Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug Hemphillia glandulosa Warty Jumping-slug

Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug Hemphillia glandulosa Warty Jumping-slug
Species at Risk Act
Management Plan Series
Adopted under Section 69 of SARA
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug
(Hemphillia glandulosa) in Canada
Warty Jumping-slug
2015
Recommended citation:
Environment Canada. 2015. Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug (Hemophillia
glandulosa) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Management Plan Series. Environment
Canada, Ottawa. 5 pp. + annex.
For copies of the management plan, or for additional information on species at risk,
including the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC)
Status Reports, residence descriptions, action plans, and other related recovery
documents, please visit the Species at Risk (SAR) Public Registry 1.
Cover illustration: © Kristiina Ovaska
Également disponible en français sous le titre
« Plan de gestion de la limace-sauteuse glanduleuse (Hemophillia glandulosa) au
Canada »
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of the
Environment, 2015. All rights reserved.
ISBN 978-0-660-03467-6
Catalogue no. En3-5/67-2015E-PDF
Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate
credit to the source.
1
http://sararegistry.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=24F7211B-1
MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE WARTY JUMPING-SLUG
(Hemphillia glandulosa) IN CANADA
2015
Under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk (1996), the federal,
provincial, and territorial governments agreed to work together on legislation,
programs, and policies to protect wildlife species at risk throughout Canada.
In the spirit of cooperation of the Accord, the Government of British Columbia has
given permission to the Government of Canada to adopt the Management Plan
for the Warty Jumping-slug (Hemphillia glandulosa) in British Columbia (Part 2)
under section 69 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Environment Canada has
included an addition (Part 1) which completes the SARA requirements for this
management plan.
The federal management plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in Canada consists of
two parts:
Part 1 - Federal Addition to the Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug
(Hemphillia glandulosa) in British Columbia, prepared by Environment Canada.
Part 2 - Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug (Hemphillia glandulosa) in
British Columbia, prepared by the Warty Jumping-slug Management Team for
the British Columbia Ministry of Environment.
Table of Contents
Part 1 - Federal Addition to the Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug
(Hemphillia glandulosa) in British Columbia, prepared by Environment Canada. ........... 1
Preface ........................................................................................................................... 2
ADDITIONS AND MODIFICATIONS TO THE ADOPTED DOCUMENT ........................ 3
1. COSEWIC Species Assessment Information........................................................... 3
2. Species Status Information ...................................................................................... 4
3. Effects on the Environment and Other Species ....................................................... 4
4. References .............................................................................................................. 5
Part 2 – Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug (Hemphillia glandulosa) in
British Columbia, prepared by the Warty Jumping-slug Management Team for
the British Columbia Ministry of Environment.
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in Canada
PART 1: Federal Addition
2015
Part 1 - Federal Addition to the Management Plan for the
Warty Jumping-slug (Hemphillia glandulosa) in British
Columbia, prepared by Environment Canada.
1
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in Canada
PART 1: Federal Addition
2015
Preface
The federal, provincial, and territorial government signatories under the Accord for the
Protection of Species at Risk (1996) 2 agreed to establish complementary legislation and
programs that provide for effective protection of species at risk throughout Canada.
Under the Species at Risk Act (S.C. 2002, c.29) (SARA), the federal competent
ministers are responsible for the preparation of management plans for listed species of
special concern and are required to report on progress five years after the publication of
the final document on the SAR Public Registry.
The Minister of the Environment and the Minister responsible for the Parks Canada
Agency are the competent ministers under SARA for the Warty Jumping-slug and have
prepared this management plan as per section 65 of SARA. To the extent possible it
has been prepared in cooperation with British Columbia Ministry of Environment. SARA
section 69 allows the Minister to adopt all or part of an existing plan for the species if it
meets the requirements under SARA for the content. The B.C. Ministry of Environment
led the development of the attached management plan for the Warty Jumping-slug
(Part 2) in cooperation with Environment Canada and the Parks Canada Agency.
Success in the conservation of this species depends on the commitment and
cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the
directions set out in this plan and will not be achieved by Environment Canada, the
Parks Canada Agency, or any other jurisdiction alone. All Canadians are invited to join
in supporting and implementing this plan for the benefit of the Warty Jumping-slug and
Canadian society as a whole.
Implementation of this management plan is subject to appropriations, priorities, and
budgetary constraints of the participating jurisdictions and organizations.
2
http://registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=6B319869-1%20
2
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in Canada
PART 1: Federal Addition
2015
ADDITIONS AND MODIFICATIONS TO THE ADOPTED
DOCUMENT
The following sections have been included to address specific requirements of SARA
that are not addressed in the “Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug (Hemphillia
glandulosa) in British Columbia” (Part 2, henceforth refered to as the provincial
management plan) and/or to provide updated or additional information.
Under SARA, there are specific requirements and processes set out regarding the
protection of species and their habitats. Therefore, statements in the provincial
management plan referring to protection of species and their habitats may not directly
correspond to federal requirements, and are not being adopted by Environment Canada
or the Parks Canada Agency as part of the federal management plan.
1.
COSEWIC* Species Assessment Information
This section replaces the “COSEWIC Species Assessment Information” (section 1)
provided in the provincial management plan.
Warty Jumping-slug was re-assessed by COSEWIC in 2013:
Date of Assessment: May 2013
Common Name (population): Warty Jumping-slug
Scientific Name: Hemphillia glandulosa
COSEWIC Status: Special Concern
Reason for Designation:
This small slug has a restricted range and patchy distribution on Vancouver Island,
where it exists at the northern extremity of its range. Habitat loss and fragmentation,
mainly from forestry activities, disturb the shady, moist forest floor conditions and
coarse woody debris required by the slugs and may be restricting dispersal movements.
Residential and recreational developments are emerging as a new threat on the
southwest coast of the island. The low numbers of scattered populations render it
vulnerable to both natural and human disturbances.
Canadian Occurrence: British Columbia
COSEWIC Status History: Designated Special Concern in May 2003. Status
re-examined and confirmed in May 2013.
*
COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada)
3
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in Canada
PART 1: Federal Addition
2.
2015
Species Status Information
This section replaces the “Species Status Information” (section 2) provided in the
provincial management plan.
Legal Designation: SARA Schedule 1 (Special Concern) (2005)
Table 1. Conservation Status of Warty Jumping-slug (from NatureServe 2014, BC Conservation
Data Center 2014, and BC Conservation Framework 2012).
Global (G)
Rank*
G3G4
National (N)
Rank(s)
Canada
(N2N3)
United States
(N3N4)
Sub-national (S)
Rank(s)
Canada: BC (S2S3)
United States:
Oregon (S3),
Washington (S3)
COSEWIC
Status
Special
Concern
(2013)
BC List
Blue
BC Conservation
Framework**
Highest priority:
Priority 2 under
Goals 1,3
* Rank 1– critically imperiled; 2– imperiled; 3– vulnerable to extirpation or extinction; 4– apparently secure; 5– secure; H– possibly
extirpated; SNR – status not ranked
** The three goals of the B.C. Conservation Framework are: 1. Contribute to global efforts for species and ecosystem conservation;
2. Prevent species and ecosystems from becoming at risk; 3. Maintain the diversity of native species and ecosystems
It is estimated that approximately 10 – 15% of the global range of this species is in
Canada (K. Ovaska, Biolinx Environmental Research Ltd, pers. comm., 2013).
3.
Effects on the Environment and Other Species
A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery
planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental
Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals3. The purpose of a SEA is to
incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans,
and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to
evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any
component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable
Development Strategy’s 4 (FSDS) goals and targets.
Conservation planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general.
However, it is recognized that implementation of management plans may inadvertently
lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process
based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental
effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats.
The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the management plan itself, but are
also summarized below in this statement.
The provincial management plan for Warty Jumping-slug contains a section describing
the effects of recovery activities on other species (i.e., Section 8). Environment Canada
3
4
www.ceaa.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=B3186435-1
www.ec.gc.ca/dd-sd/default.asp?lang=En&n=F93CD795-1
4
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in Canada
PART 1: Federal Addition
2015
and the Parks Canada Agency adopt this section of the provincial management plan as
the statement on effects of recovery activities on the environment and other species.
The distribution of Warty Jumping-slug overlaps with that of several other
federally-listed species at risk on south-eastern Vancouver Island. Negative impacts to
other species at risk are not anticipated. Recovery planning activities for the Warty
Jumping-slug will be implemented with consideration of all co-occurring species at risk,
such that there are no negative impacts to these species or their habitats.
Some conservation measures for Warty Jumping-slug (e.g., inventory and monitoring,
threat mitigation, habitat conservation, education, and research) may promote the
conservation of other species at risk that overlap in distribution and rely on similar
habitat attributes (i.e., moist forest habitats and riparian areas). The following species at
risk are known to, or might, co-occur with the Warty Jumping-slug and are expected to
benefit from proposed conservation measures:
•
Dromedary Jumping-slug (Hemphillia dromedarius) (COSEWIC Threatened
2014): shows some overlap in habitat use with the Warty Jumping-slug; known to
co-occur at one site.
•
Blue-grey Taildropper (Prophysaon coeruleum) (COSEWIC Endangered 2006):
known to co-occur with the Warty Jumping-slug at one site.
•
Threaded Vertigo (Nearctula sp. 1) (COSEWIC Special Concern 2010): known to
co-occur with the Warty Jumping-slug at one site.
• Phantom Orchid (Cephalanthera austiniae) (COSEWIC Threatened 2000)
• Coastal Wood Fern (Dryopteris arguta) (COSEWIC Special Concern 2001)
• Streambank Lupine (Lupinus rivularis) (COSEWIC Endangered 2002)
4.
References
B.C. Conservation Data Centre. 2014. BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer. B.C.
Ministry of Environment Victoria, B.C. Available: http://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/eswp/
(accessed July 10, 2014).
B.C. Conservation Framework. 2012. Conservation Framework Summary. B.C. Ministry
of Environment. Victoria, B.C. Available:
http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/conservationframework/ (accessed July 10, 2014).
COSEWIC. 2013. COSEWIC status appraisal summary on the Warty Jumping-slug
Hemphillia glandulosa in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in
Canada. Ottawa. 20 pp. (www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/default_e.cfm)
Natureserve. 2014. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web
application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. U.S.A. Available
http://explorer.natureserve.org. (accessed July 10, 2014).
5
Part 2 – Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug
(Hemphillia glandulosa) in British Columbia, prepared by the
Warty Jumping-slug Management Team for the British Columbia
Ministry of Environment.
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug
(Hemphillia glandulosa) in British Columbia
Prepared by the Warty Jumping-slug Management Team
March 2012
About the British Columbia Management Plan Series
This series presents the management plans that are prepared as advice to the Province of
British Columbia. Management plans are prepared in accordance with the priorities and
management actions assigned under the British Columbia Conservation Framework. The
Province prepares management plans for species that may be at risk of becoming endangered or
threatened due to sensitivity to human activities or natural events, or species where management
is required to meet population targets for ecosystem management, human uses, or ecological
services.
What is a management plan?
A management plan identifies a set of coordinated conservation activities and land use measures
needed to ensure, at a minimum, that the target species does not become threatened or
endangered or is being managed for use, ecosystem goals, or ecological services. A management
plan summarizes the best available science-based information on biology and threats to inform
the development of a management framework. Management plans set goals and objectives, and
recommend approaches appropriate for species or ecosystem conservation.
What’s next?
Direction set in the management plan provides valuable information on threats and direction on
conservation measures that may be used by individuals, communities, land users,
conservationists, academics, and governments interested in species and ecosystem conservation.
For more information
To learn more about species at risk recovery planning in British Columbia, please visit the
Ministry of Environment Recovery Planning webpage at:
<http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/recoveryplans/rcvry1.htm>
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug
(Hemphillia glandulosa) in British Columbia
Prepared by the Warty Jumping-slug Management Team
March 2012
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
Recommended citation
Warty Jumping-slug Management Team. 2012. Management plan for the Warty Jumping-slug
(Hemphillia glandulosa) in British Columbia. Prepared for the B.C. Ministry of Environment,
Victoria, BC. 28 pp.
Cover illustration/photograph
Kristiina Ovaska, Biolinx Environmental Research Ltd., Sidney, BC
Additional copies
Additional copies can be downloaded from the B.C. Ministry of Environment Recovery Planning
webpage at:
<http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/recoveryplans/rcvry1.htm>
Publication information
Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication
Warty Jumping-Slug Management Team (Canada)
Management plan for the warty jumping-slug (Hemphillia glandulosa) in
British Columbia [electronic resource] / prepared by the Warty Jumping-Slug
Management Team.
(British Columbia management plan series)
Electronic monograph in PDF format.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-0-7726-6582-9
1. Slugs (Mollusks)--Conservation--British Columbia. 2. Slugs (Mollusks)
--Habitat--Conservation--British Columbia. 3. Gastropoda--British Columbia.
I. British Columbia. Ministry of Environment II. Title. III. Series: British Columbia management
plan series
QL430.5 A7 W37 2012
333.95'548381609711
C2012-980119-4
i
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
Disclaimer
This management plan has been prepared by the Warty Jumping-slug Recovery Team, as advice
to the responsible jurisdictions and organizations that may be involved in managing the species.
This document identifies the management actions that are deemed necessary, based on the best
available scientific and traditional information, to prevent Warty Jumping-slug populations in
British Columbia from becoming endangered or threatened. Management actions to achieve the
goals and objectives identified herein are subject to the priorities and budgetary constraints of
participatory agencies and organizations. These goals, objectives, and management approaches
may be modified in the future to accommodate new objectives and findings.
The responsible jurisdictions and all members of the management team have had an opportunity
to review this document. However, this document does not necessarily represent the official
positions of the agencies or the personal views of all individuals on the management team.
Success in the conservation of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many
different constituencies that may be involved in implementing the directions set out in this
management plan. The B.C. Ministry of Environment encourages all British Columbians to
participate in the conservation of Warty Jumping-slug.
ii
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
MANAGEMENT TEAM MEMBERS
Trudy Chatwin, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Management
John Deal, Western Forest Products, Campbell River, BC
Jennifer Heron (Chair), B.C. Ministry of Environment, Vancouver, BC
Suzie Lavallee, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
Steve Pratt, BC Parks, Black Creek, BC
Tory Stevens, BC Parks, Victoria, BC
Ross Vennesland, Parks Canada Agency, Vancouver, BC
RESPONSIBLE JURISDICTIONS
The British Columbia Ministry of Environment is responsible for producing a management plan
for Warty Jumping-slug under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk in Canada. This
document was prepared in cooperation with Environment Canada’s Canadian Wildlife Service
and Parks Canada Agency.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Jennifer Heron wrote the draft management plan and completed subsequent edits based on
recovery team input. Additional information and review were provided by Ross Vennesland
(Parks Canada, Vancouver), Arthur Robinson (Canadian Forest Service, Victoria),
Geoff Scudder (University of British Columbia, Vancouver), Jessica Hellmann (University of
Notre Dame, Indiana), Bill Woodhouse (BC Parks, Black Creek), Mike Rody (BC Parks,
Black Creek), Kristiina Ovaska (Biolinx Environmental Research Ltd.), Lennart Sopuck
(Biolinx Environmental Research Ltd.) and Marilyn Fuchs (Capital Regional District, Victoria)
and Jeff Brown (B.C. Ministry of Environment). Thank you to Kristina Ovaska for photographs.
Leah Westereng (B.C. Ministry of Environment) completed the editorial and technical review
and was instrumental in moving the document forward. This document follows the
B.C. guidance for recovery planning (Ministry of Environment 2010a).
iii
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Warty Jumping-slug (Hemphillia glandulosa) is a small (adults approximately 2 cm long),
forest-dwelling slug ranging in North America from southern British Columbia (B.C.) through
western Washington to Oregon. In Canada, the species occurs at the northern limits of its range
on southern Vancouver Island, with a range extent estimated at 4700 km2. Historical and recent
distribution records exist from 18 locations, all on southern Vancouver Island, south of
Alberni Inlet.
Warty Jumping-slug is designated as Special Concern by the Committee on the Status of
Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) due to its small range, scattered populations, and
habitat loss and fragmentation primarily due to forestry activities. It is listed as Special Concern
in Canada on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA). In B.C., Warty Jumping-slug is
ranked S2S3 (imperiled to vulnerable) by the Conservation Data Centre and is on the provincial
Blue list. The B.C. Conservation Framework ranks the Warty Jumping-slug as a priority 2 under
goals 1 (contribute to global efforts for species and ecosystem conservation) and 3 (maintain the
diversity of native species and ecosystems).
Warty Jumping-slug inhabits a wide range of moist forest types, inhabiting old-growth western
redcedar and western hemlock stands to second-growth mixedwood stands. The species is often
associated with riparian vegetation. Key microhabitat features include moist forest floor
conditions, abundant coarse woody debris, a deep litter or moss layer that holds moisture, and
shade provided by the forest canopy. The predominant threat to Warty Jumping-slug is logging
(IUCN-CMP #5 Biological resource use).
The population and distribution goal is to ensure the persistence of Warty Jumping-slug at all
known (and newly recorded) locations throughout the species’ range in Canada. The
management objectives for Warty Jumping-slug are to (1) to ensure protection 1 for the known
locations (and new locations) and habitats of Warty Jumping-slug; (2) to assess and mitigate the
extent of current threats (IUCN-CMP Threats 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) at all locations in B.C.; and (3) to
address knowledge gaps (e.g., habitat requirements, range extent within Vancouver Island) for
Warty Jumping-slug.
1
Protection can be achieved through various mechanisms including: voluntary stewardship agreements, conservation covenants, sale by willing
vendors on private lands, land use designations, and protected areas.
iv
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MANAGEMENT TEAM MEMBERS................................................................................. iii
RESPONSIBLE JURISDICTIONS .................................................................................. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................... iii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.................................................................................................iv
1 COSEWIC* Species Assessment Information ......................................................... 1
2 Species Status Information ...................................................................................... 1
3 species Information .................................................................................................. 2
3.1
Species Description .......................................................................................... 2
3.2
Populations and Distribution ............................................................................. 2
3.3
Needs of the Warty Jumping-slug ..................................................................... 6
3.3.1
Habitat and Biological Needs ..................................................................... 6
3.3.2
Ecological Role .......................................................................................... 8
3.3.3
Limiting Factors ......................................................................................... 8
4 THREATS ................................................................................................................ 9
4.1
Threat Assessment ......................................................................................... 10
4.2
Description of Threats ..................................................................................... 12
4.2.1
High Impact Threat .................................................................................. 12
4.2.1
Low or Unknown Impact Threats ............................................................. 13
5 MANAGEMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES ........................................................... 16
5.1
Population and Distribution Goal..................................................................... 16
5.2
Rationale for the Population and Distribution Goal ......................................... 16
5.3
Management Objectives ................................................................................. 17
6 APPROACHES TO MEET OBJECTIVES .............................................................. 17
6.1
Actions Already Completed or Underway ....................................................... 17
6.2
Recovery Planning Table ................................................................................ 18
6.3
Narrative to Support Recovery Planning Table ............................................... 20
7 Measuring progress ............................................................................................... 21
8 Effects on Other Species ....................................................................................... 22
9 REFERENCES....................................................................................................... 24
APPENDIX 1. WARTY JUMPING-SLUG GASTROPOD SURVEYS ............................ 28
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Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Status and description of Warty Jumping-slug locations in B.C. (B.C. Conservation
Data Centre 2011) .................................................................................................................... 5
Table 2. Threat classification table for Warty Jumping-slug ......................................................10
Table 3. Recommended management actions for Warty Jumping-slug ....................................18
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Warty Jumping-slug (Carmanah Valley, Vancouver Island, 2000). Photo K. Ovaska.. 2
Figure 2. Warty Jumping-slug (Mount Brenton, Vancouver Island, 2001). Photo K.Ovaska. ..... 2
Figure 3. North American distribution of Warty Jumping-slug (COSEWIC 2003). ...................... 3
Figure 4. Warty Jumping-slug locations in British Columbia (broken line: Canada-U.S. border)
(B.C. Ministry of Environment 2011).......................................................................................... 4
Figure 5. A remnant patch of western redcedar and western hemlock old-growth forest at Noyse
Creek North, outside of Port Renfrew. Photo credit K. Ovaska.................................................. 7
Figure 6. Moist second-growth habitat with red alder and bigleaf maple near East Sooke;
Anderson Cove location. Note dense understory of sword fern. Photo credit K. Ovaska. .......... 7
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Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
1 COSEWIC* Species Assessment Information
Date of Assessment: April 2003
Common Name (population): Warty Jumping-slug
Scientific Name: Hemphillia glandulosa
COSEWIC Status: Special Concern
Reason for Designation: Habitat loss and fragmentation through clear cut logging forest
practices are altering quantity and quality of coarse woody debris that provides refuges for the
slugs and may be restricting dispersal movements. The species exists at the northern extremity of
its range on southern Vancouver Island and the low numbers of scattered populations render it
vulnerable to both natural and human disturbances.
Canadian Occurrence: British Columbia
COSEWIC Status History: Designated Special Concern in April 2003. Assessment based on a
new status report.
* Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.
** Common and scientific names reported in this recovery strategy follow the naming conventions of the B.C. Conservation Data
Centre, which may be different from names reported by COSEWIC.
2 Species Status Information
Warty Jumping-sluga
Legal Designation:
B.C. Wildlife Act:c No
Identified Wildlife:b No
Conservation Statusd
B.C. List: Yellow B.C. Rank: S2S3 (2008)
Other Subnational
SARA Schedule: 1– Special Concern (2005)
National Rank: N2N3 (2005) Global Rank: G3G4 (2005)
e
Ranks: Oregon : S2; Washington : S3
B.C. Conservation Framework (CF)f
Goal 1: Contribute to global efforts for species and ecosystem conservation.
Goal 2: Prevent species and ecosystems from becoming at risk.
Goal 3: Maintain the diversity of native species and ecosystems.
CF Action
Groups:
Priority:g 2 (2009)
Priority: 6(2009)
Priority: 2 (2009)
Compile Status Report; Monitor Trends; Planning; Send to COSEWIC; Habitat Protection; Habitat
Restoration; Private Land Stewardship
a
Data source: B.C. Conservation Data Centre (2011) unless otherwise noted.
Identified Wildlife under the Forest and Range Practices Act, which includes the categories of species at risk, ungulates, and
regionally important wildlife (Province of British Columbia 2002).
c
Designated as wildlife under the B.C. Wildlife Act ,which offers it protection from direct persecution and mortality (Province of
British Columbia 1982).
d
S = subnational; N = national; G = global; B = breeding; X = presumed extirpated; H = possibly extirpated; 1 = critically
imperiled; 2 = imperiled; 3 = special concern, vulnerable to extirpation or extinction; 4 = apparently secure; 5 = demonstrably
widespread, abundant, and secure; NA = not applicable; NR = unranked; U = unrankable. U.S. data from NatureServe (2010).
e
Data source: NatureServe (2010).
f
Data source: Ministry of Environment (2010b).
g
Six-level scale: Priority 1 (highest priority) through to Priority 6 (lowest priority).
b
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Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
3 species Information
3.1
Species Description
Warty Jumping-slug (Hemphillia glandulosa Bland & W.G. Binney 1875) is a small slug,
reaching approximately 20 mm in length as an adult. Characteristic features of jumping-slugs
include a prominent, elevated dorsal hump covered by the mantle and a slit in the mantle,
exposing a portion of a yellowish or horn-coloured shell plate (COSEWIC 2003). Features that
distinguish Warty Jumping-slug from the sympatric Dromedary Jumping-slug include its smaller
size, shorter tail, and mantle covered with distinct conical papillae (Figures 1 and 2). Refer to the
British Columbia (B.C.) gastropod field guide (Forsyth 2004) and the COSEWIC (2003) status
report for further morphological descriptions.
Warty Jumping-slug is one of seven described species of jumping-slugs endemic to western
North America (family Arionidae: genus Hemphillia) (Turgeon et al. 1998). No subspecies of
Warty Jumping-slug have been recognized, but recent molecular studies have revealed much
genetic fragmentation among populations from different geographic areas, suggesting the
nominal species H. glandulosa may represent a complex of sister species (Wilke 2004).
Figure 1. Warty Jumping-slug (Carmanah
Valley, Vancouver Island, 2000). Photo K.
Ovaska.
3.2
Figure 2. Warty Jumping-slug (Mount Brenton,
Vancouver Island, 2001). Photo K.Ovaska.
Populations and Distribution
The global distribution of Warty Jumping-slug extends from central Vancouver Island, B.C.,
southward west of the Cascade Mountains through Washington to west-central Oregon
(Figure 3). About 10% of the global distribution is within Canada.
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Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
Figure 3. North American distribution of Warty Jumping-slug (COSEWIC 2003).
In Canada, Warty Jumping-slug is known from the southern third of Vancouver Island
(Figure 4). The estimated extent of occurrence in B.C. is approximately 4700 km2, but the area of
occupancy is a small fraction of this range (about 20–100 km2) although it cannot accurately be
estimated at this time. As of September 2011, there are 16 extant locations 2, most of which are
on the west coast of Vancouver Island, from Barclay Sound south to Sooke Inlet (Table 1).
Two locations on the east coast of Vancouver Island (Cowichan River and Nanaimo Lakes) are
considered historic locations and because of lack of specific information pertaining to the exact
spatial location, continued presence at these two locations is difficult to determine. No records
exist from mainland B.C. (B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011).
2
Distribution records more than 5 km apart, in different habitats (such as along an elevational gradient and more
than 1 km apart), or separated by insurmountable barriers were considered distinct locations.
3
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
Figure 4. Warty Jumping-slug locations in British Columbia (broken line: Canada-U.S. border) (B.C. Ministry of
Environment 2011).
Warty Jumping-slug has a scattered distribution pattern both on Vancouver Island (B.C.
Conservation Data Centre 2011) and in the United States (Kelley et al. 1999). In the interior and
east coast of Vancouver Island, the species is known from only a few isolated locations.
However, in the very moist forests of the west coast, its distribution appears to be more
continuous, but logging has fragmented habitats in many areas (Table 1). Much of the potential
habitat within the range of the Warty Jumping-slug has not been surveyed, and other locations
probably exist on the island. The area of occupancy or available habitat cannot be estimated
accurately for any of the locations at present.
4
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
Table 1. Status and description of Warty Jumping-slug locations in B.C. (B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011)
Location Number
(Figure 4)
Location Name
Locality or Latitude
(N)
Longitude (W)
Most Recent
Observation Date
Land Status
1
Anderson Cove,
East Sooke
Regional Park
48°21.68' 123°39.64'
48°21.50' 123°39.73'
2003
Private (CRD) a
2
Galloping Goose
Regional Trail
(Sooke)
48°24.91' 123°42.33'
2006
Private (CRD)
3
Carmanah Walbran
Provincial Park
48°39.6´ 124°41.6´
48°39.4´ 124°42.2´
2000
4
Cowichan River
48°46.3´ 123°42´
B.C. Crown
(Carmanah Walbran
Provincial Park)
Private?
5
Keating Lake
(SW of Duncan)
48°44.4´ 123°47.8´
2001
Private forestry
6
Mount Brenton,
Holyoak Lake
48°53.78´ 123°50.21´
2001
Private forestry
7
Mount Hooper
(Unnamed lake,
Mt. Hooper, ca. 20
km NW of
Youbou)
48°59.99´ 124°29.32´
2001
Private forestry
8
Muir Creek (Hwy.
14, ca. 5 km E
Shirley)
48°22.81´ 123°51.94´
48°22.90 123°52.08'
2001
2003
Private
Private forestry
9
Nanaimo River
Unknown (~ 4.8 km
from mouth of Nanaimo
River)b
10
North of Sarita
48°53.05´ 125°01.5´
2001
B.C. Crown
11
Sarita
(S of Mt.
Blenheim)
48°53.75´ 124°57.47´
1984
Crown
12
Pachena Bay
48°47.4´ 125°07.0´
48°45.7´ 125°07.4´
1984c
Federal (Pacific
Rim National Park
Reserve)
13
Parkinson Creek
(Parkinson Creek
Rd. at Hwy. 14)
48°32.53´ 124°21.94´
2000
B.C. Crown
14
Port Renfrew,
Snuggery Cove
48°33.17´ 124°25.29´
48°33.17´ 124°25.29´
1998
2001
Private
Historic
Before 1913?
Historic
Oct. 1900
Private
5
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
(Cerantes Rd.)
15
Sombrio River,
Sombria Creek
(Branch of
Sombrio River
Hwy. 14, ca. 11 km
SE of Port
Renfrew)
48°30.6´ 124°17.44´
48°30.89' 124°17.22'
2001
2006
B.C. Crown
16
North Noyse Creek
(tributary of Loss
Creek, east of Hwy
14)
South Noyse Creek
(tributary of Loss
Creek, east of Hwy.
14)
48°30.39' 124°14.19'
2006
B.C. Crown
48°30.90' 124°13.71'
2006
B.C. Crown
17
18
East Sooke
48° 28' 42.037" 123° 27'
2011
Private (CRD)
Regional Park,
55.851"
Park Heights
a
CRD = Capital Regional District.
b
Based on maps and descriptions of sites from R. Cameron (based on pers. comm. by R. Forsyth 2001).
Approximate location.
b
Warty Jumping-slug was recorded from Pachena Bay in1984, however no Warty Jumping-slugs have been
recorded during recent slug surveys within Pacific Rim National Park Reserve (see Appendix 1).
No population information is available for the Warty Jumping-slug. At locations where the
species is recorded on Vancouver Island the average was 2.6 slugs found per 1 person-hour of
searching (B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011; see Appendix 1). Relatively high apparent
densities occurred at the Muir Creek location (up to 15 slugs per 30 minutes of searching) when
compared to the other locations where 1–7 slugs were found during searches of up to 3 personhours. At occupied locations, the distribution of the slugs is often clustered within small areas,
possibly reflecting availability of suitable microhabitats.
3.3
3.3.1
Needs of the Warty Jumping-slug
Habitat and Biological Needs
Warty Jumping-slug is an inhabitant of moist coniferous and mixedwood forests ranging
in elevation from near sea level to about 1060 m on Vancouver Island. Most of the
low-elevation locations are on the wet, west coast of the island. Forest age ranges from
old growth (> 200 years) to naturally regenerated second-growth stands. The species has been
found in remnant patches of old growth on the west coast and on mountaintops in the interior of
the island (Ovaska et al. 2001; Ovaska and Sopuck 2004, 2006b). The species is often associated
with riparian areas or other moist locations (COSEWIC 2003). Where suitable moist conditions
are present, the slug can occupy young seral stages but is more often found in stands at least
60 years old. At one location, the species was found in a recently logged area, buried deep within
6
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
decaying wood substrate in a moist depression (Keating Lake location [Table 1]; Ovaska and
Sopuck 2001) but whether Warty Jumping-slug can persist in newly logged areas is unknown.
Forest stands occupied by Warty Jumping-slug are often dominated by western redcedar (Thuja
plicata) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), with a minor component of amabilis fir
(Abies amabilis) or deciduous trees, such as red alder (Alnus rubus) or bigleaf maple (Acer
macrophyllum) at lower elevations (Ovaska et al. 2001; COSEWIC 2003; Ovaska and Sopuck
2004, 2006b). The higher density Muir Creek location is a moist riparian forest dominated by
red alder. Understory vegetation includes sword fern (Polystichum munitum), deer fern
(Blechnum spicant), huckleberry species (Vaccinium spp.), and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis).
Moisture-favouring plants, such as devil’s club (Oplopanax horridus), Indian hellebore
(Veratrum viride), and skunk cabbage (Lysichitum americanum), are present at some locations.
The soils are typically moist and productive, and abundant coarse woody debris is present. Warty
Jumping-slug often recorded sheltering under decayed logs and sloughed-off bark but can also be
found within moist leaf litter (K. Ovaska pers. comm. 2008; L. Sopuck pers. comm. 2008).
Figures 5 and 6 show examples of the range of habitats where the species has been found.
Detailed ecosystem descriptions need to be completed for all occupied locations.
Both suitable forest structure and microhabitat conditions are essential for population persistence
of Warty Jumping-slug over the long term. Key habitat features include moist forest floor
conditions, abundant coarse woody debris, deep litter or moss layer that holds moisture, and
shade provided by the forest canopy. Coarse woody debris at variable states of decay provides
shelter, egg-laying sites, and a source of moisture for slugs. Across the landscape, suitable
habitats must be connected to facilitate colonization of new habitats, repopulation of habitat
patches from which the species might have disappeared, and genetic exchange that maintains
variability and ability of populations to adapt to changing conditions. The dispersal ability of the
Warty Jumping-slug is thought to be poor and is probably hindered by open habitats that do not
maintain high humidity and moisture. Such habitats include recently logged areas and other
disturbed habitats, especially at drier locations and within the heavily fragmented low-elevation
coniferous forests of southern Vancouver Island.
Figure 5. A remnant patch of western redcedar and western
hemlock old-growth forest at Noyse Creek North, outside of Port
Renfrew. Photo credit K. Ovaska.
This remnant patch was surrounded by recently harvested
cutblocks. Five Warty Jumping-slugs were found within 2-person
hours of intensive search. Several small creeks and pools of
water were present in the patch. The forest floor was moist and
contained abundant, layered coarse woody debris including
large-diameter decaying logs.
Figure 6. Moist second-growth habitat with red
alder and bigleaf maple near East Sooke;
Anderson Cove location. Note dense understory
of sword fern. Photo credit K. Ovaska.
7
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
3.3.2
March 2012
Ecological Role
Warty Jumping-slug plays an ecological role 3 as a decomposer, soil builder, consumer of live
and decaying plant matter; and as prey for various vertebrate and invertebrate predators.
Gastropods in general contribute to the turnover of organic matter and decomposition processes
on the forest floor (Mason 1970; Richter 1979). Some species also disperse seeds of forest plants
and fungal spores, including fungi that form important symbiotic associations with tree roots
(Richter 1980; Gervais et al. 1998; McGraw et al. 2002). Ecological interactions of Warty
Jumping-slug have not been studied but it is likely the species plays similar roles. The slug has
been observed feeding on fungi and may be important dispersal agents for their spores (Ovaska
and Sopuck 2006b). Slugs form important prey for various predators including ground beetles,
amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. Populations at the northern extremity of a
species’ distribution may possess unique ecological adaptations and provide a reservoir of
genetic variability that allows the species to respond to changing environmental conditions. The
Warty Jumping-slug is an important contributor to the forest floor biodiversity in temperate
rainforests of the west coast.
3.3.3
Limiting Factors
Dispersal ability: The dispersal ability of Warty Jumping-slug is likely poor, and it is unclear
how much spatial area (habitat) is required to sustain a population within a location. The heavily
fragmented coniferous forests of southern Vancouver Island may limit natural dispersal. By their
very nature, slugs are sedentary and cryptic animals, and their natural ability to colonize new
areas is likely poor.
Low density and low reproductive potential: Warty Jumping-slug may be nocturnal. By evidence
of low detection during surveys (see Ovaska et al. 2001; Ovaska and Sopuck 2002b, 2004b,
2006c; Ovaska and Sopuck 2009a; Ovaska and Sopuck 2011) the slug appears secretive, occurs
at low densities, and thus presumably has low reproductive potential even within optimal
habitats.
Northernmost extent of global range: Warty Jumping-slug is at the northernmost extent of its
global range, which likely increases the species’ susceptibility to climatic and stochastic
population fluctuations.
Requirement for high air moisture environments: Warty Jumping-slug is an associate of
coniferous and mixedwood forests, with well-developed and thick understory vegetation that
provides the moist microhabitat necessary to maintain high humidity. The slug has a scattered
distribution pattern throughout its range, likely due to the isolation of suitable habitat patches and
poor dispersal capabilities.
Susceptibility to dehydration: Slugs are known to initiate “water seeking” responses to
dehydration after a short-term reduction in locomotor activity (Prior 1985). The physiology and
activity patterns of Warty Jumping-slug inherently make them susceptible to continuous water
3
E.g., Warty Jumping-slug contributes to the natural capital, or ecosystem goods and services.
8
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
March 2012
loss through dehydration. All slugs deposit a dilute mucous trail, and experience constant
evaporative water loss through the lung surface and integument. Numerous ecological and
physiological studies show a relationship between varying body temperature hydration on
locomotor activity (Machin 1975; Peake 1978; Burton 1983; Riddle 1983; Martin 1983 as cited
in Prior 1985). Within two hours, active slugs can lose 30–40% of their initial body weight and
habitat selection by slugs is correlated with water availability (Prior 1985). Although this
information pertains to other slug species, it is likely similar for Warty Jumping-slug.
4 THREATS
Threats are defined as the proximate activities or processes that have caused, are causing, or may
cause in the future the destruction, degradation, and/or impairment of the entity being assessed
(population, species, community or ecosystem) in the area of interest (globe, nation, or
subnation). For purposes of threat assessment, only present and future threats are considered 4.
Threats presented here do not include biological features of the species or population such as
inbreeding depression, small population size, and genetic isolation; or likelihood of regeneration
or recolonization for ecosystems, which are considered limiting factors 5.
For the most part, threats are related to human activities, but they can be natural. The impact of
human activity may be direct (e.g., destruction of habitat) or indirect (e.g., invasive species
introduction). Effects of natural phenomena (e.g., fire, hurricane, flooding) may be especially
important when the species or ecosystem is concentrated in one location or has few occurrences,
which may be a result of human activity (Master et al. 2009). As such, natural phenomena are
included in the definition of a threat, though should be applied cautiously. These stochastic
events should only be considered a threat if a species or habitat is damaged from other threats
and has lost its resilience, and is thus vulnerable to the disturbance (Salafsky et al. 2008) so that
this type of event would have a disproportionately large effect on the population/ecosystem
compared to the effect they would have had historically.
4
Past threats may be recorded but are not used in the calculation of Threat Impact. Effects of past threats (if not continuing) are taken into
consideration when determining long-term and/or short-term trend factors (Master et al. 2009).
5
It is important to distinguish between limiting factors and threats. Limiting factors are generally not human induced and include characteristics
that make the species or ecosystem less likely to respond to recovery/conservation efforts.
9
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
4.1
March 2012
Threat Assessment
The threat classification below is based on the IUCN-CMP (World Conservation Union–Conservation Measures Partnership) unified
threats classification system and is consistent with methods used by the B.C. Conservation Data Centre and the B.C. Conservation
Framework. For a detailed description of the threat classification system, see the CMP web location (CMP 2010). For information on
how the values are assigned, see Master et al. (2009) and table footnotes for details. Threats for the Warty Jumping-slug were assessed
for the entire province (Table 2).
Table 2. Threat classification table for Warty Jumping-slug
Threat
1
Residential & commercial development
Impact
Low
Scope
Small
Severity
Extreme
Timing
Moderate
Locations
• Unsurveyed habitat in the Nanaimo area
south on Vancouver Island, and
potentially parts of Sooke
• Unsurveyed habitat in the Nanaimo area
south on Vancouver Island, and
potentially parts of Sooke
• East Sooke Regional Park (Anderson
Cove)
• Galloping Goose Trail (Sooke)
• Pachena Bay
• East Sooke Regional Park (Park
Heights)
• Carmanah Walbran Park
• Unsurveyed habitat in the Nanaimo area
south on Vancouver Island, and
potentially parts of Sooke
1.1
Housing & urban areas
Low
Small
Extreme
Moderate
1.2
Commercial & industrial areas
Low
Small
Extreme
Moderate
1.3
Tourism & recreation areas
Low
Small
Serious
Moderate
2
2.1
4
Agriculture & aquaculture
Annual & perennial non-timber crops
Transportation & service corridors
Not Calculated
Not Calculated
Low
Small
Small
Small
Extreme
Extreme
Serious
Low
Low
Moderate
• Unsurveyed habitat
Moderate
• 13 locations (not considered a threat at
the 2 locations in national and provincial
parks).
• Unsurveyed habitat
4.1
Roads & railroads
Low
Small
Serious
10
Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug in British Columbia
5
Biological resource use
High
March 2012
Large
Serious
High
5.3
Logging & wood harvesting
High
Large
Serious
High
6
Human intrusions & disturbance
Low
Restricted
Moderate
High
6.1
Recreational activities
Low
Restricted
Moderate
High
7
Natural system modifications
Low
Small
Extreme
High
7.1
Fire & fire suppression
Low
Small
Extreme
High
Unknown
Large
Unknown
High
Unknown
Unknown
Large
Small
Unknown
Unknown
High
High
Unknown
Small
Unknown
High
Not Calculated
Small
Extreme
Low
8.1
9
Invasive & other problematic species &
genes
Invasive non-native/alien species
Pollution
9.3
Agricultural & forestry effluents
10
Geological Events
8
10.2
Earthquakes/tsunamis
Not Calculated
Small
Extreme
Low
11
11.2
Climate change & severe weather
Droughts
Not Calculated
Not Calculated
Pervasive
Pervasive
Unknown
Unknown
Low
Low
• 11 locations (not considered a threat at
the locations in national and provincial
parks or at CRD locations)
• Unsurveyed habitat
• East Sooke Regional Park (Anderson
Cove)
• Galloping Goose Trail (Sooke)
• Pachena Bay
• Carmanah Walbran Park
• East Sooke Regional Park(Park Heights)
• Unsurveyed habitat
• All locations (although not widespread
across all habitats at any one time)
Unsurveyed habitat
• Likely all locations
• All locations.
• Unsurveyed habitat
• 4 locations: Galloping Goose Trail
(Sooke); Pachena Bay; East Sooke
(Anderson Cove); East Sooke Regional
Park (Park Heights)
• Impacts to 16 locations
a
Impact – The degree to which a species is observed, inferred, or suspected to be directly or indirectly threatened in the area of interest. The impact of each stress is based on Severity and Scope rating
and considers only present and future threats. Threat impact reflects a reduction of a species population or decline/degradation of the area of an ecosystem. The median rate of population reduction or
area decline for each combination of scope and severity corresponds to the following classes of threat impact: Very High (75% declines), High (40%), Medium (15%), and Low (3%). Unknown: used
when impact cannot be determined (e.g., if values for either scope or severity are unknown); Not Calculated: impact not calculated as threat is outside the assessment timeframe as it is only considered to
be in the past (e.g., timing is insignificant/negligible or low); Negligible: when scope or severity is negligible; Not a Threat: when severity is scored as neutral or potential benefit.
b
Scope – Proportion of the species that can reasonably be expected to be affected by the threat within 10 years. Usually measured as a proportion of the species’ population in the area of interest.
(Pervasive = 71–100%; Large = 31–70%; Restricted = 11–30%; Small = 1–10%; Negligible < 1%).
c
Severity – Within the scope, the level of damage to the species from the threat that can reasonably be expected to be affected by the threat within a 10-year or three-generation timeframe. Usually
measured as the degree of reduction of the species’ population. (Extreme = 71–100%; Serious = 31–70%; Moderate = 11–30%; Slight = 1–10%; Negligible < 1%; Neutral or Potential Benefit > 0%).
d
Timing – High = continuing; Moderate = only in the future (could happen in the short term [< 10 years or 3 generations]) or now suspended (could come back in the short term); Low = only in the
future (could happen in the long term) or now suspended (could come back in the long term); Insignificant/Negligible = only in the past and unlikely to return, or no direct effect but limiting.
11
4.2
Description of Threats
The overall province-wide Threat Impact for this species is High. 6 The predominant threat to
Warty Jumping-slug is logging (IUCN-CMP #5 Biological resource use). Threats are further
discussed below under the Threat level 1 headings.
4.2.1
High Impact Threat
IUCN-CMP Threat 5.0 Biological Resource Use (5.3 Logging and wood harvesting)
The range of Warty Jumping-slug coincides with an area of B.C. that has an extensive logging
history. Within the Canadian range of Warty Jumping-slug, less than 6% of the landbase remains
in old-growth forests and remaining habitats are highly fragmented (MacKinnon and Eng 1995).
This forest landbase continues to be intensively managed due to the high demand for forest
products. Forest management practices, including pre-commercial thinning, pruning, removal of
select tree species, fertilization practices, patch-size harvesting, and clearcut harvesting, likely
have detrimental effects on populations of Warty Jumping-slug through changes to coarse woody
debris and ground substrate availability, as well as changes to microhumidity and the moisture
retention of such habitat.
Pre-commercial thinning and pruning practices reduce the quantity and/or alter the timing of leaf
and branch litter that would otherwise fall to the forest floor and provide shelter for Warty
Jumping-slug. Pruning activities that remove lateral branches reduce the overall forest canopy,
which results in lower relative humidity and subsequent desiccation of the forest floor.
Survival of Warty Jumping-slug within a harvested and/or second-growth forest landscape may
depend on the availability of old rotten logs within which the species can take cover and lay
eggs. Present day intensive forest management practices may target large dead coarse woody
debris for removal during the second rotation of forest harvesting. For example, a century ago
Douglas-fir trees were a priority harvest species. Western redcedar trees were still cut, but often
only Douglas-fir logs were removed and the large western redcedar logs remained behind. Some
second-growth forests are now at harvest age, and consequently some large western redcedar
logs, which were left on the forest floor after the first harvest rotation, can still be of
merchantable value in present-day markets (e.g., for cedar shakes). Where such logs are still
merchantable and are accessible, it is common practice (dependent on market conditions at the
time) to remove these logs during or subsequent to the second harvest. Thus, large coarse woody
debris may be in short supply in intensively managed forests; these logs are likely important for
maintaining stable microclimates for developing eggs, and thus suitable microhabitat for Warty
Jumping-slug.
The threat from logging practices is applicable to habitat surrounding the 11 locations: Noyse
Creek North, Noyse Creek South, Parkinson Creek, Sarita, Sombrio River (Sombria Creek),
6
The overall threat impact was calculated following Master et al. (2009) using the number of Level 1 Threats
assigned to this species where Timing = High or Moderate. This includes 1 High, 5 Low, and 2 Unknown
(Table 2).The overall threat considers the cumulative impacts of multiple threats.
12
Muir Creek (Shirley), Port Renfrew (Snuggery Cove), Keating Lake, Mount Brenton
(Holyoak Lake), Mount Hooper, and Cowichan. The potential habitat surrounding each of these
locations has not been surveyed and there are likely additional occurrences within these
contiguous patches of habitat. Logging is not considered a threat in the national and provincial
parks or at the two locations within the CRD.
4.2.1
Low or Unknown Impact Threats
IUCN-CMP Threat 1.0 Residential & commercial development
Loss of mature and old-growth forest habitats as a result of urbanization and other developments
was identified as a main threat to Warty Jumping-slug (COSEWIC 2003). However, this threat
was more predominant historically than it is at present. This threat is not applicable to known
locations of Warty Jumping-slug, but there is likely some incremental and cumulative habitat
loss from land conversion of low elevation private forestland within unsurveyed habitats
(particularly from Nanaimo southwards towards Sooke), including areas for recreational
opportunity, such as golf courses.
Construction of new recreational infrastructure may potentially impact five locations within
parks and protected areas: East Sooke Regional Park (Anderson Cove); Galloping Goose Trail
(Sooke); Pachena Bay; East Sooke Regional Park (Park Heights) and Carmanah Walbran.
All four of these parks are popular and well-liked recreational areas, especially in summer, and
increased demand for parking facilities, washroom facilities, and trails is concurrent with
urban/commercial development.
IUCN-CMP Threat 2.0 Agriculture and aquaculture (2.1 Annual and perennial
non-timber crops)
Loss of mature and old-growth forest habitats as a result of agricultural land conversion was
identified as a threat to Warty Jumping-slug (COSEWIC 2003). However, this threat was more
predominant historically than it is at present. This threat is not applicable to known locations of
Warty Jumping-slug, but there is likely some incremental and cumulative habitat loss from
agricultural land conversion in private low elevation forestland within unsurveyed habitats where
Warty Jumping-slug could still be present.
IUCN-CMP Threat 4.0 Transportation and service corridors (4.1 Roads and railroads)
Within unsurveyed habitats, there is potential for road and highway expansion projects that
include plans to divert, infill, and alter watercourses and clear riparian habitats where Warty
Jumping-slug could occur. Transportation infrastructure projects that isolate habitat patches
increase population isolation, decrease available habitat, and increase drought from edge effects
and stand/wind penetration, which eventually leads to increased mortality and ecosystem
changes through introduced species. This threat is potentially applicable to 13 locations,
particularly where safety and access are important (e.g., regional parks) and logging roads (e.g.,
on both Crown and private forestland), as well as highways expansion projects (e.g., diverting
watercourses and culverts that would prevent road flooding).
13
IUCN-CMP Threat 6.0 Human intrusions and disturbance (6.1 Recreational activities)
Intensive recreational activities such as hiking, foot and bicycle traffic, and use of all-terrain
vehicles and trail bikes, especially off-trail (e.g., when coarse woody debris is used to build bike
ramps and jumps) can result in soil compaction and alteration of plant cover. Even within
protected areas, what would appear as low impact activities, such as hiking, and bicycle traffic
can result in degradation of habitat quality through soil compaction and can also cause accidental
mortality. Such effects can be pronounced in areas where the species is restricted to small habitat
patches. Inadvertent trampling of the location could result in significant mortality, especially
during the fall breeding period when the slugs are active on the forest floor. Further, popular
hiking trails may eventually require additional management (e.g., for safety and access) and thus
require the eventual use of herbicides or creation of infrastructure such as the addition of bark
mulch or construction of wider trails.
This threat is applicable to at least five Warty Jumping-slug locations: Carmanah Walbran
Provincial Park, Pachena Bay, East Sooke CRD Park (Anderson Cove), East Sooke Regional
Park (Park Heights) and Galloping Goose Regional Trail (Sooke). However, at Carmanah
Walbran Provincial Park the impact of this threat is likely minimal because of decreasing access
and limited use within the park.
IUCN-CMP Threat 7.0 Natural system modifications (7.1 Fire and fire suppression)
Burke et al. (1999) cited fire as a threat to gastropod populations in Washington State.
Coniferous forests on the eastern side of southern Vancouver Island are typically dry and much
more susceptible to fire, particularly in July through September. Human activities that increase
the threat of fire, including careless attendance to campfires, discarded cigarettes, and improperly
wired camping equipment and machinery used within wilderness areas, contribute to the
possibility of wildfires. Forests fires occur yearly at present, although efforts are made to control
the frequency, size, and spread of fire through fire suppression programs. All Warty
Jumping-slug locations are subject to fire suppression activities, although the type of activity
varies depending on the region. Natural fires throughout the ecosystems of southern Vancouver
Island would have occurred in higher frequency and severity historically. This is not considered
a high threat at present, partially due to fire suppression programs.
IUCN-CMP Threat 8.0 Invasive and other problematic species and genes (8.1 Invasive
non-native/alien species)
Introduced gastropods compose approximately one-third of gastropod species of B.C. (Forsyth
2004). Introduced gastropods likely compete with Warty Jumping-slug as consumers of similar
food sources or prey upon the species. Many introduced gastropods occur in habitats throughout
Vancouver Island (Forsyth 2004), are widespread within urban and agricultural landscapes in
southwestern B.C., and can be locally abundant (Forsyth 1999). Although most introduced
species are primarily in areas of high human use and alteration, some have spread into intact
coniferous forest habitats and increased their range extent (K. Ovaska pers. comm. 2008).
Invasive gastropods found at Warty Jumping-slug locations include the Chocolate Arion (also
called European Black Slug) (Arion rufus), Giant Gardenslug (Limax maximus), Grey
Gardenslug (Deroceras reticulatum), and Garlic Snail (Oxychilus alliarius) (Ovaska et al. 2001;
Ovaska and Sopuck 2004, 2006a, 2006b). Chocolate Arion and Giant Gardenslug may compete
14
with native forest-dwelling species for shelter and egg-laying locations. Giant Gardenslug is
known to be an aggressive competitor (Rollo and Wellington 1979) with other gastropod species.
Carnivorous gastropods, such as Longneck Fieldslug (Deroceras panormitanum) and Wormslug
(Boettgerilla vermiformis), may also be of concern, although at present neither appears widely
distributed within Vancouver Island forests (K. Ovaska pers. comm. 2007; L. Sopuck pers.
comm. 2007). Within forests in Washington State, Chocolate Arion is documented from within
old growth forests, and may be displacing native Banana Slug (Ariolimax columbianus)
(Burke et al. 1999). The impact of this threat is unknown and needs additional research.
Invasive plant species are known to change the forest floor vegetation and soil structure and
increase the light penetrating the understory vegetation to the forest floor. Increases in light
levels lead to drier microclimate and understory conditions and result in desiccation of the forest
floor and increase dehydration stress to Warty Jumping-slug and other species that depend upon
high water and humidity levels. Introduced plant species, such as English ivy (Hedera helix),
have the potential to spread and displace the native vegetation on forest floors. Native gastropods
are not known to live within vegetation patches of English Ivy (Burke et al). English holly
(Ilex aquifolium) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor) are also widely spread introduced
plants within native ecosystems in coastal B.C., and are known to displace native vegetation.
This threat needs additional research.
Roadsides act as corridors into natural habitats and are known to facilitate the rapid spread of
introduced species (e.g., plant seeds attach to car tires, and become dislodged at new locations)
(Trombulak and Frissell 2000).
The threat of invasive plants and invertebrates exist at all Warty Jumping-slug locations,
although the level of impact is unknown.
IUCN-CMP Threat 9.0 Pollution (9.3 Agricultural and forestry effluents)
Herbicides are used in some locations to control roadside vegetation, both within private
forestlands and on Crown lands. Both at present day and in the past, herbicides have been used
along hiking trails, throughout recreational picnic areas within parks, and along road and railway
corridors. For example, various herbicides have been tested to control two highly invasive plants,
Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) and gorse (Ulex europaeus), along roadsides in the Duncan
area on Vancouver Island (Zielke et al. 1992). Herbicides are used less today; however, it is
unclear how extensive this practice was (or is currently), within the mature forest habitats where
Warty Jumping-Slug is known to occur on southern Vancouver Island.
Baur and Baur (1990) have documented the use of roadsides by gastropods and concluded the
Land Snail Arianta arbustorum prefers moving along road verges and avoids crossing roads,
including unpaved roads of only 3 m wide (as cited in Trombulak and Frissell 2000). The related
species, Dromedary Jumping-slug, has been observed along roadside verges (K. Ovaska pers.
comm. 2007), as well as crossing a trail within Pacific Rim National Park Reserve (Ovaska and
Sopuck 2003a; K. Ovaska pers. comm. 2007). It is possible Warty Jumping-slug also has similar
dispersal behaviour, and may also inhabit trail and forest edges. Spraying herbicides to control
roadside vegetation likely would harm gastropods within these roadside verges, and the
15
cumulative and lasting effects of herbicides within these environments may lead to long-term
declines in gastropod numbers (although this has not been substantiated).
This threat is potentially applicable to all Warty Jumping-slug locations although further research
and monitoring is needed to determine the effects of herbicides on Warty Jumping-slug and the
overall impact of this threat.
IUCN-CMP Threat 10.0 Geological events (10.2 Earthquakes/tsunamis)
The low-elevation areas of greater Victoria are within the tsunami zone; should a natural disaster
happen, extensive flooding would occur throughout much of this area and at least four known
locations of Warty Jumping-slug would be wiped out: Galloping Goose Trail (Sooke), Pachena
Bay, East Sooke Regional Park (Park Heights) and East Sooke (Anderson Cove).
IUCN-CMP Threat 11.0 Climate change and severe weather
Climate change is considered a potential, but poorly understood, threat to Warty Jumping-slug
habitat. Climate change may increase possible drought and cause a shift in understory vegetation
composition. Should climate become drier, forest floor conditions are likely to deteriorate
microhabitat quality and have detrimental effects on survivorship of Warty Jumping-slug adults
and their eggs. The loss of a suitable moisture regime would then increase the susceptibility of
adults and eggs to desiccation. Indirect impacts could include the concentration of predators and
competitors, including introduced species, into remaining moist areas.
5 MANAGEMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
5.1
Population and Distribution Goal
The population and distribution goal is to ensure the persistence of Warty Jumping-slug at all
known (and newly recorded) locations throughout the species’ range in Canada.
5.2
Rationale for the Population and Distribution Goal
Warty Jumping-slug has a restricted range in Canada and apparently low densities at all known
locations. The overall population and distribution goal aims to ensure no populations become
extirpated in Canada. The species will likely always be considered “special concern” unless a
significant number of new locations are found. Historical abundance and distribution information
for this species is not available and limited to two historic museum records. Both of these records
are from within the known range of the species, and both records are within a highly modified
and impacted area (e.g., forestry, urban and other threats). As there is no information to indicate
that the species was previously more widespread (e.g., with a larger range extent), an objective to
actively increase the number of populations, which may allow the species to be downlisted, is
not appropriate.
The population and distribution goal for Warty Jumping-slug cannot be quantified due to
knowledge gaps, as population size is unknown at each of the 16 Warty Jumping-slug locations.
16
Warty Jumping-slug is not commonly found and surveys within known locations usually result
in only one or two individuals being recorded (see Appendix 1). The difficulty with estimating
populations at low densities, coupled with the difficulty of tagging and monitoring small
soft-bodied gastropods, makes population estimates labour intensive and logistically difficult.
The possibility of causing undue stress to Warty Jumping-slug populations and unintended
mortality from handling must also be considered. The above population and distribution goal sets
a minimum population objective (> 1 slug) for each location. This allows the survival/recovery
habitat to be aimed at identifying and protecting the habitat needed to ensure the species persists
at any given location.
5.3
Management Objectives
1. To ensure protection 7 for the known locations (and new locations) and habitats of Warty
Jumping-slug.
2. To assess and mitigate the extent of current threats (IUCN-CMP Threats 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) at
all locations in B.C.
3. To address knowledge gaps (e.g., habitat requirements, range extent within Vancouver
Island) for Warty Jumping-slug.
6 APPROACHES TO MEET OBJECTIVES
6.1
Actions Already Completed or Underway
The following actions have been categorized by the action groups of the B.C. Conservation
Framework (Ministry of Environment 2010b). Status of the action group for this species is given
in brackets.
Compile Status Report (complete)
• COSEWIC report completed (COSEWIC 2003).
Send to COSEWIC (complete)
• Warty Jumping-slug assessed as Special Concern (COSEWIC 2003).
Planning (complete)
• B.C. management plan completed (this document, 2012).
Habitat Protection and Private Land Stewardship (in progress)
• Numerous surveys for terrestrial gastropods have been conduc ted on Vancouver Island,
Sunshine Coast, Gulf Islands, Haida Gwaii, and the southwestern mainland of B.C., primarily
in the Lower Fraser Valley (Appendix 1). Most of these surveys have taken place within the
past 10 years. Inventory has been completed to inform landowners of the species presence
and thus enable landowners to make informed land use decisions.
7
Protection can be achieved through various mechanisms including: voluntary stewardship agreements, conservation covenants, sale by willing
vendors on private lands, land use designations, and protected areas.
17
•
•
Research on effects of forestry practices on terrestrial gastropods (1999–present)
(Ovaska and Sopuck 2005). Warty Jumping-slug was found at two of the operational,
variable-retention locations surveyed, in 2000 and 2001. Research has been completed to
enable landowners to make informed land use decisions.
Locations of Warty Jumping-slug within the Carmanah Walbran Provincial Park and Pacific
Rim National Park Reserve are afforded protection through the legal provisions of the
B.C. Park Act and the Canada National Parks Act, respectively.
6.2
Recovery Planning Table
Table 3. Recommended management actions for Warty Jumping-slug
Threata or
concern
Priorityb
Actions to meet objectives
addressed
Objective 1. To secure protectionc for the known locations (and new locations) and habitats of Warty Jumping-slug.
Habitat Protection;
1. Ensure protectionc measures are in place for the 1, 2, 4, 5, 6,
Essential
Private Land Stewardship
16 locations (and future locations as they are
7, 9
recorded).
2. Recommend Warty Jumping-slug to be listed
5.3, 9.3
Necessary
as Identified Wildlife under B.C. Forest and
Range Practices Act.
3. Work with local government to use
1, 2, 4, 5, 6,
Essential
environmental protection tools under current
7, 8, 9
legislation and bylaws (e.g., Development
Permit Areas, Riparian Areas Regulation,
pesticide use restrictions) and prepare best
management practices guidelines (may require
more than one type of BMP depending on the
landowner or local government), local
conservancy groups and other landowners that
may contain undocumented location. Include
options for managing habitat for forest-floor
invertebrates under different land-use practices.
4. Determine the area of occupancy of known
Knowledge
Essential
locations and spatially define the habitat
gap
polygon at each location.
5. Create standard protocol for gathering habitat
Knowledge
Essential
information at each location (locations spatially gap
mapped from Action 4 above). This will assist
with habitat suitability rating (e.g., as
prioritized sites for protection), identifying
survival/recovery habitat and comparing site
attributes to determine if Warty Jumping-slug
presence is correlated to a certain suite of
habitat attributes.
Conservation
Framework action group
18
Threata or
concern
Priorityb
Actions to meet objectives
addressed
Objective 2. To assess and mitigate the extent of the current threats (IUCN-CMP Threat 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) at all
locations in B.C.
Habitat Protection;
1. When completing inventory, attempt to list,
All
Essential
Private Land Stewardship;
quantify, and rate threats to habitat through
Habitat Restoration
standard protocol thereby assessing reasons
slugs may or may not be present within certain
habitats.
2. Investigate distribution and habitat use patterns 8.1
Essential
of the slugs in relation to those of introduced
predators and competitors.
3. Work with land developers to ensure that
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
Essential
Warty Jumping-slug habitats in urban and rural
areas include the needs of the species into land
use plans, and habitat is not degraded by
developments near occupied habitat.
4. In parks and recreational areas, identify site6.1, 7.1, 8.1, Essential
specific threats related to recreational activities 9.3
within each location to minimize damage to
Warty Jumping-slug habitat caused by erosion
and destruction of vegetation within occupied
habitats; fire management, prevention, or
suppression activities; intensive recreational
activities use within known occupied habitats;
or invasive species removal/management
programs.
Objective 3. To address knowledge gaps (e.g., habitat requirements, range extent within Vancouver Island) for
Warty Jumping-slug.
Habitat Protection;
1. Complete spatial mapping of all suitable
Knowledge
Essential
Private Land Stewardship;
(potential) Warty Jumping-slug habitats within gap
Habitat Restoration
the Canadian range on southern Vancouver
Island using information in habitat description.
Delineate and label these spatial areas into
sites.
2. From spatial mapping, prioritize sites for
Knowledge
Essential
Warty Jumping-slug inventory based habitat
gap
suitability rating (e.g., high, medium, low) and
previous/ongoing inventory or known records.
3. Inventory potential unsurveyed priority
1, 2, 4, 5, 6,
Necessary
habitats (as determined from #2 above) within
7, 8, 9
the range of Warty Jumping-slug.
Monitor Trends
4. Based on information gained through
All
Necessary
inventory, develop monitoring program to
investigate the vegetative habitat components
and microhabitat components (e.g., coarse
woody debris, micro-humidity) of each known
location. Monitoring program would allow
understanding of changes over time from
potential threats, including climate change.
Monitor Trends
5. As part of a long-term monitoring program,
11.2
Beneficial
assess changes in habitat use and distribution
due to the effects of climate change (e.g., more
frequent drought).
Conservation
Framework action group
a
Threat numbers according to the IUCN-CMP classification (see Table 2 for details).
19
b
Essential (urgent and important, needs to start immediately); Necessary (important but not urgent, action can start in 2–5 years); or Beneficial
(action is beneficial and could start at any time that was feasible).
c
Protection can be achieved through various mechanisms including: voluntary stewardship agreements, conservation covenants, sale by willing
vendors on private lands, land use designations, and protected areas.
6.3
Narrative to Support Recovery Planning Table
Warty Jumping-slug is recommended for inclusion in the category of “species at risk” under the
provincial Forest and Range Practices Act (FRPA), which enables habitat management tools as
per the Identified Wildlife Management Strategy. Protection measures under this Act include the
establishment of Wildlife Habitat Areas to help protect the species’ habitat from forestry threats
on provincial Crown land.
Locations of Warty Jumping-slug within the Carmanah Walbran Provincial Park and Pacific Rim
National Park Reserve are afforded protection through the legal provisions of the BC Park Act
and the Canada National Parks Act, respectively. However, within protected areas, further work
may be needed to address habitat needs and threats at the specific locations where Warty
Jumping-slugs occur.
Within regional parks, collaborative work is needed with parks planning to ensure Warty
Jumping-slug locations and associated habitat are incorporated into management plans, future
recreational development within the park, and vegetation management. Habitat management for
Warty Jumping-slug at each location may require location-specific plans, or may be able to be
incorporated with existing management plans (such as park plans, land use plans, forest
stewardship plans, development plans, and other similar planning documents). Location-specific
management plans would incorporate threat mitigation (such as impacts from recreational
activities, vegetation management, and habitat modification).
On private lands and in regional parks, protection of occupied locations is to be accomplished
through stewardship actions. To successfully protect many species at risk in B.C., voluntary
initiatives by all Canadians will be important to help maintain areas of natural ecosystems that
support these species. This stewardship approach will cover many different kinds of activities,
including: following guidelines or best management practices to support species at risk;
voluntarily protecting important areas of habitat; conservation covenants on property titles; and
eco-gifting or sale of property (in whole or in part) to protect certain ecosystems or species at
risk. Both government and non-governmental organizations have successfully conserved lands in
the province.
Several known locations and much potential habitat for Warty Jumping-slug are on private lands
(Table 1) used for forestry or other purposes. Stewardship is an essential part of this management
plan and will involve engaging landowners and managers in voluntarily protection measures.
Specific research on habitat requirements, clarification of threats, and better information on
distribution is needed to address more effective protection measures for Warty Jumping-slug.
This information will allow the development of improved best management practices guidelines.
20
Inventory for Warty Jumping-slug within unchecked suitable habitats on southern Vancouver
Island is needed. The first step is to map all potential habitats within the historic range of the
species and assess habitat suitability using orthophotos, satellite imagery, forest cover maps, and
biophysical mapping. The second step is to generate a prioritized list of locations for inventory
based on habitat suitability. The third step is to conduct field surveys at an appropriate time of
the year (spring/early summer and fall) and under suitable moist conditions. Field visits are also
required to locate key microhabitat features, such as patches of moist older forest, riparian areas,
and locations with deep forest litter, and to confirm habitat suitability. Multiple surveys per year
are recommended to increase chances of detecting rare species. Initially, the surveys are to target
federal and provincial Crown lands. If new locations are found, contact with the respective
landowners should be initiated and best management practices applied.
Inventory, monitoring, and habitat assessment can be completed through a multi-species
approach that includes all gastropods. Inventory for Warty Jumping-slug can incorporate
searches for other gastropods at risk including the Oregon Forestsnail (Allogona townsendiana),
Puget Oregonian Snail (Cryptomastix devia), Blue-gray Taildropper slug (Prophysaon
coeruleum), and Dromedary Jumping-slug (Hemophilia dromedarius) as well as introduced
gastropods.
Selected habitat features and populations of Warty Jumping-slug within protected locations
(e.g., within parks) need to be monitored to assess effectiveness of management actions.
7 Measuring progress
The following performance indicators provide a way to define and measure progress toward
achieving the population and distribution goal and recovery objectives. Performance measures
are listed below for each objective.
The successful implementation of recovery actions for Warty Jumping-slug will be indicated
through monitoring of locations and habitat trends through time. Warty Jumping-slug may have
an annual life cycle and therefore population sizes may vary from year to year and overall
population (on a scale of decades) may vary within areas of suitable habitat. Population
monitoring will allow for an indication of possible extirpation at a given location, changes in
area of extent at a given location, and whether the number of extant locations is stable or
increasing. The management plan will be reviewed in 5 years to assess progress and to identify
additional approaches.
The performance indicators presented below provide a way to define and measure progress
toward achieving the population and distribution goal and management objectives. Performance
measures are listed below for each objective.
Objective 1: To secure protection 8 for the known locations (and new locations) and habitats of
Warty Jumping-slug.
8
Protection can be achieved through various mechanisms including: voluntary stewardship agreements, conservation covenants, sale by willing
vendors on private lands, land use designations, and protected areas.
21
•
•
•
•
Recommend Warty Jumping-slug be a priority for listing as Identified Wildlife under the
provincial Forest and Range Practices Act.
Stewardship agreements and/or covenants have been established for known (and any
new) Warty Jumping-slug locations on regional district and municipal lands by 2016.
Where appropriate, protection measures and threat mitigation has been initiated for all
locations through existing legislative protection (e.g., Protected Areas, Wildlife Habitat
Areas, landscape management plans) and local government bylaws and planning
(e.g., official community plans, development permit areas) by 2016.
Attempt contact with private landowners with occupied or potential habitat by 2016.
Objective 2: To assess and mitigate the extent of the current threats (IUCN-CMP Threats 1, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9) at all locations in B.C.
• Best management practices guidelines for Warty Jumping-slug have been drafted for
each landowner or land manager, outlining the threats applicable to each location by
2016.
• Assist landowners with identifying actions that minimize primary threats to Warty
Jumping-slug, link with other species at risk (if possible) and identify management
actions that allow for multi-species approaches, by 2016.
Objective 3: To address knowledge gaps (e.g., habitat requirements, range extent within
Vancouver Island) for Warty Jumping-slug.
• An inventory schedule has been determined for surveying Warty Jumping-slug in
potential habitats in B.C. by 2014.
• A standardized inventory protocol for monitoring presence and habitat assessment of
Warty Jumping-slug is developed by 2014.
• Inventory of Warty Jumping-slug potential habitat in B.C. has been initiated by 2015.
8 Effects on Other Species
Approximately 24 species are known to inhabit forest similar to Warty Jumping-slug. Integrating
Warty Jumping-slug habitat protection into measures that protect these additional species will
allow for habitat connectivity and potential future habitat.
Coordinated, ecosystem-based approaches are needed to ensure Warty Jumping-slug recovery
actions are compatible with activities for other species and ecosystems of southern Vancouver
Island.
Survey and habitat assessments for Warty Jumping-slug may increase knowledge about other
gastropods at risk: 9
• Dromedary Jumping-slug (Hemphillia dromedarius) (Endangered 2003), which is known
from similar habitat types on southern Vancouver Island.
• Evening Fieldslug (Deroceras hesperium) (Data Deficient 2003)
• Threaded Vertigo (Nearctula sp. 1) (Special Concern 2010)
9
COSEWIC status is in brackets following species’ name.
22
•
Oregon Forestsnail (Allogona townsendiana) (Endangered 2002)
Plant species that may benefit as a result of recovery efforts for Warty Jumping-slug:8
• Scouler’s corydalis (Corydalis scouleri) (Threatened 2001)
• phantom orchid (Cephalanthera austiniae) (Threatened 2000)
• coastal wood fern (Dryopteris arguta) (Special Concern 2001)
• streambank lupine (Lupinus rivularis) (Endangered 2002)
23
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BC.
27
APPENDIX 1. WARTY JUMPING-SLUG GASTROPOD SURVEYS
Table A1. Multi-species gastropod surveys that included Warty Jumping-slug as a target species.
Number of
Vancouver island
sites surveyed
Number of
Gulf Islands sites
surveyed
N/A
N/A
Ovaska and Sopuck 2000, 2002a,
2003a; Ovaska et al. 2001
24
0
2000–2001
Ovaska et al. 2001
104
0
2002
Ovaska and Sopuck 2002b
3
0
2003
Ovaska and Sopuck 2003b
22
0
2003
Ovaska and Sopuck 2003c
30
13
2003–2004
Ovaska and Sopuck 2004
39
0
2006
Ovaska and Sopuck 2006a
26
0
2006
Ovaska and Sopuck 2006b
21
0
2007
Ovaska and Sopuck 2007a
6
0
2007
Ovaska and Sopuck 2007b
6
0
2006
Ovaska and Sopuck 2007c
21
0
2008
COSEWIC 2010
13
0
2008
Ovaska and Sopuck 2008
22
0
2008
Ovaska and Sopuck 2009a
22
0
2008
Ovaska and Sopuck 2009b
6
0
2007–2009
Ovaska and Sopuck 2009c
22
0
2009
DND 2010
6
0
2010
Ovaska and Sopuck 2010
10
0
2011
Ovaska and Sopuck 2011
10
0
2009
Sopuck and Ovaska 2010
0
5
1990–2011
R. Forsyth personal data 2011
unknown
unknown
Survey year
Report citation
1984
Cameron 1986
1999–2003
Total: 1984–2011
413
18
28
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