-KEEPING. mam 6Tr key

-KEEPING. mam 6Tr key
PHICE THIRTY-FIVE CENTS.
J-tii;
3^)'/=?3j,_3METCALF'S
/v^ 6Tr
key
mam
d-ha
-KEEPING.
r-:3
THE MICHIGAN BEE-HIVES.
The inventor
as follows
of these Hives has obtained two Patents, from wliicll
U. S.
The
we
quote
:
Patent Office.
1861.
Letters Patent, No. 1,948, whole No. 32,952, dated July 30,
nature of my invention consists in the peculiar construction and em-
ployment of the various parts which compose the hive, and also in the particular mode of producing artificial swarming, to which purpose the parts hereinafter set forth are
[See Fig. 19, p. 36.
merely incidental.
Claims.— 1st The employment of a revolving bee-hive, so arranged that
artificial swarming m.iy be produced substantially in the manner specified.
2nd I claim the employment of the movable frames, D. D.. provided with
cylinder M, when used in connection with a revolving bee-hive, in the manner
and
for the purpose set forth.
TJ.
S.
Patent Office.
Letters Patent, whole No. 34,157, dated Jan. 14, 1862.
Fig.
1 is
a perspective view, showing the construction of the frame.
Pig. 23, p. 47
Fig.
3,
side
view of frames in hive.
[See Fig. 22, p. 45
mc
]
be used in the revolving bee-hive,
July 30, 1861, or in any rectangular box hive, having a mov-
These adjustable frames are intended
patented to
[Sea
J
to
able front.
Claim.
— I claim constructing the top bar A,
frames for bee-hives, with the beveled ends
and side bars B, of adjustable
a, b, in
the
manner
described,
when
used in connection with a m.ovablo front, and in a rectangular box or hive.
ITALIA?^ BEES,
Put up securely, and forwcvrdcd 1)}^ express (C. 0. D.),
and a safe delivery, and successful Italianization of the
common
hive guaranteed.
PKIGB FEB
Q,UBEIv",
FIVE DOLLARS.
MARTIN
iSIETCALF,
Grand Rapids. Mich.
A KEY
TO
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPaTr:
BEING A TREATISE ON THE
MOST PROFITABLE METHOD OF MANAGING
BEES.
INCLUDING THE AUTHOE's
NEW SYSTEM
OF
ARTIFICIAL SWARMING,
ALL WATCHINa FOR SWARMS DURING THE SWARMING
SEASON IS DONE AWAY WITH,
BY
MARTIN METCALF.
" Who guides the patient pilgrim to her cell 1
Who bids her -oul with conscious triumph swell
7
With coa'^cions truth retrace the mazy clue
Qi various scents that_chaiined her as she flew 1"
N E W-Y
C.
M. 8AXT0N,
RK
:
AGRICULTURAL BOOK PUBLISHER.
1862.
E 1125
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862,
by
MARTIN MET CALF,
In the Clerk's
OfEioe of the District
Court of the United States for the
District of Miahigan.
J. J.
Reed, Printer and
Stereotj'per,
43 Centre Street.
.
A
P R EF
The author
of this
little
(]
E
book and originator of
the system of Bee-Keeping herein
endeavored
to present the results of
careful observation, experiments
form of a practical
plain, that
book and
advocated, has
treatise, so
many
years of
and study in the
concise and yet so
even the inexperienced may, with, his
his hive, enter
upon the business of bee-
keeping confident of success.
He
takes pleasure in acknowledging that in his
study of the Bee he has derived
much
valuable aid
from the labors of Bevan, Huber, Huish, Miner, Taylor,
Munn,Bruckish,Quinby.Langstroth, Harbison and
others.
Bringing their conflicting theories to the
only sure test— the Bee-hive
to
by
expose to the eye
its
itself,
so constructed as
entire operations
careful observation at
all
hours and
— he
all
has,
seasons,
and continued through many years, demonstrated
the truth of some and the error of others. Thus,
little
by
little,
under
his
own
eye, have the natural
laws governing these wonderful
little
creatures, ar-
•
PREFACE.
IV
ranged themselves into
a
compact and beautiful
tem.
own private
pleasure, and his hive invented for his
use
:
sys-
His experiments were pursued simply as a
it
was not
until quite recently that he
thought of offering
to the public a
new
He now
does
book on Bees.
lishing a
quest of friends, and to
had any
hive, or pubit
at the re-
supply what seems
to
be a
public need.
He
Its
has intended to give due credit
in.
his book.
—
designed limits and chief aim forbade extensive
copying
;
for he has purposely
excluded
ulative hypotheses not yet brought
of experiment
all
from the
specfield
by repeated demonstrations, giving
only the absolute and abundantly established truths
on which the hive and system herein describe-d
rest.
all
He
does not expect, in a day, to convince
of the truth of every statement
nor of the entire practicability
made
ot his
in his book,
system.
He
asks for the former a careful study, and for the latter
a fair trial
— these granted, he
has no fears for the
result.
The Authoe.
Grand Rapids, Michigan,
April, 1862.
—
INTRODUCTION.
" But these pursuits will honeyed fragrance bring
Without the danger
Bees suggest
all
of a treacheroug sting."
that
is
beautiful, fragrant. and de-
licious in the floral universe.
Hence bee-keeping
has been termed the " poetry of agriculture."
A
flower without a bee to sip
its
nectar and rolic in
its
pollen, hints too broadly the quasi bliss of " single
blessedness."
Types of
models of government
toil,
— with
symbols of frugality,
Flora propitious,
how
extravagantly provident, and how cheerfully they
fill our dish with a " Benjamin's mess " of their delicate fare.
Whether bees are partial to good society, or man
appreciates bees as he himself becomes refined
their temples have always marked the locum in quo
of the highest style of human culture. Bees navigated the Nile in its palmiest days, to gather luscious
wealth from her blooming fields. Phoenicia, preceptor of the world, was graphically described to its
" heirs of promise," as " a land flowing with milk and
honey." Greece, " the land of scholars," had her
Mount Hybla " the empire of bees" and Emelus
cf Corinth, in 741 B. C, devoted a poem to their
Rome's most elegant poet, Virgil, sang the
praise.
bee in the noon of her splendor. The learned Germans, importing the bee from Italy, and copying
—
—
:
INTRODUCTION.
VI
their hive from Greece, have in
some cases a thou-
sand colonies to the square mile, sustain a Journal
and Associations in their interest, and government
encourages their culture. Of the 202 species of the
Apis genus, Hardie, in his America, says there are
111 in England, where they receive deserved attention.*
*
The following anecdote from the Mark Lane Express,
is
iu
point
A
bishop was holding his
first visitation
of the clergy of his
one of the midland countries. Among
those assembled he soon discovered an old college acquaintance,
whom he had not seen for a great number of years, but whom
he greeted with all the warmth of a renewed friendship. On
comparing notes with his friend, the bishop learned with regret
diocese, in a
town
in
was still a curate in a country village, at a stipend of
one hundred pounds a year, and that he had a wife and large
family to support. The worthy curate, however, invited the
bishop to spend a day with him before he left the neighborhood,
and the latter, not wishing to appear proud, accepted the invitathat he
On
reaching the parsonage, he was surprised to find his
wife an elegant, well-dressed lady, who received him
without any of the embarrassment which a paucity of means
tion.
friend's
who feel its pressure. The children, too,
well-dressed, and looked anything rather than as having suffered from the pinching pains of unappeased hunger.
But
occasions in those
were
all
the good bishop's astonishment
was still greater when he sat
worthy of the traditional and customary fare of his order, and was invited to " take wine" of
the
purest flavor and aroma with his fair and graceful
hostess.
Knowing that his friend was originally a poor man, he considered that he must have received a fortune with his wife.
After
therefore, the latter and the children had
withdrawn, the bishop
down
to partake of a repast
VH
INTBODUCTIOJ?.
Bees came with the Puritan fathers to the New
in 1670, and have long since become one of
our economic necessities. They followed their descendants to California in 1853 and subsequent
years, whence come fabulous accounts of their pro-
World
digious thrift.
With
staple tribute
for
our tables and dollars
realm of fine
for our pockets, they pass out of the
introduced the subject by expressing a fear that his friend had
gone to an unusual and injurious expense to entertain him, and
that it would entail privation upon him afterwards.
"
Not
at all," replied the curate.
''
I
can well afford to enter-
any inconvenience."
tain an old friend once in a while without
"I must congratulate you,
'"Then," rejoined the bishop,
I
suppose, on having received a fortune with jour good lady."
"
You
are
had not a
wrong
shilling
again,
with
my
my
lord," replied the
poor curate.
" I
wife."
More mystified than ever, the bishop resumed
Then how is it possible for you to have those comforts around
you that I see, out of a hundred a year ?"
:
"
my
am a large manufacturer as well
and employ many thousands of operatives, which
bring me in an excellent living. If you will walk with me to the
back of the premises, I will show you them at work." He accordingly took him into the garden at the back of the house, and
there was a splendid apiary, with a large number of bee-hives,
"
Oh,
lord, as to that, I
as clergyman,
the source of the curate's prosperity.
The bishop never forgot the circumstance, nor did he ever fail
make use of it as an argument for when he afterwards heard
some poor curate complain of the scantiness of his income, he
would cut the matter short by eKclaiming
" There, there, let's have no more grumbling.
Keep bees, like
keep bees, keep bees I"
Mr.
to
;
;
;
INTRODUCTION".
Vlll
and assume a commanding place in the sober
economies of life. Safer than bank, railroad, or government stocks, and returning annually, with moderate attention, at least one hundred per cent, net on
the capital invested, they might well claim a nitch
in Wall-street.
Adapting themselves to every sec-
arts,
tion of our country, they will for only a quiet
nook
make us independent of sorghum, or the
by gathering and storing away in sealed cans
in the yard,
cane,
ready for our use, the wasting sweets of garden,
field and forest
pure, healthful, and tempered to
—
the palate beyond the most exquisite culinary art.
" Eh
oh
I like the honey and admire the bees,
!
!
—
"
but
that sting was not made for you, and
be used against you wTien you learn to treat
Never mind
will not
;
But
them properly.
garding
if 3'ou
their comfort
persist in rudely disre-
and their
rights, returning
ever_v friendly salute with a blow, disturbing, crushing
them
ad.
libitum
— even
murdering whole colonies for
when you can get them much easier
without you deserve to
become more civil and
consult your own interest if not theirs, for the coun-
their stores
—
where it has but one. Their
and for their insidious
enemy, the moth, and will guard their stores and
yours if you will give them a fair chance.
try needs a million bees
sting was
made
for robbers,
*The moth breaks through at night sometimes, and steals
manner namely, by giving. She lays her
eggs in the hive, cuckoo fashion, and their voracious larvce deafter a very singu ar
—
—
INTEODUCTION.
ix
With modern improvements, bee-keeping
is
made
Immane and pleasant business. After
the hives are made
artificially swarming hives of
a safe, sure,
—the
—
swarm the bees and do all
needs to be done in the apiary. With the
modesty of real worth, and generous often to a fault,
these wonderful little creatures commend themselves
alike to the naturalist, the amateur, the moralist, and
course
ladies can
else that
****.
the " solid" man.
TOur the honey.
[Beebread and
the bees fear moths
timent
wax
?]
Danaos
No
wonder, then, that
dona ferentes^ [-'They
a scholarly quotation which
et
Greeks even bearing gifts"]
not often so good an opportunity of introducing.
Chambers' Edinburgh Journal.
fear the
we have
—
SUCCESSFUL
A.
A
SWABM OF
BEE-KEEPING.
BEES,— OF
WHAT
prosperous colony of bees,
swarming
in
-
IT CONSISTS.
the
midst of the
season, consists of a single queen, from fifty
to five hundred drones, and twenty thousand to
thousand workers.
The Queen,
fifty
the only perfectly
if fertile, is
developed female in the hive.
She is the
mother of the whole colony, laying all the
eggs, producing queens, workers, and drones.
She has six abdominal rings, while workers
^ and drones have only five and she has over
;
the thorax
1.
— Queen,
line
—a
longitudinally a clearly defined
feature which the writer has never
seen noticed by any author.
Drones are the male bees, and are of
no use whatever, except to impregnate
the young queens. This is done upon
the wing, in the air, and within the
first twenty-one days of the queen's
existence.
2.
—Drone.
The workers are undeveloped females
unlike the queen, they are incapable of
zation,
by copulation with the drones
and,
;
fertili;
yet
are capable, under certain circumstances, of
3.
—AVorker.
depositing eggs which will produce perfect
drones, difPering in no respect from those
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
12
hatched from eggs laid by either a fertile or an unferqueen. The average time of maturity of a worker
hee from the q^^ is twenty-one days drone twenty-four,
tile
;
queen about eighteen.
Having thus glanced at the different classes of bees
found in a hive, in its prosperous condition, we will now
take a look at the interior of the honied temple, witnessing their labors, noting the manner of their development,
and the more prominent characteristics of each class.
THE
QUEBlSr.
" rirst of the throng, and foremost of the whole,
One stands confessed the sovereign and the
The queen lays
all
soul."
the eggs, and continues this labor
the whole year round, the least brood, in our climate, being
In January the brood increases, and
more and more rapidly as spring approaches. The greatest amount of brood is found in June or July, or exactly
at that point of time when the old queen leads out the
found in December.
first
swarm
,
of the current year.
Indeed, the lack of cells
which to deposit her eggs, appears to be one of the
causes of the issue of the first swarm, for it is found
that the queen becomes much agitated on finding the
breeding cells all occupied, even though the hive be not
half full of comb.
The workers, however, instinctively
prepare for the migration of the mother, by providing
cells for the rearing of young queens to supply her place.
These cells are constructed on the extreme edges of the
combs, and are in appearance not very unlike small acorn
cups, with their open ends downward, attached at the
base or upper end to the worker cells, which are nearly
horizontal.
Whether the queen herself deposits the eo-o-s
in
THE QUEEN.
13
directly in the royal cradles, is not
she has never been seen to do
so.
I
known. I believe
have myself many
times kept watch to see how, and by whom this is done,
without determining it. But be this as it may, whether
laid there by the queen, or carried thither by the workers, as some suppose, that they are found there, and the
embryo queens capped over while the old queen yet remains in the hive, is conclusively established. Before
this time, all the breeding cells are occupied, either with
and the queen, becoming
perhaps from this cause, day by day moves more
honey, bee-bread, or brood,
restless,
and more rapidly over the combs. The workers, too,
partaking of the excitement, at first a few, their numbers
gradually increasing, are seen running rapidly over the
combs, striking their antennae upon each other, until
finally, as if by preconcert, rushing to the honey cells,
unclosing many that have been sealed over, they fill
themselves with their precious stores as eagerly as if they
momentarily expected a writ of ejectment to be served
upon them, and
scene within,
this
all
is
was
their last chance.
unusually quiet
loithout
During
this
the hive
;
while such bees as have been lying about the entrance,
driven thither by the great heat or numbers within, now
gradually
wend
their
places in the old or
inquire.
it
way
new
back, whether to take their
colony
we
will not stop
to
After each bee has taken on as large a load as
can carry, at the " appointed time, wind and weather
permitting," they rush, pell-mell, from the hive, pouring
out,
and
off the
alighting board, like running water,
many
a greedy fellow falling to the ground from mere inability
with its too great self-imposed burden.
Swarming.
The queen usually leads out the
to fly
swarm from
—
first
the second to the fourth day after the work-
14
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
If the
erg have commenced nursing the embryo queens.
weather should then prove unfavorable for swarming,
On the approach of a
the young queens are destroyed.
more congenial season, the work of queen rearing begins
anew, to be repeated, it may be, again and again, and
not unfrequently without swarming at all during the
day
swarm, the young queens will
emerge from their cells, when, if the bees are still numerous, weather propitious, and the honey-yielding blossoms
plenty, second, and third, or after swarms may be exThe bees having previously divided off into as
pected.
many " squads" as there are queens maturing, the first
queen that issues from her cell generally leads out a
second swarm, and, in one, two, or three days at farthest,
if bees are still in considerable numbers, with other circumstances favorable, a third, fourth, and sometimes a
fifth swarm issues.
If the bees are not numerous at the
whole summer.
From
the ninth to the fourteenth
after the issue of the first
first of the young queens, she
allowed her liberty, and will at once seek out and
sting her rivals in their cells.
If the hive be well filled
time of the hatching of the
is
with bees from the now rapidly maturing brood, those of
each queen cluster will stand guard and prevent the
queen from accomplishing her purpose, and others are
allowed to hatch.
Now may
be heard the challenge of
the queens to mortal combat, for one only can
become
and remain in the hive. The "piping of the
queens" may always be heard the morning or eveningpreceding the issue of all swarms after the first. If it be
not heard by the fourteenth day after the issue of the first,
no after swarm need be expected, and swarming is done
with that hive for a period of forty days.
fertile
THE QUEEN.
The
day
fair
first
15
hiving of a
after the
second, or after swarm, if a close watch be
kept just before and during the flight of the
drones from 12 M. to 4 P. M. the young
queen may be seen to issue from the iiive,
—
—
and, taking wing, fly off into the
4.— Unfertile,
Called her " bridal trip," and
is
is
air.
repeated every day, and several times a day, for
days.
When
This
sometimes
many
successful, she returns to remain perma-
nently in the hive, fully competent to supply eggs for the
whole colony
and the bees, at once clustering about
;
her as they have never before done, show that tkey
conscious of the fact and recognize her sovereignty.
practised eye of the
s,re
The
experienced apiarian
will at once detect this
change
in the affec-
tions of the bees, as well as a decided differ-
ence in the form and size of the queen herself
the
moment
she touches the alighting-board.
Before her departure they paid but
little at-
tention to her, running over her as freely as
after her return they treat
over each other
5.— Fertile.
her with the utmost deference never clamber over her,
always clear the way as she approaches, and with their
;
—
antennas
wave
a "
her every wish
is
God save
the queen" as she passes
;
anticipated, and her pleasure served
with alacrity.
So, also, a
the
day or two
parent stock for the
later, a young queen
same purpose and if,
;
flies
from
as is too
often the case, these hives stand in close proximity to
others similar in shape, size, and appearance, a mistake
sometimes made by the returning queen in seeking
at a neighboring hive containing a fertile
queen. Instant death awaits her here, and the future
is
entrance
16
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
destruction of her colony
the
remedy be
is
rendered inevitable (unless
applied), for the reason that no
eggs are
now in the hive from which a queen can be reared, the
old and fertile queen having left two weeks before.
month or two later in the season, a wonderfuldisplay of
A
and toward autumn,
happens to " heft" the
hive to ascertain how the honey harvest progresses, he
finds it wofully deficient in weight, that most essential
drones takes place every afternoon
if
perchance the bee-keeper
;
(?)
requisite of a bee-hive at this season of the year.
A
closer inspection discloses the fact that the interior of
the hive can boast of mo?-e worms than
lees, if,
indeed,
some
neighboring robber bees have not already discovered its
condition and taken charge of the disconsolate orphans
fori
and their precious stores; while the bee-destroyer
—
—
goes straight to
no such person a bee-keeper
his neighbor and tells the old and oft-repeated story that
" the rollers and moth have ruined his lees !" All stuff
Let
such person get a hive giving perfect control of all its
combs, and facilities for the ready inspection of its contents, and he may soon be convinced that the loss of his
bees is justly chargeable only to himself. Having thus
rapidly glanced at the prominent characteristics" of the
queen, and incidentally seen something of the workers
shall call
I
also,
we
will
now
turn our attention to the
DRONES.
" These lazy fathers of the industrious hive."
They are the male
and are ordinarily the ofispring
sometimes happens, that in the
absence of the queen, workers are found laying eggs that
produce them. The drones are short lived, averaging but
bees,
of the queen, although
it
THE WORKERS.
It
about two months, even when not meeting with violent
death at the hands of the workers, or by reason of their
fulfilling the object of their existence, to wit, the impregnation of the
young queen
When
mediately dies.
son, the
workers
fall
;
for
the cohabiting drone im-
queen-rearing
is
done for the sea-
upon, and destroy them
all.
THE "WOBKEKS,
*t
" So work the honey-bees,
Creatures that by a rule in nature, teach
The
art of order to a peopled kingdom."
These constitute the great bulk of every prosperous
colony of bees.
of
honey are
It is
by
their labors
collected, the delicately
that the rich stores
wrought
cells
and
Bystematically constructed combs are made, their temple caulked and well plastered with propolis, the abundant collections of farina, or pollen, provided and stored
away for food, and every want of the constantly maturing broods supplied. A guard of workers also attends the
queen in her almost ceaseless rounds, feeding and watching over her with sleepless vigilance, preparing the tiny cells for the reception of her eggs,
capping over, at the proper time, these cradles for their young, with thin scales of wax,
elaborated from between their abdominal rings,
—in
short, (except
eggs,)
all
the
work
the labor of the hive
of depositing
is
carried on
by them. When a young bee emerges from
the cell, and the queen, passing along, refuses to place
an egg therein, immediately, and without the least perceptible exchange of word or look of authority, by hint
or deed, the industrious and provident workers set themselves about repairing and fitting it up for another tenFig. 6.*
*Abdoinen of a worker magnified, showing
scales of
wax.
Ig
SUCCESSFUL
ant
a
;
new egg
BEE-KE'EPl:S'Gf,-
and at once the watchful
Four to five days elapse, and
the tiny egg breaks into a shapeless
mass save that something like an
embryo worm is revealed by the
microscope
when worker after
worker is seen peeping into the cell,
nursing and providing for the needs
soon
is
laid,
workers keep vigil there.
^3"y?/<i
—
""'It^jl
''"''liji
E^
,'
Scarce a
of its occupant.
moment
can pass, but some new comer depo&its its apportioned
Night and day this work of watchfulness and care
food.
continues without interruption, while generation after
generation come and go frorci year to year. No confusion, not the slightest discord, even for a moment, but
each, intent on
its
appropriate task, right gleefully plies
its
willing hands and feet, and all to one continual work,
2vork,
WORK
And amidst
!
all
this multiform labor, order
any cells are found of too great depth, in consequence of having been used for the storing of honey
If
reigns.
once cut down to the
required length on the approach of the broods to their
for the previous winter, they are at
Mathematical precision
vicinity.
household
From whence
is
apparent in
What
all
the
magic influence pervades the honied dome, and guides its myriad
throng
queen.
I
?
!
We
hold her in
my
silent,
open the hive and take
away the
closed again, and while
hand here, let us keep a close watch
will
Here she
?
is
upon the movements
!
Now
it is
in the interior of the
hive,
through
Where but a moment since all was order
and work, what have we now ? See The bees are run-
its
glass sides.
!
ning here and there. The tumult increases
Fifteen minutes have scarcely elapsed, and tumultuous disorder has
brok(?n out through all the camp.
All appears alarm and
1
THE WOUKERS.
19
confusion, even the lazy droves are taking' wing, and, like a
impetuous workers chase each other from the hivein spiral circles high in the air, they soon return
to repeat the search for the lost one, over and over again.
We will return the queen, letting her go just at the
entrance of the hive. How quickly she darts in
and
the bees rush back in eager haste to get inside, and know
Immefor themselves that indeed the lost one is found.
diately a loud buzzing, which, once heard, can never be
mistaken, is audible. It is the glad shout of the hundred
sentinels at the door, with uplifted wings and eloquent
words, as clearly and plainly as any man could speak it,
of the " all's well I" of the watchful guard, and the wonderful little creatures ply their busy hands, and feet, and
wings, as before.
Again let us remove the queen, but this time not to return her. The tumult again takes place, and again subsides.
Keep a close watch we have a good opportunity
A single card of comb between two
to observe them.
clear, clean panes of glass exposes both of its sides, so
An hour has past. The
that we may see every bee.
bees have become quite composed. And see
there is a
cluster gathering here, another there, and over on the
flood, the
Mounting
1
—
1
The bees are destroyother side one, two, or three more.
ing some of their young, and dragging them from their
cells
^—
They have selected
!
in the centre of
which
orie
cell
each of the clusters,
they are enlarging, most
cell
laboriously pressing outward its hex»'
^
agonal sides, making
In a single day
^ pearance
^ ginning
8.
— Queen in embryo.
it
it
quite round.
has taken the ap-
of an acorn cup,
to
curve downward.
days more and
it
is
now
be-
Three
capped over,
m
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
looking for all the world like a pea-nut de
pending perpendicularly from the comb,
with its smaller end downward. Five days
more, and the bees remove the wax covering from its tip, exposing a light brown
silky substance, which
is
in process of trans-
by the young bee while
formation from a
9
-Capped
a
Two
sect.
over.
there emerges
bee which, but
a worker^ but which
been
queen!
^_
is
to
the cocoon spun
worm
to a
days
three
winged inmore and
for our interferenm, would ham
new metamorphosed into a perfect
Almost immediately she
the rival royal
cells,
seeks
and, biting open
their sides near the base, stings the luckless infants
in their
very cradles.
The
bees look quietly on until the deed of
death is done, when they drag forth the
lifeless
bodies from the cells and from
be full
which case the
lO.—Hatched.
first emerging queen is prevented by the
i bees from destroying her rivals, and one isI sues with a young swarm. Thus, we can
I sometimes co7npel a swarm to issue even from a
box hive, by removing the queen or, by in-
ft
the hive
.:;lC.'''^'
;
unless, indeed, the hive
of bees to overflowing, in
I
H troducing
;
a queen cell so protected that the
1 queen
J
JfiJ^i-IS
F.:.|iil
'*^
^^1
can not get to it.
sometimes happens that the young queen
such a swarm
fails to return to the hive
the bees seem
queenless
hopelessly
becomes
It
—
;
11.— Queen utterly bereft of their faculties, refusing to
cells
destroyed.
^^^^ more than from hand to mouth, are
and destroy each other.
table, quarrel with,
irri
THE WORKERS.
"An
That want
And
If this occurs
in profusion, a
angry hive of bees
their leader, scatter
care not
whom
when
worker
12.
21
up and down,
they sting."
the blossoms
will be
are yielding
honey
found to deposit eggs.
— WOTlcer laying.
These eggs are laid regardless of order, scattered all over
They
the combs, and frequently six or seven in a cell.
will hatch, the bees destroying all except one in each
cell
the remainder will mature as drones only.
Eepeated attempts are made by the bees to rear queens
from such eggs, which result in failure. They not unfrequently get so far as to cap over the cells and wait
But the hope is
for the issue of the longed-for queen.
vain, for no Royaliy is there, and the sleep of the grave*
;
* It will be observed as a singular fact, that while the eggs of both an un-
drone laying uorker will mature and hatch from either
drone or vorker cells, they never mature as queens, nor hatch from the
queen cell! A perfect drone to all appearance will mature, but would seem
fertile queen and a
to expire at the
moment
of hatching.
22
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPI>rG.
only rests within the royal cradle reared with so much soand care, while the disconsolate, cheerless flock,
being rapidly decimated, hum listlessly in and out of the
licitude
hive with coarse, rough voices, ungainly carriage, and
murmurs plainly audible. Just place a queen among
—
an instant their voices change. The v/ell
of joy is heard within, and answering voices
on the wing without, join in the chorus, while quick as
thought, away flies many a winged messenger, to distant
heath and forest flower, to return with bright golden pel-
them
in
known hum
lets of pollen,
and heavily laden with delicious nectar
to
proffer to their newly-found queen.
ABILITY TO SUPPLY" THEMSELVES "WTTH A QUEEN.
The ability of a swarm of bees to supply themselves
with a queen from an egg which under pther circumstances would have produced a worker, although not known
to the mass of bee-keepers, even of the present day, is not
a new discovery, but has been well known for many years,
and various methods of artificial multiplication of colonies
founded thereon have been proposed. Some of the most
plausible of these methods we purpose here to notice,
giving the claims of their inventors, and at the same time
pointing out as briefly as possible their practical workings, while we shall also notice their defects and endeavor
to show just wherein they have been, to a greater or less
extent, failures, that the intelligent reader
these various methods with our
own
may
contrast
system, and judge for
himself of their comparative merits.
First, then, let
us notice the Piling, or "Nadir
system, so called because
of boxes, one upon
it
Hivivg''''
consists in placing a series
another, leaving the bees to
work
23
ABILITY TO SUPPLY A QUEEN.
downward, taking from the top full ones either of honeycombs or bees,- as wanted, supplying empty ones underneath. Sometimes this seems to work, both swarms, when
a division
is
thus made, prospering for a time
;
at other
times one or the other of the two portions proving a
ure altogether.
It
was not
different causes,
we
shall
fail-
after several
yeV^^ that
this system, so fascinating in theory, was found *to be
worthless and the reasons pointed out. As this mode of
multiplication sometimes seems to loork and at other times
to fail, and these failures result at different times from
till
be under the necessity of
in-
quiring what the bees of each division do under every
phase of circumstances. Let three boxes, A, B, C, placed
one above the other, represent one of these hives, A being
In attempting to artificially swarm the bees
at the top.
with this hive, suppose A to be moved to a new location,
if the queen
and a new box, D, placed beneath B C
and most of the bees happen to be left in B C what will
—
—
be the result ? I venture to say, that in ninety-nine cases
out of a hundred the bees will leave A and go back to
B C, carrying the honey with them. Now suppose the
queen to be taken in the box A, what will be the result ?
In nine times out of ten, the establishment of a
in A, especially if a considerable
number
new colony
of bees
and
brood in the combs accompany the queen thither. But
the greater portion of the swarm will return to the accuswhich is sought to be prevented by
tomed spot,
BCD,
removing
BCD
In either case
also a little distance.
new comb
D
before the mabe built in
turity of the young queen, the quantity being in proportion to the number of bees in the hive, not unfrequently
filling it up with worthless comhs ; since every colony of
considerable
will
bees, while destitute of a queen, build drone combs only.
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
24
maThese dj'one cells number four to the inch each way,
the
to
king sixteen on each side, or thirty-two cells
13.
— Drone and Worker Comb, showing
the transition from one to the
other.
while the worker cells are five
square inch of comb
each way, or fifty to the square inch of comb. Let it be
remembered that queenless colonies build drone combs
ONLY,* and that worlter bees never issue from drone cells,
;
and
*
it
will be evident
Except sometimes
the queen.
why
for about a
the " Piling" system
is
a
fail-
day immediately following the removal of
ABILITY TO SUPPLY A QUEEN.
Tire.
So
combs
also,
— deep
a general rule, bees
as
cells^
— or
25
construct store
large drone cells in
all
side or top
boxes, or other apartments than that in which the queen
and the broods are
at the time.
The JDividing Hive was only another form of the same
thing,
and
is
open to the same objections and from pre-
cisely similar causes.
—
Another plan still, called the Colonizing System and I
speak of and expose the falacies of these various methods
here because they are still adhered to by some who know
no better, and shameless pretenders are to-day imposing
upon public credulity by vending these exploded humbugs
is to make a box, and partition it oif into two or more
apartments having communications or openings between
them, and also direct outlets to the fields. Into one of
—
these a
swarm
of bees
is
the parent hive becomes
put, it being intended that
filled,
the bees, for
when
want of room,
through into the side apartments, gradually
them with combs and brood. When this is done,
the communication is to be cut off by means of a slide,
and the part which is thus made queenless left to rear
queens and colonize themselves. Like the methods before
noticed, this, too, would seem to work sometimes, and why
shall pass
filling
not always
?
Because the system
is
based upon error and cannot
possibly succeed, for the reason that not until the queen
becomes crowded for cells in the main apartment in which
to deposit her eggs will she pass into a side apartment.
Before she passes into the side apartment, drone and
store combs for the most part are built in that apartment
and if during her absence from it and before it is occu;
pied by brood, an attempt to swarm the bees be made by
cutting off the communication, they will soon find it out
26
succEssrnL bee-xieepin'g.
and leave for home, for borne is where the queen and the
broods are, and there, too, the honey will go. If the separation happen to take place w^hile the qneen is in the
the parent
side apartment, the thing may seem to work
;
stock prospering, but the
new
colony
is
pent up for breed-
—
ing space for worker bees, and will never thrive. By
I do not mean that it may not live, and struggle
along for several years, and be called a swarm of bees ; but
which
it will not throw off good strong swarms, nor yield
any considerable amount of surplus honey.
the
Indeed, all these hives have the same faults
that
;
greatest being the over-production of drone comb, thus
contracting the breeding space for the queen till the season for drone rearing comes, when a flood of these appear,
consuming all the surplus of the workers, now daily
diminishing in numbers. Thus it is that the apiary soon
" runs out," as the phrase is.
But this is only the legitiand it cannot
mate result of a system founded in error
be remedied even by the use of movable frames operated
on the same erroneous principle, as many have sought to
;
do.
It is true, the scientific lee-keeperr
may, with considera-
ble diligence and care, control drone breeding to a certain
extent
scribed
by
the use of frames on the system above de-
yet he must be
exceedingly careful that his
queen-rearing swarms are not large and in possession of
vacant space to be filled up with worthless combs. It is
;
conceded that bees consume from twenty to twenty-five
pounds of honey to elaborate one of wax.=^ Besides this,
a swarm destitute of a queeu is in an unnatural condition,
and, however large, labors mainly to supply the present
necessity, which is to rear a queen and drones to fecund* Whether
it
takes twenty-five pounds of honey to
not prepared to prove
;
probably
it is
make one of wax, I
near the truth.— Qui^jfty.
am
ABILITY TO SUPPLY A QUEEN.
ate her
;
hence
it
is
that no worker
comb
27
is
built
till
a
That no stores of surplus honey
are ordinarily gathered at such a time, one may satisfy
himself by examining the honey boxes between the issue
the greatest amount being
of a first and second swarm
found about twenty-four hours before the issue of the first
swarm. Again, a pint of bees will rear a queen in twelve
young- queen hatches.
—
days, and a bushel will do
The great
slocks
shall secure the construction
est possible
number of worker
of perfect worker combs in
all the
Such a method
bees early in
tJie
throughout the honey harvest.
of swarms during our
a
no sooner.
abundance, and save
flight to the woods.
tivity
it
of successful lee-keeping lies in keeping the
strong, and in sicarming them artificially by a method that
secret
the great-
swarms without
loss
by
will aiso secure the greatest
season,
A
and
their greatest ac-
safeguard against
cold winters is also
an
loss
essential element in
hive.
To combine these advantages, among-
others, into
a
practical system, has long taxed the ingenuity of intelli-
gent bee-keepers. For the last thirty years there has
been a marked advance in the right direction. A device,
simple, cheap, and practicable, for obtaining control of the
combs, has been one of the objects sought. Amateur
apiarians placed a single card of comb in a thin case with
glass sides, in order to observe the bees at work, and learn
their habits.
right
To insure the building of the comb in the
Huber started it by fastening a small
direction,
piece of
comb
to the ceiling
;
he also combined eight of
these cases or frames, hanging them by hinges, so that
they would swing like a door, leaving out the glass sides,
except the two outer ones, making the " Leaf Hive ;"
which was invented more than sixty years ago. Bevan,
Gelding, Huish, Dzierzon. and others, used " bars,^^ placed
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
28
built their
across the hives in rabbets, to which the bees
The side attachments had
ting them loose with a knife.
combs.
Bars led
in
his
be removed by cut-
to
to frames.
Bee-Keeper's
Henry Taylor,
Manual,
(first
published in 1838,) 6th edition, London,
1860, p.
like Fig. 14,
73,
describes a frame
and gives an illustration
of which Fig. 15
is
a copy.
Describ-
ing his observing hive, he says
Tajlor Frame.
" For the purpose of preventing the bees from attaching
rather
the combs to the glass, thin upright strips of wood,
:
more than half an inch wide, are tacked under the centop to
tre of each bar, at both ends, extending from
to use
prefer
might
some
Or
bottom inside of the hive.
page
at
illustrated
and
described
one
the
frame-bars, like
58," as follows
:
well here to allude to what some have
thought to be an improvement in the construction of the
bars, the object being to render the combs more accessi" It
may be
ble, and the usual cutting, to detach
them from the sides of the hive,
avoided. A reference to the accom-
panying engraving will exhibit a
bar with a frame suspended beneath
\ii^^^'
it,
but so made as not to touch
eith-
q^ the sides or bottom
and within which the combs are, or ought to be, wrought."
W. Augustus Munn, invented the " Bar-and-Frame
Hive," and published a description of it in London, in
He then used the " oblong bar-frames to take out
1844.
15.— Taylor Frame,
of the
back
of the bee-box."
of the hive,
He
afterwards discarded the
PATENT HIVES
oblong frame, and
in
— FRAMES.
29
April, 1851, published a second edi.
tion of his pamphlet, describing' his "
his " triangular bar-frames, made to
improved hive" with
lift
out of the top."
Others have made their frames to slide in and out edge-
wise
in others, the
;
frames partly
lift
and partly
slide out
edgewise, as in the "California hive."
PATENT HIVES.—FRAMES.
"
The Langstroth
Hive, like the Huber and
on the movable-comb principle
Munn
hives, is
con-
but more properly combines the oblong-bar-frame, as originally used by Munn, with Bevan's bee-box, and other additional improvements, making it more
structed
simple and practical than either of
son in Bee Culture,
p.
;
predecessors."
its
—
/.
S.
Harbi-
149.
Mr. Langstroth says,* "I have before me a small pamphlet, pubLondon in 1851, describing the construction of tlie Bar-andFrame Hive of W. A. Munn, Esq. The object of this invention is
lished in
to elevate the frames one at a time into a case with glass
that they
may be examined without
risk
sides,
so
of annoyance from the
bees.
" Great ingenuity is exhibited by the inventor of this very costly
(?)
and very complicated hive, who seems to imagine that smoke must
be injurious, both to the bees and their brood."
Great as Mr. Munn's " ingenuity" may have been, it falls some-
what short of that exhibited by Mr.
L., in the above quotation, by
would appear that the hive of Mr. Munn was an observation
hive only, whereas the facts are, that it was intended to combine all
which
it
the desired advantages of a practical bee-hive for every day use.
Mr.
Munn
ever, I
says, p. 23,
in
speaking of other hives, " But how-
should not be doing justice to Mr. E. Goldiug,
if
I did
not particularly mention his improved Grecian hive, by the use of
which combs may be removed from the interior of the hive and inspected at pleasure." Again, same page, " My object has been to
point out briefly to those anxious for the better, more extended,
*Honey Bee, 3d
edition, 1860,
page 200.-~Note.
30
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
and economical mode of bee management, the difficulties to be provided against, and to recommend to their consideration the advantages offered in the bar-frame-hive."
A
little
history will
Mr. Munn's
make
this
matter more
plain.'
hive, with the " oblong-bar-frames,"
a pamphlet, published in London in 1844.
ond edition was
which the inventor
issued, in
was described
refers to the " oblong-
bar-frames, and introduces the triangular ones in their stead.
the
"
lifth
in
In April, 1851, a sec-
On
of October, 1852, Mr. Langstroth obtained a patent on
improvements in bee-hives," under which he is understood to
all movable frames in bee-hives !"
Mr. Otis, in one of the Langstroth circulars, says, " This is the
claim "
comb
original movable
who
latter
men
;
"
ble
bee-hive"
!
!
!
and
calls
all
those persons
comb frame, " pirates"
[This
clause is a dangerous weapon in the hands of tlie Langstroth
it points the wrong way^
claim the use of the movable
!
!
Rev. L. L. Langstroth
comb frame"
!!
C.
is the original inventor of the movaB. Biglow, in Bee Journal, Sept. 1861, p.
212.
In a small treatise, compiled by permission, from Langstroth on
Honey Bee, by Richard Oolvin, the author says, pp. 36, 31,
Mr. Langstroth is the original inventor and sole patentee of mova!"
ble frames in Bee Hives
We had hoped that these absurd pretentions of his agents had
not fallen under Mr. Langstroth's eye, and had done him the justice
to believe that, when brought to his notice, he would relieve himself from complicity in them by a disclaimer over his own signathe
"
!
ture
;
!
but we regret to say, that further developments have
seri-
ously disturbed these favorable anticipations.
This matter
is
dwelt upon somewhat, because
claimed by interested parties, as above cited,
it
who
is
threateningly
perhaps(?)
know
no better, that the Langstroth patent secures to its holder the sole
For the benefit of such, and to aid the
use of movable frames.
curious, we give herein a few of the facts, and subjoin an illustration
of the
Munn
Hive.
"
With hasty judgment ne'er decide
;
First hear what's said on t'other side."
PATENT HITKS— FRAMES.
16— The Munn
31
Iliye of 1851
—In the preface
to the pamphlet from
which Mr. Langstroth quotes, as before
cited, Mr. Munn says he has " very mate-
Munn's Movable Frames.
the construction
rially simplified
Bar-frame Hive, by forming the
bar -frames'
-
into
uacK
mode
or
me
M
of the
oblong-
triangular-frames,'
III
lice-Dox.-
and
I of
I
riti
'
'
a
,
mr. Munns
may be
of using his movable frames
^
SUCCESSFUL BEE KEEPING.
xssaseen by the following, from the same
pamphlet. " The frames with their
contents,
'
may be
ever
it
wished to
is
out into the
lifted
observation frame'
* whenexamine the
*
bees, &c., as the half-inch spaces be-
tween
thii
sufficient
I'ig-
bee-frames, will allow of a
distance to
be preserved
18*
oetween the lateral surfaces of the
perpendicular combs formed in the bee-frames, and thus permit
them to lift out by each other with facility," p. 14. Again, " The
whole interior of the hive is thus open to inspection at any moment,
and a choice can be made of the combs containing the most honey,
or the bee' owner enabled to trace the devastations of the honey
moth."
p.
1*7.
Still
further, the hive should
to allow of every part of the
be so constructed as
combs to be inspected at any moment,
and capable of removal when requisite," p. 20.
"We now give Mr. Langstroth's claim of movable frames
" Second.
The use of the movable frames, A. A., fig. 4, or their
equivalents, substantially as described
also their use in combination with the shallow chamber, with or without my arrangement
for spare honey receptacles !"
:
—
;
Mr. Langstroth's frames, patented in 1852, are substantially the
Mr. Munn, described in 1844 and how
his mode of using them compares with Mr. Munn's mode of using
his triangular frames, described in April, 1851, as shown in the
" oblong bar-frames" of
;
above quotations, the reader will be able to judge after consulting
Mr. Langstroth's work on the Honey Bee, pp. 15, 148, 149, or examining one of his hives.
Munn's Divider. On page 10 of his pai
—
"
One of the triangular bee-frames can be
can be used as a divider between any nur
and thus form the box into two compartm
—
:
—
PATENT HIVES
FRAMES.
33
or diminish the space io the box, according to the size of the swarm,
or the increasing wants of the bees for
Mr. L's claim of the divider
" Third.
more room."
:
— A divider substantially
as described, in
combination
with a movable cover, allowing the divider to be inserted from
above between the ranges of comb." He says, " By means of a
movable partition, my hive can be readily adjusted to the wants of
Honey
either, large or small colonies."
Ilunn's space around
close to the
box
at the
the
two
sides,
—
Bee, p. 96.
The divider is made to fit
by means of extra slips of wood,
frames.
"
to prevent the bees crawling between the frames and outer box,
as they can do around the bee-frames."
form, as
it
were, a smaller
box within
not in immediate contact with the external
space nearly all
"
p. 14.
The bee-frames
the triangular box, and are
air,
but have a half-inch
around them," p. 17.
Mr. L's claim
" First.
The use of a shallow chamber, substantially as described,
—
in
combination with a perforated cover,
ing at will the size and
What
number
for enlarging or diminish-
of the spare honey receptacles."
are the " essential and patented features" of Mr. L's inven-
Above we have given them as gleaned from his book, to
which we have added his claims. On page 15 of his work, after
djscribjng and condemmn^ the Huber, Munn, and all other hives,
tion
?
and having before him Mr. Munn's pamphlet of 1851, containing
THE ABOVE ILLUSTRATION OF MuNN'S MoVABLE BaR-FRAMB HiVE,
Mr. L. says, " One thing, however, was still wanting. The cutting
of the combs from their attachments to the sides of the hive [! !]
was attended with much loss of time, both to myself and the bees.
This led me to invent a method by which the combs were attached to
!
MOVABLE frames, SO Suspended
bottom nor sides."
!
!
in the hives as to
touch neither top,
!
In the Bee Journal for June, 1861, p. 142, Mr. L. says, " If Huber had only contrived a plan for suspending his frames, instead of
folding them together like the leaves of a book, I believe that the
cause of apiarian science would have been fifty years in advance of
what
it
n(iw
is.
34
"
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING
Now
if
my
had known that
I
much
hive was not so
Iluber's as to deserve a patent, and
if
I
better than
had been base enough to
attempt to palm upon the public substantially his invention as my
own, can any man of common sense believe that I would have pub-
where and how
lished to the world, just
I stole
my
pretended inven-
tion ?"
Of course
not.
American movable
them have apthe essential and patented
In the same communication, speaking of
comb
bee-hives, he says
"
:
propriated to a greater or
features of
my
my
In
opinion all op
less extent,
invention." * *
tain this opinion,
That he believes the courts will susand that he should long since have sought their
protection, but for his limited pecuniary resources, the state of his
health,
patent
and the fact that
other parties
own
the greater share of his
?
Having
less
sold the territory, and got the money, he leaves the luckpurchasers of supposed " rights" to take care of themselves
!
Consistency, indeed thou art a jewel
!
But we
The concluding portion
Mr. L. about that.
Bee Journal article, above cited, runs thus
that before
my
not quarrel with
of his very interesting
•'
:
will
If
any one can show
invention there existed any movable frame hive
use, or any invention that used the essential
and patented features of mine, I will try to be the first to acknowledge that although an original inventor, I was not Vclq first inven-
adapted to practical
tor of such a hive."
Will he do
it ?
We
shall see.
Much more testimony
of the same import might be given, but let
this suffice.
I would not detract from the
j/wrf
claims of Mr. Langstroth
;
nei-
am I willing that he should have credit for inventions not his
own. He has combined in his hive some of the most practical feather
European inventions
tures of
;
and he deserves to be, and has been
well paid for the best compilation on the
to Bee-keeping, as well
that he
subject
is
entitled to
as to
all
—notwithstanding
country.
Honey Bee.
praise for the best original
its
But
justice
Mr. Harbison, compels me to add,
many
errors
— yet
work on that
published in this
—
—
THE MICHIGAN HIVES.
Although inventive
esting
field
skill
35
nas not done
that bee-culturists desire,
all in this inter-
its
have, nevertheless, been of great value.
achievements
The main
fea-
tures of success attained by the hives already noticed, are
among
the well established convictions
intelligent bee-
keepers
1. That bees may be induced to build their combs with
considerable regularity on frames put into their hives in
a proper manner.
2.
That they may be thus handle 1 with safety to the
apiarian and the bees.
3.
That bees may be
artificially
swarmed, and losses by
natural swarming prevented.
Their failures thus
1. To provide a
them that will not
their
2.
ficial
3.
style of frames
and method of using
nor injure them nor
irritate the bees,
combs.
To provide a convenient and
reliable
system of
arti-
swarming.
To provide
Many and
safe and economical wintering.
repeated experiments, by
diflx;rent persons,
under a great variety of circumstances, and living in parts
of the country remota from each other, have satisfied
those who are acquainted with the facts, that in the hive
and system now about to be presented, the three points
last named have been reached, and that by their use much
greater profits may be derived from bee culture than by
any other hive and system.
The Michigan Hives, invented by the author, consist of
a Quadruple hive, a Double hive, and a Single hive.
36
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
m
j>
)
'
""W'^^ife.
•-(t-^r-^
19.— THE
QUADEUPLE HIVE.
AB
D
In the above cut,
C represent the ground plan
of the four apartments of the quadruple hive, each
of
which, when full for wintering-, should contain a good
strong swarm of bees. The bottom board of the hive projects at the point C, or front, for an alighting board
for
the bees, the whole width of which is left open
by
re-
moving
warm
the slide underneath the
movable front as soon as
weather approaches and blossoms are sufficiently
«
—
THE QUADRUPLE HIVE.
numerous
to ensure safety
3t
from the depredations of rob-
The movable front is secured in place by buttons on the side of the hive, and held up by the cleat on
its front, resting on cleats o i the permanent sides of the
ber bees.
hive.
runs
When
all
the
support
to
the hive
is all
way around
the
top,
A
of the hive.
to a hole
made
centre
half
surplus
or
whole hive rests on a
together, this cleat, or stay,
the hive, and also serves as a
cross,
to the
width
point projects from this, fitted
way through
At the point d
the whole turns.
The
honey chamber.
made equal
the bottom, on which
in the frames, cylinders
of tin or other suitable material, five-eighths of an inch in
diameter and of the same depth, are placed for the purpose
of securing an opening through the combs at this point,
when they shall have been constructed all through the hive.
The manner of operating with this hive depends somewhat on what we wish to do with it.
If we desire only to double the number of our stocks in
amount of
begun their labors in
bees and brood combs to other
a single season, and hence secure the largest
surplus honey, as soon as bees have
the spring
we
transfer
two stocks
hives, leaving but
in the premises,
and occu-
pying opposite apartments, as follows
Early in the morning we close in all four of the swarms,
and gently remove the old hive a little off its stand, and
:
put a clean one in
its
the old one occupied.
place in exactly the same position
We
blow a whiff or two of smoke
of burning cotton rags, wood, or tobacco, in
bees to alarm them.
honey, so that
They
at once
when we open
fill
the hive,
movements, they
if
among
the
themselves with
we
are deliberate
not sting us.
and
"We now transfer the swarm in A, by means of +1)6
movable frames, into tlie department A of the new hive
placing the frames always in the same relative position
careful in our
will
;
—
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
38
in respect to
the hive and each other that they occupied
in the old hive,
that the bees of
in
and so adjusting the inner passage ways
A may pass through the enapty part, B,
going to and from the
fields,
larger and more direct outlet at
the stock from the hive
C
while they also use the
a.
So, also,
we
to the corresponding
transfer
apartment
new hive, leaving this swarm to work out of C at
a and through the empty apartment D, in like manner
the two swarms being thus entirely separate from each
of the
;
The movable fronts in the tenantless apartments
are now left out, and the top cover is put on to
We now provide a
protect the hive from the weather.
7iew stand and hive for the remaining two swarms, which
are to be transferred in the same mannei', placing them
other.
B
D
and
in the
new
Then we
location.
renovate ike old hive, cleaning
with water boiling hot, so as to remove any gum which
the bees may have placed upon the gauze wire curtains in
the partition walls, and destroy every vestige of the moth
j^ny
that may be lurking in any crevice of the hive,
it
needed repairs should now be attended to. Our bees are
summer quarters and are ready for
thus put into
AKTIFICIAIi
done as soon as the drones^— the male bees
and in the following manner, viz.
open the hive A, and selecting a comb, containing
sr^rii[©}j brood in all stages of develo-ime7it,
p;'*'""j>^(j from the egg to the capped larva, as
This
make
We
SWAEMING.
is
their appearance,
:
shown
ills
J
iii^^^ilMViiiii'j
20.-Brood Comb.
in Fig. 20,
we
transfer
it,
with
adhering bees (being careful not
to get the queen), to the
B, putting
in
its
place
empty part
an empty
^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ shutting off the com-
ARTIFICIAL SWARMING.
39
munication between the apartments A and JB at the point b.
This card of comb we lean over a trifle, so that it shall remain firmly in position, putting in place the movable front
and slide so as to leave only the small opening, like that
shown
at
a.
We
thus detach a small portion of the bees
from the parent stock, A, for the purpose of rearing
queens, which they will immediately set themselves about
doing from the brood furnished them. Such of these bees
as have been in the habit of using the hitherto empty
apartment for a passage way, will remain, to be joined
from day to day by numbers from the parent hive that
have also used that apartment as a passage way while
those we have transferred, that have been accustomed to
use the direct outlet from A, will of course return thither.
We thug secure only a comparatively small portion of the
bees for the purpose of queen rearing, while the labors of
the parent stock go on undisturbed.
Indeed, the old hive
will breed all the faster, for the reason that the vacant space
^^p, will be rapidly filled with new worker
^^^ comb, in which the queen will imme;
eggs while in.the incombs are constructed
at all, because the bees have enough
Tlie tenth day after starting
already.
fy
L the queen cluster, if no royal cells
C had been begun when the comb was
F transferred, we open the hive B, and
L diately deposit
^
;
fant colony no
r with a sharp penknife cut out all but
one of the queen cells, using these immediately in starting other queen clusattaching one of them to a
ters
—
21
-Queen
k^ni
Cell Inserted.
^^^^-^ ^nd bees (fig. 21), tafrom the hive C, and transferred to D, in the manner
^^^^ ^f
40
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING,
before described
;
being- careful
always
to cut
off the com-
munication between the new queen cluster and the old swarm, or
the queen will not be allowed to mature, and the bees will
ixturn to the parent stock.
In transferring- queen cells,
we
I
it is
place them in the combs, so that
have placed them
in
equally favorable results.
to press
them with the
of no consequence
we do not
how
injure them.
every imaginable position with
Great care must be taken not
fingers,
nor
let
them
the sun,
lie in
or exposed to the chill of morning- or evening, for fear of
The
destroying the royal occupants.
not touch the comb,
as, if it
tip of the cell
may
does, the bees
should
stick
it
and thus prevent the hatching of the
queen. The inexperienced bee-keeper had better tr?.nsfer only one of the queen cells at a time, returning the
frame from which it is taken to its place in the hive til?
fast at that point,
the royal cell
is
properly adjusted in
its
new
order to prevent injury to the young larva.
colony should receive only one queen
found that a queen emerging
rivals in prospect, will
in
location, in
Each i.ew
because it is
a small colony, with no
cell,
make her excursion
to
meet the
drones several days sooner than one emerging in a populous colony, or having rival queens in prospect to be dis-
posed
of.
The following
letter
from the author, was published in
the Bee Journal for September, 1861,^. 212
itor,
in his
and the edremarks on the same, clearly endorses the
views here set forth
;
:
A great diversity of opinion exists as
to the time wlien the
.^/sl;
excursion of a young queen in quest of drones for impregnation ffuiy
be looked
for.
The June number of
the Journal (page 130.) states
the time at from the fifth to the twelfth day after issuing from the
cell.
I think this is a mistake at least it has not been true with me.
;
41
ARTIFICIAL SWARMING.
swarming
The queen may be
I have practised artificial
cord of the
from the
facts.
if
re-
confidently expected to issue
between noon and half-past two o'clock P. M., on
hive,
the second day after emero^ing from the
—and
and made a
exclusively,
cell
—frequently on the
first,
drones are abundant, she usually meets them after one or two
flights.
A practised eye will readily
tion with
recognize the marks of impregna-
which she returns when successful
;
and
in
from two to
ten days thereafter she will generally be found depositing eggs in
One queen which issued from the cell on the 4th of July,
took wing on the 5th, and had deposited quite a quantity of eggs
on the 1th. Out of six which issued on the 26th ult., three became
the cells.
fertile
on the 29th, two on the 30th, and one on the 1st
are instances of the earliest
It
is
accomplished in the following way, viz
one queen
remain in
cell to
ture,
and the swarm be
before leaving
I have
known
;
hy permitting only
large, the bees are apt to cluster
imprison the queens : besides
cells
:
In rearing queens, I always
the hive.
If more than one queen be allowed
use small clusters only.
which,
These
inst.
however, I have ever known.
fertility,
to
this,
the queen will destroy
it is
imagined, delays her impregnation.
all
surplus
the bees to thus imprison a qu-een for ten days
allowing only one royal
cell to
day, no such result will ensue.
queens by small clusters, in
remain
in the hive after
The only
warm
for the
woods.
difficulty in
weather,
of the bees to take flight with the queen
and then leave
ma-
around and
is
By
!
the tenth
thus rearing
the greater liability
when she
seeks the drones,
This source of vexation and anxiety,
by taking the precaution of having some larvis or
is. avoided
capped brood in the cells at this time. The bees will not then deexcept an occasert their nurselings, and the queen will return
—
sional
one.
A
few will be lost by accidents, such as being de-
stroyed by birds. Sec, to which risk
Grand
all
queens are once exposed.
Rapids, Mich., Aug. 4, 1861.
Editor's Kemarks.
matter than
is
—There
is
greater diversity in this important
commonly supposed
;
and observers may
differ
widely iu their statements and inferences, while each narrates the
42
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
Circumstances exert a controlling influence and
facts correctly.
materially affect the result.
Thus queens reared
in small
nuclei,
such as our correspondent uses, will certainly issue earlier and usu-
become fertile sooner, than such as are reared in larger coloand the seasonable removal of all surplus royal cells, will
ally
nies
:
contribute to bring about the desired consummation.
efficiently
On
young queen of a populous colony, whose
brood and honey, has been
be impregnated, though drones abounded, till more
the other hand, the
hive
^Su?,
full of comb, well supplied with
known not
to
than three weeks after she
that there
is
no
definite
left
term
her
The truth seems
cell.
— circumstances
to be,
governing in every
case.
After
we have
them remain
thus adjusted the
new
colonies,
we
let
from six to ten days, when, if drones are
abundant, and we have safely transferred the cells, we
shall probably find our queens have become fertile, and
have commenced the work of depositing- eg-gs. We now
catch the queen &he will not sting between the thumb
and finger, and with a pair of scissors, clip one wing, so
that she cannot fly.
This is to guard against losing a
swarm at a future time, should we neglect to swarm the
for
—
—
bees, or give
them work
to do.
We
also
now
cage the
about three days, by placing her in a case of
gauze wire cloth a little larger than a thimble, and suspended in the hive, or laid upon the top of the frames
through one of the holes in the honey board, while we
queen for
are
swarming the
bees.
After thus securing the queen,
up the hives with empty comb frames, we turn
the whole one-fourth the way round, thus causing the
parent and infant colonies to exchange places, throwing
out of the parent stocks swarms of worker bees, into the
infant colonies.
The hive should not be turned between
the hatching of the young queens, and their fertilization,
because Sees lelonging to swarms of fertile and unfertile queens
will not fraternize, but will quarrel.
It might be turned
and
filling
43
ARTIFICIAL SWARMING.
with safety a day or two before the hatching of the
queens, but it is more difficult to find the queen among
the greater
number
of bees
ization is the best time.
;
It
hence, soon after her
fertil-
may
when
sometimes liappen,
performed at a time when the honey harvest has received a check from a storm or otherwise, that
the bees, thus empty of honey, and consequently more
quarrelsome, suddenly thrown into the presence of a
strange queen, are inclined to sting her. It is to prevent
this operation is
that she is caged for the space of three days, after
which she may safely be liberated. The bees cannot
harm her through gauze wire cloth not coarser than fourteen meshes to the inch.
The swarm will suffer no particular detriment by her confinement, since comb building
will go on as if she were at liberty.
But this is only a
this,
precaution to beginners, the
experienced apiarian will
cage the queen since in the midst
of the swarming season, when the honey blossonis are
yielding in profusion, little or no precaution is needed to
protect either the queen or the operator.
Where great rapidity of multiplication of swarms is the
object, one stock only is left in the quadruple hive in spring,
leaving out, in this case, the movable fronts of all the unoccupied apartments, and opening all the passage ways
always know when
to
;
through the inner walls.
comb, bees, and brood from
described.
The tenth day
take two more cards of
We now transfer a card of
A to S, proceeding as before
thereafter,
comb and
from some
bees,
for
other hive,
C
and D,
giving to each of these a queen cell, taken from B, and
always capped over. We should use no other, as the bees
When our young queens
will be likely to destroy them.
have matured, we turn the hive half the way round, letting
it
thus remain from eighteen to twenty days, or un-
—
44
til
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING,
the hive
C
nearly
is
filled
swarming
the hive one-fourth, and
one good swarm thrown
We now
with combs.
is
new ones by
off three
turn
done, having- from
the time
swarming has commenced
There are other methods of swarming the bees by
natural
!
re-
suggest themselves to the
apiarist, and by which he may be able to multiply them
to any extent.
Let no one misunderstand, however,, and
expect from fifty to one hundred pounds of surplus honey
from each of them for it is an extraordinary year indeed
volving the hive, which
-will
;
supply sufficient for winterBees must
have stores to live on through the winter, like everything
else in our climate, and it should be remembered that they
for honey, that will aiford a
ing,
where
three
swarms
are taken from one.
and we should be content
with the surplus for our care and attention.
Sometimes the combs become so filled with bee-bread
are first entitled to their stores,
and honey, that there
is
not sufficient room for breeding
faster than the bees perish,
An exchange
— hence
the hive proves un-
empty for full
augment their numbers. Every good
piece of worker comb should be saved for this purpose
they can be readily attached to the top of the frame, by a
profitable.
of combs, giving
ones, will rapidly
little
of the
melted bees
wax
applied with a feather, or the edge
comb may be dipped
in a little
then placed quickly on the frame.
melted bees wax, and
If plenty of such
empty worker combs be furnished them early in the season,
at a time when comb building is conducted the most
slowly, they will be immediately filled with eggs, insuring the multiplication of the bees with the greatest rapidity
so that when the honey harvest comes, a supply
;
of laborers will be on
know how
hand
to collect
it.
Those who
rapidly bees breed under favorable circumstan-
DOUBLE HIVES.
45
ces
iit this season of the year, and in bow incredibly short
a space of time their abundant stores are collected immediately thereafter, will appreciate the advantages thus
secured.
If empty combs are not at hand, give empty
frames, letting them alternate with full ones, so as to secure true, even combs. In my process of artificial swarming, bees build all their combs tme, for the reason that a
guide
comb.
furnished them, which
is
On
is
a frame filled with even
this they cluster, building the first
parallel with the one furnished
them
;
this
new comb
becomes the
guide for the next, and so on till all the frames are filled.
Worker combs are secured in consequence of having a
young queen, drone comb being seldom built in any hive
during the first year of the queen's existence.
DOUBLE HIVES.
The Michigan Double Hive consists of two apartments,
with entrances at the middle of each end, and gauze wire
curtain and bee passage between the two apartments.
In swarming artificially, this hive is to be turned one-half
round, making the two apartments change places precisely.
Those who keep only a few swarms may prefer the double
to the quadruple hive, as it is more simple in management
but in wintering, the quadruple has decidedly the advantage over the double hive.
;
If the directions herein given are followed, the hive will work,
and heekeejping prove satisfactory ; but let no one flatter himself that because he has a patent hive his bees will take
care of themselves and the improvident bee-keeper beBees
sides, and endure our long winters without honey.
may
die of starvation in
structed.
any hive, however well con-
—
46
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING,
SINGLE HIVES.
Fig. 22
is
a side view of the hive, showing the
of adjusting the frames.
manner
The single hive is made exactly
like, and of the same intedimensions of, one-quarquadruple one that
rior
ter of a
m"^ w'^ Mi'
;
twelve by twelve inches,
and seventeen inches high.
is,
Eight frames
the hive.
fill
Those who prefer inclined
bottom boards, can rest the
frames on wedge shaped
cleats secured on the inside, and near the bottom
of
the
side
bottom
to
It
lower edge
front,
all
filth,
the
of the
dispensing
my
improved
over any other single
made, and cheap
readily
by swinging the bottom board down,
simple, easily
is
cleaned of
many advantages
of
allow the
be hung by
swung up close
This style of hive, with
slide,
frames, possesses
hive.
the
movable
Fig. 22
with the
to
hooks, and
1/
walls
This will
hive.
;
without in the least disturbing the bees, affords not the
slightest point, inside of the hive, inaccessible to them,
moth to deposit her eggs,* and combines the most
practical form of the movable comb frame, and manner
for the
of using
it,
in a plain
box
hive.
* " There being no such thing as a moth-proof hive in existence, nor
prospect of such a discovery ever being made,
we are compelled
with that which makes the nearest approach to
keeper easy access to the worms."
it,
Bee Culture,
viz.,
to
any
be content
one that gives the bee-
p, 115.
FEAME
— MOTH,
47
IHA-LONC-
'z:k
24.— Moth.
25.— Female.
26.—Male.
27.— Moth
Fig. 23 is a frame.
der for winter passage.
Gallery.
F, plan view of top bar.
The
F,
cylin-
figures give the dimensions.
moth worm Figs. 25 and 26 the winged
and Fig. 27, section of moth gallery.
The female is somewhat lorger than the male. She entors
the hive at night and deposits her eggs, preferring to
Fig. 24
is
the
moth, or miller
;
;
48
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
leave them on the brood combs.
worm
extended, becomes
along
As soon
as,
hatched, the
encloses itself for jDrotection in a silken case, which,
its
its gallery,
or course, through the
comb
central wall.
The nearest approach to a "mothproof" tiive, is one so
constructed that the miller can find no crevice in its intewhich the bees do not have access, in which to
Where two pieces of wood come
together is the place sought by the moth, thrusting in
her ovipositor and leaving the egg to hatch and begin
its gallery beyond the reach of the bees.
In passing
from this point through the hive and combs, the worm
continues to spin its silken protection, which is proof
against all assaults of the honey bee. Once safely within
the comb, the moth, protected by its gallery, passes along
rior, to
deposit her eggs.
the wall at the base of the cells, sticking fast in its silken
unhatched bees.
toils the
I
have seen thousands of them
just ready to emerge, vainly struggling to free their extremities from the grasp of the destroyer
;
these soon per-
The only remedy is, to cut away the worm gallery
and remove the dead and dying brood. The moth does
ish.
not directly destroy the brood, but only feeds on the
of the cells
opment
A
and the food deposited therein
of the
young
wax
for the devel-
bees.
strong, vigorous stock,
having a
fertile
queen, will
not allow the moth thus to get possession of the hive
and
if,
while destitute of a queen, a foothold
is
;
gained, the
young queen, will cut away
comb possessed by the worms, letting it fall to the
bottom.
They will then carry from the hive by piece-
bees, on the maturity of the
the
meal such portions of
it
as
they can separate from the
mass, plastering over the remainder,
propolis.
Swarms not
sufficiently
if any, with their
populous to cover all
"moth proof"
hives.
49
their combs,
and especiallj^ queenless ones, are most exposed to the moth
and old black comb is more liable to
be destorjed than new.
The removal of the moth gallery by the bees subjects
them to great labor and much loss of time, which the use
;
of movable frames will entirely obviate, as they will enable the bee-keeper to inspect the combs at any time, and
remove the worms and any portion of the comb occupied
by their gallery or give any other relief that the swarm
may need. Hence writers on bees are agreed as to the
uecegsity of using movable frames, as a means to successful bee-keeping.
The only open question in the matter is, the style of frames and the manner of using them.
There should be as little contact of surfaces inside the
hive as possible hence it is obvious that the frame which
has the least bearing in the hive, and makes the least
;
:
crevice inaccessible to the bees,
pose.
Some inventors
is
the best for this pur-
of hives are
aware of
this
one of them says that in his hive, such a place
-only " where the frames hang in the rabbets."
My
hive
is
is
;
and
found
so constructed that no crevice is found in
Us interior in which the miller may deposit her eggs beyond the reach of the bees, not even where the frames
touch the hive.
There is no " moth-proof" hive, and cannot be for the
reason that the miller will go anywhere that a bee can.
Many ingenious devices have been invented for excluding
;
them.
For example
:
A
" pedal"
is
fitted
in
the
en-
trance intended to be operated by the weight of the bee,
but so nicely adjusted that the lighter body of the miller
will not open
practice
;
it.
Beautiful in theory, but worthless in
weather the bees
for the reasons, that in hot
so
SUCCESSFCL BEE-KEElPIXff.
will lie in
it
open
all
and about the entrance niglrt and day, keepingthe time, and soon cement the " pedal" immov-
ablj fast with their propolis.
SURPLUS HONEY BOXES,
When swarming
is
done, the honey boxes should bs
placed upon the hive. These should have a bottom with
holes to correspond with those in the cover, or honey
Honey boxes should
board, so as to be readily removed.
never be put on the honey board without bottoms, nor on
the frames without a honey board."
If
they are,
it is diffi-
remove them without injury to the combs. If
glass sides and ends are made to the boxes, so that the
honey can be seen, it will sell for enough more in market
cult to
pay the extra expense. Two boxes should be placed
upon each hive, or swarm, six inches wide by five deep
and twelve inches long, as represented in Fig, 19, p, 36.
to
•wiKrTEai]srGv
To prevent loss of bees by starvation in winter, with
plenty of honey on hand, is the object, in part, for which
the quadruple hive and the winter passages are constructed.
it
In a single hive, without a passage through the combs,
frequently happens, that during cold, freezing weather,
long continued, the combs outside the cluster of the bees,
become covered with frost, the congelation of their breath,
which they are totally unable to remove and they will
not go over it and so perish of hunger and fall to the
BOTTOM board WITH PLENTY OP STORES ALL AROUND THEM
and
while the bees between the ranges of comb are in pros-
—
—
;
perous condition, in consequence of the greater degree of
—
aniAal heat nearer the centre of the cluster. In low,
broad hives, even with winter passages provided, whole
swarms
way
often perish in like manner, having- eaten their
to the
honey board.*
With
the tliermometer at or near zero, a large swarm of
bees will cluster in a circle of eight or ten inches. Hence
it becomes evident, that in a hive of proper
proportiona,
with suitable winter passages, the bees will pass through
—
them
to the interior of the hive
the swarm thus expanding and contracting as the cold diminishes or increases.
For similar reasons bees winter more safely in the fourcolony hive than in either double or single ones, where
both are alike exposed to the winds and frosts of winter.
Ventilation.
A ventilating passage should be secured for
a supply of fresh air, even during the coldest weather.
This may be done by making a small bee passage
through the movable front near its top, like that at its
—
A better way, however,
my hive is, to place in the
bottom, and leaving both open.
swarm
to ventilaTe a
fall,
of bees in
clean, gauze-wire cloth over the holes in the
boardj^
and
fill
the top
chamber with
fine
straw,
honey
chafi*,
shavings, or other dry, porous material.
sufficient air,
* "
curs
This will allow
and at the same time absorb the moisture
The Langstroth hive had
among
others.
From
also
been introduceil into a number of apiaries,
the glovping accounts which I had heard of
it while
desideratum long sought for by apiarists,
introduction into our apiaries, that they would be in a
in California, I expected to find the
and
as a result of
its
highly flourishing condition, particularly that portion of the stock eontiined
In this I was doomed to disappointment, as most of
had been put into them had died of starvation, they having
eaten all the stores from the bottom to the top of the hive, in the centre of a
diameter equal to the size of the cluster, leaving an abundance of stores still
within the hive, but owing to the severe cold, the bees were unable to reach
them." J. S. Harbison, in Bee CiUture, p. 31.
in the
new
style of hive.
the bees that
52
StJCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPtNG.
contained in the breath of the bees, keeping them dry- and
sweet, and preventing a current of cold air through the
which iKS fatal.
The slide should occasionally be removed, and all dead
bees and dirt drawn out from the bottom. A convenient
scraper for doing this ma}' be made of a 3-1 6th inch bravier's rod sixteen inches long, and the end turned about
)ne inch and flattened.
Bees thus cared for, in my hives, and placed where the sun
shall not shine ttpon and disturb theiii in the middle of the warmest days of ivinter, will not peri&h while there is honey in
hive,
THE HIVE
By those who do not keep bees in such numbers as to
render such a course irr.practicable, something may, perhaps, be gained by carrying the hives in early winter into
quiet cellar.
The bees will thus remain more
and consume less honey, than otherwise but this
and,
costs time, and is attended with care and trouble
besides, most cellars are so damp as to render the de-
a dry, dark,
quiet,
;
;
struction of the bees certain
:
so that
it is
not probable
that this method could be adopted to any considerable
extent.
TALL HIVES.
Intelligent bee-keepers are generally agreed that tall
hives are better to winter bees in than low ones.
Mr. Langstroth, whose hive
toll
in
proportion to
ous advantages
;
for,
its
is
a low one, says
other dimensions, has
:
"A
some
Even
hive
obvi-
as bees are disposed to carry their
stores as far as possible from the entrance, they will
its
for
fill
upper part with honey, using the lower part mainl}'brood, thus escaping the danger of being caught, in
cold weather,
among empty ranges
of comb, while they
—
53
WINTERING,
still
Mr.
have honey unconsumed." Honey
S Harbison to the same effect
J.
:
Bee, pp. 329, 330.
" Many eminent
apiarists bear testimony to the superiority of deep hives
over those that are low and of large diameter."
Bee
—
Culture, p. 132.
Mr. Lang-stroth's/rflwe^ coinpel him to forego the "
ous advaiitc^cs'" of a tall hive.
He
saj^s
obvi-
(Hone;,' Bee, p.
" It would be impossible to use frames in it to ad330)
vantage" true in regard to his frames and his mode of
using them and in a foot note he gives the following
very good reason " The deeper the frames the more difficult it is to make them hang true on the rabbets, and the
greater the difBculty of handling them without crushing
the bees, or breaking the combs."
In the Michigan quadruple hive are combined Ihe advantages of both height and depth the frames being so
constructed and operated as to admit any desired height
of hive, and the main entrance of each apartment being at
the corner most remote from the centre, around which the
bees, each colony in its own apartment, cluster in winter.
The qurdruple hive gives each colony the benefit to be
derived from a single one equal in length to the diagonal of the quadruple, in addition to the advantages
of nearly four times the lateral space to be had in an ordinary single hive. Hence the quadruple hive is adapted
:
—
—
:
—
to fully gratify the " disposition of the bees to carry their
stores as far as possible from the entrance," a feature not
attainable in any otlier hive.*
* Those
who have bees
hive be set on
position.
its
in
end Inte
Before doing
this,
60 as to be kept in place.
low hives, will find they will winter better if the
keeping the combs in a perpendiculnr
in the fall,
the Irames and honey board should be
made
fast,
64
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
GKEATES, AETIMAIi HEAT.
In the quadruple hive, only one-half of the wall surface
and, in
is exposed to the weather
of each apartment
winter, the four
producing
;
swarms
cluster about its centre, thereby
in the hive, for the benefit of
each swarm, four
times the amount of animal heat produced in a single
hive.
"WINTEE. PASSAGES.
Many
colonies of bees are lost in winter, from
want
of
winter passages through their combs.
Seeing this necessity, the writer contrived his present mode of making
such passages, and securing them against being filled up
by the bees, by cylinders made of tin or other material,
and painted on the inside, and suspended in the empty
frames, or placed in the combs.
Mr. Langstroth, in his book on the Honey Bee, third
recommends cutting a hole through
and in a foot note, gives Mr.
W. Gary's method of making such a passage, de-
edition, 1860,^9 337,
each comb
Wm.
late in the fall
;
scribes his instrument for doing
for a patent
it, says
an application
on " this device" was pending, and that, " if
the patent issues, the right to use
owning the right
it,
will be free to all
use the movable-comb hive."
It may be remarked, here, that he saj's nothing about
securing the passage against being filled up by the bees.
Yet, in the
Be-e
to
Journal for June, ISGl, p. 136, Mr. L. says,
Some years ago Mr. W. W. Gary, of Coleraine, Mass.,
after cutting winter passages in the combs, put in them
a coiled shaving, to prevent the bees filling them up.
I
"
contrived a
frame."
mode
of suspending this shaving in an
empty
65
DYSENTERY.
It is
ing's of
a Singular coincidence! that between the
Mr.
L.,
my
hive,
with
its
two writ
winter passages, had
way, and that at the time of his latter writembracing said winter passages, had
already been ordered to issue
Mr. Langstroth's " some
years ago''' were included between 1860, and June, 1861 !II
fallen in his
ing,
my
patent,
!
"DYSENTERY."
Once during winter,
it is
desirable,
and
in long winters
quite necessary, that bees should be allowed to
fly,
to dis-
charge their fasces, or they are apt to be attacked with
what is improperly called " dysentery." This arises from
the inability of bees, after long confinement, to retain
their fseces, consequently on the approach of a mild day,at such times, even when the weather is too inclement for
them to safely fly, many will venture out for this purpose,
and drop down upon the snow, while some evacuate about
the entrance and in the hive. \Vhen the latter takes place
to any considerable extent, the whole swarm is aroused
to great activity
and, if the weather continues cold,
perish.
A swarm in this condition should be given air,
and carefully shaded. As soon as the thermomett^r marks
45" in the shade, place them in the sun, and open the hive
I have saved swarms, in mid-winter by
to let them fly.
;
fly in a room, setting the hive by the
window, and returning them with a ladle or spoon. But
a room is quickly so soiled by the bees that it is not fit
After the bees have thus relieved
for anything else.
allowing them to
themselves, the disease disappears.
FEEDING.
Bees should not be fed with liquid sweets in winter,
when it can be safely avoided. Swarms, light in the fall,
should be united, or their insufficient stores replenished,
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING,
56
by cards
of
comb
of,
honey
a box.
or,
well
filled
icith its
with honey fiom other hives
and the honey board re;
bottom
moved, so that the bees shall have ready access to it, may
be placed on the frames. They may starve with it above
the honey board. Bees may be fed in the fall to some advantage, when the swarm happens to have been started
candy, or anything of
late, or removed from the woods
that nature, may be placed immediately above the frames
and accessible to the bees in cold ueather ; or liquid sweets
;
may
I have always found sealed honey
and cheapest bee food.
They do not need water, as some suppose, unless we
want to encourage breeding, which is not advisable in
But in
winter, as it causes them to use more honey.
be given them, but
the lest
spring, for breeding purposes, a
both of honey and water
appear,
if
is
needed.
considerable quantity
Even
after
blossoms
the weather continues for several days too cold
and stormy for them to fly, they will often perish if not
A sponge kept saturated with sweetened water,
fed.
placed on the wire curtains covering the holes in the
honey boards, will save them, and in any case do no harm.
BOBBEKS.
Should robbers be enticed thereby, or at any time,
from any cause, contract the entrance, and if they still
persist, close it up, so that but a single bee can crawl
through at a time. This will give the defenders of the
place the best of the fight, and they will soon rid the premises of their assailants.
How
to tale them.-:— It
sometimes happens that a power-
swarm from the neighboring forest attacks a weak
swarm and nearly ruins it before discovered. In such
ful
—
5t
BOBBERS.
up the hive entirely place by its side a hive
having within it a card of honey, or comb filled with
sweetened water let the bees come and '^o a few times,
and the}' will fah-ly swarm about you, encouraged by their
success.
When in the midst of their labors, place a tube
case, close
;
;
in the hive, fitted to the bee
to reach about half
end elevated a
entrance, and long
way through
little
enough
the hive, with its inner
from the bottom.
Now
open one
— should have
with a shutter — until the bees
side of the hive, so as to let in the light
it
one side of glass covered
have filled and want to go home, when they will fly for
the light, and find themselves trapped. Having provided
a hole in the top of this hive, which can be opened and
closed by means of a gate, place a hive on the top of
this, containing a piece of brood comb freshly taken from
a hive.
Open the g'ate, close the shutter and entrance
below, and open the shutter of the upper hive, until the
bees, thus caged, have ascended into the upper hive
then close the gate and the shutter of the upper, and open
the shutter and entrance to the lower hive, letting in
and thus continue till you
another band of robbers
have caged the whole gang. The hives are now to be removed the top one to a permanent place in the apiary,
where it is to stand till about an hour before sun down
It is then to be opened, and the bees
of the fourth day.
given their liberty, when it will be found, that several
queens have been started, and your robbers have concluded to stay with you altogether, and you can count
;
;
;
one more swarm in the apiary. If small tin valves are
placed upon the inner end of the tube, to be operated by
the bees themselves, they are more easily caged, and
without the gate and shutter. I discovered this device
about two years ago, and thought it new, but
the valves
—
S§
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
found that Mr. R. B. Merritt, of Battle Creek, Mich., was
ahead of me, although inventing it for a different purHe did not patent it, however, and I believe it is
now public propertj^ any one having a right use it. The
pose.
idea of thus stai^ting a
original with myself.
swarm
I first
of bees, I believe to
practiced
it
be
about six years
ago, by catching a few bees from the blossoms in the
fields for the
purpose of experimenting, not thinking, at
the time, to what use the principle thus demonstrated
might be applied.
TBANSFEBRING FBOMBOX HIVES TO MOVABLE
FBAMES.
Having provided a box, called
made that its mouth will exactly
the
fit
"
driving box," so
the open end of the
hive from which the bees are to be driven, blow a few
smoke from burning wood, cotton rags, or toamong the bees not too much so as to sicken
and cause them to fall down from among the combs upon
the bottom board, but only enough to alarm and induce
them to fill themselves with honey. Let the hive stand
whiffs of
—
bacco, in
give the bees which may be out gathering honey, time to return
then blow in a little more
five minutes, to
;
smoke, driving them
move
two
the hive
convenient shade,
all
up among the combs.
if
such
is at
re-
hand, and carefully turn
over on a clean spot, (but never upon loose
vated ground,)
Now
or three rods from the apiar.y, under a
with
its
dii-t
it
or culti-
bottom or open end upwards.
As
quickly as possible cut a small piece of brood comb, or
comb containing eggs and j'Qung bees, from near the centre of the hive,
and suspend
it
by a
nail, or
otherwise, in
a box, for a temporary hive, placed upon the stand from
which the box hive was removed,
to catch
up such bees
TRAN8FERKING FROM BOX HIVES TO MOVABLE FRAMES.
59
may be out seeking their old hive. These will cluster
upon the comb thus furnished them, till they are wanted,
and be prevented from entering other contiguous hives.
Place the driving box upon the box hive, so that they
will exactly fit each other, mouth to mouth, tacking the
two together with a couple of nails, and with rags close
every crevice, so that not a bee shall escape. Now
lightly rap on the top- now bottom
of the hive, gradually moving up, from fifteen to thirty minutes.
By this
time nearly all the bees will have ascended into the top
box, which will be known by the humming noise within,
on applying the ear to the side of the hive. A window of
glass, or wire cloth, provided with a shutter, may be inserted in the side of the driving box, through which to
If the driving box have sticks nailed across
see the bees.
as
—
—
its interior, for
When
it is
the bees to cluster upon, all the better.
the bees have nearly all ascended into the top box,
to
enough
be
removed, and a
cloth,
or wire curtain,
open
to give plenty of fresh air, is to be placed over
mouth, to prevent the escape of the bees, letting it
stand in a cool, shady place while transferring the comb.
its
After removing the side of the box running nearest
parallel with the comb, as carefully as possible, cut out one card,
it upon a common tea
and with a frame lying
upon it in such a manner that the
honey and breeding cells shall re-
placing
salver,
main in the same relative position in the frame that they occupied in the hive, as in Fig. 28,
cut the
28
—Comb
to
fitted for
frame.
fit,
comb
a
trifle
larger than
so as the better to fasten
it
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KKEPINQ.
60
in place, using only the truest,
carding
all
evenest combs, and dls
much greater thick
drone cells and combs of
ness than one inch.
Old black combs that are true and even, are just as
good as new, white ones. Having thus fitted the comb
each side a strip of wood, previously prepared, of about | by | of an inch material, and
long enough to reach from the bottom to the top of the
to the frame, tack on
frame, to hold the
comb
in its place for three or four days,
or until the bees shall permanently attach
If a little melted bees
wax
is
partially attached with this
at hand, the
by means
it
to the frame.
combs may be
of a feather, but
except during the midst of the honey harvest, the fumes
from burning wax or combs shouldbe avoided on account
of greater liability to entice robbers.
When
brood,
is
thus prepared, the frame, witli
its
comb and
carefully placed in the hive, and its entrance
Thus,
closed up to keep out inquisitive stranger bees.
one by one, are the combs removed, without honey, except what little there may be near the corners of the
frames, the surplus being immediately taken to the house
out of the reach of the bees.
combs
in position
in
the
Having thus placed
new
hive,
the
brought from the old stand, and the bees
it
all
small box
the
is
contains shook
out at the entrance of their new domicil, having first removed the slide, so as to give them room to enter. A
little smoke may be needed before removing it, as the
bees in it have probably already begun the work of queen
rearing, and may be loth to leave the comb furnished them,
which should now be removed. If we intend to practice
artificial
swarming, and prevent our bees from absconding
we have now to find the queen. This is
easily accomplished after having been once done, and
to the woods,
TRANSFERRING FROM BOX HIVES TO MOVABLE FRAMES.
the inexperienced will have but
by
little
up the driving box on
61
trouble to find her
side, and gently
dipping the bees with a spoon, or ladle, from thai to the
entrance of another box, after the manner of hiving a
natural swarm, looking over each spoonful carefully for
turning-
its
A few of the fn-st spoonfuls may turn back
toward the greater noise in the driving box
but perseverance and a little sprinkling of water, will soon get
them started the other way and if a bee is seen a trifle
larger around the body and nearly twice the length of a
worker, and considerably less bulky than a drone, you
may be sure you have the queen. If she is not found the
first time, exchange boxes and search again.
When
the queen.
;
;
found,
fly.
clip
one of her wings, so that she shall
be unable to
This will not impair her usefulness in any degree,
wings are now of no use whatever, except to lead
to the woods. But, it should be remembered,
that it is safe to clip the wings of fertile queens only.
All queens become fertile, if at all, within the first twenty-one days of their cxistenee
otherwise they are drone
layers.
For this and other reasons, previously noticed,
for her
off a
swarm
;
is not safe to transfer a swarm, with their combs, from,
box hives at any time between the issue of a first and any
nor to " drive" a swarm
after swarm of the current year
at such times, for similar reasons ("Why?"), because,
either no young queens are yet hatched, and we run
it
;
the risk of destroying them in their
unfertile,
cells,
or they are
since they do not fly to meet the drones until
after leading off their
swarms, and
if
we
drive out the only
parent colony while there are no eggs in the
combs from which the bees can rear another, its final destruction becomes inevitable. The reasons are here given,
that the inexperienced may rot fall into an error, often
queen
in the
62
BDCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPIXG.
committed, and not immediately remedied as it should be,
by supplying a fertile queen from another liive, leaving
the stock from which she is taken to rear a new one.
Another reason why it is unsafe to transfer a swarm of
bees while they have yet an unfertile queen is, that a disturbance of the swarm at this time is apt to cause the
bees to accompany the young queen upon her bridal trip,
sometimes returning, but often absconding with her to the
This result may be prevented by timely giving
forests.
such swarms brood comb, containing eggs and larvce,
It is also an effectual remed}^ against
from other hives.
any loss of swarms by
desert their
young.
flight after
hiving
;
for lees
ivill
not
In four to six days after transferring,
the combs are to be righted, and the temporary slats re-
moved, and any needed correction of position attended
"DRIVING," OB FORCED
S^W"
to.
ARMING.
is performed precisely as if j^ou intended
combs, with this difference only, namely
This operation
to transfer the
:
when you have separated
the bees from the
combs
con-
tained in the old hive, cover the latter with a gauze-wire
cloth, or other suitable material,
hunted up.
the bees
in
When
a
new
found, she
is
while the queen
is
being
placed with one-fourth of
hive upon the old stand, while three-
fourths of the bees are taken with the old hive, and placed
new location. If this operation be performed tea
days before others are going to be driven, queen cells may
he. taken from this for supplying other hives.
But to
swarm bees in this manner, requires considerable skill,
and a good degree of knowledge of bees
and even then
is liable to fail, from the fact that we work in a great
measure in the dark, and can never know, as we ought,
in a
;
—
BEE PASTURAGE.
63
whether a mew fertile queen is provided or not, until it is
quite too late to remedy the evil, if one be wanting-.
In
thus transferring- bees and combs from box hives to movable frames, we have purposely left them unsupplied with
honey to any extent. When transferring is performed in
the midst of the honey season, none is needed
but if, as
is often the case, we change bees to new hives late in the
season, they may be unable to collect a supply of stores
;
for the winter
;
especially will this be the case
if
consid-
empty space is left to be supplied with new combs.
In such cases, a box four or five inches deep should be
provided, without top or bottom, made twelve by twelve
inches inside, so as to fit the hive. After the combs in
erable
the hive are righted, this should be placed on the top of
making a chamber above the frames 12 by 12
the hive,
inches and 4 or 5 deep, into which, properly spaced, a sup-
ply of sealed honey should be placed, and the honey board
put
Twenty-five pounds of honey so provided, will
on.
safely winter a large
swarm any where
that bees can be
wintered, even though no other stores are in the hive.
When
apple trees are in
smoke
full
bloom, remove this box,
to drive the bees below.
Let
every bee-keeper see that his bees have "enough and to
spare," remembering that they are faithful stewards and
blowing
in
a
little
will return the trust with interest a
hundred
fold.
BEE PASTUEAGE.
" Bees work for
man
;
and yet they never bruise
Their master's flower, but lenve it, having done,
As fair as ever, and as fit for use."
Propolis
is
a resinous g-um, obtained by bees mainly
from the leaves, buds, and trunks of plants and
trees,
—
64
—
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
and used
chiefly to
fill
up the holes, and plaster the
in-
ner surfaces of the hive.
Bee-bread, called also pollen and farina, consists of the
fecundating' dust of blossoms, and
bees from the
fine
dust of flour
is
also collected
— rye
flour
is
by the
and
best
—
constitutes especially the food of their young.
Honey
is
the great staple of the bee-hive.
It varies in
quality and value, according to the source from which
is
are,
1.
it
The three principal honey harvests with us
obtained.
From
the blossoms of fruit trees in spring
;
2.
and greatest of all. From white clover 3. Buckwheat.
The honey locust, the basswood, the whitewood, oak, maple, and other forest trees, and the flowers of a great va;
riety of plants, also yield large quantities of honey.
Our
surplus honey should, if possible, be secured from the white
clover,
it
being of the best quality.
This
is
also the pe-
comb building, empty hives being
with comb in six days. Bees will often
riod of the most rapid
sometimes filled
gather sufficient honey for their winter stores from buckwheat alone, when it is near by, the season favorable,
and they have plenty of empty comb
Mr. Alvin Wilcox, of
West
in
Bloomfield,
which
N.
Y,,
to store
is
it.
said to
have had two swarms increase in weight twenty pounds
from buckwheat in a single day. The field was within
" The Baron of Berlepsch has
fifteen rods of the apiary.
had single colonies in his apiary which increased eleven
pounds in weight in one day. Mr. Kader, of Mayence,
had one which increased twenty-one pounds, and the Eev.
Mr. Stein, of the same place, one which increased twentyeight pounds, in a day."
Bee Journal for July,
1861,^
164.*
*I hiivo
cient
known
ti
pmall second swarm, in the honey season, to store
for winter in ten days,
when empty combs were provided.
suffi-
M. Quinby
—
RANGE OF PASTURE.
OVERSTOCKING.
f)5
RANGE OF PASTUEE.-OVEaSTOCKINQ.
Bees will bring- stores from a distance of three or four
but the nearer they find supplies, the more rapidly they accumulate them
and they will often accept
an inferior quality, rather than go a great distance for a
miles
;
;
So great is the yield of good pasturage, that
little danger of overstocking.
From a report made to the Austrian government, on the state of
bee culture in twenty-one states of that Empire, furnished
in an excellent article on " Bee Culture," by Mr. Bruckisch,
of Texas, in the U. S. Patent OfQce Report for 1860, p.
282, we quote as follows
superior.
xhere
but
is
:
"Average number
Transylvania
Croatia
of bee-hives to one square mile
300
320
340
350
360
Gorz
Galacia
Lombardy
Serbia Banat
:
400
Carintliia
.500
Styria
Caruiola
.510
900
work on the Honey Bee,
statements from Mr. Samuel Wagner, Editor of
In Mr. Langstroth's valuable
we
find
the Bee Journal, Philadelphia, in which he
sa3's,
present opinion of the coiiespondents of the
that the
German
Bee
Journal appears to be that a district cannot readily be
overstocked, and Dzierzon says in practice at least, " it
IS
never done."
In Russia and Hungary, apiaries number-
and 4,060
autumn, on the
ing from 2,000 to 5,000 colonies are frequent
hives
are
heaths in
"
sometimes congregated,
Germany. Oettl sa3's
When
area, there
in
;
:
a large flock of sheep
may
is
grazing on a limited
But this
soon be a deficiency of pasture.
cannot be asserted of bees, as a good honey-district canTo-day, when the
not readily be overstocked with them.
—
00
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING,
air is moist and warm, the plants may yield a superabundance of nectar while to-morrow, being- cold and wet,
;
there
may
be a total want of
When
it.
there
is sufiScient
heat and moisture, the saccharine juices of plants will
readily fill the nectaries, and will be quickly replenished
when
Every cold night checks
warm day reopens the
carried off by the bees.
the flow of honey, and every clear,
Tim flowtrs expanded to-day must
fountain.
open
; for, if
marks
left to
wither, their stores are
while
visited
be
The same
lost.
re-
apply substantial!}' in the case of honey-dews.
Hence, bees cannot, as many suppose, collect to-morrow
what is left ungathered to-day, as sheep may graze herewill
after on the pasturage they
colonies and large Apiaries
do not need now.
Strong
are in a position to collect
ample stores when forage suddenly abounds, while, by
patient,
may
persevering industry, they
and even a surplus, when
but more regular and protracted."
Localities differ as widely in their
as in pasturage for cattle
and the
lar locality is very much affected by
;
is
impossible to say
to the square mile.
how many
gather a
still
the supply
sufficiency
is
small,
resources of honey
yield of
any particuhence it
the season
stocks can be
Very few places
:
sustained
in our country, are,
as yet, in any danger of being overstocked.
PEOFITS OP BEE CULTURE).
"A
penny saved,
is
two pence earned."
Poor Richard.
The profits resulting from bee-keeping, depend mainly
upon the locality and season presuming, of course, that
—
the bees are well taken care
The bee
Tan. 21, I860,) says, "
of.
Rural
editor of the
We
New
Yorker,
(in
No. for
are satisfied that nothing
AV'ill
.
PROFITS OF BEE CULTUEE.
67
pay better than keeping- bees but care is required, and a
knowledge of their habits, and, for want of this, many fail."
The same number contains the Bee acctjunt of Mr. Hiram
;
W.
Eulkley, of Saratoga
co., for
Agricultural Societ}', as follows
1859, reported to the State
:
1859.
June
1.
—To 29 swarms
JDr.
wintered, worth $1 each
30 hives for new swarms, $1,.50
.100 honey boxes, 18c
13 frames on wliich hives are suspended, 50c.
labor be-3to wed, estimated at
expenses of marketing
^203 00
45 00
18 .00
6 50
10 00
3 46
^285 96
Cr.
By
By
By
By
520)^ lbs. clover honey, including boxes, 25c. $130 12
489 lbs. buckwheat honey, including boxes, 14c
68 46
seven swarms taken up, lioney estimated at .f3 each.
21 00
sales of
7 hives for use again, $1,50
10 50
30 00
210 00
100 00
5 00
1 00
By honey on band and used in family, estimated
By 35 swarms on hand, $6
By 17 swarms sold after honey season
By
By
premium
premium
First
First
at State Fair
at Saratoga County Fair
$576 08
Deduct debits
285 96
$290 12
Profits
In the
bill,
"
same paper
for
March
3,
1860, Mr. T. S. Under-
of St. Johnsville, N. Y., writes
The amount
tion, of
course depends on
honey.
Mr. A.
:
from any particular secfertility and the sources of
to be obtained
W.
its
Ford, of Middleville,
Herkimer
Co.,
N. Y., has, the past season, from an apiary of 130 stocks,
I'eceived
an increase of 170 swarms, and 6,000
plus honey, which sold at 20 cents, and the
lbs. sur-
swarms
at
_
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPIKQ.
5
[,
making- an income of about $1,800 from a capital of
This, he says, is better than he has ever
or $700.
done before, but it shows what may be done in a g-ood
M. Quinby, of St.
with a favorable season.
Johnsville, N. Y., who has, I believe, the most extensive
apiaries in this country, and is a practical bee-keeper,
says, in his treatise on bee-keepingTn some seasons,
particularly favorable, your stocks collectively will yield
from one to two hundred per cent. I have known a single stock in one season to produce more than twenty dollars in swarms and honey, and ninety stocks to produce
over nine hundre-d dollars.' He speaks of these as instances of an extra yield, and further remarks, that a proper
estimate can be made only by the averag-e of proceeds of
several years;' but that a single stock, rig'htly managed,
in the long run, is worth more than $100 at interest.'"
Mr. E. H. Davis, of Larone, Somerset count}'-. Me., is
reported in the Maine Farmer, as having received from
locality,
'
:
'
'
four
swarms
a clear profit of $61 25, that
is,
a net of over
three hundred per cent.
But California
is
the Paradise of bees.
Mr. Hamilton,
of Stockton, reports in the Sacramento Union for Jan. 14,
1861, that he had, the previous season, thirty-five swarms
of bees, which increased to five hundred, and the yield of
honey for the season was 20,0T5 pounds, making an average from the thirty-five original swarms of 573 pounds
Mr. H. moved his bees Feb. 1, 1860, from Stockton to Santa Clara, where they remained till July 1st,
each
when
!
the
swarms had increased
to 270.
He
then returned
them to Stockton, and by the first of October the
swarms had increased to 500.
In 18 60 bees were worth in California $25 a swarm, and
honey 50 cents a pound. With these figures, the reader
v/ith
HUNTING AND HIVING WILD BEES
may make
his
own
69
estimate of the profits of bee culture
Incredible as the figures appear, other par-
in California.
ties report results nearly as great.
In view of the facts given
— and they agree with the ex— ap-
perience of intelligent bee-keepers every where
pears safe to estimate the
least
at one
hundred per
net profits
it
of keeping bees at
annum, when they
cent, per
re-
ceive the attention and care that a farmer gives to any
Even at this low estimate, can the
farmer give his attention to any thing else that will pay
other kind of stock.
as well
?
Considering the small capital needed to begin with
the ease with which
the business
waste from
so
is
may
"
little
kind of hive
attention needed
wear and
much
;
be expanded, and the safety of
— with the right
of the labor, and
gather
it
tear,"
actually saved
;
—the
lightness
the very small
and that what the bees
— bee-keeping commends
itself to every jDroducer whose situation will admit of it.
Every family in the country, and many families in cities,
might keep a few swarms of bees and thus, if they did
not sell any honey, they would add a material item to
;
their
own
tables.
Millions of dollars are lost in our coun-
try every year from
want
of bees to save
it.
HUNTING AND HIVING WILD BEES
give the method practised by myself, whereby I
have no difficulty in soon determining the exact locality
I will
swarm, and securing it.
As something depends upon
of the
the season of the year in
which it is proposed to hunt them, I will give the different methods suitable for each season, beginning with
Take the middle of a warm sunny day, the
early spring.
TO
'
succjESsruL bee-keeping.
thermometer about 48° in the shade go to the woods
near. the supposed locality of the wild swarm, and with a
lighted match or candle, burn a little dry honey-comb,
beeswax, or piece of wood, on which a few drops of oil of
;
Keep a gentle "smudge" (to use
a bee-hunter's phrase) going for 15 to 30 minutes, or
until the bees come searching along close to the ground,
anise have been poured.
following the line of the smoke.
"
smudge,"
A
two from the
wind is blowing,
foot or
in the direction in which the
elevated a foot or two from the ground,
if
the surface be
—
smooth if bushy, higher, so as to have it the highest obplace a piece of honey-c-omb, parject near the smoke
tially filled with sweet, freshly diluted honey
or sweetened water will do if the swarm is close by, otherwise
they are not so sure to readily accept it. If a drop or
two of the oil of anise be added to it, or sprinkled on the
comb, the bees will be attracted by its strong scent, and
work all the more rapidly. The bees will soon begin to
collect upon the comb, and if the weather continues favorable, with but little wind, and the swarm is near by (by
which I mean within half a mile), a steady line of bees
will be seen going from the combs, laden with the sweets,
to their home, wherever that may be.
The first time a bee starts for home, and sometimes for
several of the first trips, it will be seen to describe a circle immediately around the comb, the circles gradually
becoming larger and larger, till apparently the true bearing is found, when a " bee line" is struck for home. In
order to watch their course as far as possible, an open
space must be chosen, or what is better, an open field,
even if it be somewhat further off, when we shall be able,
by keeping the eye as close to the ground as possible
while the bees fly against the sky for a back -ground, un-
—
;
HUNTIXG AND HIVING WILD BEES."
71
obstructed by trees or other objects, to more perfectly
Of
line them.
and these
but a
coiirse
latter will
little
newcomers
fill
are constantly arriving^
the air with their spiral curvings
;
practice will enable the hunter's eye to catch
those whose flight will
now
be straight for home, without
more than a part of a single
striking spirals (if
it
circle, while even those
be not windy), will evidently lean
from the combs in that direction.
are often thus set at work from
the same spot at once, sometimes causing much vexation.
This will at once be known by constant quarreling. If, no"W,
we desire to divide them and get rid of all but those which
go in a direction indicating that they are probably wild,
we have only to place a box supplied with clean honeycomb, and a little honey in the cells, in the spot from
which the bees have been working, removing all other
comb, and after the bees have collected therein, close them
in with a cover, and carry them in the direction where we
suppose the swarm to be, and as nearly to the spot as we
can guess. If we diverge a little out of the line, and
yet, when we set them again at work, be considerably
nearer the swarm we are in quest of, while we are
toward home, or
Many
circle
different
swarms
farther off from the others,
we
shall pretty effectually di-
But we must not move too far at a time, for
we chance to go beyond the tree, our bees will not be
vide them.
if
lik(>ly to return.
shall
we have chosen the right spot, we
get a " cross-line," and by following
If
now probably
both lines
accurately to
we
be in
shall
theii'
themselves, one
the
point lohere the one crosses the other,
immediate neighborhood.
swarm only
will be at
work
three hours, usually the nearest and hungriest
ing the others
off.
Hence not the
If left to
after
two or
swarm
driv-
best, but the poorest
and least valuable, is often found if we do not divide them.
Since it often happens that a hungry and more distant
*12
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
will work more rapidly than one having a good
supply of stores on hand that is nearer by, and as we
cannot always determine whether the swarm be located
swarm
in the adjacent
distance
ner
may
woods
be very
or at a hive beyond,
by
guessing, the
nearly found in the following
man-
;
Get the bees at work at two points a little distance
from each other, and with suitable instruments construct
a triangle, making the distance between these two points
the bees
its base, as J. ^ in the annexed diagram
:
diverging from the line
B
AB
\u the directions
A
D, and
C, respectively.
A
C
D
Fig. 29.
If
we have
constructed the triangle correctly, the dis-
tance between the points
A
and
B
is
proportional to the
AD
and .B C cross
now, the distance
between the two points where we have the bees at work,
be 20 rods, and the length of the line A B, in our triangle, be made 20 inches, as many inches as there are in
ov B E, the location of the swarm is distant
the line A
from the points A and B, in rods.
distances between E, where the lines
each other, and
A and B respectively.
If,
E
When
their vicinity is found, as indicated
by the point
each otljer, we must carefully mark
This is
t'aa place and commence searching for the tree.
the most tedious of the whole process, often requiring the
where the
lines cross
nicest skill in getting into the right position to discover bees
HUNTING AND HIVING WILD BEES.
at altitudes in which they are often found.
trees are short and small,
it
is
not a
T3
When
the
matter to
difficult
but when the bees are 40 to 60 feet from the
is another thing altogether.
In any case,
the way to find them is, when you have nothing to aid
the naked eye, to get into the shadow of the tree, and
walk slowly backward and forward so as to bring every
see them
;
ground,
it
point of
its
body and larger branches
in
range between
the eye and the sun, looking at the sides of the tree just
below the sun and outwardly, carefully and slowly. The
bees will be seen very easily while in this position, and appear quite large from the reflection of the sun's rays striking upon their wings. A good spy-glass is a great help,
however, and by its aid one can readily determine whether
bees are working in and out of a tree or not, even by looking over the top and sides of the branches, or through
openings almost anywhere about the tree.
Bees will work honey at any time, even in mid-summer, if it be fresh from the hive. The way to set them at
work
in the
summer season
is,
with a cup or box, with a
cover, catch one at a time from the blossoms, set the cup
on the stump of a tree, or other convenient point, till no
humming is beard in the cup, when the cover is very
carefully removed, and the bee allowed to get its fill of
honey undisturbed.
It is
usual with bee-hunters to
make
a bee -box for hunting purposes, with a slide two inches
from its bottom, so that the comb and honey may be shut
out from the bees while catching and carrying them, to
prevent their becoming besmeared with honey for when
they do ever so little, there is no use trying to do anything with them, for they know as well as you can tell
them, that honey is of no consequence so long as they can
not get home with it. A bee-tree should never be cut,
;
srCCESSFUL BEE KEEPlXff,
Hi
except by a person of experience, before the middle of
of after the first of September, since it will be extremely difficult to save the bees at such times. During
May
these months no trouble need be feared by any person.
Simply remove the honey and comb, after subduing the
bees a little with smoke of old rags or tobacco, and with
a stick or nail fasten a small piece of the comb, containing eggs and brood only, in a box, for a temporary hive.
Now hive the bees precisely as you would a young swarm
in swarming time.
Kemove them at night to your domhaving previously placed the brood combs as evenly
and carefully in a hive as it is possible for you to do,
transferring thither the bees, and giving them but little
If movable frame hives are at hand, this is
or no honey.
Should the queen have been destroyed, they
easily done.
will soon rear another, and collect far more honey, and
prove a thousand times more satisfactory to you, than if
you had waited till fall, and then cruelly destroyed them
I have no
all, as is so often done for their stores alone.
icil,
patience with that class of bee-hunters, or b-ee-keepers
who practice
this latter barbarity.
It is
too
the practice of the rude Indians of the forest,
much like
who annu-
whole herds of deer for their skins alone. A
parallel still would be found in the farmer
who should make yearly slaughter of his beeves and other stock for their hides, throwing their carcasses to the
winds
After a bee tree is cut and the bees "broken up," robbers from neighboring trees or otherwise soon make their
ally slay
more perfect
1
appearance, appropriating the spoils. If any wild swarms
are in the vicinity, as is most always the case if the tree
contains an old one, they are easily followed home and
I have often found three or four
a hundred rods.
captured.
in a circuit of
W
ITALIAN- BEES.
Fig 30
Fig.
— Queen Magnified.
32.— "Worker Magnified.
Fig.
33.— Queen.
Fig 35.— Worker.
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPI.VG.
t6'
ITALIAN BEES.
The
in
a
Italian Bee, called also the Ligurian Bee, is found
small Alps-pent
northern
Italy
embracing-
district,
and southern
Switzerland.
portions
of
They were
described by
and are
and other ancient writers, as " small and
round in size and shape, and variegated iv. color," and
Various accounts
the most valuable of any then known.
of bees answering the above description, as once known
but perhaps lost, have reached our day, but had com.e to
be regarded, for the most part, by sober matter-of-fact
moderns as among the fictions of ancient mj'thology. But
it is
now believed that these wonderful little creatures,
thus thought worthy of preservation in song by one of the
world's greatest poets, still exist and are identical with
those now called Italian bees. As they were described
two thousand years ago, so they are found now, the most
valuable and industrious of their kind. Why they should
have been lost sight of for so many years, does not appear, unless it be in consequence of that universal, well
known law of nature by which the inferior type predomithe golden -hued
nates over the superior, if neglected
bee being thus gradually displaced by its black rival, except (so far as is known) in the district named, where
the superior race appears to have held exclusive possession, the surrounding mountains, covered with perpetual
snow, being impassable by their wings.
They were accidentally discovered by Capt. Baldenstein, while stationed in Northern Italy in the wars of Naonce more largely distributed
;
Aristotle, Virgil,
;
poleon
;
who
after returning to his castle in Switzerland,
procured, in 1843, a colony near
Lake Como, and
ported them over the Alps to his northern home.
trans-
They
ITALIAN
77
BEES.
were introduced into Germany by Mr. Dzierzon in 1853,
and soon became very popular.
The first successful importations into this country were
made m 1860, by Messrs. S. B. Parsons, of Flushing-, L. T.,
P. J. Mahan, of Philadelphia, and R. Colvin, of Baltimore.
In 1861, Mr. C. W. Rose, of New York city, succeeded in
bringing six colonies to this country, out of forty-nine
purchased in their native district. I believe one or two
other importations have been made.
The
Italians
have
already been extensively introduced into the apiaries of
both the Atlantic and Pacific sections of the United States,
and are becoming great favorites.
If I am rightly informed, the importations of Messrs.
Mahan and Colvin were from Germany while those of
;
Messrs. Parsons and Rose were direct from Italy, the
lat-
under the personal care of Mr. August Bodmer, an
experienced Tyrolean bee-keeper, who selected them in
tlieir native fastness and brought them hither.
It is claimed by each of these importers, that he has the
Whether there is any choice or differgemdne. Ilallan bee.
ent degi'ees of purity in these stocks, I do not pretend to
decide, but do know that very great cars is requisite to breed
them ptre, and the purchaser cannot be too careful of whora
he obtains his queens. I have examined samples of most,
I believe all, of these importations, have queens bred from
two of them, and am 7iol yet satisfied as to what constiter
tutes the distinctive characteristics of the Italian race.
color be the test, I
am
still lost
;
for I
have
If
failed to find
any that are constant in this respect, or in the number
and breadth of the yellow bands on their abdominal rings.
So far as my experiments with them go and they have
now been extended through a period of two years they
indicate that the lightest colored queens produce the most
—
—
•
—
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
t8
brilliant drones
;
and
if
the drones are the offspring- purely
of the queens, as is generally admitted,
may
ferred that possibly nione are pure, but that all
not be
it
in-
have a trace
of black blood in them, showing itself most strikingly in
queens and drones, which must be carefully bred out be*
fore we can determine their real characteristics and render them uniform in shape, and constant in color ?
The illustrations (magnified) on page 75, were engraved
from selected specimens, and show the distinctive mark-
—
ings and bands in great perfection the yellow portions
being represented by white. It will be observed that the
body is more round and slender, and a little longer, the
—
wings somewhat larger in proportion to the body in fact
the whole bee appearing more delicate in form and texture
— than the common
bee.
The testimony of several well known apiarians who
have had experience with the Italians, is here given, that
the reader may the better judge whether this new variety
is worthy of his attention.
From
the Baron of Berlepsch and Mr. Dzierzon
:
The Baron of Berlepsch and Mr. Dzierzon, among the
most intelligent and skillful bee-keepers of Germany, give
the Italian decided preference over the common bee. The
former says he has found
"
That the Italian bees are less sensitive to cold than
kind.
2. That their queens are more prolific.
3. That the colonies swarm earlier and more frequently, though of this he has less experience than
Dzierzon.
4, That they are less apt to sting.
Not only
are they less apt, but scarcely are they inclined to
sting, though they will do so if intentionally annoyed
or irritated.
5. Thev are more industrious.
Of this fact
the
1.
common
ITALIAN BEES.
19
he had tjut one summer^s experience, but all the results
and indications g'O to confirna Dzierzon's statements,
and satisfy him of the superiority of this kind in every
point of view.
6. That they
are more disposed to rob
than common bees, and more courageous and active in
They
self-defence.
Way
into
strive on all
hands to force their
common bees
colonies of
bees attack their hives,
but when strange
with great fierceness,
thej' fight
;
and with an incredible adroitness."
From
Mr. F. A. Deus, and others
:
Mr. F. A. Deus, who with three other members of the
German Apiarian Convention, held at Mayence, in 1856, in
that year made a tour of France, Switzerland, and Italy, in
search for and observations on Italian bees, in his
quoted
^.213, says
port, as
in the
American
Bee,
re-
Journal for Sept., 1861,
:
" At the Villa di Negro, near the latter city (Genoa), the
genuine Italian bee exists in all its beauty and perfection.
It was delightful to observe the celerity, agility
and grace displayed in all their motions by the busy
workers,
as
they
rifled
flowers of
the
their sweets.
were so slender and delicate, their colors
so bright, and their markings so clear and distinct, as
to surpass greatly any specimens of the race which had
previously corao under our notice. We caught a number of them, and preserved them in alcohol for future
Their
bodies
comparison. * * *
It is
evident that the Italian bee
is
not
Wo
a mere climatic variety, but really a distinct race.
were repeatedly assured also that the common kind only
was found
districts
in the
of
Kingdom
Upper
Itah'.
of
Naples and in the warmer
chanced to fall in with a
We
P
80
SUCCESSFULL BEE-KEEPING.
bee-keeper from Normandy,
who informed us
kinds of bees were cultivated in that country
mon
two
that
— the
com-
kind and also a yellowish or orange variety. The
he stated, were much preferred, as being more
latter,
gentle
said,
and more industrious. The common kind, he
were particularly irascible and wild. This ac-
count likewise corroborates the opinion that the Italian
bee is not the common insect m^:)dified by special
matic influences, because Normandy differs little
cli-
in
that respect from Central Germany.
"
At Lago Maggiore and Lago
di
Como, we found
Ital-
ian bees exclusively, and of the most perfect type, like
These
those of Genoa.
districts, indeed,
appear to be
their chief habitat
From
"
the American Agriculturist
The
fact that so
many
:
of our oldest apiarians have con-
siderable confidence in them,
argues well in their favor.
have watched their multiplication from a single
swarm, and if the rate of increase be as great at other
points to which the queens ax'e being daily dispatched, it
will not take long to fill the country with them
if such a
consummation be desirable. Below we give' an extract
from a letter, dated August 10, written by Mr. E. A. Brackett, the well known sculptor, who is an enthusiastic amateur in bees also.
His suggestion in regard to improving
bees, by care in selecting breeding queens, is worthy of
attention.
All kinds of domestic animals have been
brought to a much higher standard, by special care in
We
—
breeding.
Why may
manner improved
"
'
My
not our
common bees be
in like
?
experience thus
far, satisfies
me
that they have
81
ITALIAN BEES.
The queens are larger and more
The workers, when bred in comb of their own
They
building, are longer and their honey sacs larger.
are Jess sensitive to cold, and more industrious.
" In all my handling of them
and I have done so pretty
freely, lifting' the comb?, and examining them almost daily
A queen
I have never known one to offer to sting.
not been overrated.
prolific.
—
'
—
that I received in June, and introduced to a strong stock
filled thirteen sheets of comb with
There is at present scarcely a black bee
Although I
in the hive, so rapid has been the change.
have taken from it large quantities of worker brood and
eleven days
of bees, in
brood and eggs.
sealed drones, the hive
From
"
the California Culturist
We
overflowing.' "
is still
:
believe, however, that the superiority of the Ital-
among apiarians
common bee for sale. We
take pleasure in introducing proof of this, that those who
may have been in doubt may have their doubts removed,
ian bee is no longer questionable, even
who have
large stocks of the
and at once obtain this superior breed just as the stockgrower would a superior breed of horses, cattle, or sheep."
;
From Mr.
" It is
L. L. Langstroth
:
hardly necessary to say, that a species of the
honey-bee so much more productive than the
kind, and so
much
great value to
docility
all
common
less sensitive to cold, will be of
sections of our country.
very
Its superior
would make it worthy of high regard, even if in
Its introduction
it had no peculiar merits.
other respects
into this countr}' will,
its
it
is
confidently believed, consti-
new
era in bee-keeping, and impart an interest to
pursuit which will enable us, ere long, to vie with any
tute a
part of the world in the production of honey."
82
A
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
year
later,
(Aug.
as follows
24, I860,) Mr. L.
wrote to Mr. Parsons
:
" I have three
Italian queens
colonies
were given
(artificial
in June.
swarms)
to
which
common
All of the
and if we may judge from the
working of these colonies, the Italians will fully sustain
their European reputation.
They have gathered more
than twice as much honey as the swarms of the common
bees appear to have died
;
This, however, has been chiefly gathered within the
few weeks during which time, the swarms of common bees have increased but very little in weight. The season has been eminently unfavorable for the new swarms,
(one of the very worst I ever knew) and the prospect is,
that I shall have to feed all of them except the Italians.
bee.
last
;
L. L. Langstroth."
From
J. P.
" First.
common
Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 13, 1860
—Their disposition to labor
kind.
From
the earliest
far excels that of the
dawn
of
day
to the ar-
rival of evening, they are invariably passing in
of the hive, and rarely suspend their
or moderate showers
vidual of the
work
and out
for winds, heat
— at times when not a solitary
common kind
is to
:
be seen.
Two
day, their labors are extended beyond the
indi-
hours each
working time
named kind.
"Second.
Power of endurance, and especially of resisting
the impression of cold, they possess in a marked degree.
of the last
—
Since the buckwheat, salidagoes, and astors have flowered
the nights have been remarkably cold.
This low temperature has in a great measure suspended
in this vicinity,
the efforts of the
Italians
;
common
bees, and they have been eating
accumulated stores. Not so with the
they have been steadily accumulating honey
their previously
©3
ITALIAN BEES.
and bee-bread, and rapidly multiplying their numbers
They seem peculiarly adapted to resist the chilly atmosphere and high winds, which predominate in autumn, on
the shores of Lake Erie.
—
" Third.
Prolificness they equally excel in. Both my fall
and half-blooded stocks have become numerous and strong
in numbers, as well as in stores, at this late season of
the year, when the common kind have ceased increasing,
and have become nearly passive.
" Fourth.
Their individual strength is greater and this
is well illustrated in their prompt manner of tossing to a
great distance any robber that chances to approach their
—
hive.
" Fifth.
;
—Their beauty of color and graceful form render
them an object of
colonies are daily
" Sixth.
My
interest to every person of taste.
watched and admired by many
visitors.
— Of their moral character,
I cannot speak favorrobbery of weaker colonies is going on, these
yellow-jackets are sure to be on hand.
So far as my experience has gone with them, I find every statement in re-
ably.
If
gard to their superiority sustained.
" They will no doubt prove a valuable acquisition to
and will be peculiarly adapted
localities of high altitudes
to the climate of Washington Territory, Oregon, and the
;
mountainous regions of
California.
J. P.
From
the American Apiarian Convention
KlETLAND."
:
The following from the report of the American Apiarian
Convention, held at Cleveland, Ohio, March 12-14, 1862,
is
valuable in their favor, after a
" Italian Bees.
—All agreed as
trial of three
years
:
to the superiority of the
84
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
common black bee. They deserve all th*?
good things that European bee-keepers had said of them,
save one. They are not more peaceable, but more irascible than the black
ee, and their sting is more poisonous.
Mr. Langstroth gave it as his experience, and
that of some of his friends, that the Italian bees, instead
of being more peaceable than our common kind, are
more irascible (except in the season of honey gathering), and are more difficult to quiet when once excited.
The Italian who brought all Mr. Parsons' bees, said that
our bees were far more peaceable than the black bees of
Germany. A German writer who furnished a valuable
article on bee-keeping, for the Patent Office Report of
1860, says that our bees are much more easily handled
than those of Germany. This accounts for the belief
in Germany, that the Italian bees are more peaceable
than the black species. The r'emarks of Prof. Kirtland
seemed to sum np all that other gentlemen had said of
the Italian bee.
The professor prefaced his remarks by
saying that he had no " ax to grind," and no bees to sell,
and would not have until his experiments had been
completed, which would be three or more years. After
discussing the good qualities of the Italian bee, he said
that it was as much superior to the black bee as Shorthorn cows and Chester hogs are to the " scrubs" of the
country; and that the Italian bee is:
1. Stronger,
more active, and resists lake winds and chills better
than the common bee. 2. It works more hours every
day.
3. It collects more stores.
4. It works on some
flowers which the black bee cannot operate on.
5. It
breeds more freely.
6. It is
more irritable, and its
sting more painful.
Y. It is more beautiful.
8. It, in
short, compares with the common bee as the Short-horn
Italian to the
I
—
HOW
85
TO ITALIANIZE COMMON STOCKS,
Durham does
The Dr. cautioned
to the native scrub.
against breedin.e; " in and in," and he and other gentlemen advised bee-keepers to purchase queens both from
the Parsons and Rose stock, to prevent too close breeding."
My own
experience with Italian bees, differing some-
what from those above given, has not yet been such as to
warrant a decided opinion in all respects. Of their genno question.
eral superiority, however, there can be
I
have found them quite as gentle as the common kind
for, though quicker on the wing, I have been stung only
twice by them, so as to cause any swelling or pain, during a daily and almost hourl}' handling of them for two
years.
I have, moreover, been too much engaged in
;
queen rearing and experiments to determine defin tely
their comparative industry.
They seem to fly swifter and
work more hours than common bees, which they easily masI noticed, the past
ter, and whose stores they appropriate,
season, that one of my Italian hives was rapidly accumulating honey, while others were diminishing in weight.
Looking into the hive, a short time after, I found it running over with bees, a large portion of them being black.
I did not see them com-e nor know whence they came, as
but they were
I had in previous instances of robbing
;
doubtless
a
subdued
colony
of
blacks
(not " contra-
bands"), which, after hard fighting, being spoiled of their
treasures,
had sought protection under the "
segis of the
union,"
HO"W TO ITALIANIZE COMMON STOCKS.
The process
of introducing the Italian race has been, to
swarm of common
away its queen and
procure a queen, and after rendering a
bees hopelessly queenless hj taking
SrccEssruL bee-keepino.
86
successively destroying
queen
all
introduce the Italian queen.
bees will then accept her.
tile,
continues so for
appear
It is
And
cells for eight days, to
found that the black
since the queen, once fer-
her progeny which will begin to
days after her introduction, will be-
life,
in twentj^-one
come the exclusiye possessors of the hive
in a period of
from three to six months.
So far the process is successful and perfect but the
has been, further, that inasmuch as the drone progeny
of the queen was of necessity as pure as herself, whether
she had met pure or impure drones, or, indeed, any drones
at all, all we had to do to breed the Italian race in purity
was, to get a pure queen, purely impregnated, and rear
from her eggs a new race of queens for all our hives, when
all our drones, being the oifspring of pure Italian queens,
would be pure Italians then our queens, having been impregnated by black drones and hence producing hybrid
workers, must be replaced with new ones reared from
these new queens, meeting only pure
the original queen
drones, would irsure the perfect Italianization of the
:
theory
:
;
entire apiary.
All this is theoreticall}^ plain
enough, and
it is
presumed
that not one person in ten will anticipate any difficulty in
effecting a
change
of the apiary
from one race to the oth-
whereas, not one in a thousand, probably, will be able
er
;
to
do this on the
first trial,
if,
indeed, at
at the practical difficulties in the
We
will
pregnated,
hive of
way
all.
Let us look
of accomplishing
it.
suppose that a pure Italian queen, purely imis
obtained, and successfully transferred to a
common
bees.
After the lapse of twenty-four days,
progeny of the old queen will have disappeared from the
combs. If we now exterminate the drones, we will insure
Italian male bees in purity from the one hive only.
But
all
HOW
TO ITALIANIZE
COMMON
81
STOCKS.
while rearing ouv first installment of queens for the purpose of procuring pure Italian drones for the impregnation of our second installment, \evy few worker bees of the
Italian race are to be found in the apiary
hence the
:
young queens, as well
as others, are nursed by Mack and
bees, producing in some way yet to be accounted
degeneration towards the black race.
hybrid
a
for,
The fact of such deterioration is admitted by those who
have had the best of opportunities for judging, and can
have no motive for misrepresentation. Although a few
maintain that because dark colored queens sometimes
produce as finely marked workers as the most brilliant
ones, there is no degeneration
;
forgetting that the char-
workers are determined more by the impregnating drone than by the queen herself.
Prof. Kirtland, of Cleveland, Ohio, one of the closest
observers, has entirely failed, we are informed, through
two years of careful experiments, to produce a single
pure queen from Italian brood transferred to hives of comacteristics of the
mon
bees.
Prof. E. Kirby, of Henrietta, N. Y., in attempting to ac-
count for this degeneration, suggests that the sperm or
vitalizing fluid of the drone is perhaps supplied to the
young larva while
in
process of
transformation from
a worker to a queen.
Mr. Langstroth, in Bee Journal fur July, 1861,
although not admitting the point in issue, says
p.
166,
:
" It
seems very singular that the larvae, which if deworker would have been strongly colored,
•veloped as a
phould
liiint
in its
transformation into a queen, lose
all its bril-
yellow."
Again, while rearing queens by the removal of the
reigning one, from any hive, there are more or less drone
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
88
deposited therein by u-orker lees ; and if the latter are
not purely Italian, we shall breed a race oi drones of inferior
eg-g-s
quality,
by which our queens may be impregnated, when,
we could not by any possibility have a black
theoretically,
drone in the apiary.
becomes evident, that if we hope to breed the
Italian race in purity, we must establish a colony isolated
from the black race, where they are to remain long enoug-h
to allow the prog-eny of the old queen to be displaced by
the new. When the black bees have entirely disappeared,
the queen may be removed, and the bees left to rear others.
When capped over, the cells may be transferred to
repeating the opeother hives, and the queen returned
ration when more are wanted.
In establishing the Italian
colony, it is believed to be of some importance that the
Italian workers be allowed to renew the contents of the
hive by filling it up with combs of their own construction
the cells built by them being somewhat larger than those
built by the black race, and not having been used by the
latter, may secure our queens from any possible taint.
In rearing Italian queens in great numbers, or indeed
any other, it is advisable to establish small nuclei, or colFrom
onies of not more than one quart of bees to each.
such all impure drones may be easily destroyed and the
queens w'ill mature and become fertile even sooner than
from large swarms. But it should be borne in mind, that
small colonies are more liable to the attacks of robber
bees, and are more apt to accompany the queen in her
flight to meet the drones.
To prevent the latter, the
Hence,
it
;
;
;
presence of brood in the hive, in the earlier stages of de-
de opment, should not be v/anting. Such nuclei are perfect
swarms in miniature the prudent apiarian will keep a
:
surplus on hand in
summer
to
supply queens as wanted.
TO PEESERVE HOKET C0MB3.
RENE^riNG QUEKNS
89
EEWEWIK-G QUEEWS.
Queens gradually lose their
fertility as
they advance in
age, producing fewer eggs and a greater proportion of
For this reason,
drones.
after
about the fourth year, the
and new ones substituted.
In the recent Apiarian Convention at Cleveland, " Professor Kirtland said that after the third year the queen was
nearly worthless, and should be killed, and a fertile
queen put in her place instantlj^ So tliought Mr. Langstroth
he said a vigorous fertile queen was worth half a
swarm. Mr. Sturtevant thought the q leen as good in the
third year as at any time
and at four years he would
old ones should be destroyed
'
:
:
not
kill
young
her, unless
fertile
queen
he knew that he could instantly get a
in her stead
;
—the risk was great,
at that season of the year the loss of a
week
or
for
two was
a serious loss."
"
A
queen lays her eggs in regular order, comand distributing them in circles, each
surrounding the first, and on both sides exactly alike.
Sealed worker brood should present a regular, smooth surface.
An irregular brood denotes an unprolific queen."*
A portion of raised oval cells in worker comb shows the
presence of drone brood, and is objectionable, as indicafertile
mencing
at a point
.
tive,
except in the
first
.
laying of a young queen, of ap-
proaching barrenness.
TO PRESERVE HONET COMBS.
They should be kept
in
a tightly closed box, and occa-
sionally exposed to the fum.es of burning brimstone to de-
They are worth at any time
stroy ail eggs of the moth.
during the summer almost their weight in gold.
* Bee Culture, pp. 162, 163.
90
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPIN(J.
PEEVENTION" OF SWARMING.
For about twenty days, in the swarming season, the
may attempt to swarm. There is no way of confining the queen to the hive by contracting the entrance
bees
with "blocks," " gauges," or other traps, for the reason,
among others, that bees vary greatly in size. Many fertile queens are able to go any where that a worker can,
being longer but no larger. If our queens cannot fly, no
swarms will be
But the queen may get down on the
lost.
ground, in attempting to go with the swarm, and
if
a
board be adjusted to the hive with one edge on the ground,
she will be likely to crawl back into the hive, attracted
by
the great noise of the bees returning in search of her.
If the
attempt be seen, she should be found and returned.
This rarely takes place, and only through neglect
if
a queen be occasionally
lost,
the
swarm
Even
will rear another,
may
be supplied from small nuclei kept on
Destroying, onoe in
ten or twelve days, all queen cells, and giving the bees
or her place
hand
at this season for emergencies.
more room,
will effectually prevent
such attempts.
PURCHASING BEES.
Look
of bees
it contains a good stock
they will show themselves at once, on being dis-
into the hive to see that
:
turbed.
The combs should be pretty regular, consisting
of broad sheets of worker cells, and not small, irregular
combs, or patches of drone
transfer to
most valuable hive
the most.
is
which are worthless to
These things equal, the
cells
movable frames.
the one
whose contents
will
weigh
A CHAPTER OF WELL SETTLED FACTS.
MOVING
91
BEES.
may
be moved to any distance at any time, but
the summer is the best time.
They should be shaded
from the sun, kept as quiet as possible, and all jarring
avoided.
On a long journe}', in hot weather, opportunities should be given them to fly daily, if convenient
the
Bees
:
longer their confinement, the greater the liability of loss
by
If in box hives, the hive should be invei'ted,
open end covered with gauze-wire cloth, and near its
opposite end holes should be provided and covered with
the same material for admission of fresh air.
If in the
Langstroth or similar hives, the combs must be first se-
disease.
its
may
be broken down by the swinging of
Bees in my hives
be moved without preparation, except having the
cured, or they
the frames, and the bees thus destroyed.
may
gauze-wire cloths in the honey board cleaned, and the
front slide
tuted in
removed and a curtain of wire cloth substiplace.
The combs are secure as in a box
its
hive, for the
frames cannot move.
A CHAPTER OF "WELL SETTLED PACTS.
1.
All stocks of bees should be kept strong in numbers.
A
well garrisoned city
2.
A
m-oderate
may
increase
defy assault.
of
swarms
will
keep them
strong, and secure the largest yield of honey.
As
the calves are raised at the cost of butter and cheese,
so bees are multiplied at the expense of honey.
3.
As
Bees
filled
with honey, are not inclined to sting.
is stayed by your purse, so bees
the robber's knife
are bribed with proffered sweets.
4.
In natural swarming, bees
Emigrants
to a
new
fill
themselves with honey.
cou-ntry carry their treasures along
as capital to begin with.
92
SUCCESSFUL BEE-KEEPING.
Bees, alarmed with
5.
smoke
or otherwise, instinctively
upon their stores.
The householder at the cry of fire, secures what he can.
6. There should be no communication between occupied
seize
hives, allowing the bees of one to pass directly into the
other.
"
No
1.
house
is
A swarm
away
large enough for two families."
of bees destitute of a
queen
fast dwindles
and, unless supplied with one, soon perishes either
;
by robbers
or moths.
A
an
country without a government, a farm without
owner.
Swarms having combs
8.
insufficiently protected
bees, furnish a retreat for millers
Unguarded treasures
9.
An
and food
for
by
worms.
invite thieves.
excess of drones should be avoided by discourag-
ing the construction of the cells that produce them.
Drones are the " dead heads" of the hive the
—
iisdess
males in the farmer's herds.
The building of drone comb may, to a great extent,
first, by securing the construction of new
combs in hives containing young queens and, second,
by placing frames to be filled, in other hives, near the
10.
be prevented
—
;
centre.
"
An ounce
of prevention
is
better than
a pound of
cure."
11. Queens are most economically reared in small
swarms.
Who would employ ten men to do what one would do
better
12.
safely,
?
Small swarms,
if
united in the
and consume less hone3\'
" In union there
is
strength."
fall,
will winter
more
A CHAPTER GF SPECULATIONS.
13.
Bees of
coloriies
containing fertile
93
and
queens, should not be put together without
ing them
up,-'
i.
inducing them to
e.,
fill
unfertile
first "
break-
with honey, and
destrojdng the unfertile queen.
14,
exposes
Natural swarming, always uncertain and
the
artificial
viuch loss of time
to
lee-lceeper
swarming, securing at
all times the presence
avmy with all watching, and
both sure and economical.
laying queen, doing
to the
woods,
is
'periplexing,
and money; while
of a workerby flight
loss
A CHAPTER OF SPECULATIONS.
—
The production of sex has the queen any volition in it ? If
the queen be watched during the early spring, while en-
gaged in depositing eggs, she will be observed to pass
by the drone cells but when the blossoms begin to yield
honey in abundance, and bees become numerous, and disposed to swarm, the drone cells are prepared and eggs
These latter eggs produce drones
deposited therein.
only, the kind of cell in which the egg is deposited seeming to determine, for the most part, the sex of the bee. It
is found that eggs laid in drone cells produce drones only,
while eggs transferred from drone to worker cells still
;
What
produce drones.
the
cell,
determines the sex
or the nursing bees?
— the queen,
The prevalent
theory ha^g
been, that the sperm sack of the queen, in the act of copulation with the drone, becomes filled with the sperm or
vitalizing fluid of the male, without
sess sufficient vitality to germinate.
en
to this
theory
fecundated queen
while that of a
which
all
eggs pos-
Plausibility
is
giv-
b}'
the fact that the sperm sac of an un-
is
found to be destitute of spermatozoa,
fertile
one
is filled
with them.
94
SCCCESSFDL BEE-KEEPING.
Samuel Wagner, of
adelphia,
Phil-
suggested
has
that in the act of deposit-
ing an egg in a worker
the
abdomen
cell
of the queen
becomes compressed, forcing the sperm into contact with the egg in passing, the sac,
it
and changing
from a drone
to
a worker.
But it is
found that the queen will
deposit eggs in cells but
just began, when no possible
[See Fig. 36.]
compression of the abdomen can take place, these
eggs producing workers.
36. — Ovaries of queen.
Besides, it ofte-n happens that drones mature from the very
It appears, after all, that not only
smallest worker cells.
the queen, but the workers also,
know what
the
egg
will
produce for drone cells are not prepared until the season
when they are wanted approaches, nor can the queen be
induced to place eggs therein much in advance of this
;
period.
For myself, I am satisfied that the queen has volition in
and that the bees have the power, by a particular process of nursing, suitable for each, to produce
FROM WORKEB EGGS EITHER QUEENS, 'WOBKEBS 0R DRONES
I am aware that this idea is somewhat new and ahead
of " the books," but in my practice of rearing queens by
very small nuclei, I have often found drone brood maturing
in a small piece of worker comb cut from cards full of
eggs taken from the centre of the hive, where it is
scarcely possible drone eggs would be found.
the matter
;
!
!
INDEX.
Artificial
Swarming, what founded
how attempted, 22
on,
Handling
bees, 35.
27
how Hives, ISiadir, 22 to 24 dividing, and
done, 35, 37 to 46; advantages of,
Munn,
colonizing, 25 to 27
leaf, 27
find
queen, 60, 6 1, 90.
43 to 45, 93
31; Langstroth and others, 27,28,
30 to 32 Michigan, 35 to 47
quadBars, 27, 28.
ruple, 35 to 37
double, 45
single,
Bee-bread, 64.
tall,
46 no moth-proof, 46 to 50
will not desert
Bees, a swarm of. 11
low, 51, 53
m.dn features
52, 53
their j'oung, 62; hybrid, 86 to 88;
of a good one, 35.
purchasing, 90
moving, 91.
Honey bo.xes, 48.
Bridal trip, 15.
Hunting bees, 69 to 74.
Brood, time of least and of most, 12 Honey, 37, 63 to 69, 91.
maturity of, 12.
where found,
Italian bees, 76 to 88
California, bees in, 68, 69, T7, 81.
description of, 75 to 80;
76, 79, 60
Cai'tion, clipping wings of queens, 42.
how discovered, 76 when and by
61; tr.ansferring, 61, 62; driving,
whom imported, 77 what is claimed
61 to 63 renewing queans, 42, 43, 89
for thara, 78 to 85; my experience
queen, 19, 20, 21,
Cells, worker, 18, 19
with them, 85 to Italianize common
of
stocks, b5 to 88, theories about, 85,
39, 40 to 43, use one only, 40, 41
queen, destroyed, 20, 86.
deterio85, facts about, 86 to 88
Colony, a prosperous, consists of, 11
ration, 86 to 88, how to prevent, 88.
and
worker,
drone
25
Comb,
23,
cost
of, 26; valueof, 44,45, 89; to insure Los| of swarms, causes of, 20. 41 to 43,
true, 27, 35, 38, 39, 45, 62
how to
47 to 56. 62, 63, 89, 92; how to prepreserve, 89.
vent, 36 to 63, 88.
22
;
to
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
:
Double Hive, 45.
Driving bees, 62, 63.
Driving box, 58, 59.
Drones, 11, 19; male bees,
Michigan (Metcalf's) Hives, 35 to 47.
Moth, 46 to 49 remedies for,48 to 50. 92.
Movable frames, 28 to 34 Metcalf's,
;
;
11, 15,
16
46, 47.
number
of in hive, 11; short
lived, 11, 16, 17; time of maturity, Natural swarming, perplexing, 13 to
12; excess of, 21 to 26, 92, how
16, 91, 93, preparations, 12, 13.
prevented, 26, 33 to 45, 92
necessary, 11, 15, 38, 42; pure, 86 to 88. Overstocking, 65, 66.
I<ysentery, 55, 91.
Pasturage, 63 to 69.
Feeding, 55, 56.
Patents, absurd pretentions, 29, 30.
Frames, 28, 35, 53; Tayior's, 28; Protitp, 66 to 69.
Munn'.s, 29, 30 to 33; Metcalf's, Propolis, 63, 64.
46, 47, 48.
Fumigating bees, 37, 58, 60, 63.
Queen, 1 1 to 22 ability of swarm to
Facts, chapter of, 91, 92.
rear, 19 to 27 ; hosv reared, 13, 14,
17;
;
;
'
96
19,
40
IN'DEX.
20; how fertilized, 11,
43
the mother bee,
to
how
15,
11.
;
loH,
15,
20,
1(),
41, 90
;
17,
12;
how
Surplus honey, 64 to 69
;
boxes, 50.
of bees, 11 to 22 ; how lost, 15,
16, 41, 89, 92, to prevent 41, 42, 60
Swarm
found. 42, 43, 60, 61, 90; clip vvinc,'.<
to 62, 88, 90; most valuable, 90;
of, 42, 61
kept separate, 33, 39, 92 ; how mul90, when, 42, 43, 61, 62
caging of, 42 time of maturity, 12
tiplied, 12 to 20.
respect for, 15 to 19, 25, 26 destroy Swarming, 12 to 17 first, preparations
embryo, 13, 14, 19.
rivals, 14, 20
for, 12 to 14
cause of, 12 to 15 ; delay, 14, 44
aftei-, cause of, 14.
20; "piping" of, 14 artifisi.-il, 22;
cells of, 12 to 14, 19 to 22,- 39, 40, Speculations, ch. of, 93, 94.
88; excited when ceils all occupied,
13 ; absence of, serious, 20 to 22, 26, Transfevring, bees, 37, 38 queen cells,
from box hives, to
27, 33, 89, 92; renewing, 89, cau39, 40, 43, 88
tion, 42. 43, 85, 86
fertile, liiys regcombs,
movable frames, 58 to 63
ularly, 89; unfertile, irregularly, 89.
iind
queen,
59 to 62
60, 61.
Quadruple hives, 36 to 45 how used, Tall hives, 52, 53.
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
37, to 45
to 55.
;
advantages
of,
43
to
45,
48
Ventilation, 51, 52.
Quarreling, 20, 42, 92, 93.
Wintering, 35, 50
Winter passages,
Robbers, 56 to 58, 60.
to 56.
36, 37, 47, 50, 51,
54, 55.
Secret of success, 27, 91 to 93.
Workers, number of, 11, 12; undevelSingle hive, advantages of Metcalf's,
oped females, 11, 12, 20, 21; per76, 47
form all the labor, 17 ; time of maSmoldng bees, 29, 37, 58, 60, 63, 92,
turity. 13; drone laying, 11, 12, 16;
93.
21, 22, 88.
ILLUSTRATIONS.
Abdomen
of worker, 17.
18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 36, 39, 58.
Bees, 11, 15, 17, 75.
Brood, 18, 19,
Bar-frames, 23. Bee21, 24.
huntin?, 72.
Comb, worker, 18, 19, 20, 24. Comb,
Drone, 24. Cells, 18, 19, 20, 24.
Drones, 11, 75. Drone cells, 21, 24.
Drone laying,
21.
Egfjs in comb, 21, 39.
Fnimes, 28, 31, 32, 36, 46, 47.
Frame-bars, 28.
Hives, 31, 32, 36, 46, 47.
Metcalf, 36, 46, 47. Iloney comb.
Hunt-
ing bees, 72.
Movable frames,
28, 31, 32, 36, 46,
47.
Moth, 47, gallery, 47.
Queen bees, 11, 15, 75. Quadruple
Hive, 36. Queen cell, 19, 20, 21,
39.
Queen
ovaries, 94,
Transferring Bees, 36, 59. Transferring cells, 30.
Transferring
Comb,
59.
AVorker bees,
11, 17, 75.
18,19,20,24.
AVax
Do. comb,
scales, 71.
A BEE DRESS.
the rim of a light summer hnt sew a pieoe of gnuze-wire cloth, cut six
inches wide in the middle and tupering to two inches at each end, with curtain
of any ligiit cloth to fc'ick in about the neck.
But the Bkst Beb Dress is courage, kindness, steady movements, and a
knowledge of the habits of bees.
" A soft answer tumeth away wrath."
To
:
ADVERTISEMENTS.
An
make and
Individual Eight to
and use on
use the Michigan Hives will be sold for
to make for himself,
number of hives.
This secures to the holder the privilege
five dollars.
own premises, and not
his
otherwise, any
For Individual and Territorial Eights, address
as follows
For the county of Ottawa, except the town of Talmadge the towns of PaByron, Gaines, Caledonia, and Bowne, in the comity of Kent; one range
;
ris,
of towns on the
north side and two ranges of towns on the east
side, in the
and the counties of Barry, Kalamazoo, St Joseph, Branch, Hillsdale, Jackson and Eaton,
Mich. ; and for the counties of Genesee, .Erie, Kiagara, Orleans, Monroe,
county of Allegan
;
the town of Easton in the county of Ionia
;
—
Livingston and
Wyoming,
in
New York. Address
JOEL A SIMONDS
For the counties of Genesee, Lapier, St
Address
S.
Clair,
Grand
Macomb and
GARFIELD, Grand
M.
Rt.pids,
Mich.
Oakland, Mich.,
Rapids, Mich.
t
For the counties of Muskegon, Newaygo, Mecosta, Is.ahella, Midland, Bay,
and all north of them in the Lower Peninsula the county oi Calhoun the
;
;
town of Manchester, Washtenaw county, and the town of Franklin, Lenawee
county, ilficA.
;
the counties of Ontario,
Wayne, Seneca, Cayuga,
Cortland,
Onondaga, Oswego, Oneida, Madison, Chenango, Rockland, Orange, Ulster,
Greene, Albany, and
Washington county,
all
N
for the States of iV. Y.,
Y.
;
for the counties of
Del, Md., and Fo
Address'
For the counties
0. R.
of
Hudson river, but not north of
Dubuque and Delaware, loica ;
territory east of
,
and the District of Columbia,
L CROZIER, Grand
Washtenaw and Lenawee, except
chester and Franklin, Mich.
;
and
for the Siate of' Ohio,
JOHN
D.
Rapids, Mich.
the towns of
Man-
Address
ALGER, Grand
Rapids, Mich.
For the county of Berripn, Mich., for Lake, Porter and La Porte counties,
Tazewell, Mc.
; and for the counties of Fulton, Hancock, McDonough,
Indiana
Lean, Ford, and Iroquois, and
all territory
north of thein (except Ro<5^Tsland
county), in the Slate of Illinois, Address
D REESE WILLIAMS,
H
For
all
Chicago,
111.
other territory. Address the inventor,
MARTIN METCALP,
Grand Rapids, Mich.
2m
rFi'^zng-
M1T€ AIFS Bll-SEPIi§.
The
ailvaiitages olthis
AVk
T.
lohf.
We
1 r.
KEEi'
sjstem arc seen by the following
^0 sv:-Amifi,eitMr darivg .summer or ivinler.
OUR BEhS AT WORK, ami do not have, entire
stimrnis haoiging to the hive, idle, ihrovghout the honcy-harvesL
We
TIT.
'feed
raise
what drones are needed only, and do net
a large numler of supermimeranj " dead-heads.''
AH ovr sirarms arc, icithoxit inter rupf ion. frovided with
IV.
i-ERTILE Ql Er.N
Thns, by
Isl:.
I.,
have
Vv'e
.
cos,i],}elc
care of tbcm, n*
rt'."i:Ty
.•
rt.-i
..•ut/ of
cr'iucs a IjUjine.'-s as ce.t ::':i us
21.
rul
We
t^n
nut
in
'j>-o!ie
any
Ihe.
bees, nn.l are ali!o to
chic'.icn?
Imndle and take
consequently bcc-lcoeping be-
;
cvUi"-.
dark,h'.\t
hive and can inspect the combs at
if
our
wc do our
.all
bavc aeccss
iiiiic«
;<•(!
i!,i-ir
to
the interior of the;-
condition,
remove them
necessary, orsu[iply any wapt.
3a.
the use of a new, and entirely
By
are enibled
to exch.in.'je
lying idle
at
4;h
;
tlio
\Ve don't wait
season for that
cessity for
i*....
:
;
-i-yie
of comb-frames,
become
i;o
we
exoiifO fur
inerei^siwj tboir, Jl'lmnbci-?'.
sufficiently populous,
w&rctr new queens
wo woiiM Jalse poultiy ..j.i^>r-,.or rhoeo.
set"— often on a J'ii;;;!© addled c;^g— while tl
y\si preoisely as
for the "
hws
to
buiir.a.-a i- fis". pa^siiig
watching them.
The manner
of prodaclng
ail 1
We th-u
asAy.
T
C) awr.y with the ne-
_
new swarms,
rendered eminently successful by revolving,
cay the strength
.
.
fjr fall ons.^, giving tlia bees
same time thereby
Vvhc.T the Stocks
and swarm than,
5tb.
empty
tlie
artificially, is
hive,
ginn^
new, easy, nn
i
the infant col-
vigor (^ftbenareB.t stock.
our ncv, sw.r.-ms -really /rsf swarm.^, saving ten days'
ol
lime in breeding over niiturai swar^nine:-; no'eggs boin- laid in the combs
any young swarm orttr )!/wJiirs/ for ten days.
3
h
Gth.
"We mrdic
7th.
The
a-'i
old ar.d fertile qnccn remnining in the parent hive,
er:rg
is
honoy^th-
before; while in n..tural swarming, honey gath
nearly suspended for ten days, till a new ntuecn is Iiatchod, and no
Cling and breeding go on
:uj
eggs are laid for twenty days^ or until her
Dua-=^^^
fertilization.
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