H. M. Merrill,
L. O. Barthold,
W. J. Burke,
A. J. Wood,
PTI's Technology Assessment Group (TAG), organized in 1984,
licensed a novel system for productivity improvement in 1986
and began offering productivity improvement studies to clients
the same year. The method is of interest to Power Technology
readers both because of its analytical basis and because it has
proven particularly useful in the Electric Utility Industry.
Organizational design and productivity enhancement enjoy one
of the most powerful and fastest growing computer-based aids in
the management portfolio. The basic method, developed by
General Electric, was applied throughout that company and to a
wide variety of outside businesses. Since its license to TAG, the
method has been the subject of intensive updating and is identified as "INTROSPECT+."
The method benefits from a comprehensive data base which
serves to identify opportunities. That data base consists of:
1. A comprehensive list of employees, including salary and
organizational position.
2. The time spent by each employee on each of approximately
250 work activities, defined by a "dictionary" tailored to the
client organization.
3. Characteristics of each management or supervisory position,
sufficient to estimate the potential management span of
control for that position.
4. Mission statements for each component in the organization.
Data of that sort give a new perspective to work distribution
within an organization when analyzed properly. Figure 1 shows a
simplified matrix in which work implicit in "jobs" is converted to
work division by "activity." The result, apart from its value in
analyzing productivity issues, gives new insights into how an
organization works, who is really doing what, and how much
various activities cost irrespective of the number of people
Power wheeling and transmission access is today's hottest
issue. In the revolutionary changes the power industry is
experiencing, procedures for providing transmission access and
wheeling are the key ingredient (and principal impediment) to
deregulation, competition, and privatization. Even at today's
levels, and in today's regulatory environment, potential wheeling
transactions often exceed the capacity of the network.
The most important unsolved operations and planning
engineering problem associated with wheeling is the development of a simple, straightforward and accurate indication of a
power network's capacity to transfer power. This would be an
analog to a telephone company's busy signal. Utilities need this
to maintain the security of the network. Regulators need to know
how much capacity the network really has. Independent
producers and purchasers need to know how much power they
truly can move.
Unfortunately, there is no simple equivalent of the telephone
company's busy signal on a power network. Transfer capacity is
not just the rating of a single line or a few lines, but a function
of the strength of the network as a whole. It can be defined in
terms of reliability criteria, which themselves are subjective and
somewhat imprecise. It varies as switching operations occur and
as demand, generation, and wheeling patterns change and even
is affected by loop flows and actions taken by operators of other
Because of this, explaining transfer capability limits between
only three interconnected systems becomes confusing. Figure 1
illustrates an attempt to define how much power system X can
transmit to system Y, with a simultaneous transfer from X to Z.
For instance, if X is transmitting 1300 MW to Y, then the transfer
capability between X and Z is 2600 MW (Z to X) or 2000 MW (X
to Z). Developing sets of transfer capability diagrams for just a
three-area system, for a spectrum of operating conditions, takes
a lot of time and inter-utility cooperation. Transfer capabilities for
more complex systems are even harder to model.
2000 .
Figure 1. Example Distribution of Work
by Employee in a Financial Group of Six People
7000 6000 500
4000 3000 2000 1000
100Q 2000 3000 4000 60
Modern relational data bases, applied to such applications,
allow an almost unlimited variety of analyses. Figure 2, for example, shows that people with a wide variety of salary levels spend
time on purchasing. The salaries fall both above and below the
(Continued on Page 2)
Z TO X 3000
Figure 1. Typical Bi-Axis Transfer Capability Polygon
Source: EPRI EL-3425
(Continued on Page 2)
STREAMLINING (Continued from page 1)
TAG has made a number of important improvements in
activity-based methods -improvements in accuracy, procedural
efficiency, and scope over the original technology on which it
was based. Accuracy has been enhanced by improved data
input forms and checking procedures, improved span of control
algorithms, more comprehensive analysis software, quantified
mission definitions and reduced data sensitivity to dictionary
structure. Procedural efficiency has been enhanced by faster,
more accurate data turn-around, pre-study familiarization workshops, reduced time burden on high level client staff, and on-site
software installation. At the same time the scope has been
extended to include analyses of "Affordable cost," mission compatibility and overlap, priority/cost compatibility, and Indirect!
Direct cost.
The purpose of INTROSPECT+ studies varies from one company to the next. Utilities are often interested in assuring that
staff are deployed both to reflect organizational priorities and to
provide maximum leverage with respect to non-staff costs. In one
recent study the objective was to draw sufficient people from the
existing organization to staff two new undertakings. In another
rapidly growing organization, management wanted to set up an
efficient future organization pattern to guide the company's
growth. Where cost reduction is the main target, measurable
payback of INTROSPECT+ is usually in the range of 10% to
15% of payroll.
It has been said that in management, an ounce of good judgment is worth a pound of computer output. There are no
algorithms for organizational design or for optimal work allocation. Yet approaches such as INTROSPECT+ that use sophisticated data bases provide the maximum of factual and analytical
input to what must eventually be judgmental decisions. D
band deemed "affordable" for that activity. The management of
this hypothetical company might use these data to develop a
more cost effective organizational structure to accomplish the
purchasing function.
o I
Figure 2. Salary Histogram for Activity 212 - Purchasing
In optimizing organizational structure one assumes, for the
moment, that all the work output of the system remains necessary. The objective is to minimize work input and the primary
target is management work created by complexity in the organization itself. Excess management effort may be eliminated
through reductions in layers and compartmentalization. Productivity may be further enhanced by better communications, clearer
sense of mission and shorter response-time. It is not unusual to
see the "cost to manage" drop by 30% nor is it surprising to
see the quality of management go up as it becomes a full time
To facilitate structure improvement, TAG software analyzes
mission similarity, management span potential, and other factors.
The software then helps explore hypothetical merging of components, analyzing each with respect to (1) manageability and (2)
productivity improvement resulting from the new work mix.
A second phase of INTROSPECT+ studies challenge the
quantity, location, and efficiency with which work is done by first
identifying a series of productivity "Issues," then analyzing
them using the database as a resource.
Some issues are based on corporate objectives or known
problems, e.g.:
• the need to shorten product-introduction cycle
• high indirect/direct labor ratio
• erosion of profitability
• poor communications
• high employee turnover
• lack of mission clarity.
Others are suggested by the information in the data base itself,
e.g., work patterns which show:
(Continued from page 1)
Today's methods for measuring transmission capacity work
only because:
• the parties have a large and competent engineering staff,
o they are willing to exchange data and cooperate in studies,
• they are not in serious competition, so utility-to-utility differences in defining transfer capabilities are not seen as competitive ploys.
Under conditions now evolving with wholesale power generators playing a larger role, only the first of these conditions is
likely to hold, and only for the large IPP's: the cooperative
nature of today's environment may be lost, and the definition of
transfer capacity may be a bone of contention. Accordingly,
today's methods for measuring transmission capability will probably not work in the future.
• a high degree of fragmentation
• duplication among components
• inconsistency with mission
• salary range/skill incompatibility
• inconsistency with priorities
• cost variations among like components
• inconsistency with other companies.
Figure 1 illustrated the value of identifying work patterns by
activities rather than job assignments. The number of "equivalent people" devoted to an activity is even more useful if compared with like data from other components within the same
company or with other, parametrically similar companies. The
latter comparison uses a "blind" data base containing data on
approximately 200 prior Introspect studies. Comparisons, both
internal and external, can also be normalized in terms of
achievement-related data, e.g., maintenance work orders, availability, etc.
A Busy Signal: Specifications
Under deregulation and increased wheeling, a new method for
defining transfer capacity is needed, with the following characteristics:
• it should require straight-forward calculations,
o it should represent an objective, defensible, standard,
• it should be compatible with today's regulated industry structure, and with likely evolutions thereof,
• it should not be so conservative as to unduly limit wheeling,
• it should represent variations in operating conditions and network changes due to maintenance, switching, etc., and
• it should lend itself to on-line use in control centers as well
as consistent application in planning.
It is particularly important that this method be so clearly acceptable to all parties that the courts and commissions will not
have to spend inordinate amounts of time reviewing and redefining transmission transfer capability. The telephone system defines its transmission capability in a similar manner. When circuit
or switching capacity is in use, a simple, recognizable busy signal can be sent. Such a method is not available today in the
power system. The utilities, commissions, and independent
wholesale power generators do not get busy signals - they
receive a minor and probably irritating dissertation on transfer
capability calculations. 0
73-74 75-76 77-78 79-80 81-82 83-84 85-86 87-88
Figure 2: Ph.D. Enrollment
There is an urgent need for more engineering education during college years and on a continuing basis. Several states now
require that engineers take periodic courses to maintain professional registration.
IEEE and EEl have recently undertaken a program to attract
more students to power engineering. Improving education and
assuring professional competence are major goals of this initiative. It includes promotion of science and engineering at the
high school level, encouraging enrollment in power engineering,
and funding of graduate students to produce needed new
Continuing education courses are an essential resource for
engineers to maintain professional competence. Programs are
available from many sources including universities, equipment
manufacturers, training firms, consultants, and professional
organizations like IEEE. PTI has long been committed to providing continuing education in power systems engineering.
The PTI educational programs, started in 1969, utilize instructors who are engineers actively engaged in solving real system
problems. PTI's educational programs have shown a substantial
increase in both the number of students and companies
represented. Figure 3 shows enrollment of domestic and foreign
students in PTI's courses during the past 5 years. Enrollment
has doubled from about 400 in 1985 to more than 870 last year
with a rapid increase in domestic enrollment.
T. G. Schmehl, Manager
Educational Programs
Today, the threat of engineers becoming
obsolete is greater than ever. Technology is
advancing at a pace which far exceeds that
of even a few years ago. The power industry is a global industry, thus, engineers
must keep abreast of world-wide developments.
The key to preventing obsolescence, and maintaining the
U.S.A.'s technical leadership, is education. Strong educational
curriculums which begin in high schools, are embellished in colleges and universities, and perpetuated through continuing education, are a necessity. An engineer who maintains technical
competence and stays up with new developments and advancements in technology extends and enhances his or her career.
Annually, the IEEE Power Engineering Education Committee
surveys U.S.A. universities and colleges to assess resources and
enrollment in the power engineering curriculum. Figure 1
presents the enrollment of domestic and foreign students in full
time masters degree programs. The dominance of foreign students in the 1980s is very apparent. An overall decline in power
engineering enrollment in the past few years is also evident.
71-72 73-74 75-76 77-78 79-80 81-82 83-84 85-86 87-88
Figure 3: Enrollment in PTI Short Courses
Figure 1: M.S. Enrollment
Engineers playa key role in shaping the prominence of the
U.S.A. in the world market. Fulfilling that role requires a good
education, continuing education, and leadership examples which
motivate peers and subordinates. Continuing education is a
necessity to maintain professional competence, prevent obsolescence, and keep the U.S.A. competitive and at the cutting edge
of technology and competition. 0
Figure 2 illustrates full time enrollment in power engineering
doctorate programs. The dominance of foreign students is even
more pronounced here. The decline in enrollment in the past
several years also exists in doctorate programs. Undergraduate
enrollment in power engineering shows similar trends.
J. J. Miller,
Analytical Engineer
Multiple transmission circuits are commonly placed on the same structure to
make efficient use of rights-of-way. This
proximity of circuits makes circuit-to-circuit
faults possible. It is often difficult to predict
what fault currents and voltages will result from a circuit-to-circuit
fault given the complexity of most power systems. In most cases,
this type of fault analysis can best be executed with the help of
a digital computer program. The following example illustrates
simulation of a circuit-ta-circuit fault condition using PTI's Power
System Simulator, PSS/E.
In simulating unbalanced fault conditions, the mutual coupling
between parallel circuits can be influential. When a transmission
system is modeled by using symmetrical components, mutual
coupling between circuits is typically negligible in the positive
and negative sequence and strong in the zero sequence. In
PSS/E, the zero sequence coupling between circuits can be
represented in unbalanced fault analysis.
Figure 1 shows a simple example with two adjacent circuits in
a six bus system with two sources. One circuit is 115 kV, the
other is 345 kV. To simplify interpretation of the results, the system is assumed to have no load and mutual coupling of the circuits is ignored.
The fault condition to be analyzed is a fault from phase 'X of
one circuit to phase 'X of the other circuit located at the end of
the line remote from the generation. Since power systems are
represented in per unit in PSS/E, the voltage difference from 115
kV to 345 kV will not automatically be realized, but the voltage
difference can be represented by introducing a fictitious trans-
Figure 1
power technology
Power Technologies, Inc.
1482 Erie Boulevard
P.O. Box 1058
Schenectady, N.V. 12301-1058
Telephone (518) 374-1220
Telex 145498 POWER TECH SCH
Telefax (518) 346-2777
For Further Information
Contact: Jeanne M. Aviles
former with a tap which has a ratio of the two voltage levels to
be tied together. In this example, the ratio of the transformer
should be 345:115 or 3:1. Figure 2 shows the example system
with the transformer included. The transformer could have been
placed at any point along the parallel circuits, corresponding to
the location of the fault, by introducing new buses, a simple task
in PSS/E. Note that the tap ratio of the transformer is 3.0 with
the tapped side on the low voltage bus (Bus 3) so the proper
flow of current is simulated. The new bus (Bus 7) is given a
base voltage of 345 kV. Using the unbalanced fault analysis section of PSS/E, a single 'N phase switch is connected between
Bus 6 and Bus 7 to simulate the desired fault condition and the
system solved.
Figure 2
The magnitude of the 'N phase voltage at Bus 3 is raised to
83.1 kV line-to-ground from its normal value of 65.3 kV, whereas
the remaining two phases are at near nominal voltage. The magnitude of current flowing from Bus 3 to Bus 7 in 'X phase is
1643 amps. The 'B' and 'C' phase currents are essentially zero,
as expected. The remaining results for this case show that the
voltages and currents at Bus 6 are consistent with the values at
Bus 3.
When modeling a circuit-ta-circuit fault it is important to consider the phase angle displacement between the two circuits
involved. For example, phase 'A' of the 115 kV system may be 30
degrees displaced of phase 'A' of the 345 kV system of Figure 1
due to different transformer connections. This can be handled in
PSS/E by selecting the appropriate phase angle values for the
step-up transformers. Also, the phase displacement for an 'A'
phase to 'B' phase circuit-to-circuit fault can be properly handled
in PSS/E by introducing another fictitious bus and using the
phase-to-phase fault option.
The simple example shown here illustrates how PSS/E can be
used to solve a fault condition of potential concern. This type of
analysis, which requires a short circuit program that includes
transformer tap ratios, is useful in setting relays or in understanding relay misoperation, often the result of circuit-to-circuit
faults. D
--------TRANSMISSION/DISTRIBUTION-------Fundamentals of Protective Relaying
Apr. 2-4, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Power Distribution Systems
Oct. 2-6, 1989
Apr. 23-27, 1990
Boston, MA
San Francisco, CA
Dynamic & Static Thermal
Line Rating Methods
May 7-9, 1990
Atlanta, GA
-------TRANSMISSION PLANNING------Power System Dynamics
Dec. 4-8, 1989
Mar. 5-9, 1990
Apr. 30-May 4, 1990
Phoenix, AZ
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Denver, CO
Introductory PSS/E User's Course
Apr. 23-27, 1990
PSS/E Advanced User's Course
Dec. 4-8, 1989
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Voltage Control & Reactive Power Planning
May 22-24, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Disturbance Monitoring & Analysis
Apr. 18-20, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Transmission Reliability Assessment
Oct. 31-Nov. 3, 1989
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Dynamics of Frequency and AGC
Feb. 21-23, 1990
San Francisco, CA
Electric & Magnetic Fields of Power Lines
Mar. 13-15, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Transformer Concepts & Applications
May 7-9, 1990
Power System Harmonics and PF Improvement
May 30-June 1, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
---------UNDERGROUNDCABLE------Oct. 23-27, 1989
Mar. 26-30, 1990
Underground Cable Systems
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Power System Planning Techniques
Nov. 6-10, 1989
Mar. 19-23, 1990
May 7-11, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
St. Louis, MO
Power System Scheduling & Operation
Oct. 16-20, 1989
Apr. 2-6, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
San Francisco, CA
Least Cost Planning
Nov. 15-17, 1989
$ 950
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Application of Optimizing Techniques
Apr. 30-May 4, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Transmission Access and Power Wheeling
June 11-13, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Reliability Analysis Techniques
June 4-8, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Industrial Power System Engineering
Nov. 27-Dec. 1, 1989
Power Plant Performance
Feb. 26-Mar. 2, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Combined Cycle Application & Performance
Mar. 21-23, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
Generation Expansion with
Independent Power Producers
May 15-17, 1990
PTI Offices-Schenectady, NY
For further information on courses or registration contact:
Barbara E. White
Power Technologies, Inc.
p.o. Box 1058
Schenectady, NY 12301-1058
Telephone (518) 374-1220
Telefax (518) 346-2777
Telex 145498 POWER TECH SCH
Author(s) and (Affiliation)
Publication Title
Date & Occasion of Presentation
B.K. Johnson
HVDC Models Used in Stability Studies
4/89, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,
Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 1153-1163.
S.J. Balser and
H.K. Clark (PTI)
Long-Term Disturbance Monitoring for
Improved System Analysis
4/89 - IEEE Computer Applications
in Power Magazine
C.v. Dohner (EPRI),
M.A. Sager and
A.J. Wood (PTI)
Regional Studies of the Economic Benefits
of Improvements in the Reliability of
Advanced Design Gas Turbines
5/30-6/2/89 - Proceedings of 16th INTER-RAM
Conference for the Electric Power Industry
Monterey, CA
R.J. Ringlee and
J.R. Stewart (PTI)
Geomagnetic Effects on Power Systems
7/89 - IEEE Power Engineering Review,
Vol. 9, No.7
B.P. Lam, W.E. Kazibwe,
N.D. Reppen, and
GW. Woodzell (PTI)
An Investigation of Expert System
Applications to Contingency Selection
and Analysis
7/17-20189 - Second Symposium on Expert
Systems Application to Power Systems,
Seattle, WA
D. Ahner, R. Brandon,
L. Georgiopoulos, and
C. Kona (PTI)
Development of an On-Line Turbine
Condition Monitor Using an Expert System
7/17-20/89 - Second Symposium on Expert
Systems Application to Power Systems,
Seattle, WA
D.J. Ahner (PTI)
Evaluating Benefits with Independent and
Cogenerated Power Production
9/12-14/89 - Industrial Energy Technical
Conference, Houston, TX
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