PHICE THIRTY-FIVE CENTS. J-tii; 3^)'/=?3j,_3METCALF'S /v^ 6Tr key mam d-ha -KEEPING. r-:3 THE MICHIGAN BEE-HIVES. The inventor as follows of these Hives has obtained two Patents, from wliicll U. S. The we quote : Patent Office. 1861. Letters Patent, No. 1,948, whole No. 32,952, dated July 30, nature of my invention consists in the peculiar construction and em- ployment of the various parts which compose the hive, and also in the particular mode of producing artificial swarming, to which purpose the parts hereinafter set forth are [See Fig. 19, p. 36. merely incidental. Claims.— 1st The employment of a revolving bee-hive, so arranged that artificial swarming m.iy be produced substantially in the manner specified. 2nd I claim the employment of the movable frames, D. D.. provided with cylinder M, when used in connection with a revolving bee-hive, in the manner and for the purpose set forth. TJ. S. Patent Office. Letters Patent, whole No. 34,157, dated Jan. 14, 1862. Fig. 1 is a perspective view, showing the construction of the frame. Pig. 23, p. 47 Fig. 3, side view of frames in hive. [See Fig. 22, p. 45 mc ] be used in the revolving bee-hive, July 30, 1861, or in any rectangular box hive, having a mov- These adjustable frames are intended patented to [Sea J to able front. Claim. — I claim constructing the top bar A, frames for bee-hives, with the beveled ends and side bars B, of adjustable a, b, in the manner described, when used in connection with a m.ovablo front, and in a rectangular box or hive. ITALIA?^ BEES, Put up securely, and forwcvrdcd 1)}^ express (C. 0. D.), and a safe delivery, and successful Italianization of the common hive guaranteed. PKIGB FEB Q,UBEIv", FIVE DOLLARS. MARTIN iSIETCALF, Grand Rapids. Mich. A KEY TO SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPaTr: BEING A TREATISE ON THE MOST PROFITABLE METHOD OF MANAGING BEES. INCLUDING THE AUTHOE's NEW SYSTEM OF ARTIFICIAL SWARMING, ALL WATCHINa FOR SWARMS DURING THE SWARMING SEASON IS DONE AWAY WITH, BY MARTIN METCALF. " Who guides the patient pilgrim to her cell 1 Who bids her -oul with conscious triumph swell 7 With coa'^cions truth retrace the mazy clue Qi various scents that_chaiined her as she flew 1" N E W-Y C. M. 8AXT0N, RK : AGRICULTURAL BOOK PUBLISHER. 1862. E 1125 Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by MARTIN MET CALF, In the Clerk's OfEioe of the District Court of the United States for the District of Miahigan. J. J. Reed, Printer and Stereotj'per, 43 Centre Street. . A P R EF The author of this little (] E book and originator of the system of Bee-Keeping herein endeavored to present the results of careful observation, experiments form of a practical plain, that book and advocated, has treatise, so many years of and study in the concise and yet so even the inexperienced may, with, his his hive, enter upon the business of bee- keeping confident of success. He takes pleasure in acknowledging that in his study of the Bee he has derived much valuable aid from the labors of Bevan, Huber, Huish, Miner, Taylor, Munn,Bruckish,Quinby.Langstroth, Harbison and others. Bringing their conflicting theories to the only sure test— the Bee-hive to by expose to the eye its itself, so constructed as entire operations careful observation at all hours and — he all has, seasons, and continued through many years, demonstrated the truth of some and the error of others. Thus, little by little, under his own eye, have the natural laws governing these wonderful little creatures, ar- • PREFACE. IV ranged themselves into a compact and beautiful tem. own private pleasure, and his hive invented for his use : sys- His experiments were pursued simply as a it was not until quite recently that he thought of offering to the public a new He now does book on Bees. lishing a quest of friends, and to had any hive, or pubit at the re- supply what seems to be a public need. He Its has intended to give due credit in. his book. — designed limits and chief aim forbade extensive copying ; for he has purposely excluded ulative hypotheses not yet brought of experiment all from the specfield by repeated demonstrations, giving only the absolute and abundantly established truths on which the hive and system herein describe-d rest. all He does not expect, in a day, to convince of the truth of every statement nor of the entire practicability made ot his in his book, system. He asks for the former a careful study, and for the latter a fair trial — these granted, he has no fears for the result. The Authoe. Grand Rapids, Michigan, April, 1862. — INTRODUCTION. " But these pursuits will honeyed fragrance bring Without the danger Bees suggest all of a treacheroug sting." that is beautiful, fragrant. and de- licious in the floral universe. Hence bee-keeping has been termed the " poetry of agriculture." A flower without a bee to sip its nectar and rolic in its pollen, hints too broadly the quasi bliss of " single blessedness." Types of models of government toil, — with symbols of frugality, Flora propitious, how extravagantly provident, and how cheerfully they fill our dish with a " Benjamin's mess " of their delicate fare. Whether bees are partial to good society, or man appreciates bees as he himself becomes refined their temples have always marked the locum in quo of the highest style of human culture. Bees navigated the Nile in its palmiest days, to gather luscious wealth from her blooming fields. Phoenicia, preceptor of the world, was graphically described to its " heirs of promise," as " a land flowing with milk and honey." Greece, " the land of scholars," had her Mount Hybla " the empire of bees" and Emelus cf Corinth, in 741 B. C, devoted a poem to their Rome's most elegant poet, Virgil, sang the praise. bee in the noon of her splendor. The learned Germans, importing the bee from Italy, and copying — — : INTRODUCTION. VI their hive from Greece, have in some cases a thou- sand colonies to the square mile, sustain a Journal and Associations in their interest, and government encourages their culture. Of the 202 species of the Apis genus, Hardie, in his America, says there are 111 in England, where they receive deserved attention.* * The following anecdote from the Mark Lane Express, is iu point A bishop was holding his first visitation of the clergy of his one of the midland countries. Among those assembled he soon discovered an old college acquaintance, whom he had not seen for a great number of years, but whom he greeted with all the warmth of a renewed friendship. On comparing notes with his friend, the bishop learned with regret diocese, in a town in was still a curate in a country village, at a stipend of one hundred pounds a year, and that he had a wife and large family to support. The worthy curate, however, invited the bishop to spend a day with him before he left the neighborhood, and the latter, not wishing to appear proud, accepted the invitathat he On reaching the parsonage, he was surprised to find his wife an elegant, well-dressed lady, who received him without any of the embarrassment which a paucity of means tion. friend's who feel its pressure. The children, too, well-dressed, and looked anything rather than as having suffered from the pinching pains of unappeased hunger. But occasions in those were all the good bishop's astonishment was still greater when he sat worthy of the traditional and customary fare of his order, and was invited to " take wine" of the purest flavor and aroma with his fair and graceful hostess. Knowing that his friend was originally a poor man, he considered that he must have received a fortune with his wife. After therefore, the latter and the children had withdrawn, the bishop down to partake of a repast VH INTBODUCTIOJ?. Bees came with the Puritan fathers to the New in 1670, and have long since become one of our economic necessities. They followed their descendants to California in 1853 and subsequent years, whence come fabulous accounts of their pro- World digious thrift. With staple tribute for our tables and dollars realm of fine for our pockets, they pass out of the introduced the subject by expressing a fear that his friend had gone to an unusual and injurious expense to entertain him, and that it would entail privation upon him afterwards. " Not at all," replied the curate. '' I can well afford to enter- any inconvenience." tain an old friend once in a while without "I must congratulate you, '"Then," rejoined the bishop, I suppose, on having received a fortune with jour good lady." " You are had not a wrong shilling again, with my my lord," replied the poor curate. " I wife." More mystified than ever, the bishop resumed Then how is it possible for you to have those comforts around you that I see, out of a hundred a year ?" : " my am a large manufacturer as well and employ many thousands of operatives, which bring me in an excellent living. If you will walk with me to the back of the premises, I will show you them at work." He accordingly took him into the garden at the back of the house, and there was a splendid apiary, with a large number of bee-hives, " Oh, lord, as to that, I as clergyman, the source of the curate's prosperity. The bishop never forgot the circumstance, nor did he ever fail make use of it as an argument for when he afterwards heard some poor curate complain of the scantiness of his income, he would cut the matter short by eKclaiming " There, there, let's have no more grumbling. Keep bees, like keep bees, keep bees I" Mr. to ; ; ; INTRODUCTION". Vlll and assume a commanding place in the sober economies of life. Safer than bank, railroad, or government stocks, and returning annually, with moderate attention, at least one hundred per cent, net on the capital invested, they might well claim a nitch in Wall-street. Adapting themselves to every sec- arts, tion of our country, they will for only a quiet nook make us independent of sorghum, or the by gathering and storing away in sealed cans in the yard, cane, ready for our use, the wasting sweets of garden, field and forest pure, healthful, and tempered to — the palate beyond the most exquisite culinary art. " Eh oh I like the honey and admire the bees, ! ! — " but that sting was not made for you, and be used against you wTien you learn to treat Never mind will not ; But them properly. garding if 3'ou their comfort persist in rudely disre- and their rights, returning ever_v friendly salute with a blow, disturbing, crushing them ad. libitum — even murdering whole colonies for when you can get them much easier without you deserve to become more civil and consult your own interest if not theirs, for the coun- their stores — where it has but one. Their and for their insidious enemy, the moth, and will guard their stores and yours if you will give them a fair chance. try needs a million bees sting was made for robbers, *The moth breaks through at night sometimes, and steals manner namely, by giving. She lays her eggs in the hive, cuckoo fashion, and their voracious larvce deafter a very singu ar — — INTEODUCTION. ix With modern improvements, bee-keeping is made Immane and pleasant business. After the hives are made artificially swarming hives of a safe, sure, —the — swarm the bees and do all needs to be done in the apiary. With the modesty of real worth, and generous often to a fault, these wonderful little creatures commend themselves alike to the naturalist, the amateur, the moralist, and course ladies can else that ****. the " solid" man. TOur the honey. [Beebread and the bees fear moths timent wax ?] Danaos No wonder, then, that dona ferentes^ [-'They a scholarly quotation which et Greeks even bearing gifts"] not often so good an opportunity of introducing. Chambers' Edinburgh Journal. fear the we have — SUCCESSFUL A. A SWABM OF BEE-KEEPING. BEES,— OF WHAT prosperous colony of bees, swarming in - IT CONSISTS. the midst of the season, consists of a single queen, from fifty to five hundred drones, and twenty thousand to thousand workers. The Queen, fifty the only perfectly if fertile, is developed female in the hive. She is the mother of the whole colony, laying all the eggs, producing queens, workers, and drones. She has six abdominal rings, while workers ^ and drones have only five and she has over ; the thorax 1. — Queen, line —a longitudinally a clearly defined feature which the writer has never seen noticed by any author. Drones are the male bees, and are of no use whatever, except to impregnate the young queens. This is done upon the wing, in the air, and within the first twenty-one days of the queen's existence. 2. —Drone. The workers are undeveloped females unlike the queen, they are incapable of zation, by copulation with the drones and, ; fertili; yet are capable, under certain circumstances, of 3. —AVorker. depositing eggs which will produce perfect drones, difPering in no respect from those SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. 12 hatched from eggs laid by either a fertile or an unferqueen. The average time of maturity of a worker hee from the q^^ is twenty-one days drone twenty-four, tile ; queen about eighteen. Having thus glanced at the different classes of bees found in a hive, in its prosperous condition, we will now take a look at the interior of the honied temple, witnessing their labors, noting the manner of their development, and the more prominent characteristics of each class. THE QUEBlSr. " rirst of the throng, and foremost of the whole, One stands confessed the sovereign and the The queen lays all soul." the eggs, and continues this labor the whole year round, the least brood, in our climate, being In January the brood increases, and more and more rapidly as spring approaches. The greatest amount of brood is found in June or July, or exactly at that point of time when the old queen leads out the found in December. first swarm , of the current year. Indeed, the lack of cells which to deposit her eggs, appears to be one of the causes of the issue of the first swarm, for it is found that the queen becomes much agitated on finding the breeding cells all occupied, even though the hive be not half full of comb. The workers, however, instinctively prepare for the migration of the mother, by providing cells for the rearing of young queens to supply her place. These cells are constructed on the extreme edges of the combs, and are in appearance not very unlike small acorn cups, with their open ends downward, attached at the base or upper end to the worker cells, which are nearly horizontal. Whether the queen herself deposits the eo-o-s in THE QUEEN. 13 directly in the royal cradles, is not she has never been seen to do so. I known. I believe have myself many times kept watch to see how, and by whom this is done, without determining it. But be this as it may, whether laid there by the queen, or carried thither by the workers, as some suppose, that they are found there, and the embryo queens capped over while the old queen yet remains in the hive, is conclusively established. Before this time, all the breeding cells are occupied, either with and the queen, becoming perhaps from this cause, day by day moves more honey, bee-bread, or brood, restless, and more rapidly over the combs. The workers, too, partaking of the excitement, at first a few, their numbers gradually increasing, are seen running rapidly over the combs, striking their antennae upon each other, until finally, as if by preconcert, rushing to the honey cells, unclosing many that have been sealed over, they fill themselves with their precious stores as eagerly as if they momentarily expected a writ of ejectment to be served upon them, and scene within, this all is was their last chance. unusually quiet loithout During this the hive ; while such bees as have been lying about the entrance, driven thither by the great heat or numbers within, now gradually wend their places in the old or inquire. it way new back, whether to take their colony we will not stop to After each bee has taken on as large a load as can carry, at the " appointed time, wind and weather permitting," they rush, pell-mell, from the hive, pouring out, and off the alighting board, like running water, many a greedy fellow falling to the ground from mere inability with its too great self-imposed burden. Swarming. The queen usually leads out the to fly swarm from — first the second to the fourth day after the work- 14 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. If the erg have commenced nursing the embryo queens. weather should then prove unfavorable for swarming, On the approach of a the young queens are destroyed. more congenial season, the work of queen rearing begins anew, to be repeated, it may be, again and again, and not unfrequently without swarming at all during the day swarm, the young queens will emerge from their cells, when, if the bees are still numerous, weather propitious, and the honey-yielding blossoms plenty, second, and third, or after swarms may be exThe bees having previously divided off into as pected. many " squads" as there are queens maturing, the first queen that issues from her cell generally leads out a second swarm, and, in one, two, or three days at farthest, if bees are still in considerable numbers, with other circumstances favorable, a third, fourth, and sometimes a fifth swarm issues. If the bees are not numerous at the whole summer. From the ninth to the fourteenth after the issue of the first first of the young queens, she allowed her liberty, and will at once seek out and sting her rivals in their cells. If the hive be well filled time of the hatching of the is with bees from the now rapidly maturing brood, those of each queen cluster will stand guard and prevent the queen from accomplishing her purpose, and others are allowed to hatch. Now may be heard the challenge of the queens to mortal combat, for one only can become and remain in the hive. The "piping of the queens" may always be heard the morning or eveningpreceding the issue of all swarms after the first. If it be not heard by the fourteenth day after the issue of the first, no after swarm need be expected, and swarming is done with that hive for a period of forty days. fertile THE QUEEN. The day fair first 15 hiving of a after the second, or after swarm, if a close watch be kept just before and during the flight of the drones from 12 M. to 4 P. M. the young queen may be seen to issue from the iiive, — — and, taking wing, fly off into the 4.— Unfertile, Called her " bridal trip," and is is air. repeated every day, and several times a day, for days. When This sometimes many successful, she returns to remain perma- nently in the hive, fully competent to supply eggs for the whole colony and the bees, at once clustering about ; her as they have never before done, show that tkey conscious of the fact and recognize her sovereignty. practised eye of the s,re The experienced apiarian will at once detect this change in the affec- tions of the bees, as well as a decided differ- ence in the form and size of the queen herself the moment she touches the alighting-board. Before her departure they paid but little at- tention to her, running over her as freely as after her return they treat over each other 5.— Fertile. her with the utmost deference never clamber over her, always clear the way as she approaches, and with their ; — antennas wave a " her every wish is God save the queen" as she passes ; anticipated, and her pleasure served with alacrity. So, also, a the day or two parent stock for the later, a young queen same purpose and if, ; flies from as is too often the case, these hives stand in close proximity to others similar in shape, size, and appearance, a mistake sometimes made by the returning queen in seeking at a neighboring hive containing a fertile queen. Instant death awaits her here, and the future is entrance 16 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. destruction of her colony the remedy be is rendered inevitable (unless applied), for the reason that no eggs are now in the hive from which a queen can be reared, the old and fertile queen having left two weeks before. month or two later in the season, a wonderfuldisplay of A and toward autumn, happens to " heft" the hive to ascertain how the honey harvest progresses, he finds it wofully deficient in weight, that most essential drones takes place every afternoon if perchance the bee-keeper ; (?) requisite of a bee-hive at this season of the year. A closer inspection discloses the fact that the interior of the hive can boast of mo?-e worms than lees, if, indeed, some neighboring robber bees have not already discovered its condition and taken charge of the disconsolate orphans fori and their precious stores; while the bee-destroyer — — goes straight to no such person a bee-keeper his neighbor and tells the old and oft-repeated story that " the rollers and moth have ruined his lees !" All stuff Let such person get a hive giving perfect control of all its combs, and facilities for the ready inspection of its contents, and he may soon be convinced that the loss of his bees is justly chargeable only to himself. Having thus rapidly glanced at the prominent characteristics" of the queen, and incidentally seen something of the workers shall call I also, we will now turn our attention to the DRONES. " These lazy fathers of the industrious hive." They are the male and are ordinarily the ofispring sometimes happens, that in the absence of the queen, workers are found laying eggs that produce them. The drones are short lived, averaging but bees, of the queen, although it THE WORKERS. It about two months, even when not meeting with violent death at the hands of the workers, or by reason of their fulfilling the object of their existence, to wit, the impregnation of the young queen When mediately dies. son, the workers fall ; for the cohabiting drone im- queen-rearing is done for the sea- upon, and destroy them all. THE "WOBKEKS, *t " So work the honey-bees, Creatures that by a rule in nature, teach The art of order to a peopled kingdom." These constitute the great bulk of every prosperous colony of bees. of honey are It is by their labors collected, the delicately that the rich stores wrought cells and Bystematically constructed combs are made, their temple caulked and well plastered with propolis, the abundant collections of farina, or pollen, provided and stored away for food, and every want of the constantly maturing broods supplied. A guard of workers also attends the queen in her almost ceaseless rounds, feeding and watching over her with sleepless vigilance, preparing the tiny cells for the reception of her eggs, capping over, at the proper time, these cradles for their young, with thin scales of wax, elaborated from between their abdominal rings, —in short, (except eggs,) all the work the labor of the hive of depositing is carried on by them. When a young bee emerges from the cell, and the queen, passing along, refuses to place an egg therein, immediately, and without the least perceptible exchange of word or look of authority, by hint or deed, the industrious and provident workers set themselves about repairing and fitting it up for another tenFig. 6.* *Abdoinen of a worker magnified, showing scales of wax. Ig SUCCESSFUL ant a ; new egg BEE-KE'EPl:S'Gf,- and at once the watchful Four to five days elapse, and the tiny egg breaks into a shapeless mass save that something like an embryo worm is revealed by the microscope when worker after worker is seen peeping into the cell, nursing and providing for the needs soon is laid, workers keep vigil there. ^3"y?/<i — ""'It^jl ''"''liji E^ ,' Scarce a of its occupant. moment can pass, but some new comer depo&its its apportioned Night and day this work of watchfulness and care food. continues without interruption, while generation after generation come and go frorci year to year. No confusion, not the slightest discord, even for a moment, but each, intent on its appropriate task, right gleefully plies its willing hands and feet, and all to one continual work, 2vork, WORK And amidst ! all this multiform labor, order any cells are found of too great depth, in consequence of having been used for the storing of honey If reigns. once cut down to the required length on the approach of the broods to their for the previous winter, they are at Mathematical precision vicinity. household From whence is apparent in What all the magic influence pervades the honied dome, and guides its myriad throng queen. I ? ! We hold her in my silent, open the hive and take away the closed again, and while hand here, let us keep a close watch will Here she ? is upon the movements ! Now it is in the interior of the hive, through Where but a moment since all was order and work, what have we now ? See The bees are run- its glass sides. ! ning here and there. The tumult increases Fifteen minutes have scarcely elapsed, and tumultuous disorder has brok(?n out through all the camp. All appears alarm and 1 THE WOUKERS. 19 confusion, even the lazy droves are taking' wing, and, like a impetuous workers chase each other from the hivein spiral circles high in the air, they soon return to repeat the search for the lost one, over and over again. We will return the queen, letting her go just at the entrance of the hive. How quickly she darts in and the bees rush back in eager haste to get inside, and know Immefor themselves that indeed the lost one is found. diately a loud buzzing, which, once heard, can never be mistaken, is audible. It is the glad shout of the hundred sentinels at the door, with uplifted wings and eloquent words, as clearly and plainly as any man could speak it, of the " all's well I" of the watchful guard, and the wonderful little creatures ply their busy hands, and feet, and wings, as before. Again let us remove the queen, but this time not to return her. The tumult again takes place, and again subsides. Keep a close watch we have a good opportunity A single card of comb between two to observe them. clear, clean panes of glass exposes both of its sides, so An hour has past. The that we may see every bee. bees have become quite composed. And see there is a cluster gathering here, another there, and over on the flood, the Mounting 1 — 1 The bees are destroyother side one, two, or three more. ing some of their young, and dragging them from their cells ^— They have selected ! in the centre of which orie cell each of the clusters, they are enlarging, most cell laboriously pressing outward its hex»' ^ agonal sides, making In a single day ^ pearance ^ ginning 8. — Queen in embryo. it it quite round. has taken the ap- of an acorn cup, to curve downward. days more and it is now be- Three capped over, m SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. looking for all the world like a pea-nut de pending perpendicularly from the comb, with its smaller end downward. Five days more, and the bees remove the wax covering from its tip, exposing a light brown silky substance, which is in process of trans- by the young bee while formation from a 9 -Capped a Two sect. over. there emerges bee which, but a worker^ but which been queen! ^_ is to the cocoon spun worm to a days three winged inmore and for our interferenm, would ham new metamorphosed into a perfect Almost immediately she the rival royal cells, seeks and, biting open their sides near the base, stings the luckless infants in their very cradles. The bees look quietly on until the deed of death is done, when they drag forth the lifeless bodies from the cells and from be full which case the lO.—Hatched. first emerging queen is prevented by the i bees from destroying her rivals, and one isI sues with a young swarm. Thus, we can I sometimes co7npel a swarm to issue even from a box hive, by removing the queen or, by in- ft the hive .:;lC.'''^' ; unless, indeed, the hive of bees to overflowing, in I H troducing ; a queen cell so protected that the 1 queen J JfiJ^i-IS F.:.|iil '*^ ^^1 can not get to it. sometimes happens that the young queen such a swarm fails to return to the hive the bees seem queenless hopelessly becomes It — ; 11.— Queen utterly bereft of their faculties, refusing to cells destroyed. ^^^^ more than from hand to mouth, are and destroy each other. table, quarrel with, irri THE WORKERS. "An That want And If this occurs in profusion, a angry hive of bees their leader, scatter care not whom when worker 12. 21 up and down, they sting." the blossoms will be are yielding honey found to deposit eggs. — WOTlcer laying. These eggs are laid regardless of order, scattered all over They the combs, and frequently six or seven in a cell. will hatch, the bees destroying all except one in each cell the remainder will mature as drones only. Eepeated attempts are made by the bees to rear queens from such eggs, which result in failure. They not unfrequently get so far as to cap over the cells and wait But the hope is for the issue of the longed-for queen. vain, for no Royaliy is there, and the sleep of the grave* ; * It will be observed as a singular fact, that while the eggs of both an un- drone laying uorker will mature and hatch from either drone or vorker cells, they never mature as queens, nor hatch from the queen cell! A perfect drone to all appearance will mature, but would seem fertile queen and a to expire at the moment of hatching. 22 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPI>rG. only rests within the royal cradle reared with so much soand care, while the disconsolate, cheerless flock, being rapidly decimated, hum listlessly in and out of the licitude hive with coarse, rough voices, ungainly carriage, and murmurs plainly audible. Just place a queen among — an instant their voices change. The v/ell of joy is heard within, and answering voices on the wing without, join in the chorus, while quick as thought, away flies many a winged messenger, to distant heath and forest flower, to return with bright golden pel- them in known hum lets of pollen, and heavily laden with delicious nectar to proffer to their newly-found queen. ABILITY TO SUPPLY" THEMSELVES "WTTH A QUEEN. The ability of a swarm of bees to supply themselves with a queen from an egg which under pther circumstances would have produced a worker, although not known to the mass of bee-keepers, even of the present day, is not a new discovery, but has been well known for many years, and various methods of artificial multiplication of colonies founded thereon have been proposed. Some of the most plausible of these methods we purpose here to notice, giving the claims of their inventors, and at the same time pointing out as briefly as possible their practical workings, while we shall also notice their defects and endeavor to show just wherein they have been, to a greater or less extent, failures, that the intelligent reader these various methods with our own may contrast system, and judge for himself of their comparative merits. First, then, let us notice the Piling, or "Nadir system, so called because of boxes, one upon it Hivivg'''' consists in placing a series another, leaving the bees to work 23 ABILITY TO SUPPLY A QUEEN. downward, taking from the top full ones either of honeycombs or bees,- as wanted, supplying empty ones underneath. Sometimes this seems to work, both swarms, when a division is thus made, prospering for a time ; at other times one or the other of the two portions proving a ure altogether. It was not different causes, we shall fail- after several yeV^^ that this system, so fascinating in theory, was found *to be worthless and the reasons pointed out. As this mode of multiplication sometimes seems to loork and at other times to fail, and these failures result at different times from till be under the necessity of in- quiring what the bees of each division do under every phase of circumstances. Let three boxes, A, B, C, placed one above the other, represent one of these hives, A being In attempting to artificially swarm the bees at the top. with this hive, suppose A to be moved to a new location, if the queen and a new box, D, placed beneath B C and most of the bees happen to be left in B C what will — — be the result ? I venture to say, that in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred the bees will leave A and go back to B C, carrying the honey with them. Now suppose the queen to be taken in the box A, what will be the result ? In nine times out of ten, the establishment of a in A, especially if a considerable number new colony of bees and brood in the combs accompany the queen thither. But the greater portion of the swarm will return to the accuswhich is sought to be prevented by tomed spot, BCD, removing BCD In either case also a little distance. new comb D before the mabe built in turity of the young queen, the quantity being in proportion to the number of bees in the hive, not unfrequently filling it up with worthless comhs ; since every colony of considerable will bees, while destitute of a queen, build drone combs only. SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. 24 maThese dj'one cells number four to the inch each way, the to king sixteen on each side, or thirty-two cells 13. — Drone and Worker Comb, showing the transition from one to the other. while the worker cells are five square inch of comb each way, or fifty to the square inch of comb. Let it be remembered that queenless colonies build drone combs ONLY,* and that worlter bees never issue from drone cells, ; and * it will be evident Except sometimes the queen. why for about a the " Piling" system is a fail- day immediately following the removal of ABILITY TO SUPPLY A QUEEN. Tire. So combs also, — deep a general rule, bees as cells^ — or 25 construct store large drone cells in all side or top boxes, or other apartments than that in which the queen and the broods are at the time. The JDividing Hive was only another form of the same thing, and is open to the same objections and from pre- cisely similar causes. — Another plan still, called the Colonizing System and I speak of and expose the falacies of these various methods here because they are still adhered to by some who know no better, and shameless pretenders are to-day imposing upon public credulity by vending these exploded humbugs is to make a box, and partition it oif into two or more apartments having communications or openings between them, and also direct outlets to the fields. Into one of — these a swarm of bees is the parent hive becomes put, it being intended that filled, the bees, for when want of room, through into the side apartments, gradually them with combs and brood. When this is done, the communication is to be cut off by means of a slide, and the part which is thus made queenless left to rear queens and colonize themselves. Like the methods before noticed, this, too, would seem to work sometimes, and why shall pass filling not always ? Because the system is based upon error and cannot possibly succeed, for the reason that not until the queen becomes crowded for cells in the main apartment in which to deposit her eggs will she pass into a side apartment. Before she passes into the side apartment, drone and store combs for the most part are built in that apartment and if during her absence from it and before it is occu; pied by brood, an attempt to swarm the bees be made by cutting off the communication, they will soon find it out 26 succEssrnL bee-xieepin'g. and leave for home, for borne is where the queen and the broods are, and there, too, the honey will go. If the separation happen to take place w^hile the qneen is in the the parent side apartment, the thing may seem to work ; stock prospering, but the new colony is pent up for breed- — ing space for worker bees, and will never thrive. By I do not mean that it may not live, and struggle along for several years, and be called a swarm of bees ; but which it will not throw off good strong swarms, nor yield any considerable amount of surplus honey. the Indeed, all these hives have the same faults that ; greatest being the over-production of drone comb, thus contracting the breeding space for the queen till the season for drone rearing comes, when a flood of these appear, consuming all the surplus of the workers, now daily diminishing in numbers. Thus it is that the apiary soon " runs out," as the phrase is. But this is only the legitiand it cannot mate result of a system founded in error be remedied even by the use of movable frames operated on the same erroneous principle, as many have sought to ; do. It is true, the scientific lee-keeperr may, with considera- ble diligence and care, control drone breeding to a certain extent scribed by the use of frames on the system above de- yet he must be exceedingly careful that his queen-rearing swarms are not large and in possession of vacant space to be filled up with worthless combs. It is ; conceded that bees consume from twenty to twenty-five pounds of honey to elaborate one of wax.=^ Besides this, a swarm destitute of a queeu is in an unnatural condition, and, however large, labors mainly to supply the present necessity, which is to rear a queen and drones to fecund* Whether it takes twenty-five pounds of honey to not prepared to prove ; probably it is make one of wax, I near the truth.— Qui^jfty. am ABILITY TO SUPPLY A QUEEN. ate her ; hence it is that no worker comb 27 is built till a That no stores of surplus honey are ordinarily gathered at such a time, one may satisfy himself by examining the honey boxes between the issue the greatest amount being of a first and second swarm found about twenty-four hours before the issue of the first swarm. Again, a pint of bees will rear a queen in twelve young- queen hatches. — days, and a bushel will do The great slocks shall secure the construction est possible number of worker of perfect worker combs in all the Such a method bees early in tJie throughout the honey harvest. of swarms during our a no sooner. abundance, and save flight to the woods. tivity it of successful lee-keeping lies in keeping the strong, and in sicarming them artificially by a method that secret the great- swarms without loss by will aiso secure the greatest season, A and their greatest ac- safeguard against cold winters is also an loss essential element in hive. To combine these advantages, among- others, into a practical system, has long taxed the ingenuity of intelli- gent bee-keepers. For the last thirty years there has been a marked advance in the right direction. A device, simple, cheap, and practicable, for obtaining control of the combs, has been one of the objects sought. Amateur apiarians placed a single card of comb in a thin case with glass sides, in order to observe the bees at work, and learn their habits. right To insure the building of the comb in the Huber started it by fastening a small direction, piece of comb to the ceiling ; he also combined eight of these cases or frames, hanging them by hinges, so that they would swing like a door, leaving out the glass sides, except the two outer ones, making the " Leaf Hive ;" which was invented more than sixty years ago. Bevan, Gelding, Huish, Dzierzon. and others, used " bars,^^ placed SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. 28 built their across the hives in rabbets, to which the bees The side attachments had ting them loose with a knife. combs. Bars led in his be removed by cut- to to frames. Bee-Keeper's Henry Taylor, Manual, (first published in 1838,) 6th edition, London, 1860, p. like Fig. 14, 73, describes a frame and gives an illustration of which Fig. 15 is a copy. Describ- ing his observing hive, he says Tajlor Frame. " For the purpose of preventing the bees from attaching rather the combs to the glass, thin upright strips of wood, : more than half an inch wide, are tacked under the centop to tre of each bar, at both ends, extending from to use prefer might some Or bottom inside of the hive. page at illustrated and described one the frame-bars, like 58," as follows : well here to allude to what some have thought to be an improvement in the construction of the bars, the object being to render the combs more accessi" It may be ble, and the usual cutting, to detach them from the sides of the hive, avoided. A reference to the accom- panying engraving will exhibit a bar with a frame suspended beneath \ii^^^' it, but so made as not to touch eith- q^ the sides or bottom and within which the combs are, or ought to be, wrought." W. Augustus Munn, invented the " Bar-and-Frame Hive," and published a description of it in London, in He then used the " oblong bar-frames to take out 1844. 15.— Taylor Frame, of the back of the bee-box." of the hive, He afterwards discarded the PATENT HIVES oblong frame, and in — FRAMES. 29 April, 1851, published a second edi. tion of his pamphlet, describing' his " his " triangular bar-frames, made to improved hive" with lift out of the top." Others have made their frames to slide in and out edge- wise in others, the ; frames partly lift and partly slide out edgewise, as in the "California hive." PATENT HIVES.—FRAMES. " The Langstroth Hive, like the Huber and on the movable-comb principle Munn hives, is con- but more properly combines the oblong-bar-frame, as originally used by Munn, with Bevan's bee-box, and other additional improvements, making it more structed simple and practical than either of son in Bee Culture, p. ; predecessors." its — /. S. Harbi- 149. Mr. Langstroth says,* "I have before me a small pamphlet, pubLondon in 1851, describing the construction of tlie Bar-andFrame Hive of W. A. Munn, Esq. The object of this invention is lished in to elevate the frames one at a time into a case with glass that they may be examined without risk sides, so of annoyance from the bees. " Great ingenuity is exhibited by the inventor of this very costly (?) and very complicated hive, who seems to imagine that smoke must be injurious, both to the bees and their brood." Great as Mr. Munn's " ingenuity" may have been, it falls some- what short of that exhibited by Mr. L., in the above quotation, by would appear that the hive of Mr. Munn was an observation hive only, whereas the facts are, that it was intended to combine all which it the desired advantages of a practical bee-hive for every day use. Mr. Munn ever, I says, p. 23, in speaking of other hives, " But how- should not be doing justice to Mr. E. Goldiug, if I did not particularly mention his improved Grecian hive, by the use of which combs may be removed from the interior of the hive and inspected at pleasure." Again, same page, " My object has been to point out briefly to those anxious for the better, more extended, *Honey Bee, 3d edition, 1860, page 200.-~Note. 30 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. and economical mode of bee management, the difficulties to be provided against, and to recommend to their consideration the advantages offered in the bar-frame-hive." A little history will Mr. Munn's make this matter more plain.' hive, with the " oblong-bar-frames," a pamphlet, published in London in 1844. ond edition was which the inventor issued, in was described refers to the " oblong- bar-frames, and introduces the triangular ones in their stead. the " lifth in In April, 1851, a sec- On of October, 1852, Mr. Langstroth obtained a patent on improvements in bee-hives," under which he is understood to all movable frames in bee-hives !" Mr. Otis, in one of the Langstroth circulars, says, " This is the claim " comb original movable who latter men ; " ble bee-hive" ! ! ! and calls all those persons comb frame, " pirates" [This clause is a dangerous weapon in the hands of tlie Langstroth it points the wrong way^ claim the use of the movable ! ! Rev. L. L. Langstroth comb frame" !! C. is the original inventor of the movaB. Biglow, in Bee Journal, Sept. 1861, p. 212. In a small treatise, compiled by permission, from Langstroth on Honey Bee, by Richard Oolvin, the author says, pp. 36, 31, Mr. Langstroth is the original inventor and sole patentee of mova!" ble frames in Bee Hives We had hoped that these absurd pretentions of his agents had not fallen under Mr. Langstroth's eye, and had done him the justice to believe that, when brought to his notice, he would relieve himself from complicity in them by a disclaimer over his own signathe " ! ture ; ! but we regret to say, that further developments have seri- ously disturbed these favorable anticipations. This matter is dwelt upon somewhat, because claimed by interested parties, as above cited, it who is threateningly perhaps(?) know no better, that the Langstroth patent secures to its holder the sole For the benefit of such, and to aid the use of movable frames. curious, we give herein a few of the facts, and subjoin an illustration of the Munn Hive. " With hasty judgment ne'er decide ; First hear what's said on t'other side." PATENT HITKS— FRAMES. 16— The Munn 31 Iliye of 1851 —In the preface to the pamphlet from which Mr. Langstroth quotes, as before cited, Mr. Munn says he has " very mate- Munn's Movable Frames. the construction rially simplified Bar-frame Hive, by forming the bar -frames' - into uacK mode or me M of the oblong- triangular-frames,' III lice-Dox.- and I of I riti ' ' a , mr. Munns may be of using his movable frames ^ SUCCESSFUL BEE KEEPING. xssaseen by the following, from the same pamphlet. " The frames with their contents, ' may be ever it wished to is out into the lifted observation frame' * whenexamine the * bees, &c., as the half-inch spaces be- tween thii sufficient I'ig- bee-frames, will allow of a distance to be preserved 18* oetween the lateral surfaces of the perpendicular combs formed in the bee-frames, and thus permit them to lift out by each other with facility," p. 14. Again, " The whole interior of the hive is thus open to inspection at any moment, and a choice can be made of the combs containing the most honey, or the bee' owner enabled to trace the devastations of the honey moth." p. 1*7. Still further, the hive should to allow of every part of the be so constructed as combs to be inspected at any moment, and capable of removal when requisite," p. 20. "We now give Mr. Langstroth's claim of movable frames " Second. The use of the movable frames, A. A., fig. 4, or their equivalents, substantially as described also their use in combination with the shallow chamber, with or without my arrangement for spare honey receptacles !" : — ; Mr. Langstroth's frames, patented in 1852, are substantially the Mr. Munn, described in 1844 and how his mode of using them compares with Mr. Munn's mode of using his triangular frames, described in April, 1851, as shown in the " oblong bar-frames" of ; above quotations, the reader will be able to judge after consulting Mr. Langstroth's work on the Honey Bee, pp. 15, 148, 149, or examining one of his hives. Munn's Divider. On page 10 of his pai — " One of the triangular bee-frames can be can be used as a divider between any nur and thus form the box into two compartm — : — PATENT HIVES FRAMES. 33 or diminish the space io the box, according to the size of the swarm, or the increasing wants of the bees for Mr. L's claim of the divider " Third. more room." : — A divider substantially as described, in combination with a movable cover, allowing the divider to be inserted from above between the ranges of comb." He says, " By means of a movable partition, my hive can be readily adjusted to the wants of Honey either, large or small colonies." Ilunn's space around close to the box at the the two sides, — Bee, p. 96. The divider is made to fit by means of extra slips of wood, frames. " to prevent the bees crawling between the frames and outer box, as they can do around the bee-frames." form, as it were, a smaller box within not in immediate contact with the external space nearly all " p. 14. The bee-frames the triangular box, and are air, but have a half-inch around them," p. 17. Mr. L's claim " First. The use of a shallow chamber, substantially as described, — in combination with a perforated cover, ing at will the size and What number for enlarging or diminish- of the spare honey receptacles." are the " essential and patented features" of Mr. L's inven- Above we have given them as gleaned from his book, to which we have added his claims. On page 15 of his work, after djscribjng and condemmn^ the Huber, Munn, and all other hives, tion ? and having before him Mr. Munn's pamphlet of 1851, containing THE ABOVE ILLUSTRATION OF MuNN'S MoVABLE BaR-FRAMB HiVE, Mr. L. says, " One thing, however, was still wanting. The cutting of the combs from their attachments to the sides of the hive [! !] was attended with much loss of time, both to myself and the bees. This led me to invent a method by which the combs were attached to ! MOVABLE frames, SO Suspended bottom nor sides." ! ! in the hives as to touch neither top, ! In the Bee Journal for June, 1861, p. 142, Mr. L. says, " If Huber had only contrived a plan for suspending his frames, instead of folding them together like the leaves of a book, I believe that the cause of apiarian science would have been fifty years in advance of what it n(iw is. 34 " SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING Now if my had known that I much hive was not so Iluber's as to deserve a patent, and if I better than had been base enough to attempt to palm upon the public substantially his invention as my own, can any man of common sense believe that I would have pub- where and how lished to the world, just I stole my pretended inven- tion ?" Of course not. American movable them have apthe essential and patented In the same communication, speaking of comb bee-hives, he says " : propriated to a greater or features of my my In opinion all op less extent, invention." * * tain this opinion, That he believes the courts will susand that he should long since have sought their protection, but for his limited pecuniary resources, the state of his health, patent and the fact that other parties own the greater share of his ? Having less sold the territory, and got the money, he leaves the luckpurchasers of supposed " rights" to take care of themselves ! Consistency, indeed thou art a jewel ! But we The concluding portion Mr. L. about that. Bee Journal article, above cited, runs thus that before my not quarrel with of his very interesting •' : will If any one can show invention there existed any movable frame hive use, or any invention that used the essential and patented features of mine, I will try to be the first to acknowledge that although an original inventor, I was not Vclq first inven- adapted to practical tor of such a hive." Will he do it ? We shall see. Much more testimony of the same import might be given, but let this suffice. I would not detract from the j/wrf claims of Mr. Langstroth ; nei- am I willing that he should have credit for inventions not his own. He has combined in his hive some of the most practical feather European inventions tures of ; and he deserves to be, and has been well paid for the best compilation on the to Bee-keeping, as well that he subject is entitled to as to all —notwithstanding country. Honey Bee. praise for the best original its But justice Mr. Harbison, compels me to add, many errors — yet work on that published in this — — THE MICHIGAN HIVES. Although inventive esting field skill 35 nas not done that bee-culturists desire, all in this inter- its have, nevertheless, been of great value. achievements The main fea- tures of success attained by the hives already noticed, are among the well established convictions intelligent bee- keepers 1. That bees may be induced to build their combs with considerable regularity on frames put into their hives in a proper manner. 2. That they may be thus handle 1 with safety to the apiarian and the bees. 3. That bees may be artificially swarmed, and losses by natural swarming prevented. Their failures thus 1. To provide a them that will not their 2. ficial 3. style of frames and method of using nor injure them nor irritate the bees, combs. To provide a convenient and reliable system of arti- swarming. To provide Many and safe and economical wintering. repeated experiments, by diflx;rent persons, under a great variety of circumstances, and living in parts of the country remota from each other, have satisfied those who are acquainted with the facts, that in the hive and system now about to be presented, the three points last named have been reached, and that by their use much greater profits may be derived from bee culture than by any other hive and system. The Michigan Hives, invented by the author, consist of a Quadruple hive, a Double hive, and a Single hive. 36 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. m j> ) ' ""W'^^ife. •-(t-^r-^ 19.— THE QUADEUPLE HIVE. AB D In the above cut, C represent the ground plan of the four apartments of the quadruple hive, each of which, when full for wintering-, should contain a good strong swarm of bees. The bottom board of the hive projects at the point C, or front, for an alighting board for the bees, the whole width of which is left open by re- moving warm the slide underneath the movable front as soon as weather approaches and blossoms are sufficiently « — THE QUADRUPLE HIVE. numerous to ensure safety 3t from the depredations of rob- The movable front is secured in place by buttons on the side of the hive, and held up by the cleat on its front, resting on cleats o i the permanent sides of the ber bees. hive. runs When all the support to the hive is all way around the top, A of the hive. to a hole made centre half surplus or whole hive rests on a together, this cleat, or stay, the hive, and also serves as a cross, to the width point projects from this, fitted way through At the point d the whole turns. The honey chamber. made equal the bottom, on which in the frames, cylinders of tin or other suitable material, five-eighths of an inch in diameter and of the same depth, are placed for the purpose of securing an opening through the combs at this point, when they shall have been constructed all through the hive. The manner of operating with this hive depends somewhat on what we wish to do with it. If we desire only to double the number of our stocks in amount of begun their labors in bees and brood combs to other a single season, and hence secure the largest surplus honey, as soon as bees have the spring we transfer two stocks hives, leaving but in the premises, and occu- pying opposite apartments, as follows Early in the morning we close in all four of the swarms, and gently remove the old hive a little off its stand, and : put a clean one in its the old one occupied. place in exactly the same position We blow a whiff or two of smoke of burning cotton rags, wood, or tobacco, in bees to alarm them. honey, so that They at once when we open fill the hive, movements, they if among the themselves with we are deliberate not sting us. and "We now transfer the swarm in A, by means of +1)6 movable frames, into tlie department A of the new hive placing the frames always in the same relative position careful in our will ; — SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. 38 in respect to the hive and each other that they occupied in the old hive, that the bees of in and so adjusting the inner passage ways A may pass through the enapty part, B, going to and from the fields, larger and more direct outlet at the stock from the hive C while they also use the a. So, also, we to the corresponding transfer apartment new hive, leaving this swarm to work out of C at a and through the empty apartment D, in like manner the two swarms being thus entirely separate from each of the ; The movable fronts in the tenantless apartments are now left out, and the top cover is put on to We now provide a protect the hive from the weather. 7iew stand and hive for the remaining two swarms, which are to be transferred in the same mannei', placing them other. B D and in the new Then we location. renovate ike old hive, cleaning with water boiling hot, so as to remove any gum which the bees may have placed upon the gauze wire curtains in the partition walls, and destroy every vestige of the moth j^ny that may be lurking in any crevice of the hive, it needed repairs should now be attended to. Our bees are summer quarters and are ready for thus put into AKTIFICIAIi done as soon as the drones^— the male bees and in the following manner, viz. open the hive A, and selecting a comb, containing sr^rii[©}j brood in all stages of develo-ime7it, p;'*'""j>^(j from the egg to the capped larva, as This make We SWAEMING. is their appearance, : shown ills J iii^^^ilMViiiii'j 20.-Brood Comb. in Fig. 20, we transfer it, with adhering bees (being careful not to get the queen), to the B, putting in its place empty part an empty ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ shutting off the com- ARTIFICIAL SWARMING. 39 munication between the apartments A and JB at the point b. This card of comb we lean over a trifle, so that it shall remain firmly in position, putting in place the movable front and slide so as to leave only the small opening, like that shown at a. We thus detach a small portion of the bees from the parent stock, A, for the purpose of rearing queens, which they will immediately set themselves about doing from the brood furnished them. Such of these bees as have been in the habit of using the hitherto empty apartment for a passage way, will remain, to be joined from day to day by numbers from the parent hive that have also used that apartment as a passage way while those we have transferred, that have been accustomed to use the direct outlet from A, will of course return thither. We thug secure only a comparatively small portion of the bees for the purpose of queen rearing, while the labors of the parent stock go on undisturbed. Indeed, the old hive will breed all the faster, for the reason that the vacant space ^^p, will be rapidly filled with new worker ^^^ comb, in which the queen will imme; eggs while in.the incombs are constructed at all, because the bees have enough Tlie tenth day after starting already. fy L the queen cluster, if no royal cells C had been begun when the comb was F transferred, we open the hive B, and L diately deposit ^ ; fant colony no r with a sharp penknife cut out all but one of the queen cells, using these immediately in starting other queen clusattaching one of them to a ters — 21 -Queen k^ni Cell Inserted. ^^^^-^ ^nd bees (fig. 21), tafrom the hive C, and transferred to D, in the manner ^^^^ ^f 40 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING, before described ; being- careful always to cut off the com- munication between the new queen cluster and the old swarm, or the queen will not be allowed to mature, and the bees will ixturn to the parent stock. In transferring- queen cells, we I it is place them in the combs, so that have placed them in equally favorable results. to press them with the of no consequence we do not how injure them. every imaginable position with Great care must be taken not fingers, nor let them the sun, lie in or exposed to the chill of morning- or evening, for fear of The destroying the royal occupants. not touch the comb, as, if it tip of the cell may does, the bees should stick it and thus prevent the hatching of the queen. The inexperienced bee-keeper had better tr?.nsfer only one of the queen cells at a time, returning the frame from which it is taken to its place in the hive til? fast at that point, the royal cell is properly adjusted in its new order to prevent injury to the young larva. colony should receive only one queen found that a queen emerging rivals in prospect, will in location, in Each i.ew because it is a small colony, with no cell, make her excursion to meet the drones several days sooner than one emerging in a populous colony, or having rival queens in prospect to be dis- posed of. The following letter from the author, was published in the Bee Journal for September, 1861,^. 212 itor, in his and the edremarks on the same, clearly endorses the views here set forth ; : A great diversity of opinion exists as to the time wlien the .^/sl; excursion of a young queen in quest of drones for impregnation ffuiy be looked for. The June number of the Journal (page 130.) states the time at from the fifth to the twelfth day after issuing from the cell. I think this is a mistake at least it has not been true with me. ; 41 ARTIFICIAL SWARMING. swarming The queen may be I have practised artificial cord of the from the facts. if re- confidently expected to issue between noon and half-past two o'clock P. M., on hive, the second day after emero^ing from the —and and made a exclusively, cell —frequently on the first, drones are abundant, she usually meets them after one or two flights. A practised eye will readily tion with recognize the marks of impregna- which she returns when successful ; and in from two to ten days thereafter she will generally be found depositing eggs in One queen which issued from the cell on the 4th of July, took wing on the 5th, and had deposited quite a quantity of eggs on the 1th. Out of six which issued on the 26th ult., three became the cells. fertile on the 29th, two on the 30th, and one on the 1st are instances of the earliest It is accomplished in the following way, viz one queen remain in cell to ture, and the swarm be before leaving I have known ; hy permitting only large, the bees are apt to cluster imprison the queens : besides cells : In rearing queens, I always the hive. If more than one queen be allowed use small clusters only. which, These inst. however, I have ever known. fertility, to this, the queen will destroy it is imagined, delays her impregnation. all surplus the bees to thus imprison a qu-een for ten days allowing only one royal cell to day, no such result will ensue. queens by small clusters, in remain in the hive after The only warm for the woods. difficulty in weather, of the bees to take flight with the queen and then leave ma- around and is By ! the tenth thus rearing the greater liability when she seeks the drones, This source of vexation and anxiety, by taking the precaution of having some larvis or is. avoided capped brood in the cells at this time. The bees will not then deexcept an occasert their nurselings, and the queen will return — sional one. A few will be lost by accidents, such as being de- stroyed by birds. Sec, to which risk Grand all queens are once exposed. Rapids, Mich., Aug. 4, 1861. Editor's Kemarks. matter than is —There is greater diversity in this important commonly supposed ; and observers may differ widely iu their statements and inferences, while each narrates the 42 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. Circumstances exert a controlling influence and facts correctly. materially affect the result. Thus queens reared in small nuclei, such as our correspondent uses, will certainly issue earlier and usu- become fertile sooner, than such as are reared in larger coloand the seasonable removal of all surplus royal cells, will ally nies : contribute to bring about the desired consummation. efficiently On young queen of a populous colony, whose brood and honey, has been be impregnated, though drones abounded, till more the other hand, the hive ^Su?, full of comb, well supplied with known not to than three weeks after she that there is no definite left term her The truth seems cell. — circumstances to be, governing in every case. After we have them remain thus adjusted the new colonies, we let from six to ten days, when, if drones are abundant, and we have safely transferred the cells, we shall probably find our queens have become fertile, and have commenced the work of depositing- eg-gs. We now catch the queen &he will not sting between the thumb and finger, and with a pair of scissors, clip one wing, so that she cannot fly. This is to guard against losing a swarm at a future time, should we neglect to swarm the for — — bees, or give them work to do. We also now cage the about three days, by placing her in a case of gauze wire cloth a little larger than a thimble, and suspended in the hive, or laid upon the top of the frames through one of the holes in the honey board, while we queen for are swarming the bees. After thus securing the queen, up the hives with empty comb frames, we turn the whole one-fourth the way round, thus causing the parent and infant colonies to exchange places, throwing out of the parent stocks swarms of worker bees, into the infant colonies. The hive should not be turned between the hatching of the young queens, and their fertilization, because Sees lelonging to swarms of fertile and unfertile queens will not fraternize, but will quarrel. It might be turned and filling 43 ARTIFICIAL SWARMING. with safety a day or two before the hatching of the queens, but it is more difficult to find the queen among the greater number of bees ization is the best time. ; It hence, soon after her fertil- may when sometimes liappen, performed at a time when the honey harvest has received a check from a storm or otherwise, that the bees, thus empty of honey, and consequently more quarrelsome, suddenly thrown into the presence of a strange queen, are inclined to sting her. It is to prevent this operation is that she is caged for the space of three days, after which she may safely be liberated. The bees cannot harm her through gauze wire cloth not coarser than fourteen meshes to the inch. The swarm will suffer no particular detriment by her confinement, since comb building will go on as if she were at liberty. But this is only a this, precaution to beginners, the experienced apiarian will cage the queen since in the midst of the swarming season, when the honey blossonis are yielding in profusion, little or no precaution is needed to protect either the queen or the operator. Where great rapidity of multiplication of swarms is the object, one stock only is left in the quadruple hive in spring, leaving out, in this case, the movable fronts of all the unoccupied apartments, and opening all the passage ways always know when to ; through the inner walls. comb, bees, and brood from described. The tenth day take two more cards of We now transfer a card of A to S, proceeding as before thereafter, comb and from some bees, for other hive, C and D, giving to each of these a queen cell, taken from B, and always capped over. We should use no other, as the bees When our young queens will be likely to destroy them. have matured, we turn the hive half the way round, letting it thus remain from eighteen to twenty days, or un- — 44 til SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING, the hive C nearly is filled swarming the hive one-fourth, and one good swarm thrown We now with combs. is new ones by off three turn done, having- from the time swarming has commenced There are other methods of swarming the bees by natural ! re- suggest themselves to the apiarist, and by which he may be able to multiply them to any extent. Let no one misunderstand, however,, and expect from fifty to one hundred pounds of surplus honey from each of them for it is an extraordinary year indeed volving the hive, which -will ; supply sufficient for winterBees must have stores to live on through the winter, like everything else in our climate, and it should be remembered that they for honey, that will aiford a ing, where three swarms are taken from one. and we should be content with the surplus for our care and attention. Sometimes the combs become so filled with bee-bread are first entitled to their stores, and honey, that there is not sufficient room for breeding faster than the bees perish, An exchange — hence the hive proves un- empty for full augment their numbers. Every good piece of worker comb should be saved for this purpose they can be readily attached to the top of the frame, by a profitable. of combs, giving ones, will rapidly little of the melted bees wax applied with a feather, or the edge comb may be dipped in a little then placed quickly on the frame. melted bees wax, and If plenty of such empty worker combs be furnished them early in the season, at a time when comb building is conducted the most slowly, they will be immediately filled with eggs, insuring the multiplication of the bees with the greatest rapidity so that when the honey harvest comes, a supply ; of laborers will be on know how hand to collect it. Those who rapidly bees breed under favorable circumstan- DOUBLE HIVES. 45 ces iit this season of the year, and in bow incredibly short a space of time their abundant stores are collected immediately thereafter, will appreciate the advantages thus secured. If empty combs are not at hand, give empty frames, letting them alternate with full ones, so as to secure true, even combs. In my process of artificial swarming, bees build all their combs tme, for the reason that a guide comb. furnished them, which is On is a frame filled with even this they cluster, building the first parallel with the one furnished them ; this new comb becomes the guide for the next, and so on till all the frames are filled. Worker combs are secured in consequence of having a young queen, drone comb being seldom built in any hive during the first year of the queen's existence. DOUBLE HIVES. The Michigan Double Hive consists of two apartments, with entrances at the middle of each end, and gauze wire curtain and bee passage between the two apartments. In swarming artificially, this hive is to be turned one-half round, making the two apartments change places precisely. Those who keep only a few swarms may prefer the double to the quadruple hive, as it is more simple in management but in wintering, the quadruple has decidedly the advantage over the double hive. ; If the directions herein given are followed, the hive will work, and heekeejping prove satisfactory ; but let no one flatter himself that because he has a patent hive his bees will take care of themselves and the improvident bee-keeper beBees sides, and endure our long winters without honey. may die of starvation in structed. any hive, however well con- — 46 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING, SINGLE HIVES. Fig. 22 is a side view of the hive, showing the of adjusting the frames. manner The single hive is made exactly like, and of the same intedimensions of, one-quarquadruple one that rior ter of a m"^ w'^ Mi' ; twelve by twelve inches, and seventeen inches high. is, Eight frames the hive. fill Those who prefer inclined bottom boards, can rest the frames on wedge shaped cleats secured on the inside, and near the bottom of the side bottom to It lower edge front, all filth, the of the dispensing my improved over any other single made, and cheap readily by swinging the bottom board down, simple, easily is cleaned of many advantages of allow the be hung by swung up close This style of hive, with slide, frames, possesses hive. the movable Fig. 22 with the to hooks, and 1/ walls This will hive. ; without in the least disturbing the bees, affords not the slightest point, inside of the hive, inaccessible to them, moth to deposit her eggs,* and combines the most practical form of the movable comb frame, and manner for the of using it, in a plain box hive. * " There being no such thing as a moth-proof hive in existence, nor prospect of such a discovery ever being made, we are compelled with that which makes the nearest approach to keeper easy access to the worms." it, Bee Culture, viz., to any be content one that gives the bee- p, 115. FEAME — MOTH, 47 IHA-LONC- 'z:k 24.— Moth. 25.— Female. 26.—Male. 27.— Moth Fig. 23 is a frame. der for winter passage. Gallery. F, plan view of top bar. The F, cylin- figures give the dimensions. moth worm Figs. 25 and 26 the winged and Fig. 27, section of moth gallery. The female is somewhat lorger than the male. She entors the hive at night and deposits her eggs, preferring to Fig. 24 is the moth, or miller ; ; 48 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. leave them on the brood combs. worm extended, becomes along As soon as, hatched, the encloses itself for jDrotection in a silken case, which, its its gallery, or course, through the comb central wall. The nearest approach to a "mothproof" tiive, is one so constructed that the miller can find no crevice in its intewhich the bees do not have access, in which to Where two pieces of wood come together is the place sought by the moth, thrusting in her ovipositor and leaving the egg to hatch and begin its gallery beyond the reach of the bees. In passing from this point through the hive and combs, the worm continues to spin its silken protection, which is proof against all assaults of the honey bee. Once safely within the comb, the moth, protected by its gallery, passes along rior, to deposit her eggs. the wall at the base of the cells, sticking fast in its silken unhatched bees. toils the I have seen thousands of them just ready to emerge, vainly struggling to free their extremities from the grasp of the destroyer ; these soon per- The only remedy is, to cut away the worm gallery and remove the dead and dying brood. The moth does ish. not directly destroy the brood, but only feeds on the of the cells opment A and the food deposited therein of the young wax for the devel- bees. strong, vigorous stock, having a fertile queen, will not allow the moth thus to get possession of the hive and if, while destitute of a queen, a foothold is ; gained, the young queen, will cut away comb possessed by the worms, letting it fall to the bottom. They will then carry from the hive by piece- bees, on the maturity of the the meal such portions of it as they can separate from the mass, plastering over the remainder, propolis. Swarms not sufficiently if any, with their populous to cover all "moth proof" hives. 49 their combs, and especiallj^ queenless ones, are most exposed to the moth and old black comb is more liable to be destorjed than new. The removal of the moth gallery by the bees subjects them to great labor and much loss of time, which the use ; of movable frames will entirely obviate, as they will enable the bee-keeper to inspect the combs at any time, and remove the worms and any portion of the comb occupied by their gallery or give any other relief that the swarm may need. Hence writers on bees are agreed as to the uecegsity of using movable frames, as a means to successful bee-keeping. The only open question in the matter is, the style of frames and the manner of using them. There should be as little contact of surfaces inside the hive as possible hence it is obvious that the frame which has the least bearing in the hive, and makes the least ; : crevice inaccessible to the bees, pose. Some inventors is the best for this pur- of hives are aware of this one of them says that in his hive, such a place -only " where the frames hang in the rabbets." My hive is is ; and found so constructed that no crevice is found in Us interior in which the miller may deposit her eggs beyond the reach of the bees, not even where the frames touch the hive. There is no " moth-proof" hive, and cannot be for the reason that the miller will go anywhere that a bee can. Many ingenious devices have been invented for excluding ; them. For example : A " pedal" is fitted in the en- trance intended to be operated by the weight of the bee, but so nicely adjusted that the lighter body of the miller will not open practice ; it. Beautiful in theory, but worthless in weather the bees for the reasons, that in hot so SUCCESSFCL BEE-KEElPIXff. will lie in it open all and about the entrance niglrt and day, keepingthe time, and soon cement the " pedal" immov- ablj fast with their propolis. SURPLUS HONEY BOXES, When swarming is done, the honey boxes should bs placed upon the hive. These should have a bottom with holes to correspond with those in the cover, or honey Honey boxes should board, so as to be readily removed. never be put on the honey board without bottoms, nor on the frames without a honey board." If they are, it is diffi- remove them without injury to the combs. If glass sides and ends are made to the boxes, so that the honey can be seen, it will sell for enough more in market cult to pay the extra expense. Two boxes should be placed upon each hive, or swarm, six inches wide by five deep and twelve inches long, as represented in Fig, 19, p, 36. to •wiKrTEai]srGv To prevent loss of bees by starvation in winter, with plenty of honey on hand, is the object, in part, for which the quadruple hive and the winter passages are constructed. it In a single hive, without a passage through the combs, frequently happens, that during cold, freezing weather, long continued, the combs outside the cluster of the bees, become covered with frost, the congelation of their breath, which they are totally unable to remove and they will not go over it and so perish of hunger and fall to the BOTTOM board WITH PLENTY OP STORES ALL AROUND THEM and while the bees between the ranges of comb are in pros- — — ; perous condition, in consequence of the greater degree of — aniAal heat nearer the centre of the cluster. In low, broad hives, even with winter passages provided, whole swarms way often perish in like manner, having- eaten their to the honey board.* With the tliermometer at or near zero, a large swarm of bees will cluster in a circle of eight or ten inches. Hence it becomes evident, that in a hive of proper proportiona, with suitable winter passages, the bees will pass through — them to the interior of the hive the swarm thus expanding and contracting as the cold diminishes or increases. For similar reasons bees winter more safely in the fourcolony hive than in either double or single ones, where both are alike exposed to the winds and frosts of winter. Ventilation. A ventilating passage should be secured for a supply of fresh air, even during the coldest weather. This may be done by making a small bee passage through the movable front near its top, like that at its — A better way, however, my hive is, to place in the bottom, and leaving both open. swarm to ventilaTe a fall, of bees in clean, gauze-wire cloth over the holes in the boardj^ and fill the top chamber with fine straw, honey chafi*, shavings, or other dry, porous material. sufficient air, * " curs This will allow and at the same time absorb the moisture The Langstroth hive had among others. From also been introduceil into a number of apiaries, the glovping accounts which I had heard of it while desideratum long sought for by apiarists, introduction into our apiaries, that they would be in a in California, I expected to find the and as a result of its highly flourishing condition, particularly that portion of the stock eontiined In this I was doomed to disappointment, as most of had been put into them had died of starvation, they having eaten all the stores from the bottom to the top of the hive, in the centre of a diameter equal to the size of the cluster, leaving an abundance of stores still within the hive, but owing to the severe cold, the bees were unable to reach them." J. S. Harbison, in Bee CiUture, p. 31. in the new style of hive. the bees that 52 StJCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPtNG. contained in the breath of the bees, keeping them dry- and sweet, and preventing a current of cold air through the which iKS fatal. The slide should occasionally be removed, and all dead bees and dirt drawn out from the bottom. A convenient scraper for doing this ma}' be made of a 3-1 6th inch bravier's rod sixteen inches long, and the end turned about )ne inch and flattened. Bees thus cared for, in my hives, and placed where the sun shall not shine ttpon and disturb theiii in the middle of the warmest days of ivinter, will not peri&h while there is honey in hive, THE HIVE By those who do not keep bees in such numbers as to render such a course irr.practicable, something may, perhaps, be gained by carrying the hives in early winter into quiet cellar. The bees will thus remain more and consume less honey, than otherwise but this and, costs time, and is attended with care and trouble besides, most cellars are so damp as to render the de- a dry, dark, quiet, ; ; struction of the bees certain : so that it is not probable that this method could be adopted to any considerable extent. TALL HIVES. Intelligent bee-keepers are generally agreed that tall hives are better to winter bees in than low ones. Mr. Langstroth, whose hive toll in proportion to ous advantages ; for, its is a low one, says other dimensions, has : "A some Even hive obvi- as bees are disposed to carry their stores as far as possible from the entrance, they will its for fill upper part with honey, using the lower part mainl}'brood, thus escaping the danger of being caught, in cold weather, among empty ranges of comb, while they — 53 WINTERING, still Mr. have honey unconsumed." Honey S Harbison to the same effect J. : Bee, pp. 329, 330. " Many eminent apiarists bear testimony to the superiority of deep hives over those that are low and of large diameter." Bee — Culture, p. 132. Mr. Lang-stroth's/rflwe^ coinpel him to forego the " ous advaiitc^cs'" of a tall hive. He saj^s obvi- (Hone;,' Bee, p. " It would be impossible to use frames in it to ad330) vantage" true in regard to his frames and his mode of using them and in a foot note he gives the following very good reason " The deeper the frames the more difficult it is to make them hang true on the rabbets, and the greater the difBculty of handling them without crushing the bees, or breaking the combs." In the Michigan quadruple hive are combined Ihe advantages of both height and depth the frames being so constructed and operated as to admit any desired height of hive, and the main entrance of each apartment being at the corner most remote from the centre, around which the bees, each colony in its own apartment, cluster in winter. The qurdruple hive gives each colony the benefit to be derived from a single one equal in length to the diagonal of the quadruple, in addition to the advantages of nearly four times the lateral space to be had in an ordinary single hive. Hence the quadruple hive is adapted : — — : — to fully gratify the " disposition of the bees to carry their stores as far as possible from the entrance," a feature not attainable in any otlier hive.* * Those who have bees hive be set on position. its in end Inte Before doing this, 60 as to be kept in place. low hives, will find they will winter better if the keeping the combs in a perpendiculnr in the fall, the Irames and honey board should be made fast, 64 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. GKEATES, AETIMAIi HEAT. In the quadruple hive, only one-half of the wall surface and, in is exposed to the weather of each apartment winter, the four producing ; swarms cluster about its centre, thereby in the hive, for the benefit of each swarm, four times the amount of animal heat produced in a single hive. "WINTEE. PASSAGES. Many colonies of bees are lost in winter, from want of winter passages through their combs. Seeing this necessity, the writer contrived his present mode of making such passages, and securing them against being filled up by the bees, by cylinders made of tin or other material, and painted on the inside, and suspended in the empty frames, or placed in the combs. Mr. Langstroth, in his book on the Honey Bee, third recommends cutting a hole through and in a foot note, gives Mr. W. Gary's method of making such a passage, de- edition, 1860,^9 337, each comb Wm. late in the fall ; scribes his instrument for doing for a patent it, says an application on " this device" was pending, and that, " if the patent issues, the right to use owning the right it, will be free to all use the movable-comb hive." It may be remarked, here, that he saj's nothing about securing the passage against being filled up by the bees. Yet, in the Be-e to Journal for June, ISGl, p. 136, Mr. L. says, Some years ago Mr. W. W. Gary, of Coleraine, Mass., after cutting winter passages in the combs, put in them a coiled shaving, to prevent the bees filling them up. I " contrived a frame." mode of suspending this shaving in an empty 65 DYSENTERY. It is ing's of a Singular coincidence! that between the Mr. L., my hive, with its two writ winter passages, had way, and that at the time of his latter writembracing said winter passages, had already been ordered to issue Mr. Langstroth's " some years ago''' were included between 1860, and June, 1861 !II fallen in his ing, my patent, ! "DYSENTERY." Once during winter, it is desirable, and in long winters quite necessary, that bees should be allowed to fly, to dis- charge their fasces, or they are apt to be attacked with what is improperly called " dysentery." This arises from the inability of bees, after long confinement, to retain their fseces, consequently on the approach of a mild day,at such times, even when the weather is too inclement for them to safely fly, many will venture out for this purpose, and drop down upon the snow, while some evacuate about the entrance and in the hive. \Vhen the latter takes place to any considerable extent, the whole swarm is aroused to great activity and, if the weather continues cold, perish. A swarm in this condition should be given air, and carefully shaded. As soon as the thermomett^r marks 45" in the shade, place them in the sun, and open the hive I have saved swarms, in mid-winter by to let them fly. ; fly in a room, setting the hive by the window, and returning them with a ladle or spoon. But a room is quickly so soiled by the bees that it is not fit After the bees have thus relieved for anything else. allowing them to themselves, the disease disappears. FEEDING. Bees should not be fed with liquid sweets in winter, when it can be safely avoided. Swarms, light in the fall, should be united, or their insufficient stores replenished, SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING, 56 by cards of comb of, honey a box. or, well filled icith its with honey fiom other hives and the honey board re; bottom moved, so that the bees shall have ready access to it, may be placed on the frames. They may starve with it above the honey board. Bees may be fed in the fall to some advantage, when the swarm happens to have been started candy, or anything of late, or removed from the woods that nature, may be placed immediately above the frames and accessible to the bees in cold ueather ; or liquid sweets ; may I have always found sealed honey and cheapest bee food. They do not need water, as some suppose, unless we want to encourage breeding, which is not advisable in But in winter, as it causes them to use more honey. be given them, but the lest spring, for breeding purposes, a both of honey and water appear, if is needed. considerable quantity Even after blossoms the weather continues for several days too cold and stormy for them to fly, they will often perish if not A sponge kept saturated with sweetened water, fed. placed on the wire curtains covering the holes in the honey boards, will save them, and in any case do no harm. BOBBEKS. Should robbers be enticed thereby, or at any time, from any cause, contract the entrance, and if they still persist, close it up, so that but a single bee can crawl through at a time. This will give the defenders of the place the best of the fight, and they will soon rid the premises of their assailants. How to tale them.-:— It sometimes happens that a power- swarm from the neighboring forest attacks a weak swarm and nearly ruins it before discovered. In such ful — 5t BOBBERS. up the hive entirely place by its side a hive having within it a card of honey, or comb filled with sweetened water let the bees come and '^o a few times, and the}' will fah-ly swarm about you, encouraged by their success. When in the midst of their labors, place a tube case, close ; ; in the hive, fitted to the bee to reach about half end elevated a entrance, and long way through little enough the hive, with its inner from the bottom. Now open one — should have with a shutter — until the bees side of the hive, so as to let in the light it one side of glass covered have filled and want to go home, when they will fly for the light, and find themselves trapped. Having provided a hole in the top of this hive, which can be opened and closed by means of a gate, place a hive on the top of this, containing a piece of brood comb freshly taken from a hive. Open the g'ate, close the shutter and entrance below, and open the shutter of the upper hive, until the bees, thus caged, have ascended into the upper hive then close the gate and the shutter of the upper, and open the shutter and entrance to the lower hive, letting in and thus continue till you another band of robbers have caged the whole gang. The hives are now to be removed the top one to a permanent place in the apiary, where it is to stand till about an hour before sun down It is then to be opened, and the bees of the fourth day. given their liberty, when it will be found, that several queens have been started, and your robbers have concluded to stay with you altogether, and you can count ; ; ; one more swarm in the apiary. If small tin valves are placed upon the inner end of the tube, to be operated by the bees themselves, they are more easily caged, and without the gate and shutter. I discovered this device about two years ago, and thought it new, but the valves — S§ SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. found that Mr. R. B. Merritt, of Battle Creek, Mich., was ahead of me, although inventing it for a different purHe did not patent it, however, and I believe it is now public propertj^ any one having a right use it. The pose. idea of thus stai^ting a original with myself. swarm I first of bees, I believe to practiced it be about six years ago, by catching a few bees from the blossoms in the fields for the purpose of experimenting, not thinking, at the time, to what use the principle thus demonstrated might be applied. TBANSFEBRING FBOMBOX HIVES TO MOVABLE FBAMES. Having provided a box, called made that its mouth will exactly the fit " driving box," so the open end of the hive from which the bees are to be driven, blow a few smoke from burning wood, cotton rags, or toamong the bees not too much so as to sicken and cause them to fall down from among the combs upon the bottom board, but only enough to alarm and induce them to fill themselves with honey. Let the hive stand whiffs of — bacco, in give the bees which may be out gathering honey, time to return then blow in a little more five minutes, to ; smoke, driving them move two the hive convenient shade, all up among the combs. if such is at re- hand, and carefully turn over on a clean spot, (but never upon loose vated ground,) Now or three rods from the apiar.y, under a with its dii-t it or culti- bottom or open end upwards. As quickly as possible cut a small piece of brood comb, or comb containing eggs and j'Qung bees, from near the centre of the hive, and suspend it by a nail, or otherwise, in a box, for a temporary hive, placed upon the stand from which the box hive was removed, to catch up such bees TRAN8FERKING FROM BOX HIVES TO MOVABLE FRAMES. 59 may be out seeking their old hive. These will cluster upon the comb thus furnished them, till they are wanted, and be prevented from entering other contiguous hives. Place the driving box upon the box hive, so that they will exactly fit each other, mouth to mouth, tacking the two together with a couple of nails, and with rags close every crevice, so that not a bee shall escape. Now lightly rap on the top- now bottom of the hive, gradually moving up, from fifteen to thirty minutes. By this time nearly all the bees will have ascended into the top box, which will be known by the humming noise within, on applying the ear to the side of the hive. A window of glass, or wire cloth, provided with a shutter, may be inserted in the side of the driving box, through which to If the driving box have sticks nailed across see the bees. as — — its interior, for When it is the bees to cluster upon, all the better. the bees have nearly all ascended into the top box, to enough be removed, and a cloth, or wire curtain, open to give plenty of fresh air, is to be placed over mouth, to prevent the escape of the bees, letting it stand in a cool, shady place while transferring the comb. its After removing the side of the box running nearest parallel with the comb, as carefully as possible, cut out one card, it upon a common tea and with a frame lying upon it in such a manner that the honey and breeding cells shall re- placing salver, main in the same relative position in the frame that they occupied in the hive, as in Fig. 28, cut the 28 —Comb to fitted for frame. fit, comb a trifle larger than so as the better to fasten it SUCCESSFUL BEE-KKEPINQ. 60 in place, using only the truest, carding all evenest combs, and dls much greater thick drone cells and combs of ness than one inch. Old black combs that are true and even, are just as good as new, white ones. Having thus fitted the comb each side a strip of wood, previously prepared, of about | by | of an inch material, and long enough to reach from the bottom to the top of the to the frame, tack on frame, to hold the comb in its place for three or four days, or until the bees shall permanently attach If a little melted bees wax is partially attached with this at hand, the by means it to the frame. combs may be of a feather, but except during the midst of the honey harvest, the fumes from burning wax or combs shouldbe avoided on account of greater liability to entice robbers. When brood, is thus prepared, the frame, witli its comb and carefully placed in the hive, and its entrance Thus, closed up to keep out inquisitive stranger bees. one by one, are the combs removed, without honey, except what little there may be near the corners of the frames, the surplus being immediately taken to the house out of the reach of the bees. combs in position in the Having thus placed new hive, the brought from the old stand, and the bees it all small box the is contains shook out at the entrance of their new domicil, having first removed the slide, so as to give them room to enter. A little smoke may be needed before removing it, as the bees in it have probably already begun the work of queen rearing, and may be loth to leave the comb furnished them, which should now be removed. If we intend to practice artificial swarming, and prevent our bees from absconding we have now to find the queen. This is easily accomplished after having been once done, and to the woods, TRANSFERRING FROM BOX HIVES TO MOVABLE FRAMES. the inexperienced will have but by little up the driving box on 61 trouble to find her side, and gently dipping the bees with a spoon, or ladle, from thai to the entrance of another box, after the manner of hiving a natural swarm, looking over each spoonful carefully for turning- its A few of the fn-st spoonfuls may turn back toward the greater noise in the driving box but perseverance and a little sprinkling of water, will soon get them started the other way and if a bee is seen a trifle larger around the body and nearly twice the length of a worker, and considerably less bulky than a drone, you may be sure you have the queen. If she is not found the first time, exchange boxes and search again. When the queen. ; ; found, fly. clip one of her wings, so that she shall be unable to This will not impair her usefulness in any degree, wings are now of no use whatever, except to lead to the woods. But, it should be remembered, that it is safe to clip the wings of fertile queens only. All queens become fertile, if at all, within the first twenty-one days of their cxistenee otherwise they are drone layers. For this and other reasons, previously noticed, for her off a swarm ; is not safe to transfer a swarm, with their combs, from, box hives at any time between the issue of a first and any nor to " drive" a swarm after swarm of the current year at such times, for similar reasons ("Why?"), because, either no young queens are yet hatched, and we run it ; the risk of destroying them in their unfertile, cells, or they are since they do not fly to meet the drones until after leading off their swarms, and if we drive out the only parent colony while there are no eggs in the combs from which the bees can rear another, its final destruction becomes inevitable. The reasons are here given, that the inexperienced may rot fall into an error, often queen in the 62 BDCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPIXG. committed, and not immediately remedied as it should be, by supplying a fertile queen from another liive, leaving the stock from which she is taken to rear a new one. Another reason why it is unsafe to transfer a swarm of bees while they have yet an unfertile queen is, that a disturbance of the swarm at this time is apt to cause the bees to accompany the young queen upon her bridal trip, sometimes returning, but often absconding with her to the This result may be prevented by timely giving forests. such swarms brood comb, containing eggs and larvce, It is also an effectual remed}^ against from other hives. any loss of swarms by desert their young. flight after hiving ; for lees ivill not In four to six days after transferring, the combs are to be righted, and the temporary slats re- moved, and any needed correction of position attended "DRIVING," OB FORCED S^W" to. ARMING. is performed precisely as if j^ou intended combs, with this difference only, namely This operation to transfer the : when you have separated the bees from the combs con- tained in the old hive, cover the latter with a gauze-wire cloth, or other suitable material, hunted up. the bees in When a new found, she is while the queen is being placed with one-fourth of hive upon the old stand, while three- fourths of the bees are taken with the old hive, and placed new location. If this operation be performed tea days before others are going to be driven, queen cells may he. taken from this for supplying other hives. But to swarm bees in this manner, requires considerable skill, and a good degree of knowledge of bees and even then is liable to fail, from the fact that we work in a great measure in the dark, and can never know, as we ought, in a ; — BEE PASTURAGE. 63 whether a mew fertile queen is provided or not, until it is quite too late to remedy the evil, if one be wanting-. In thus transferring- bees and combs from box hives to movable frames, we have purposely left them unsupplied with honey to any extent. When transferring is performed in the midst of the honey season, none is needed but if, as is often the case, we change bees to new hives late in the season, they may be unable to collect a supply of stores ; for the winter ; especially will this be the case if consid- empty space is left to be supplied with new combs. In such cases, a box four or five inches deep should be provided, without top or bottom, made twelve by twelve inches inside, so as to fit the hive. After the combs in erable the hive are righted, this should be placed on the top of making a chamber above the frames 12 by 12 the hive, inches and 4 or 5 deep, into which, properly spaced, a sup- ply of sealed honey should be placed, and the honey board put Twenty-five pounds of honey so provided, will on. safely winter a large swarm any where that bees can be wintered, even though no other stores are in the hive. When apple trees are in smoke full bloom, remove this box, to drive the bees below. Let every bee-keeper see that his bees have "enough and to spare," remembering that they are faithful stewards and blowing in a little will return the trust with interest a hundred fold. BEE PASTUEAGE. " Bees work for man ; and yet they never bruise Their master's flower, but lenve it, having done, As fair as ever, and as fit for use." Propolis is a resinous g-um, obtained by bees mainly from the leaves, buds, and trunks of plants and trees, — 64 — SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. and used chiefly to fill up the holes, and plaster the in- ner surfaces of the hive. Bee-bread, called also pollen and farina, consists of the fecundating' dust of blossoms, and bees from the fine dust of flour is also collected — rye flour is by the and best — constitutes especially the food of their young. Honey is the great staple of the bee-hive. It varies in quality and value, according to the source from which is are, 1. it The three principal honey harvests with us obtained. From the blossoms of fruit trees in spring ; 2. and greatest of all. From white clover 3. Buckwheat. The honey locust, the basswood, the whitewood, oak, maple, and other forest trees, and the flowers of a great va; riety of plants, also yield large quantities of honey. Our surplus honey should, if possible, be secured from the white clover, it being of the best quality. This is also the pe- comb building, empty hives being with comb in six days. Bees will often riod of the most rapid sometimes filled gather sufficient honey for their winter stores from buckwheat alone, when it is near by, the season favorable, and they have plenty of empty comb Mr. Alvin Wilcox, of West in Bloomfield, which N. Y,, to store is it. said to have had two swarms increase in weight twenty pounds from buckwheat in a single day. The field was within " The Baron of Berlepsch has fifteen rods of the apiary. had single colonies in his apiary which increased eleven pounds in weight in one day. Mr. Kader, of Mayence, had one which increased twenty-one pounds, and the Eev. Mr. Stein, of the same place, one which increased twentyeight pounds, in a day." Bee Journal for July, 1861,^ 164.* *I hiivo cient known ti pmall second swarm, in the honey season, to store for winter in ten days, when empty combs were provided. suffi- M. Quinby — RANGE OF PASTURE. OVERSTOCKING. f)5 RANGE OF PASTUEE.-OVEaSTOCKINQ. Bees will bring- stores from a distance of three or four but the nearer they find supplies, the more rapidly they accumulate them and they will often accept an inferior quality, rather than go a great distance for a miles ; ; So great is the yield of good pasturage, that little danger of overstocking. From a report made to the Austrian government, on the state of bee culture in twenty-one states of that Empire, furnished in an excellent article on " Bee Culture," by Mr. Bruckisch, of Texas, in the U. S. Patent OfQce Report for 1860, p. 282, we quote as follows superior. xhere but is : "Average number Transylvania Croatia of bee-hives to one square mile 300 320 340 350 360 Gorz Galacia Lombardy Serbia Banat : 400 Carintliia .500 Styria Caruiola .510 900 work on the Honey Bee, statements from Mr. Samuel Wagner, Editor of In Mr. Langstroth's valuable we find the Bee Journal, Philadelphia, in which he sa3's, present opinion of the coiiespondents of the that the German Bee Journal appears to be that a district cannot readily be overstocked, and Dzierzon says in practice at least, " it IS never done." In Russia and Hungary, apiaries number- and 4,060 autumn, on the ing from 2,000 to 5,000 colonies are frequent hives are heaths in " sometimes congregated, Germany. Oettl sa3's When area, there in ; : a large flock of sheep may is grazing on a limited But this soon be a deficiency of pasture. cannot be asserted of bees, as a good honey-district canTo-day, when the not readily be overstocked with them. — 00 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING, air is moist and warm, the plants may yield a superabundance of nectar while to-morrow, being- cold and wet, ; there may be a total want of When it. there is sufiScient heat and moisture, the saccharine juices of plants will readily fill the nectaries, and will be quickly replenished when Every cold night checks warm day reopens the carried off by the bees. the flow of honey, and every clear, Tim flowtrs expanded to-day must fountain. open ; for, if marks left to wither, their stores are while visited be The same lost. re- apply substantial!}' in the case of honey-dews. Hence, bees cannot, as many suppose, collect to-morrow what is left ungathered to-day, as sheep may graze herewill after on the pasturage they colonies and large Apiaries do not need now. Strong are in a position to collect ample stores when forage suddenly abounds, while, by patient, may persevering industry, they and even a surplus, when but more regular and protracted." Localities differ as widely in their as in pasturage for cattle and the lar locality is very much affected by ; is impossible to say to the square mile. how many gather a still the supply sufficiency is small, resources of honey yield of any particuhence it the season stocks can be Very few places : sustained in our country, are, as yet, in any danger of being overstocked. PEOFITS OP BEE CULTURE). "A penny saved, is two pence earned." Poor Richard. The profits resulting from bee-keeping, depend mainly upon the locality and season presuming, of course, that — the bees are well taken care The bee Tan. 21, I860,) says, " of. Rural editor of the We New Yorker, (in No. for are satisfied that nothing AV'ill . PROFITS OF BEE CULTUEE. 67 pay better than keeping- bees but care is required, and a knowledge of their habits, and, for want of this, many fail." The same number contains the Bee acctjunt of Mr. Hiram ; W. Eulkley, of Saratoga co., for Agricultural Societ}', as follows 1859, reported to the State : 1859. June 1. —To 29 swarms JDr. wintered, worth $1 each 30 hives for new swarms, $1,.50 .100 honey boxes, 18c 13 frames on wliich hives are suspended, 50c. labor be-3to wed, estimated at expenses of marketing ^203 00 45 00 18 .00 6 50 10 00 3 46 ^285 96 Cr. By By By By 520)^ lbs. clover honey, including boxes, 25c. $130 12 489 lbs. buckwheat honey, including boxes, 14c 68 46 seven swarms taken up, lioney estimated at .f3 each. 21 00 sales of 7 hives for use again, $1,50 10 50 30 00 210 00 100 00 5 00 1 00 By honey on band and used in family, estimated By 35 swarms on hand, $6 By 17 swarms sold after honey season By By premium premium First First at State Fair at Saratoga County Fair $576 08 Deduct debits 285 96 $290 12 Profits In the bill, " same paper for March 3, 1860, Mr. T. S. Under- of St. Johnsville, N. Y., writes The amount tion, of course depends on honey. Mr. A. : from any particular secfertility and the sources of to be obtained W. its Ford, of Middleville, Herkimer Co., N. Y., has, the past season, from an apiary of 130 stocks, I'eceived an increase of 170 swarms, and 6,000 plus honey, which sold at 20 cents, and the lbs. sur- swarms at _ SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPIKQ. 5 [, making- an income of about $1,800 from a capital of This, he says, is better than he has ever or $700. done before, but it shows what may be done in a g-ood M. Quinby, of St. with a favorable season. Johnsville, N. Y., who has, I believe, the most extensive apiaries in this country, and is a practical bee-keeper, says, in his treatise on bee-keepingTn some seasons, particularly favorable, your stocks collectively will yield from one to two hundred per cent. I have known a single stock in one season to produce more than twenty dollars in swarms and honey, and ninety stocks to produce over nine hundre-d dollars.' He speaks of these as instances of an extra yield, and further remarks, that a proper estimate can be made only by the averag-e of proceeds of several years;' but that a single stock, rig'htly managed, in the long run, is worth more than $100 at interest.'" Mr. E. H. Davis, of Larone, Somerset count}'-. Me., is reported in the Maine Farmer, as having received from locality, ' : ' ' four swarms a clear profit of $61 25, that is, a net of over three hundred per cent. But California is the Paradise of bees. Mr. Hamilton, of Stockton, reports in the Sacramento Union for Jan. 14, 1861, that he had, the previous season, thirty-five swarms of bees, which increased to five hundred, and the yield of honey for the season was 20,0T5 pounds, making an average from the thirty-five original swarms of 573 pounds Mr. H. moved his bees Feb. 1, 1860, from Stockton to Santa Clara, where they remained till July 1st, each when ! the swarms had increased to 270. He then returned them to Stockton, and by the first of October the swarms had increased to 500. In 18 60 bees were worth in California $25 a swarm, and honey 50 cents a pound. With these figures, the reader v/ith HUNTING AND HIVING WILD BEES may make his own 69 estimate of the profits of bee culture Incredible as the figures appear, other par- in California. ties report results nearly as great. In view of the facts given — and they agree with the ex— ap- perience of intelligent bee-keepers every where pears safe to estimate the least at one hundred per net profits it of keeping bees at annum, when they cent, per re- ceive the attention and care that a farmer gives to any Even at this low estimate, can the farmer give his attention to any thing else that will pay other kind of stock. as well ? Considering the small capital needed to begin with the ease with which the business waste from so is may " little kind of hive attention needed wear and much ; be expanded, and the safety of — with the right of the labor, and gather it tear," actually saved ; —the lightness the very small and that what the bees — bee-keeping commends itself to every jDroducer whose situation will admit of it. Every family in the country, and many families in cities, might keep a few swarms of bees and thus, if they did not sell any honey, they would add a material item to ; their own tables. Millions of dollars are lost in our coun- try every year from want of bees to save it. HUNTING AND HIVING WILD BEES give the method practised by myself, whereby I have no difficulty in soon determining the exact locality I will swarm, and securing it. As something depends upon of the the season of the year in which it is proposed to hunt them, I will give the different methods suitable for each season, beginning with Take the middle of a warm sunny day, the early spring. TO ' succjESsruL bee-keeping. thermometer about 48° in the shade go to the woods near. the supposed locality of the wild swarm, and with a lighted match or candle, burn a little dry honey-comb, beeswax, or piece of wood, on which a few drops of oil of ; Keep a gentle "smudge" (to use a bee-hunter's phrase) going for 15 to 30 minutes, or until the bees come searching along close to the ground, anise have been poured. following the line of the smoke. " smudge," A two from the wind is blowing, foot or in the direction in which the elevated a foot or two from the ground, if the surface be — smooth if bushy, higher, so as to have it the highest obplace a piece of honey-c-omb, parject near the smoke tially filled with sweet, freshly diluted honey or sweetened water will do if the swarm is close by, otherwise they are not so sure to readily accept it. If a drop or two of the oil of anise be added to it, or sprinkled on the comb, the bees will be attracted by its strong scent, and work all the more rapidly. The bees will soon begin to collect upon the comb, and if the weather continues favorable, with but little wind, and the swarm is near by (by which I mean within half a mile), a steady line of bees will be seen going from the combs, laden with the sweets, to their home, wherever that may be. The first time a bee starts for home, and sometimes for several of the first trips, it will be seen to describe a circle immediately around the comb, the circles gradually becoming larger and larger, till apparently the true bearing is found, when a " bee line" is struck for home. In order to watch their course as far as possible, an open space must be chosen, or what is better, an open field, even if it be somewhat further off, when we shall be able, by keeping the eye as close to the ground as possible while the bees fly against the sky for a back -ground, un- — ; HUNTIXG AND HIVING WILD BEES." 71 obstructed by trees or other objects, to more perfectly Of line them. and these but a coiirse latter will little newcomers fill are constantly arriving^ the air with their spiral curvings ; practice will enable the hunter's eye to catch those whose flight will now be straight for home, without more than a part of a single striking spirals (if it circle, while even those be not windy), will evidently lean from the combs in that direction. are often thus set at work from the same spot at once, sometimes causing much vexation. This will at once be known by constant quarreling. If, no"W, we desire to divide them and get rid of all but those which go in a direction indicating that they are probably wild, we have only to place a box supplied with clean honeycomb, and a little honey in the cells, in the spot from which the bees have been working, removing all other comb, and after the bees have collected therein, close them in with a cover, and carry them in the direction where we suppose the swarm to be, and as nearly to the spot as we can guess. If we diverge a little out of the line, and yet, when we set them again at work, be considerably nearer the swarm we are in quest of, while we are toward home, or Many circle different swarms farther off from the others, we shall pretty effectually di- But we must not move too far at a time, for we chance to go beyond the tree, our bees will not be vide them. if lik(>ly to return. shall we have chosen the right spot, we get a " cross-line," and by following If now probably both lines accurately to we be in shall theii' themselves, one the point lohere the one crosses the other, immediate neighborhood. swarm only will be at work three hours, usually the nearest and hungriest ing the others off. Hence not the If left to after two or swarm driv- best, but the poorest and least valuable, is often found if we do not divide them. Since it often happens that a hungry and more distant *12 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. will work more rapidly than one having a good supply of stores on hand that is nearer by, and as we cannot always determine whether the swarm be located swarm in the adjacent distance ner may woods be very or at a hive beyond, by guessing, the nearly found in the following man- ; Get the bees at work at two points a little distance from each other, and with suitable instruments construct a triangle, making the distance between these two points the bees its base, as J. ^ in the annexed diagram : diverging from the line B AB \u the directions A D, and C, respectively. A C D Fig. 29. If we have constructed the triangle correctly, the dis- tance between the points A and B is proportional to the AD and .B C cross now, the distance between the two points where we have the bees at work, be 20 rods, and the length of the line A B, in our triangle, be made 20 inches, as many inches as there are in ov B E, the location of the swarm is distant the line A from the points A and B, in rods. distances between E, where the lines each other, and A and B respectively. If, E When their vicinity is found, as indicated by the point each otljer, we must carefully mark This is t'aa place and commence searching for the tree. the most tedious of the whole process, often requiring the where the lines cross nicest skill in getting into the right position to discover bees HUNTING AND HIVING WILD BEES. at altitudes in which they are often found. trees are short and small, it is not a T3 When the matter to difficult but when the bees are 40 to 60 feet from the is another thing altogether. In any case, the way to find them is, when you have nothing to aid the naked eye, to get into the shadow of the tree, and walk slowly backward and forward so as to bring every see them ; ground, it point of its body and larger branches in range between the eye and the sun, looking at the sides of the tree just below the sun and outwardly, carefully and slowly. The bees will be seen very easily while in this position, and appear quite large from the reflection of the sun's rays striking upon their wings. A good spy-glass is a great help, however, and by its aid one can readily determine whether bees are working in and out of a tree or not, even by looking over the top and sides of the branches, or through openings almost anywhere about the tree. Bees will work honey at any time, even in mid-summer, if it be fresh from the hive. The way to set them at work in the summer season is, with a cup or box, with a cover, catch one at a time from the blossoms, set the cup on the stump of a tree, or other convenient point, till no humming is beard in the cup, when the cover is very carefully removed, and the bee allowed to get its fill of honey undisturbed. It is usual with bee-hunters to make a bee -box for hunting purposes, with a slide two inches from its bottom, so that the comb and honey may be shut out from the bees while catching and carrying them, to prevent their becoming besmeared with honey for when they do ever so little, there is no use trying to do anything with them, for they know as well as you can tell them, that honey is of no consequence so long as they can not get home with it. A bee-tree should never be cut, ; srCCESSFUL BEE KEEPlXff, Hi except by a person of experience, before the middle of of after the first of September, since it will be extremely difficult to save the bees at such times. During May these months no trouble need be feared by any person. Simply remove the honey and comb, after subduing the bees a little with smoke of old rags or tobacco, and with a stick or nail fasten a small piece of the comb, containing eggs and brood only, in a box, for a temporary hive. Now hive the bees precisely as you would a young swarm in swarming time. Kemove them at night to your domhaving previously placed the brood combs as evenly and carefully in a hive as it is possible for you to do, transferring thither the bees, and giving them but little If movable frame hives are at hand, this is or no honey. Should the queen have been destroyed, they easily done. will soon rear another, and collect far more honey, and prove a thousand times more satisfactory to you, than if you had waited till fall, and then cruelly destroyed them I have no all, as is so often done for their stores alone. icil, patience with that class of bee-hunters, or b-ee-keepers who practice this latter barbarity. It is too the practice of the rude Indians of the forest, much like who annu- whole herds of deer for their skins alone. A parallel still would be found in the farmer who should make yearly slaughter of his beeves and other stock for their hides, throwing their carcasses to the winds After a bee tree is cut and the bees "broken up," robbers from neighboring trees or otherwise soon make their ally slay more perfect 1 appearance, appropriating the spoils. If any wild swarms are in the vicinity, as is most always the case if the tree contains an old one, they are easily followed home and I have often found three or four a hundred rods. captured. in a circuit of W ITALIAN- BEES. Fig 30 Fig. — Queen Magnified. 32.— "Worker Magnified. Fig. 33.— Queen. Fig 35.— Worker. SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPI.VG. t6' ITALIAN BEES. The in a Italian Bee, called also the Ligurian Bee, is found small Alps-pent northern Italy embracing- district, and southern Switzerland. portions of They were described by and are and other ancient writers, as " small and round in size and shape, and variegated iv. color," and Various accounts the most valuable of any then known. of bees answering the above description, as once known but perhaps lost, have reached our day, but had com.e to be regarded, for the most part, by sober matter-of-fact moderns as among the fictions of ancient mj'thology. But it is now believed that these wonderful little creatures, thus thought worthy of preservation in song by one of the world's greatest poets, still exist and are identical with those now called Italian bees. As they were described two thousand years ago, so they are found now, the most valuable and industrious of their kind. Why they should have been lost sight of for so many years, does not appear, unless it be in consequence of that universal, well known law of nature by which the inferior type predomithe golden -hued nates over the superior, if neglected bee being thus gradually displaced by its black rival, except (so far as is known) in the district named, where the superior race appears to have held exclusive possession, the surrounding mountains, covered with perpetual snow, being impassable by their wings. They were accidentally discovered by Capt. Baldenstein, while stationed in Northern Italy in the wars of Naonce more largely distributed ; Aristotle, Virgil, ; poleon ; who after returning to his castle in Switzerland, procured, in 1843, a colony near Lake Como, and ported them over the Alps to his northern home. trans- They ITALIAN 77 BEES. were introduced into Germany by Mr. Dzierzon in 1853, and soon became very popular. The first successful importations into this country were made m 1860, by Messrs. S. B. Parsons, of Flushing-, L. T., P. J. Mahan, of Philadelphia, and R. Colvin, of Baltimore. In 1861, Mr. C. W. Rose, of New York city, succeeded in bringing six colonies to this country, out of forty-nine purchased in their native district. I believe one or two other importations have been made. The Italians have already been extensively introduced into the apiaries of both the Atlantic and Pacific sections of the United States, and are becoming great favorites. If I am rightly informed, the importations of Messrs. Mahan and Colvin were from Germany while those of ; Messrs. Parsons and Rose were direct from Italy, the lat- under the personal care of Mr. August Bodmer, an experienced Tyrolean bee-keeper, who selected them in tlieir native fastness and brought them hither. It is claimed by each of these importers, that he has the Whether there is any choice or differgemdne. Ilallan bee. ent degi'ees of purity in these stocks, I do not pretend to decide, but do know that very great cars is requisite to breed them ptre, and the purchaser cannot be too careful of whora he obtains his queens. I have examined samples of most, I believe all, of these importations, have queens bred from two of them, and am 7iol yet satisfied as to what constiter tutes the distinctive characteristics of the Italian race. color be the test, I am still lost ; for I have If failed to find any that are constant in this respect, or in the number and breadth of the yellow bands on their abdominal rings. So far as my experiments with them go and they have now been extended through a period of two years they indicate that the lightest colored queens produce the most — — • — SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. t8 brilliant drones ; and if the drones are the offspring- purely of the queens, as is generally admitted, may ferred that possibly nione are pure, but that all not be it in- have a trace of black blood in them, showing itself most strikingly in queens and drones, which must be carefully bred out be* fore we can determine their real characteristics and render them uniform in shape, and constant in color ? The illustrations (magnified) on page 75, were engraved from selected specimens, and show the distinctive mark- — ings and bands in great perfection the yellow portions being represented by white. It will be observed that the body is more round and slender, and a little longer, the — wings somewhat larger in proportion to the body in fact the whole bee appearing more delicate in form and texture — than the common bee. The testimony of several well known apiarians who have had experience with the Italians, is here given, that the reader may the better judge whether this new variety is worthy of his attention. From the Baron of Berlepsch and Mr. Dzierzon : The Baron of Berlepsch and Mr. Dzierzon, among the most intelligent and skillful bee-keepers of Germany, give the Italian decided preference over the common bee. The former says he has found " That the Italian bees are less sensitive to cold than kind. 2. That their queens are more prolific. 3. That the colonies swarm earlier and more frequently, though of this he has less experience than Dzierzon. 4, That they are less apt to sting. Not only are they less apt, but scarcely are they inclined to sting, though they will do so if intentionally annoyed or irritated. 5. Thev are more industrious. Of this fact the 1. common ITALIAN BEES. 19 he had tjut one summer^s experience, but all the results and indications g'O to confirna Dzierzon's statements, and satisfy him of the superiority of this kind in every point of view. 6. That they are more disposed to rob than common bees, and more courageous and active in They self-defence. Way into strive on all hands to force their common bees colonies of bees attack their hives, but when strange with great fierceness, thej' fight ; and with an incredible adroitness." From Mr. F. A. Deus, and others : Mr. F. A. Deus, who with three other members of the German Apiarian Convention, held at Mayence, in 1856, in that year made a tour of France, Switzerland, and Italy, in search for and observations on Italian bees, in his quoted ^.213, says port, as in the American Bee, re- Journal for Sept., 1861, : " At the Villa di Negro, near the latter city (Genoa), the genuine Italian bee exists in all its beauty and perfection. It was delightful to observe the celerity, agility and grace displayed in all their motions by the busy workers, as they rifled flowers of the their sweets. were so slender and delicate, their colors so bright, and their markings so clear and distinct, as to surpass greatly any specimens of the race which had previously corao under our notice. We caught a number of them, and preserved them in alcohol for future Their bodies comparison. * * * It is evident that the Italian bee is not Wo a mere climatic variety, but really a distinct race. were repeatedly assured also that the common kind only was found districts in the of Kingdom Upper Itah'. of Naples and in the warmer chanced to fall in with a We P 80 SUCCESSFULL BEE-KEEPING. bee-keeper from Normandy, who informed us kinds of bees were cultivated in that country mon two that — the com- kind and also a yellowish or orange variety. The he stated, were much preferred, as being more latter, gentle said, and more industrious. The common kind, he were particularly irascible and wild. This ac- count likewise corroborates the opinion that the Italian bee is not the common insect m^:)dified by special matic influences, because Normandy differs little cli- in that respect from Central Germany. " At Lago Maggiore and Lago di Como, we found Ital- ian bees exclusively, and of the most perfect type, like These those of Genoa. districts, indeed, appear to be their chief habitat From " the American Agriculturist The fact that so many : of our oldest apiarians have con- siderable confidence in them, argues well in their favor. have watched their multiplication from a single swarm, and if the rate of increase be as great at other points to which the queens ax'e being daily dispatched, it will not take long to fill the country with them if such a consummation be desirable. Below we give' an extract from a letter, dated August 10, written by Mr. E. A. Brackett, the well known sculptor, who is an enthusiastic amateur in bees also. His suggestion in regard to improving bees, by care in selecting breeding queens, is worthy of attention. All kinds of domestic animals have been brought to a much higher standard, by special care in We — breeding. Why may manner improved " ' My not our common bees be in like ? experience thus far, satisfies me that they have 81 ITALIAN BEES. The queens are larger and more The workers, when bred in comb of their own They building, are longer and their honey sacs larger. are Jess sensitive to cold, and more industrious. " In all my handling of them and I have done so pretty freely, lifting' the comb?, and examining them almost daily A queen I have never known one to offer to sting. not been overrated. prolific. — ' — that I received in June, and introduced to a strong stock filled thirteen sheets of comb with There is at present scarcely a black bee Although I in the hive, so rapid has been the change. have taken from it large quantities of worker brood and eleven days of bees, in brood and eggs. sealed drones, the hive From " the California Culturist We overflowing.' " is still : believe, however, that the superiority of the Ital- among apiarians common bee for sale. We take pleasure in introducing proof of this, that those who may have been in doubt may have their doubts removed, ian bee is no longer questionable, even who have large stocks of the and at once obtain this superior breed just as the stockgrower would a superior breed of horses, cattle, or sheep." ; From Mr. " It is L. L. Langstroth : hardly necessary to say, that a species of the honey-bee so much more productive than the kind, and so much great value to docility all common less sensitive to cold, will be of sections of our country. very Its superior would make it worthy of high regard, even if in Its introduction it had no peculiar merits. other respects into this countr}' will, its it is confidently believed, consti- new era in bee-keeping, and impart an interest to pursuit which will enable us, ere long, to vie with any tute a part of the world in the production of honey." 82 A SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. year later, (Aug. as follows 24, I860,) Mr. L. wrote to Mr. Parsons : " I have three Italian queens colonies were given (artificial in June. swarms) to which common All of the and if we may judge from the working of these colonies, the Italians will fully sustain their European reputation. They have gathered more than twice as much honey as the swarms of the common bees appear to have died ; This, however, has been chiefly gathered within the few weeks during which time, the swarms of common bees have increased but very little in weight. The season has been eminently unfavorable for the new swarms, (one of the very worst I ever knew) and the prospect is, that I shall have to feed all of them except the Italians. bee. last ; L. L. Langstroth." From J. P. " First. common Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 13, 1860 —Their disposition to labor kind. From the earliest far excels that of the dawn of day to the ar- rival of evening, they are invariably passing in of the hive, and rarely suspend their or moderate showers vidual of the work and out for winds, heat — at times when not a solitary common kind is to : be seen. Two day, their labors are extended beyond the indi- hours each working time named kind. "Second. Power of endurance, and especially of resisting the impression of cold, they possess in a marked degree. of the last — Since the buckwheat, salidagoes, and astors have flowered the nights have been remarkably cold. This low temperature has in a great measure suspended in this vicinity, the efforts of the Italians ; common bees, and they have been eating accumulated stores. Not so with the they have been steadily accumulating honey their previously ©3 ITALIAN BEES. and bee-bread, and rapidly multiplying their numbers They seem peculiarly adapted to resist the chilly atmosphere and high winds, which predominate in autumn, on the shores of Lake Erie. — " Third. Prolificness they equally excel in. Both my fall and half-blooded stocks have become numerous and strong in numbers, as well as in stores, at this late season of the year, when the common kind have ceased increasing, and have become nearly passive. " Fourth. Their individual strength is greater and this is well illustrated in their prompt manner of tossing to a great distance any robber that chances to approach their — hive. " Fifth. ; —Their beauty of color and graceful form render them an object of colonies are daily " Sixth. My interest to every person of taste. watched and admired by many visitors. — Of their moral character, I cannot speak favorrobbery of weaker colonies is going on, these yellow-jackets are sure to be on hand. So far as my experience has gone with them, I find every statement in re- ably. If gard to their superiority sustained. " They will no doubt prove a valuable acquisition to and will be peculiarly adapted localities of high altitudes to the climate of Washington Territory, Oregon, and the ; mountainous regions of California. J. P. From the American Apiarian Convention KlETLAND." : The following from the report of the American Apiarian Convention, held at Cleveland, Ohio, March 12-14, 1862, is valuable in their favor, after a " Italian Bees. —All agreed as trial of three years : to the superiority of the 84 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. common black bee. They deserve all th*? good things that European bee-keepers had said of them, save one. They are not more peaceable, but more irascible than the black ee, and their sting is more poisonous. Mr. Langstroth gave it as his experience, and that of some of his friends, that the Italian bees, instead of being more peaceable than our common kind, are more irascible (except in the season of honey gathering), and are more difficult to quiet when once excited. The Italian who brought all Mr. Parsons' bees, said that our bees were far more peaceable than the black bees of Germany. A German writer who furnished a valuable article on bee-keeping, for the Patent Office Report of 1860, says that our bees are much more easily handled than those of Germany. This accounts for the belief in Germany, that the Italian bees are more peaceable than the black species. The r'emarks of Prof. Kirtland seemed to sum np all that other gentlemen had said of the Italian bee. The professor prefaced his remarks by saying that he had no " ax to grind," and no bees to sell, and would not have until his experiments had been completed, which would be three or more years. After discussing the good qualities of the Italian bee, he said that it was as much superior to the black bee as Shorthorn cows and Chester hogs are to the " scrubs" of the country; and that the Italian bee is: 1. Stronger, more active, and resists lake winds and chills better than the common bee. 2. It works more hours every day. 3. It collects more stores. 4. It works on some flowers which the black bee cannot operate on. 5. It breeds more freely. 6. It is more irritable, and its sting more painful. Y. It is more beautiful. 8. It, in short, compares with the common bee as the Short-horn Italian to the I — HOW 85 TO ITALIANIZE COMMON STOCKS, Durham does The Dr. cautioned to the native scrub. against breedin.e; " in and in," and he and other gentlemen advised bee-keepers to purchase queens both from the Parsons and Rose stock, to prevent too close breeding." My own experience with Italian bees, differing some- what from those above given, has not yet been such as to warrant a decided opinion in all respects. Of their genno question. eral superiority, however, there can be I have found them quite as gentle as the common kind for, though quicker on the wing, I have been stung only twice by them, so as to cause any swelling or pain, during a daily and almost hourl}' handling of them for two years. I have, moreover, been too much engaged in ; queen rearing and experiments to determine defin tely their comparative industry. They seem to fly swifter and work more hours than common bees, which they easily masI noticed, the past ter, and whose stores they appropriate, season, that one of my Italian hives was rapidly accumulating honey, while others were diminishing in weight. Looking into the hive, a short time after, I found it running over with bees, a large portion of them being black. I did not see them com-e nor know whence they came, as but they were I had in previous instances of robbing ; doubtless a subdued colony of blacks (not " contra- bands"), which, after hard fighting, being spoiled of their treasures, had sought protection under the " segis of the union," HO"W TO ITALIANIZE COMMON STOCKS. The process of introducing the Italian race has been, to swarm of common away its queen and procure a queen, and after rendering a bees hopelessly queenless hj taking SrccEssruL bee-keepino. 86 successively destroying queen all introduce the Italian queen. bees will then accept her. tile, continues so for appear It is And cells for eight days, to found that the black since the queen, once fer- her progeny which will begin to days after her introduction, will be- life, in twentj^-one come the exclusiye possessors of the hive in a period of from three to six months. So far the process is successful and perfect but the has been, further, that inasmuch as the drone progeny of the queen was of necessity as pure as herself, whether she had met pure or impure drones, or, indeed, any drones at all, all we had to do to breed the Italian race in purity was, to get a pure queen, purely impregnated, and rear from her eggs a new race of queens for all our hives, when all our drones, being the oifspring of pure Italian queens, would be pure Italians then our queens, having been impregnated by black drones and hence producing hybrid workers, must be replaced with new ones reared from these new queens, meeting only pure the original queen drones, would irsure the perfect Italianization of the : theory : ; entire apiary. All this is theoreticall}^ plain enough, and it is presumed that not one person in ten will anticipate any difficulty in effecting a change of the apiary from one race to the oth- whereas, not one in a thousand, probably, will be able er ; to do this on the first trial, if, indeed, at at the practical difficulties in the We will pregnated, hive of way all. Let us look of accomplishing it. suppose that a pure Italian queen, purely imis obtained, and successfully transferred to a common bees. After the lapse of twenty-four days, progeny of the old queen will have disappeared from the combs. If we now exterminate the drones, we will insure Italian male bees in purity from the one hive only. But all HOW TO ITALIANIZE COMMON 81 STOCKS. while rearing ouv first installment of queens for the purpose of procuring pure Italian drones for the impregnation of our second installment, \evy few worker bees of the Italian race are to be found in the apiary hence the : young queens, as well as others, are nursed by Mack and bees, producing in some way yet to be accounted degeneration towards the black race. hybrid a for, The fact of such deterioration is admitted by those who have had the best of opportunities for judging, and can have no motive for misrepresentation. Although a few maintain that because dark colored queens sometimes produce as finely marked workers as the most brilliant ones, there is no degeneration ; forgetting that the char- workers are determined more by the impregnating drone than by the queen herself. Prof. Kirtland, of Cleveland, Ohio, one of the closest observers, has entirely failed, we are informed, through two years of careful experiments, to produce a single pure queen from Italian brood transferred to hives of comacteristics of the mon bees. Prof. E. Kirby, of Henrietta, N. Y., in attempting to ac- count for this degeneration, suggests that the sperm or vitalizing fluid of the drone is perhaps supplied to the young larva while in process of transformation from a worker to a queen. Mr. Langstroth, in Bee Journal fur July, 1861, although not admitting the point in issue, says p. 166, : " It seems very singular that the larvae, which if deworker would have been strongly colored, •veloped as a phould liiint in its transformation into a queen, lose all its bril- yellow." Again, while rearing queens by the removal of the reigning one, from any hive, there are more or less drone SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. 88 deposited therein by u-orker lees ; and if the latter are not purely Italian, we shall breed a race oi drones of inferior eg-g-s quality, by which our queens may be impregnated, when, we could not by any possibility have a black theoretically, drone in the apiary. becomes evident, that if we hope to breed the Italian race in purity, we must establish a colony isolated from the black race, where they are to remain long enoug-h to allow the prog-eny of the old queen to be displaced by the new. When the black bees have entirely disappeared, the queen may be removed, and the bees left to rear others. When capped over, the cells may be transferred to repeating the opeother hives, and the queen returned ration when more are wanted. In establishing the Italian colony, it is believed to be of some importance that the Italian workers be allowed to renew the contents of the hive by filling it up with combs of their own construction the cells built by them being somewhat larger than those built by the black race, and not having been used by the latter, may secure our queens from any possible taint. In rearing Italian queens in great numbers, or indeed any other, it is advisable to establish small nuclei, or colFrom onies of not more than one quart of bees to each. such all impure drones may be easily destroyed and the queens w'ill mature and become fertile even sooner than from large swarms. But it should be borne in mind, that small colonies are more liable to the attacks of robber bees, and are more apt to accompany the queen in her flight to meet the drones. To prevent the latter, the Hence, it ; ; ; presence of brood in the hive, in the earlier stages of de- de opment, should not be v/anting. Such nuclei are perfect swarms in miniature the prudent apiarian will keep a : surplus on hand in summer to supply queens as wanted. TO PEESERVE HOKET C0MB3. RENE^riNG QUEKNS 89 EEWEWIK-G QUEEWS. Queens gradually lose their fertility as they advance in age, producing fewer eggs and a greater proportion of For this reason, drones. after about the fourth year, the and new ones substituted. In the recent Apiarian Convention at Cleveland, " Professor Kirtland said that after the third year the queen was nearly worthless, and should be killed, and a fertile queen put in her place instantlj^ So tliought Mr. Langstroth he said a vigorous fertile queen was worth half a swarm. Mr. Sturtevant thought the q leen as good in the third year as at any time and at four years he would old ones should be destroyed ' : : not kill young her, unless fertile queen he knew that he could instantly get a in her stead ; —the risk was great, at that season of the year the loss of a week or for two was a serious loss." " A queen lays her eggs in regular order, comand distributing them in circles, each surrounding the first, and on both sides exactly alike. Sealed worker brood should present a regular, smooth surface. An irregular brood denotes an unprolific queen."* A portion of raised oval cells in worker comb shows the presence of drone brood, and is objectionable, as indicafertile mencing at a point . tive, except in the first . laying of a young queen, of ap- proaching barrenness. TO PRESERVE HONET COMBS. They should be kept in a tightly closed box, and occa- sionally exposed to the fum.es of burning brimstone to de- They are worth at any time stroy ail eggs of the moth. during the summer almost their weight in gold. * Bee Culture, pp. 162, 163. 90 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPIN(J. PEEVENTION" OF SWARMING. For about twenty days, in the swarming season, the may attempt to swarm. There is no way of confining the queen to the hive by contracting the entrance bees with "blocks," " gauges," or other traps, for the reason, among others, that bees vary greatly in size. Many fertile queens are able to go any where that a worker can, being longer but no larger. If our queens cannot fly, no swarms will be But the queen may get down on the lost. ground, in attempting to go with the swarm, and if a board be adjusted to the hive with one edge on the ground, she will be likely to crawl back into the hive, attracted by the great noise of the bees returning in search of her. If the attempt be seen, she should be found and returned. This rarely takes place, and only through neglect if a queen be occasionally lost, the swarm Even will rear another, may be supplied from small nuclei kept on Destroying, onoe in ten or twelve days, all queen cells, and giving the bees or her place hand at this season for emergencies. more room, will effectually prevent such attempts. PURCHASING BEES. Look of bees it contains a good stock they will show themselves at once, on being dis- into the hive to see that : turbed. The combs should be pretty regular, consisting of broad sheets of worker cells, and not small, irregular combs, or patches of drone transfer to most valuable hive the most. is which are worthless to These things equal, the cells movable frames. the one whose contents will weigh A CHAPTER OF WELL SETTLED FACTS. MOVING 91 BEES. may be moved to any distance at any time, but the summer is the best time. They should be shaded from the sun, kept as quiet as possible, and all jarring avoided. On a long journe}', in hot weather, opportunities should be given them to fly daily, if convenient the Bees : longer their confinement, the greater the liability of loss by If in box hives, the hive should be invei'ted, open end covered with gauze-wire cloth, and near its opposite end holes should be provided and covered with the same material for admission of fresh air. If in the Langstroth or similar hives, the combs must be first se- disease. its may be broken down by the swinging of Bees in my hives be moved without preparation, except having the cured, or they the frames, and the bees thus destroyed. may gauze-wire cloths in the honey board cleaned, and the front slide tuted in removed and a curtain of wire cloth substiplace. The combs are secure as in a box its hive, for the frames cannot move. A CHAPTER OF "WELL SETTLED PACTS. 1. All stocks of bees should be kept strong in numbers. A well garrisoned city 2. A m-oderate may increase defy assault. of swarms will keep them strong, and secure the largest yield of honey. As the calves are raised at the cost of butter and cheese, so bees are multiplied at the expense of honey. 3. As Bees filled with honey, are not inclined to sting. is stayed by your purse, so bees the robber's knife are bribed with proffered sweets. 4. In natural swarming, bees Emigrants to a new fill themselves with honey. cou-ntry carry their treasures along as capital to begin with. 92 SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING. Bees, alarmed with 5. smoke or otherwise, instinctively upon their stores. The householder at the cry of fire, secures what he can. 6. There should be no communication between occupied seize hives, allowing the bees of one to pass directly into the other. " No 1. house is A swarm away large enough for two families." of bees destitute of a queen fast dwindles and, unless supplied with one, soon perishes either ; by robbers or moths. A an country without a government, a farm without owner. Swarms having combs 8. insufficiently protected bees, furnish a retreat for millers Unguarded treasures 9. An and food for by worms. invite thieves. excess of drones should be avoided by discourag- ing the construction of the cells that produce them. Drones are the " dead heads" of the hive the — iisdess males in the farmer's herds. The building of drone comb may, to a great extent, first, by securing the construction of new combs in hives containing young queens and, second, by placing frames to be filled, in other hives, near the 10. be prevented — ; centre. " An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure." 11. Queens are most economically reared in small swarms. Who would employ ten men to do what one would do better 12. safely, ? Small swarms, if united in the and consume less hone3\' " In union there is strength." fall, will winter more A CHAPTER GF SPECULATIONS. 13. Bees of coloriies containing fertile 93 and queens, should not be put together without ing them up,-' i. inducing them to e., fill unfertile first " break- with honey, and destrojdng the unfertile queen. 14, exposes Natural swarming, always uncertain and the artificial viuch loss of time to lee-lceeper swarming, securing at all times the presence avmy with all watching, and both sure and economical. laying queen, doing to the woods, is 'periplexing, and money; while of a workerby flight loss A CHAPTER OF SPECULATIONS. — The production of sex has the queen any volition in it ? If the queen be watched during the early spring, while en- gaged in depositing eggs, she will be observed to pass by the drone cells but when the blossoms begin to yield honey in abundance, and bees become numerous, and disposed to swarm, the drone cells are prepared and eggs These latter eggs produce drones deposited therein. only, the kind of cell in which the egg is deposited seeming to determine, for the most part, the sex of the bee. It is found that eggs laid in drone cells produce drones only, while eggs transferred from drone to worker cells still ; What produce drones. the cell, determines the sex or the nursing bees? — the queen, The prevalent theory ha^g been, that the sperm sack of the queen, in the act of copulation with the drone, becomes filled with the sperm or vitalizing fluid of the male, without sess sufficient vitality to germinate. en to this theory fecundated queen while that of a which all eggs pos- Plausibility is giv- b}' the fact that the sperm sac of an un- is found to be destitute of spermatozoa, fertile one is filled with them. 94 SCCCESSFDL BEE-KEEPING. Samuel Wagner, of adelphia, Phil- suggested has that in the act of deposit- ing an egg in a worker the abdomen cell of the queen becomes compressed, forcing the sperm into contact with the egg in passing, the sac, it and changing from a drone to a worker. But it is found that the queen will deposit eggs in cells but just began, when no possible [See Fig. 36.] compression of the abdomen can take place, these eggs producing workers. 36. — Ovaries of queen. Besides, it ofte-n happens that drones mature from the very It appears, after all, that not only smallest worker cells. the queen, but the workers also, know what the egg will produce for drone cells are not prepared until the season when they are wanted approaches, nor can the queen be induced to place eggs therein much in advance of this ; period. For myself, I am satisfied that the queen has volition in and that the bees have the power, by a particular process of nursing, suitable for each, to produce FROM WORKEB EGGS EITHER QUEENS, 'WOBKEBS 0R DRONES I am aware that this idea is somewhat new and ahead of " the books," but in my practice of rearing queens by very small nuclei, I have often found drone brood maturing in a small piece of worker comb cut from cards full of eggs taken from the centre of the hive, where it is scarcely possible drone eggs would be found. the matter ; ! ! INDEX. Artificial Swarming, what founded how attempted, 22 on, Handling bees, 35. 27 how Hives, ISiadir, 22 to 24 dividing, and done, 35, 37 to 46; advantages of, Munn, colonizing, 25 to 27 leaf, 27 find queen, 60, 6 1, 90. 43 to 45, 93 31; Langstroth and others, 27,28, 30 to 32 Michigan, 35 to 47 quadBars, 27, 28. ruple, 35 to 37 double, 45 single, Bee-bread, 64. tall, 46 no moth-proof, 46 to 50 will not desert Bees, a swarm of. 11 low, 51, 53 m.dn features 52, 53 their j'oung, 62; hybrid, 86 to 88; of a good one, 35. purchasing, 90 moving, 91. Honey bo.xes, 48. Bridal trip, 15. Hunting bees, 69 to 74. Brood, time of least and of most, 12 Honey, 37, 63 to 69, 91. maturity of, 12. where found, Italian bees, 76 to 88 California, bees in, 68, 69, T7, 81. description of, 75 to 80; 76, 79, 60 Cai'tion, clipping wings of queens, 42. how discovered, 76 when and by 61; tr.ansferring, 61, 62; driving, whom imported, 77 what is claimed 61 to 63 renewing queans, 42, 43, 89 for thara, 78 to 85; my experience queen, 19, 20, 21, Cells, worker, 18, 19 with them, 85 to Italianize common of stocks, b5 to 88, theories about, 85, 39, 40 to 43, use one only, 40, 41 queen, destroyed, 20, 86. deterio85, facts about, 86 to 88 Colony, a prosperous, consists of, 11 ration, 86 to 88, how to prevent, 88. and worker, drone 25 Comb, 23, cost of, 26; valueof, 44,45, 89; to insure Los| of swarms, causes of, 20. 41 to 43, true, 27, 35, 38, 39, 45, 62 how to 47 to 56. 62, 63, 89, 92; how to prepreserve, 89. vent, 36 to 63, 88. 22 ; to ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; : Double Hive, 45. Driving bees, 62, 63. Driving box, 58, 59. Drones, 11, 19; male bees, Michigan (Metcalf's) Hives, 35 to 47. Moth, 46 to 49 remedies for,48 to 50. 92. Movable frames, 28 to 34 Metcalf's, ; ; 11, 15, 16 46, 47. number of in hive, 11; short lived, 11, 16, 17; time of maturity, Natural swarming, perplexing, 13 to 12; excess of, 21 to 26, 92, how 16, 91, 93, preparations, 12, 13. prevented, 26, 33 to 45, 92 necessary, 11, 15, 38, 42; pure, 86 to 88. Overstocking, 65, 66. I<ysentery, 55, 91. Pasturage, 63 to 69. Feeding, 55, 56. Patents, absurd pretentions, 29, 30. Frames, 28, 35, 53; Tayior's, 28; Protitp, 66 to 69. Munn'.s, 29, 30 to 33; Metcalf's, Propolis, 63, 64. 46, 47, 48. Fumigating bees, 37, 58, 60, 63. Queen, 1 1 to 22 ability of swarm to Facts, chapter of, 91, 92. rear, 19 to 27 ; hosv reared, 13, 14, 17; ; ; ' 96 19, 40 IN'DEX. 20; how fertilized, 11, 43 the mother bee, to how 15, 11. ; loH, 15, 20, 1(), 41, 90 ; 17, 12; how Surplus honey, 64 to 69 ; boxes, 50. of bees, 11 to 22 ; how lost, 15, 16, 41, 89, 92, to prevent 41, 42, 60 Swarm found. 42, 43, 60, 61, 90; clip vvinc,'.< to 62, 88, 90; most valuable, 90; of, 42, 61 kept separate, 33, 39, 92 ; how mul90, when, 42, 43, 61, 62 caging of, 42 time of maturity, 12 tiplied, 12 to 20. respect for, 15 to 19, 25, 26 destroy Swarming, 12 to 17 first, preparations embryo, 13, 14, 19. rivals, 14, 20 for, 12 to 14 cause of, 12 to 15 ; delay, 14, 44 aftei-, cause of, 14. 20; "piping" of, 14 artifisi.-il, 22; cells of, 12 to 14, 19 to 22,- 39, 40, Speculations, ch. of, 93, 94. 88; excited when ceils all occupied, 13 ; absence of, serious, 20 to 22, 26, Transfevring, bees, 37, 38 queen cells, from box hives, to 27, 33, 89, 92; renewing, 89, cau39, 40, 43, 88 tion, 42. 43, 85, 86 fertile, liiys regcombs, movable frames, 58 to 63 ularly, 89; unfertile, irregularly, 89. iind queen, 59 to 62 60, 61. Quadruple hives, 36 to 45 how used, Tall hives, 52, 53. ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 37, to 45 to 55. ; advantages of, 43 to 45, 48 Ventilation, 51, 52. Quarreling, 20, 42, 92, 93. Wintering, 35, 50 Winter passages, Robbers, 56 to 58, 60. to 56. 36, 37, 47, 50, 51, 54, 55. Secret of success, 27, 91 to 93. Workers, number of, 11, 12; undevelSingle hive, advantages of Metcalf's, oped females, 11, 12, 20, 21; per76, 47 form all the labor, 17 ; time of maSmoldng bees, 29, 37, 58, 60, 63, 92, turity. 13; drone laying, 11, 12, 16; 93. 21, 22, 88. ILLUSTRATIONS. Abdomen of worker, 17. 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 36, 39, 58. Bees, 11, 15, 17, 75. Brood, 18, 19, Bar-frames, 23. Bee21, 24. huntin?, 72. Comb, worker, 18, 19, 20, 24. Comb, Drone, 24. Cells, 18, 19, 20, 24. Drones, 11, 75. Drone cells, 21, 24. Drone laying, 21. Egfjs in comb, 21, 39. Fnimes, 28, 31, 32, 36, 46, 47. Frame-bars, 28. Hives, 31, 32, 36, 46, 47. Metcalf, 36, 46, 47. Iloney comb. Hunt- ing bees, 72. Movable frames, 28, 31, 32, 36, 46, 47. Moth, 47, gallery, 47. Queen bees, 11, 15, 75. Quadruple Hive, 36. Queen cell, 19, 20, 21, 39. Queen ovaries, 94, Transferring Bees, 36, 59. Transferring cells, 30. Transferring Comb, 59. AVorker bees, 11, 17, 75. 18,19,20,24. AVax Do. comb, scales, 71. A BEE DRESS. the rim of a light summer hnt sew a pieoe of gnuze-wire cloth, cut six inches wide in the middle and tupering to two inches at each end, with curtain of any ligiit cloth to fc'ick in about the neck. But the Bkst Beb Dress is courage, kindness, steady movements, and a knowledge of the habits of bees. " A soft answer tumeth away wrath." To : ADVERTISEMENTS. An make and Individual Eight to and use on use the Michigan Hives will be sold for to make for himself, number of hives. This secures to the holder the privilege five dollars. own premises, and not his otherwise, any For Individual and Territorial Eights, address as follows For the county of Ottawa, except the town of Talmadge the towns of PaByron, Gaines, Caledonia, and Bowne, in the comity of Kent; one range ; ris, of towns on the north side and two ranges of towns on the east side, in the and the counties of Barry, Kalamazoo, St Joseph, Branch, Hillsdale, Jackson and Eaton, Mich. ; and for the counties of Genesee, .Erie, Kiagara, Orleans, Monroe, county of Allegan ; the town of Easton in the county of Ionia ; — Livingston and Wyoming, in New York. Address JOEL A SIMONDS For the counties of Genesee, Lapier, St Address S. Clair, Grand Macomb and GARFIELD, Grand M. Rt.pids, Mich. Oakland, Mich., Rapids, Mich. t For the counties of Muskegon, Newaygo, Mecosta, Is.ahella, Midland, Bay, and all north of them in the Lower Peninsula the county oi Calhoun the ; ; town of Manchester, Washtenaw county, and the town of Franklin, Lenawee county, ilficA. ; the counties of Ontario, Wayne, Seneca, Cayuga, Cortland, Onondaga, Oswego, Oneida, Madison, Chenango, Rockland, Orange, Ulster, Greene, Albany, and Washington county, all N for the States of iV. Y., Y. ; for the counties of Del, Md., and Fo Address' For the counties 0. R. of Hudson river, but not north of Dubuque and Delaware, loica ; territory east of , and the District of Columbia, L CROZIER, Grand Washtenaw and Lenawee, except chester and Franklin, Mich. ; and for the Siate of' Ohio, JOHN D. Rapids, Mich. the towns of Man- Address ALGER, Grand Rapids, Mich. For the county of Berripn, Mich., for Lake, Porter and La Porte counties, Tazewell, Mc. ; and for the counties of Fulton, Hancock, McDonough, Indiana Lean, Ford, and Iroquois, and all territory north of thein (except Ro<5^Tsland county), in the Slate of Illinois, Address D REESE WILLIAMS, H For all Chicago, 111. other territory. Address the inventor, MARTIN METCALP, Grand Rapids, Mich. 2m rFi'^zng- M1T€ AIFS Bll-SEPIi§. The ailvaiitages olthis AVk T. lohf. We 1 r. KEEi' sjstem arc seen by the following ^0 sv:-Amifi,eitMr darivg .summer or ivinler. OUR BEhS AT WORK, ami do not have, entire stimrnis haoiging to the hive, idle, ihrovghout the honcy-harvesL We TIT. 'feed raise what drones are needed only, and do net a large numler of supermimeranj " dead-heads.'' AH ovr sirarms arc, icithoxit inter rupf ion. frovided with IV. i-ERTILE Ql Er.N Thns, by Isl:. I., have Vv'e . cos,i],}elc care of tbcm, n* rt'."i:Ty .• rt.-i ..•ut/ of cr'iucs a IjUjine.'-s as ce.t ::':i us 21. rul We t^n nut in 'j>-o!ie any Ihe. bees, nn.l are ali!o to chic'.icn? Imndle and take consequently bcc-lcoeping be- ; cvUi"-. dark,h'.\t hive and can inspect the combs at if our wc do our .all bavc aeccss iiiiic« ;<•(! i!,i-ir to the interior of the;- condition, remove them necessary, orsu[iply any wapt. 3a. the use of a new, and entirely By are enibled to exch.in.'je lying idle at 4;h ; tlio \Ve don't wait season for that cessity for i*.... : ; -i-yie of comb-frames, become i;o we exoiifO fur inerei^siwj tboir, Jl'lmnbci-?'. sufficiently populous, w&rctr new queens wo woiiM Jalse poultiy ..j.i^>r-,.or rhoeo. set"— often on a J'ii;;;!© addled c;^g— while tl y\si preoisely as for the " hws to buiir.a.-a i- fis". pa^siiig watching them. The manner of prodaclng ail 1 We th-u asAy. T C) awr.y with the ne- _ new swarms, rendered eminently successful by revolving, cay the strength . . fjr fall ons.^, giving tlia bees same time thereby Vvhc.T the Stocks and swarm than, 5tb. empty tlie artificially, is hive, ginn^ new, easy, nn i the infant col- vigor (^ftbenareB.t stock. our ncv, sw.r.-ms -really /rsf swarm.^, saving ten days' ol lime in breeding over niiturai swar^nine:-; no'eggs boin- laid in the combs any young swarm orttr )!/wJiirs/ for ten days. 3 h Gth. "We mrdic 7th. The a-'i old ar.d fertile qnccn remnining in the parent hive, er:rg is honoy^th- before; while in n..tural swarming, honey gath nearly suspended for ten days, till a new ntuecn is Iiatchod, and no Cling and breeding go on :uj eggs are laid for twenty days^ or until her Dua-=^^^ fertilization.
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