Traditional Animation Guide

Traditional Animation Guide
TOON BOOM HARMONY 12.1
- Advanced Edition -
Traditional Animation Guide
Legal Notices
Toon Boom Animation Inc.
4200 Saint-Laurent, Suite 1020
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
H2W 2R2
Tel: +1 514 278 8666
Fax: +1 514 278 2666
toonboom.com
Disclaimer
The content of this guide is covered by a specific limited warranty and exclusions and limit of liability under the
applicable License Agreement as supplemented by the special terms and conditions for Adobe®Flash® File
Format (SWF). For details, refer to the License Agreement and to those special terms and conditions.
The content of this guide is the property of Toon Boom Animation Inc. and is copyrighted.
Any reproduction in whole or in part is strictly prohibited.
Trademarks
Harmony is a trademark of Toon Boom Animation Inc.
Publication Date
2015-08-07
Copyright © 2015 Toon Boom Animation Inc. All rights reserved.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Contents
Toon Boom Harmony 12.1- Advanced Edition -Traditional Animation Guide
1
Contents
3
Chapter 1: Traditional Animation - An Introduction
9
Chapter 2: Scanning
11
The Scanning Process
11
Scanning and Importing Drawings
12
Overwriting Drawings
20
Custom Vectorization Parameters
21
Options Tab
22
Help Tab
24
File IO Options
24
Registration Options
25
Filtering Options
25
Options for bitmap that has no registration information
27
RGB Keying Options
27
Colour Vectorization Options
28
Bubble Usage (implemented only for colour vectorization's line art)
28
4 Colour Vectorization
28
Creating a Vectorization Style
29
Setting the VectOptions.conf File
31
Chapter 3: Timing
37
Preparation
37
Frames
39
Creating Drawings
41
Layer and Column Concepts
42
Layer and Column Types
43
Advanced Column Types
45
Adding New Drawing Elements
46
Deleting Layers and Columns
49
Layer and Column Properties
50
Modifying Layers and Columns
53
Duplicating Layers and Columns
56
Cloning Layers and Columns
56
Adding an Annotation Column
57
3
Contents
Filling Exposure
62
Filling Exposure Mode
63
Typing Exposure
64
Holding Exposure
65
Extending a Single Exposure
66
Extending an Exposure Sequence
67
Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
69
Dragging Cells
70
Increasing and Decreasing Exposure
73
Deleting Exposure
75
Inserting Blank Cells
76
Setting the Exposure
77
Filling a Selection with a Single Exposure
78
Filling a Selection with a Sequence
79
Filling a Selection Randomly
81
Filling Empty Cells
82
Creating Cycles
83
Overwriting Exposures and Keyframes
86
Managing Key Exposures
87
Adding Key Exposures
87
Removing Key Exposures
89
Removing Duplicate Key Exposures
89
Pasting Key Exposures Using Different Modes
90
Navigating between Frames and Columns
92
Managing Drawings
93
Renaming a Drawing
93
Deleting a Drawing
95
Duplicating a Drawing
96
Copying and Pasting Drawings
96
Merging Drawings
98
Modifying the Layer and Column Display
101
Expanding and Collapsing Layers and Columns
101
Showing or Hiding Layers
102
Showing and Hiding Columns
104
Modifying the Look of the Column
107
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Drawing Identification
108
Key Drawing
109
Breakdown Drawing
110
Xsheet Thumbnails
113
Changing the Colour of a Layer or Column
113
Setting Scene Markers
115
Setting Tempo Markers
118
Printing the Xsheet
119
Modifying Paste Presets
121
Chapter 4: Colour Styling and Colour Models
125
Preparation
125
Colour Model Storage
126
Scene Creation
126
Colour Model Scene Structure
127
Setting Up the Workspace
127
Naming
127
Working with Palettes
130
Palette Lists
131
Palette File Storage
134
Element Level
135
Scene Level
135
Palette Backup
135
Creating a Colour Palette
135
Duplicating a Colour Palette
139
Cloning a Colour Palette
140
Importing and Linking Palettes
142
Colours
147
Adding a Colour Swatch
148
Editing Gradients and Textures
154
Colour Display Modes
159
Copying and Pasting Colours
160
Mixing Colours
161
Painting the Model
163
Sharing the Colour Model
165
Chapter 5: Ink and Paint
171
5
Contents
Preparation
172
Dirt Clean Up
176
Removing Art Inside a Selection
178
Removing Small Strokes in the Colour Art Layer
179
Art Layers
180
Creating Strokes
183
Painting
185
Painting Using the Paint Tool
186
Advanced Painting Features
187
Repaint Selection
187
Repaint Selection on All Drawings
188
Repaint Outside Selection
188
Repaint Outside Selection on All Drawings
188
Unpaint Selection
189
Unpaint Selection on All Drawings
189
Unpaint Outside Selection
189
Unpaint Outside Selection on All Drawings
190
Selecting a Colour in a Drawing
191
Importing Models
192
Editing Gradients and Textures
196
Closing Gaps
202
Protecting Colours
203
Respecting Protected Colours
204
Highlighting a Selected Colour
204
Inverting a Colour Selection
204
Inking the Lines
205
Repaint Tool
205
Repaint Brush Mode
206
Ink Tool
206
Protecting Colours
207
Breaking Triangles
208
Verifying the Zones are Painted
209
Ink and Paint Tool Properties
211
Ink Tool Properties
211
Paint Tool Properties
213
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Lasso and Marquee
213
Painting Modes
214
Paint Mode
214
Paint Unpainted Mode
214
Repaint Mode
214
Unpaint Mode
215
Paint and Remove Texture
215
Apply to Multiple Drawings
215
Apply to All Visible Drawings
216
Respect Protected Colour
216
Use Stored Colour Gradient
216
Select Newly Painted, Repainted and Unpainted Contours/Lines
217
Close Gap
217
Glossary
218
Index
227
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
8
Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Chapter 1: Traditional Animation - An Introduction
Harmony is a high-performance animation software which not only offers a wide range of features, but also
handles more than one animation type and workflow. In this guide, you will learn how to perform tasks related to
the traditional animation workflow from start to finish using Harmony.
Before reading this guide, be sure to take some time to familiarize yourself with the basic concepts in the
Fundamentals Guide. Each chapter is self-contained. so you can concentrate only on the chapter pertaining to
your task. You do not need to read the entire guide, but you should read the whole chapter before starting to
work.
Topics in this section:
•
Scanning on page 11
•
Timing on page 37
•
Colour Styling and Colour Models on page 125
•
Ink and Paint on page 171
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
10
Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Chapter 2: Scanning
Once your traditional animation sequences are completed and cleaned up, you're ready to scan and import them
in Harmony. The scanning process is the point where the traditional production becomes digital. It's the moment
where you use Harmony to control the project.
This chapter is divided as follows:
•
The Scanning Process on page 11
•
Scanning and Importing Drawings on page 12
•
Custom Vectorization Parameters on page 21
The Scanning Process
There are three steps in the scanning process which Harmony handles automatically:
•
Vectorization
•
Line art and colour art creation
•
Optical registration
You can choose the following vectorization styles, which are set at the vectorization step:
•
Solid lines
•
Texture lines
11
Chapter 2: Scanning
This retains the texture from the original drawing and applies it to the vectorized drawing as a bitmap
filling zone.
Harmony can receive images from any TWAIN device, such as scanners or digital cameras. You can load these
images as bitmaps into your scene or convert them into vector-based images that can be edited using
Harmony.
You must install a TWAIN driver for your device in order to access its contents. Refer to the manufacturer of
your device to get a TWAIN driver. Once all the animation layers are scanned in, you can set the timing in the
digital exposure sheet.
Scanning and Importing Drawings
Once your scene length is set, you can start scanning drawings and importing them into Harmony in one of the
following ways:
A bitmap image is an image composed of pixels that are both size and resolution dependent. In Harmony, you
can scan an image as a bitmap drawing.
You can turn bitmap images into vector drawings, while maintaining the sketchiness of a pencil line or into
vector images with a bitmap fill. Both options can add life to an animation, which straight vectorization with
smoothing does not usually afford.
How to scan images as bitmap drawings
1. From the top menu, select File > Import > From Scanner.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
The Scan Drawings window opens.
2. Select your scanner from the Scanner list.
3. In the Layer section, decide if the scanned or imported image will be placed on a new layer or existing
layer.
‣
Create Layer: Scans or imports the image into a new layer. Select one of the following options:
Parameter
Description
Create Single Layer Named
Creates a layer you can name.
Create Layer(s) Based on Filenames
Creates a layer based on each unique filename prefix. For example,
the filenames a-1.tga, a-2.tga and b-1.tga will create layers named
"a" and "b", where "a" has two drawings and "b" has one. When creating a single layer from these three filenames, all three drawings will
be inserted in the new layers.
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Chapter 2: Scanning
‣
Add to Existing Layer: Scans or imports the image into an existing layer. Select a layer from the
Layer list. You must scan into the same layer type if you're using an existing layer.
‣
Create Symbol for Acquired Items: Encapsulates the bitmap image in a symbol. To mix bitmap
images with vector drawings on the same layer, the bitmap image must be encapsulated in a symbol
and vice versa. Symbols will also be automatically added to the Symbol folder in the Library view.
4. In the Import Options section, select one of the following:
‣
Keep As Bitmap: Retains the imported image as a bitmap. In the Alignment section, decide on the
size and placement of your image within the camera frame. Depending on the Scene Settings (the
height and width in pixels that you chose for your project), an image that you import may get scaled
to the point where all its individual pixels become visible. There are three options available in the
Alignment section:
Parameter
Description
Enlarges or shrinks (but not distorts) the image height to match the full
height of the scene grid.
Fit
If the image orientation is landscape, this will enlarge or shrink (but not
distort) the image width to match that of the scene grid.
Note that the Fit alignment rule equals the Center Fit rule in the layer
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
properties.
This is the opposite of the Fit parameter. If the image orientation is portrait,
its width will be made to match the width of the scene grid. As a result, part
of the image’s height will extend beyond the height of the frame. This can be
useful if you want to make your background move up and down, or from left
to right to make it appear as if the camera is panning or to actually perform a
camera pan.
Pan
The opposite will apply to a landscape image. Its height will be fit to the
scene grid, therefore it is possible that the image will extend beyond the
scene grid's boundaries.
Note that the Pan alignment rule equals the Center First Page rule in the
layer properties.
Project Resolution
Scales the image in proportion to the scene's resolution. The system looks at
the resolution of the bitmap image, for example 4000 x 2000, then compares
it to the scene's resolution, for example 1920 x 1080, and adjusts the scale
factor in proportion. So, in this example, the bitmap would appear at 208%
(4000/1920). If you import a bitmap that is 960 x 540, it will be displayed at
50% (960/1920) of the size of the project resolution.
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Chapter 2: Scanning
Note that the Project Resolution alignment rule is equal to the As Is rule in
the layer properties.
‣
Import As Bitmap Drawing: Imports a bitmap drawing into a vector layer where you can edit the
image using the drawing tools. In the Alignment section, select one of the following:
Parameter
Description
Enlarges or shrinks (but not distort) to your image height to match the full
height of the scene frame (alignment grid).
Vertical Fit
Enlarges or shrinks (but not distort) to your image height to match the full
width of the scene frame (alignment grid).
Horizontal Fit
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Actual Size
Scales the image in proportion to the scene's resolution. The system looks at
the resolution of the bitmap image, for example 4000 x 2000, then compares
it to the scene's resolution, for example 1920 x 1080, and adjusts the scale
factor in proportion. So, in this example, the bitmap would appear at 208%
(4000/1920). If you import a bitmap that is 960 x 540, it will be displayed at
50% (960/1920) of the size of the project resolution.
5. In the Drawing Options section, set the following options if desired:
‣
Drawing Name: Name of the drawing to import.
‣
Hold Value: Type the number of frames that the drawing will be exposed.
‣
Scan and Advance: Lets you scan one drawing after another every time you click Scan.
‣
Flip Drawing: Mirrors the drawings horizontally and scans it this way.
6. Adjust the Scale control and sliders in the Preview Image window until you are satisfied with the view.
7. Click Scan to scan your drawing.
8. If you are scanning panoramic drawings, in the Page Panning section, move the slider to the next letter to
capture your next frame.
9. If you have more than one drawing, set the next drawing in place and click Scan again. Repeat until you
have finished scanning all your drawings.
How to import and vectorize bitmap drawings
1. From the top menu, select File > Import > From Scanner.
The Scan Drawings window opens.
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Chapter 2: Scanning
2. Select your scanner from the Scanner list.
3. Click Preview to get a test scan of your drawing.
4. In the Layer section, select one of the following:
‣
Create Layer: Imports an image into a new layer. Type a name for the layer in the Name field.
‣
Add to Existing Layer: Imports the image into an existing layer. Select a layer from the Layer list.
5. In the Import Options section, select the Convert to Vector Drawing option.
6. In the Vectorization section, set the following:
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
‣
Black and White: Vectorizes drawings as a solid black line; creates a 100% vector-based drawing. Set
the Threshold and Smooth parameters.
‣
Grey: Vectorizes the image as a mix of vector contour and greyscale bitmap filling. Lines keep the
texture from the scan, and the white of the paper becomes transparent.
‣
New Preset: Lets you create a new preset.
‣
Delete Preset: Lets you delete any preset in the list.
‣
Custom vectorization: Lets you set custom vectorization parameters—see Creating a Vectorization
Style on page 29.
7. In the Drawing Options section, set the following options if desired:
‣
Drawing Name: Name of the drawing to import.
‣
Hold Value: Type the number of frames that the drawing will be exposed.
‣
Scan and Advance: Lets you scan one drawing after another every time you click Scan.
‣
Overwrite: Lets you overwrite existing drawings—see Overwriting Drawings on page 20.
‣
Flip Drawing: Mirrors the drawings horizontally and scans it this way.
8. Adjust the Scale control and the sliders in the Preview Image window until you're satisfied with the view.
9. Click Scan to import your drawing.
10. If you are scanning panoramic drawings, in the Page Panning section, move the slider to the next letter to
capture your next frame.
11. If you have more than one drawing, set the next drawing in place and click Scan again. Repeat until you
have finished scanning all your drawings.
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Chapter 2: Scanning
Overwriting Drawings
At times, it might be more efficient to create a scene and fill in the exposure sheet before scanning. Then you
can simply scan your drawings to fill in the necessary cells in the exposure sheet. Note that when you start
scanning, the drawings are named sequentially regardless of whether there is an exposure or not in the Xsheet.
How to overwrite existing drawings
1. In the Xsheet, select the first cell to overwrite.
2. From the top menu, select File > Import > From Scanner.
3. In the Scan Drawings window, do the following:
‣
Scanner: Select your scanner from the list.
‣
Layer: Select the Add to Existing Layer option.
‣
Import Options: Select the Convert to Toon Boom Vector Drawing option.
‣
Vectorization: Select an appropriate option: Black and White or Grey, or create a new preset.
‣
Drawing Options: Select the Overwrite option.
4. Click Preview.
The scanner window opens.
5. Make any necessary adjustments to the image before scanning, then click Preview.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
6. In the Scan Drawings window, click Scan.
The scanned drawing replaces the selected cell in the Xsheet, filling the entire exposure. The Drawing
Options section indicates the name of the cell the drawing overwrote and its exposure value.
Custom Vectorization Parameters
You can create your own vectorization settings with Harmony. The vectorization parameters you create can be
saved, shared and also inserted into the VectOptions.conf file used by the Scan and Control Center modules
when scanning or vectorizing a series of drawings.
You can use an interface to select and test the different options, as well as type in some advanced settings.
The Vectorization Parameters dialog box lets you vectorize pencil drawings, along with any red, blue or green
pencil marks you may have used to indicate highlights and shadows. The drawing will be vectorized into pure red,
blue, green and black (RGB values), while creating colour art zones wherever lines connect. After painting in your
tones and highlights, change your pure RGB colours to transparent (0 Alpha) in the Colour Picker window and
watch the indicator colour zone lines disappear.
How to open the Vectorization Parameters dialog box
1. From the top menu, select File > Import > From Scanner.
You can also open it from any other import option that allows you to customize the vectorization parameters (i.e. from the scanner).
2. In the Scan Drawings window, do the following:
‣
In the Layer section, decide on the layer options.
‣
In the Import Options section, select the Convert to Toon Boom Vector Drawing option
‣
Click Preview.
3. In the Vectorization section, click the Vectorization Parameters
The Vectorization Parameters dialog box opens.
21
button.
Chapter 2: Scanning
•
Options Tab on page 22
•
Help Tab on page 24
Options Tab
The Options tab contains the main vectorization settings. More settings are available in the Help tab.
Parameter
Description
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
The input filters are applied to the bitmap image before it is vectorized.
One Pass: One threshold value is applied to both the Line and Colour Art.
For drawings with distinct vector-style lines of mattes, you only need one
pass.
Two Passes: Applies a different threshold value to each layer. For greyscale
drawings, you may want to perform the vectorization process twice to apply
different threshold values to the Line and Colour Art layers.
Input
Threshold: Determines which values in the scanned image are considered
part of the Line or Colour Art layer and what will be eliminated from the
vectorized drawing; 0% is white and 100% is black. The threshold is between
these two values.
Expand Bitmap: Lets you enter a value to scale the bitmap to detect small
variations in the line. Use this option if you scanned a greyscale image and
want to preserve small variations in the texture to apply to the line art.
Jag Filter: Lets you enter a value to scale back the bitmap to remove some
of the line’s roughness. This is useless when you have a drawing that appears
quite rough; the Jag filter will eliminate excess strokes in the final drawing.
The output filters are applied during the vectorization process.
No Colour Art: Does not generate filling zones in the Colour Art layer.
Output
No Texture: Does not generate texture in the Line Art layer in the final
images. Select this option to create solid lines in the final line art.
Generate Matte in Underlay Layer: Creates an opaque zone behind your
drawing’s lines to avoid seeing through the layers.
Colour as Texture: Converts colour values into a texture layer.
The optical registration options are used to automatically align drawings
based on the position of the peg holes on the animation paper. The peg
holes must appear in the scanned drawings for the optical registration to
work.
DPI: Lets you enter the dots-per-inch value of your image. You must enter
the same value as the DPI used to scan the image.
Optical Registration
Peg Side: Lets you select the position of the peg holes on your drawings.
Identify whether they are on the top, bottom, left or right.
Strictness: Determines how exact the location of the peg holes must be for
the software to recognize them. There are two values to choose from:
•
Strict: The peg holes must be in a tightly defined area to be
recognized.
•
Loose: The peg holes can be recognized somewhere in a larger area.
This is the recommended setting.
Field Chart: Lets you indicate the size of the animation paper, 12 or 16.
23
Chapter 2: Scanning
The Post Processing filters are applied to the final vector images.
Remove Holes: Removes holes of a specified value that might make painting
difficult.
Post Processing
Remove Dirt: Removes stray marks and dirt of a specified value. Try a value
around 500.
Remove Hair Size: Removes small strokes that have no line art.
Remove Hair: Number of Passes: The number of times the drawing will be
analyzed to identify hair marks.
Close Gaps: Closes gaps in the Colour Art so you can paint it.
Miscellaneous
Smooth Passes for Line Art Before Breaking Triangles: The number of
times the smoothing operation runs before creating the triangles that break
lines in the drawing. If unnecessary triangles are appearing in the drawing,
increase this value.
Smooth Passes for Line Art: The number of times the smoothing operation
is performed after the triangles have been created. This further smooths the
line art.
Show Strokes: Shows the strokes in the Vectorized Image panel.
Preview
Stroke Thickness: Shows the size of the strokes.
Help Tab
The Help tab contains the most advanced vectorization settings which you type in the Advanced Option fields
at the bottom of the Vectorization Parameters dialog box.
File IO Options
-file <filename (including extension)> [ options ]
-infile <filename (including extension)>; same as -file
-outfile <filename>; alternate output file
-informat <format>; the input format. Used if reading from stdin
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
-debug; turn on debug mode
-noforce; don't force output if image is inconsistent
-version; print version information and quit
-output_version <version>; output files of this version. Valid versions can be: 0 or 604
-force_unamed_palette_for_texture; will generate a texture in TVG's internal palette
Registration Options
-register <dpi side strictness>; perform optical registration.
•
Side can be one of left, right, top, bottom or l, r, t, b.
•
Strictness can be either loose, strict or l, s.
-register_center_peg_holes; will use only round holes in 16 fields page
-rcph; short form of register_center_peg_holes
-registration_looseness_factor <factor>; registration looseness factor (default 2.000000)
-rlf; short form of registration_looseness_factor
-rdebug; output registration debug messages
-pegpitch <inch (default 8.000000)>; distance between peg bars
-threshr < (default 0.500000)>; threshold for optical registration; range 0.0 to 1.0
-rmargin <inch (default 1)>; region size where to look for peg bars
-peg_distance_from_center <inch (default 5.25)>; peg distance from centre of the image
-pdfc; short form of -peg_distance_from_center
-out_peg_position <side (default same)>; wanted position of the peg on the drawing.
•
Can be one of right, left, top, bottom (or r, l, t, b) or same.
•
A rotation will be performed if it is different from the side passed to -register.
-output_peg_matrix; output the peg transformation matrix on standard output.
-scanner_calibrate; < (default 1.0000 1.0000) > x and y scale factors to be applied to scanner image.
Filtering Options
-pixel <pixel_shape (default '4x3')>; Valid values: 4x3
-gap <worldUnits (default 10)>; close gaps up to this big
-pencil; generate line art only
-keep_dirt; don't filter out dirt
-thresh <threshold (default 0.2)>; range 0.0 to 1.0
-rmv_hairs <worldUnits (default 1)> <passes (default 1)>
•
remove hairs of size smaller than "size" in "passes" passes
25
Chapter 2: Scanning
-rmv_holes <area (default 7)>; remove holes smaller than "area"
-rmv_dirt <area (default 1)>; remove dirt smaller than "area"
•
try values between 100 and 500 for rmv_holes and rmv_dirt. The area is in world units squared
-rmv_triangles <worldUnits (default 30.000000)>; remove triangles at "pixels"
•
distance from each other. Use -no_break to remove all triangles
-no_texture; don't generate textured strokes
-color_as_texture; will vectorize the alpha channel and put the RGB colour in a textured colour
-noclosegap; disable all gap closing algorithms
-no_break; disable the breaking of line art
-jag_filter <pixels (default 0>; expand the pixels in the vectorization bitmap
-expand_bitmap <pixels (default 0>; expand the pixels in the vectorization bitmap
-fit_errorc <error (default 1.000000>; fitting error for the colour art
-fit_errorl <error (default 1.000000>; fitting error for the line art
-smoothl <passes (default 1>; number of smooth passes for line art
-smoothc <passes (default 1>; number of smooth passes for colour art
-first_smooth <passes (default 0>; number of smooth passes for line art before breaking triangles
-first_smoothl <passes (default 0>; number of smooth passes for line art before breaking triangles
-first_smoothc <passes (default 0>; number of smooth passes for line art in colour art pass (needs -2pass)
-2pass; specify two sets of parameters; one for line art "l", one for colour art "c"
(-thresh, -rmv_holes and -rmv_dirt will be overridden by -threshl, threshc, -rmv_holesl,
-rmv_holesc, -rmv_dirtl and -rmv_dirtc)
-threshl <threshold for line art (default 0.5)>; range 0.0 to 1.0
-threshc <threshold for color art (default 0.5)>; range 0.0 to 1.0
-jag_filterl <pixels (default 0>; expand the pixels in the vectorization bitmap for line art
-jag_filterc <pixels (default 0>; expand the pixels in the vectorization bitmap for colour art
-expand_bitmapl <pixels (default 0>; expand the pixels in the vectorization bitmap for line art
-expand_bitmapc <pixels (default 0>; expand the pixels in the vectorization bitmap for colour art
-rmv_holesl <area (default 7)>; remove line art holes smaller than "area"
-rmv_holesc <area (default 7)>; remove colour art holes smaller than "area"
-rmv_dirtl <area (default 1)>; remove line art dirt smaller than "area"
-rmv_dirtc <area (default 1)>; remove colour art dirt smaller than "area"
try values between 100 and 500 for rmv_holesl, rmv_holesc, rmv_dirtl and rmv_dirtc. The values are in
world units squared
-margins <inch (default 0.25)>; remove margin around bitmap
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
-top_margin <inch (default 0.25)>; remove margin at top of bitmap
-bottom_margin <inch (default 0.25)>; remove margin at bottom of bitmap
-left_margin <inch (default 0.25)>; remove margin at left of bitmap
-right_margin <inch (default 0.25)>; remove margin at right of bitmap
-remove_peg_bars; remove the peg bar holes
-field_size <fields (default 12 or use value in scan file)>; set the drawing to this field size
-fs; short hand for -field_size
-peg_bar_size <inch (default 1)>; the size of the peg bar region
-noframe; do not put a frame around the colour art
-frame_fields <default -1.000000>; put a frame of the specified dimension around the colour art
-downscale_input <default 1>; downscale the raw input by this integer factor
-downscale_texture <default 1>; downscale the output texture by this integer factor
-buildmatte; generate a matte on underlay for line test
-buildmatte_colourart; generate a matte on colour art for line test
Note: -buildmatte and -buildmatte_colourart are mutually exclusive
-copystrokes; copy original strokes when building matte.
Options for bitmap that has no registration information
-pixel_margins <inch (default 0)>; remove margin around bitmap
-top_pixel_margin <inch (default 0)>; remove margin at top of bitmap
-bottom_pixel_margin <inch (default 0)>; remove margin at bottom of bitmap
-left_pixel_margin <inch (default 0)>; remove margin at left of bitmap
-right_pixel_margin <inch (default 0)>; remove margin at right of bitmap
-dpi <(default -1)>; dpi information of input bitmap
RGB Keying Options
-rgb; generate separate zones for red, green and blue lines
-rgb_alpha <value (default 255)>; generate red, green and blue colour with alpha of this value
-no_red; ignore red colour in vectorization
-no_green; ignore green colour in vectorization
-no_blue; ignore blue colour in vectorization
-flatten; flatten the drawing after generating colours
-rmv_rgb_dirt <threshold area default 0.0>; remove red, green and blue regions smaller than area
-expand_bitmap_rgb <pixels (default 0>; expand the pixels in the vectorization bitmap for rgb
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Chapter 2: Scanning
-threshrgb <value> <threshold for rgb vectorization default 0.200000>;
-threshsv <saturation threshold default 0.500000> <value threshold default 0.500000>; thresholds on
saturation and value to consider a pixel to be grey
Colour Vectorization Options
-color_vectorize; perform a colour vectorization
-file2 <colour art filename>; specify the colour art bitmap
-penstyle <center alpha (0.0-20.0)> <edge alpha (0.0-20.0)> <gamma (0-10)><centre pressure effect (0.0-1.0)
> <edge pressure effect (0.0-1.0)><texture bitmap downscaling (0.2-20)> <texture bitmap file (valid filename
or "" if no file)>; generate brush texture for the line art
-pressure_variation <strategy (0, 1 or 2)> <min pressure (0.0-1.0)> <max pressure (0.0-1.0)> <max variation
(0.0-1.0)>; specify a pressure strategy for the centre line.
-blur_radius <pixels (default 0)>; blur the penstyle texture generated
-color_contour_smooth_passes <times (default 3)>; perform number of smooth passes on contour before
computing texture
-ccsp <times (default 3)>; short for -color_contour_smooth_passes
-color_rmv_holesl <world units (default 0.000000)>; remove holes of this size when computing texture
-color_fill_holesl <world units (default 0.000000)>; fill holes of this size for colour line art
Bubble Usage (implemented only for colour vectorization's line art)
-create_bubbles; add bubbles into the LineArt. Implemented for colour vectorization only
-bubble_gap <value (default 3)>; max number of colour art points between 2 bubbles
-bubble_length <value (default 10)>; max number of circles in a bubble
-min_radius <value (default 1.5000)>; min radius of a circle in a bubble relative to the line thickness (must be
>= 1.0)
-max_radius <value (default 3.5000)>; max radius of a circle in a bubble relative to the line thickness (must be
>= 1.0)
-uniform_gap; the space between bubbles is constant
4 Colour Vectorization
-4colours [key:value] ... [key:value] ; The key value list can be empty. The list of keys is:
rgbdiff:value ; between [0.0-1.0] or [0-255]
dark:value ; between [0.0-1.0] or [0-255]
grey:value ; between [0.0-1.0] or [0-255]
white:value ; between [0.0-1.0] or [0-255]
dirt:value ; dirt area. 200 is a good value
rt:value ; between [0.0-1.0] or [0-255]
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
gt:value ; between [0.0-1.0] or [0-255]
bt:value ; between [0.0-1.0] or [0-255]
NOTE:
There must be no space between the colon and the key/value. For example: -4colours rgbdiff:20 dark:20 grey:120
white:250 dirt:200 rt:240 gt:240 bt:240
Creating a Vectorization Style
With Harmony, you can create custom vectorization parameters that can be saved, reused, shared, or used to set
the Scan module vectorization style list.
You can vectorize drawings using one of the following methods:
•
Black and White: All the lines become vector based and 100% black. The white areas become completely
transparent.
•
Greyscale: All the lines preserve their initial textured look in grey shades as a bitmap image contained
inside a vector frame. The white areas become completely transparent.
•
Four Colours: With the advanced parameters, you can isolate the red, green, blue, and black lines and
turn them into 100% vector lines, preserving their original colours—see Custom Vectorization Parameters
on page 21.
How to create or modify the vectorization parameters
1. Set the different options available in the Vectorization Parameters dialog box.
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Chapter 2: Scanning
2. Click the Vectorize button to update the Vectorized Image preview.
The vectorized image is just a preview. The actual vectorization happens when you click OK in the
Import Images dialog box. There are many options to try in the Vectorization Parameters dialog box.
These are applied during the vectorization process.
3. To set advanced parameters, read the information on the Help tab, then type in the Advanced Options
field at the bottom of the dialog box.
4. To save your vectorization parameters to reuse them later, share them, or use them to set the Scan
module vectorization style list, click Save.
5. In the Browser window, name and save the file.
6. To save the current settings as your default settings, click Save As Default. To restore the default settings, click Restore Defaults.
7. To load a vectorization style, click Load and locate the existing *.vof file.
8. Click OK.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Setting the VectOptions.conf File
Toon Boom Harmony Server uses a file called VectOptions.conf to get the vectorization style when batch
vectorizing a series of drawings. A series of default styles is available in this file, but you will certainly want to
create your own to fit your production style.
How to set the VectOptions.conf file on Windows or Mac OS X
1. Open the vectOptions.conf file:
‣
Windows: Select Programs / All Programs > Harmony 12.1 > Tools > Configuration Editor.
‣
Mac OS X: Select Applications > Harmony 12.1 > Tools > Configuration Editor.
The Configuration Editor window opens.
2. In the bottom section of the window, select the VectOptions.conf tab.
3. Scroll down the VectOptions.conf file to see all the different options available for creating your custom vectorization style. These options are the same as in the Vectorization Parameters dialog box. It is recommended that you create your vectorization style using Harmony and the Vectorization Parameters window
and copy the result parameters in this file—see Creating a Vectorization Style on page 29
4. Scroll down toward the bottom of the file to see the default styles. You can modify them or add new ones
to the list using the parameters you got using the Vectorization Parameters window. Notice that some of
the lines have a “#” sign at the beginning to indicate that the line is a comment and will not appear in the
style list. The lines that have no sign at the beginning appear in the style list.
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Chapter 2: Scanning
5. To create a new style, type the following below the existing styles:
style_name:
This should be followed by the name of your new style. For example: style_name: Black Lines.
6. Under the style name line, type the following:
options:
7. Copy and paste the information in your *.vof style when saving your settings in the Vectorization Parameters window.
‣
To open the *.vof file, use any plain text editor application.
8. In the Configuration Editor’s top menu, select File > Save.
9. If you have Toon Boom Harmony Scan on your computer, you can start the application and verify that
the new style appears in the Vectorization Style list under Edit > Vectorization Style.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
NOTE:
If you are using the batch processing method available with Toon Boom Harmony Server to scan and vectorize
drawings, the selected style must be available on all the machines included in the batch processing list.
Refer to the Control Center Guide Guide to learn more about setting up and using batch processing.
How to set the VectOptions.conf file on Linux using the vi text editor
1. Open a Terminal window:
Menu: Applications > System Tools > Terminal
2. Open the etc folder inside the installation directory:
$ cd /usr/local/ToonBoomAnimation/harmony_12.1/etc
3. Change your user to "root":
$ su
‣
If your user is part of the sudoers list, enter the following command and go to step 5.
$ sudo vi VectOptions.conf
4. Enter the root password.
5. Open the VectOptions.conf file:
$ vi VectOptions.conf
6. To start editing, press I to enter Insert mode.
7. When you're finished editing the file, press Esc to exit Insert mode.
8. To save the changes made to the file, type the following and press Enter/Return:
$ :w!
9. To exit the vi editor and return to the Terminal, type the following and press Enter/Return:
$ :q
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Chapter 2: Scanning
10. If you have Toon Boom Harmony Scan module on your computer, start the application and verify that
the new style appears in the Vectorization Style list under Edit > Vectorization Style.
NOTE:
If you are using the batch processing method available with Toon Boom Harmony Server to scan and vectorize
drawings, the selected style must be available on all the machines included in the batch processing list.
Refer to the Control Center Guide Guide to learn more about setting up and using batch processing.
How to set the VectOptions.conf file on Linux using the gedit text editor
1. Open a Terminal window:
Menu: Applications > System Tools > Terminal
2. Open the etc folder inside the installation directory:
$ cd /usr/local/ToonBoomAnimation/harmony_12.1/etc
3. Change your user to "root":
$ su
‣
If your user is part of the sudoers list, enter the following command and go to step 5.
$ sudo gedit VectOptions.conf
4. Enter the root password.
5. Open the VectorOptions.conf file:
$ gedit VectOptions.conf
6. Edit the parameters of the VectOptions.conf file as you would do in most text editor applications.
7. Select File > Save.
8. Select File > Quit.
9. If you have Toon Boom Harmony Scan module on your computer, start the application and verify that
the new style appears in the Vectorization Style list under Edit > Vectorization Style.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
NOTE:
If you are using the batch processing method available with Toon Boom Harmony Server to scan and vectorize
drawings, the selected style must be available on all the machines included in the batch processing list.
Refer to the Control Center Guide Guide to learn more about setting up and using batch processing.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Chapter 3: Timing
When you create hand-drawn animation traditionally or in a paperless environment, it's important to know how
to set and modify the timing of your drawings.
In a traditional workflow, the person in charge of the digital exposure sheet reproduces the paper exposure
sheet created by the animator. In a paperless workflow, the animator creates and manages their own exposure
sheet directly in Harmony without the need for reproduction.
If you're more of a traditional animator, you will probably work with an exposure sheet. If you're a digital
animator, you may prefer to work with a timeline to visualize your timing. Harmony offers both.
The Xsheet view displays the digital reproduction of a traditional paper exposure sheet used in hand-drawn
animation. You can set the animation sequence's exposure and name the drawings.
The Timeline view is also used to visualize timing, and represents elements and groups of elements as layers.
You can adjust timing in both views; your choice depends on which technique you're accustomed to using.
Depending on your working style, some actions may seem preferable to do in one view instead of another. Many
of the actions you perform in the Xsheet can also be accomplished in the Timeline. This chapter will often show
both techniques. You can choose which one you prefer.
In this chapter, you will learn how to work on your drawing’s exposure and length. The exposure and animation
paths for symbols are covered in separate chapters.
NOTE: The exposure sheet is not mandatory for cut-out animation. It can be useful for creating characters and parts,
but is not really needed for animation and timing. If you plan to work with cut-out animation, you can still learn useful
tips by reviewing the section on exposure sheets.
The basic digital exposure sheet process is divided into the following steps:
Preparation
The digital exposure task is quite simple. There are very few things to prepare in order to get ready.
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Chapter 3: Timing
Opening the Scene
The scene is generally created during a previous step, such as scanning (in a traditional animation workflow),
scene set up, digital layout, or production organization.
Using the Workspace
The person creating the exposure sheet will need only the Xsheet view to create the digital exposure sheet,
although the Timeline view may also be helpful. If you're doing paperless animation, use the Camera or
Drawing view if you want to sketch at the same time.
If you work with this layout often, you can use the Workspace Manager to save it as a workspace,and name it
Xsheet, for example.
While drawing and animating paperless animation, you can use the Workspace Manager to save a frequently
used layout and name it Paperless Animation, for example.
Preparing References
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
To start an exposure sheet, you need to prepare your references. For traditional animation, you will need to
reproduce the animator's paper exposure sheet. If you're working remotely, the studio can scan the paper
exposure sheet using third-party software and send the digital files to be opened and viewed digitally.
In paperless animation, you will usually create an exposure sheet from the Xsheet view.The information from your
layout and posing or storyboard will help you approximate how many elements are required in the scene.
Frames
Once the references are ready, you need to set the scene length by adding the right number of frames to your
scene. You can set the global scene length from the top menu.
In the Xsheet and Timeline view, you can add and remove frames from a scene to edit its length.
How to set the scene length
1. From the top menu, select Scene > Scene Length.
The Set Scene Length dialog box opens.
2. In the Number of Frames field, enter the number of frames needed.
How to extend or reduce the scene length in the Timeline view
When you remove frames at the end of a scene to reduce the scene length in the Timeline view, the exposed
drawings and symbols are not deleted. They're still available if you extend the scene afterward.
1. In the Timeline view, drag the scene length bracket:
‣
Right: To add more frames to your scene.
‣
Left: To reduce the number of frames in your scene.
How to add frames in the middle of a scene
You can add frames anywhere in the middle of the scene—before or after a selection. If you select a frame row in
the Xsheet view, Harmony will add the new frames before or after the selection, depending on your choice.
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet view, select a frame row.
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Chapter 3: Timing
‣
In the Timeline view, select the frame to which you want to add frames before or after.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Scene > Frame > Add Frames Before Selection or Add Frames After
Selection.
‣
In the Xsheet view, right-click and select Frames > Add Frames Before Selection or Add Frames
After Selection.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Add Frames
‣
Press Ctrl + G and Ctrl + H (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + G and Ctrl + H (Mac OS X).
button to add frame after your selection.
The Add Frames dialog box opens.
3. In the Number of Frames to Add field, enter the number of frames needed in the scene.
4. Click OK.
How to add frames at the start or end of a scene
1. In the top menu, select Scene > Frames > Add Frames at Start or Add Frames at End.
The Add Frames dialog box opens.
2. In the Number of Frames to Add field, enter the number of frames needed in the scene.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
3. Click OK.
How to remove a frame or a range of frames to reduce the scene length in the Xsheet view
In the Xsheet view, you can remove any selected frame range, such as the last frame.
1. In the Xsheet view, do one of the following:
‣
Select a frame in a given column.
‣
Select a frame range by clicking the first frame’s number and then dragging the selection highlight
down to the last frame to delete.
2. To delete the selected frames, do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Scene > Frame > Remove Selected Frames.
‣
Press Delete to delete the selection.
‣
Click the Remove Frames
button. To remove several frame selections, click the button repeatedly.
If you selected a range of frames, the Warning dialog box may open.
3. To complete the operation:
‣
Click Yes to delete the selection.
‣
Click No to delete only the exposure in the cell and not the frames.
‣
Select the Don’t Show This Message Again option to prevent the warning message from being
displayed each time you delete a frame range.
Creating Drawings
Before filling any value or setting any timing or exposure, you need to add different drawing elements.
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Chapter 3: Timing
Each drawing element is represented as a vertical element column in the Xsheet view and a horizontal element
layer in the Timeline view.
In Harmony, whether you work in the Timeline or Xsheet view, any modification you do to one view will be
applied to both. You can also see your layers displayed in the Node view as nodes.
To start an exposure sheet, you will use drawing elements. Drawing elements are drawing containers. Any
image file, either bitmap or vector, will use a drawing element.
When you add a drawing element to your scene, a folder is added to the scene directory. This folder is named
the same way as the drawing element. Its purpose is to contain all the drawings related to this element. For
example, in cut-out animation, a character can have many heads available. All of the head drawings will be
contained in this folder, even if they are not exposed in the Timeline or the Xsheet view. There is always a
drawing container connected to a drawing element (layer, column).
NOTE: There are different element types available, such as sound and expression. A sound element contains
sound files. Expressions, Beziers, 3D path, Quadmaps and Pegs are for motion purposes during the compositing
step. It's not necessary to create these types to create your exposure sheet.
You can add drawing elements from the Timeline view, Xsheet view, and the Scene menu.
This section is divided as follows:
•
Layer and Column Concepts on page 42
•
Layer and Column Types on page 43
•
Adding New Drawing Elements on page 46
•
Deleting Layers and Columns on page 49
•
Layer and Column Properties on page 50
•
Modifying Layers and Columns on page 53
•
Duplicating Layers and Columns on page 56
•
Cloning Layers and Columns on page 56
•
Adding an Annotation Column on page 57
Layer and Column Concepts
A layer is linked to a directory, the location where all its drawings are saved. This directory has the same name
as the layer. When a name is typed in a cell ,Harmony searches the layer's directory for the corresponding
drawing to display. If there is no corresponding drawing, a new one is created.
Drawings are exposed in cells and linked to the drawings saved in the layer's directory. When you remove a
drawing from a cell, it is not displayed and still exists in the directory.
A drawing that is exposed multiple times (for example, in a walk-cycle) would be linked to the same original
drawing in the layer's directory. If you modify, repaint, or correct the drawing, all exposed drawings with the
same name are updated simultaneously. You must duplicate or create a new drawing to modify a single
exposure and retain the others.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
When you create a drawing cycle, all of the repeated drawings are linked to the original files. This means that
when you modify, repaint, or correct a drawing named “1,” all drawings named “1” are updated simultaneously.
In order to modify a drawing independently from its other exposures, you must duplicate the drawing.
Layer and Column Types
A column is also known as a layer. There are several types of layers that you can add in the Xsheet and Timeline
view. Each layer is indicated by an icon to help you differentiate them. Some layers are represented differently in
the Xsheet view.
Drawing Layer
The most common layer type is the drawing layer. Any time you need to create a vector drawing or import a
symbol or image, you can use a drawing layer. You can also create bitmap artwork on a drawing layer.
NOTE: Bitmap images are contained in bitmap layers.
Bitmap Layer
If you import a bitmap images (as original bitmap) in your project, they are inserted in a Bitmap layer. If you
choose to vectorize your image when you import, the vectorized object will be placed on a Drawing layer.
When importing a bitmap image, you have the option of encapsulating the image in a symbol. If you place a
bitmap into a symbol, you will be able to mix vector drawings with it on the same layer.
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Chapter 3: Timing
Camera Layer
You can only have one Camera layer at a time in the Timeline view. By default, there is no Camera layer when
you create a scene. You need to add a Camera layer when you want to create a camera motion.
The Camera layer is not visible in the Xsheet view.
NOTE: If you want to have several cameras with different settings, you can keep adding Camera layers in your
Timeline view (however, only one will ever be visible at a time as you can only have one camera at a time in your
timeline). To switch to a different camera, select Scene > Camera and select another camera layer.
Effect Layer
To enhance the look of your scene, you can add effect layers and attach your drawings to them.
In Harmony, there is a series of effect nodes in the Node Library view.
When you select the Effect layer in the Timeline view, the effect’s parameter columns are displayed in the
Functions section of the Xsheet view.
Colour-Card Layer
The Colour-Card layer is used to add a plain colour background to a scene. By default, your scene has no
background colour and if you render it as a QuickTime movie or image sequence, it will have a black
background.
This layer is not visible in the Xsheet view.
Group Layer
A Group layer can be used to organize the Timeline view. You can drag and drop other layers onto a Group
layer and then collapse the Group layer to hide these other layers from view.
If you create the Group layer in the Timeline view.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Peg Layer
A Peg layer is a trajectory or motion path layer that does not contain drawings. It can be attached to any drawing
layer, cut-out puppet, or other peg layers; they will all follow the trajectory you set in the Peg layer.
When you select the Peg layer in the Timeline view, the peg’s function columns are displayed in the Functions
section of the Xsheet view.
Quadmap Layer
A Quadmap layer can be described as a deformation transformation layer that does not contain drawings. This
can be attached to any drawing layer, cut-out puppet, or even other Peg layers. They will all follow the
deformation you set in the Quadmap layer.
When you select the Quadmap layer in the Timeline view, the Quadmap’s function columns are displayed in the
Functions section of the Xsheet view.
Sound Layer
You can import sound files to add dialog and sound effects to your project. The sound layer will be added to your
Timeline and Xsheet view when you import a sound file in your scene.
In the Xsheet view, the Sound layer is a dark grey colour.
Advanced Column Types
In the Xsheet view, you can add several advanced column types to create particular animation paths. When you
create these columns, they are not linked automatically to any particular drawing layer. You can create a motion
path using these columns and then link or unlink several drawing or peg layers to it.
Advanced column types include:
•
Timing
•
3D Path
•
3D Rotation
•
Bezier Curve
•
Expression
•
Annotation
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Chapter 3: Timing
Adding New Drawing Elements
There are different ways to add a drawing layer to your project. By default, when you create a new scene there
is one Drawing column in the Xsheet view and one corresponding Drawing layer in the Timeline view.
You can add an element for each drawing and it will appear as a column in the Xsheet view, a layer in the
Timeline view, and a node in the Node view.
How to add a drawing element from the Timeline view
1. In the Timeline view, click the Add Drawing Layer
R (Mac OS X).
button or press Ctrl + R (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ +
The Add Drawing Layer window opens.
2. In the Name field, name your new layer.
3. Set the Line Art and Colour Art options to Vector to get a vector layer or to Bitmap to have a bitmap
layer.
4. Do one of the following:
‣
Click Add to add a first layer and keep the window open to add more layers.
‣
Click Add and Close to add a new layer and close the window.
A new drawing layer is added to the Timeline view.
How to add a drawing element from the top menu
1. From the top menu, select Insert > Drawing.
The Add Drawing Layer dialog box opens.
2. In the Name field, type a relevant element name and click OK.
The new drawing element appears in your scene.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
How to add a drawing element from the Xsheet view
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select Columns > Add Columns.
‣
Click the Add Columns
‣
Press Shift + C.
button.
The Add Column dialog box opens.
2. In the Name field, type a relevant element name.
3. In the Type field, select Drawing.
4. To complete the operation:
‣
Click OK to add your new layers and close the dialog box.
‣
Click Apply to add your new layers and keep the dialog box open to add column.
‣
Click Close to cancel the operation.
The new drawing element appears in the Timeline, Xsheet and Node views—see Layer and Column Types
on page 43.
How to create a column using the advanced Add Column dialog box
You can use the advanced Add Column dialog box to make more file format and field size options available when
you insert a column.
1. From the top menu, select Edit > Preferences (Windows/Linux) or Stage Advanced > Preferences (Mac
OS X) and select the Advanced tab.
2. In the Advanced Options section, select the Advanced Element Mode option to access the advanced Add
Column dialog box.
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Chapter 3: Timing
3. Click OK.
4. In the Xsheet menu, select Columns > Add Column or press Shift + C.
The Add Column dialog box opens.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
5. In the Name field, type the new column’s name.
6. In the Type menu, select the Drawing type.
7. In the Element section, select one of the following:
‣
Create New Element: Creates an independent column with its own drawing folder.
‣
Use Existing Element: Uses drawings from an existing column in the new column. Both columns will be
attached to the same set of drawings, but their timing will remain independent from one another. If you
modify one of the drawings, it will be modified in both columns. This is the same principle as the Clone
column.
In the Name menu, select the column to which you want to link your new column.
8. If you selected the Create New Element option:
‣
Deselect the Vector option if you want your layer to contain bitmap images or enable it if you want the
layer to contain vector drawings. Most of the time, the Vector option will be enabled.
‣
If you deselected the Vector option, from the Bitmap Format list, select which type of bitmap image
you want to insert in the column. Select the SCAN type if you are planning to scan drawings using the
Toon Boom Harmony Scan module.
‣
If you deselected the Vector option and you chose the SCAN type, from the Scan Type menu, select
what kind of scanning you want to achieve.
‣
In the Field Chart field, when importing traditional animation, indicate the size of paper on which the
animation or background was drawn. If you are not using perforated animation paper, leave the 12
field default value as is.
9. Do one of the following:
‣
Click OK button to create the new column and close the dialog box.
‣
Click Apply to create the new column but keep the dialog box opened to create other new columns.
Deleting Layers and Columns
You can delete an element in the Timeline view or Xsheet view.
How to delete layers in the Timeline view
1. In the Timeline view, select the layers to delete.
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Chapter 3: Timing
2. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Timeline’s Layer toolbar, click the Delete Layers
‣
Right-click on the selection and select Delete.
button.
How to delete columns in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet view, select the columns to be deleted by clicking on their header.
2. Do one of the following
‣
Right-click on the selection and select Delete Columns.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Delete Columns
‣
Press Delete.
button.
The Confirm Delete dialog box opens.
‣
Select the Delete Drawing Files and Element Folder option if you want to delete the drawings and
folders linked to the selected column.
3. To complete the operation:
‣
Click OK to delete the selected layers.
‣
Click Cancel to cancel the operation.
The Warning dialog box may open.
4. Do one of the following:
‣
Click Yes to delete all the frames from your scene.
‣
Click No to keep the frames in your scene.
‣
Select the Don’t Show This Message Again option if you do not want the dialog box to display
again in the future.
Layer and Column Properties
Each element has its own set of properties that you can modify, including effect and peg layers.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
If you want to modify an element’s properties, you can display the properties of a selected layer in the Timeline
view or selected node in the Node view. If you're working with the Xsheet, you can display its properties as well.
You can display a layer's properties as a window or as a view of its own.
The Layer Properties editor allows you to:
•
Rename the layer
•
Enable or disable the layer
•
Lock the layer
•
Change the track colour
•
Activate the onion skin preview
•
Adjust the positioning and animation parameters
•
Adjust many other advanced parameters
The Column Properties editor allows you to:
•
Rename the layer
•
Enable or disable the layer
How to display a layer's properties
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Layer Properties view is not part of your workspace, from the top menu, select Windows >
Layer Properties. In the Timeline view, select a layer
‣
In the Timeline view, double-click on a layer.
‣
Press Shift + E.
The properties display.
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Chapter 3: Timing
How to display a column's properties in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet view, do one of the following:
‣
Double-click on a column header.
‣
Right-click on a column header and select Column Editor.
The properties for the column are displayed.
2. (Optional) To view additional properties, select Edit > Preferences from the top menu.
3. In the Preferences dialog box, select the Advanced tab, then select the Advanced Element Mode
option.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
4. In the Xsheet view, double-click on a column header.
Additional properties for the column are displayed.
Modifying Layers and Columns
Once you add layers and columns to your project, you can modify their properties, names, or ordering.
You can change the order of your elements in the Timeline view and Xsheet view. When you change the order of
your elements in one view, the other one is updated.
The Element Manager window lets you add, delete or modify elements (drawing folders) in your scene. If you have
drawing folders that are not linked to a column in your scene, use the Element Manager to delete them if needed.
How to rename a layer in the Timeline view
1. In the Timeline view, double-click on the name of the layer to rename.
2. In the Name field, rename the layer and press Enter/Return.
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Chapter 3: Timing
How to rename a layer in the Layer Properties editor
1. In the Timeline view, double-click anywhere on the layer except the layer name to rename.
The Layer Properties editor opens.
2. In the Name field, rename the layer.
3. Click Close.
How to rename a column
1. In the Xsheet view, double-click on a column name. Do not click on the drawing folder name that the
column is linked to (this also appears in the column header just below the column name).
The Drawing dialog box opens.
2. In the Name field, rename the column.
3. Click OK.
How to reorder layers in the Timeline view
1. In the Timeline view, select the layers to move.
2. Drag the selection to the new location.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
Drop the selection on an existing layer to make it a child of another element layer.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
‣
Drop it between the existing layers. Timeline layers that are located above the selection are displayed
in front it. Layers located under it in the Timeline View are displayed behind it.
How to reorder columns in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet view, click on the column’s header with the middle mouse button.
2. Drag the column to its new position.
How to use the Element Manager dialog box
‣ From the top menu, select Scene > Element Manager.
Interface Element
Action
Elements
Displays a list of the elements in the scene.
Delete Elements
Deletes the selected elements.
Delete Elements and Directories
Deletes the selected layer and its directories
(drawing folder).
Add/Modify Element
Use this area to add or modify an element.
Name
Type in a new name in this field to create an
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Chapter 3: Timing
Interface Element
Action
element or to rename the selected element.
Vector
Select this option if the new element is a vector
drawing or if you want to enable the parameters
on the selected element in the Elements list.
Bitmap Format
Lets you select the file format of the bitmap layer.
Scan Type
If you're planning to scan elements with the Toon
Boom Harmony Scan module, select the scan
type from the list.
Field Chart
If you're importing traditional animation, select
the size of the paper on which the animation was
drawn.
Add
Creates a new element with the current parameters entered in the Add/Modify Element section.
Modify
Applies the parameter changes made to the selected element.
Duplicating Layers and Columns
Duplicating an element provides you with a copy of the drawings and their exposure. You can modify anything
you want in the duplicated element without affecting the original one.
How to duplicate an element
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, click the layer or column you want to duplicate.
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet menu, select Drawings > Duplicate Drawings or press Alt + Shift + D.
The new duplicated layer or column appears.
Cloning Layers and Columns
Cloning a layer or column provides you with a copy of the selected element that uses the same drawings as the
original. For example, if you modify a drawing in the cloned or original column, it is updated in both columns.
You can choose whether or not to copy the column timing to the cloned columns.
•
You can modify the column timing independently from each other, but the drawings remain linked.
•
You can copy the columns timing, so drawings and timings remain linked.
You can clone selected nodes from the Node view in the same way.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
This is useful when you want to reuse a hand-drawn animation but have different timings.
How to clone an element
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the layer or column you want to clone.
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Clone: Drawings Only to clone only the layer or column drawings.
‣
From the Timeline menu, select Layers > Clone Selected Layers: Drawings Only.
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select Columns: Clone Selected Columns: Drawings Only.
The new cloned layer or column appears.
Adding an Annotation Column
The annotation columns are useful for marking actions, corrections or other information related to your
animation that you want to draw or write. This way, you can print your Xsheet, take it back to your animation
table and work with the annotations.
Before you can draw in the Annotation column, you must first activate the Enable Drawing option to activate the
Drawing mode. Pen tablet pressure sensitivity is not supported in the annotation column.
In the annotation column, you can type in your notes and relevant information, as well as draw sketches and ideas
that will be useful in producing your animation.
Typing in an annotation column is independent from the Drawing mode. You can be in either mode and the typing
will work. To learn about typing values in the Xsheet view, see Typing Exposure on page 64.
You can erase part or all of the annotation column’s text and drawn annotations. Annotations that you type in
cannot be erased using this method.
You can change the pen size and colour when you draw in the annotation column.
When working with the annotation columns, it is useful to display tick marks on odd-numbered frames.
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To display the tick marks, you must run a short script.
If you scanned your paper exposure sheet’s annotations or if you need to place some pictures or drawings in
the Annotation columns, you can easily import them.
How to add an annotation column
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select Columns > Add Columns.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Add Columns
‣
Press Shift + C.
button.
The Add Column dialog box opens.
2. In the Name field, type in an appropriate name.
3. From the Type list, select Annotation and click OK.
The new column appears.
How to draw in the annotation column
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select Annotation > Enable Drawing.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
‣
In the Annotation column header, click the icon in the upper-right corner to cycle through the icons until
the Brush
icon is displayed.
The Drawing mode is enabled.
2. To draw in an Annotation column, simply use your mouse or pen tablet.
How to type in an annotation column
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the selected cell, press Ctrl (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ (Mac OS X).
‣
In the selected cell, hold down Ctrl + Shift + click (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + Shift + click (Mac OS X).
2. In the selected cell, type the desired text.
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How to erase part of a drawn annotation using Erasing mode
1. In the annotation column header, click the icon in the upper-right corner to cycle through the icons until
the Eraser
icon is displayed.
2. In the column, click and drag the cursor on top of the drawn annotation to erase parts of it.
NOTE: When using a pen on a tablet, you MUST flip your pen to the eraser side for the eraser to
work.
How to change the pen width
1. In the Xsheet menu, select Annotation > Pen Width and do one of the following:
‣
Select a pen width preset.
‣
Select Change Current to display the Pen Width dialog box. In the Pen Width field, type the
number of pixels for the pen size and click OK.
How to change the pen colour
1. In the Xsheet menu, select Annotation > Change Pen Colour.
The Select Colour dialog box opens.
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2. Choose a new colour.
3. Click OK.
How to display tick marks
1. From the top menu, select Windows > Script Editor.
2. From the Script Editor menu, select File > New Script.
3. Type in a name for your script and click OK.
4. In the File list, select the script you created.
5. On the right side of the view, type the following script:
function display_tick_marks()
{
preferences.setBool("XSHEET_ANNOTATION_FRAME_MARKER", true);
MessageLog.trace( preferences.getBool("XSHEET_ANNOTATION_FRAME_MARKER", false));
}
6. Click Verify.
The script is verified.
7. From the Script Editor menu, select Play/Debug > Run.
A dialog box opens with your script selected in the Files column.
8. In the Functions column, select display_tick_marks and click OK.
Tick marks appear on odd frames in the Annotation column. If you do not see tick marks, close and restart
Harmony.
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How to turn off the display of tick marks
1. Follow steps 1 to 5 of How to display tick marks and use the following script:
{
preferences.setBool("XSHEET_ANNOTATION_FRAME_MARKER", false);
MessageLog.trace( preferences.getBool("XSHEET_ANNOTATION_FRAME_MARKER", false));
}
2. Follow steps 6 to 8.
All tick marks are removed from the Annotation column.
How to import annotation files
1. In the Xsheet view, select the first cell in the Annotation column where you want the imported image to
start.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click on the cell and select Annotation > Import File.
‣
From the Xsheet menu, select Annotation > Import File.
3. Browse for the bitmap image to import.
4. Click Open.
The image appears in the Annotation column.
Filling Exposure
Harmony provides different tools to fill in exposures and values, create cycles, and set increments.
This section is divided as follows:
•
Filling Exposure Mode on page 63
•
Typing Exposure on page 64
•
Holding Exposure on page 65
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•
Extending a Single Exposure on page 66
•
Extending an Exposure Sequence on page 67
•
Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings on page 69
•
Dragging Cells on page 70
•
Increasing and Decreasing Exposure on page 73
•
Inserting Blank Cells on page 76
•
Setting the Exposure on page 77
•
Filling a Selection with a Single Exposure on page 78
•
Filling a Selection with a Sequence on page 79
•
Filling a Selection Randomly on page 81
•
Filling Empty Cells on page 82
•
Deleting Exposure on page 75
•
Creating Cycles on page 83
•
Managing Key Exposures on page 87
Filling Exposure Mode
In the Xsheet view, you can fill columns using two different filling modes: Overwrite or Insert. These modes control
the filling behaviour. The Timeline view only uses the Overwrite mode.
By default, the Xsheet view is set to Overwrite mode. Adding a new value or a new value sequence overwrites
existing ones. The existing timing sequence remains in the same place and is not pushed down the column.
The Insert mode is the opposite of the Overwrite mode. When you add a new value or a new value sequence over
existing ones, the new values are inserted between the old ones. The existing timing sequence is pushed down
the column.
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How to switch between Overwrite and Insert modes
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the bottom-right corner of the Xsheet view, click Overwrite/Insert.
‣
Press I.
Typing Exposure
To fill in your exposure, you can type the values directly in the Xsheet view.
If you want to type an exact drawing name or value in the Timeline view, you must use the Parameters section
of the Timeline.
NOTE: You can only use alphanumeric values. (0-9, a-z, underscore (_) and dash (-)).
How to type a value in the Timeline view
1. In the Drawing Substitution field, double-click to edit the field and type the name of the drawing you
want to create.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
2. Press Enter/Return to validate the value.
How to type values in the Xsheet view
1. In an Xsheet column, double-click on a cell.
2. Type a value or drawing name in the cell.
3. Press Enter/Return to move to the next cell.
4. Press Esc to exit the typing mode and return to normal mode.
Holding Exposure
Drawings in an animation project are often exposed for more than one frame. The most common exposure of a
drawing is two frames. In the industry, this type of exposure is known as animation in double frames or animation
on twos. A drawing can also be exposed for three, four, or five cells and so on. To prevent mistakes and save
time, you can hold cells automatically as you type in the Xsheet view.
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How to hold exposure
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select Exposure > Hold Exposure > Hold 2 Cells.
‣
In the Xsheet view, right-click and select Exposure > Set Exposure To > Set Exposure to 1, 2,3, or
Set Exposure. The settings you select will be kept from session to session. You do need to set them
every time you use Harmony.
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Hold Exposure > the desired option.
2. Type a value or drawing name in the cell.
‣
Press Enter/Return to move on to the next cell.
‣
Press Esc to quit the typing mode.
‣
If you selected Set Exposure, the Set Exposure dialog box opens. You can hold as many cells as
needed.
Extending a Single Exposure
Extending the exposure lets you select a cell that contains a value and pull it down to the desired frame.
How to extend a cell exposure gesturally
1. In the Xsheet view, select the red arrow in the cell’s right side. Make sure you see the drag down
cursor.
2. Pull down the selected cell to the desired frame.
NOTE: The red selection box must be visible when releasing the cursor. If not, the action is
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
considered cancelled.
How to extend a sequence from the top menu
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Extend Exposure.
‣
Press F5.
The Extend Exposure dialog box opens.
2. Enter the frame number you want to extend the cell to.
Extending an Exposure Sequence
When working with a sequence that contains only numbers, you can extend an exposure sequence in a similar
manner to extending a single exposure.
How to extend an exposure to create a sequence
1. In the Xsheet view, select a cell containing a number.
2. In the selected cell, click the red arrow on the cell’s right side. Make sure to see the drag down
cursor.
3. Hold down the Shift key. Make sure a plus sign (+) appears.
4. Pull down the selection box to the desired frame.
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Chapter 3: Timing
NOTE: The red selection box must be visible when releasing the cursor. If not, the action is
considered cancelled.
5. First release the Shift key, then release the mouse button.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
When drawing on a blank frame you can automatically create a new drawing and extend the timing from the
previous exposed drawing.
In the following example, a cell is selected on the timeline for creating a new drawing in image A. In image B, the
previous exposure does not extend to the new drawing, while in image C, it does.
How to extend the exposure of previous drawings
1. Open the Preferences dialog box by doing one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Preferences.
‣
Press Ctrl + U (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + U (Mac OS X).
The Preferences dialog box opens.
2. Select the Exposure Sheet tab.
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
3. In the Drawing Creation section, select the Extend Exposure of Previous Drawing option.
4. On the left side of the Timeline view, select a cell and create a new drawing.
The previous exposure automatically extends to the beginning of the new drawing.
Dragging Cells
To readjust your timing, you can drag one or more cells to a new location. You can drag a cell to any other
frame in the same column or into another column.
You can turn off the Gestural Drag mode for the Xsheet view to prevent drawings from being dragged from
one location to another. This feature does not apply to Annotation columns.
How to drag a cell to another location in the Timeline view
1. In the Timeline view, select one or more cells to move.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
2. Drag the cells to the new location.
3. Drop the selection by doing one of the following:
‣
Drop by simply releasing the mouse or pen.
‣
Hold Ctrl (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ (Mac OS X) while dropping the selection to copy the cells. The original
cells will not be moved.
‣
Press Shift while dropping the selection to insert them between existing frames.
How to drag a cell to another location in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet view, select one or more cells.
2. In the Xsheet view, position the pointer over the small dotted area
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
3. Drag the selection to any other cell in the same column or in another column.
4. Do one of the following:
‣
Drop the selection to overwrite the existing cells.
‣
Hold down Ctrl (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ (Mac OS X) while dropping the selection to copy the cells.
The original selection will not be moved.
‣
Press Shift while dropping the selection to insert it between existing frames.
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How to turn off the Gestural Drag mode
1. Do one of the following:
‣ In the Xsheet view, right-click and deselect the Gestural Drag Mode option.
‣ In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Toggle Gestural Drag Mode button (you may have to customize the toolbar
to display it).
The dragging pad disappears on selected cells when the Gestural Drag mode is off.
Increasing and Decreasing Exposure
Once a value is entered in the Timeline or Xsheet view, you can increase and decrease its exposure.
Increasing the exposure adds one more exposure to a selected cell; repeating this action adds an extra cell each
time. This is an efficient way to extend a drawing's exposure and is always set in Insert mode. Increasing an
exposure pushes the existing exposure forward.
Decreasing the exposure removes one exposure from a selected cell and pulls any cells following it to the
beginning of selection.
How to increase exposure
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a cell.
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Increase Exposure.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Increase Exposure
‣
At the bottom-right corner of the Xsheet view, set the number of cells over which the drawing will be
exposed.
‣
Right-click and select Exposure > Increase Exposure.
‣
Press +.
button.
How to decrease exposure
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a cell.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Decrease Exposure.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Decrease Exposure
‣
At the bottom-right corner of the Xsheet view, set the number of cells over which the drawing will be
exposed.
‣
Right-click and select Exposure > Decrease Exposure.
‣
Press -.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
How to use the Clear Exposure and Pull feature
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a range of cells.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Clear Exposure and Pull.
‣
Right-click and select Exposure > Clear Exposure and Pull.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Clear Exposure and Pull
button.
The exposure is reduced by the selected number of cells.
Deleting Exposure
You can delete a drawing’s exposure in several ways. When you delete a drawing’s exposure from the Timeline or
Xsheet view, you are not deleting the actual drawing file. You can always retrieve it by typing its name again in a
cell.
You can delete the exposure in a selected cell range or delete the entire exposure of a drawing exposed over
several cells. Note that you can also delete the exposure for drawings inside a collapsed group.
How to delete selected exposures
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the exposure you want to delete.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click and select Delete.
‣
Press Delete.
How to clear the entire exposure of a drawing
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a cell of a drawing exposed over several cells.
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Clear Exposure.
‣
In the Timeline view, right-click and select Exposure > Clear Exposure.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Clear Exposure
to display it).
button (you may have to customize the toolbar
Inserting Blank Cells
You can place an empty cell between other cells.
How to insert blank cells
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell in which you want to insert a blank cell.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
In the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Insert Blank Cell.
‣
Right-click on the selected cell and select Exposure > Insert Blank Cell.
‣
In the Timeline or Xsheet toolbar, click the Insert Blank Cell
the toolbar to display it).
‣
Press Shift + J.
A blank cell is inserted.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
How to clear a selected cell range without changing the exposure and timing
1. In the Xsheet view, select a frame range to clear.
2. Right-click and select Clear.
Setting the Exposure
You can easily increase or decrease the exposure for a selected cell range.
How to set the exposure
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell range on which you want to set the exposure.
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Set Exposure to > Set Exposure to 1, 2, 3, or Set
Exposure.
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click one of the Set Exposure
customize the toolbar to display them).
‣
In the Xsheet view, right-click and select Exposure > Set Exposure to > Set Exposure to 1, 2, or 3,
or Set Exposure.
buttons (you may have to
3. If you chose the Set Exposure option, the Set Exposure dialog box opens. Enter the number of frames
you want the drawings to display and click OK.
The new timing is displayed in the Xsheet view.
Filling a Selection with a Single Exposure
You can fill the same value over an entire selection. The selection can be over one cell, a cell range in one
column, a cell range over many columns, an entire column, or many columns. You can use numbers, words,
letters, or any alphanumeric value.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
How to fill a selection with a single exposure
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a cell range.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Fill Selection.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Fill Selection
display it).
‣
Press Ctrl + T (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + T (Mac OS X)).
button (you may have to customize the toolbar to
The Fill Selection dialog box opens.
3. In the Value field, type the desired value.
4. To insert a key exposure in the frame following the last cell in the selection, select the Add Key Exposure
After option. Otherwise, leave it deselected.
5. Click OK.
Filling a Selection with a Sequence
You can create a numbered sequence over a selection. The sequence can be forward, backward, single, double or
higher increment, as a cycle, and so on. The selection can be over one cell or a cell range in one column or more or
an entire column or many entire columns.
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
How to fill a selection with a sequence
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a cell range.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Sequence Fill.
‣
In the Timeline view, right-click and select Exposure > Sequence Fill.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Sequence Fill
display it).
‣
Press Ctrl + M (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + M (Mac OS X)).
button (you may have to customize the toolbar to
The Sequence Fill dialog box opens.
3. In the Starting Value field, type the first number in the sequence.
4. In the Increment field, type the number by which the drawing number will increase from frame to frame.
For example, an increment of 1 gives you: 1-2-3-4; an increment of 2 gives you: 1-3-5-7; and -2 gives
you this: 8-6-4-2.
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Filling a Selection Randomly
You can fill in random values over a selection. You can give a maximum and a minimum value and create a
range for Harmony to choose the random values from. The selection can be over one cell or a cell range in
one column or more or an entire column or many entire columns.
How to fill cells randomly
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a cell range.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
Select Animation > Cell > Fill Cells Randomly.
‣
In the Xsheet view, click the Fill Cells Randomly
display it).
The Fill Cells Randomly dialog box opens.
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
3. In the Minimum Value field, enter the lowest acceptable value.
4. In the Maximum Value field, enter the highest acceptable value.
5. In the Hold field, choose an exposure holding value.
6. If you are applying this option to a drawing column, select the Whole Numbers option to avoid decimal
points.
7. Click OK.
Filling Empty Cells
You can fill empty cells to extend the exposure of single frame drawings to fill the range of empty cells after
each one.When creating drawings on cells that are not side-by-side, the exposure of the first drawing no
longer fills automatically. You must select the frame range where you want your drawings to hold their
exposure up to the next drawing and use the Fill Empty Cells command.
How to fill empty cells
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a cell range.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click and select Exposure > Fill Empty Cells.
‣
From the top menu, select Animation > Cell > Fill Empty Cells.
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click the Fill Empty Cells
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
Each drawing in the selection is exposed in the range of empty cells that follow it.
Creating Cycles
Once you have entered a series of drawings and exposures, you can create cycles out of them in several ways.
You can loop your drawings using the following commands:
•
Create Cycle
•
Paste Cycle
•
Paste Reverse
When you create a drawing cycle, all of the repeated drawings are linked to the same original files. This
means that when you modify, repaint, or correct a drawing named “1” for example, all drawings named
“1” are updated simultaneously. In order to modify a drawing independently from its other exposures, you
must duplicate the drawing.
How to create a cycle
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell range to loop.
2. Right-click on the selection and select Create Cycle or in the Timeline toolbar, click the Create Cycle
button (you may have to customize the toolbar to display it).
The Create Cycle dialog box opens.
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
3. Enter the number of cycles you want, including the current selection.
How to paste a cycle
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell range to loop.
1. From the top menu, select Edit > Copy Cell from Timeline or Xsheet or press Ctrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C (Mac OS X).
2. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell where you want your cycles to start.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Paste Cycle.
‣
Right-click and select Paste Cycle.
‣
Press Ctrl + / (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + / (Mac OS X).
The Paste Cycle dialog box opens.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
4. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Number of Cycles field, enter the number of cycles you want to paste.
‣
Increase or decrease the number of cycles you want to paste.
5. In the Cycle Type menu, select the type of cycle you want to paste.
‣
Normal (forward): Pastes cycles as for all cycles, starting with the first cell of your selection and ending
with the last.
‣
Reverse: Pastes cycles in the reverse order of the original selection, starting with the last cell of your
selection and ending with the first one.
‣
Forward > Reverse: Pastes the first cycle in your selection as is, then the following one in reverse
order. This repeated until all cycles are pasted.
‣
Reverse > Forward: Pastes the first cycle in your selectionin reverse order, then the following one as is.
This repeated until all cycles are pasted.
6. Click OK.
NOTE: You can perform the same operation using the Paste Special dialog box. To open the Paste
Special dialog box, select Edit > Paste Special or press Ctrl + B (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + B (Mac OS X).
How to paste a reversed cycle
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell range to paste in reverse order.
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2. From the top menu, select Edit > Copy Cell from Timeline or Xsheet or press Ctrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C (Mac OS X).
3. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell where you want your cycles to start.
4. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Paste Reverse.
‣
Right-click and select Paste Reverse.
‣
Press Ctrl + . (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + . (Mac OS X).
Overwriting Exposures and Keyframes
If the area on which you are dropping a selection contains exposures and/or keyframes, they are overwritten
by the content you are selected by dragging. You can set this mode in two places: the Timeline toolbar and the
Preferences dialog box.
How to override exposure and keyframes
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, drag to select the drawings you want to move.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click the Toggle Override Exposure and Keyframe During Drag and Drop
button (you may have to customize the toolbar to display it).
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‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Preferences or press Ctrl + U (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + U (Mac OS
X). Select the Timeline tab, then select the Override Exposure and Keyframe During Drag and Drop
option.
3. Drop your selection at the desired location.
Managing Key Exposures
Before working with key exposures, it's important to understand how keyframes, exposure and key exposure
work in Harmony:
•
Keyframe: A keyframe is a point in time where a change to the properties of the object or character
occurs. In Harmony, keyframes consist of the coordinates that determine how an entire layer and its
contents are moved. Keyframes include these parameters: XYZ position, skew, scale, angle and pivot.
•
Exposure: Exposure is a property; it is the length of time that a drawing is visible over a series of frames.
In Harmony, exposure is independent of keyframes. That is, keyframes are not linked to drawings.
Keyframes can be moved independently from the drawing exposure.
•
Key Exposure: A key exposure in Harmony is a type of exposure that forces a drawing to remain exposed
on a specific frame. If a drawing is exposed before a key exposure and you swap out that drawing for
another one, then the original drawing is retained. This preserves the key drawing. Note that Harmony
automatically sets a key exposure when you perform a drawing swap.
Adding Key Exposures
Key exposures are mainly used for swapping drawings in cut-out animation where you will have numerous
drawings for the various positions of the mouth or eyes of a character for example.
If there is a particular drawing you want to keep on a specific frame, you can set it as a key exposure. This
prevents it from be overwritten by a drawing swap on a preceding frame. A key exposure is simply a property of
an exposure that forces it to be exposed on a certain frame regardless of whether the previous exposure is the
same drawing or not.
NOTE: Keep in mind that if you modify the artwork in a drawing, all instances of that drawing will be automatically
updated even if set as a key exposure. This keeps your existing animation key poses intact. It is frequently used on a
mouth or eyes layer.
Example: Swapping a drawing with no key exposure
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In the following example, drawing 3 (DR 3) is selected on the timeline and it contains no key exposure.
When it is swapped for drawing 4 (DR 4), the entire duration of drawing 3 substituted for drawing 4.
Example: Swapping a drawing with a key exposure
Here's what happens when swapping a drawing with a key exposure. In the following example, the playhead is
positioned in the middle of drawing 5 (DR 5) to set the position for the new key exposure. When the new key
exposure is added, drawing 5 is split in two; both halves contain drawing 5. Now if you swap the first drawing
5 for drawing 1, the second drawing 5 retains its exposure.
How to add a key exposure
1. In the Timeline view, select the drawing cell to set as the key exposure.
2. Do one of the following:In the Timeline toolbar, click the Add Key Exposure
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click the Add Key Exposure
‣
In the Timeline menu, select Exposure > Add Key Exposure.
‣
Right-click and select Exposure > Add Key Exposure.
A new key exposure is added.
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If you added a key exposure at the beginning of the drawing, the entire exposure is filled with that same
drawing. If you added a key exposure anywhere other than the beginning of the drawing, then the drawing
is split in two and both parts contain the same drawing.
Removing Key Exposures
When you no know longer need a key exposure, you can remove it. When you do this, the existing key exposure is
replaced by the preceding exposure. In the following example, a key exposure is set to drawing 1 (DR 1). When
the key exposure is removed, the exposure is replaced by the preceding exposure, drawing 4 (DR 4).
How to remove a key exposure
1. In the Timeline view, select a key exposure to remove.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click the Remove Key Exposure
‣
In the Timeline menu, select Exposure > Remove Key Exposure.
‣
Right-click and select Exposure > Remove Key Exposure.
button.
The key exposure is removed and replaced by the preceding exposure.
Removing Duplicate Key Exposures
When working with drawings to adjust the timing of a mouth in a lipsync, for example, and forcing the use of
specific key exposures, unnecessary key exposures will be created. You can delete these duplicates without
affecting the rest of the drawing. The first drawing of the selection will be used for the range.
NOTE: Duplicate key exposures may occur when pasting with the Enforce Key Exposure option selected.
How to remove duplicate key exposures
1. In the Timeline view, select the layer that contains duplicate key exposures.
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2. In the Timeline toolbar, click the Remove Duplicate Key Exposure
tomize the toolbar to display it).
button (you may have to cus-
Pasting Key Exposures Using Different Modes
As you animate, you will find that you reuse key exposures. There are different options to paste your selected
drawings when they contain key exposures:
•
Enforce Key Exposure: If there are key exposures that exist on copied drawings, they are preserved
when pasting. No key exposures are added. This is the default behavior when pasting.
•
Fill Gap with Previous Drawing: Fills selected area in the Xsheet or Timeline view with the previous
drawing.
•
Fill to Next Key Exposure: Fills selected area till the next key exposure.
How to paste using different modes
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the drawings you want to copy and press Ctrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C (Mac OS X).
2. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell where you want your pasted selection to start.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
Press Ctrl + B (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + B (Mac OS X).
The Paste Special dialog box opens.
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‣
From the Timeline menu, select Edit > Modify Paste Presets > Exposure.
The Edit Exposure Paste Preset dialog box opens.
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4. Select the Enforce Key Exposure or Fill to Next Key Exposure option. In the Paste Special dialog box,
these options are on the Basic tab.
5. Click OK.
6. Press Ctrl + V (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + V (Mac OS X) to paste your selection.
Navigating between Frames and Columns
Once a cell is selected in the Timeline or Xsheet view, you can navigate between the drawings, frames, and
layers using keyboard shortcuts that work in the Camera, Drawing, Xsheet and Timeline views.
You can navigate through:
•
Drawings
•
Frames
•
Columns
How to navigate through drawings, frames and columns
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a cell.
2. Once the cell is selected, you can navigate between:
‣
Previous and next layers: From the top menu, select Drawing > Previous Layer and Next Layer or
press H and J.
‣
Previous and next drawings: From the top menu, select Drawing > Previous Drawing and Next
Drawing or press F and G.
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‣
Previous and next frames: From the top menu, select Play > Previous Frame and Next Frame or
press comma (,) and period (.).
Managing Drawings
Drawings that are created in Toon Boom Harmony are not stored in their cells. They are actual files stored in the
project’s folder. If you want to rename a drawing or delete a drawing from your project, you need to edit the file
and not the cells.
This section is divided as follows:
•
Renaming a Drawing on page 93
•
Deleting a Drawing on page 95
•
Duplicating a Drawing on page 96
•
Copying and Pasting Drawings on page 96
•
Merging Drawings on page 98
Renaming a Drawing
To rename a drawing, you need to select the drawing cell and use the Rename Drawing command.
How to rename a drawing
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the drawing to rename.
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2. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click and select Drawings > Rename Drawing.
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click the Rename Drawing
toolbar to display it).
‣
Press Ctrl + D (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + D (Mac OS X).
button (you may have to customize the
The Rename Drawing dialog box opens.
3. In the New Name field, type in the new drawing name.
How to rename a drawing sequence with a prefix
You can rename a drawing sequence with a prefix, which can be quite useful for cut-out puppet breakdown and
deformation animation.
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a drawing sequence. Note that you can only select a drawing
range in one column or layer at a time.
2. Right-click and select Drawings > Rename Drawing with Prefix.
The Rename Drawing with Prefix dialog box opens.
3. In the Prefix to Add field, type the prefix to add before the drawing name.
How to rename drawings by their frame position
You can rename a series of drawings relative to their frame position. This is useful in hand-drawn animation.
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the drawing sequence to rename.
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2. From the top menu, select Drawing > Rename by Frame.
Deleting a Drawing
You can permanently delete a drawing file from a project's folder.
NOTE: Deleting a drawing file is an operation that cannot be undone.
How to delete a drawing
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the drawings to delete.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Delete Selected Drawings.
‣
Right-click and select Drawings > Delete Selected Drawings.
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Duplicating a Drawing
If you want to modify a drawing that already exists, but keep the original drawing intact, you can duplicate the
drawing and work on the copy. When duplicating a drawing, the selected cell is replaced with the new
drawing. The exposure of the original drawing that was on the current cell is removed. The original drawing is
not deleted from the project folder or other cells in which it is exposed.
With Toon Boom Harmony, you can create a keyframe at the same time as you duplicate your drawing. This
way, you can modify and reposition drawings without affecting the original drawing.
How to duplicate a drawing
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the drawing to duplicate.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Duplicate Drawings.
‣
Right-click and select Drawings > Duplicate Drawings.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Duplicate Drawing
‣
Press Alt + Shift + D.
button.
Copying and Pasting Drawings
When you copy and paste a selection in the Timeline or Xsheet view, you are not copying and pasting the actual
drawings, you are pasting the exposure. Exposure is a property; it is the length of time that a drawing is visible
over a series of frames. In Harmony, exposure is independent of keyframes. That is, keyframes are not linked
to drawings. Keyframes can be moved independently from the drawing exposure.
If you want to copy and paste selected drawings into a different layer or paste the selection in the same layer
to duplicate the drawings, you must use the Paste Special feature.
There are four different ways to paste your selected drawings with the Paste Special dialog box:
Never create drawing files: When adding exposures to a drawing layer, drawing files will not be
created.
Only create drawing files when they do not exist: When adding exposures to a drawing layer,
new drawings will be created only when drawings with the same name do not already exist in the
destination.
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Replace existing drawings. Create drawing files when they do not exist: Replace drawings with
the same names to update a scene with new modified drawings and preserve the animation.
Tip: If you don't want to lose the existing animation when pasting a template, such as
when placing new drawings after the animation, then delete the template's animation.
It will still have updated the drawings but not override the existing animation.
Always create drawing files: When adding exposures to a drawing layer, new drawings will always
be created. If drawing files with the same name already exist, Harmony will create a new name for
the drawing.
If you want to perform another Paste Special operation using the same settings you used previously, you can use
the Paste Special Again command instead. You can paste your selection using the same settings as in the most
recent Paste Special operation, without opening the Paste Special dialog box.
How to paste drawings with the Paste Special command
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the drawings to copy and press Ctrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C
(Mac OS X).
2. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell where you want your pasted selection to start.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click and select Paste Special.
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Paste Special.
‣
In the Xsheet or Timeline toolbar, click the Paste Special
toolbar to display it).
‣
Press Ctrl + B (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + B (Mac OS X).
The Paste Special dialog box opens.
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
4. Select the Basic tab.
5. In the Drawings section, select the Always Create Drawings or Only Create Drawings When They Do
Not Exist option.
How to paste new drawings with the previous Paste Special settings
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Paste Special Again.
‣
Right-click and select Paste Special Again
‣
In the Timeline or Xsheet toolbar, click the Paste Special Again
customize the toolbar to display it).
‣
Press Ctrl + Shift + B (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + Shift + B (Mac OS X).
Merging Drawings
There are two methods of merging drawings.
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
•
You can merge selected drawings in adjacent elements. The columns and layers will be left intact, and each
new merged drawing will reside in the frames of the left-most column or lower layer.
•
You can merge elements. All drawings will be merged. Unused columns and layers will be deleted, but the
original drawing files are still accessible.
How to merge selected drawings
1. In the Xsheet view, select the drawings to merge.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select Columns> Merge Selected Drawings.
‣
In the Timeline menu, select Layers > Merge Selected Drawings.
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3. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select Columns > Merge Selected Columns.
‣
In the Timeline menu, select Layers > Merge Selected Layers.
In the Xsheet view, the right-most column will contain the merged drawings and the remaining columns will be
left blank at the corresponding frames. In the Timeline view, the bottom timeline layer will contain the merged
drawings from all layers and the other layers will be left blank at the corresponding frames. Drawings are not
deleted and are still accessible.
How to merge drawings in entire layers or columns
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Timeline view, select the layers you want to merge.
‣
In the Xsheet view, Shift-click the headers of the columns you want to merge.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
In the top menu, select Edit > Merge.
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‣
In the Xsheet menu, select Columns > Merge Selected Columns.
‣
In the Timeline menu, select Layers > Merge Selected Layers.
In the Xsheet view, the right-most column will contain the merged drawings and the other columns will be
deleted. In the Timeline view, the bottom timeline layer will contain the merged drawings from all layers
and the other layers will be deleted. Drawings are not deleted and are still accessible.
Modifying the Layer and Column Display
You can change the way a column in the Xsheet view displays. You can change the way a layer in the Timeline view
or a column in the Xsheet view displays. You can stay organized without changing the content of elements or your
animation output.
This section is divided as follows:
•
Expanding and Collapsing Layers and Columns on page 101
•
Showing or Hiding Layers on page 102
•
Showing and Hiding Columns on page 104
•
Modifying the Look of the Column on page 107
•
Xsheet Thumbnails on page 113
•
Changing the Colour of a Layer or Column on page 113
•
Setting Scene Markers on page 115
•
Setting Tempo Markers on page 118
Expanding and Collapsing Layers and Columns
To simplify the look of the Timeline or Xsheet view, you can expand and collapse the layers and columns. If some
layers are parented to other ones, you can collapse the parent layer to hide its children.
How to collapse or expand selected layers in the Timeline view
1. In the Timeline view, select the layer(s) to collapse or expand.
2. Do one of the following:
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‣
Right-click on the selection and select Collapse/Expand > Collapse/Expand.
‣
Click the Expand Children Arrow
‣
Click the Collapse/Expand
‣
Press Ctrl + I (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + I (Mac OS X).
button on the parent layer.
button (you may have to customize the toolbar to display it).
How to collapse or expand all layers in the Timeline view
1. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click on the layers and select Collapse/Expand > Expand All or Collapse All.
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click the Collapse All
customize the toolbar to display them).
‣
Press 0 and 9.
or Expand All
buttons (you may have to
How to collapse and expand 3D path or rotation columns in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Show Column List
button to display the Functions list.
2. In the Xsheet view, select the column header of the 3D path or 3D rotation column to collapse or
expand.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click on the column’s header and select Expand/Collapse > Collapse Selection or Expand
Selection.
How to collapse or expand all 3D path and 3D rotation columns in the Xsheet view
Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click on any column’s header and select Expand/Collapse > Expand All or Collapse All.
‣
Press 0 and 9.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Collapse All
customize the toolbar to display it).
or Expand All
buttons (you may have to
Showing or Hiding Layers
As you work in the Drawing or Camera view, some layers may be in the way or are used as references. You can
hide these layers to make your work area less cluttered and easier to navigate. You can show and hide layers in
the Timeline view in several different ways.
When using the Solo mode to show or hide layers, here's how it works:
•
If you have anything selected, it is not affected.
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•
When multiple layers are selected and you enable/disable the Solo mode on any of those layers, it is
applied to all the selected layers.
•
When multiple layers are selected and you enable/disable the Solo mode on layers that are not part of the
selection, it is applied only to those particular layers.
When exporting or rendering a scene, the Solo mode setting of layers is ignored.
NOTE:
When a layer is affected by an inverted cutter, enabling the Solo mode for this layer will not show it unless the mask is
also enabled.
How to show or hide all layers
1. Click one of the following in the Layers toolbar:
‣
Enable/Disable All
button to show or hide all layers.
Any hidden layers are unhidden, so you can view all layers.
‣
Solo Mode
button to view disable your current Solo mode selection. Any soloed drawing or sound
layers are disabled, so you can view all layers. When you click again on the Solo Mode button, you last
Solo selection is displayed.
How to show or hide individual layers
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Layer toolbar, click the Solo Mode
‣
Click the layer's Enable/Disable All
‣
Press A to show a layer or D to hide selected layers.
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click the Enable/Disable
display it).
button.
button to show or hide that layer.
button (you may have to customize the toolbar to
When you deselect a layer in the Timeline view, the corresponding column is hidden in the Xsheet view.
How to enable the selected layer and disable all others
1. Do one of the following:
‣
Hold down Alt and click the Solo Mode
layers.
‣
In the Timeline toolbar, click the Disable All Others
to display it).
button of the layer you want to solo and hide all other
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Chapter 3: Timing Extending the Exposure of Previous Drawings
In the Timeline view, you can hide or show certain types of layers such as Group and Effect.
How to show and hide layer types in the Timeline view
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Timeline menu, select View > Show > Show Manager.
‣
You can also select View > Show > Show Sounds, Show Effects or Show Groups to immediately
show or hide the selected type. This option will remain only for the current session. When you close
and reopen Harmony, the default settings will return.
The Show Manager dialog box opens.
2. Select the types of layers you want to display and deselect the ones you want to turn off.
3. Click Set As Default to make these new settings the default ones that will be used each time to start
the application. Click Restore Default to restore the settings used when installing the application.
In the Xsheet view, you have the choice of hiding or showing certain types of columns such as Annotation
and Functions.
Showing and Hiding Columns
The Xsheet view has a Column List section that displays all the columns contained in the exposure sheet. It can
be used to hide individual columns.
If you need to see a column after it has been hidden, you can display it directly from the Xsheet view without
using the Column List section.
You can also hide a column type, such as Drawing or Sound. When you do this, its corresponding layer is
disabled in the Timeline view.
How to show or hide columns in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Show Column List
button.
2. On the right side of the Functions section, click the Expand button to display the Column List section.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Column List section, select the columns to display and deselect the columns to hide.
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Hide Selected Column
toolbar to display it).
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
How to show a hidden column in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet menu, click on the thick grey line that represents a hidden column. You can also right-click on
the column header and select Show Hidden Columns.
The Show Hidden Columns dialog box opens.
2. In the Show column, select the hidden columns you want to display in the Xsheet view.
‣
Click Check to select all the selected columns.
‣
Click Uncheck to deselect all selected columns.
How to show all columns
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select View > Unhide All Columns.
How to show and hide column types
1. In the Xsheet view, select View > Column Types Manager.
The Column Types dialog box opens.
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2. Select the types of columns you want to display and disable the ones you want to hide.
3. Click Set As Default if you want to make these new settings the default ones that will be used each time
to start the application.
4. Click Restore Default if you want to restore the settings used when installing the application.
How to show or hide Xsheet columns using the Column List
1. In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Show Column List
button.
2. On the right side of the Functions section, click the Expand button to display the Column List section.
3. In the Column List section, select the columns to display and deselect the columns to hide.
How to show or hide an Xsheet column type using the Column List
1. In the Column List section, click the button corresponding to the column type you want to show or hide.
Column Type
Action
Show/Hide All Columns
Show/Hide Drawing Columns
Show/Hide Function Columns
Show/Hide 3D Path Columns
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Show/Hide 3D Rotation Columns
Show/Hide Sound Columns
Show/Hide Annotation Columns
Modifying the Look of the Column
In Harmony, you can modify the way the column displays drawings, empty cells and the column width.
You can modify the following elements:
•
Empty cells
•
Row units
•
Held exposure
•
Column width
How to modify the look of empty cell
1. From the Xsheet menu, select View > Empty Cells > With an “X” or Blank.
How to modify row units
1. From the Xsheet menu, select View > Row Units > Frames or Feet.
How to modify the look of a held exposure
1. In the Xsheet menu, select View > Held Exposures > Line or Value.
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How to modify column width
1. In the Xsheet view, select any column to modify the width.
2. From the Xsheet menu, select View > Set Columns Width.
The Xsheet Column Width dialog box opens.
3. In the Column Width field, enter the desired width in pixels.
4. Do one of the following:
‣
Click OK to validate and close the dialog box.
‣
Click Apply to validate the operation and keep the dialog box opened to adjust the next column’s
width.
‣
Click Set As Default to create all the new columns to this width.
‣
Click Close to cancel the operation.
5. To restore all columns to the default value, in the Xsheet menu, select View > All Columns to Default
Width.
Drawing Identification
In the Xsheet view, you can identify drawings as Key, Breakdown or In-between. This helps to keep the Xsheet
well organized while animating.
When working with several animators, directors or even other studios, the necessity for retakes will often
arise. Harmony gives you the possibility to mark new drawings as either Retake Key, Retake Breakdown, or
Retake In-betweens.
If your production requires you to mark drawings with a custom marker, you also have the option to create
your own.
Make custom marks for the Xsheet by creating your own icons, then cutting, pasting and changing a bit of
code. Not only is it possible to have your custom mark appear in the Xsheet and Mark Drawing toolbars, but
also in the Onion Skin and Flip toolbars.
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NOTE: You can create custom shortcuts for the Drawing Identification options in the Preferences dialog box.
Key Drawing
A key drawing is a visually significant pose in a movement, often an extreme position. For example, if a character
that is sitting down falls on his back, the key poses would be the character sitting and the character on his back.
Of course, it may vary from one animation to another.
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Breakdown Drawing
A breakdown drawing is a pose somewhere between two key poses that better shows the movement. Most
animation moves are arcs, such as an arm waving, somebody bending, or a leg walking. All of these
movements are rotations. The breakdown pose is used to describe this curve better.
The breakdown drawing is then used to indicate secondary poses, also called the follow-through. These
actions can be a big stomach jiggle as somebody jumps, a cloak floating behind somebody that is running, or
arms moving after the main body action. These moves will generally have a different timing than the primary
action. They will mainly start later and finish later. So, the breakdown drawings are used to complete the key
drawings.
Note that a breakdown drawing is not always placed exactly in the middle of two keys. It will often be closer to
one or the other depending on the timing and the action. Also, you can have more than one breakdown pose
between two keys.
How to mark a drawing as Key, Breakdown or In-between
1. From the top menu, select Windows > Toolbars > Mark Drawing.
The Mark Drawing toolbar displays.
2. In the Xsheet view, select the cell you want to identify. This option is not available in the Timeline view.
3. In the Mark Drawing toolbar, click one of these buttons: Mark as Key Drawing
, Mark as Breakdown
Drawing
or Mark as In-between Drawing
. In the Xsheet menu, you can also select Drawing >
Mark Drawing As > Key Drawing, Breakdown Drawing, In-between Drawing, Retake Key, Retake
BD and Retake IB.
‣
If you selected Mark as Key Drawing, a
‣
If you selected Mark as Breakdown Drawing, a
‣
If you selected Mark as In-Between Drawing, there is no icon displayed in the cell since it is used to
remove a Key or Breakdown marker.
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How to create custom markers
1. With a bitmap editing software, create the following icons in PNG format:
‣
Mark Drawing Toolbar icon (24 x 24 pixel)
‣
Onion Skin Toolbar icon (24 x 24 pixel)
‣
Flip Toolbar icon (24 x 24 pixel)
‣
Xsheet Column icon (16 x 16 pixel)
2. Close Harmony.
3. When your icons are ready, open the Toon Boom Harmony drawingTypes.d folder.
•
•
Windows:
•
Toon Boom Harmony Premium: C:\Users\[user_name]
\AppData\Roaming\Toon Boom Animation\Toon Boom Harmony\full-1200pref\drawingTypes.d
•
Toon Boom Harmony Advanced: C:\Users\[user_name]
\AppData\Roaming\Toon Boom Animation\Toon Boom StageAdvanced\full1200-pref\drawingTypes.d
Mac OS X:
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On Mac OS X, the Library folder is a hidden folder. To display the display the folder, told
down the Alt key.
•
•
Toon Boom Harmony Premium: /Users/[user_name]
/Library/Preferences/Toon Boom Animation/Toon Boom Harmony/full1200-pref/drawingTypes.d
•
Toon Boom Harmony Advanced: /Users/[user_name]
/Library/Preferences/Toon Boom Animation/Toon Boom Stage
Advanced/full-1200-pref/drawingTypes.d
Linux:
•
/home/user_name/Toon Boom Animation/Toon Boom Harmony/full-1200pref/drawingTypes.d
•
/home/user_name/Toon Boom Animation/Toon Boom StageAdvanced/full1200-pref/drawingTypes.d
NOTE:
If the drawingTypes.d folder does not exist, you must create it. To do so, copy the resources
folder from the following location.
•
Windows: Start > Programs > Harmony 12.1 Advanced
•
Mac OS X: Applications > Toon Boom Harmony 12.1 Advanced > resources >
drawingTypes.d
•
Linux: /usr/local/ToonBoomAnimation/harmony_12/lnx86_
64/bin/StageAdvanced/resources/drawingTypes.d
4. Paste your icons in the drawingTypes.d directory.
5. In the same directory, open the drawingTypes.xml file in a text editor.
6. For each custom icon you want to create, add the following line. Make sure to place it before this closing tag: </DrawingTypes>.
‣
<DrawingType text="NewButtonName" pixmapFile="XsheetIcon.png"
commandIcon="MarkDrawingIcon.png" flipIcon="FlipIcon.png" onionIcon="OnionIcon.png" />
7. In that line, replace the following information with your new icon information:
‣
NewButtonName: Write the name of your new marker. This name will appear in the button tooltip.
‣
XsheetIcon.png: Write the name of the icon that you created to appear in the Xsheet column. Include
the file extension.
‣
MarkDrawingIcon.png: Write the name of the icon that you created to appear in the Mark Drawing
toolbar. Include the file extension.
‣
FlipIcon.png: Write the name of the icon that you created to appear in the Flip toolbar. Include the
file extension.
‣
OnionIcon.png: Write the name of the icon that you created to appear in the Onion Skin toolbar.
Include the file extension.
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8. Save the file and close it.
9. Start Harmony.
Xsheet Thumbnails
When there are a large number of columns in the exposure sheet, it's not easy to quickly identify a particular
column. Displaying the column thumbnails makes this easier. This option displays a small thumbnail picture of the
current frame below the column header.
How to display the thumbnails
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet toolbar, click the Show Thumbnails
‣
In the Xsheet menu, select View > Show Thumbnails.
button.
The thumbnails appear.
Changing the Colour of a Layer or Column
To easily identify elements in the Timeline or Xsheet view, you can change the colour of layers and columns. The
colours you choose will be reflected in the Node view.
How to change the layer’s colour in the Timeline view
1. In the Timeline view, click the Change Track Colour
button of the layer you want to modify.
2. In the Select Colour dialog box, select a new colour for your layer.
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3. Click OK.
The layer’s background colour is updated. In a Drawing layer, exposed cells are the brighter, selected
colour for easy identification. The corresponding column colour is also updated in the Xsheet.
How to reset a layer’s colour in the Timeline view
1. In the Timeline view, select the layers to reset.
2. In the Timeline toolbar, click the Default Track Colour
bar to display it).
button (you may have to customize the tool-
How to change a column’s colour in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet view, select one or more columns to modify.
2. Right-click on the column’s header and select Colour > Change Columns Colour.
3. In the Select Colour dialog box, select a new colour for your columns.
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4. Click OK.
The column’s colour is updated. The corresponding column colour is also updated.
How to reset the column’s colour in the Xsheet view
1. In the Xsheet view, select the columns to reset.
2. Right-click on the column’s header and select Colour > Default Columns Colour.
Setting Scene Markers
Scene markers are visual indicators displayed at the top of the Timeline view in the frame counter area. You can
use it to denote anything relevant to your work. You can indicate the frames you want to clean up, a change in
action, an impact, or where you intend to apply an effect. You can also add a note to a scene marker, which is
displayed when you hover over the scene marker.
There are two ways to add a scene marker. You can mark the current frame or make a frame range selection and
mark the whole section.
How to mark the current frame
1. In the Timeline view, make sure the red playhead is set on the frame you want to mark. Even if you rightclick on a different frame, the scene marker will be created on the current frame on which the playhead is
positioned.
2. Right-click in the frame counter area and select Scene Markers > Mark Current Frame.
The Timeline Scene Marker dialog box opens. The Colour box displays a black colour swatch, or the colour
of the last scene marker you created.
3. Click the Colour swatch to open the Mark Colour dialog box and select a colour for the scene marker.
Click OK.
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4. In the Note field, enter text to display as the tooltip and click OK.
In the Timeline view, the scene marker is displayed at the current frame.
5. Hover over the scene marker to display its tooltip.
How to create a scene marker on a frame range
1. In the frame counter area of the Timeline view, select the frame range you want to mark.
The Timeline Scene Marker dialog box opens. The Colour box displays a black colour swatch, or the
colour of the last scene marker you created.
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2. Click the Colour swatch to open the Mark Colour dialog box and select a colour for the scene marker.
Click OK.
3. In the Note field, enter text to display as the tooltip and click OK.
In the Timeline view, the scene marker is displayed over the selected frame counters.
4. Hover over the scene marker to display its tooltip.
How to edit a scene marker
NOTE: If you select only a part of a scene marker, you will not open the scene marker for editing. You will only be able
to create a new scene marker to overwrite it.
1. In the Timeline view frame counter, select the entire scene marker.
2. Right-click the selection and select Scene Markers > Edit Scene Marker.
The Timeline Scene Marker dialog box opens.
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3. Make your changes.
4. Click OK.
How to delete a scene marker
1. In the Timeline view frame counter, at least one frame counter in the scene marker you want to delete.
2. Right-click the selection and select Scene Markers > Delete Scene Marker.
Setting Tempo Markers
Tempo markers are used to synchronize your animation with a musical score. This lets you reproduce the FPB
(Frames Per Beat) and use the tempo signature as tempo markers. The Xsheet view allows you to pace your
animation according to the tempo or beat of the soundtrack music or to any rhythmic sound, such as the
ticking of a clock or water leaking from a spout.
How to set the tempo markers
1. In the Xsheet menu, select View > Set Tempo Marker.
The Tempo Marker dialog box opens.
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2. Reproduce the tempo and beat value of your music or sound for the Xsheet view marker display.
‣
Starting Frame: Enter the number of the frame where you want the tempo markers to begin.
‣
Frames/Beat: Set the frames per beat value. This will determine the frequency (in frames) in which a
beat marker will appear. Keep in mind that, by default, 24 frames represent 1 second.
‣
Beat/Bar: Set the tempo of your music or sound. This will determine the frequency (in beats) in which a
tempo marker will appear in the Xsheet view.
3. Click OK.
Printing the Xsheet
Once you have marked all the information, corrections, and timing you want in the Xsheet view, you can print your
exposure sheet. Printing the Xsheet allows you to take it with you to your animation table or give a copy to the
animator. You can also use it to create your Xsheet skeleton directly in Harmony.
How to print your exposure sheet
1. Select File > Print > Xsheet.
The Print dialog box opens.
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2. To set up your print:
‣
Windows: In the Select Printer section, select your printer and adjust the rest of the printing
settings.
‣
Linux: In the Print Destination section, select your printer and adjust the rest of the printing settings.
‣
Mac OS X: In the Printer section, select your printer and adjust the rest of the settings by clicking on
the Parameters
button. You can also click PDF and select an option from the menu if you want
to save a PDF version of your exposure sheet.
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NOTE: Refer to your printer user guide to learn more about its options.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
Windows and Mac OS X: Click Print.
‣
Linux: Click OK.
Modifying Paste Presets
When pasting key frames and exposures, you can modify the existing presets to your liking. There are three
presets you can modify: the default presets for both key frames and exposures, key frames only and exposures
only.
How to modify paste presets
1. From the Timeline view menu, select Edit > Modify Paste Presets and one of the following options:
‣
All to edit the default paste preset settings.
‣
Key Frame to edit the preset settings for pasting key frames.
‣
Exposure to edit the preset settings for pasting exposures.
The Edit Paste Presets dialog box opens.
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2. Refer to the following table and edit the presets as desired.
Edit Paste Preset Dialog Box Parameters
Parameter
Description
Drawings
Never create drawing files: Never create drawing files: When adding
exposures to a drawing layer, drawing files will not be created.
Only create drawing files when they do not exist: When adding exposures
Add/Remove Exposure to a drawing layer, new drawings will be created only when drawings with
the same name do not already exist in the destination.
Always create drawing files: When adding exposures to a drawing layer,
new drawings will always be created. If drawing files with the same name
already exist, Harmony will create a new name for the drawing.
Enforce Key Exposure
If there are key exposures that exist on copied drawings, they are preserved
when pasting. No key exposures are added. This is the default behavior
when pasting.
Fill Gap with Previous
Drawing
Fills selected area in the Xsheet or Timeline view with the previous drawing.
Fill to Next Key
Exposure
Fills selected area till the next key exposure.
Keyframes
Motion: Copies the properties of the selected motion keyframe to the new
frame.
Add/Remove
Keyframes
Velocity: Copies the properties of the selected velocity keyframe to the new
frame.
Rotation: Copies the properties of the selected rotation keyframe to the
new frame.
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Scale: Copies the properties of the selected scale keyframe to the new
frame.
Skew: Copies the properties of the selected skew keyframe to the new
frame.
Force Keyframes at Function's Beginning and End: Adds a keyframe to
the beginning and end of the pasted function, reproducing the source
function.
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Chapter 4: Colour Styling and Colour Models
Once the characters, props and locations are designed, it's time for the colour styling and colour models
creation. This is when the colours and moods are determined. The line models created during the design step are
painted and organized as colour models for the colourists.
Harmony has a great concept of colour palettes. Each character can have its own set of colours that is carried
through the entire project called the master palette. If the master is modified, the colours in the entire project are
updated simultaneously.
By doing the colour styling in Harmony, your master palette will be created at the same time, so you do not need
to use third party software. Also you will not have to recreate the colour palette again in Harmony. It is possible
to create this step in an external software, but it is a great time saver to do it directly in Harmony.
NOTE: Throughout this section, there may be slight differences between your interface and the illustrations in this
guide. This is because the images are taken from Harmony Premium.
To create the colour style and colour models, follow these steps:
•
Preparation on page 125
•
Working with Palettes on page 130
•
Colours on page 147
•
Painting the Model on page 163
•
Sharing the Colour Model on page 165
Preparation
Before painting, you need to organize the colour model scenes and bring in your references. The colour styling
preparation is done in five steps:
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Chapter 4: Colour Styling and Colour Models
•
Colour Model Storage on page 126
•
Scene Creation on page 126
•
Setting Up the Workspace on page 127
•
Naming on page 127
Colour Model Storage
First, you will need to create a storage location for all your models and palettes. The best way to do this is to
create a colour model scene. There are different possibilities available to structure your designs and colour
model scenes. We strongly recommend that you put all of your colour models in the same scenes. It is
important to maintain a structure for your models so they do not end up scattered throughout the project.
There are four main model categories:
If you have a small project, such as a short or an advertising contract, you can always place all the characters,
props, effects, and locations in the same scene. For large projects such as feature-length productions or series,
you should create four separate model scenes following these categories.
Scene Creation
In order to create colour models, you need to create your scenes.
When working on a paperless or cut-out animation project, if you have designed your characters, props,
effects and locations directly in Harmony, you can paint your models directly in your design scene. You can also
create a new colour model scene and import your designs in that one. Refer to the Fundamentals Guide to
learn more about creating a scene.
If you have not already done so, refer to the Fundamentals Guide to learn about production structure, file
organization, and how to create a Project root directory. We recommend storing your colour model scenes in
the root directory or in a colour models subdirectory for even better organization.
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A useful way to name your colour model scene is to include the project name, then the colour model type such as
characters, props, effects, or locations, and finally colourmodel. For example, a character colour model scene
for the Adventure project would be named adventure_characters_colourmodel. This ensures that you
always know what scene corresponds to what.
Colour Model Scene Structure
To store your colour models in a scene, you should create one drawing layer for each character, prop, effect, or
location. You should name these according to the model.
You can also load other colour references in the scene to balance your overall colours. For example, if you work in
a character colour model scene, it's a good idea to import some of the key locations to compare and adjust the
colours so they match well.
Setting Up the Workspace
Now that your scenes are created and structured, you can open the corresponding colour model scene. For the
optimal workspace for inking and painting, set up your workspace with these views:
•
Xsheet
•
Camera
•
Drawing
•
Colour
•
Model
Naming
Now that your models are imported, you can rename them appropriately. You should rename elements (layers)
and drawings corresponding to the model. This will help keep the work organized and make it easy for others to
follow.
For example, if there is a black and white character model called Erik in one drawing element and its colour
models in another one, rename your elements to include the character's name. For example, the colour model for
Erik's armour could be named: erik_armour_colour.
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How to rename a drawing element
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Xsheet view, double-click on the column header of the drawing element.
‣
In the Timeline view, double-click on the drawing element's layer.
The Layer Properties window opens.
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2. Type in a new name.
How to rename a drawing
1. In the Xsheet view, click on a drawing name.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Xsheet view menu, select Drawings > Rename Drawing.
‣
Right-click on the drawing name and select Drawings >Rename Drawing.
‣
Press Ctrl + D (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + D (Mac OS X).
The Rename Drawing dialog box opens.
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3. Type in a new name and click OK.
Working with Palettes
In animation, specific colours are used to paint each particular character. In order to maintain absolute
consistency, a colour palette is created for each character, prop and effect throughout the production. This is
referred to as a master palette1.
Master palettes contain a colour swatch for each zone to colour with a precise RGBA colour value.
Using a master colour palette has many benefits, including:
•
Each character consistently retains their dedicated colours.
•
You cannot accidentally use a colour which is not in the master palette.
•
Standardization and colour consistency throughout the production
•
Multiple artists can use the same colour palette and produce the same results.
Toon Boom Harmony uses palettes to hold all the colours needed to paint your elements, allowing complete
control and consistency in your painting process.
A palette2 is created by assigning a set of colours to each character, prop or effect. You will create a new
palette and add a new colour, known as a colour swatch, for each zone of the character, such as the skin, hair,
tongue, shirt, pants, and so on.
In Harmony, palettes are individual files that you can copy, transfer, and store. Palettes have a *.plt file name
extension—see Palette File Storage on page 134.
When a zone on the character is painted with the colour contained in a colour swatch, a link is automatically
created between that colour swatch and the zone. This means that if the tint of the colour in the colour swatch
is changed, any zone linked to it will update to the new tint. This is one way that colour palettes can save time
and money in your production.
Another advantage of this system is that you can create complete palettes for different lighting situations. For
instance, in addition to the regular palette for a character, you could have one for that character in the rain
using colours that are duller and less vibrant than the dry daytime colours, or yet another for using in a night
scene. Using palettes linked to your character in this way allows you to instantly change its colouring to suit the
mood and atmosphere of the scene without tediously repainting each element.
1A master palette is a group of colours attributed to a character or a prop. The palette is used throughout the
entire production to maintain consistency in the look and to ensure that the same colours are used throughout
the production. Also known as palette.
2A palette or master palette is a group of colours attributed to a character or a prop. The palette is used
throughout the entire Toon Boom Studio project to maintain a consistency in the look and avoid the colour
changing during the animation. Also referred to as a master palette.
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This section is divided as follows:
•
Palette Lists on page 131
•
Palette File Storage on page 134
•
Creating a Colour Palette on page 135
•
Duplicating a Colour Palette on page 139
•
Cloning a Colour Palette on page 140
•
Importing and Linking Palettes on page 142
Palette Lists
The Colour view has two modes: basic and advanced.
•
Basic Mode
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The Colour view’s basic mode only shows the Colour list. When you open Toon Boom Harmony, you
only see the colours available in the Default palette which contains six basic colour swatches and is
automatically named the same as your scene. For simple projects, you can manage with the default
palette, but for movies, series, or shorts it is recommended that you create palettes for your characters.
To create a palette, you have to switch to the Advanced mode of the Colour view and show the Palette
list.
•
Advanced Mode
The Advanced mode displays the list of all palettes that are linked to the scene. To create palettes for
your characters, you must display the Palette list.
A palette list is a file containing all of the links to the original palette files. Every drawing layer has a palette list.
The scene also has a palette list. For example, a drawing layer can use three different palettes stored in three
different locations, while another drawing layer can use two of these palettes plus another one coming from
another scene. The palette list keep track of the locations of the palettes.
There are two types of palette lists:
•
Scene Palette List
The Scene Palette list is mainly used with cut-out animation, but is also very useful for paperless and
traditional animations. A cut-out character will often be divided into 20 to 30 different drawing elements
that use the character’s master palette.
The palette list is stored at the scene level instead of the Element directory. This way, all palettes linked
to this list will appear in every drawing element created in the scene. There is no need to manually load
the palette in each element.
The Scene Palette list is the simplest one to use. By default, Toon Boom Harmony is set to use only
Scene Palette lists.
•
Element Palette List
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In Toon Boom Harmony, you can switch to Advanced Palette List mode and choose to save your palette at
an element’s level. The Element Palette list is mainly used with traditional and paperless animation. Unlike
cut-out animation, all columns (drawing elements) contain different characters, props, backgrounds, and
effects. The Element Palette list is used when you do not necessarily want all of the palettes for all of your
elements linked in every column.
The palette list is stored in the drawing element’s directory instead of directly in the Scene level. This
ensures that the links to the palettes appear only in the appropriate element. If you prefer to access a
global palette list, link your palettes to the Scene Palette list.
When you are using several cloned palettes that are related to the same original palette, Toon Boom Harmony
uses the palette located highest in the list to determine the colour of the painted zones—see Cloning a Colour
Palette on page 140.
How to show or hide the Palette list
‣
In the Colour view, click the Show/Hide Palette List View
List area.
The Palette List window opens and displays all your palettes.
133
button to expand or collapse the Palette
Chapter 4: Colour Styling and Colour Models
How to set the Advanced Palette Lists mode
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Preferences (Windows/Linux) or Stage Advanced > Preferences
(Mac OS X).
‣
Press Ctrl + U (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + U (Mac OS X).
1. Select the Advanced tab.
2. In the Advanced Options section, select the Advanced Palette Lists option.
3. Click OK.
How to reorder palettes in the Palette list
Do one of the following:
‣
From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > Move Up or Move Down.
‣
In the Palette list, click the Up
and Down
buttons.
Palette File Storage
In Harmony, palettes are individual *.plt files that can be copied, transferred and stored. When a palette is
created from Harmony, it needs to be stored somewhere. By default, the palette file is stored in the scene
directory in a palette-library folder unless you specify a different location. There are four locations where you
can find palette-library folders:
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l
Element: The Palette Library folder is stored directly in the drawing Element folder.
l
Scene: The Palette Library folder is stored directly in the Scene folder.
l
Job: The Palette Library folder is stored in a Job folder contained in the Scene folder.
l
Environment: The Palette Library folder is stored in an Environment folder contained in the Scene folder.
By default, the palette is stored at the scene level. For simple projects and standalone projects, it is
recommended to keep it as is. If you work with a larger studio, it is recommended to verify with them on the file
structure.
This existing structure is compatible with Harmony Server. Harmony’s database has a leveled structure starting
from the Environment down to the Element. Its client-server configuration allows all data, such as palettes and
scenes, to be shared between a series of client machines.
Element Level
Working with Harmony Stand Alone, the Element level is very useful when there are a lot of different palettes.
When a colour model drawing is created, it is stored in its element folder. By storing the corresponding palette
file with the colour model, the colourist can load them both from the same location. This also creates a more
organized structure.
Scene Level
Working with Harmony Stand Alone, a palette file can also be saved at the scene level, so that all of the palettes
from the scene are stored together. The palette naming must be structured so the colourist or character builders
can find the correct one. Saving the palettes at the scene level makes it very easy to back up the palettes and
retrieve their location.
The scene level can also be useful for cut-out animation. Instead of creating a colour model scene that includes all
of the characters, props, effects, and location, the colour palette or model will often be directly imported to, or
created in, the character building scene. Just as with a cut-out character building scene, each element uses the
same palette so it would not be efficient to save the palette inside one element. Instead, it is saved at the scene
level. This prevents a palette overload because all of the models are in different scenes. It also allows each scene
to have its own set of palettes corresponding to its model.
When working on a cut-out animation production, it is highly recommended that you work with the Scene level.
Palette Backup
When sharing palettes between scenes, some users may accidentally modify the colours, even though the
palettes are locked by default. That is why it is a good idea to copy and back up your palette libraries and master
palette directories.
When a palette file is copied, it automatically becomes a clone palette, so there will not be any trouble replacing
an altered file. Harmony automatically updates all of the files and drawings linked to it.
Creating a Colour Palette
You can create a palette in either Basic or Advanced mode.
By default, Toon Boom Harmony is set to the Basic mode. For simple productions, it is recommended to use the
Basic mode. This setting stores the palettes automatically for you and saves them at the Scene level. When you
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use the Advanced Palette Lists mode, you can decide at which level you want to store your palettes:
Environment, Job, Scene, or Element.
Before you can create a palette in the Advanced Palette Lists mode, you must first set your preferences to
Advanced Palette Lists mode in the Preferences dialog box.
You can remove palettes from your Palette list if they're not needed in your scene. The actual palette file will
not be deleted and you can reimport it in your Palette list later on.
How to set the Advanced Palette Lists mode
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Preferences (Windows/Linux) or Stage Advanced > Preferences
(Mac OS X).
‣
Press Ctrl + U (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + U (Mac OS X).
1. Select the Advanced tab.
2. In the Advanced Options section, select the Advanced Palette Lists option.
3. Click OK.
How to create a new palette (Basic Palette Lists mode)
1. From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > New or click the New Palette
button.
The Create Palette window opens.
2. Enter the palette name according to the model.
3. Click OK.
The palette appears in the drawing element’s palette list.
How to create a palette from the Advanced Palette Lists mode
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the drawing that requires a palette.
2. In the Colour view, click the Show Palette List View button to display the palette list.
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3. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Colour view menu, select Palettes > New.
‣
Click the Create Palette
button.
The Palette Browser: Create Palette dialog box opens.
4. Select the level to store the palette file.
‣
Environment: The palette-library folder is stored in the scene's parent environment folder.
‣
Job: The palette-library folder is stored in the scene's parent job folder.
‣
Scene: The palette-library folder is stored directly in the scene folder.
‣
Element: The palette-library folder is stored directly in the drawing element folder.
When you select a level that has a palette stored in it, the palette names are displayed in the Palette field.
5. Name the palette. There is no need to add the suffix "palette" to the name as it is always recognized as a
palette file.
6. Select a Palette List option.
‣
The Scene Palette List is mainly used with cut-out animation. A cut-out character will often be divided in
twenty to thirty different drawing elements that use the character's master palette.
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The palette list is stored at the scene level instead of the Element directory. This way, all palettes
linked to this list will appear in every drawing element created in the scene. There is no need to
manually load the palette in each element.
‣
The Element Palette List is mainly used with traditional and paperless animation. Unlike cut-out
animation, all columns (drawing elements) contain different characters, props, backgrounds and
effects. The Element Palette List is used because you do not necessarily want all of the palettes for
all of your elements linked in every column.
The palette list is stored in the drawing element's directory instead of directly in the Scene level. This
ensures that the links to the palettes appear only in the appropriate element. If you prefer to access
a global palette list, link your palettes to the Scene Palette List.
7. Click OK.
The new palette appears in the palette list.
How to rename a palette
1. In the Colour view, select the palette to rename.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click and select Rename.
‣
From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > Rename.
3. In the Rename dialog box, give the palette a new name and click OK.
How to remove a palette
1. In the Colour view, select the palette to remove.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > Remove.
‣
Right-click on the selected palette and select Remove.
‣
Click the Remove Palette
button located above the Palette list.
If the palette was used in your scene, the zones painted with its colours turn red.
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Duplicating a Colour Palette
A duplicated palette is a simple copy of the original palette. It uses the same names, colour values, but has a
different ID and is independent from the original palette. This ensures that both palettes are completely
independent.
This option is used when there are similar models and you want to avoid recreating and naming all the colours.
You can change the values and the names afterward without affecting the original palette. You can also keep
some RGBA values, such as the eyes, teeth, tongue, inside mouth, etc.
How to duplicate a palette
1. In the Colour view, select the palette to be duplicated.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Colour menu, select Palettes > Duplicate.
‣
Right-click on the selected palette and select Duplicate.
The Palette Browser: Duplicate Palette window opens.
3. If you are in Advanced Palette List mode, select the palette storage level—see Palette File Storage on
page 134.
4. In the New Palette Name field, name the palette.
5. In the New Palette Name field, name the palette.
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6. Click OK.
The palette appears in the palette list.
Cloning a Colour Palette
A character usually has only one master palette, although there are times when the characters are placed in
different lighting conditions and require a different colour shading. The night palette is a popular choice when
a scene or sequence changes from day to night. It can be difficult and time-consuming to repaint everything
and creating two independent palettes can be quite complex. As an alternative, Toon Boom Harmony
provides clone palettes.
The clone palette is a copy of the master palette. The colours in each palette have the same properties. The
colours have the same identification number pointing to the same colour zones, but they can have different
names and RGBA values. Depending on the palette (night or day) you're currently using, the painted drawing
will update. So there's no need to repaint the animation. All you have to do is create or import a clone palette
(palette style).
How to clone a palette
1. In the Colour view, select a palette to clone.
2. From the Colour menu, select Palettes > Clone or right-click and select Clone.
The Palette Browser: Clone Palette dialog box opens.
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3. If you're in Advanced Palette List mode, select the palette storage level—see Palette File Storage on page
134.
4. In the New Palette Name field, name the palette. We recommend keeping the "-clone" in the name.
5. Click OK.
The cloned palette appears in the palette list.
6. In the Palette list, select the clone palette you created to offset or blend colours—see Mixing Colours on
page 161.
7. From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > Tint Panel or right-click and select Tint Panel.
The Blend/Offset Tint panel opens.
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8. Select one or more colours to modify. You can select all your colours by pressing Ctrl + A (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + A (Mac OS X).
9. Offset, blend, or mix the colours using the sliders and increasing the Amount value.
10. Select the Preview option to see a preview of the colours while you adjust them.
NOTE: You can also modify the colours individually with the Colour Picker window.
Importing and Linking Palettes
Before starting colouring work such as ink and paint or even creating new colour models, you may want to load
existing colour palettes to your scene. You can do so by linking colour palettes to your palette lists.
You may encounter a case where only a colour palette is visible when a layer is selected. If you need that palette
in a second layer, you can link the palette to the second layer's palette list. A good example would be a scene
where there is a character on one layer and its arm is on another. In order for both layers to access the palette,
you must link both Element Palette lists to that palette. If your palette is linked to the Scene Palette list, it will
be accessible by all layers.
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If you created a palette in another project and you want to import it in your current project, you can browse for
the palette file on your computer and add it to your scene. When the palette is imported in your scene, the file is
copied in the project’s directory. It is not linked to the original file.
With Toon Boom Harmony as a stand-alone application, every scene is local to the machine. This means that all of
the scene’s data is only accessible from that particular scene. Palettes are also local to the scene; they can be
shared between all drawing layers, but not between scenes.
However, you may want to share palettes across a whole project. Harmony offers that possibility. By default, a
palette is an independent file stored in your scene. This file can be copied, moved, or deleted.
To link a palette throughout an entire project, you need to create a central directory where you can copy all the
palettes you created. Every time you link a palette in an element, it is linked to this folder. If you modify the
palette, it will be updated throughout the whole project.
You will notice that when you create or link a palette, a small icon appears on its left. These icons represent the
palette's link status.
Icon
Description
Indicates that the palette is safe.
There won’t be any problems once the scene is exported. For example, the palette file is
stored in the scene folder and is linked to the Scene Palette List.
Indicates that the palette file is stored in a directory external to the scene’s structure.
The palette file is probably stored in a Master Palette directory on a hard drive external to the
palette-libraries planned for the palette storage. The warning in this case is that if you move
your Master Palette directory to another location, you may loose the palette in your scene.
Indicates that a palette file stored in a level such as Element, Scene, Job or Environment is
linked to a Palette list that is not on the same level.
For example, a palette file is stored into the Environment folder and is linked to the Element
Palette list. The palette is shared.
Indicates a potentially dangerous situation.
Problems may occur when trying to export or link to the palette file. For example, a palette
file is stored into the element folder and is linked to the Scene Palette list. The issue in this
case is that if you decide to delete the layer containing the palette, it will be lost from your
scene.
How to link a colour palette
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > Link.
‣
Right-click and select Link.
‣
Click the Import
button.
The Palette Browser: Link Palette dialog box opens.
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2. Select the level where the palette file is stored—see Palette File Storage on page 134.
3. Select the palette list linking level by enabling either Scene Palette List or Element Palette List—see
Palette Lists on page 131.
The palette appears in the Colour view.
How to import a palette into your project
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Colour menu, select Palettes > Import.
‣
Right-click and select Import.
The Browser window opens.
2. Browse for a palette file located (*.plt) on your hard drive. You will generally find the palettes in your
project's palette-library directory.
3. Click Open.
The Palette Browser opens.
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4. If you're in Advanced Palette mode, select the level where the palette file is stored—see Palette File Storage on page 134.
5. If you're in Advanced Palette mode, select the palette list linking level by enabling either Scene Palette List
or Element Palette List—see Palette Lists on page 131.
6. In the New Palette Name, name the imported palette.
The palette appears in the Colour view and the file is copied in your project.
How to link to an external palette
1. In the Colour view, click on the Create Palette
button to create a palette to be used as external.
2. Save your scene by selecting File > Save from the top menu or by clicking the Save
Ctrl + S (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + S (Mac OS X).
button or press
3. On your computer or server, create a master directory. Ideally, this should be created in your Root folder
to keep it within the project directory. You could also place it inside your Colour Model’s subdirectory—
see Chapter 6: Project Organization and File Structure in the Fundamentals Guide.
4. Name the folder appropriately, for example: Joe_master_palette.
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5. From your operating system, browse to your Toon Boom Harmony scene and open the palette-library
folder.
6. Select and copy your palette *.plt file to copy it to the master palette directory.
7. Create a new Toon Boom Harmony scene or open the scene where you will link this palette.
8. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the element to link the palette to.
9. From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > Link to External.
The Link to External Palette dialog box opens.
10. Click Browse to search for your master palettes folder and select the palette *.plt file you want to
link.
11. In the Palette list section, select how you want to load the palette; at the scene or element level.
12. Click OK.
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The linked palette appears in the Colour view.
If a palette is outside the scene, the External
icon appears beside the palette name.
NOTE: To link an element (such as a colour model) to the palette that is stored in the external palette directory, you
must remove the original palette from the element’s palette list. You will then load the duplicated palette into the
palette list using the Link to External command, like you did for the other elements.
Colours
Toon Boom Harmony has some very powerful colouring features when it comes to painting. To paint your
drawings, you will use different colour swatches, unlike some other painting programs where you modify the main
swatch each time you want to paint with a different colour.
In the Colour view, you choose a different colour swatch for each colour you want to paint in your drawing. You
can add as many swatches as you want. You can also rename them and modify existing ones.
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When you modify the colour of an existing swatch, it automatically updates all the zones painted with this
swatch throughout the entire project. The colour swatch has a unique ID number that associates it with the
painted zones. This way, you can change the look of your character at any time without having to repaint it!
This section is divided as follows:
•
Adding a Colour Swatch on page 148
•
Editing Gradients and Textures on page 196
•
Colour Display Modes on page 159
•
Copying and Pasting Colours on page 160
•
Mixing Colours on page 161
Adding a Colour Swatch
You can use several different types of colour swatches, including solid colour, gradient colour and bitmap
texture swatches.
In Toon Boom Harmony, when you click the Add Colour
button, a new colour swatch is created using the
colour of the currently selected swatch from your palette. However, you can set a default colour to be used
every time you create a new colour in your colour palette. This is useful for creating different shades of the
same basic colour.
The default colour is also the colour used when you choose to vectorize images you're scanning into your
scene, however you add the Default colour swatch to your palette in a different way, so it's unique. It has a
unique ID number that makes it easily recognizable from all the other colours in your colour palettes. Being
able to change this colour allows you to change the basic colour of all scanned drawings. This can be useful on
more than just an aesthetic level as sometimes when you go to NTSC or PAL, pure colours, such as pure black,
can create problems.
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How to add or modify a solid colour swatch
1. In the Colour view, click the Add Colour
button.
2. From the Colour View menu, select Colours > Edit or double-click on the colour swatch.
The Colour Picker window opens.
3. To set your colour, do one of the following:
‣
In the colour wheel, select a colour.
‣
Enter the HSV or RGB values in the corresponding fields. Select the R,G,B,H,S or V options to change
the look of the colour picking area.
‣
Click the Dropper
button to select any colour on your screen. It can be from the Harmony interface,
your operating system or any other open application.
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You can also click Multi Wheel Mode to open the Multiwheel Colour window. This displays all the
picking area styles together and also contains a picking undo list. To return to the regular Colour Picker
window, click Single Wheel Mode.
4. Click on the Shade Scale swatches to modify the shade of the selected colour.
5. Adjust the transparency with the Alpha slider or type the value directly in the Alpha field.
6. Click the Add button to add the current selected colour to the Colour Storage Library, so you can
quickly access it later.
7. Rename the colour swatch in the Colour Picker window or directly in the colour list by double-clicking on
its name.
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How to change the default swatch colour for all your colour palettes
1. From the top menu, select Edit > Preferences (Windows/Linux) or Stage Advanced > Preferences (Mac
OS X).
2. In the Preferences dialog box, select the Drawing tab.
3. In the New Colour Pots section, select the Create New Colour Pots Using the Default Colour option.
You can also click on the colour swatch beside the option to change the default colour.
How to add a new colour swatch using the default colour
‣
From the Colour View menu, select Colours > New.
A new swatch is added to your palette using the default colour swatch colour. The new swatch created
with the New command will be named New 0.
How to create a gradient colour swatch
1. In the Colour view, select a colour to modify .
2. Do one of the following:
‣
Click the new colour and from the Colour View menu, select Colours > New.
‣
Double-click on the colour swatch.
The Colour Picker window opens.
3. Select the Gradient option.
4. Select the Linear or Radial option.
5. Adjust the Gradient arrows to modify the colours.
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‣
Add extra colours by clicking between the arrows below the gradient bar. Then click on the Colour
Preview to select a colour.
‣
Pull down the arrows to remove them.
‣
Move the arrows left and right to modify the gradient distance.
NOTE: To learn how to reposition the gradient zones in your drawings, see Editing Gradients and Textures on
page 196.
How to create a texture colour
1. From the Colour menu, select Colours > New Texture or click the New Texture
button.
The Browser window opens.
2. Browse for a PSD or TGA bitmap file created with a third party software and click Open.
The texture is added to the colour list.
NOTE:
To learn how to reposition the textured zones in your drawings, see Editing Gradients and Textures on page 196.
You can also replace a texture once it is painted. If you decide to make the character’s shirt wool instead of
plaid, just update the texture file in the swatch and the entire project updates. Any transformation previously
applied to the texture’s position in your drawings will be kept.
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How to replace a texture swatch
1. In the Colour view, select the texture swatch that contains the bitmap texture you want to replace.
2. From the Colour View menu, select Colours > Edit Texture or double-click on the swatch.
The Browser window opens.
3. Browse for the new PSD or TGA bitmap file created in a third party software.
4. Click Open to update the colour swatch.
How to delete a colour swatch
1. In the Colour view, select the colour swatches to delete.
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2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Colour View menu, select Colours > Delete.
‣
Click the Delete Colour
‣
Right-click and select Delete.
‣
Press Delete.
button.
If the colour swatch is used in a drawing, the Delete Colour dialog box opens.
3. Click OK to delete the colours or click Cancel to abort the operation.
‣
If you delete colour swatches already in use, the zones painted with them turn red so you can easily
identify them.
Editing Gradients and Textures
If you paint a zone with a gradient or texture colour, you can use the Edit Gradient/Texture tool to modify its
position in the zone. You can move, scale, rotate and skew. If you want to match the colour to the animation,
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set the first texture position and copy the Edit Gradient/Texture position. When moving to the next drawing, you
can select the next texture and paste the previous position to continue the modifications.
If you are painting a hand-drawn animation or if your want the Brush tool and Paint tool to use your gradient’s
position, angle and scale settings instead of the default ones, you can store your own settings and reuse them
afterward.
This way of editing a texture using the Edit Gradient/Texture tool also works with pencil lines drawn with
textured “brushes”. If you then paint your textured pencil line with a gradient, you can do so and then edit both
elements independently at the same time.
How to use Edit Gradient/Texture tool
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Texture
‣
From the Camera or Drawing View menu, select Drawing Tools > Edit Gradient/Texture.
‣
Press Shift + F3.
tool.
2. Click the gradient or texture colour to modify.
A blue selection frame surrounds the selected gradient or texture.
3. Edit the gradient or texture by adjusting the control handles around the selection frame.
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How to store gradient and texture settings
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Select
tool or press Alt + S.
2. In the Camera or Drawing view, select the gradient or texture zone to store.
3. In the Tool Properties view, click the Store Colour Gradient
button.
How to use the stored gradient and texture settings
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Brush
or Paint
tool.
2. In the Tool Properties view, click the Use Stored Colour Gradient
button.
3. In the Camera or Drawing view, draw and paint.
How to use Pencil Editor tool to edit the texture or gradient on a pencil line
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, select the Pencil Editor
‣
Press Alt + W.
tool.
2. Click on the pencil line to be modified to bring up its contour envelope.
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3. Select one of the contour points around the envelope and move its position to change the size of the tiled
texture or gradient. You can also pull directly on the lines of the contour envelope or play with the Bezier
handles of any given point in order to continue to modify the envelope form.
Expanding the width of the envelope parallel to the pencil line’s central vector will cause the tiled texture
to be stretched. Conversely, reducing the envelope’s width will cause the tiled texture to look squashed.
Reducing the contour’s width perpendicular to the pencil line’s central vector will reduce the number of
tiles, while expanding it will increase the number of tiled images.
This editing technique does not just work on texture fills, but can also be applied to pencil lines drawn with
a textured “brush”.
How to use Edit Gradient/Texture tool to edit the texture or gradient on a pencil line
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, select the Edit Gradient/Texture
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Edit Gradient/Texture.
‣
Press Shift + F3.
tool.
2. Click on the pencil line to be modified to bring up the editor controls.
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3. The editor controls delineate a single tile in the texture. For gradients, this is less applicable. Pull on the
top of the editor controls to stretch the tiled texture throughout the length of the stroke.
As gradients are parallel to the stroke’s central vector, this will stretch the way that the gradient is
distributed in the pencil line’s envelope. The envelope still acts as a boundary for the texture or
gradient.
4. Drag the editor control perpendicular to the stroke. You will feel it glide along the strokes central vector line. This is another way to resize the texture tile. Instead of stretching or shrinking it vertically, this
motion stretches or shrinks it vertically. As gradients are parallel to the pencil line’s central vector,
stretching them vertically gives no visual result.
How to use Edit Gradient/Texture tool to edit the texture and gradient of a pencil line
1. Do one of the following:
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‣
In the Tools toolbar, select the Edit Gradient/Texture
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Edit Gradient/Texture.
‣
Press Shift + F3.
tool.
2. Click on the pencil line to be modified to bring up the editor controls.
3. Use the top editor controls edit the gradient.
4. Use the bottom controls edit the “brush” texture.
Colour Display Modes
The Colour view has two display modes:
•
List
•
Swatch
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You can also display the RGB values and names of your solid colour swatches instead of only the name. This
option is not available when displaying the colours in Swatch mode.
How to switch between the display modes
1. From the Colour View menu, and do one of the following:
‣
Select Colours > Swatch Mode to display the swatches.
‣
Deselect Colours > Swatch Mode to display the colour list.
How to display the swatch colour values
‣ From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > Display Colour Values.
The solid colour swatches’ RGB values are displayed between the colour swatch and its name. The
gradient colour swatches will be identified as (gradient).
Copying and Pasting Colours
When you're creating palettes, you may want to copy colour swatches or their values and paste them in other
palettes to save time. You can also quickly copy a colour value from a palette in your scene to a selected colour
swatch in a different palette.
You can copy a selected colour swatch and paste it as a clone. Since it produces a clone colour swatch, it is
impossible to use the Paste as Clone command in the same palette as you copied the original colour swatch
from.
If you would like to keep a reference file of some colour IDs or use them with custom plug-ins, you can copy the
colour swatch IDs. Here is an example of colour ID: 075cf5b552401130.
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How to copy and paste colours
1. In the Colour view, select one or more colours to copy.
2. In the Colour View menu, select Colours > Copy or press Ctrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C (Mac OS X).
3. In the Palette list, select the palette in which you want to paste the colours.
4. From the Colour View menu, select Colours > Paste as New Colours or press Ctrl + V (Windows/Linux) or
⌘ + V (Mac OS X).
‣
To paste the colour values of the copied swatch over an existing colour swatch, select Colours > Paste
Colour Values.
How to clone a colour swatch
1. In the Colour view, select the colour swatch you want to clone.
2. From the Colour View menu, select Colours > Copy or press Ctrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C (Mac OS
X).
3. In the Colour view, select the colour palette you want to paste the clone into or create a new palette.
4. From the Colour View menu, select Colours > Paste as Clone.
The cloned colour swatch appears in the palette.
How to copy a colour ID
1. In the Colour view, select the colour swatch you want toget the ID from.
2. From the Colour View menu, select Colours > Copy Colour ID or press Ctrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ +
C (Mac OS X).
3. Paste the copied value as plain text in the desired document.
Mixing Colours
If you want to modify a series of colours to blend a tint in them or offset their RGBA values, you can use the Tint
panel. You can also create palette styles, such as night and day styles.
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How to mix colours
1. In the Colour view, select the palette that contains the colours you want to offset or blend.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Colour View menu, select Palettes > Tint Panel.
‣
Right-click and select Tint Panel.
The Tint Blend/Offset panel opens.
3. Select one or more colours to modify in the colour list. To select all the colours, press Ctrl + A (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + A (Mac OS X).
4. Select Preview option.
5. Select the Offset, Blend, or Mixer option.
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Parameter
Description
Offset
Offsets the selected colours by the adjustments made using the HSB and RGB
sliders. Use the Amount slider to adjust the degree of offset. Use the Alpha
slider to adjust the opacity of the selected colour.
Blend
Blends the selected colours with the colour swatch in the top-right corner. Use
the Amount slider to adjust the degree of blend. A blend of 100% turns the
selected colours into the same colour as the swatch. Adjusting the HSB and
RGB sliders affect the swatch colour, which in turn affects the selected colours
on the left. Use the Alpha slider to adjust the opacity of the swatch.
Mixer
Select a Base and Tint colour to form a third colour swatch. Use the slider just
beneath to mix the Base and Tint colours by different amounts. This will affect
the mixed swatch whether it is selected or not. Select either the Tint or Base
swatch and use the HSB and RGB sliders to adjust its colour. This will affect the
mixed swatch colour, which in turn affects the selected colours on the left.
6. Click Apply.
Painting the Model
Now that you've created the colours and the palette, you're ready to paint your model.
The colour model needs to be painted in order to adjust the colours with the other elements in the production.
You can paint your model regardless of the colour RGBA and adjust them later when all the elements are
together.
Once your palette is created and your model is painted, you can import a key background and other characters
using the Import Drawings option or the Library to compare and adjust the palettes—see Sharing the Colour
Model on page 165 to learn how to import your background file.
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For paperless and cut-out animation, it's a good idea to provide a line-up template with the colour model to
show the scale ratio between the characters, props and backgrounds.
Once your colour model is completed, create a line-up template by pasting one of the production's main
characters, or even just a hand, beside the colour model to show the relative size. This allows the animator,
layout artist, or scene setup artist to retain the correct scaling throughout the entire project when setting the
elements in the scene. You can store your template in the Library.
How to paint a colour model
1. From the Drawing or Camera View menu, select View > Switch to Colour Art/Switch to Line Art or
press L.
2. Create your master colour palette—see Creating a Colour Palette on page 135
3. Add new colours to the palette—see Adding a Colour Swatch on page 148.
4. Select your Paint Bucket
tool. We recommend the Paint Unpainted
5. In the Colour view, select a colour to paint your drawing.
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6. Paint the model by selecting colour swatches in the palette and clicking on your drawing. Note that only
closed zones will be painted. If there's a gap in your artwork, you must close before you can paint it.
7. To separate the lines and fill zones on separated art layers, see Art Layers on page 180.
8. Adjust the colours—see Mixing Colours on page 161.
Sharing the Colour Model
When your colour models are prepared and organized in a colour model scene, it's time to share them. However,
since the Harmony scenes are local, the palettes cannot be shared with other scenes. You must prepare
templates from the models and store them in the Library.
The Library is a central repository for all the data which will be reused throughout the production. It can be
accessed from any Harmony scene; if multiple users are connected to the same network, all machines can access a
central library. These models can be shared among all the users to ensure that everyone has the same set of
colours and references.
A template is a set of elements created from a Harmony scene that can be imported into other scenes. It can
contain drawings, palettes, and any other elements available in Harmony.
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A colour model template is very simple to make. When a drawing is stored in the Library, the corresponding
palette is attached to it. This means that whenever the colour model is imported from the Library into the
scene, the palette is also imported. To learn more about libraries and templates—see the Harmony Cut-Out
Animation Guide.
NOTE: It is recommended that you add a colour model subfolder to your library.
In the Timeline view, you can create a template by selecting the drawing element's node. This contains all
drawings from the drawing element, palettes, and exposure. A template that was created by selecting the
drawing exposure contains the selected drawings, their exposures, and the palettes.
How to create a template from the Timeline view
1. In the Library, select a folder to store the template. Right-click and select Right to Modify.
2. From the Timeline view, select the drawings, pegs, effects, keyframes, sounds, exposures, and nodes,
and drag them to the Library's folder. Anything that is available in the Timeline view can be stored as a
template.
The Rename window opens.
3. Type in a name for the template and click OK.
There is no need to save the library. Everything is automatically stored and saved as soon as it is pasted
in the library.
How to load a colour model from the Timeline or Xsheet view
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a drawing (*.tvg).
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2. Bring the model into the Model view by doing one of the following:
‣
In the Timeline view, drag the selected drawing and drop it directly in the Model view.
‣
From the Model View menu, select Use Current Drawing as Model.
NOTE: The Use Current Drawing as Model button is not part of the default Model View toolbar. To add the Use
Current Drawing as Model button to the Model toolbar, right-click in the Model view toolbar and select Customize.
Drag the Use Current Drawing as Model
button from the Available Tools column and move it to the right (Toolbar)
column. Click OK.
‣
In the Model View toolbar, click Current Drawing
button.
The model appears in the Model view.
How to browse for a colour model drawing on your hard drive
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Model View toolbar, click the Import Model
‣
From the Model View menu, select Import Model.
‣
Select File > Import > Colour Model.
button.
2. In the Browser window, browse for any *.tvg drawing file on your hard drive.
3. Click Open.
The model appears in the Model view.
How to load the default models
1. In your scene’s folder, create a new folder and name it: models.
2. On your hard drive, copy the *.tvg drawing file you want to use as colour models in your scene.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Model View menu, select Load Default Models.
‣
In the Model View toolbar, click the Load Default Model
button.
NOTE: The Load Default Model button is not part of the default Model View toolbar. To add the Load Default Model
button to the Model toolbar, right-click in the Model view toolbar and select Customize. Drag the Load Default Model
button from the Available Tools column and move it to the right (Toolbar) column. Click OK.
How to load a single drawing from the Library view
1. In the Library view, click the template containing the drawing to import in the Model view.
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2. Right-click on the template and select Open As Folder.
3. In the Library view’s left side, select the template’s folder and continuing expanding its subfolders until
*.tvg files appear on the right side.
4. In the Library view’s right side, select the TVG drawing to import and drag it into the Model view.
How to load a template with multiple drawings from the Library view
1. In the Library view, find the template you want to import in the Model view.
2. In the Library view’s right side, drag the template (*.tpl file) and drop it directly in the Model view.
3. Use the Previous Model
and Next Model
buttons in the Model View toolbar to view all the
drawings contained in the template. This can often be the front, profile, and 3/4 views of a character.
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How to load a symbol from the Library view
1. In the Library view’s left side, select the Symbols folder.
2. In the Library view’s right side, select the symbol you want to use as a model, and drag and drop it into the
Model view.
3. Use the Previous Model
and Next Model
buttons in the Model View toolbar to view all the drawings contained in the template. This can often be the front, profile, and 3/4 views of a character.
How to clear a colour model
‣
In the Model View menu, select Clear Model or press Delete.
How to copy the entire model from the Model view
1. In the Model View toolbar, select the Select
tool.
1. In the Model view, select your model.
2. From the top menu, select Edit > Copy Drawing Object or pressCtrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C (Mac
OS X).
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2. In the Timeline view, make sure you have the correct layer and frame selected.
3. Select the Drawing or Camera view, then go to the top menu and select Edit > Paste Drawing Object,
or select the Timeline view and from the top menu, select Edit > Paste cells in the Timeline or pressCtrl
+ V (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + V (Mac OS X).
The model appears in the selected view.
How to copy part of the model in the Model view
1. In the Model View toolbar, select the Cutter
tool or press Alt + T.
1. In the Model view, use the Cutter tool to create a selection around the part of your model that you want
to copy.
2. From the top menu, select Edit > Copy Drawing Object or pressCtrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C
(Mac OS X).
2. In the Timeline view, make sure you have the correct layer and frame selected.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
Select the Drawing or Camera view and select Edit > Paste Drawing Object.
‣
Select the Timeline view and select Edit > Paste cells in the Timeline or press Ctrl + V
(Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + V (Mac OS X).
The model appears in the selected view.
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Chapter 5: Ink and Paint
When traditional animation is traced, cleaned up, scanned in and properly exposed, it's time for the ink and paint
process. This consists of cleaning all dirt and hair (for example, dust that was in the scanner, dots that do not
belong in the drawing, extra floating artwork around the drawing that must be removed), painting the lines and
filling the colours in the empty zones on an entire animation sequence.
For paperless animation, the drawings are cleaned up directly in Harmony, so there is generally no dirt to clean,
only painting and inking.
For cut-out animation, once the character builder paints the pieces, there is no more ink and paint process
because the same parts are always reused and moved around. The ink and paint process applies only to
traditional and paperless animation workflows.
Harmony is optimized to ink and paint drawings efficiently. Since most of the drawings are vector-based, the
colour zones are completely filled and there are no scattered spots left blank. Also, there are some actions that
can be applied on an entire animation sequence at once, like dirt removal, some colour filling, line repainting, and
so on.
Harmony uses palettes to hold all the colours you need to paint your elements. A palette is created by assigning a
set of colours to each character, prop or effect. The colour styling artist will create a new palette and add a new
colour for each zone of the character, such as the skin, hair, tongue, shirt, pants, and so on. Each colour is known
as a colour swatch—see Working with Palettes on page 130.
When a zone on the character is painted with the colour contained in a colour swatch, a link is automatically
created between that colour swatch and the zone. This means that if the tint of the colour in the colour swatch is
changed, any zone linked to it will update to the new tint. This is one way that colour palettes can save time and
money in your production.
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Another advantage of this system is that you can create complete palettes for different lighting situations. For
instance, in addition to the regular palette for a character, you could have one for that character in the rain
using colours that are duller and less vibrant than the dry daytime colours, or yet another for using in a night
scene. Using palettes linked to your character in this way allows you to instantly change its colouring to suit the
mood and atmosphere of the scene without tediously repainting each element.
The ink and paint process is divided into the following steps:
Preparation
172
Dirt Clean Up
176
Art Layers
180
Painting
185
Painting Using the Paint Tool
186
Importing Models
192
Protecting Colours
203
Inking the Lines
205
Verifying the Zones are Painted
209
Ink and Paint Tool Properties
211
Glossary
218
Index
227
Preparation
The optimal workspace for creating colour models and inking/painting in traditional animation includes the
following views:
•
Xsheet
•
Camera
•
Drawing
•
Colour
•
Model
As there is no default workspace for these tasks, you will need to create a custom workspace for yourself—see
the Fundamentals Guide.
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You may have a character or element palette that has colours that are very similar to the Drawing and Camera
view's background colour. For example, a white eyeball colour on a white background which makes it difficult to
know if the zone was painted. You can change the background colour of the Camera or Drawing view in the
Preferences dialog box.
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How to change a view's background colour
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Edit > Preferences.
‣
Mac OS X: Select Stage Advanced > Preferences.
‣
Press Ctrl + U (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + U (Mac OS X).
The Preferences dialog box opens.
2. Select the General tab.
3. In the Colours section, click Edit Colours.
The Colours dialog box opens.
4. Select the Camera or Drawing tab.
5. Change the background colour of:
‣
Camera View: Click the Clear colour swatch.
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‣
Drawing View: Click the Background colour swatch.
The Select Colour dialog box opens.
6. Select a colour by clicking a colour swatch, clicking a colour in the colour gradient, or entering a HSV/RGB
Value.
7. Click OK in the three opened dialog boxes to apply your changes.
NOTE:
When you need to paint drawings with similar colours throughout the palette, you can create a clone of that palette
and change all the colours to very bright tints to facilitate the paint process—see Cloning a Colour Palette on page
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140.
Dirt Clean Up
When paper drawings are passed through a scanner, there can be some hair and dirt scattered across them.
These lines and dots need to be cleaned. Harmony provides different tools to help get rid of them quickly.
The Remove Dirt tool selects small dots and hairs on the drawing. Raising the Remove Dirt level will select
bigger dots. When selecting larger dots, be careful not to lose small details like pupils and nostrils. Once you
have chosen the level, you can apply it to the current drawing or the entire animation sequence. This is a quick
way to get rid of most dirt and dust.
During this process, the dirt that will be removed is highlighted in red.
The Remove Art Outside Selection option lets you remove any art existing outside a selection. It is
recommended that you clean your Colour Art level as well. If you have a stroke accumulation in your Colour Art,
it can result in large output files, especially if you work in high-definition resolutions.
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If there are some marks that cannot be removed with the automated tools, you can erase them with the Eraser
tool or select them with the Select tool and then delete them. It's always safer to select and delete them than to
erase them, so you do not overlook anything.
How to use the Remove Dirt tool
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Clean Up > Remove Dirt.
‣
From the Camera or Drawing View menu, select Drawing > Clean Up > Remove Dirt.
‣
Press Shift + D.
2. Increase the Remove Dirt value by moving the slider to the right.
3. Select the Apply to All Drawings option if you want to apply the operation to all drawings in the layer.
How to clean dirt with Remove Art Outside Selection
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Select
tool.
2. In the Tool Properties view, click the Permanent Selection
button.
3. Draw a selection around the animation making sure to include the entire animation sequence.
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4. In the Camera or Drawing View menu, select Drawings > Clean Up and one of the following options:
‣
Remove Art Outside Selection to delete artwork outside your selection on a single drawing.
‣
Remove Art Outside Selection on All Drawings to delete artwork outside your selection on all the
drawings.
The art outside the selection is removed.
Removing Art Inside a Selection
You can delete any art inside a selection with the Remove Art Inside Selection option. We recommend that you
clean your Colour Art level as well. If you have a stroke accumulation in your Colour Art, it can result in large
output files, especially if you work in high definition resolutions.
You can simultaneously apply this operation to all your drawings in the layer by using the Remove Art Inside
Selection on All Drawings command.
How to clean dirt with Remove Art Inside Selection
1. In the Tools toolbar, click the Select
tool or press Alt + S.
2. To apply the action to your entire animation, click the Permanent Selection
erties view.
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3. In the Camera or Drawing view, draw a selection around the animation. Make sure the area is large enough
to include all the zones to be cleaned up on all drawings.
4. From the top menu, select Drawing > Clean Up > Remove Art Inside Selection to delete artwork inside
your selection on one single drawing. You can also press Delete.
5. To apply the action on all your drawings in the layer, select Drawing > Clean Up > Remove Art Inside
Selection on All Drawings to delete artwork inside your selection on all the drawings.
Removing Small Strokes in the Colour Art Layer
The Remove Hair command lets you remove any small strokes created in the Colour Art layer from very thick lines
or filled zones. Increasing the Remove Hair level value will select larger strokes for removal from the drawing.
How to use the Remove Hair tool
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the drawing containing the drawing to clean.
2. From the top menu, select View > Show > Show Strokes to display the invisible lines or press K.
3. In the top menu, select Drawing > Clean Up > Remove Hair.
The Remove Hair dialog box opens.
4. Move the slider to the right to increase the number and length of hairs to be selected.
5. Select the Apply to All Drawings option if you want to apply the operation to all the drawings in the layer.
6. Click OK.
How to access the Eraser tool
‣
From the Tools toolbar, click the Eraser
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Eraser.
‣
From the Camera or Drawing View menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Eraser.
‣
Press Alt + E.
button.
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How to access the Select tool
‣
From the Tools toolbar, click the Select
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Select.
‣
From the Camera or Drawing View menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Select.
‣
Press Alt + S.
button.
Art Layers
Art layers give you the possibility to divide the artwork in your drawing on different layers. For example, you
can separate the outline and colour fill on two art layers, similar to 1950s traditional cell animation. These art
layers are contained within a single drawing as opposed to the layers in the Timeline view or Xsheet columns
where individual drawings with individual timing are stacked one on top of the other—see Creating Strokes on
page 183.
Toon Boom Harmony drawings include two layers in Advanced Art mode.
•
Line Art on page 181
•
Colour Art on page 181
You can access the Art layers through the Camera and Drawing views bottom toolbar. By default, the art
layers are hidden. Everything is drawn on the Line Art layer. You need to enable the Use Advanced Art Mode
option.
Each layer can be used for separate hand-drawn animation tasks, letting you organize your work and facilitate
creation and revision.
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Line Art
In hand-drawn animation, the Line Art layer is mainly used to trace and clean up animation. The outline is drawn in
the Line Art layer and colour is painted in the Colour Art layer.
Colour Art
In hand-drawn animation, you use the Colour Art layer to paint your animation. The outline is drawn in the Line Art
layer and colour is painted in the Colour Art layer. Strokes (invisible lines) are generated from Line Art to contain
the painted area.
When you are doing rough animation, you may want to send a clip for feedback or approval before carrying on
with your work. If you have several characters in your project that are overlapping, it may be difficult to
understand what is going on as you can see through the characters. Toon Boom Harmony can generate a matte
automatically in the Underlay, or even in the Colour Art layer, and fill all the zones inside your characters to make
them opaque. This process is fast and easy, and allows you to send easy-to-understand movies.
How to enable the Support Overlay and Underlay Arts option
1. From the top menu, select Edit > Preferences ( Windows/Linux ) or Stage Advanced > Preferences (
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Mac OS X ).
2. In the Preferences dialog box, select the Advanced tab.
3. In the Advanced Options section, select the Support Overlay and Underlay Arts option.
4. Click OK.
How to switch between drawing layers
1. In the Art Layer toolbar, click the Line Art
or Colour Art
can edit the select layer without affecting the other one.
buttons. When switching art layers, you
2. Click the Preview All Enabled Art Layers
button to display both layers together. Even when the Preview mode is enabled, you will only be able to edit the select art layer. The other ones are only displayed
as a reference. By default, the Preview mode is always enabled in the Camera view. You will only be able
to see the select art layer by itself if you enable the Current Drawing on Top
option located in the
Camera bottom toolbar.
NOTE:
To edit both Line Art and Colour Art at the same time, you must enable the Apply to Line Art and Colour Art
button in the Tool Properties of the tools supporting the operation.
How to generate a matte
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, select the Select
‣
Press Alt + S.
tool.
2. In the Camera or Drawing view, select the drawing you want to create a matte for.
NOTE: You can also apply the operation to all the drawings in the layer at the same time.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Generate Auto-Matte.
‣
In the Camera or Drawing menu, select Drawing > Generate Auto-Matte.
The Auto-Matte dialog box opens.
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4. If you want to create a matte for all the drawings included in your layer, select the Apply to Multiple Drawings option.
5. Depending on how precise or rough your line is, increase or decrease the radius value. The lower the value,
the closer to your lines’ contours the matte will be shaped. The higher the value, the looser the matte will
be shaped.
6. In the Source Art menu, select the layer from which you want the matte created: Line Art or Colour Art.
7. In the Destination Art menu, select the layer on which you want the matte to be created: Line Art or Colour Art.
8. If you already have artwork on the destination layer and you want the content to be deleted before the
matte is added into it, select the Clear Destination Art First option.
9. If you want the contour of your lines to be copied as invisible lines in your matte drawing (in case you ever
need to keep them for later), select the Copy Stroke in Destination option.
10. Click OK.
Creating Strokes
A drawing is composed of Line and Colour filling layers. Lines and colours can be separated or kept together,
depending on which animation process you use. The following diagram presents Line Art and Colour Art
recommendations based on the selected animation workflow.
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When a traditional drawing is scanned, strokes are automatically created in the Colour Art from the Line Art
when drawings are vectorized unless you specified otherwise.
When working with Cut-out animation, we recommend that you do all of the work in the Line Art.
Once the drawing sequence is completed for paperless drawings, you can proceed with creating Colour Art
strokes if you plan to paint the animation in the Colour Art. Use the Create Colour Art from Line Art option to
create strokes from your lines.
You can create strokes in the Colour Art during the following stages:
•
After the full drawing is completed in Line Art
•
While drawing in Line Art
You may have some traditional drawings that need to be fixed; for example, needing extra lines to patch gaps.
Use the Auto-Create Colour Art from Brush option to create the strokes at the same time as the lines are
drawn. This creates strokes from the lines and brush strokes created in the Line Art while you draw and is
useful for fixing drawings. However, if you are drawing a new sketch, it is better to create the strokes
afterward using the Create Colour Art from Line Art option.
How to create Colour Art zones out of the Line Art content
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Select
tool or press Alt + S.
2. In the Tool Properties view, click the Permanent Selection
on all drawings in the layer.
button if you want to apply the operation
3. In the Camera or Drawing view, select the artwork to transfer to the Colour Art. Create a selection
around the entire animation sequence if you want to apply the operation to all your drawings.
1. In the Drawing View toolbar, click the Create Colour Art from Line Art
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How to create strokes with the Create Colour Art Automatically option
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Brush tool.
2. In the Tool Properties view, enable the Create Colour Art Automatically
option.
3. Draw the required lines.
4. Once you're done, deselect the Create Colour Art Automatically
option.
You are now ready to paint your model.
Painting
You can choose to paint your animation in the Line Art or Colour Art level. You can paint in Line Art, but for
traditional and paperless animation, you should fill your colour zones in Colour Art. You can access the art layers
through the Art Layer toolbar—see Art Layers on page 180.
There are many advantages to separating the lines and colour zones, but the main one concerns the painting
process. To paint very quickly, it's useful to not have to worry about painting over the lines. If the lines are
separated, you can fill the zones very quickly and you will never accidentally paint the lines. Conversely, if you are
inking the lines, you will not repaint the colour zones either.
If you have transparent lines, bitmap lines, or textured lines with transparency, it's better to have your colour
zones bleeding under your lines to avoid seeing the backgrounds and other elements through the lines.
NOTE: To avoid painting in Line Art by mistake, turn off the Preview mode and paint in the Drawing view instead of
the Camera view. Press P to turn the mode on or off.
This section is divided as follows:
•
Painting Using the Paint Tool on page 186
•
Advanced Painting Features on page 187
•
Selecting a Colour in a Drawing on page 191
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•
Importing Models on page 192
•
Editing Gradients and Textures on page 196
•
Closing Gaps on page 202
•
Protecting Colours on page 203
•
Highlighting a Selected Colour on page 204
•
Inverting a Colour Selection on page 204
Painting Using the Paint Tool
The main tool you will use to paint your drawings with is the Paint tool. The Paint tool can be used in several
different modes, which can be customized in the Tool Properties view.
The Paint tool paints closed zones, including brush strokes and pencil lines. If there are gaps in the lines
defining a zone, you must close them using the Brush, Pencil, or Close Gap tools or the Automatic Close Gap
option.
How to paint with the Paint tool
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select the cell on which you want to paint.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, click the Paint
‣
Press Alt + I.
tool.
3. In the Colour view, select a colour.
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4. In the Drawing or Camera view, start painting. Click on a zone or pencil line to paint it, or trace a lasso or
marquee selection to paint several zones or pencil lines at the same time.
NOTE: The last colour you select while using the Paint tool will be used the next time you select the Paint tool if
you're using the unlocked painting tools in the Colour view.
Advanced Painting Features
The following advanced painting features are available in Toon Boom Harmony:
•
Repaint Selection on page 187
•
Repaint Selection on All Drawings on page 188
•
Repaint Outside Selection on page 188
•
Repaint Outside Selection on All Drawings on page 188
•
Unpaint Selection on page 189
•
Unpaint Selection on All Drawings on page 189
•
Unpaint Outside Selection on page 189
•
Unpaint Outside Selection on All Drawings on page 190
Repaint Selection
The Repaint Selection command is used to repaint any art inside a selection. You must first draw a selection using
the Select tool in order for this command to be available.
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Repaint Selection on All Drawings
The Repaint Selection On All Drawings command is used to repaint any art inside a selection on all the
drawings contained within the same layer. You must enable the Permanent Selection
option in the Select
tool Tool Properties view and then select an area of your drawing using the Select tool in order for this
command to be available. The Permanent Selection option lets you maintain the same selection throughout the
drawings of a same layer.
Repaint Outside Selection
The Repaint Outside Selection command is used to repaint any art outside a selection. If no selection has been
drawn using the Select tool, the entire drawing will be repainted.
Repaint Outside Selection on All Drawings
The Repaint Outside Selection On All Drawings command is used to repaint any art outside a selection on all
the drawings contained within the same layer. You must enable the Permanent Selection
option in the
Select tool Tool Properties view and then select an area of your drawing using the Select tool in order for this
command to be available. The Permanent Selection option lets you maintain the same selection throughout the
drawings of a same layer.
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Unpaint Selection
The Unpaint Selection command is used to unpaint any art existing inside a selection. You must first draw a
selection using the Select tool in order for this command to be available.
Unpaint Selection on All Drawings
The Unpaint Selection on All Drawings command is used to unpaint all art contained inside a selection on all the
drawings within the same layer.
You must enable the Permanent Selection
option in the Select tool Tool Properties view and then select an
area of your drawing using the Select tool in order for this command to be available. The Permanent Selection
option lets you maintain the same selection throughout the drawings of a same layer.
Unpaint Outside Selection
The Unpaint Outside Selection command is used to unpaint any art existing outside a selection. If no selection
have been drawn using the Select tool, the entire drawing will be unpainted.
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Unpaint Outside Selection on All Drawings
The Unpaint Outside Selection on All Drawings command is used to unpaint all art outside a selection on all the
drawings within the same layer. You must enable the Permanent Selection
option in the Select tool Tool
Properties view and then select an area of your drawing using the Select tool in order for this command to be
available. The Permanent Selection option lets you maintain the same selection throughout the drawings of a
same layer.
How to access the advanced painting tools
‣
From the top menu, Camera or Drawing view menu, select Drawing > Paint and one of the
following:
Repaint Selection
Repaint Selection on All Drawings
Repaint Outside Selection
Repaint Outside Selection on All Drawings
Unpaint Selection
Unpaint Selection on All Drawings
Unpaint Outside Selection
Unpaint Outside Selection on All Drawings
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Selecting a Colour in a Drawing
While working in the Camera or Drawing view, you can use the Dropper tool to pick a colour from your drawing
without going to the Colour view.
How to use the Dropper tool
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, select the Dropper
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Dropper.
‣
Press Alt + D.
tool.
2. In the Camera or Drawing view, click on the desired colour.
‣
If you're using another drawing tool such as the Paint tool, you can temporarily hold down the D key
and click in your drawing before releasing the key to pick your colour. When you release the key, you
will return to your previous tool. You may also want to select the zones painted with the colour
currently selected in the Colour view. This can be useful for removing rough lines from a clean drawing.
How to select the zones painted with the current colour
1. In the Colour view, select the colour from which you want to select the corresponding zones.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
Select Drawing > Select Strokes With Current Colour.
‣
Press Ctrl + Shift + A (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + Shift + A (Mac OS X).
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Importing Models
Once you have a fully painted drawing, you can use it as a colour model and load it in the Model view. That
drawing can be used and loaded in any of your Harmony scenes.
Once a drawing is loaded in the Model view, you can use the Dropper
to select a colour from the model
and use it to paint in your Camera or Drawing view without having to pick the colour from the colour palette.
You can do more than just copy colours from a colour model. Harmony gives you the ability to copy parts of
the character directly from its colour model and paste these elements into the Drawing or Camera views.
How to load a colour model from the Timeline or Xsheet view
1. In the Timeline or Xsheet view, select a drawing (*.tvg).
2. Bring the model into the Model view by doing one of the following:
‣
In the Timeline view, drag the selected drawing and drop it directly in the Model view.
‣
From the Model View menu, select Use Current Drawing as Model.
NOTE: The Use Current Drawing as Model button is not part of the default Model View toolbar. To add the Use
Current Drawing as Model button to the Model toolbar, right-click in the Model view toolbar and select Customize.
Drag the Use Current Drawing as Model
button from the Available Tools column and move it to the right
(Toolbar) column. Click OK.
‣
In the Model View toolbar, click Current Drawing
The model appears in the Model view.
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How to browse for a colour model drawing on your hard drive
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Model View toolbar, click the Import Model
‣
From the Model View menu, select Import Model.
‣
Select File > Import > Colour Model.
button.
2. In the Browser window, browse for any *.tvg drawing file on your hard drive.
3. Click Open.
The model appears in the Model view.
How to load the default models
1. In your scene’s folder, create a new folder and name it: models.
2. On your hard drive, copy the *.tvg drawing file you want to use as colour models in your scene.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Model View menu, select Load Default Models.
‣
In the Model View toolbar, click the Load Default Model
button.
NOTE: The Load Default Model button is not part of the default Model View toolbar. To add the Load Default Model
button to the Model toolbar, right-click in the Model view toolbar and select Customize. Drag the Load Default Model
button from the Available Tools column and move it to the right (Toolbar) column. Click OK.
How to load a single drawing from the Library view
1. In the Library view, click the template containing the drawing to import in the Model view.
2. Right-click on the template and select Open As Folder.
3. In the Library view’s left side, select the template’s folder and continuing expanding its subfolders until
*.tvg files appear on the right side.
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4. In the Library view’s right side, select the TVG drawing to import and drag it into the Model view.
How to load a template with multiple drawings from the Library view
1. In the Library view, find the template you want to import in the Model view.
2. In the Library view’s right side, drag the template (*.tpl file) and drop it directly in the Model view.
3. Use the Previous Model
and Next Model
buttons in the Model View toolbar to view all the
drawings contained in the template. This can often be the front, profile, and 3/4 views of a character.
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How to load a symbol from the Library view
1. In the Library view’s left side, select the Symbols folder.
2. In the Library view’s right side, select the symbol you want to use as a model, and drag and drop it into the
Model view.
3. Use the Previous Model
and Next Model
buttons in the Model View toolbar to view all the drawings contained in the template. This can often be the front, profile, and 3/4 views of a character.
How to clear a colour model
‣
In the Model View menu, select Clear Model or press Delete.
How to copy the entire model from the Model view
1. In the Model View toolbar, select the Select
tool.
1. In the Model view, select your model.
2. From the top menu, select Edit > Copy Drawing Object or pressCtrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C (Mac
OS X).
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2. In the Timeline view, make sure you have the correct layer and frame selected.
3. Select the Drawing or Camera view, then go to the top menu and select Edit > Paste Drawing Object,
or select the Timeline view and from the top menu, select Edit > Paste cells in the Timeline or pressCtrl
+ V (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + V (Mac OS X).
The model appears in the selected view.
How to copy part of the model in the Model view
1. In the Model View toolbar, select the Cutter
tool or press Alt + T.
1. In the Model view, use the Cutter tool to create a selection around the part of your model that you want
to copy.
2. From the top menu, select Edit > Copy Drawing Object or pressCtrl + C (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + C
(Mac OS X).
2. In the Timeline view, make sure you have the correct layer and frame selected.
3. Do one of the following:
‣
Select the Drawing or Camera view and select Edit > Paste Drawing Object.
‣
Select the Timeline view and select Edit > Paste cells in the Timeline or press Ctrl + V
(Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + V (Mac OS X).
The model appears in the selected view.
Editing Gradients and Textures
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If you paint a zone with a gradient or texture colour, you can use the Edit Gradient/Texture tool to modify its
position in the zone. You can move, scale, rotate and skew. If you want to match the colour to the animation, set
the first texture position and copy the Edit Gradient/Texture position. When moving to the next drawing, you can
select the next texture and paste the previous position to continue the modifications.
If you are painting a hand-drawn animation or if your want the Brush tool and Paint tool to use your gradient’s
position, angle and scale settings instead of the default ones, you can store your own settings and reuse them
afterward.
This way of editing a texture using the Edit Gradient/Texture tool also works with pencil lines drawn with
textured “brushes”. If you then paint your textured pencil line with a gradient, you can do so and then edit both
elements independently at the same time.
How to use Edit Gradient/Texture tool
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, click the Edit Texture
‣
From the Camera or Drawing View menu, select Drawing Tools > Edit Gradient/Texture.
‣
Press Shift + F3.
tool.
2. Click the gradient or texture colour to modify.
A blue selection frame surrounds the selected gradient or texture.
3. Edit the gradient or texture by adjusting the control handles around the selection frame.
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How to store gradient and texture settings
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Select
tool or press Alt + S.
2. In the Camera or Drawing view, select the gradient or texture zone to store.
3. In the Tool Properties view, click the Store Colour Gradient
button.
How to use the stored gradient and texture settings
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Brush
or Paint
tool.
2. In the Tool Properties view, click the Use Stored Colour Gradient
button.
3. In the Camera or Drawing view, draw and paint.
How to use Pencil Editor tool to edit the texture or gradient on a pencil line
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, select the Pencil Editor
‣
Press Alt + W.
tool.
2. Click on the pencil line to be modified to bring up its contour envelope.
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3. Select one of the contour points around the envelope and move its position to change the size of the tiled
texture or gradient. You can also pull directly on the lines of the contour envelope or play with the Bezier
handles of any given point in order to continue to modify the envelope form.
Expanding the width of the envelope parallel to the pencil line’s central vector will cause the tiled texture
to be stretched. Conversely, reducing the envelope’s width will cause the tiled texture to look squashed.
Reducing the contour’s width perpendicular to the pencil line’s central vector will reduce the number of
tiles, while expanding it will increase the number of tiled images.
This editing technique does not just work on texture fills, but can also be applied to pencil lines drawn with
a textured “brush”.
How to use Edit Gradient/Texture tool to edit the texture or gradient on a pencil line
1. Do one of the following:
‣
In the Tools toolbar, select the Edit Gradient/Texture
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Edit Gradient/Texture.
‣
Press Shift + F3.
tool.
2. Click on the pencil line to be modified to bring up the editor controls.
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3. The editor controls delineate a single tile in the texture. For gradients, this is less applicable. Pull on the
top of the editor controls to stretch the tiled texture throughout the length of the stroke.
As gradients are parallel to the stroke’s central vector, this will stretch the way that the gradient is
distributed in the pencil line’s envelope. The envelope still acts as a boundary for the texture or
gradient.
4. Drag the editor control perpendicular to the stroke. You will feel it glide along the strokes central vector line. This is another way to resize the texture tile. Instead of stretching or shrinking it vertically, this
motion stretches or shrinks it vertically. As gradients are parallel to the pencil line’s central vector,
stretching them vertically gives no visual result.
How to use Edit Gradient/Texture tool to edit the texture and gradient of a pencil line
1. Do one of the following:
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‣
In the Tools toolbar, select the Edit Gradient/Texture
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing > Drawing Tools > Edit Gradient/Texture.
‣
Press Shift + F3.
tool.
2. Click on the pencil line to be modified to bring up the editor controls.
3. Use the top editor controls edit the gradient.
4. Use the bottom controls edit the “brush” texture.
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Closing Gaps
When painting, you may notice that some drawing areas are not closed. To close the zone, you can draw the
missing line with the Brush or Pencil tool, or close the gap with an invisible line using the Close Gap tool.
The Close Gap tool lets you close small gaps in a drawing by creating small, invisible strokes between the two
closest points to close the colour zone. You do not need to trace directly over the gap. You can draw it a few
millimeters away. The two closest points automatically close the gap.
How to close gaps
1. From the top menu, select View > Show > Show Strokes or press K to see a preview of the result.
2. If you want the strokes you draw to be flattened in your drawing instead of being on top, click the AutoFlatten
button in the Tool Properties view.
3. From the top menu, select Drawing > Clean Up > Close Gaps or press Shift + F10 (Windows/Linux
only).
The Close Gaps dialog box opens.
4. Adjust the slider to set the size of the gap you want to be closed.
5. To close all gaps in the drawings of the selected layer, select the Apply to all drawings option and click
OK.
6. In the Tools toolbar, select the Close Gaps
tool.
7. In the Camera or Drawing view, trace a line near the gap to be closed. Your strokes will be invisible
The gap automatically closes.
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Protecting Colours
When you are finished inking one colour, you can lock it so if you ever paint over it accidentally, the work already
done will not be affected. You can also use the Protect Colour feature to block the filling colours if you painted all
of the animation in Line Art and you plan to repaint the lines.
How to protect colours
1. In the Colour view, select the colour to be protected.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click and select Protect Colour.
‣
From the Colour view menu, select Colours > Protect Colour.
A red bar appears beside the colour to indicate that it is locked.
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Respecting Protected Colours
When painting, the Respect Protected Colour
option is enabled by default. In the Colour view, you can
protect In the Colour view, you can protect a colour swatch to avoid repainting or unpainting the zones linked
to that swatch. If you using the Paint tool and this option is deselected, you will repaint or unpaint the
protected colours on your drawings until you enable the option again.
How to enable the Respect Protected Colours option
Do one of the following:
‣
In the Paint tool properties, click the Respect Protected Colour
‣
From the top menu, select Drawing> Colour Protection > Respect Colour Protection.
‣
Press Shift + S.
button.
Highlighting a Selected Colour
If there are unnamed colours in your palette and you want to know if a particular colour was used on the
current model or drawing, you can select a colour and it will be used to highlights the parts that use that
colour. The rest of the colours are dimmed, so you can easily identify the highlighted colour. You can then
rename it accordingly.
How to highlight a selected colour
1. In the Colour view, select the colour to highlight.
2. From the Camera or Drawing menu, select View > Show > Highlight Selected Colour.
Inverting a Colour Selection
When you need to select all colour swatches but one, or select only a few swatches here and there, it might be
faster to select the only colour you do not need in order to select and invert the selection.
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How to invert a colour swatch selection in the Colour view
1. In the Colour view, select the colour swatch you DO NOT want to have in your final selection.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the Camera or Drawing View menu, select Edit > Invert Selection
‣
Press Ctrl + Shift + I.
Inking the Lines
Unless you're repainting all the lines in the entire animation sequence, do not use the Apply Tool to All Drawings
option. Since the line positions change a lot over time, you risk painting lines that should not be painted.
These are the main tools and techniques used to ink lines:
•
Repaint Tool on page 205
•
Repaint Brush Mode on page 206
•
Inking the Lines on page 205
•
Protecting Colours on page 207
•
Breaking Triangles on page 208
Repaint Tool
The main tool used to ink the lines is the Repaint tool. As the colour filling is probably done in the Colour Art, you
will not have to worry about not touching it. The Repaint tool will not paint empty zones either.
During the vectorization process on traditional scanned drawings, triangles are added on the lines' intersections
to break the artwork in segments. This way, when you paint a line, it will not repaint the whole drawing, only the
relevant segment.
How to access the Repaint Tool
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Repaint
tool located in the Paint tool drop-down menu.
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Repaint Brush Mode
The Repaint Brush mode is used to paint a section by manually painting over the lines. This is useful when the
vectorization triangles are not placed as you would like or you simply need to repaint a section of a segment. It
is also useful for paperless animation, where there are no triangles. So, the Repaint Brush is used to paint a
certain area. It acts like the Brush tool, but will only show on painted areas that are already painted.
Unlike the Brush tool, the Repaint Brush mode flattens automatically. The brush strokes are not added one on
top of each other.
How to enable the Repaint Brush mode
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Brush
tool.
2. In the Tool Properties view, enable the Repaint Brush
mode.
Ink Tool
Although pencil lines can be painted in much the same way as closed zones, you can use the Paint, Repaint,
Repaint Brush, and Ink tools to make painting segmented lines easier. Normally when you have a drawing, such
as the one below, and you use the Paint tool to paint one of the lines, the entire line is painted.
However, if you select the Ink
tool instead and click on the same pencil line, only the segment that you
clicked on between two intersections will be painted.
The newly inked segment will always be moved to the front of all other pencil strokes, even if it was behind all
other pencil strokes before it was inked.
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That is, unless you hold down Alt while clicking a segment. Then the opposite happens. The inked segment will be
sent to the back, even if it was in front of all other segments to begin with.
Painting and inking can be used in combination depending on what you need to paint. If you need to ink a
character’s outline in black, it might be easier to use the Paint tool. If you need to paint the outline of a
character’s neck with a tan colour and its shirt outline blue and both the neck and shirt belong to the same
continuous outline, then the Ink tool might prove more useful.
How to access the Ink tool
1. In the Tools toolbar, select the Ink
tool located in the Paint tool drop-down menu.
Protecting Colours
When you are finished inking one colour, you can lock it so if you ever paint over it accidentally, the work already
done will not be affected. You can also use the Protect Colour feature to block the filling colours if you painted all
of the animation in Line Art and you plan to repaint the lines.
How to protect colours
1. In the Colour view, select the colour to be protected.
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2. Do one of the following:
‣
Right-click and select Protect Colour.
‣
From the Colour view menu, select Colours > Protect Colour.
A red bar appears beside the colour to indicate that it is locked.
Breaking Triangles
The Brush tool is often the most intuitive and rapid tool for creating rough sketches and clean lines. A single
colour, such as black, is often used when tracing a clean version of a rough sketch. However, when it comes
time to soft trace the lines in different colours, the flattened or unflattened clean brush strokes can suddenly
become time consuming to ink.
Toon Boom Harmony lets you create triangular breaks at natural line intersections. These intersections are the
probable locations where colour line breaks may occur, such as where a sleeve meets a hand.
How to create breaking triangles on a drawing
1. In the Drawing or Camera view, use the Select
tool to select part or all of the drawing to be broken.
2. From the top menu, select Drawing > Create Breaking Triangles. If your brush strokes are not
flattened, they will be flattened automatically before the breaking occurs.
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3. Use the Repaint tool
to paint the outline of different colour zones with different colours.
Verifying the Zones are Painted
When the ink and paint process is completed, it's always a good idea to verify that every zone was painted
properly.
The first step to check your ink and paint is to go through all your drawings and verify that there are no colour
mistakes. You can use the F and G keyboard shortcuts or the Preview option available in the Xsheet.
The backlight produces a silhouette effect by changing the drawing’s coloured areas into a single dark, solid
colour. Use this to verify the completeness of the ink and paint process. Any unpainted zones can be seen as the
light shows through the unpainted areas of the silhouetted drawing.
How to preview drawings from the Xsheet
1. First, save your scene.
2. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select File> Save.
‣
Click the Save
‣
Press Ctrl + S (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ + S (Mac OS X).
button.
3. In the Xsheet view, select the range of drawings or the whole column to preview.
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4. In the Xsheet View menu, select View > Preview Selected Drawings or press Alt + P.
The Play window opens.
5. Play your drawings.
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6. Select the Preroll option to see blank frames at the beginning and end of the animation sequence while
looping the playback.
How to use the backlight
NOTE: This feature is only available in the Drawing view.
1. Do one of the following:
‣
From the top menu, select View > Backlight.
‣
Press Alt + Shift + B.
2. Verify the drawings in the Colour Art to make sure that all the areas are painted. From the Camera or
Drawing View menu , select View > Switch to Colour Art or press L.
1. In the Art Layer toolbar, click the Preview All Art Layers
button to see the colour zones with lines to
ensure that you did not forget any spots between the colour filling and lines.
Ink and Paint Tool Properties
The Ink and Paint tool properties contain many options that will help you along with your task.
•
Ink Tool Properties on page 211
•
Paint Tool Properties on page 213
Ink Tool Properties
When you select the Ink tool, its properties and options appear in the Tool Properties view.
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Icon
Tool Name
Tool
The Lasso and Marquee options let you choose
the type of selection the current tool will
perform. The default selection mode is Marquee.
Lasso and Marquee
•
Lasso lets you draw a custom selection
box around zones.
•
Marquee makes a rectangle selection
box.
NOTE: NOTE: Hold down the Alt key to switch
to toggle between the selection modes.
Highlights all pencil lines (no brush strokes) on
the selected layer. Pencil line segments that are
already inked with the selected swatch colour
from the colour palette are also not highlighted.
Show Inkable Lines
Be Smart on Connecting Lines
As you hover and move the cursor across
intersecting pencil lines, the path that you create
will be highlighted. When you click on your
mouse or stylus the highlighted segments are
inked. With this option disabled, all the
intersecting segments that your cursor comes
near will be highlighted and become part of the
selection, even if they were not situated in the
direction of the chosen path.
NOTE: NOTE: This option only works if the Ink
tool is in Hover mode.
Select Mode
Use this mode instead of the Hover Mode. In the
Hover Mode, any potentially inkable pencil line
will have its central vector line highlighted as the
Ink tool’s cursor hovers over it. Use Ctrl (Windows/Linux) or ⌘ (Mac OS X) to toggle
between the two modes.
Mitre
As you hover over two perpendicular or nearly
perpendicular segments, a highlighted path with
a corner is created. Clicking on these highlighted
segments inks both segments and makes them
appear as a single stroke with a corner or bend.
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Options include: As Is, Round, Miter, and Bevel.
Lets you customize the edge of the Ink tool.
Options include: Round, Flat, and Bevel.
Tip Style
Paint Tool Properties
When you select the Paint tool, its properties and options appears in the Tools Properties view.
Icon
Tool Name
Lasso and Marquee on page 213
Painting Modes on page 214
Paint and Remove Texture on page 215
Apply to Multiple Drawings on page 215
Apply to All Visible Drawings on page 216
Respect Protected Colour on page 216
Use Stored Colour Gradient on page 216
Select Newly Painted, Repainted and Unpainted Contours/Lines on
page 217
Close Gap on page 217
Lasso and Marquee
The Lasso and Marquee options let you choose the type of selection the current tool will perform. The default
selection mode is Marquee.
•
Lasso
•
Marquee
lets you draw a custom selection box around zones.
makes a rectangle selection box.
NOTE:
Hold down the Alt key to switch to toggle between the selection modes.
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Painting Modes
The Paint tool has four different modes available:
You can also find these tools directly in the Tools toolbar and in the Drawing Tools menu.
Paint Mode
The Paint
mode paints everything it touches, including empty and filled zones—see Painting Using the
Paint Tool on page 186.
Paint Unpainted Mode
The Paint Unpainted
mode paints only empty zones. Any line or filled zone will remain unchanged.
Repaint Mode
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The Repaint
intact.
mode paints everything it touches except empty zones. Any zone that is not painted will remain
Unpaint Mode
The Unpaint
mode unpaints everything it touches, including empty and filled zones.
Paint and Remove Texture
The Paint and Remove Texture
option is used when you vectorized images as greyscale texture style. An
image vectorized as texture is a mix of bitmap filling encapsulated in a vector-based frame. Painting a textured
zones with the Paint tool will change the tint of the textured lines. Painting the textured zones using the Paint and
Remove Texture option transforms the bitmap filling into a 100% vector based zone and fills it with a solid colour.
Apply to Multiple Drawings
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The Apply to Multiple Drawings
option is used for fast painting in hand-drawn animation. When you want
to paint several drawings in a same layer at once, such as a walk cycle, you can enable this option and make a
selection in the Camera or Drawing view. All the closed zones located within your Paint tool selection are
painted with the selected colour swatch.
You do not need to enable the Onion Skin preview to use this option. The option will stay enabled only for the
next action. If you want to use it again, you must click on the Apply to Multiple Drawings button again, or press
Alt + A.
Apply to All Visible Drawings
The Apply to All Visible Drawings
option is used to paint several drawings on separated layers on the
current frames. If you have a character broken in several layers, you can enable this option to paint all your
layers at once. The operation is only applied on the current frame. This option will stay enabled only for the
next action. If you want to use it again, you must click on the Apply to All Visible Drawings button again.
NOTE: This option is only available in the Camera view and does not affect symbols.
Respect Protected Colour
The Respect Protected Colour
option is enabled by default. In your Colour view, you can protect some
colour swatches to avoid repainting or unpainting the zones linked to that swatch.
If you disable this option the Paint tool will not follow the protect colour rule and will repaint or unpaint the
protected colours on your drawings until you enable the option again—see Protecting Colours on page 203.
Use Stored Colour Gradient
When you paint a zone with a gradient or textured colour swatch, the gradient or texture’s position is set
relative to the size of the zone you are painting. If you want the Paint tool to use a particular size and position,
you must first store your desired position and size using the Select
tool and then enable the Use Stored
Colour Gradient
option in the Paint tool properties—see Editing Gradients and Textures on page 196.
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Select Newly Painted, Repainted and Unpainted Contours/Lines
In the Paint tool properties, this option
keeps a selection highlighted around the latest painted zone after
using the Paint, Repaint, Unpaint, or Paint Unpainted tool.
Close Gap
The Close Gap option has four modes available:
When painting, you may notice that some drawing areas are not closed. To close the zone, you can draw the
missing line with the Brush or Pencil tool, or close the gap with an invisible line using the Close Gap tool.
The Close Gap tool lets you close small gaps in a drawing by creating small, invisible strokes between the two
closest points to close the colour zone. You do not need to trace directly over the gap. You can draw it a few
millimeters away. The two closest points automatically close the gap.
For more information, see Closing Gaps on page 202.
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Glossary
alpha channel
An image channel that carries transparency information. An image already
has three channels: red, green and blue (RGB). The alpha channel is the
fourth channel (RGBA). The matte, or the transparency information, is
stored in this fourth channel. An image without an alpha channel is always
opaque.
animatic
A movie with sound that is developed from the storyboard. The storyboard
panel is exposed for the duration of the scene and at times, the characters
are placed on a trajectory to indicate motion. The camera moves are also
animated. The animatic is used to determine the rhythm of a project and
provides a good overview of the project before beginning production.
animation
A simulation of movement created by displaying a series of pictures or
frames.
anime
An animation style known for its sinister and dark feel; popular in Japan.
arc
Action rarely occurs in a straight-forward manner; rather it typically unfolds
in what storytellers refer to as an arc. The purpose of a story arc is to move
a character or situation from one state or scenario to the next.
aspect ratio
The relationship between the width and height dimensions for any scene,
frame or film format. Television ratio is 4:3 and widescreen ratio is 16:9.
auto-feed
An automated method of feeding drawings into a scanner in which multiple
drawings are stacked into a sheet feeder. When the scanner is activated,
the drawings are scanned consecutively, without further user intervention.
automatic lip-sync detection
Automatically mapping drawings in an element to the mouth chart
generated for a sound. This can save time when lip-syncing a voice track.
An imaginary line around which an object rotates.
axis
For 2D graphics, there are two axes: X (horizontal and Y (vertical).
For 3D graphics, there are three axes: X (horizontal, Y (vertical) and Z
(depth).
background
The part of a scene that is farthest to the rear. The background is the
artwork, or decor, against which the animation takes place.
Bézier
A method of defining curved lines invented by French mathematician Pierre
Bézier. A Bézier curve is a mathematical or parametric curve. Bézier curves
use at least three points to define a curve.
bitmap
An image composed of pixels with a single resolution (size). If it is enlarged
too much, it will lose definition and pixels will begin to appear. This is
known as pixelation.
breakdown
In cut-out animation, breakdown is the action of breaking a character into
pieces to create a puppet with articulations. To break down a character,
the artist cuts parts, such as the hands and arms, from the character's
model and pastes them in separate layers. Next, the joints are fixed and the
pivots set.
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In traditional animation, a breakdown is an animation pose generally found
between two key poses. The key poses are the main poses in an animation
and the breakdowns are secondary poses, ones that help describe the
motion and the rotation curve (usually referred to as an arc).
camera shake
Camera shake occurs in a scene when the camera moves slightly and quickly
in several directions. This gives the impression of an impact, vibration or,
for example, bumps on the road.
caption
A text field containing dialogue, effects, sound, or slugging information in a
storyboard.
cel
In traditional animation, a cel (also known as celluloid) is a transparent
sheet on which the animation is inked and painted before being sent to the
camera. The picture's outline is drawn on the front of the cel and then
coloured along the back.
In Harmony, a cel is an individual space in an Xsheet column from which you
can expose a drawing or a function's coordinate.
character design
Each character in an animated film is drawn from multiple angles in posterstyle format, called a model sheet, which serves as a reference for the
animators.
clean up
After rough drawings have been tested and approved, all the noise in the
image (excess lines, notes, etc) is removed to create final drawings which
can be inked, painted and shot. The cleanup process refers to either tracing
a clean line over a rough drawing to achieve the final version, or removing
dirt and extra lines left by the scanning process.
CMYK
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black. Refers to the process used by printers to
define colour on the printed page.
colour card
A colour card is a solid colour card that is the same size as the camera. The
colour card can be used to fill the background with a solid colour when
there is no background image included.
colour model
The official colour design that must be used to paint the animation. A
model is the definitive character, prop, or location design that each artist
must follow for the production.
colour wheel
A display of the colour spectrum in the form of a circle.
compositing
Compositing is the action of incorporating all of a scene's elements to
create the final result prior to rendering. For example, the compositing
artist will import all the animation sequences, background, overlays and
underlays in the scene and position them correctly. The artist will then set
the camera frame and animate it, if needed. Finally, the animator will create
all the computer-generated effects for the project.
cross dissolve
An effect used to fade two scenes, one into the other.
cut
A direct transition between two scenes. When a cut is used, there are no
transition effects inserted to pass from one scene to the next. The first
scene ends and the second one starts immediately.
cut-out animation
The action of animating characters made of several pieces by moving them
around frame by frame. Cut-out animation can either be computer
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generated or done traditionally using paper.
cycle
A group of images that together make up an action, such as walking. A
cycle is an action repeated as a loop over a period of time. It can be a series
of animated drawings or keyframes.
dialogue
The text spoken by a character in a movie or animation.
dope sheet
Used by animators, directors and other members of a crew to track the
sequence and timing of images, dialogue, sound effects, sound tracks and
camera moves. Also known as an exposure sheet or Xsheet.
doping
To assign a particular drawing to a range of frames.
DPI
Dots per inch is the standard measure of resolution for computerized
printers. It is sometimes applied to screens, in which case it should more
accurately be referred to as pixels per inch. Either way, the dot is the
smallest discrete element making up the image.
ease/velocity
In animation, the ease, also known as velocity, is the acceleration and
deceleration of a motion. It can be a motion created by a function curve, or
a series of animated drawings. Other common terms for ease-in and easeout are slow-in and slow-out.
ease-in
Gradual acceleration in the action. Also known as slow-in.
ease-out
Gradual deceleration in the action. Also known as slow-out.
establishing shot
A scene in which the viewer can see the whole area in which a sequence is
happening. For example, if a child is playing on the ground in front of his
house, the establishing shot would be a scene where the viewer can see the
house, the ground, a part of the street and the buildings around the central
point of action. This helps the viewer understand the story location and
scene orientation.
exposure
In animation, an exposure is the number of cels on which a drawing appears
in the scene. For a drawing to appear longer, the exposure must be
extended over a greater number of cels.
exposure sheet
A sheet with several vertical columns and horizontal frames used to indicate
a scene's timing. Each column represents a scene layer. The drawing
numbers in each column are indicated and repeated over the particular
amount of frames they need to appear.
The exposure sheet is used by animators, directors and other members of a
crew to track the sequence and timing of images, dialogue, sound effects,
sound tracks and camera moves. Also known as a dope sheet.
fade in/fade out
Fade in or fade out is a transition effect used to open or close a sequence. A
fade in occurs when the first scene appears progressively, from complete
transparency to its complete opacity. A fade out occurs when the last scene
progressively disappears, going from complete opacity to complete
transparency.
fast-in
Dramatic acceleration at the start of the action.
fast-out
Dramatic acceleration at the end of the action.
field
In animation, a field is a measurement unit used to calculate motion,
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registration and camera positioning. A standard animation scene will vary
between 6 to 12 fields.
field chart
A guide containing all the field units that animation and layout artists use to
determine a scene size or camera motion.
film-1.33
A resolution that is ideal for the widescreen film format that conforms to
the standard 4:3 pixel aspect ratio.
film-1.66
A resolution that is ideal for the widescreen film format that conforms to
the 16:9 pixel aspect ratio. (The pixels are wider than they are high).
flipping
In traditional animation, flipping is the action of going through the drawings
of an animation sequence very quickly in order to see the animation in
motion. Flipping can also be the action of creating a mirror transformation
of an object.
follow-through
The secondary motion caused by the main action. For example, a character
wearing a cloak is running. The main action is the body running. This will
cause the cloak to follow the motion, although it will not move at the same
time, but react a few frames later and follow the main motion curve.
forward kinematics
Forward kinematics is a feature used to animate principally 3D characters
and cut-out puppets with hierarchy. It is used to animate a puppet from one
of parent parts, such as a shoulder, and make the rest of the arm move with
it as a single piece.
frame
A single photographic image in a movie. In traditional animation, the North
American standard generally contains 24 frames per second, while in
Europe the standard is 25 frames per second.
The frame rate is the speed at which the frames are played. They are
generally calculated by frame per second. For example, a scene could be
played back at 12, 24, 25, 30 or 60 frames per second or any other number.
frame rate
This is the measurement of the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device
produces unique consecutive images, called frames. The term applies
equally to computer graphics, video cameras, film cameras, and motion
capture systems.
Frame rate is most often expressed in frames per second (fps) and in
progressive-scan monitors as hertz (Hz).
functions
A computer-generated motion, trajectory or path on which elements, other
trajectories and effects parameters can be attached. The function can be
controlled by adding keyframes and control points on the function curve.
gamut
The range of colours that a particular device can represent.
HDTV
High Definition Television delivers a higher quality image than standard
television does because it has a greater number of lines of resolution. To
take advantage of the superior quality and make full use of your resolution
setting, the output device must be compatible with HDTV technology.
hold
A frame in the animation in which the character maintains its position
without moving. A hold can be created between any two keyframes.
HSV
Hue, Saturation, Value. A method of defining colours in terms of hue (tint),
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saturation (shade) and value (tone or luminance).
in-between
The drawings that exist between the key poses. These are drawn to create
fluid transitions between poses.
ink and paint
The ink and paint process is the action of painting the empty zones and
colouring the lines on the final animation drawings, while following a colour
model.
interpolation
The computer-generated motion created between two keyframes. You
have the choice to create interpolation, or not, between your keyframes.
jump cut
A jerky cut between two scenes. Typically, a jump cut is not visually
pleasing. It is generally caused by one scene ending, and a second one
starting, with a similar image. The lack of difference causes the eye to see a
little jump between the two scenes.
key pose
Important positions in the action defining the starting and ending points of
any smooth transition. Keys, or key poses, are the main drawings in an
animation sequence describing the motion. For example, if an arm is
waving, the keys will be of the arm at one extremity of the wave motion and
the other extremity. By flipping those drawings, the animator can see the
skeleton of the motion without having all the drawings.
keyboard shortcuts
One or more keyboard keys which, when used, cause an operation to be
performed.
keyframe
Important positions in the action defining the starting and ending points of
any action. A keyframe is a computer-generated position at a specific
moment (frame) on a given trajectory.
layers
In animation, a layer is an individual column, level or character. A scene's
layers are superimposed to form the final image.
layout
The communication step between the storyboard and the animation. It is
the action of putting the storyboard on model. That is, drawing the
character by following the design in the model pack, so the animator can
start working.
The layout artist draws the background, creates the camera and field guide
matching the scene and camera motion. Lastly, the animator draws on
model the main action poses.
layout and posing
The action of putting on model. That is, at the right scale, the storyboard
for the animator to start working.
library
A storage area containing templates and assets that can be reused in any
project or scene.
light table
A device that allows you to see other layers in transparency while you are
working on a particular layer.
line of action
The direction that the action will follow. Also known as path of action.
lip-sync
The character's mouth synchronization with the dialogue sound track.
Frame by frame, the mouth will be adjusted to fit the sound to give the
illusion of the character is speaking.
low resolution
A format that is ideal for videos destined for the web, where size and fast
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download of a video file take precedence over quality. A low-resolution
image is one that lacks fine detail.
manual lip-sync detection
The manual swapping of mouth position drawings to match a voice track.
For this process, both sound scrubbing (listening to a sound wave broken
up frame-by-frame) and drawing substitutions are used.
master palette
A group of colours attributed to a character or prop. The palette is used
throughout the entire production to maintain consistency in the look and to
ensure that the same colours are used throughout the production. Also
known as palette.
model/colour model
The definitive character, prop or location design each artist must follow for
a production. A colour model is the official colour design that must be used
to paint the animation.
motion keyframe
A keyframe with computer-generated interpolation.
mouth chart
A chart based on the eight animation phonemes (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and X,
which is used to represent silence) used for lip-sync.
multiplane
The effect of passing through multiple levels of drawings to create a sense
of depth in a shot. A multiplane is a scene in which the layers are placed at
different distances from the camera so that when the camera moves, a
depth illusion occurs. With a multiplane, all the perspective and scale is
calculated automatically.
NTSC
The standard analogue television broadcasting system used in North
America. NTSC conforms to North American standards on how rectangular
pixels are displayed for computer and television screens.
nudge
A small push (left, right, up, down, forward or backward) done with the
keyboard arrow keys on a selected element. Nudging is used to move a
selection very slightly and precisely.
onion skin
A feature that lets you see the previous and next drawings of a sequence.
overlay
A part of the scene environment, such as a chair or a bush, that is placed in
front of the main animation.
PAL
A resolution that works best with the European format for television and
computer screens, as the rectangular pixels are displayed at a different
orientation.
palette/master palette
A palette or master palette is a group of colours attributed to a character
or a prop. The palette is used throughout the entire project to maintain a
consistency in the look and avoid the colour changing during the animation.
Also referred to as a master palette.
palette style
A palette style is a second version of an existing palette with a slight change
in the tint and value. A palette style can be used to create the night version
of a palette. It may also be called a clone palette.
pan
To move the camera across the scene in any direction.
panel
In a storyboard, a panel is a frame in a shot. A shot can be composed of one
or several panels.
paperless animation/tradigital The paperless animation process is the action of animating digitally. The
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main paperless animation process is to draw, frame by frame, the
animation directly in the software.
passing position
When drawing a walk sequence for a character, the passing position is the
point at which one leg passes the other.
path of action
Direction that the action will follow. Also known as line of action.
peg
In traditional animation, a tool used to ensure accurate registration of
action as cel layers move. In digital animation, in which you are doing a
more advanced puppet rigging, you can use peg layers. Peg layers are
trajectory layers that do not contain drawings. They are motion paths that
you can use to add path articulations. For the latter, you can also use the
Inverse Kinematics tool.
phoneme
A unit of sound in a language.
pivot
The point around which a peg or drawing rotates.
The smallest element of an image displayed on a monitor or TV screen.
pixel
Pixel, short for picture element, is a single point in a graphic image. It is a
small sample of an image, a dot, a square, or a very small section made out
of smooth filtering. If you zoom in close enough on a digital image, you will
see the pixels, which look like small squares of different colours and
intensity.
pose-to-pose animation
The pose-to-pose animation process is the action of creating all the main
action poses, called key poses, and then placing the secondary poses
between the keys. The secondary poses are called breakdown. Finally, the
animator fills the gaps with the in-between drawings to achieve a smooth
animation.
rendering
The final step when animating by computer. During rendering, the
computer takes each pixel that appears on screen and processes all of the
components, as well as adding motion blur before it produces a final
image. The process of calculating the final images after the compositing
process.
resolution
The size of a scene, generally calculated in pixels. For example, the NTSC
resolution is 720 x 480. The resolution should match the final output: HDTV,
film-1.33, film-1.66, NTSC, PAL, low.
RGB
Red, Green, Blue. A method of defining colour by specifying amounts of
these three colour components.
rigging
The process of attaching the various parts of a cut-out puppet.
rotary table
Equivalent to the animation disk/table, a device that allows you to rotate
the workspace for greater comfort while drawing.
rotoscoping
An animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film
movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. The act of sketching
over live-action footage to create an animated sequence.
roughs
The skeleton sketch of an animation or design. Roughs mainly consist of
sketch lines and shapes, though they can also contain design details.
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safe area
The zone at the center of a scene's frame that is safe from being cropped
by the TV frame. As a TV frame cuts a margin off the original frame size,
maintaining a safe area ensures that the scene's main action will remain
clearly visible once the film is screened on television.
scene
A shot in a movie or show. A sequence is composed of several scenes. A
scene changes to another scene by a simple cut or transition.
script
The original text containing all the movie or show information. In animation,
the script contains all of the location descriptions, dialogue, time and more.
A project starts with a script.
sequence
A series of scenes or shots forming a distinct part of the story or movie,
usually connected by unity of location or time.
shot
A scene in a movie or show. A sequence is composed of several shots. A
shot changes to another shot by a simple cut or transition.
slow-in
The gradual acceleration in the action. Also known as ease-in.
slow-out
The gradual deceleration in the action. Also known as ease-out.
slugging
To indicate the start and stop times of dialogue and relevant actions.
sound scrubbing
A process that lets you hear sound in real time while you move the playhead
forward or backward. This is very useful for finely-tuning a lip-sync.
stop-motion keyframe
A keyframe with no computer-generated interpolation.
storyboard
A visual plan of all the scenes and shots in an animation. The storyboard
indicates what will happen, when it will happen and how the objects in a
scene are laid out.
straight-ahead
A technique in which an entire sequence is drawn from the first position to
the last, in order. There is very little planning in this methodology. Where
the character ends up and how it gets there can be a surprise for both the
audience and the animator. While this approach is spontaneous and
creative, it can create inaccurate results.
strokes
Invisible vector lines forming the drawing zones. They can be adjusted with
Bézier handles.
tablet/pen
A device used in conjunction with, or instead of, a mouse to move a mouse
pointer (sometimes referred to as the cursor) around the computer screen.
template
An asset stored in the library that can be reused in any project. A template
can be a drawing, a series of keyframes, a sound file, a panel, a cut-out
character, an effect, a trajectory, an animation, or anything else used in the
animation.
thumbnails
A very small image used as a reference or indicator.
timecode
The timing information printed on a movie clip to indicate the scene, hour,
minute and second that is currently displayed on the screen.
timeline
A horizontal representation of a scene's elements, timing and keyframes.
trace and paint
After the rough animations have gone through cleanup and a final line or
pencil test, each drawing is traced and painted for the final animation. In
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today's digital world, this may be done in a variety ways other than the
traditional celluloid or acetate methods.
track breakdown
The break down of an animated film's soundtrack into individual sounds to
produce the precise frame-by-frame position of each sound.
traditional animation
A type of animation process whereby all the animation sequences are
drawn by hand on paper before scanning or inking them on cels.
trajectory
A computer-generated path or trajectory that elements can follow. The
trajectory can be controlled by control points, keyframes and velocity.
transition
An effect placed between two scenes as they pass from one to the other.
Common transition effects are cross-dissolve and wipe.
underlay
In animation, an underlay is a specific part of the decor placed behind the
main animation.
aspect ratio
The aspect ratio describes the shape of the grid unit. A square grid unit
would have a 1:1 ratio , whereas a grid unit of aspect ratio 4:3 is a unit with
one side 1.33 times as big as the other side.
vector
A vector-based image is composed of points and Bézier curves. The
computer reads the points and traces the segments, linking them to
reproduce the image shape. There is no fixed size or resolution in a vector
image. The graphic can be enlarged and distorted as much as desired and
the system will simply recalculate the segments and rebuild the shapes.
Vector images are translated and displayed in pixels once the calculation is
done.
velocity
In animation, the velocity, also known as ease, is the acceleration or
deceleration of a motion. This can be achieved by a function curve, or via a
series of animated drawings. Other common terms for ease-in and ease-out
are slow-in and slow-out.
walk cycle
A series of drawings "on the spot" that describe the walk for a character.
The illusion of movement is created by the use of background pans. To
avoid making innumerable drawings, animators routinely make a walk cycle
for a character.
The Xsheet or exposure sheet, is a sheet with several vertical columns and
horizontal frames used to indicate a scene's timing.
Xsheet (exposure sheet)
Each column represents a scene's layer. In each column, the drawing
numbers are indicated and spread over the specific number of frames in
which they appear.
The exposure sheet is used by animators, directors and other members of
the crew to track the sequence and timing of images, dialogue, sound
effects, sound tracks and camera moves. Also known as dope sheet.
zone
An area which can be painted with colour.
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Index
alpha channel 218
animatic 218
animation 218
anime 218
Annotation column 57
erasing annotations 60
pen colour 60
pen width 60
annotations
changing pen colour 60
changing pen width 60
erasing 60
arc 218
aspect ratio 218, 226
auto-feed 218
axis 218
background 218
backing up
palettes 135
Bezier 218
bitmap images 218
Bitmap layer 43
breakdown 218
Camera layer 44
camera shake 219
caption 219
cel 219
celluloid
See cel. 219
character design 219
clean up 219
cloning
layers and columns 56
CMYK 219
Colour-Card
deleting
layer 44
drawings 95
colour card 219
dialogue 220
colour model 219, 223
dope sheet 220
colour palettes
doping 220
back up 135
DPI 220
location 134
drawing elements
colour wheel 219
adding 46
Column Properties editor
creating 41
displaying in Xsheet 52
columns
duplicating 56
Drawing layer 43
advanced types 45
drawings
changing colour 113
copying/pasting 96
cloning 56
deleting 95
collapsing 101
duplicating 96
deleting 49
identifying 110
duplicating 56
importing 12
expanding 101
managing 93
modifying 53
marking 110
modifying look 107
merging 98
navigating 92
navigating 92
properties 50
renaming 93
renaming 54
scanning 12
reordering 55
types 43
duplicating
drawings 96
Xsheet 42
ease 220
compositing 219
ease-in 220
copying
ease-out 220
drawings 96
cross dissolve 219
editors
Column Properties 52
cut 219
Effect layer 44
cut-out animation 219
Element Manager dialog box
cycle 220
parameters 55
cycles
establishing shot 220
exposure, creating 83
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Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
exposure 220
frames 39
drawing 43
creating cycles 83
adding before/after selection 39
duplicating 56
decreasing 73
navigating 92
effect 44
deleting 75
functions 221
expanding 101
extending 66
gamut 221
Group 44
extending sequence 67
Gestural Drag mode 73
hiding 102
Fill Exposure mode 63
Group layer 44
modifying 53
filling 62
HDTV 221
Peg 45
filling empty cells 82
hiding
properties 50
filling selection 79
columns 104
Quadmap 45
filling selection randomly 81
layers 102
renaming 53-54
filling sequence with single
exposure 78
holding 65
increasing 73
inserting blank cells 76
moving cells 70
setting 77
typing in values 64
exposure sheet 220, 226
printing 119
extending
exposure 66
exposure sequence 67
fade-in 220
fade-out 220
field 220
field chart 221
Fill Exposure mode 63
film-1.33 221
film-1.66 221
flipping 221
follow-through 221
forward kinematics 221
frame 221
Hold 221
reordering 54
holding exposure 65
showing 102
HSV 221
Sound 45
importing
types 43
bitmap drawings 17
layout 222
drawings 12
layout and posing 222
in-between 222
library 222
ink and paint 222
light table 222
interpolation 222
line of action 222
jump cut 222
lip-sync 222
key pose 222
auto detection 218
keyboard shortcuts 222
keyframes 222
Layer Properties editor
lip-sync detection
manual 223
low resolution 222
displaying 51
manual lip-sync detection 223
renaming layers 54
markers
layers 42, 222
tempo, setting 118
bitmap 43
markers, scene
camera 44
setting 115
changing colour 113
cloning 56
marking
drawings 110
collapsing 101
master palette 223
Colour-Card 44
merging
deleting 49
frame rate 221
228
drawings 98
Chapter 5: Ink and Paint •
model 223
pivot 224
model sheet See character design
pixel 224
slow-in 225
motion keyframe 223
pixelation See bitmap image
slow-out 225
mouth
pose-to-pose 224
slugging 225
printing
sound
chart 223
multiplane 223
navigating
columns 92
drawings 92
frames 92
layers 102
exposure sheet 119
scrubbing 225
Quadmap layer 45
Sound layer 45
renaming
stop-motion keyframe 225
drawings 93
storyboard 225
rendering 224
straight-ahead 225
NTSC 223
resolution 224
strokes 225
nudge 223
RGB 224
tablet 225
onion skinning 223
rigging 224
templates 225
overlay 223
rotary table 224
tempo markers
PAL 223
rotoscoping 224
setting 118
palettes 223
roughs 224
thumbnails 225
backup 135
safe area 225
tick marks, Xsheet
creating, Advanced Palette List
mode) 136
scanning 11
creating, Basic Palette List mode)
136
location 134
style 223
panel 223
panning 223
paperless animation 223
passing position 224
Paste Special
pasting with 97
pasting
drawings 96-97
path of action 224
Peg layer 45
pegs 224
pen 225
phoneme 224
turning off 62
drawings 12
timecode 225
images as bitmap drawings 12
timeline 225
process 11
Timeline view
VectOptions.conf file 31
scene markers
setting 115
cloning layers and columns 56
expanding and collapsing
layers/columns 101
modifying layers and columns 53
scenes 225
adding frames before/after
selection 39
extending 39
removing frames 41
setting length 39
renaming layers 53-54
reordering layers 54
timing
adding frames before/after
selection 39
Annotation column, adding 57
script 225
scrubbing 225
sequences 225
creating cycles 83
decreasing exposure 73
deleting exposure 75
shot 225
erasing annotation 60
showing
columns 104
229
extending exposure 66
Harmony 12.1 Advanced - Traditional Animation Guide
extending exposure sequence 67
vectorization
extending scenes 39
creating a style 29
Fill Exposure mode 63
parameters, creating 29
filling empty cells 82
parameters, custom 21
filling exposure 62
parameters, modifying 29
filling selection randomly 81
Vectorization Parameters dialog box
filling selection with sequence 79
Help tab 24
filling sequence with single
exposure 78
opening 21
frames 39
holding exposure 65
increasing exposure 73
inserting blank cells 76
moving cells 70
preparing 37
Options tab 22
vectorizing
bitmap drawings 17
velocity 220, 226
walk cycle 226
Xsheet view 53, 226
references 38
adding frames before/after
selection 39
removing frames 41
advanced column types 45
scene length 39
Annotation column, adding 57
setting exposure 77
cloning layers and columns 56
setting scene markers 115
collapsing/expanding 3D path or
rotation columns 102
setting tempo markers 118
typing in exposure values 64
trace and paint 225
track breakdown 226
tradigital 223
traditional animation 226
introduction 9
scanning 11
trajectory 226
transition 226
underlay 226
VectOptions.conf file 31
Mac 31
columns 42
displaying thumbnails 113
erasing annotations 60
expanding and collapsing
layers/columns 101
layers 42
modifying layers and columns 53
printing exposure sheet 119
removing frames 41
renaming columns 54
reordering columns 55
showing/hiding columns 104
zone 226
Windows 31
vector 226
230
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