RS-232 19-character Fixed Length Output Message .......42
Checksum Table.......................................................................45
Consecutive Measurements of Wind Direction ........................49
Logic and Voltage Level for Serial Data ...................................52
Byte Frame Format for SDI-12 .................................................53
SDI Timing Chart ......................................................................54
Technical Specifications ...........................................................79
6 ___________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION
This chapter provides general notes for the product.
About This Manual
This manual provides information for installing, operating, and
maintaining the WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensors.
Contents of This Manual
This manual consists of the following chapters:
- Chapter 1, General Information, provides general notes for the
product.
- Chapter 2, Product Overview, describes the features of the WS425
Ultrasonic Wind Sensors.
- Chapter 3, Installation, provides you with information that is intended
to help you install this product.
- Chapter 4, Operation, explains the operation and programming of
WS425.
- Chapter 5, Maintenance, provides you with general maintenance
information.
- Chapter 6, Troubleshooting, provides you information on common
problems.
- Chapter 7, Technical Data, gives the technical data on the product.
- Appendix A, Drawings, includes detailed pictures of the adapters.
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 7
USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Version Information
Table 1
Manual Revisions
Manual Code
U428en-1.1
M210361en-A
M210361en-B
M210361EN-C
M210361EN-D
Description
Applicable to Models WAS425A and WAS425AH
Firmware versions 1.04.
Previous version of the manual.
Corrections to Table 8, Figure 11, and to the
measurement range of the wind speed in the
technical data.
Corrections to Table 3, Figure 8, Table 11, and
Chapter 5, Maintenance, section Visual Inspection of
WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor added.
Updated power requirements. New section on
mounting the sensor upside down.
Feedback
Vaisala Documentation Team welcomes your comments and suggestions
on the quality and usefulness of this publication. If you find errors or
have other suggestions for improvement, please indicate the chapter,
section, and page number. You can send comments to us by e-mail:
manuals@vaisala.com
8 ___________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
Table 2
Sensor Ordering Options vs. Supported Data Outputs
Sensor Ordering Options Sensor Cable
WS425 x 1 ... (Analog/
SDI-12/RS-232USA)
SDI-12 cable
Analog cable
RS-232 cable
WS425 x 2 ... (RS-232/
RS-485/RS-422
RS-232 cable
RS-422/
RS-485 cable
Table 3
Supported Operating
Modes
SDI-12 submode A
SDI-12 submode B
Analog mode
Supported Data Outputs
SDI-12 standard
commands
WS [Hz] 0 ... 65
WS [V] 0 ... 1
WD [V] 0 ... Vref
Serial mode with wind
RS-232
speed unit = miles per
NMEA message
hour
Vaisala WATT 11 message
Vaisala Handar message
RS-232
Serial mode with wind
speed unit = meters per NMEA message
Vaisala WATT 11 message
second
Vaisala Handar message
RS-422
NMEA message
Vaisala WATT 11 message
Vaisala Handar message
RS-485
NMEA message
Vaisala WATT 11 message
Vaisala Handar message
Ordering Codes
Old code
425A
425AH
425S
425SH
WAS425A and WAS425A-C
WAS425AH and WAS425AH-C
WAS425S and WAS425S-C
WAS425SH and WAS425SH-C
425T
425T-1
425L
425SAMS
425AHW-1
425NWS
New code
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
WS425
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
B
B
A
C
E
D
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
4
5
1
6
7
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
4
2
1
1
1
1
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
A
B
A
A
A
A
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 9
USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Safety
General Safety Considerations
Throughout the manual, important safety considerations are highlighted
as follows:
WARNING Warning alerts you to a serious hazard. If you do not read and follow
instructions very carefully at this point, there is a risk of injury or even
death.
CAUTION
Caution warns you of a potential hazard. If you do not read and follow
instructions carefully at this point, the product could be damaged or
important data could be lost.
NOTE
Note highlights important information on using the product.
Product Related Safety Precautions
Inverted Mounting
WARNING Do not install the WS425 upside down in an airport application.
Absolute Maximum Voltages
The absolute maximum voltages that may be applied to WS425 sensor
are listed in Table 4 on page 11. The following limits do not damage the
sensor but they are not operational limits.
10 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
Table 4
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Maximum Voltages
Min. volts
Max. volts
-0.3
-0.3
5.3
5.3
-12.0
-12.0
-0.5
-0.5
-10.0
-10.0
-0.5
-5.0
20.0
20.0
18.0
5.3
12.0
12.0
5.3
42.0
Ordering Options
WS425 x 2 ...
Ground
Ground
Ground
N/C
Jumper
Jumper
Ground
Ground
Digital Output
Digital Input
+12 V Power
Digital Output
N/C
Digital Input
N/C
Heater Power
WS425 x 1 ...
Ground
Ground
Ground
N/C
Jumper
Jumper
Ground
Ground
Digital Output
Digital Input
+12 V Power
Analog Input
Analog Output
Analog Output
Analog Output
Heater Power
ESD Protection
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) can cause immediate or latent damage to
electronic circuits. Vaisala products are adequately protected against
ESD for their intended use. However, it is possible to damage the product
by delivering electrostatic discharges when touching, removing, or
inserting any objects inside the equipment housing.
To make sure you are not delivering high static voltages yourself:
- Handle ESD sensitive components on a properly grounded and
protected ESD workbench. When this is not possible, ground yourself
to the equipment chassis before touching the boards. Ground yourself
with a wrist strap and a resistive connection cord. When neither of the
above is possible, touch a conductive part of the equipment chassis
with your other hand before touching the boards.
- Always hold the boards by the edges and avoid touching the
component contacts.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 11
USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Regulatory Compliances
The Vaisala WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor has been tested to fulfill the
following regulatory compliances. Also mentioned here are some thirdparty tests that involved field testing of the sensor.
EN55011 Class A Group 1 & EN50082-2
-
Radiated emissions
Conducted emission
Electrostatic discharge
Radiated susceptibility
Conducted susceptibility
Electrical task transient burst surge
Magnetic susceptibility
Voltage dips & interrupts
MIL-STD-426 Method RS03
- Electromagnetic compatibility
MIL-STD 810 Method 501 Process 1
- Salt spray test
MIL-STD 202 Method 213
- Mechanical shock
MIL-STD-167-1 (SHIPS)
- Mechanical vibration test
12 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
Third-Party Testing (Field Tests
Included)
NWS ASOS Mechanical Wind Sensor Replacement
Vaisala has participated in a three-year test program conducted by the
U.S. National Weather Service ASOS Program group. The NWS has
conducted a variety of tests including wind tunnel tests from 0 to 120
knots and field tests in various locations.
Lawrence Livermore Labs
Lawrence Livermore Labs tested the sensor independently and Grank
Gouveia and Ron Baskett have published a paper titled Evaluation of a
New Sonic Anemometer for Routing Monitoring and Emergency
Response Applications. A second paper titled Comparison of In-Situ
Data from the Handar Sonic Anemometer and the Met One Cup and
Vane [AMS proceedings of the 10th symposium on Meteorological
Observations and Instrumentation] published by Frank Gouveia and
Thomas Lockhart.
Tennessee Valley Authority
The TVA conducted comparative field tests of mechanical cup and vane
sensors versus the Vaisala WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor. The results
were published in the AMS conference in 2001 by authors Kenneth G.
Wastrack and Doyle E. Pittman et al.
CETIAT (Centre Technique des Industries Aéraulique
et Thermiques)
CETIAT has evaluated the accuracy of the WS425 Ultrasonic Wind
Sensor in a wind tunnel against a laser Doppler anemometer (LDA)
reference sensor.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 13
USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Trademarks
Vaisala WINDCAP® is a registered trademark of Vaisala Oyj.
Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the
United States and/or other countries.
License Agreement
All rights to any software are held by Vaisala or third parties. The
customer is allowed to use the software only to the extent that is provided
by the applicable supply contract or Software License Agreement.
Warranty
For certain products Vaisala normally gives a limited one-year warranty.
Please observe that any such warranty may not be valid in case of
damage due to normal wear and tear, exceptional operating conditions,
negligent handling or installation, or unauthorized modifications. Please
see the applicable supply contract or Conditions of Sale for details of the
warranty for each product.
14 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
CHAPTER 2
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
This chapter describes the features of the WS425 Ultrasonic Wind
Sensors.
Introduction to WS425
Measuring Principle
The WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor has an on-board microcontroller that
captures and processes data and performs serial communications.
The wind sensor has an array of three equally spaced ultrasonic
transducers on a horizontal plane. The sensor measures transit time, the
time that it takes the ultrasound to travel from one transducer to another.
The transit time is measured in both directions.
The transit time depends on the wind velocity along the ultrasonic path.
For zero wind velocity, both the forward and reverse transit times are the
same. With wind along the sound path, the up-wind transit time increases
and the down-wind transit time decreases.
The microprocessor of the microcontroller calculates the wind speed
from the transit times using the following formula:
VW = 0.5 ⋅ L ⋅ (1/t f − 1 / t r )
where:
Vw
=
Wind velocity
L
=
The distance between two transducers
tf
=
The transit time in the forward direction
tr
=
The transit time in the reverse direction.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Measuring the six transmit times allows wind velocity to be calculated
for each of the three ultrasonic paths, which are offset to each other by
120°. The calculated wind speeds are independent of altitude,
temperature, and humidity because they cancel out with the six
measurements even though the velocity of sound affects individual transit
times.
Incorrect readings may occur when a large raindrop or ice pellet hits a
transducer. They are eliminated by a proprietary signal processing
technique. The wind velocity that is most affected by turbulence error is
eliminated so that wind speed and wind direction are calculated from the
best two vectors.
Sensor Operating Modes
There are four modes of operation that give different information:
-
Analog
SDI-12 mode A
SDI-12 mode B
Serial mode RS-232/422/485
Only one of these modes can be operated at a time. The sensor must be
ordered according to the desired mode of operation.
16 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Sensor Features
Some of the sensor features depend on the WS425 operating mode. Table
5 below outlines where the features are available.
Table 5
Sensor Feature
Polar wind speed and
direction
Wind speed x and y
components
Scalar averaging of wind
speed and direction
Vector averaging of wind
speed and direction
Wind direction coasting
Wind direction reversible
for upside down mounting
Enable/disable heater
command
Selectable wind speed unit
Gust wind speed and
direction over averaging
time
Low-current standby
(sensor sleep)
Current with 1 Hz
measurement
Data acquisition by polling
Continuous data
transmission
Sensor Features
Operating Mode
Serial
Analog
Yes
Yes
SDI-12
submode A
Yes
SDI-12
submode B
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
1 s ... 9 s
No
No
3 s ... 1 h
1 s ... 9 s
No
No
3 s ... 1 h
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Calculate from
instant data
No
Calculate from
instant data
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
18 mA@
12 VDC
Yes
1 ... 9 s interval
12 mA@
12 VDC
No
Yes
0.2 mA@
12 VDC
7.7 mA@
12 VDC
Yes
No
7.7 mA@
12 VDC
12 mA@
12 VDC
Yes
No
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Polar Wind Speed and Direction
The wind speed (WS) is represented as a scalar speed in selected units
(m/s, kt, mph, km/h). The wind direction (WD) is expressed in degrees
(°).
0212-044
Figure 1
Different Wind Speed and Direction Presentations
Wind Speed X and Y Components
The wind speed (x, y) is represented as two scalar speeds, one parallel to
the N-S direction (x) and the other (y) parallel to the W-E direction The
speed unit may be m/s, kt, mph, or km/h.
x = WS × cos (WD)
y = WS × sin (WD)
Scalar Averaging of Wind Speed and
Direction
The scalar average of wind speed and wind direction is available in both
SDI-12 submode B and serial modes. The time between each consecutive
wind speed and wind direction measurement is one second. Each wind
18 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
speed measurement taken over the preceding averaging interval is
summed and the sum is then divided by the number of measurements.
The sensor computes the true running average. If the Data Acquisition
System requests data before the initial averaging interval completes, the
sensor returns the best possible running average.
In SDI-12 submode B, the average is determined over the averaging
interval specified, which ranges from three seconds to one hour.
In RS-232 mode, the average is determined over the averaging interval
specified, which ranges from one to nine seconds.
Wind direction is a circular function with a discontinuity at north, where
360 degrees is equal to zero degrees. For example:
359° + 5° = + 4°
0° - 5° = 355°
The microprocessor translates the circular function to a linear function so
that 359° + 5° is translated to 364°. Also, 0° - 5° translated to 355°. This
way the wind direction average stays representative of the true situation
even if individual samples occur in both sides of the zero direction.
Vector Averaging of Wind Speed and
Direction
The vector average is available in SDI-12 submode B and serial mode.
Each x velocity and y velocity measurement over the averaging interval
is added and then divided by the number of measurements. The resultant
average x velocity and average y velocity are converted to polar direction
and magnitude, returning as the average direction in degrees and speed in
the chosen units. The average is determined over the specified averaging
interval (0 ... 9 s for serial mode,
3 s ... 1 h for SDI-12 submode B). The sensor computes a true running
average. If the DAS requests data before the initial averaging interval
completes, the sensor returns the best possible running average. The
averaging calculation uses the direction coast speed.
Wind Direction Coasting
At very low wind speeds, the measured wind direction is meaningless.
Therefore, you can specify a direction coast speed. When the measured
wind speed drops below the direction coast speed, the calculations use
the last wind direction that occurred while the wind speed was at or
above the direction coast speed to the average wind direction. You can
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 19
USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
specify a direction coast speed between 0.0 and 9.9 units of
measurement. Use 0.0 if coasting is not required.
For example, making the direction coast speed = 2.0. The consecutive
measurements are presented in Table 6 below.
Table 6
Wind Direction Coasting
Measured Wind Speed Measured Wind
Direction
3.5
350
2.5
340
2.2
340
1.9
175
1.2
045
2.1
345
Wind Direction Used
for Averaging
350
340
340
340 (coasting)
340 (coasting)
345
Gust Wind Speed and Direction Over
Time
The gust wind speed and direction are available in SDI-12 submode B. It
is the highest wind speed and direction recorded during the averaging
interval. The gust averaging count can be specified, which is the number
of measurements (one measurement each second) average to produce the
gust values for speed and direction. It has a range of one to nine counts.
As a gust averaging count is specified as one, the reported wind gust is
the highest instantaneous reading. An example of a gust averaging count
of five will follow. In this example of 14 measurements shown in Table 7
below, measurement 13 has the highest instantaneous wind gust reading.
Table 7
Measurement
Wind speed
Highest sum of 5
Gust averaging
sum of last 5
Gust wind speed
(sum of highest
5) divided by 5
Sum of all wind
speed
Average wind
speed
Gust Wind Speed and Direction Over Averaging Time
1
8
-
2
7
-
3
6
-
4
3
-
5
5
29
[29]
6
3
29
[24]
7
4
29
[21]
8
9
29
[24]
9
8
29
[29]
10
7
31
[31]
11
6
34
[34]
12
10
40
[40]
13
12
43
[43]
14
11
46
[46]
-
-
-
-
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
6.2
6.8
8.0
8.6
9.2
8
15
21
24
29
32
36
45
53
60
66
76
88
99
8
7.5
7.0
6.0
5.8
5.3
5.1
5.6
5.9
6.0
6.0
6.3
6.8
7.1
20 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 3 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
CHAPTER 3
INSTALLATION
This chapter provides you with information that is intended to help you
install this product.
Selecting Location
WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor should be installed in a location that is
free from turbulence caused by nearby objects, such as trees or buildings.
Ideally, the sensor should be higher than any other object within the
horizontal radius of 300 m.
WARNING
To protect personnel (and the wind sensor), a lightning rod must be
installed with the tip at least one meter above the wind sensor. The
rod must be properly grounded, compliant with all local applicable
safety regulations.
Installation Procedure
Unpacking Instructions
The ultrasonic wind sensor comes in a custom shipping container. The
sensor must be removed from the container carefully. It is important to
save the container and all the foam packing for future transporting or
shipping.
The sensor comes with a Hex-socket bolt and a grooved bolt to be used
in mounting.
CAUTION
Never move the WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor until it is in its custom
shipping container. Otherwise, the warranty will become void.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
CAUTION
A transducer is located at the top of each of the three arms. Be careful
not to damage any of the transducers. Dropping the sensor can break or
damage the transducer or the arms will bend and they cannot be realigned. Damage can also be caused if the transducers are twisted (the
transducers are not screwed into the arms).
Factory Settings
There are two different factory settings available for WS425 if a serial
RS-232 protocol is used. For RS-485 and RS-422 protocols, only a single
factory configuration is available.
The factory settings are for firmware version v6.12 unless indicated
otherwise.
RS-232 Default Settings for USA
Operation Mode:
Wind Speed Units:
Average Interval (seconds):
Averaging Method:
Output Interval (seconds, 0 for polled):
Sensor ID Character:
Wind Direction Coast Threshold (speed units):
Head Orientation:
Baud Rate:
Parity:
Data Bits:
Save Configuration
Do Zero Speed Calibration
Resume Operation
NOTE
Handar RS-232
Miles/Hour
1
Scalar
0
A
0.0
Up
2400b
None
8
These default settings are delivered with product ordering options x1xxx
(for example, WS425 A1A2A, where the number 1 refers to the default
settings).
22 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 3 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Default Settings of RS-232, RS-422, and
RS-485 for Europe
Operation Mode:
Wind Speed Units:
Average Interval (seconds):
Averaging Method:
Output Interval (seconds, 0 for polled):
Sensor ID Character:
Wind Direction Coast Threshold (speed units):
Head Orientation:
Baud Rate:
Parity:
Data Bits:
NMEA Extended
Meters/Second
3
Scalar
1
A
0.0*
Up
9600b
None
8
* 0.2 in sensors that are delivered to airport applications
NOTE
These default settings are delivered with product ordering options x2xxx
(for example, WS425 A2A1A, where the number 2 refers to the default
settings.)
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
0311-011
Figure 2
Mounting the Sensor to Adapter
The following numbers refer to Figure 2 above.
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=
7=
Sensor body
Cable connector
Spacer ring
3/16 inch Hex-socket bolt or standard screw
Sensor adapter
Fastening clamp
Vertical tube
The dimensions of the adapter are illustrated in Figure 3 on page 25.
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Chapter 3 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
0212-045
Figure 3
WS425 Main Dimensions
The dimensions are in millimeters.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Mounting
Mounting Procedure on a 1-inch IPS Vertical Pipe
Use the following procedure to mount the sensor normally to a vertical 1inch International Pipe Standards (IPS) pipe. WS425FIX30 is suitable for
the 1-inch IPS vertical pipe and WS425FIX60 is suitable for a 60-mm
vertical pipe (Europe). See Figure 2 on page 24 for details.
To mount the sensor, do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Remove the hex-socket bolt or standard screw shown in Figure 2
on page 24 (use 3/16-inch Allen key or a crosshead screwdriver).
Connect the cable to the sensor, routing it through the adapter.
Attach the adapter to the sensor body and tighten the bolt.
Run the cable out of the adapter slot between the sensor and the
clamp. Optionally, you can run the cable inside the vertical pipe.
Place the sensor on the pipe and slightly tighten the clamp’s bolt.
Align wind direction as explained in section Alignment on page 27.
Inverted Mounting
To provide additional protection agains the accumulation of snow and
interference from birds, the WS425 can be installed so that the transducer
arms face down. Note the following:
- The WS425 must be in the serial operation mode. See section Serial
Mode on page 38.
- Configure the Head Orientation parameter accordingly. See section
Head Orientation on page 49.
- Protect the connector from rain and snow.
WARNING Do not install the WS425 upside down in an airport application.
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Chapter 3 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Alignment
Magnetic Declination Correction
One transducer arm is permanently marked with an N for north and
another with an S for south.
NOTE
Aligning might be easier if you mark the sensor body, for example, with
paint or colored tape, to indicate north and south so that it can be seen
from the ground.
Wind direction can be referenced to either the true north, which uses the
earth’s geographic meridians, or to the magnetic north, which is read
with a magnetic compass. The magnetic declination is the difference in
degrees between the true north and magnetic north. See Figure 4 below.
0003-011
Figure 4
NOTE
Sketch of Magnetic Declination
The source for the magnetic declination must be current as the
declination changes over time.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 27
USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
0212-048
Figure 5
Suunto Compass MC-2
Compass Alignment with a Mast Adapter
The following steps aim the wind sensor when using the
1-inch adapter for mounting.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Use the compass to determine that the N-S transducer heads of the
ultrasonic wind sensor are exactly in line with the compass. Adjust
the heads by moving them to the left or right. For the correct
ground position of the installer, see Figure 7 on page 30.
If the alignment is not correct, lower the tower.
Loosen the clamp at the bottom of the sensor’s adapter and rotate
the sensor so that the heads marked with the N and with the S are
exactly aligned to north and south when the tower is set up. Tighten
the clamp.
Raise the tower to the vertical position. Figure 6 on page 29 shows
the correct alignment.
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Chapter 3 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
0208-025
Figure 6
Correctly Aligned WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 29
USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
0208-024
Figure 7
Adjusting the N-S Heads
The following letters refer to Figure 7 above.
A = The installer is too far to the left.
B = The installer is in line with the sensor.
C = The sensor's appearance is shown when the installer is in the
correct position. The sensor, however, is not correctly aligned.
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Chapter 3 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Connections
WS425 has a 16-pin circular plastic connector (male) at the bottom of the
sensor. A cable connector of type AMP206037-1 can be used to attach
wires to the sensor pins.
CAUTION
When WS425 is installed upside down, always make sure the connector
is protected from rain and snow.
Table 8 below illustrates usage of the pins with different protocols.
Table 8
WS425 Sensor Pins
Sensor
Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
NOTE
Protocol
RS-232
GND
GND
GND
RS-422
GND
GND
GND
-
RS-485
GND
GND
GND
-
GND
Data out (T-)
Data in (R-)
+12 VDC
Data out (T+)
Data in (R+)
+36 VDC
GND
RTRT+12 VDC
RT+
RT+
+36 VDC
-
GND
Data out (TxD)
Data in (RxD)
+12 VDC
+36 VDC
Analog
GND
GND
GND
-
SDI-12
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
SDI data
+12 VDC
+12 VDC
WD Vref in WD Vout
WS Fout
WS Vout
+36 VDC
+36 VDC
The short-circuits between pins 5, 6, and 7 are required for selecting the
protocol.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
0212-041
Figure 8
Open-Lead Cables for WS425 Sensors
For 10-meter cables that are available from Vaisala, see section
Technical Data on page 79. Choose the cable according to the desired
communication protocol.
32 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 3 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Powering
Power Supplies
You can use any 12 VDC power supply with the unheated Ultrasonic
Wind Sensor, as long as it meets all applicable safety regulations.
Typically, the power supply is a fused 12 V battery with either a solar
panel charger or a trickle charger.
The power supply must be capable of delivering 155 mA current spikes.
The current draw of the Ultrasonic Wind Sensor alternates between
14 mA when idle, and short peaks of 155 mA during measurement
(typical). The average current consumption is 29 mA RMS.
NOTE
Some DC power supplies are based on a chopper circuit that operates at
a 100 kHz frequency. Avoid using such power supplies with WS425
since the measurement can be distorted by the ripple in the DC output.
The heated ultrasonic wind sensors require +12 VDC for the sensor and
+36 VDC for the heater. The heating current is up to 0.7 A.
CAUTION
The heated Ultrasonic Wind Sensor is intended for operation when pin
16 is connected to a +36 VDC source. If you are operating WS425 when
pin 16 is not connected to +36 VDC, you must ground pin 16. Never
float pin 16 on WS425 because the sensor will not report accurate
readings.
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Chapter 4 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
CHAPTER 4
OPERATION
This chapter explains the operation and programming of WS425.
Analog Mode
The WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor can be used as a conventional wind
set that gives instantaneous readings. The sensor is normally powered
down. When power is first turned on, it takes about two seconds for the
sensor to initialize and stabilize. Then the sensor takes a 0.35-second
measurement and synthesizes the analog outputs of wind speed and wind
direction. The cycle is repeated every second until power is turned off.
Wind Speed
The factory sets the wind speed unit of the analog mode to miles per
hour. This is the only option available for the analog mode.
The wind speed output at pin 14 is 0 to 12 V pulsed output with a
frequency proportional to wind speed. Every mile per hour adds 5 Hz to
the frequency. In SI units, a change of 0.894 m/s adds 10 Hz to the
frequency. A frequency counter is required to count the output in Hz and
the calculation that scales the result to appropriate units.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
0212-039
Figure 9
Frequency Connection
The wind speed output at pin 15 is a voltage that varies linearly from 0
VDC at 0 mph to 1 VDC at 125 mph. In SI units, the voltage varies
linearly from 0 VDC at 0 m/s to
1 VDC at 55.88 m/s.
0212-038
Figure 10
Wind Speed
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Chapter 4 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
NOTE
The wind speed voltage output cannot be used simultaneously with the
frequency output. If the voltage output pin 15 is used, the frequency
output pin 14 must be connected to ground, see Figure 10 on page 36.
Wind Direction
The DC reference voltage that inputs the sensor at pin 12, produces a
voltage that represents the wind position. The reference voltage must be
in the range of 1.0 to 4.0 VDC. The output at pin 13 is 0 VDC at zero
degrees and increases to the maximum input voltage at 359 degrees.
0212-040
Figure 11
Analog Connection
Missing Readings
For analog outputs, the wind speed is set to 125 mph when a reading is
missing.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Serial Mode
Overview
You can use any computer or data logger that has a serial port to collect
the sensor data by using the serial commands. The communication speed,
parity, and number of data bits for the serial line can be selected by the
user. The sensor can be set to transmit data messages at predefined
intervals (autosending) or it responds to a polling string, which is specific
to a selected output message format. Various operational parameters can
be set through a terminal connection.
NOTE
Since the serial line settings may not be known for a device, the settings
are held as constant for the first five seconds after powering up the
sensor. During this time, the sensor responds to commands issued with
settings such as 9600 bit/s, 8 data bits, parity None, 1 stop bit.
Serial Mode Default Settings for the USA
Vaisala WS425 Ultrasonic Anemometer, Firmware Version v6.04.
Operation Mode:
Wind Speed Units:
Average Interval (seconds):
Averaging Method:
Output Interval (seconds, 0 for polled):
Sensor ID Character:
Wind Direction Coast Threshold (speed units):
Head Orientation:
Baud Rate:
Parity:
Data Bits:
Save Configuration
Do Zero Speed Calibration
Resume Operation
NOTE
Handar RS-232
Miles/Hour
1
Scalar
0
A
0.0
Up
2400b
None
8
These default settings for the USA are used for product ordering options
x1xxx (for example, WS425 A1A2A, where number 1 refers to the
default settings.)
38 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 4 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Serial Mode Default Settings for Europe
Operation Mode:
Wind Speed Units:
Average Interval (seconds):
Averaging Method:
Output Interval (seconds, 0 for polled):
Sensor ID Character:
Wind Direction Coast Threshold (speed units):
Head Orientation:
Baud Rate:
Parity:
Data Bits:
NOTE
NMEA Extended
Meters/Second
3
Scalar
1
A
0.0
Up
9600b
None
8
These default settings for Europe are used for product ordering options
x2xxx (for example, WS425 A2A1A, where the number 2 refers to the
default settings).
Configuration Menu
The configuration menu can be opened by typing
Open or Open <id>
where
<id> is the identification character of the sensor.
If the sensor has been running for more than five seconds, use the
currently active baud rate and other communication settings. There is a
short timeout in typing in the characters. Therefore, type the OPEN
command followed by ENTER relatively fast.
The OPEN command displays the following menu (on the next page):
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 39
USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Vaisala WS425 Ultrasonic Anemometer
Firmware Version v6.00
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Operation Mode: WAT11
Wind Speed Units: Meters/Second
Average Interval (seconds): 3
Averaging Method: Vector
Output Interval (seconds, 0 for polled): 0
Sensor ID Character: A
Wind Direction Coast Threshold (speed
units): 1.0
Head Orientation: Up
Baud Rate: 9600b
Parity: None
Data Bits: 8
Save Configuration
Do Zero Speed Calibration
Resume Operation
Enter Function Number:
Each configuration parameter is displayed together with the currently
active setting. The configuration parameters can be changed by selecting
the number of the parameter followed by ENTER.
NOTE
After modifying the parameters, type 12 for storing the new
parameter values and 14 to exit the configuration menu and to return
to the measurement mode.
Configuration Commands
The first parameter selects the message format and polling commands for
the sensor. The available options are:
a.
Handar RS-232
b.
NMEA Standard
c.
NMEA Extended
d.
WAT11
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Chapter 4 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Handar RS-232
When the sensor uses the Handar RS-232 message, it responds to polling
commands used for requesting data from the sensor. Table 9 below
summarizes these commands.
Table 9
Command
I
Wx
Ux
The Handar RS-232 Polling Commands
Name
Identify
Measurement
Measurement unit change
Page
41
41
43
Identify Command I
The identify command is I.
The following is an example of the command:
I
VAISALA WS425A/AH 600
Vaisala WS425A/AH is the vendor and model number, 600 is version
6.00 of models WS425A/AH.
Measurement Command Wx
The measurement command is Wx where x is the time for averaging
wind speed and wind direction. x has a range of 1 to 9.
The following is an example of the command:
W5
☻W5P1200013.2TDE♥
The interpretation of the output message is described in Table 10 on
page 42.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Table 10
Character
position
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
NOTE
The RS-232 19-character Fixed Length Output
Message
Message
“☻” 02H (<STX>, start of transmission)
“W”
“5” for 5-second running average
“P” for “pass”
“F” for “fail”
Wind direction (most significant digit)
Wind direction (middle digit)
Wind direction (least significant digit)
Wind speed (most significant digit)
Wind speed (next digit)
Wind speed (next digit)
Wind speed (least significant digit)
“.” (dot character)
Wind speed (tenth digit)
“M” for miles per hour; “K” for knots
“L” for kilometers per hour; “T” for meters per second
Check sum (most significant digit) (See note)
Check sum (least significant digit)
“♥” 03H (<ETX>, end of transmission)
[CR] (carriage return)
[LF] (line feed)
The checksum is calculated from 13 characters from position 2 through
14. The accumulator initializes at 0 with the addition of the byte value.
The checksum has a range of 0H … FFH.
Missing Readings
If data is missing due to a measurement problem, Handar RS-232
message reports 999.9 for wind speed.
NOTE
The sensor has a 20 ms timeout in receiving characters. Therefore,
polling strings should be transmitted by a programmable device, not as a
user command via terminal sessions.
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Chapter 4 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Measurement Unit Change Command Ux
The measurement unit change command is Ux.
where
x
x
x
x
=
=
=
=
0, for miles per hour, [mph]
1, for knots (default), [knot]
2, for kilometers per hour, [km/h]
3, for meters per second, [m/s]
The following is an example: U3
It sets meters per second for wind speed.
NMEA Standard
The standard variable length, comma-separated, MWV wind message is
defined by NMEA 0183 V2.20 as follows:
$WIMWV,<dir>,<ref>,<spd>,<uni>,<sta>*<chk><cr><lf>
where
NOTE
$WIMWV
<dir>
<ref>
<spd>
<uni>
=
=
=
=
=
<sta>
*
<chk>
=
=
=
<cr>
<lf>
=
=
Fixed text
Wind angle, 0 to 359 degrees
Reference; R=Relative, T=True
Wind speed
Wind speed units; K = kmph [km/h],
M = mps [m/s], N = kt
Status; A = Data Valid, V = Invalid Data
Fixed text
Checksum
(8-bit XOR, excluding $ and *)
Carriage return code, ASCII 0DH
Line feed code, ASCII 0AH
When the NMEA Standard message format is selected, the sensor
must have a non-zero output interval setting (parameter 5 in the
configuration menu) since no polling command is defined for this
message type.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
Missing Readings
If data is missing due to a measurement problem, the NMEA messages
will only show the commas (,) between the data fields. Thus, NMEA is a
variable-length data message.
NMEA Extended Message
Vaisala extension to the standard MWV wind message is defined as
follows:
$P<id>MWV,<dir>,<ref>,<spd>,<uni>,<sta>*<chk><cr><lf>
where
NOTE
$P
<id>
MWV
<dir>
<ref>
<spd>
<uni>
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
<sta>
*
<chk>
<cr>
<lf>
=
=
=
=
=
Fixed text
Is the data ID; A … Z
Fixed text
Wind angle, 0 to 359 degrees
Reference; R = Relative, T = True
Wind speed
Wind speed units; K = kmph [km/h],
M = mps [m/s], N = kt
Status; A = Data Valid, V = Invalid Data
Fixed text
Checksum (8-bit XOR, excluding $ and *)
Carriage return code, ASCII 0DH
Line feed code, ASCII 0AH
The sensor has a 20 ms timeout in receiving characters. Thus, polling
strings should be transmitted by a programmable device, not as a user
command via terminal sessions.
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Chapter 4 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
In NMEA Extended Message, the polling can be done using the
following command:
$WIP<id>Q,*<chk><cr><lf>
where
$WIP
=
Fixed text
<id>
=
Is the data ID; A … Z
Q
=
Fixed text
*
=
Fixed text
<chk>
=
Checksum (8-bit XOR, excluding $ and *)
<cr>
=
Carriage return code, ASCII 0DH
<lf>
=
Line feed code, ASCII 0AH
Table 11
Checksum Table
ID Character
<id>
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
NOTE
Checksum <chk> Polling String
72
71
70
77
76
75
74
7B
7A
79
78
7F
7E
7D
7C
$WIPAQ,*72<cr><lf>
$WIPBQ,*71<cr><lf>
$WIPCQ,*70<cr><lf>
$WIPDQ,*77<cr><lf>
$WIPEQ,*76<cr><lf>
$WIPFQ,*75<cr><lf>
$WIPGQ,*74<cr><lf>
$WIPHQ,*7B<cr><lf>
$WIPIQ,*7A<cr><lf>
$WIPJQ,*79<cr><lf>
$WIPKQ,*78<cr><lf>
$WIPLQ,*7F<cr><lf>
$WIPMQ,*7E<cr><lf>
$WIPNQ,*7D<cr><lf>
$WIPOQ,*7C<cr><lf>
When using the sensor in the NMEA Extended mode, you can either
set the output interval to zero (parameter 5 in the configuration menu)
to enable polling or use some fixed output interval.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
WAT11 Message
The fixed length format of the WAT11 message is defined as follows:
<stx><id><spd><dir>
where
<stx>
=
Start of text character (1 digit)
<id>
=
Sensor identification character, for example, A
(one digit).
<spd>
=
Wind speed (in m/s) multiplied by 10, for example,
045 is 4.5 m/s (three digits).
<dir>
=
Wind direction with two octal numbers for 6-bit
binary data, for example, 458 = 3710 corresponds to
37/64*360 = 208 degrees
The WAT11 polling command is defined as follows:
<esc><id>
where
<esc>
=
Escape character ASCII 27H
<id>
=
Sensor ID, for example, A.
Missing Readings
The WAT11 message reports missing data as slashes (/////).
NOTE
The sensor has a 20 ms timeout in receiving characters. Therefore,
polling strings should be transmitted by a programmable device, not as a
user command via terminal sessions.
46 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Chapter 4 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Wind Speed Units
There are four wind speed units available:
NOTE
a.
Miles/hours
b.
Knots
c.
Kilometers/hours
d.
Meters/seconds
When the operation mode is WAT11 (selected from the configuration
parameter 1), the only option for the wind speed unit is meters/second as
the WAT11 message does not contain wind speed unit information.
Average Interval
The averaging interval can be selected as full seconds between 1 and 9
seconds. For the WS425 sensor, the time between each consecutive wind
direction measurement is one second. Each wind direction measurement
taken over the preceding averaging interval is summed and the sum is
divided by the number of measurements.
The same averaging interval is used for both the average wind speed and
average wind direction.
The sensor computes a true running average. If the data acquisition
system requests data before the initial averaging interval completes, the
sensor returns the best possible running average.
Averaging Method
These settings affect the calculation of wind speed and direction. The
available options are as follows:
a.
Scalar averaging
b.
Vector averaging
Scalar Averaging
When the scalar averaging is selected, the wind direction is a circular
function with a discontinuity at due north, where 360° is equal to 0°. For
example, 359° + 5° = + 4° and
0° - 5° = 355°.
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
The microprocessor translates this circular function to a linear function,
that is, 359° + 5° is translated to 364° and
0° - 5° translates to - 5°.
To calculate the scalar average wind direction, each translated wind
direction measurement taken over the preceding averaging interval is
summed and the sum is divided by the number of measurements.
Vector Averaging
Each x velocity and y velocity measurement over the averaging interval
is added and then divided by the number of measurements. The resulting
average x velocity and average y velocity are converted to polar direction
and magnitude, returning as average direction in degrees and speed in the
chosen units.
Output Interval
The output interval can be selected in full seconds between 1 and 9
seconds. These settings are independent of the averaging interval
(configuration parameter 3, see section Average Interval on page 47).
Regardless of the length of the output interval, the last measurement
sample before transmission is always the last sample of the averaging
window. Therefore, the transmitted data is always based on the latest
measurements.
If the output interval is set to zero (0), polling is used in data acquisition.
NOTE
When using the NMEA Standard as the operating mode (configuration
parameter 1), there must be a non-zero setting for output interval since
polling is not supported in the NMEA Standard mode.
Sensor ID Character
The sensor ID character must be a single capital letter from A to Z.
Numbers or small letters are not accepted. After an ID is defined for a
sensor, the configuration menu can be opened by typing open <id>.
This is useful if several sensors are sharing the same communication line.
When running the NMEA Extended or WAT11 mode, the sensor ID is
part of the polling string.
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Chapter 4 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Wind Direction Coast Threshold
At very low wind speeds, the measured wind direction is meaningless.
Therefore, you can specify a direction coast speed. When the measured
wind speed drops below the direction coast speed, the calculations use
the last wind direction that occurred while the wind speed WS at or
above the direction coast speed to average wind direction. You can
specify a direction coast speed between 0.0 and 9.9 units of
measurement. Use 0.0 if coasting is not required.
For example, the direction coast speed = 2.0. Consecutive measurements
are as presented in Table 12 below.
Table 12
Consecutive Measurements of Wind Direction
Measured Wind
Speed
3.5
2.5
2.2
1.9
1.2
2.1
NOTE
Measured Wind
Direction
350
340
340
175
045
345
Wind Direction Used for
Averaging
350
340
340
340 (coasting)
340 (coasting)
345
The wind direction coast threshold can be set to a non-zero value only
when the averaging method (configuration parameter 4) is set to scalar.
Head Orientation
The sensor can be installed either transducers up or transducers down.
The wind direction calculation requires that the installation position is
configured correctly to the sensor. The installation of the sensor upside
down should be constructed in a way that prevents water from entering
the sensor connector.
Bit Rate
The following options are available:
-
1200b
2400b
4800b
9600b
19200b
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
The new bit rate setting is activated as soon as the configuration changes
are saved (selection 12) and operation is resumed (selection 14).
For the first 5 seconds after powering up the sensor, the serial line
parameters are 9600b, 8, N, 1.
NOTE
Parity
The following options are available:
- None
- Odd
- Even
Data Bits
The available options are 7 or 8 data bits.
Save Configuration
After adjusting one of the configuration parameters, apply this function
to save the new settings.
Zero Speed Calibration
The zero speed calibration is done to all sensors in the factory before
delivery. There is no reason to perform this tuning periodically. Instead,
use the margin verifier for periodic testing as described in section
Periodic Testing on page 71. Do the zero speed calibration only after
possible firmware update or if the periodic test indicates too high wind
speeds.
To perform the zero speed calibration, do the following:
1.
2.
3.
CAUTION
Remove the bird spikes and install the verifier as described in
Figure 14 on page 72.
Select zero speed calibration from the configuration menu and wait
until the sensor resumes to normal operation.
Check that the sensor passes the periodic test.
Do not perform the zero speed calibration unless the margin verifier is
mounted on the sensor. Use this function only if you suspect that the
sensor characteristics have changed.
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Resume Operation
After opening the configuration menu, return to the current mode of
operation by selecting "Resume Operation". This selection terminates the
configuration dialog.
NOTE
Changes to the configuration will not be saved automatically. Use the
SAVE CONFIGURATION command to save the changes.
SDI-12 Protocol
SDI-12 is a standard for interfacing data recorders with microprocessorbased sensors. The name stands for serial/digital interface at 1200 baud.
SDI-12 is intended for applications with the following requirements:
-
Battery-powered operation with minimal current drain.
Low system cost.
Use of a single data recorder with multiple sensors on one cable.
Up to 200 feet (60 meters) of cable between a sensor and a data
recorder.
SDI-12 Support Group
The SDI-12 Support Group is an association of companies that produce
and use SDI-12 products with the purpose of reviewing requests to
enhance, clarify, or modify the
SDI-12 architecture and that votes on proposed changes to SDI-12. More
information of the group, as well as the complete SDI-12 standard text is
available from the SDI-12 web-site in the following address: www.sdi12.org/.
SDI-12 Electrical Interface
The SDI-12 electrical interface uses the SDI-12 bus to transmit serial
data between SDI-12 data recorders and sensors. The SDI-12 bus is the
cable that connects multiple SDI-12 devices. This is a cable with three
conductors:
- A serial data line
- A ground line
- A 12-volt line
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NOTE
With Vaisala SDI-12 cable, code WS425CAB SDI the lead colors are as
follows: data - whi/yel; ground - Blk; and 12-volts - Brn.
The SDI-12 bus is can have at least 10 sensors connected to it. The bus
topology is a parallel connection, where each of the 3 wires of different
sensors are connected in parallel.
Serial Data Line
The data line is a bi-directional, three-state, data transfer line. Table 13
below shows the logic and voltage levels for the transmission of serial
data for the SDI-12 standard. The data line uses negative logic.
Table 13
Logic and Voltage Level for Serial Data
Condition
Marking
Spacing
Transition
Binary State
1
0
Undefined
Voltage Range
-0.5 to 1.0 volts
3.5 to 5.5 volts
1.0 to 3.5 volts
Voltage Transitions
During normal operation, the data line voltage slew rate must not be
greater than 1.5 volts per microsecond.
Impedance
When an SDI-12 device has its transmitter on, its direct current (DC)
source resistance must be greater than 1000 ohms and less than 2000
ohms. When the transmitter of any SDI-12 device is off, or in a lowpower standby mode, the DC resistance to ground must be within 160 K
to 360 K ohms. If an SDI-12 sensor does not use the 12-volt line for
power, its data line resistance to ground while powered down must be
within 160 K to 360 K ohms.
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SDI-12 Communications Protocol
SDI-12 data recorders and sensors communicate by an exchange of
ASCII characters on the data line. The data recorder sends a break to
wake up the sensors on the data line. A break is continuous spacing on
the data line for at least 12 milliseconds. The data recorder then sends a
command. The sensor, in turn, returns the appropriate response. Each
command is for a specific sensor. The first character of each command is
a unique sensor address that specifies with which sensor the recorder
wants to communicate. Other sensors on the SDI-12 bus ignore the
command and return to low-power standby mode. When a data recorder
tells a sensor to start its measurement procedure, the recorder does not
communicate with any other sensor until the data collection from the first
sensor is complete.
A typical recorder/sensor measurement sequence proceeds in the
following order:
1.
The data recorder wakes all sensors on the SDI-12 bus with a
break.
2.
The recorder transmits a command to a specific, addressed sensor,
instructing it to make a measurement.
3.
The addressed sensor responds within 15.0 milliseconds returning
the maximum time until the measurement data will be ready and
the number of data values it will return.
4.
If the measurement is immediately available, the recorder transmits
a command to the sensor instructing it to return the
measurement(s). If the measurement is not ready, the data recorder
waits for the sensor to send a request to the recorder, which
indicates that the data is ready. The recorder then transmits a
command to get the data.
5.
The sensor responds, returning one or more measurements.
Baud Rate and Byte Frame Format
The baud rate for SDI-12 is 1200 b. Table 14 below shows the byte frame
format for SDI-12.
Table 14
Byte Frame Format for SDI-12
1 start bit
7 data bits, least significant bit transmitted first
1 parity bit, even parity
1 stop bit
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Two Different Submodes
Vaisala WS425 is designed to work in two different operational modes
when running the SDI-12 protocol. These modes will be called "submode
A" and "submode B". This arrangement makes it possible to do the
following:
- Keep the sensor in a sleep mode when measurement is not active, thus
enabling a very low-power operation of the sensor (submode A).
- Initiate periods where continuous measurement is made. Long
averages (up to 1 hour) of wind speed and direction, as well as gust
data is available during this period (submode B).
As a default, the sensor runs in submode A. Specific commands can be
issued in order to:
- Set the sensor into submode B and initiate continuous measurement.
- Collect averaged data in submode B.
- Force the sensor back to submode A.
If a sensor is not forced back to the low-power submode A by the data
logger, the sensor will eventually do this independently after two hours
have elapsed. The timing diagram is illustrated in Table 15 below.
Table 15
Data Logger
Command
Time [s]
SDI Timing Chart
Sensor Response
Comment
(Sensor in submode A.)
aXQx;c.c;yyyy!
0
a<cr><lf>
Place sensor into submode B.
yyyy is the averaging time.
(Sensor in submode B.)
aR0!
h
aXS!
a<WS><WD><GS><GD><c Continuous measurements (if
r><lf>
time is shorter than yyyy, only
partial data is available).
(Sensor in submode B.)
a<cr><lf>
Force the sensor back to
submode A.
(Sensor in submode A.)
3600
If aXS! was not given, the timer
resets the sensor to submode
A.
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Standard SDI-12 Commands Supported
by WS425
Acknowledge Active Command (a!)
This command is used to ensure that a sensor is responding to a data
recorder or another SDI-12 device. It asks a sensor to acknowledge its
presence on the SDI-12 bus.
The command is the following:
a!
where
a
!
=
=
The sensor address.
Terminates the command.
The response is the following:
a<CR><LF>
where
a
=
<CR><LF>
=
The sensor address. The default values is zero
(0).
Terminates the response.
The following is an example of the command:
0!
The following is an example of the response:
0<CR><LF>
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Send Identification Command (aI!)
This command is used to query sensors for their SDI-12 compatibility
level, model number, and firmware version number.
The following is an example of the command:
aI!
where
a
I
!
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The send identification command
Terminates the command.
The following is an example of the response:
allccccccccmmmmmmvvvxxx . . . xxx<CR><LF>
where
a
ll
=
=
cccccccc
mmmmmm
=
=
vvv
=
For example,
xxx ... xx
=
<CR><LF>
=
The sensor address.
The SDI-12 version number, indicating
SDI-12 version compatibility; for example,
version 1.1 is encoded as 11.
An 8-character vendor identification Vaisala_
6 characters specifying the sensor model number
WS425.
3 characters specifying the firmware version
604.
An optional field, up to 13 characters, used for a
serial number or other specific sensor
information that is not relevant for operation of
the data recorder (not used).
Terminates the response.
Address Query Command (?!)
When a question mark (?) is used as the address character with the
acknowledge active command (a!), the sensor will respond as if it is
being addressed on the SDI-12 bus. For example, if a sensor detects ?!, it
will respond with a<CR><LF>, no matter what its address may be. This
will allow a user to determine the address of a sensor. The user should
understand that if more than one sensor is connected to the bus, they will
all respond, causing a bus contention.
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The command is the following:
?!
where
?
!
=
=
Wildcard.
Terminates the command.
The response is the following:
a<CR><LF>
where
a
<CR><LF>
=
=
The sensor address.
Terminates the response.
Change Address Command (aAb!)
This command changes the address of a sensor. After this command has
been issued and responded to, the sensor is not required to respond to
another command for one second. This gives the sensor time to write the
new address to non-volatile memory.
The command is the following:
aAb!
where
a
A
b
!
=
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The change address command.
The address to change to.
Terminates the command.
The response is the following:
b<CR><LF>
where
b
=
<CR><LF>
=
The address of the sensor (will equal the new
address or the original address if the sensor is
unable to change the address).
Terminates the response.
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Start Measurement Command (aM!)
With this command, the sensor will make a measurement. The sensor
will not return the measurement to the data recorder after this command.
It shows the time after which the measurement result can be retrieved
using the D0! command and it also shows the number of parameters. The
following is an example:
>0M!
00015
The SEND DATA (D0!) command must be issued to get the
measurements.
The command is the following:
aM!
where
a
M
!
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The start measurement.
Terminates the command.
The response is the following:
atttn<CR><LF>
where
a
ttt
=
=
n
=
<CR><LF>
=
The sensor address.
The specified time, in seconds, until the sensor will
have the measurement ready (001).
The number of measurement values the sensor will
make and return in one or more subsequent D
commands (5).
Terminates the response.
Send Data Command (aD0!)
This command is used to get instant data from the sensor. D0! must be
preceded with an M! command or an V! command. The sensor responds
by sending measurement data (after M!) or verification data (after V!).
In a SDI-12 system compliant with the standard, if the expected number
of measurements is not returned in response to a D0! command, a data
recorder issues D1!, D2!, and so on until all measurement values are
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received. The expected number of measurements is the one that WS
received by the data recorder in response to an M! or V! command.
Multiple data requests are not needed with WS425, since all return values
fit easily into one response string.
The command is the following:
aD0!
where
a
D0
!
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The send data command.
Terminates the command.
When the previous command WS aM! is given, the response is the
following:
a<WS><WD><x><y><s><CR><LF>
where
a
<WS>
=
=
<WD>
<x>
=
=
<y>
=
<s>
<CR><LF>
=
=
The sensor address.
Polar wind speed in selected units, format:
+(ss)s.s
Polar wind direction in degrees, format +(dd)d
x component of wind speed in selected units,
format: ±(ss)s.s
y component of wind speed in selected units,
format: ±(ss)s.s
Static speed of sound in mph, format: ±(ss)s.s
Terminates the response.
The above are measurement data fields.
If data is missing due to a measurement problem (for example, blocked
paths between transducers), the measurement data is replaced with 999
as follows:
>7D0!
7+999.9+9999+999.9+999.9+999.9
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USER'S GUIDE____________________________________________________________________
When the previous command WS aV! is given, the response is the
following:
a<watchdog><WS_unit><SDI-mode><spare><CR><LF>
where
a
<watchdog>
=
=
<WS_unit>
=
<SDI-mode>
=
<spare>
<CR><LF>
=
=
The sensor address.
The number of times the watchdog has
triggered. Ideally should be zero. Format: +(c)c
Wind speed unit. The options are:
+0 = mph
+1 = kt
+2 = km/h
+3 = m/s
Current submode setting. The options are:
+0 = SDI-12 submode A
+1 = SDI-12 submode B
1 digit for factory use, format: +c
Terminates the response.
The above are verification data fields.
Continuous Measurements (aR0!)
A sensor that is able to continuously monitor the phenomena to be
measured, does not require a start measurement command (M!). The data
can be read directly with the R0! command.
WS425 uses this command when the sensor is set to work in SDI-12
submode B. The command retrieves averaged wind data and gust wind
data. The averaging time window is selectable between 3 and 3600
seconds.
The command is the following:
aR0!
where
a
R0
!
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The send continuous measurements command.
Terminates the command.
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The response is the following:
a<WS_ave><WD_ave><GS><GD><CR><LF>
where
a
<WS_ave>
=
=
<WD_ave>
=
<GS>
=
<GD>
=
<CR><LF>
=
1)
The sensor address.
Average wind speed over the past yyyy1 seconds
in currently active units. Format: +(ss)s.s
Average wind direction over the past yyy1
seconds in degrees. Format +(dd)d
Gust wind speed; the highest n1 measurement
running average during the past yyyy1 seconds,
in currently active units. Format: +(ss)s.s
Gust direction; n1 second average over the same
time period as the gust speed. Format: +(dd)d.
Terminates the response.
The parameters yyyy and n are issued to the sensor as a part of the
"Place sensor in submode B (aXQx;c.c;n;yyyy!)" command. This
command must be given to the sensor before aR0!. See the command
description for aXQ...! for full description of the parameters.
Start Verification (aV!)
This command tells the sensor to return a verification in response to a
following D0! command. The WS425 verification data includes a
watchdog count, sensor measurement unit settings and the current SDI
mode setting.
The command is the following:
aV!
where
a
V
!
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The start verification command.
Terminates the command.
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The response is the following:
attn<CR><LF>
where
a
tt
=
=
n
=
<CR><LF>
=
The sensor address.
The time in seconds the sensor needs until it
has the verification data ready (01)
The number of verification data fields that
will be returned (4).
Terminates the response.
Vaisala-specific SDI-12 Commands
Supported by WS425
Measurement Unit Change (aXUx!)
This command sets the desired measurement unit for wind speed. The
command is available in submode A only.
The command is the following:
aXUx!
where
a
XU
x
=
=
=
!
=
The sensor address.
The change measurement unit command.
Desired wind speed unit. The options are:
0 = mph (default value)
1 = kt
2 = km/h
3 = m/s
Terminates the command.
The response is the following:
a+x<CR><LF>
where
a
x
<CR><LF>
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The new wind speed setting.
Terminates the response.
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Heater Control Command (aXHx!)
This command switches the sensor heating into active or disabled state.
In the active state, heating is still thermostatically controlled. The
command works only for heated sensor models.
The command is the following:
aXHx!
where
a
XH
x
=
=
=
!
=
The sensor address.
The heater control command.
The options are:
0 = disable the heater
1 = enable the heater
Terminates the command.
The response is the following:
a<CR><LF>
where
a
x
<CR><LF>
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The new wind speed setting.
Terminates the response.
Check Current Submode (aX?!)
The command is the following:
aX?!
where
a
X?
!
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The check current submode command.
Terminates the command.
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The response is the following:
a+x<CR><LF>
where
a
x
=
=
<CR><LF>
=
The sensor address.
The currently active submode. The options
are:
0 = submode A
1 = submode B
Terminates the response.
Place Sensor in Submode B (aXQx;c.c;n;yyyy!)
This command sets the sensor into submode B which enables calculation
of averaged wind data and gust wind speed and direction.
The command is the following:
aXQx;c.c;n;yyyy!
where
a
XQ
x
=
=
=
c.c
=
n
=
yyyy
!
=
=
The sensor address.
The place sensor in submode B command.
The desired wind averaging method. The
options are:
0 = use scalar averaging
1 = use vector averaging
The wind direction coasting threshold in
the current wind speed units. The coasting
can only be used with scalar averaging.
The number of samples that form the gust
wind speed and direction value (1 Hz
sampling). The valid range is 1 to 9.
The length of averaging window [s]
Terminates the command.
The response is the following:
a<CR><LF>
where
a
<CR><LF>
=
=
The sensor address.
Terminates the response.
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Reset the Sensor to Submode A Command (aXS!)
When the sensor is set to submode B in order to compute averaged wind
data, the sensor will stay in mode B until a
2-hour time period has elapsed. This computation period can be aborted
earlier by issuing the command (XS!).
The command is the following:
aXS!
where
a
XS
!
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The reset sensor to submode A command.
Terminates the command.
The response is the following:
a<CR><LF>
where
a
<CR><LF>
=
=
The sensor address.
Terminates the response.
Check Current Measurement Unit (aX*!)
The command is the following:
aX*!
where
a
X*
!
=
=
=
The sensor address.
The check current measurement unit command.
Terminates the command.
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The response is the following:
a+x<CR><LF>
where
a
x
=
=
<CR><LF>
=
The sensor address.
Currently active wind speed unit. The options
are:
0 = mph
1 = kt
2 = km/h
3 = m/s
Terminates the response.
SDI-12 TIMING
The Figure 12 on page 67 shows a timing diagram for an SDI-12
command and its response. The tolerance for all SDI-12 timing is ±0.40
milliseconds. The only exception to this is the time between the stop bit
of one character and the start bit of the next character. The maximum
time for this is 1.66 milliseconds, with no tolerance.
- A data recorder transmits a break by setting the data line to spacing
for at least 12 milliseconds.
- The sensor will not recognize a break condition for a continuous
spacing time of less than 6.5 milliseconds. The sensor will always
recognize a break when the line is continuously spacing for more than
12 milliseconds.
- When receiving a break, a sensor must detect 8.33 milliseconds of
marking on the data line before it looks for an address.
- A sensor must wake up from a low-power standby mode and be
capable of detecting a start bit from a valid command within 100
milliseconds after detecting a break.
- After a data recorder transmits the last character of a command, it
must relinquish control of the data line within 7.5 milliseconds
following the end of the stop bit. (Tolerance: +0.40 milliseconds.)
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DATA
break
(at least 12
milliseconds)
SDI-12
Data Line
SENSOR
command
response
marking
(at least 8.33
milliseconds)
marking
(at least 8.33
milliseconds)
sensor must respond
within 15
Figure 12
maximum time
380 ms most commands
780ms D0,R0 commands
Timing Diagram
- After receiving the break and the command, the addressed sensor sets
the data line to marking at 8.33 milliseconds and then send the
response. (Tolerance: -0.40 milliseconds.) The start bit of the first
response byte must start within 15 milliseconds after the stop bit of the
last byte of the command. (Tolerance: +0.40 milliseconds.)
- After a sensor transmits the last character of a response, it must
relinquish control of the data line within 7.5 milliseconds. (Tolerance:
+0.40 milliseconds.)
- No more than 1.66 milliseconds of marking are allowed between the
end of the stop bit and the start bit (e.g., between characters) on any
characters in the command or the response. (No tolerance.) This
permits a response to an M command to be sent within a
380-millisecond window.
- Sensors must return to a low-power standby mode after receiving an
invalid address or after detecting a marking state on the data line for
100 milliseconds. (Tolerance: +0.40 milliseconds.)
- When a recorder addresses a different sensor, or if the data line has
been in the marking state for more than 87 milliseconds, the next
command must be preceded by a break.
NOTE
In addition to being a power consumption state, the low power standby
mode is a protocol state and a break is required to leave that state.
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Chapter 5 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
CHAPTER 5
MAINTENANCE
This chapter provides you with general maintenance information.
Visual Inspection of WS425 Ultrasonic Wind
Sensor
WS425 Ultrasonic Wind Sensor is a very reliable and rugged sensor. It
has been wind tunnel tested to over 175 knots for mechanical integrity.
However, the transducers are constructed of ceramic material and can be
damaged by dropping or hitting the transducers. Likewise, applying
enough force to bend the transducer arms will render the anemometer
inoperative.
The wind sensor should be kept in its protective foam shipping container
until the time for the installation on the wind mast or tower. The verifier
should be placed over the sensor when the sensor is installed on the
tower. This provides protection to the transducers and validates that the
mechanical spacing of the transducers is within specifications.
Some cautions and inspection criteria are listed below:
1.
2.
Do not rotate the transducers. Rotating the transducers will destroy
the array of the ultrasonic wind sensor. A soldering spot can be
seen on each ceramic transducer. The soldering spots on the
ceramic transducer must be oriented outside the array. For the
correct alignment, see Figure 13 on page 70. Do not rotate the
transducer if the soldering spot is not in the correct location.
Replace the wind sensor.
Do not pull the transducers. Pulling the transducers will destroy the
array of the ultrasonic wind sensor. The black RTV sealant can be
seen between the bottom of each transducer and the transducer
mounting arm. The RTV sealant must be free of damage and it
must provide a good seal between the transducer and the transducer
mounting arm. If this seal is damaged, water may enter the wind
sensor.
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3.
4.
5.
Do not strike or bend the transducers. Striking or bending the
transducers will destroy the array of the ultrasonic wind sensor. All
the transducers should be parallel to each other. For the correct
alignment, see Figure 13 below.
The verifier should slide over the transducers without excessive
force. This validates that the mechanical spacing of the transducers
is within specifications.
Do not scrape or touch the transducers with sharp objects. Cutting
the silicon rubber sleeve on the transducer affects the acoustical
matching layer of the transducer and destroys the array of the
ultrasonic wind sensor. The silicon rubber transducer sleeve must
not be damaged.
0506-020
Figure 13
Solder Spot and Sensor Handling
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Periodic Testing
Section Measuring Principle on page 15 explains that the sensor
measures how long it takes for an ultrasonic signal to travel from
transmitter to receiver. Therefore, the accuracy of the sensor depends on
the accuracy of two factors:
- The distance between the ultrasonic transmitter and receiver. This
requires a measurement of the transducer arm trueness.
- The time-of-flight measurement circuit, which uses a crystal oscillator
for its time reference.
NOTE
The crystal oscillator is used by the communications circuit for the bit
rate generator. If you use the serial communication modes and the
oscillator loses accuracy, the sensor stops communicating. Thus, the
sensor cannot send erroneous values produced by faulty timing.
Perform periodic testing to detect slow deterioration of the sensor before
it significantly affects accuracy. Perform the test either in the field or in a
laboratory. The periodic test uses the verifier, which is a small echo-free
chamber . The verifier is shown in Figure 14 on page 72.
The test consists of the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
NOTE
Slip the verifier over the three transducers (see Figure 14 on page
72).
In outdoor conditions, secure the zero wind flow by covering the
sensor and verifier.
The sensor must read less than 0.5 miles per hour
(0.22 m/s) with the verifier in place.
Some random data samples may be lost during the zero verifier test.
This, however, does not indicate that the sensor is faulty.
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0003-016
Figure 14
Verifier
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Chapter 6 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
CHAPTER 6
TROUBLESHOOTING
This chapter provides you information on common problems.
Common Problems
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Q = Question
A= Answer
Q:
I am looking for mounting options/products for the WS425 Ultrasonic
Wind Sensor. Preferably, a tripod mount. If none is available, are there
CAD files so we can design a tripod to fit this sensor?
A:
A drawing of an optional sensor adapter is included in Chapter 3 section
Installation Procedure on page 21. This adapter fits onto an 1" IPS
standard pipe. Following the dimensions of the adapter, you may prefer
to design your own sensor mounting. See also a dimensional drawing of
the sensor in Appendix A on page 81. Please make sure that no obstacles
are near the sensor, especially at the level of the ultrasonic transducers.
Q:
We intend to install a WS425 to a radio link tower. Is the sensor sensitive
to RF frequencies generated by GSM link antennas ?
A:
A radio link tower is an extremely demanding RF environment for any
measurement device. The WS425 sensor has undergone electromagnetic
compatibility tests in two different laboratories and is compliant with
requirements of MIL-STD-461B and EN 61000-4-3. The tested
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frequency range spanned from 10 kHz to 10 GHz. The tested sensors
were only disturbed by frequencies occurring at the band from 95kHz to
107kHz, which is the range that the sensor uses for the ultrasonic
measurement. Radio communication devices do not operate at this band.
Despite the heavy testing, the GSM link equipment may cause
interference to an ultrasonic sensor due to extremely high
electromagnetic field levels around the transmission antenna. In this type
of installation, a small displacement of the sensor may completely
remove an interference problem that occurs at a certain point of the mast.
Trial and error is really the only way of finding out whether RF
disturbance will be an issue.
Q:
I have tried out my WS425. When I turn the power on the sensor is not
sending any data. I used an RS-232 checker but the Tx line is not active
(no data is coming to my PC).
A:
By default, the sensor is set to a command-response mode (polling
mode). This means that the sensor is waiting for a data request command
from the data logger. If you want the sensor to automatically send data
through the serial line, you need to open a maintenance connection to
your WS425 sensor and configure parameter number 5, Output Interval,
to have a non-zero value. In order to open a maintenance connection, see
the attached procedure on the next page.
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Chapter 6 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Instructions for Opening a Serial
Terminal Connection to WS425
1.
Connect an RS-232 cable between your terminal computer, power
supply and your sensor. If you are using a Vaisala
RS-232 cable with code ZZ45203, the cable colors are the
following:
Connections to power supply:
Black (WS425 pin 1)
Brown (WS425 pin 11)
-
Ground
+12 VDC
Connections to terminal PC:
Red (WS425 pin 9)
2.
3.
4.
5.
-
RxD (PC 9-pin serial
port, pin n:o 2)
Blu (WS425 pin 10)
TxD (PC 9-pin serial
port, pin n:o 3)
Yellow (WS425 pin 8)
GND (PC 9-pin serial
port, pin n:o 5)
Open the Windows HyperTerminal program. From HyperTerminal,
select File - Properties and click Configure. Set communication
parameters 9600,8,N,1 and Flow Control as None.
From HyperTerminal, select View - Font. Set Font as Terminal.
Select Call - Disconnect. Then select Call - Connect.
Switch the sensor power supply on and off. Make sure that the
sensor is completely powered down before reconnecting the power
supply (Many power supplies store energy and need time to be
discharged completely). During the first 5 seconds after the sensor
starts up, the serial line settings will remain as 9600, 8, N, 1. After
this, the programmed communication parameters will become
effective.
You have 5 seconds time to type: open<Enter>
6.
Make sure that the sensor is already on when you type the first
letter. If you do not succeed, try several times and check your
connections.
After a successful OPEN command, the sensor should display a
configuration menu. You can now adjust the settings.
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Technical Support
For technical questions, contact the Vaisala technical support:
E-mail
Phone (int.)
Fax
helpdesk@vaisala.com
+358 9 8949 2789
+358 9 8949 2790
Return Instructions
If the product needs repair, please follow the instructions below to speed
up the process and avoid extra costs.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Read the warranty information.
Write a Problem Report with the name and contact information of a
technically competent person who can provide further information
on the problem.
On the Problem Report, please explain:
- What failed (what worked / did not work)?
- Where did it fail (location and environment)?
- When did it fail (date, immediately / after a while /
periodically / randomly)?
- How many failed (only one defect / other same or similar
defects / several failures in one unit)?
- What was connected to the product and to which connectors?
- Input power source type, voltage and list of other items
(lighting, heaters, motors etc.) that were connected to the
same power output.
- What was done when the failure was noticed?
Include a detailed return address with your preferred shipping
method on the Problem Report.
Pack the sensor into the original shipping container. The sensor
warranty will be void if another packing method is used.
Send the box to the nearest Vaisala Service depot, see Vaisala
Service Centers on page 77.
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Chapter 6 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Vaisala Service Centers
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Chapter 7 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
CHAPTER 7
TECHNICAL DATA
This chapter gives the technical data on the product.
Specifications
Table 16
Technical Specifications
Wind Speed
Measurement range
serial output
analog output
Starting threshold
Delay distance
Resolution
Accuracy (range 0 ... 65 m/s)
Wind Direction
Measurement range
Starting threshold
Delay distance
Resolution
Accuracy (wind speed over 1 m/s)
Outputs
Digital outputs
type
bit rate
available averages
SDI12- Standard Data Interface
type
bit rate
available averages
Analog outputs
wind speed
frequency
voltage
output impedance
wind direction
simulated potentiometer
reference voltage
output impedance
0 ... 65 m/s (0 ... 144 mph, 0 ... 125 knots)
0 ... 56 m/s (0 ... 124 mph, 0 ... 107 knots)
virtually zero
virtually zero
0.1 m/s (0.1 mph, 0.1 knots, 0.1 km/h)
±0.135 m/s (0.3 mph, 0.26 knots) or 3 % of reading,
whichever is greater
0 ... 360°
virtually zero
virtually zero
1°
±2°
RS-232, RS422 or RS485, four different message
formats
adjustable from 1200 to 19200 bit/s
RS-232: 1 to 9 seconds
3 wires for ground, signal and supply
fixed 1200 bit/s
1 to 3600 seconds
5 Hz/mph
8.0 mV/mph
10 kohm
0 ...Vref represents 0 ... 359°
1.0 ... 4.0 V
24 kohm
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Wind Speed
Response Characteristics
Maximum reading rate
Sonic measurement time
Signal processing time
Response time
General
Operating power supply
Heating power supply (for heated model)
Operating temperature
WS425 non-heated
WS425 heated
Material
body
sensor arms
transducer heads
Dimensions
1 per second
0.2 s
0.15 s
0.35 s
10 ...15 VDC, 29 mA RMS
36 VDC ±10 %, 0.7 A
-40 ... +55 °C (-40 ... +131 °F)
-55 ... +55 °C (-67 ... +131 °F)
stainless steel
stainless steel
silicone rubber and PVC
Height
Width
355 mm
250 mm
14"
10"
Depth
286 mm
12"
Weight
WS425 stainless steel
1.7 kg (3.7 lbs)
Complies with EMC standard EN61326-1:1997 + Am1: 1998; Generic Environment
Accessories
Cable supporting analog outputs, 10 m
ZZ45204
Cable supporting RS-232 outputs, 10 m
ZZ452203
Cable supporting RS-485/422 outputs, 10 m
010411
Cable supporting SDI-12 outputs, 10 m
WS425CABSDI
Adapter for 30 - 35 mm
WS425FIX30
(11/4") diameter vertical tube
Adapter for 60 mm
WS425FIX60
(21/4") diameter vertical tube
Field verifier
WS425VERIFIER
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Appendix A ________________________________________________________________Drawings
APPENDIX A
DRAWINGS
0212-043
Figure 15
WS425FIX30 Adapter
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0301-012
Figure 16
WS425FIX60 Adapter
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Appendix A ________________________________________________________________Drawings
0301-013
Figure 17
WS425FIX60 Adapter
The following numbers refer to Figure 17 above.
1=
2=
3=
4=
Adapter tube
Fastening clamp
Fastening bolt
Allen key
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84 __________________________________________________________________ M210361EN-D
Appendix A ________________________________________________________________Drawings
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 85
www.vaisala.com
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