V MACHINE LOCKING STOPS

V MACHINE LOCKING STOPS
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MACHINE
STOPS
AND
LOCKING DEVICES
BY JOSEPH
G.
HORNER
MACHINERY'S REFERENCE BOOK NO. 112
PUBLISHED BY MACHINERY, NEW YORK
MACHINERY'S REFERENCE SERIES
EACH NUMBER IS ONE UNIT IN A COMPLETE LIBRARY OF
MACHINE DESIGN AND SHOP PRACTICE REVISED AND
REPUBLISHED FROM MACHINERY
NUMBER
112
MACHINE STOPS, TRIPS
AND
LOCKING DEVICES
BY JOSEPH
G.
HORNER
CONTENTS
Machine Stops, Trips and Reversing Mechanisms
Clamping and Locking Devices Applied to Machine
Tools
-
-
Copyright, 1913,
The
Industrial Press, Publishers of
49-55 Lafayette Street,
New York
City
MACHINERY,
3
25
CHAPTER
I
MACHINE STOPS, TRIPS AND REVERSING
MECHANISMS
In recent years, stops, trips and reversing mechanisms have been
applied to a vast number of machine tools. The stops employed vary
from the simple adjustable stop, tappet or dog, to the mechanisms
in which these are combined with cushion devices, means for reversing
feed movements, etc.
It may be advisable at the outset to call attention to the difference
between a "self-acting" and an "automatic" movement. Many machines
which are not wholly automatic contain self-acting movements. A
slide-rest is self-acting, though the lathe is not automatic, because the
movements of the slides have to be thrown in and out by the operator.
The greater number of turret lathes are semi-automatic or self-acting,
as distinct from the automatic or "full automatic" screw machine.
A
number
and grinders, in which all the movements proceed without intervention from the attendant, are also in the class
with the fully automatic machines. It is in these classes of machines
that the highest developments of the mechanisms to be considered
of gear-cutters
are found.
There are two kinds of stops: "Dead" stops are those which positively
arrest a movement, and gage a length or diameter in repetitive work;
"trip" stops or "trips" throw out a movement, reverse it, or throw it
Dead stops alone are not sufficient to check a power feed or
movement; some means must also be provided to throw out
the feed. Then a dead stop may or may not be incorporated to form
a positive check.
In many cases the tools themselves, as in some
turret-lathe work, constitute dead stops, and render the provision of
in again.
self-acting
additional stops unnecessary.
A dead stop is used in hand-operated
mechanisms to prevent the operator from moving the slide or other
portion further than the predetermined limit, thus guarding against
error, and insuring a duplication of dimensions without the need for
measurement or gaging. Again, *it is often possible to throw out a
dead stop temporarily, and go past it for certain purposes, such as
inspection, and again throw it in at the same setting as before.
A
number of dead stops may be located close together, to enable selection
to be made at will or in regular rotation, as in the case of a turret
one for each tool-hole. Frequently duplex stops are arranged, to enable
the choice of two distances for a single slide, one stop being thrown out
of the way.
Fine adjustment is in some cases provided for a dead
stop, so that a very precise setting can be obtained.
An important point in the design of dead stops is that of rigidity; a
solid abutment should always be used, and any excessive overhang
tending to cause springing must be avoided; otherwise accurate results
are impossible. In the operation of a hand turret lathe or other ma-
347578
4
\
TRIPS AND LOCKING DEVICES
;:
'
chine tool there iV llfcceasarily a great deal of banging and rough
treatment, especially in the hands of a careless operator, and weak
and badly-supported stops will cause unsatisfactory work. The binding
arrangement for a stop must also be efficient, so that it will not slip
and cause a batch of work to be turned out to wrong dimensions. The
hardening of contact surfaces is also advisable for preventing wear
and bruising that would affect the dimensions of work produced.
The position and method of attachment of a dead stop depends on
the class of machine and the design. Where a sliding table has to be
stopped, it is in many cases possible to attach the stops or dogs by
means of a bolt and T-slot in the edge of the table, this being a very
simple method and permitting easy adjustment; or a round rod may
Machinery, N. Y.
Fig.
1,
Dead Stops
of a
Type used on a Cutter-grinding Machine
held in bearings on the edge of the table, and adjustable dogs be
clamped to the rod by set-screws, or by split ears or lugs. Another
method is to have a fixed stop bolted, to the table edge, and adjustable
"be
dogs attached to a rod in front, these being struck by the stop according to the momevents of the table. A favorite device for short slides,
such as the cross-slides of turret lathes, is to attach the stops to a rod
or screw passing through a hole in the slide, the faces of the latter
coming into contact on each side alternately with the stops. Plain
cylindrical parts, if of small diameter, are often controlled by a collar
or lug, clamped to them by means of a set-screw, and arranged to
encounter the face of the bearing through which the part moves.
It is evidently impossible to show all the different kinds of stops
which are in use on various machine tools, but the following selection
of typical examples embodies the principles involved in the design of
all stops.
Slight modifications are made in different machines.
TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
shown the simplest possible kind
of dead stop applied
a cutter grinding machine. We have here a T-slot in
the edge of the moving table A, receiving the heads of the bolts which
clamp the two stop-plates through the medium of knurled nuts. The
In Fig.
1 is
to the table of
plates strike the block
B
on the transverse table.
Fig. 2 shows a modification of the
same
In this case the
principle.
sliding head A of a vertical milling
machine is to be stopped in one direction only the downward and a
projection stands out from the slide
A
to encounter the end of the stopscrew in the block 5, which is
clamped in a T-slot on the fixed head.
After adjusting B approximately in
position up or down in the slot, by
the lever, the final adjustment is
made by the knurled-head screw,
which is finally locked by its nut.
The screw does not, however, pro-
vide a precise means of setting to
In some
any exact measurement.
cases, therefore, such a stop-screw
has a micrometer adjustment, Fig. 3.
The head of the screw is graduated,
so that the screw can be adjusted
by a known amount a manifest advantage in fine work. The body of
the stop is split, thus providing positive
means
for
binding
the
stop-
screw.
An illustration of the stop-screw
or rod passing through a hole in the
moving slide is shown in Fig. 4.
The example shown is that of a
cross-slide of a turret lathe.
The
Machinery, Jf. Y.
stop-screw in this case also serves
the purpose of moving the rest along
through the medium of the handwheel and the miter gears; frequently, however, a separate plain rod is used, parallel with the screw, and
carrying split clamped dogs instead of the double lock-nuts, shown in
Another example of the use of double nuts is shown in Fig. 7,
Fig. 4.
illustrating the rear end of a cross-slide for a turret lathe.
The stopscrew is tapped into the fixed slide, and passes through an extension
on the moving slide. This arrangement serves as a stop for both
front and back tools. In a modification, Fig. 18, two screws are used
locked with nuts, the ends of the screws being struck by a pin screwed
Fig. 2.
Dead Stop used on a Vertical
Milling Machine
No. 112
6
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
moving slide. The advantage of both these designs of stops
that they are perfectly central, and are therefore better than those
classes of stops which are set at the side of the moving slide.
The combination of two stops, to provide the choice of two lengths,
into the
is
is
common.
end
A
is shown in Fig. 5, showing the rear
The main screw A, with a locking nut, abuts
case of this kind
of a turret slide.
Machinery, N.Y.
Fig.
3.
Stop-screw with Micrometer Adjustment
against the back of the saddle or base, and forms one dead stop. An
adjustable block B, bolted to the edge of the slide, carries a pivoted dog
C, which when dropped down into the position indicated in the view
A flat
to the left, strikes against a facing on the back of the base.
spring D, screwed to B, presses against the tail of C and maintains it
Fig. 4.
Stop-rod passing through a Hole in a Turret Lathe Cross- slide
If C is not required, it is swung up into the horizontal
where the flat spring also retains it.
A simple kind of stop for round spindles is shown in Fig. 6. The
example shown is used on a sensitive drill press, and consists only of
a split collar, which arrests the downward travel of the spindle by
in position.
position,
striking against the top bearing.
One of the most valuable principles in stop construction is that of the
rotary disk carrying several stops, any one of which may be brought
into action, either in a selective manner that is, according to the
wish of the operator or in automatic fashion one or more stops being
made
a particular tool or set of tools. In this way comsecured, and the stops are in full sight and easily accessible,
to act only for
pactness
is
TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
I!
I!
II
p.
35
If
8
STOPS, TRIPS
No. 112
AND LOCKING DEVICES
Machinery, y. T.
Fig.
9.
Dead Stops used on a Turret Lathe
of
German Make
TRIPS
AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
which was not the case with some
stops,
such
as, for
example, a set of
9
of the older designs of multiple
bars laid side by side and used
flat
for turret stops.
Fig. 8 illustrates a rotating type of stop, adopted
for the cross-slide saddle of the turret lathe, there being one stop-rod
for each tool on the cross-slide turret. The head A is mounted on the
end of a shaft that
is rotated simultaneously with the turret, and each
of the stop-rods is adjusted independently and secured with a nut, the
rod passing through the body of the bolt. Each rod in turn abuts
XacMnery.y.T.
Fig. 10.
Turret Lathe Stops used en the Pratt
& Whitney
Turret Lathes
against the bar B, held in a bracket bolted to the front of the lathe
The adjustment of this bar is effected by loosening the set-screw
and sliding it through the bracket; on tightening the set-screw, it
bears down on a flat milled on the bar, and forms a positive check
bed.
to slipping.
Another application is shown in Fig. 9. This arrangement is applied
end of the Pittler turrets, which are mounted on a horizontal axis.
There are sixteen holes in the turret for tools, and a
stop is provided for each hole. All the rods are held in the rim of a
disk secured to the rear end of the spindle, on the other end of which
to the rear
the tool disk or turret is secured. The turret slide
one stop-rod at a time against the fixed bed.
An arrangement
of multiple stops,
A
travels, bringing
"selected" by a radial
action,
10
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
circle, is used in the Pratt & Whitney turret lathes.
held in an adjustable bracket A, Fig. 10, bolted to the
front side of the bed, set-screws being used for clamping; three of these
only are visible in the view. As the turret rotates, a cam B, cut on
though not set in a
Each stop-rod
is
Machtnery,N.Y.
Fig. 11.
Rotating Stop-bar used on Turret Lathe
its base, operates a roller C mounted on a pivoted lever D, and thus
brings the flat end of another lever E, which is secured to the shaft of
D, into line with one or another of the stop-rods, corresponding to the
position of the tool-holes in the turret. The lever E is backed up by a
lug projecting from the turret slide (not shown), taking the thrust,
and eliminating spring.
A type of rotating stop which has been extensively adopted by turret
lathe manufacturers during recent years is illustrated in Fig. 11. The
TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
11
principle is that of fitting a rotating slotted bar A somewhere in front
of the turret slide, and gearing it up to the turret to turn in unison
with the latter, so that a new face of the bar will be presented for each
turret face presented to the work. T-slots in the bar provide for the
attachment of stop-blocks or nuts, any number of which may be used
on one face. As the turret slide travels along, these nuts come against
either a trip lever or a dead stop which lies in their path, and so throw
out the feed, and generally also act as dead stops. In the illustration,
the nuts which happen to be on the face nearest the turret are touched
by the bar B, and, by forcing this down, operate a rod that passes
through the base, thus dropping the worm-box C and stopping the feed.
On the Alfred Herbert hexagon turret lathes a refinement of this type
of stop is introduced for the purpose of obtaining the very finest limits
in regard to length, by enabling uniform pressure to be put on the stops,
Machinery, y.
Tig. 12.
Enlarged Detail of the Indicator of the Device shown in Fig. 13
independent of changes in the pressure on the cutting tools as they
become dull. Fig. 13 shows the appearance of the saddle with the
hexagon stop-rod in front, and the pilot handle or spider. In front of
the latter is a disk A, rotating with the shaft, and carrying three
adjustable dogs (see the detailed view, Fig. 12) with index lines upon
them. The saddle has a fixed sector with three lines corresponding
with those on the dogs. After the feed has been tripped by the contact
of one of the stops on the bar with the end of the vertical plunger seen
in Fig. 13, the saddle can be moved a short distance by hand up to a
dead stop. When the saddle is hard up against this stop, one of the
dogs on the disk is set to come opposite one of the three index lines
on the sector. The dog thus forms an accurate means of measuring
the pressure on the dead stop. If more than one length is required
the two other dogs may be brought into use.
The combined trip and dead stop is found in other machines besides
turret lathes. Fig. 14 represents the front of a milling machine table,
No. 112
12
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
with a trip dog A. which presses down the plunger B, and through a
pair of levers throws out the feed. The stops C are set to abut against
the block which receives B, and thus act as dead stops, positively
arresting the table, so that exact lengths can be milled. If the milling
cutter simply has to clear over the ends of the work, the dead stops
need not be set, but if the travel has to be stopped at definite positions,
they are brought into employment.
When a feed has to be tripped, the actual medium by which it is
thrown out depends on circumstances; it may be either through shifting belts, by sliding clutches toothed or friction or through a dropworm. The difficulty with toothed clutches is that of insuring the reengagement of the teeth. They are reliable enough, when hand-
Machinery,N. T.
Fig. 13.
Rotating Stop-bar and Accurate Indicator used
Herbert Hexagon Turret Lathe
when an attempt
made
oil
the Alfred
mechanby springs or a lever.
To render the action absolutely precise, an element must be included
to cause both the release and the engagement to take place at an
operated, but
ism
may
fail
is
to render the
self-acting, unless the clutches are actuated
A spring plunger is the device often adopted. A spring is
compressed by the movement of the striking lever, which at the same
time releases a trigger or catch, setting the spring free to push the
clutch into engagement. This method is obviously capable of various
applications. The springs may be actuated by a lever or by cams or
by other means. A latch or latches lock the mechanism, rendering it
impossible to throw any other movement in until they are released.
This feature is worked out in various ways and is embodied in several
gear-cutting machines to prevent interference between the indexing
and cutting operations.
instant.
TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
13
No. 112
14
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
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TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
15
which actuates lever D through a link, thus throwing out the clutch,
and stopping the feed.
A double trip and reversing mechanism for a large grinding machine
is shown in Fig. 16.
In this arrangement the dog is bolted to the edge
of the moving table, and strikes against adjustable dogs on the flat
striking bar, which is connected by levers to the toothed clutch. In
this design the table feeds and reverses so long as the driving mechanism is running. This brings us to the question of locking, that is
retaining a clutch or other gear in mesh as long as it has to drive.
Without some means of locking, there is nothing to prevent the
Machine t
Fig.
19.
Method
of Locking Clutch
by Spring Plunger
clutch from disengaging under the effects of vibration.
and most common method is
end, or with a roller, which
The simplest
a spring plunger with a pointed
slips down along a beveled end on one
of the levers, or into recesses, there being many ways of accomplishing
the desired result. Fig. 19 shows the principle applied to a toothed
clutch set between miter gears, for reversing a grinding machine.
When th stop-rod A is shifted endwise it moves the lever B over,
and the left-hand end of B throws the clutch into mesh. Simultaneously the plunger C moves outward under the action of the coiled
spring, and its beveled end locks with the beveled end of the short
extension on B, thus forcing the clutch positively into full engagement,
to
fit
16
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
Another example of
it there until reversal again occurs.
the spring plunger arrangement is illustrated in Fig. 20. This design is taken from the clutch : reversing mechanism of a special gearThe locking is effected by a roller A mounted in a stud or
cutter.
plunger, and forced outward by a spiral spring contained in the
liolder.
As the lever B is thrown over by the long lever pivoted to
and holding
Fig. 20.
Spring Plunger applied to Clutch-reversing Mechanism
the roller is moved from the
ing lever B in position.
it,
flat
face a to the face
6,
thus retain-
Another method, see Pig. 21, utilizes the bent end of a flat spring A
to lock the beveled end of a lever in its two positions. This example
taken from a shaping machine, in which the dogs B, bolted to the
T-slot in the top of the ram, encounter the trip lever G and throw
it over, thus actuating the two connecting levers which move the
is
lever D, the latter sliding the rod which throws in the friction clutch
TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
17
inside the belt pulleys. E is a wedge, adjusted in either direction by
the screw and knurled nut, by which fine adjustments in length of
stroke are obtained while the machine is running.
In cases where a clutch is thrown over by the part rotation of a
may be utilized in connection with the locking as
spindle, the latter
Nachinery,N.Y.
Fig. 21.
Spring Locking Arrangement for the Shaper-reversing Mechanism
which shows a mechanism for a milling machine table.
situated at A, which catches in the stud inserted in the
spindle below, and retains the latter in position. The part rotation
of the spindle is effected through a plunger rack B, meshing with the
in Fig. 22,
A
plunger
is
Machinery, ff.
Fig. 22.
T.
Locking Mechanism for Clutch for Milling Machine Feed-screw
teeth cut on the spindle, and forced downwards by the bevel-edged
dog C on the edge of the table. D is the toothed clutch thrown into
gear by the movement of the spindle, thus throwing the table feed-
screw into action.
Worm trips are very much in favor on account of their simplicity
and their instantaneous effect. The box containing the worm is simply
released and falls by the action of gravity, instantly disengaging the
No. 112
18
STOPS, TRIPS
teeth from those of the wheel.
AND LOCKING DEVICES
Two examples
of this
mode
of action
which the
end of a lever A is struck by the downcoming collar or rod on the
spindle sleeve, raising the other end of the lever, which is formed as a
trigger, and releasing the handle B, which is clamped to the worm-box,
pivoted at point a. The worm-box and handle turn on the axis passing through a, and thus the worm is allowed to fall away from its
will suffice.
Fig. 23 is a trip applied to
an upright
drill,
in
Machinery, N.T.
Fig. 23.
Trigger Trip for Drop
Worm-box
The striking of the lever A is generally accomplished by an
adjustable collar, clamped at any desired position on the spindle
sleeve, or by a rod, as in Fig. 24, held in a stud projecting out from
the sleeve.
gear.
mawhich drops the worm from engagement with the gear that
turns the table screw. So long as the latch A remains in the position
shown, maintained by the spring plunger B, the shoulder cut in it
retains the end of the worm-shaft bearing in place, but when dog (7
Fig. 25 is a drop latch fitted to the table of a vertical milling
chine,
TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
19
on the under side of the table comes against the short end of A, the
latter is tilted, and the worm drops.
With regard to belt-shifting mechanisms, the difficulty of producing
the necessary amount of belt travel with a small amount of stop
lever movement is overcome by magnifying the effect by a series
of long belt levers.
The operating tappet mechanism is comparatively simple, comprising in general a striking dog A, Fig. 26, which
knocks over the lever B, connected by other levers with the beltshifting mechanism. The return of the lever B is produced by the
other dog or tappet (7, the catch of which can be tipped up, out of
the way.
The
fitting of trip
motions
to disks is
adopted in various ways, a
stop-block being usually bolted to the disk so that at a predetermined
Machinery,!?.?.
Fig. 24.
Trip Hod Fitted to Drill Press Sleeve
the block actuates the trip gear and throws out a certain
Thus in Pig. 31, the worm-wheel has dogs bolted to a
T-slot in its face, and these dogs strike a swinging lever A, thus
point,
movement.
imparting a partial rotation to the shaft on which it is keyed, and
rack and pinion, a slide which carries a sector
disengaged. The spring plunger and roller B
either of its two positions, the roller pressing
of the two slopes of the beveled end.
Another
dropping, through a
gear that has to be
keep the lever A in
on one or the other
interesting application of the disk trip is illustrated in Fig. 29, which
shows the end of a boring mill cross-rail. When the clutch C is in
gear, the feed-screw A is turned by a gear B, operated from other
spur gears not shown. A worm-wheel Z>, with a T-slot in its face for
carrying a dog E, is driven by a worm on the extension of the screw A.
When, therefore, the clutch is in mesh, the wheel D continues to rotate
until E comes in contact with the beveled end of the trip lever F, and
20
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS
21
the latter
pushed over, disengaging the clutch, and stopping the
rotation of A. Dog E is set at any required position on the circle to
trip the feed at the desired position of the cross-slide on the rail.
Another variation of the same idea is shown in Fig. 28, illustrating a
feeding device for a gear-cutter. A slotted lever A is rocked to and
fro, and hy means of the pawls a gives intermittent turning movements
is
Fig. 27.
Combined Reversing and Feeding Mechanism for Grinding Machine
This continues until the dog & comes in the
which are then thrust out of engagement with B, thus
to the ratchet wheel B.
way
of the pawls,
stopping the feed.
In certain cases the feed is engaged automatically at the same time
that the reversal occurs, as in planers. An interesting device, applied
specially to the Richards' side planing machines made by Geo. Richards
& Co., Ltd., Manchester, is used for giving the down feed to the toolbox that is situated at the end of the long arm. When the saddle A,
Fig. 30, travels along the bed B, propelled by its screw turned by belt
22
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
MacMnery,N. Y.
Fig. 28.
Fig. 29.
Ratchet Feed Trip for Gear-cutter
Trip of the Disk Type used on a Boring Mill
TRIPS AND REVERSING MECHANISMS-
,
23
No. 112
24
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
pulleys with open and crossed belts, a pair of horns a, bolted to A, strike
dogs &, mounted on a rod c, which by its longitudinal movement actuates the belt-shifting mechanism and produces the reversals, as in an
ordinary planer. But the rod c is also given a twisting movement, in
the following manner: Within the bearing d is a bushing, having cam
grooves cut in its walls as shown in the enlarged detail, these grooves
receiving rollers on the ends of a pin that passes through the rod c.
therefore c is slid endwise it must twist the rod, because the
bushing cannot turn. Another rod e, through the medium of miter
When
gears, imparts the
down
feed to the screw of the tool-box through a
ratchet gear.
The combined
reversal and feed is also applied to grinding machines,
wheel a slight amount after each pass or stroke. One illustration of this class of mechanism as fitted to the Birch grinders is
seen in Pig. 27. The rocking of the lever A in alternate directions when
struck by the table dogs has the effect of rocking B up and down, and
causing the spring-maintained pawl C to feed the disk, on the periphery
of which fine ratchet teeth are cut.
Hand adjustment is obtained by
the small lever seen near the top.
to feed the
CHAPTER
II
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES APPLIED TO
MACHINE TOOLS
Devices for clamping and locking various parts are found on pracmachine tools, and the different methods used afford a very
interesting study. In considering this subject we disregard permanent
fastenings that is those which are not released and tightened as part
tically all
Machinery. AV
Fig. 32.
for
Set-screw with Shoe
Clamping Sleeve
Fig. 33.
Screw Recessed into Strip for
Clamping Slide
machine and take into account only those
devices which are expressly designed to permit of more or less rapid
loosening and tightening, to allow adjustments. There are a great
many conditions under which these devices are required, and the parof the operation of the
Machinery. N.7.
Fig. 34,
Screw and Notched Shoe for Clamping Slide
ticular type adopted may vary widely in character; a design that is
exactly suited to one case may be utterly unsuitable for another. For
instance, the pressure
from the point or end
of a screw is sufficient for
No. 112
26
AND LOCKING DEVICES
STOPS, TRIPS
holding some parts, but in other cases this would be an unsatisfactory
method to adopt. Again, friction may be ample to hold a certain part,
while in another case a positive device is necessary.
The
and locking which will be made
Clamping produces a decided pressure, suffi-
distinction between clamping
in the following is this:
Machineru. N.
Clamping: Screw with
Fig. 35.
End
entering-
T.
Groove for Clamping Stud
machine to resist the shocks or vibration
tending to shift it, while locking is only a method of temporarily holding a piece in position, by means of a plunger or other medium, sumcient to enable a part of a
\
Machinery, N. Y,
Fig.
36.
Full-down
Bearing
Clamping Screw with
Action for Clamping
Fig. 37.
Bolt and Handle for Clamping Drill Head
it, but without giving a powerful clamping or squeezing
locking device, therefore, might not be powerful enough to
act as a clamping device, so that these functions must be regarded as
cient to retain
action.
distinct
locked,
A
from each
other.
when we ought
As a matter
of course
we
say that a slide
is
to say that it is clamped, because the parts are
drawn together powerfully, and not merely prevented from shifting by
a pin or other means. As a general rule it may be said that locking
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES
27
holds a machine part in a definite position, or in one of a series of positions previously known, by means of holes, slots, or grooves, which determine these positions; but a part may be clamped at any location,
Machinery. S.
Fig. 38.
Showing Use
of Bolts
and Strap for Clamping
with or without the use of graduations or other means to determine
the setting. In some cases, although these are not very common, locking and clamping are combined, the latter supplementing and assisting the former.
Machinery,!?.
Fig. 39.
r
Machinery, A
Y
Clamping Screw Located
on One Side
Fig. 40.
.
Y
Clamping Device for
Drill Saddle
The following selection of typical devices, representative of American, English, and German practice, will serve to illustrate the principles
A large number of other examples,
of clamping and locking devices.
which might be shown, are but modifications of those here selected.
Clamping- Devices
Dealing first with clamping, the simplest example is a set-screw
pressing upon the portion that has to be secured. This is a cheap de-
28
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
open to objections. On a flat surface it is efficient, but the
too local, and this construction is not adapted to withstand
heavy strains without slipping. Moreover it has the bad effect of forcing the parts away from each other when screwed up, so that a fruitful
vice,
but
pressure
is
is
source of vibration is introduced, whereas other and better methods of
clamping pull the parts together and act as clamps in the true sense
of the word.
Usually the pressure of a set-screw point
is
objectionable,
*
Machinery, N. Y.
Fig. 41,
Clamp
for Grinding
Swivel Table
Macnine
Machinery,
Fig.
A",
Clamping Arrangement for V-slide
42.
and a soft pad or shoe is employed to avoid the marring effect otherwise met with. This pad or shoe may be shaped to correspond with
the form of the surface against which it bears. Fig. 32 is an example
of a set-screw in an awkward situation, this example being taken from
one of the Seller's tool-grinders; the screw passes through a bushing,
and presses upon a pad shaped to fit the outside of the cylindrical
In some cases the shoe or pad may be notched out to press
sleeve.
against the
V
of a slide, as in Fig. 34, for locking purposes.
This ex-
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES
29
ample is taken from a cutter-grinder. The necessity for a shoe is
sometimes avoided by sinking the end of the .screw into the metal, as
in Fig. 33, which shows a gib clamp for a milling machine slide. In the
case of a circular part, Pig. 35, a groove is turned for the locking screw
to enter, this construction also preventing endwise motion of the pin
to be locked. The function of the pin is to actuate a clutch for a drill-
Fig. 43.
Clamping Strip with Springs for Kaising the Strip when Released
ing machine head. Sometimes the groove is arranged so that the screw
draws the piece tightly downward to a bearing, as shown in Pig. 36.
There are numerous instances where ordinary bolts are employed for
clamping purposes; some special form of clamp or strap is often used
in this connection, in order to utilize the pressure to the best advantage.
Thus in the work-spindle slide of a gear-cutter, Fig. 38, four bolts are
Tig, 44.
Clamping Action on Opposite Sides of Swivel-block
employed, and a dished clamping plate is used to clear the nut at the
back of the slide. When rapid manipulation without using a spanner
is desirable, a handle takes the place of the hexagon nut, as on the
sensitive drill shown in Fig. 37.
Another case where the clamping
screw is set to one side, owing to the presence of a central hole, is seen
in Fig. 39; a fillister-head screw retains the plate in position on one
side, and the tightening of the handle clamps the slide against the face
of the casting.
This detail is taken from a cutter-grinding machine.
After some time, a clamping handle will assume a position which
renders its proper operation difficult, and provision may be made to
compensate for wear to prevent this trouble. Thus, in Pig. 40, the
handle turning the screw which pulls up the clamping block is secured
by a set-screw. By losening the latter, the handle can be readjusted
into the most convenient position. This particular example represents
the clamp for the saddle of a radial drill.
No. 112
30
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
Fig. 41 illustrates the table clamp of a grinding machine, which permits of the swiveling motion for angular grinding. This design differs
from the previous instance in that the bolt is adjustable in its slot
tj allow for the radial movement of the table.
Another specimen of
clamping with a block drawn up by a bolt and handle is shown in Fig.
Machinery, N.Y.
Fig. 45.
42,
and
is
Clamping with Bolt
and Bushing
Machinery.
JV.
Y.
Fig. 46.
Clamping Plate for Edge
of Milling Machine Table
used for a milling machine
slide.
The threaded end
of the
bolt is tapped into the block, and the latter presses against the beveled
edge of the slide. Another variation of this type of device is shown in
Fig. 43, illustrating the outer bearing for a gear-cutting spindle.
Machinery, N.
Fig. 47.
Clamping Arrange-
ment
based on the
Action of the Metal
Spring
Fig.
48.
Clamping Bolt for Poppet
This
F.
or
Tailstock Spindle
must be adjusted endwise; by loosening the two set-screws, the
is raised by the coiled springs, and the bearing is free
slide.
Under certain conditions it is necessary to have a perfectly
spindle
clamping strip
to
balanced clamping effort, as, for example, in dividing heads. An instance of this is illustrated in Fig. 44. The swivel-block has beveled
edges turned at each side, and the correspondingly shaped blocks are
drawn together simultaneously by the tightening of the nut the clamps
are guided in the solid metal, so that distortion is prevented. A similar
;
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES
31
employed in many classes of clamping devices for cylindriprinciple
cal parts, such as the spindle in Fig. 45, which is secured by the
pressure of the bolt head and the bushing, suitably formed to fit the
is
and drawn down upon it by tightening the nut. The spindle is
not marred, and there is no need of weakening the bearing by splitting
it for the purpose of clamping.
spindle,
Machinery, X.T.
Fig. 49.
Method of Clamping with
a Split Bracket
Fig.
50.
Clamping a Partially Split
Bracket to a Column
Three other types of clamping devices are shown in Figs. 46, 47 and
being a plate forced against the side of a milling machine
table, this being an alternative construction to that in Fig. 33. Fig. 47
48, the first
Fig.
51.
Sleeve Split at Ends
for
Clamping
Fig. 52.
Example
of
Wedge
Clamping
a form that is possible in only a few cases, the mental being left solid,
except for a split or slot, and the clamping effected by its springing
is
32
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
action only. This detail shows the method of attaching a milling machine brace to the knee. Fig. 48 shows a clamping arrangement for
a poppet or tailstock spindle, which also serves the purpose of keeping
the spindle from turning.
One of the most popular methods of clamping
is
by the
split lug, boss
Machinery, N.Y.
Fig. 53.
Clamping Two Bearings simultaneously
drawn together by a screw or screws. This provides for a
very powerful grip. There are so many examples of this device that it
is only possible to show a few types. In small lugs, fillister head screws
are suitable for the drawing-together action, but a bolt is better for
cr collar,
Machinery, N.Y.
Fig. 54.
Clamping Handle carried out to Edge of Table for Convenience
of Operation
large parts, as in Fig. 49, which shows the bracket of a cutter-grinder
clamped on its pillar. It is not always necessary to carry the split
right through the boss; it may pass only partly through, as in Fig. 50.
The bolt in this case is held by a set-screw, so that it may be turned
partly around to bring the clamping handle into the most convenient
Fig.
position, this constituting a variation of the method in Fig. 40.
51 is another instance of partial splitting of a sleeve of a radial drill
arm. An interesting type of such a method of clamping is found in the
Brown & Sharpe milling machine arm; the two tightening screws are
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES
33
s
situate<J at the opposite ends of the frame, but are coupled together by
a rack-bar which causes the two screws to turn simultaneously. It is,
therefore, necessary to turn one screw only, as indicated in Fig. 53.
The tightening nut or lever for a split clamp is usually placed close
to the boss, but in some cases it may be necessary to vary the position
machinery, N.T.
Fig. 55.
Wedge Action Clamp
for Grinder Tailstock
for convenience of manipulation. Thus in the drilling machine table,
Fig. 54, the screw is prolonged into a long spindle, thus bringing the
clamping handle to the front of the table, where the operator can reach
without effort or straining. Fig. 60 illustrates a split clamp which
does not act in the usual manner, but serves to draw two beveled sur-
it
Machinery, y. T.
Fig. 56.
Knee
Long Strip
of Hilling
for Clamping
Machine
Fig. 57.
Eccentric Clamp for
Tailstock
faces together (this example being a pillar and sleeve of a radial drill),
to prevent rotation.
When the clamp is loosened, the sleeve is free
to turn on its ball-race.
Wedge action is utilized for clamping, in numerous cases, instead of
direct screw pressure, and is often more suitable for certain purposes.
Fig. 52 is representative of several such designs, this example being
the clamp for a grinder tailstock; the action
is like
that of a cotter.
A
34
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES
35
similar principle is employed in Fig. 55 where the overhanging arm
of a special grinding machine is held by the forcing upward of a block
through the screwing in of a tapered plug. The groove in the arm
also prevents the latter from twisting.
Fig. 56 shows the principle of a clamping arrangement used by
Messrs. Alfred Herbert, Ltd., on their milling machines. The object is
Fig.
61.
Clamping Four Spindles simultaneously
clamp the entire length of the knee, instead of clamping at one
wedge strip being forced downward by turning the
handle, which causes the pinion A to rotate and force the strip along.
Another instance of wedge action combined with levers, is seen in Fig.
58, which shows the Whitcomb-Blaisdell planer cross-rail fastening.
to
location only, the
Machinery, X.Y.
Fig.
62.
Eccentric Action Clamping Device used on Chucking Lathe
the handle in the disk A is pulled over, it draws the strip and
wedge B along, and the latter presses against the roller C, which is
mounted on the pivot pin of the levers D. These levers are forced outward, and as they pivot on the screws near their ends, they are caused
When
and thus
pull the cross-rail
F\g. 61 shows a multiple
multiple dividing centers. The object
to press against the inside of the uprights,
tightly against the faces of the housings.
clamping arrangement, used on
is to bind the four spindles simultaneously.
When
the right- and
left-
36
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
is turned, it draws the two wedges together, and these push
the blocks A upward, thus binding the spindles.
Eccentric action is also employed extensively, and has the advantage
of being more rapid and convenient for some kinds of clamping than
a screw or wedge. This action is particularly handy when the clamping
and unclamping is very frequent. An eccentric device applied to a
The nuts at the bottom of
lathe tail-stock is illustrated in Fig. 57.
the clamping plate allow for adjustment to make the eccentric act at
the proper position of the handle. A modified form of the same type
is seen in Fig. 59, which is used for a bench lathe, while an arrangement for the turret saddle of a chucking lathe is shown in Fig. 62. The
clamping plate here is designed to pull the saddle over against the edge
A of the bed, so that a constant alignment is preserved. The tightening
hand screw
which abut against studs, screwed into the face
adjacent to the boss, and arrest the lever at definite positions. An
instance of duplex clamping, applied to the head of a vertical milling
lever has stop lugs,
Machinery, N.
Fig.
63.
Y.
Eccentric Clamping Arrangement for Vertical Milling
Machine Head
shown
in Fig. 63. The clamping rod passing through the
machine,
casting has slightly eccentric ends, and these force the lugs upon them
is
in an outward direction when the lever is pulled, thus drawing the
plates or clamping strips against the back edges of the projecting ways
of the column.
Adjustment is made by means of the threaded ends
and the
nuts.
Provision has occasionally to be included for permitting a pivoting
or "throw-back" action in connection with clamping. Very frequently
a pivoted eye-bolt meets the requirements, or alternatively a loop or
strap fitted, as shown in Fig. 64, to a hinged steady-rest. A different
method is to employ bolts in T-slots, Fig. 65, the two marked A being
used to hold the bracket down, for steadying the arbor support of a
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES
37
gear-cutterS The bracket is hinged on the pivot-pin in the plate B, and
the latter remains clamped in position by its two bolts. When the
bracket has to be thrown back, it is only necessary to slacken the nuts
Another point with reference to
that power is sometimes gained by using gears for effecting a specially tight grip. There is one type of lathe tailstock in which
the clamping bolt is turned by a spur gear actuated by a pinion, on the
shaft of which the spanner is placed, thus giving a very powerful grip
for high-speed work.
A. and slide the bolts out of the slots.
clamping
is
Locking- Devices
Taking up now
the consideration of locking devices, it should be
mentioned that these may be classified as positive locks and friction
locks, the latter being obviously unsatisfactory in many cases where
the risk of any slip would be detrimental. The simplest lock, perhaps,
is that used for the back-gears of a lathe or other machine, where a
Fig. 65.
Clamping Device for a Bracket
belt is slid into a slot to encounter a projection on the cone pulley.
The pin may also be pushed endwise into a hole, the relative positions
and out-of-gear being controlled by a spring. This kind of device
employed to lock the pulleys of grinding heads when dead-cent3r
work is being done. Fig. 66 represents a lock adopted on a high-speed
of in-
is also
lathe, the locking bolt
being tapered to
fit
in the slot in the adjacent
A
gear, the object being to prevent back-lash.
typical positive lock is
shown in Fig. 67, this example being the pin for securing the eccentric
spindle of a back-gear. The pin may be straight or parallel, as shown,
but more frequently it is tapered. Slides or other parts are frequently
locked by tapered pins.
38
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
Machinery,
Fig, 66.
JV.
F.
Locking Pin for Lathe-head Gears
Mavhtnery.N.Y.
Fig.
67.
Eccentric Spindle Locking
Pin
Fig.
Locking Arrangement
for Indexing Lever
68.
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES
39
locking device employed on the open-spindle turret lathes
Fig. 69 is
of Messrs. John Lang & Sons, to hold the spindle while the chuck on
When the
the nose is being tightened or loosened with a spanner.
lock is thrown downward, the spindle is free to rotate. Two other positive locks are illustrated in Figs. 70 and 73, one for a turret lathe of
the type used largely in England, the other for a central-hole type of
Machinery,
Fig. 69.
Lock for Open Spindle
of
John Lang
&
_V.F,
Sons Turret Lathe
In both cases a tapered part enters slots in the periphery of
turret.
the indexing disks. The wedge strip beside the plunger in Fig. 73
takes up play due to wear.
Positive locks are also seen in Figs. 68 and 72. In Fig. 68 a disk
on the body of a sleeve has notches, into any one of which the pivoted
catch drops, under the action of a coiled spring, thus holding the sleeve
Machinery, y. T.
Pig. 70.
Locking Turret with External Lever
one position.
Fig. 72 shows a quick-withdrawing device for screwcutting; when the catch A drops into engagement with the toothed disk
B the rotation of the latter has the effect of turning the quick-pitched
in
C.
The spring plunger D in the lever which carries A, locks
the latter in either the "in" or "out" position, according to whether the
screw
40
No. 112
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
SJ
d
CLAMPING AND LOCKING DEVICES
41
plunger point-slips into either the one or the other of the countersinks
in the inner end of A.
The spring plunger is a familiar locking device, and is found in
varied forms, usually embodying a pointed or tapered plunger which
obviates back-lash. A common instance is that shown in Fig. 74 used
Machinery.!?. T.
Fig. 73.
Plunger Lock for Turret
for a speed- or feed-change lever. The plunger is contained within the
handle, and its point slips into any one of the countersinks in the quadrant The arrangement may also be as in Fig. 71, with a pull-back
device for each plunger, as the latter in this case enter more deeply
Machinery, X.T.
Tig. 74.
Common Type
for
of Spring Plunger
Locking Lever
Plunger Locking ATrangement for Gear Box
Fig. 75.
An alternative construction is shown in Fig.
where the block which moves or slides the spur gears endwise is
locked by a tapered sleeve entering any one of four tapered recesses in
into their locking holes.
75,
the locking plate. A spring inside the sleeve keeps it in position. Fig.
76 illustrates another method of withdrawing a plunger, this method
being used on the familiar Hendey-Norton change-gear device, in which
No. 112
42
STOPS, TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
the act of grasping the handle firmly withdraws the plunger, ready for
the movement to another hole. Still another method, employed on a
milling machine dividing head is represented in Fig. 79; the locking
plunger in this example is pulled back by a rack and pinion device, and
Machinery, N.Y.
Fig. 76.
Withdrawing and Locking Device on Change-gear Box
Fig.
77.
Spring-
Lock for
Back-gear Lever
is itself locked by drawing it backward until the pin
end slips into the slot in a bushing as shown.
Fig. 78 shows a different construction, also for a dividing head, the
plunger A has only a pull-back action, without a positive lock, while
the other plunger B is provided with a pin which slips into a sort of
the pinion sleeve
near
its
Machinery, N.
Fig.
78.
Locking Plungers for Index Plate
V.
and Lever
bayonet catch, and prevents the plunger from moving forward under
the action of the spring. The locking plunger in Fig. 80 (for coupling
in the back-gears of a vertical milling machine), is held out of position
by the pin A, but a quarter turn of the plunger allows this pin to slip
into a groove inside the bore and thus let the plunger into any one of
Finally, the Brown and Sharpe back-gear
an ingenious method of retaining automatically
the holes in the disk below.
lock, Fig. 77, represents
the ball ends of a lever in position.
The succeeding illustrations are those of friction locking devices.
CLAMPING AND LOCKING, DEVJCES
Fig. 81
might be classed as a clamping
43
\'.'
device, but as its only pur-
to allow locking in different positions, it should logically be
classed in the latter category. The split handle or lever is employed
pose
is
Machinery, F.Y.
Tig. 79.
Withdrawing and Locking
Fig.
Device for Spring Plunger
to
80.
Locking Plunger with
Locking Pin
work the
may have
tion,
it
cross-slide of a turret lathe.
In order that the operator
the handle in the most convenient and least fatiguing posi-
is
adjustable around the pin on which
it
is
mounted, by
Machinery,
Fig. 81.
Cross-slide Lever with Split
Hub
Jf.T.
for Locking in Various Positions
An alternative method is to
taper the inside of the lever, as in Pig. 82, to match the outside of the
slotted levers shown, and force the two together by a nut.
This constitutes a friction clutch, and is an idea that is found in many locking
devices, especially for locking gears and other parts together ternsimply loosening the binding screw.
44
'ill'- -STOPS,
.TRIPS
AND LOCKING DEVICES
Other arrangements
porarily, and for micrometer and similar devices.
for micrometer dials are shown in Figs. 83 and 84, for locking the
dials at zero when desired.
Fig. 83 has a small bolt tightened by a
knurled-head nut, the head of the bolt lying in a circular T-slot in
Machinery, N. Y.
Fig.
82.
Cross-slide
Lever with Friction Lock
tlie dial.
When the nut is screwed up, t^v dial is locked to the handwheel and turns with it. In Fig. 84 the ^oint of the central threaded
plunger forces a small block outward against the bore of the dial,
and locks the
latter.
Machinery. N.
Fig. 83.
T-bolt Friction Lock for
Micrometer Dial
Fig. 84.
Y.
Pin Friction Lock for
Micrometer Dial
Ratchets are occasionally utilized for locking purposes, one instance
being in wire-feeds, where the feeding dog is held on its supporting
rod by a pawl entering into the teeth of the ratchet bar.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY,
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THIS BOOK
IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE
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53944
UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA LIBRARY
MACHINERY'S DATA SHEET SERIES
'
MACHINERY'S Data Sheet Books include the well-known series of Data Sheets
originated by MACHINERY, and issued monthly as supplements to the publication;
Reof these Data Sheets over 500 have been published, and 6,000,000 copies sold.
vised and greatly amplified, they are now presented in book form, kindred subThe price of each book is 25 cents (one shilling)
jects being grouped together.
delivered anywhere in the world.
CONTENTS OP DATA SHEET BOOKS
No. 1. Screw Threads. United States, Whitworth, Sharp V- and British Association Threads;
Briggs Pipe Thread; Oil Well Casing Gages;
Fire Hose Connections; Acme, Worm and Metric
Threads; Machine, Wood, Lag Screw, and Carriage Bolt Threads, etc.
No. 2. Screws, Bolts and Nuts. Fillister-head,
Headless, Collar-head and Hexagon-head Screws;
Standard and Special Nuts: T-nuts, T-holts and
Washers; Thumb Screws and Nuts; Machine Screw
Heads; Wood Screws; Tap Drills.
No. 3. Taps and Dies. Hand, Machine, Tapper
and Machine Screw Taps; Taper Die Taps; Sellers
Hobs- Screw Machine Taps; Straight and Taper
Boiler Taps; Stay-bolt, Washout, and Patch-bolt
Taps; Pipe Taps and Hobs; Threading Dies.
No. 4. Reamers, Sockets, Drills and Milling
Hand Reamers; Shell Reamers and ArCutters.
bors; Pipe Reamers; Taper Pins and Reamers;
Brown & Sharpe, Morse and Jarno Taper Sockets
and Reamers; Drills; Wire Cages; Milling Cutters;
Setting Angles for Milling Teeth in End Mills and
Angular Cutters, etc.
No. 5. Spur Gearing. Diametral and Circular
Pitch; Dimensions of Spur Gears; Tables of Pitch
Diameters; Odontograph Tables; Rolling Mill Gearing; Strength of Spur Gears; Horsepower Transmitted by Cast-iron and Rawhide Pinions; Design
of Spur Gears; Epicydie Gearing.
No. 6. Bevel, Spiral and Worm Gearing. Rules
and Formulas for Bevel Gears; Strength of Bevel
Gears; Design of Bevl Gears: Rules and Formulas
for Spiral Gears: Diagram for Cutlers for Spiral
Gears; Rules and Formulas for Worm Gearing, etc.
No. 7. Shafting, Keys and Keyways. Horsepower of Shafting; Strength of Shafting; Forcing,
Driving, Shrinking and RuT>"ing Fits; Woodruff
Keys; Standard Keys; Gib Keys; Milling Keyways; Duplex Keys.
No. 8. Bearings, Couplings, Clutches, Crane
Chain and Hooks. Pillow Blocks; Babbitted Bearings; Ball and Roller Bearings; Clamp Couplings;
Flange Couplings; Tooth Clutches; Crab Couplings;
Cone Clutches; Universal Joints; Crane Chain;
Crane Hooks; Drum Scores.
No. 9. Springs, Slides and Machine Details.
Formulas and Tables for Spring Calculations; Machine Slides; Machine Handles and Levers: Collars;
Hand Wheels; Pins and Cotters; Turn-buckles.
No. 10. Motor Drive, Speeds and Feeds, Change
Gearing, and Boring Bars. Power required for
Machine Tools: Cutting Speeds and Feeds for
Carbon and High-speed Steel; Screw Machine
Speeds and Feeds; Heat Treatment of High-speed
Steel Tools; Taper Turning; Change Gearing for
the Lathe; Boring Bars and Tools.
No.
11.
Milling Machine Indexing, Clamping
Devices and Planer Jacks. Tables for Milling Machine Indexing; Change Gears for Milling Spirals;
Angles for setting Indexing Head when Milling
Clutches; Jig Clamping Devices.
No. 12. Pipe and Pipe Fittings. Pipe Threads
and Gages; Cast-iron Fittings; Bronze Fittings;
Pipe Flanges; Pipe Pen-Is; Pipe Clamps and
Hangers.
No. 13. Boilers and C.iimneys. Flue Spacing
and Bracing for Boilers; Strength of Boiler Joints;
Itivetiug; Boiler Setting; Chimneys.
No. 14. Locomotive and Railway Data. Locomotive Boilers; Bearing Pressures for Locomotive
Journals; Locomotive Classifications; Rail Sections;
Frogs, Switches and Cross-overs; Tires; Tractive
Force; Inertia of Trains; Brake Levers.
No. 15. Steam and Gas Engines. Saturated
Steam; Steam Pipe Sizes; Steam Engine Design;
Volume of Cylinders; Stufling Boxes; Setting Corliss Engine Valve Gears; Condenser and Air Pump
Data: Horsepower of Gasoline Engines; Automobile Engine Crankshafts, etc.
No.
16.
Mathematical Tables.
Squares of
Mixed Numbers; Functions of Fractions; Circumference and Diameters of Circles; Tables for Spacing off Circles; Solution of Triangles; Formulas
for Solving Regular Polygons; Geometrical Progression,
etc.
Mechanics and Strength of Materials.
Work; Knergy: Centrifugal Force; Center of GravMotion; Friction; Pendulum; Falling Bodies;
No.
17.
ity;
Strength of Materials; Strength of Flat Plates;
Strength of Thick Cylinders, etc.
No. 18. Beam Formulas and Structural Design.
Beam Formulas; Sectional Moduli of Si i-uctural
Shapes: Meam Charts; Net Areas of S-ructural
Angles; 'Jivet Spacing; Splices for Channels and I-
beams; Stresses
in
No, 19. Belt,
sions of Pulleys:
of Belting; Belt
Roof Trusses,
etc.
Rope and Chain Drives. DimenWeights of Pulleys; Horsepower
Velocity: Angular Belt Drives;
Horsepower transmitted by Ropes; Sheaves for
Rope Drive: Bending Stresses in Wire Ropes;
Sprockets for Link Chains; Formulas and Tables
Driving Chain.
No. 20. Wiring Diagrams, Heating and Ventilaand Miscellaneous Tables. Typical Motor
tion,
Wiring Diagrams; Resistance of Round Copper
Wire; Current Densities for Various Contacts and
Materials; Centrifugal Fan and Blower Capacities; Hot Water Main Capacities; Decimal EquivaMetric Conversion Tables. Weights and
lents.
Specific Gravity of Metals, Drafting-room Confor
ventions,
etc.
MACHINERY, the leading journal in the machine-building field, the originator of
the 25-cent Reference and Data Books. Published monthly. Subscription, $2.00
yearly.
Foreign subscription,
$3.00.
The Industrial Press, Publishers of MACHINERY,
New York City,
49-55 Lafayette Street,
U
1
.
S.
A.
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