Ultra-Low Power, 1-Channel, Capacitance Converter for Proximity Sensing AD7151

Ultra-Low Power, 1-Channel, Capacitance Converter for Proximity Sensing AD7151
Ultra-Low Power, 1-Channel, Capacitance
Converter for Proximity Sensing
AD7151
FEATURES
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Ultra-low power
2.7 V to 3.6 V, 70 μA
Response time: 10 ms
Adaptive environmental compensation
1 capacitance input channel
Sensor capacitance (CSENS) 0 pF up to 13 pF
Sensitivity to 1 fF
EMC tested
2 modes of operation
Standalone with fixed settings
Interfaced to a microcontroller for user-defined settings
Proximity detection output flag
2-wire serial interface (I2C compatible)
Operating temperature
−40°C to +85°C
10-lead MSOP package
The AD7151 delivers a complete signal processing solution for
capacitive proximity sensors, featuring an ultra-low power
converter with fast response time. The AD7150 is a 2-channel
alternative to the AD7151.
The AD7151 uses Analog Devices, Inc., capacitance-to-digital
converter (CDC) technology, which combines features
important for interfacing to real sensors, such as high input
sensitivity and high tolerance of both input parasitic ground
capacitance and leakage current.
The integrated adaptive threshold algorithm compensates for
any variations in the sensor capacitance due to environmental
factors like humidity and temperature or due to changes in the
dielectric material over time.
By default, the AD7151 operates in standalone mode using the
fixed power-up settings and indicates detection on a digital
output. Alternatively, the AD7151 can be interfaced to a
microcontroller via the serial interface, the internal registers can
be programmed with user-defined settings, and the data and
status can be read from the part.
APPLICATIONS
Proximity sensing
Contactless switching
Position detection
Level detection
The AD7151 operates with a 2.7 V to 3.6 V power supply. It is
specified over the temperature range of −40°C to +85°C.
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
VDD
AD7151
CSENS
EXC
Σ-Δ CDC
EXCITATION
DIGITAL
FILTER
THRESHOLD
GND
SERIAL
INTERFACE
SCL
SDA
OUT
07086-001
CIN
Figure 1.
Rev. 0
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
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One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113
©2007 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
AD7151
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1
Fixed Threshold Register........................................................... 16
Applications....................................................................................... 1
Sensitivity Register ..................................................................... 16
General Description ......................................................................... 1
Timeout Register ........................................................................ 17
Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1
Setup Register ............................................................................. 18
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
Configuration Register .............................................................. 19
Specifications..................................................................................... 3
Power-Down Timer Register .................................................... 20
Timing Specifications .................................................................. 4
CAPDAC Register...................................................................... 20
Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 5
Serial Number Register.............................................................. 20
ESD Caution.................................................................................. 5
Chip ID Register......................................................................... 20
Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions............................. 6
Serial Interface ................................................................................ 21
Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 7
Read Operation........................................................................... 21
Architecture and Main Features ................................................... 10
Write Operation.......................................................................... 21
Capacitance-to-Digital Converter............................................ 10
AD7151 Reset ............................................................................. 22
CAPDAC ..................................................................................... 10
General Call ................................................................................ 22
Comparator and Threshold Modes.......................................... 11
Hardware Design Considerations ................................................ 23
Adaptive Threshold.................................................................... 11
Overview ..................................................................................... 23
Data Average ............................................................................... 11
Parasitic Capacitance to Ground.............................................. 23
Sensitivity..................................................................................... 12
Parasitic Resistance to Ground................................................. 23
Hysteresis..................................................................................... 12
Parasitic Parallel Resistance ...................................................... 23
Timeout........................................................................................ 12
Parasitic Serial Resistance ......................................................... 24
AutoCAPDAC Adjustment ....................................................... 13
Input Overvoltage Protection ................................................... 24
Power-Down Timer ................................................................... 13
Input EMC Protection ............................................................... 24
Power Supply Monitor ............................................................... 13
Power Supply Decoupling and Filtering.................................. 24
Register Descriptions ..................................................................... 14
Application Examples ................................................................ 25
Status Register ............................................................................. 15
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 26
Data Register ............................................................................... 16
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 26
Average Register ......................................................................... 16
REVISION HISTORY
11/07—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 28
AD7151
SPECIFICATIONS
VDD = 2.7 V to 3.6 V; GND = 0 V; –40°C to +85°C, single-ended capacitance mode, unless otherwise noted.
Table 1.
Parameter
CAPACITIVE INPUT
Conversion Input Range CIN to EXC 2
Min
Typ
3.2
1.6
0.8
0.4
4
2
1
0.5
2.0
1.6
1.4
1.0
Resolution 3
Allowed Capacitance CIN to GND3
Allowed Resistance CIN to GND3
Allowed Serial Resistance3
Gain Error
Gain Deviation over Temperature3
Gain Matching Between Ranges3
Offset Error3
Offset Deviation over Temperature3
Integral Nonlinearity (INL)3
Power Supply Rejection3
CAPDAC2
Full Range
Resolution (LSB)3
Differential Nonlinearity (DNL)3
AutoDAC Increment/Decrement3
EXCITATION
Voltage
Frequency
Allowed Capacitance EXC to GND3
Allowed Resistance EXC to GND3
LOGIC OUTPUT (OUT)
Output Low Voltage (VOL)
Output High Voltage (VOH)
SERIAL INTERFACE INPUTS (SCL, SDA)
Input High Voltage (VIH)
Input Low Voltage (VIL)
Input Leakage Current
Input Pin Capacitance
OPEN-DRAIN OUTPUT (SDA)
Output Low Voltage (VOL)
Output High Leakage Current (IOH)
POWER SUPPLY MONITOR
VDD Threshold Voltage
Max
150
15
200
+20
−20
0.5
−2
+2
50
5
0.1
4
10
12.5
200
0.25
75
25
15.4
±VDD/2
16
16.3
300
1
0.4
VDD – 0.6
1.5
Unit 1
Test Conditions/Comments
pF
pF
pF
pF
fF
fF
fF
fF
pF
MΩ
kΩ
%
%
%
fF
fF
%
fF/V
4 pF input range
2 pF input range
1 pF input range
0.5 pF input range
4 pF input range
2 pF input range
1 pF input range
0.5 pF input range
pF
fF
LSB
% of CIN Range
V
kHz
pF
MΩ
V
V
0.8
±5
V
V
μA
pF
0.4
V
0.1
5
μA
2.45
2.65
V
±0.1
6
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 28
CIN and EXC pins disconnected
CIN and EXC pins disconnected
ISINK = −4 mA
ISOURCE = 4 mA
ISINK = −6.0 mA
VOUT = VDD
AD7151
Parameter
POWER REQUIREMENTS
VDD-to-GND Voltage
IDD Current 4
IDD Current Power-Down Mode4
Min
Typ
Max
Unit 1
Test Conditions/Comments
3.6
80
5
10
V
μA
μA
μA
VDD = 3.3 V, nominal
70
1
3
2.7
Temperature ≤ 25°C
Temperature = 85°C
1
Capacitance units: one picofarad (1 pF) = 1 × 10−12 farad (F); one femtofarad (1 fF) = 10−15 farad (F).
The CAPDAC can be used to shift (offset) the input range. The total capacitance of the sensor can, therefore, be up to the sum of the CAPDAC value and the conversion
input range. With the autoCAPDAC feature, the CAPDAC is adjusted automatically when the CDC input value is lower than 25% or higher than 75% of the CDC
nominal input range.
3
Specification is not production tested but is supported by characterization data at initial product release.
4
Digital inputs equal to VDD or GND.
2
TIMING SPECIFICATIONS
VDD = 2.7 V to 3.6 V; GND = 0 V; Input Logic 0 = 0 V; Input Logic 1 = VDD; –40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 2.
Parameter
CONVERTER
Conversion Time
Wake-Up Time from Power-Down Mode 1, 2
Power-Up Time1, 3
Reset Time1, 4
SERIAL INTERFACE 5, 6
SCL Frequency
SCL High Pulse Width, tHIGH
SCL Low Pulse Width, tLOW
SCL, SDA Rise Time, tR
SCL, SDA Fall Time, tF
Hold Time (Start Condition), tHD;STA
Setup Time (Start Condition), tSU;STA
Data Setup Time, tSU;DAT
Setup Time (Stop Condition), tSU;STO
Data Hold Time (Master), tHD;DAT
Bus-Free Time (Between Stop and Start Condition), tBUF
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
10
ms
ms
ms
ms
400
kHz
μs
μs
μs
μs
μs
μs
μs
μs
ns
μs
0.3
2
2
Test Conditions/Comments
See Figure 2.
0
0.6
1.3
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6
0.1
0.6
10
1.3
After this period, the first clock is generated.
Relevant for repeated start condition.
1
Specification is not production tested but is supported by characterization data at initial product release.
Wake-up time is the maximum delay between the last SCL edge writing the configuration register and the start of conversion.
3
Power-up time is the maximum delay between the VDD crossing the minimum level (2.7 V) and either the start of conversion or when ready to receive a serial interface
command.
4
Reset time is the maximum delay between the last SCL edge writing the reset command and either the start of conversion or when ready to receive a serial interface
command.
5
Sample tested during initial release to ensure compliance.
6
All input signals are specified with input rise/fall times = 3 ns, measured between the 10% and 90% points. Timing reference points at 50% for inputs and outputs.
Output load = 10 pF.
2
tLOW
tR
tF
tHD;STA
SCL
tHD;STA
tHD;DAT
tHIGH
tSU;STA
tSU;DAT
tSU;STO
tBUF
P
S
S
Figure 2. Serial Interface Timing Diagram
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 28
P
07086-002
SDA
AD7151
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 3.
Parameter
Positive Supply Voltage VDD to GND
Voltage on Any Input or Output to GND
ESD Rating HBM
(ESD Association Human Body Model, S5.1)
ESD Rating FICDM
(Field-Inducted Charged Device Model)
Operating Temperature Range
Storage Temperature Range
Maximum Junction Temperature
MSOP Package
θJA, Thermal Impedance-to-Air
θJC, Thermal Impedance-to-Case
Reflow Soldering (Pb-Free)
Peak Temperature
Time at Peak Temperature
Rating
−0.3 V to +3.9 V
–0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
4 kV
1 kV
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
ESD CAUTION
–40°C to +85°C
–65°C to +150°C
150°C
206°C/W
44°C/W
260(+0/−5)°C
10 sec to 40 sec
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 28
AD7151
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
VDD 2
NC 3
CIN 4
NC 5
10 SDA
AD7151
9
SCL
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
8
NC
7
OUT
6
EXC
NC = NO CONNECT
07086-003
GND 1
Figure 3. Pin Configuration
Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
1
2
Mnemonic
GND
VDD
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
NC
CIN
NC
EXC
OUT
NC
SCL
10
SDA
Description
Ground Pin.
Power Supply Voltage. This pin should be decoupled to GND using a low impedance capacitor, for example,
0.1 μF X7R multilayer ceramic.
This pin should be left as an open circuit or connected to GND.
CDC Capacitive Input. The measured capacitance (sensor) is connected between the EXC pin and the CIN pin.
This pin should be left as an open circuit.
CDC Excitation Output. The measured capacitance is connected between the EXC pin and the CIN pin.
Logic Output. High level on this output indicates proximity detected on the capacitive input.
This pin should be left as an open circuit.
Serial Interface Clock Input. Connects to the master clock line. Requires a pull-up resistor if not provided
elsewhere in the system.
Serial Interface Bidirectional Data. Connects to the master data line. Requires a pull-up resistor if not provided
elsewhere in the system.
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 28
AD7151
300
0.10
200
0.05
GAIN ERROR (%FS)
100
–0.05
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
CAPACITANCE CIN TO GND (pF)
–0.10
07086-104
–100
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
CAPACITANCE EXC TO GND (pF)
Figure 4. Capacitance Input Offset Error vs. Capacitance CIN to GND,
VDD = 3.3 V, EXC Pin Open Circuit
07086-107
OFFSET ERROR (fF)
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
Figure 7. Capacitance Input Gain Error vs. Capacitance EXC to GND,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN to EXC = 2 pF
2
200
0
OFFSET ERROR (fF)
GAIN ERROR (%FS)
100
–2
–4
0
–100
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
CAPACITANCE CIN TO GND (pF)
–200
07086-105
100
1000
Figure 8. Capacitance Input Offset Error vs. Resistance CIN to GND,
VDD = 3.3 V, EXC Pin Open Circuit
2
10
1
5
GAIN ERROR (%FS)
OFFSET ERROR (fF)
10
RESISTANCE CIN TO GND (MΩ)
Figure 5. Capacitance Input Gain Error vs. Capacitance CIN to GND,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN to EXC = 2 pF
0
0
–5
0
50
100
150
200
CAPACITANCE EXC TO GND (pF)
250
300
07086-106
–1
–2
1
–10
1
10
100
1000
RESISTANCE CIN TO GND (MΩ)
Figure 9. Capacitance Input Gain Error vs. Resistance CIN to GND,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN to EXC = 2 pF
Figure 6. Capacitance Input Offset Error vs. Capacitance EXC to GND,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN Pin Open Circuit
Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 28
07086-109
–8
07086-108
–6
10
10
5
5
GAIN ERROR (%FS)
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
RESISTANCE EXC TO GND (MΩ)
–10
07086-110
0.25
2
OFFSET ERROR (fF)
GAIN ERROR (%FS)
4
–0.25
1000
0
–2
2
4
6
8
10
–4
–50
07086-111
0
RESISTANCE EXC TO GND (MΩ)
–25
0
25
50
75
100
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 11. Capacitance Input Gain Error vs. Resistance EXC to GND,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN to EXC = 2 pF
Figure 14. Capacitance Input Offset Error vs. Temperature,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN and EXC Pins Open Circuit
2
0.2
0.1
GAIN ERROR (%FS)
1
0
0
–0.1
–1
–0.2
–2
0
50
100
150
200
250
SERIAL RESISTANCE (kΩ)
07086-112
GAIN ERROR (%FS)
100
Figure 13. Capacitance Input Gain Error vs. Parallel Resistance,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN to EXC = 2 pF
0.50
–0.50
10
PARALLEL RESISTANCE (MΩ)
Figure 10. Capacitance Input Offset Error vs. Resistance EXC to GND,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN Pin Open Circuit
0
1
07086-114
–10
–5
07086-113
–5
0
Figure 12. Capacitance Input Gain Error vs. Serial Resistance
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN to EXC = 2 pF
–0.2
–50
–25
0
25
50
75
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 15. Capacitance Input Gain Error vs. Temperature,
VDD = 3.3 V, CIN to EXC = 2 pF
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 28
100
07086-115
OFFSET ERROR (fF)
AD7151
0
1
–20
GAIN (dB)
2
0
–60
–25
0
25
50
75
100
TEMPERATURE (°C)
–80
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Figure 18. Capacitance to Digital Converter Frequency Response
0.50
1
0.25
CAPDAC DNL (LSB)
2
0
–1
0
–0.25
3.0
3.3
VDD (V)
3.6
07086-117
EXC FREQUENCY ERROR (%)
0.5
INPUT SIGNAL FREQUENCY (kHz)
Figure 16. EXC Frequency Error vs. Temperature,
VDD = 3.3 V
–2
2.7
0
Figure 17. EXC Frequency Error vs. VDD
–0.50
0
16
32
48
CAPDAC CODE
Figure 19. CAPDAC Differential Nonlinearity (DNL),
VDD = 3.3 V
Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 28
64
07086-119
–2
–50
–40
07086-118
–1
07086-116
EXC FREQUENCY ERROR (%)
AD7151
AD7151
ARCHITECTURE AND MAIN FEATURES
3.3V
VDD
CX
EXC
POWER-DOWN
TIMER
POWER SUPPLY
MONITOR
Σ-Δ CDC
DIGITAL
FILTER
SERIAL
INTERFACE
CAPDAC
THRESHOLD
SCL
EXCITATION
SDA
OUT
PROGRAMMING
INTERFACE
DIGITAL
OUTPUT
AD7151
07086-010
CIN
CLOCK
GENERATOR
GND
Figure 20. AD7151 Block Diagram
The AD7151 core is a high performance capacitance-to-digital
converter (CDC) that allows the part to be interfaced directly to
a capacitive sensor.
CAPACITANCE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER
(CDC)
CLOCK
GENERATOR
The comparator compares the CDC result with thresholds, either
fixed or dynamically adjusted by the on-chip adaptive threshold
algorithm engine. Thus, the output indicates a defined change in
the input sensor capacitance.
CAPACITANCE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER
Figure 21 shows the CDC simplified functional diagram. The
converter consists of a second-order sigma delta (Σ-Δ), charge
balancing modulator and a third-order digital filter. The
measured capacitance CX is connected between an excitation
source and the Σ-Δ modulator input. The excitation signal is
applied on the CX during the conversion, and the modulator
continuously samples the charge going through the CX. The
digital filter processes the modulator output, which is a stream
of 0s and 1s containing the information in 0 and 1 density. The
data is processed by the adaptive threshold engine and output
comparators; the data can be also read through the serial interface.
The AD7151 is designed for floating capacitive sensors.
Therefore, both CX plates have to be isolated from ground or
any other fixed potential node in the system.
The AD7151 features slew rate limiting on the excitation voltage
output, which decreases the energy of higher harmonics on the
excitation signal and dramatically improves the system
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).
Σ-Δ
MODULATOR
0x000 TO 0xFFF
DATA
DIGITAL
FILTER
CX
0pF TO 4pF
EXCITATION
07086-011
EXC
Figure 21. CDC Simplified Block Diagram
CAPDAC
The AD7151 CDC core maximum full-scale input range is 4 pF.
However, the part can accept a higher capacitance on the input,
and the offset (nonchanging component) capacitance of up to 10
pF can be balanced by a programmable on-chip CAPDAC.
CAPDAC
10pF
CIN
CSENS
10pF TO 14pF
0x000 TO 0xFFF
DATA
0pF TO 4pF
CDC
EXC
07086-012
The AD7151 also integrates an excitation source and CAPDAC
for the capacitive inputs, an input multiplexer, a complete clock
generator, a power-down timer, a power supply monitor, control
logic, and an I2C®-compatible serial interface for configuring the
part and accessing the internal CDC data and status, if required
in the system (see Figure 20).
CIN
Figure 22. Using CAPDAC
The CAPDAC can be understood as a negative capacitance
connected internally to the CIN pin. The CAPDAC has a 6-bit
resolution and a monotonic transfer function. Figure 22 shows
how to use the CAPDAC to shift the CDC 4 pF input range to
measure capacitance between 10 pF and 14 pF.
Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 28
AD7151
INPUT OUTSIDE THRESHOLD WINDOW
COMPARATOR AND THRESHOLD MODES
The AD7151 logic output (active high) indicates either a positive or
a negative change in the input capacitance, in both adaptive and
fixed threshold modes (see Figure 23 and Figure 24).
POSITIVE CHANGE
POSITIVE
THRESHOLD
INPUT
CAPACITANCE
OUTPUT ACTIVE
POSITIVE
THRESHOLD
INPUT CAPACITANCE
NEGATIVE
THRESHOLD
OUTPUT ACTIVE
OUTPUT
TIME
Figure 26. Out-Window (Adaptive) Threshold Mode
ADAPTIVE THRESHOLD
In an adaptive mode, the thresholds are dynamically adjusted,
ensuring indication of fast changes (for example an object
moving close to a capacitive proximity sensor) and eliminating
slow changes in the input (sensor) capacitance, usually caused
by environment changes such as humidity or temperature or
changes in the sensor dielectric material over time (see Figure 27).
FAST CHANGE
07086-013
OUTPUT
TIME
SLOW CHANGE
INPUT CAPACITANCE
THRESHOLD
Figure 23. Positive Threshold Mode
Indicates Positive Change in Input Capacitance
OUTPUT
TIME
INPUT
CAPACITANCE
07086-017
OUTPUT ACTIVE
NEGATIVE CHANGE
Figure 27. Adaptive Threshold
Indicates Fast Changes and Eliminates Slow Changes in Input Capacitance
NEGATIVE
THRESHOLD
DATA AVERAGE
OUTPUT ACTIVE
The adaptive threshold algorithm is based on an average calculated
from previous CDC output data. The response of the average to an
input capacitance step change (more exactly, response to the change
in the CDC output data) is an exponential settling curve, which can
be characterized by the following equation:
07086-014
OUTPUT
TIME
Figure 24. Negative Threshold Mode
Indicates Negative Change in Input Capacitance
Average ( N ) = Average (0) + Change (1 − e N / TimeConst )
Additionally, for the adaptive mode only, the comparator can
work as window comparator, indicating input either inside or
outside a selected sensitivity band (see Figure 25 and Figure 26).
POSITIVE
THRESHOLD
07086-016
The AD7151 comparator and its threshold can be programmed
to operate in several different modes. In an adaptive mode, the
threshold is dynamically adjusted and the comparator output
indicates fast changes and ignores slow changes in the input
(sensor) capacitance. Alternatively, the threshold can be
programmed as a constant (fixed) value, and the output then
indicates any change in the input capacitance that crosses the
defined fixed threshold.
where:
Average(N) is the value of average N complete CDC conversion
cycles after a step change on the input.
Average(0) is the value before the step change.
TimeConst can be selected in the range between 2 and 65,536, in
steps of power of 2, by programming the ThrSettling bits in the
setup register.
INPUT INSIDE THRESHOLD WINDOW
INPUT CAPACITANCE
NEGATIVE
THRESHOLD
OUTPUT
TIME
07086-015
OUTPUT ACTIVE
See Figure 28 and the Register Descriptions section.
INPUT CAPACITANCE
(CDC DATA) CHANGE
DATA AVERAGE RESPONSE
TIME
Figure 28. Data Average Response to Data Step Change
Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 28
07086-018
Figure 25. In-Window (Adaptive) Threshold Mode
AD7151
SENSITIVITY
In adaptive threshold mode, the output comparator threshold is
set as a defined distance (sensitivity) above the data average,
below the data average, or both, depending on the selected
threshold mode of operation (see Figure 29). The sensitivity
value is programmable in the range 0 to 255 LSBs of the 12-bit
CDC converter (see the Register Descriptions section).
The timeout can be set independently for approaching (for change
in data toward the threshold) and for receding (for change in data
away from the threshold). See Figure 32, Figure 33, and the
Register Descriptions section.
DATA AVERAGE
+ SENSITIVITY
LARGE CHANGE IN DATA
DATA AVERAGE
DATA AVERAGE
– SENSITIVITY
DATA
POSITIVE
THRESHOLD
SENSITIVITY
TIME
TIMEOUT
NEGATIVE
THRESHOLD OUTPUT ACTIVE
07086-021
SENSITIVITY
DATA AVERAGE
07086-019
Figure 31. Threshold Timeout After a Large Change in CDC Data
TIME
TIMEOUT APPROACHING
INPUT CAPACITANCE
Figure 29. Threshold Sensitivity
THRESHOLD
HYSTERESIS
DATA AVERAGE
In adaptive threshold mode, the comparator features hysteresis.
The hysteresis is fixed to one-fourth of the threshold sensitivity
and can be programmed on or off. The comparator does not
have hysteresis in the fixed threshold mode.
OUTPUT
TIME
DATA
07086-022
OUTPUT ACTIVE
Figure 32. Approaching Timeout in Negative Threshold Mode
Shortens False Output Trigger
POSITIVE
THRESHOLD
HYSTERSIS
TIMEOUT RECEDING
DATA AVERAGE
LARGE CHANGE
TIME
INPUT
CAPACITANCE
Figure 30. Threshold Hysteresis
THRESHOLD
OUTPUT ACTIVE
TIMEOUT
In the case of a large, long change in the capacitive input, when
the data average adapting to a new condition may take too long,
a timeout can be set.
The timeout becomes active (counting) when the CDC data
goes outside the band of data average ± sensitivity. When the
timeout elapses (a defined number of CDC conversions is
counted), the data average (and thus the threshold) is forced to
follow the new CDC data value immediately (see Figure 31).
Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 28
OUTPUT
TIME
Figure 33. Positive Timeout in Negative Threshold Mode
Shortens Period of Missing Output Trigger
07086-023
OUTPUT
07086-020
OUTPUT ACTIVE
AD7151
AUTOCAPDAC ADJUSTMENT
POWER SUPPLY MONITOR
In adaptive threshold mode, the part can dynamically adjust the
CAPDAC to keep the CDC in an optimal operating capacitive
range. When the AutoDAC function is enabled, the CAPDAC
value is automatically incremented when the data average
exceeds three-fourths of the CDC full range, and the CAPDAC
value is decremented when the data average goes below onefourth of the CDC full range. The AutoDAC increment or
decrement step depends on the selected CDC capacitive input
range. See the Setup Register section.
When the AD7151 VDD power supply voltage drops below a
defined level needed for correct CDC operation, the on-chip
power supply monitor stops the adaptive threshold logic and
holds it in reset. After the VDD reaches the required level, the
threshold logic is released, and the data average is reset to the
value of the first conversion finished at the correct power supply
voltage.
POWER-DOWN TIMER
In power sensitive applications, the AD7151 can be set to
automatically enter power-down mode after a programmed
period of time in which the output has not been activated. The
AD7151 can be then returned to a normal operational mode
either via the serial interface or by the power supply off/on
sequence.
This feature prevents the adaptive threshold from being set
incorrectly after a very slow rise of the VDD voltage or from being
corrupted by accidental drops in the VDD voltage.
The other AD7151 functions continue working below the
power supply monitor threshold, down to approximately
1.0V..1.8V, the exact level depending on the manufacturing
process variation. In the region of the low VDD voltage, the part
is still accessible via the serial interface and continues conversion.
However, the conversion results may be incorrect and,
therefore, the data should not be considered valid if the part
operates below the power supply monitor threshold.
The status of the power supply monitor can be determined by
reading the PwrDown bit in the AD7151 status register.
Rev. 0 | Page 13 of 28
AD7151
REGISTER DESCRIPTIONS
Table 5. Register Summary
Register
Pointer
(Dec) (Hex) R/W
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
PwrDown
–
–
0
1
0
Bit 4
Bit 3
Default Value
OUT
DacStep
Status
0
0x00
R
Data High
1
0x01
R
0x00
Data Low
2
0x02
R
0x00
–
3
0x03
R
0x00
–
4
0x04
R
0x00
Average High
5
0x05
R
0x00
Average Low
6
0x06
R
0x00
–
7
0x07
R
0x00
–
8
0x08
R
0x00
Sensitivity
Threshold High
9
0x09 R/W
Timeout
Threshold Low
10
0x0A R/W
Setup
11
0x0B R/W
–
12
0x0C R/W
0x00
–
13
0x0D R/W
0x00
–
14
0x0E R/W
0x00
Configuration
15
0x0F R/W
Power-Down Timer
16
0x10 R/W
CAPDAC
17
0x11 R/W
–
18
0x12 R/W
Serial Number 3
19
0x13
R
Serial Number – Byte 3 (MSB)
Serial Number 2
20
0x14
R
Serial Number – Byte 2
Serial Number 1
21
0x15
R
Serial Number – Byte 1
Serial Number 0
22
0x16
R
Serial Number – Byte 0 (LSB)
Chip ID
23
0x17
R
Chip Identification Code
1
0
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
–
–
RDY
0
1
1
Sensitivity (in adaptive threshold mode)/Threshold High Byte (in fixed threshold mode)
0x08
Timeout (in adaptive threshold mode)/Threshold Low Byte (in fixed threshold mode)
0x86
RngH
RngL
–
ThrSettling (4-bit value)
Hyst
0
ThrFixed
0
–
0
DacEn
1
0
0
ThrMD1
0
–
0
DacAuto
1
0
ThrMD0
0
0x0B
EnConv
–
MD2
MD1
1
0
0
0
Power-Down Timeout (6-bit value)
0x00
DacValue (6-bit value)
0x00
0x00
Rev. 0 | Page 14 of 28
MD0
1
AD7151
STATUS REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x00
8 Bits, Read-Only, Default Value 0x53 Before Conversion, 0x52 After Conversion
The status register indicates the status of the part. The register can be read via the 2-wire serial interface to query the status of the outputs,
check the CDC finished conversion, and check whether the CAPDAC has been changed by the autoCAPDAC function.
Table 6. Status Register Bit Map
Bit
Mnemonic
Default
Bit 7
PwrDown
0
Bit 6
–
1
Bit 5
–
0
Bit 4
DacStep
1
Bit 3
OUT
0
Bit 2
–
0
Bit 1
–
1
Bit 0
RDY
1
Table 7. Status Register Bit Descriptions
Bit
7
Mnemonic
PwrDown
6
5
4
–
–
DacStep
3
OUT
2
1
0
–
–
RDY
Description
PwrDown = 1 indicates that the part is in a power-down mode or that the part VDD is below the power supply
monitor threshold voltage.
Bit not used, always reads 1.
Bit not used, always reads 0.
DacStep = 0 indicates that the CAPDAC value was changed during the last conversion as part of the AutoDac
function. The bit value is updated after each finished CDC conversion.
OUT = 1 indicates that the data (CIN capacitance) crossed the threshold, according to the selected comparator
mode of operation. The bit value is updated after each finished CDC conversion.
Bit not used, always reads 0.
Bit not used, always reads 1.
RDY = 0 indicates a finished CDC conversion. The bit is reset back to 1 when the data register is read via the
serial interface or after the part reset or power-up.
Rev. 0 | Page 15 of 28
AD7151
DATA REGISTER
AVERAGE REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x01, 0x02
16 Bits, Read-Only, Default Value 0x0000
Address Pointer 0x05, 0x06
16 Bits, Read-Only, Default Value 0x0000
Data from the last complete capacitance-to-digital conversion
reflects the capacitance on the input. Only the 12 MSBs (most
significant bits) of the data register are used for the CDC result.
The 4 LSBs (least significant bits) are always 0, as shown in
Figure 34.
This register shows the average calculated from the previous
CDC data. The 12-bit CDC result corresponds to the 12 MSBs
of the average register.
DATA LOW
LSB
07086-044
12-BIT CDC RESULT
0
Figure 34. CDC Data Register
The nominal AD7151 CDC transfer function (an ideal transfer
function excluding offset and/or gain error) maps the input
capacitance between zero scale and full scale to output data
codes between 0x3000 and 0xCFF0 only (see Table 8).
Table 8. AD7151 Capacitance-to-Data Mapping
Data
0x0000
0x3000
0x8000
0xCFF0
0xFFF0
Input Capacitance
Not valid, underrange
Zero-scale (0 pF)
Mid-scale (+1 pF)
Full-scale (+2 pF)
Not valid, overrange
Address Pointer 0x09, 0x0A
16 Bits, Read/Write, Factory Preset 0x0886
A constant threshold for the output comparator in the fixed
threshold mode can be set using this register. The 12-bit CDC
result corresponds to the 12 MSBs of the threshold register. The
fixed threshold register shares the address pointer and location
on-chip with the sensitivity and timeout registers. The fixed
threshold register is not accessible in the adaptive threshold
mode.
SENSITIVITY REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x09
8 Bits, Read/Write, Factory Preset 0x08
The input capacitance can be calculated from the output data
using the following equation:
C (pF) =
FIXED THRESHOLD REGISTER
Data − 12288
× Input _ Range
40944
The sensitivity register sets the distance of the positive
threshold above the data average, and the distance of the
negative threshold below the data average, in the adaptive
threshold mode.
DATA
where Input_Range = 4 pF, 2 pF, 1 pF, or 0.5 pF.
POSITIVE
THRESHOLD
The following is the same equation written with hexadecimal
numbers:
C (pF) =
SENSITIVITY
DATA AVERAGE
Data − 0x3000
× Input _ Range
0x9FF 0
SENSITIVITY
NEGATIVE
THRESHOLD
The data register is updated after a finished conversion, with
one exception: when the serial interface read operation from the
data register is in progress, the data register is not updated and
the new capacitance conversion result is lost.
The stop condition on the serial interface is considered to be the
end of the read operation. Therefore, to prevent incorrect data
reading through the serial interface, the two bytes of the data
register should be read sequentially using the register address
pointer auto-increment feature of the serial interface.
OUTPUT ACTIVE
TIME
Figure 35. Threshold Sensitivity
The sensitivity is an 8-bit value and is mapped to the lower eight
bits of the 12-bit CDC data, that is, it corresponds to the 16-bit
data register as shown in Figure 36.
SENSITIVITY
BIT 7 BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 BIT 0
DATA HIGH
DATA LOW
BIT 7 BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 BIT 0 BIT 7 BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 BIT 0
12-BIT CDC RESULT
Figure 36. Relation Between Sensitivity Register and CDC Data Register
Rev. 0 | Page 16 of 28
07086-025
DATA HIGH
BIT 7 BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 BIT 0 BIT 7 BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 BIT 0
07086-024
MSB
The settling time of the average can be set by programming the
ThrSettling bits in the setup register. The average register is
overwritten directly with the CDC output data, that is, the
history is forgotten if the timeout is enabled and elapses.
AD7151
When either the approaching or receding timeout elapses (that
is, after the defined number of CDC conversions is counted),
the data average (and thus the thresholds) is forced to follow the
new CDC data value immediately.
TIMEOUT REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x0A
8 Bits, Read/Write, Factory Preset 0x86
Table 9. Timeout Register Bit Map
Bits [3:0]
TimeOutRec
0x06
When the timeout register equals 0, timeouts are disabled.
DATA AVERAGE
+ SENSITIVITY
LARGE CHANGE IN DATA
TOWARDS THRESHOLD
DATA AVERAGE
The register sets timeouts for the adaptive threshold mode.
THRESHOLD
The approaching timeout starts when the CDC data crosses the
data average ± sensitivity band toward the threshold, according
to the selected positive, negative, or window threshold mode. The
approaching timeout elapses after the number of conversion cycles
equals 2TimeOutApr, where TimeOutApr is the value of the four most
significant bits of the timeout register.
The receding timeout starts when the CDC data crosses the
data average ± sensitivity band away from the threshold,
according to the selected positive or negative threshold mode.
The receding timeout is not used in the window threshold
mode. The receding timeout elapses after the number of
conversion cycles equals 2TimeOutRec, where TimeOutRec is the
value of the four least significant bits of the timeout register.
TIMEOUT APPROACHING
TIME
07086-026
Bits [7:4]
TimeOutApr
0x08
Figure 37. Threshold Timeout Approaching
After a Large Change in CDC Data Toward Threshold
TIMEOUT RECEDING
DATA AVERAGE
+ SENSITIVITY
DATA AVERAGE
TIME
THRESHOLD
LARGE CHANGE IN DATA
AWAY FROM THE THRESHOLD
Figure 38. Threshold Timeout Receding
After a Large Change in CDC Data Away from Threshold
Rev. 0 | Page 17 of 28
07086-027
Bit
Mnemonic
Default
AD7151
SETUP REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x0B
8 Bits, Read/Write, Factory Preset 0x0B
Table 10. Setup Register Bit Map
Bit
Mnemonic
Default
Bit 7
RngH
Bit 6
RngL
Bit 5
–
Bit 4
Hyst
0
0
0
0
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
ThrSettling (4-Bit Value)
Bit 0
0x0B
Table 11. Setup Register Bit Descriptions
Mnemonic
RngH
RngL
5
4
–
Hyst
3
2
1
0
ThrSettling
Description
Range bits set the CDC input range and determine the step for the AutoDAC function.
RngH
RngL
Capacitive Input Range (pF)
AutoDAC Step (CAPDAC LSB)
0
0
2
4
0
1
0.5
1
1
0
1
2
1
1
4
8
This bit should be 0 for the specified operation.
Hyst = 1 disables hysteresis in adaptive threshold mode. This bit has no effect in fixed threshold mode;
hysteresis is always disabled in the fixed threshold mode.
Determines the settling time constant of the data average and thus the settling time of the adaptive
thresholds.
The response of the average to an input capacitance step change (that is, response to the change in the CDC
output data) is an exponential settling curve characterized by the following equation:
Average ( N ) = Average ( 0) + Change (1 − e N / TimeConst )
where:
Average(N) is the value of average N complete CDC conversion cycles after a step change on the input
Average(0) is the value before the step change
TimeConst can be selected in the range between 2 and 65,536 conversion cycle multiples, in steps of power of
2, by programming the ThrSettling bits.
TimeConst = 2 (ThrSettlin g + 1)
See Figure 39.
INPUT CAPACITANCE
(CDC DATA) CHANGE
DATA AVERAGE RESPONSE
TIME
Figure 39. Data Average Response to Data Step Change
Rev. 0 | Page 18 of 28
07086-028
Bit
7
6
AD7151
CONFIGURATION REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x0F
8 Bits, Read/Write, Factory Preset 0x19
Table 12. Configuration Register Bit Map
Bit
Mnemonic
Default
Bit 7
ThrFixed
0
Bit 6
ThrMD1
0
Bit 5
ThrMD0
0
Bit 4
EnConv
1
Bit 3
–
0
Bit 2
MD2
0
Bit 1
MD1
0
Bit 0
MD0
1
Table 13.Configuration Register Bit Descriptions
Bit
7
Mnemonic
ThrFixed
6
5
ThrMD1
ThrMD0
4
3
2
1
0
EnConv
–
MD2
MD1
MD0
Description
ThrFixed = 1 sets the fixed threshold mode. The output reflects comparison of data and a fixed (constant) value
of the threshold register.
ThrFixed = 0 sets the adaptive threshold mode. The output reflects comparison of data to the adaptive
threshold. The adaptive threshold is set dynamically, based on the history of the previous data.
These bits set the output comparator mode.
Output Active When
ThrMD1
ThrMD0
Threshold Mode
Adaptive Threshold Mode
Fixed Threshold Mode
0
0
Negative
data < average – sensitivity
Data < Threshold
0
1
Positive
data > average + sensitivity
Data > Threshold
1
0
In-Window
data > average – sensitivity
AND
data < average + sensitivity
1
1
Out-Window
data < average – sensitivity
OR
data > average + sensitivity
Enables conversion. This bit must be 1 for proper operation.
This bit must be 0 for proper operation.
Converter mode of operation setup.
MD2
MD1
MD0
Mode
Description
0
0
0
Idle
Part is fully powered up but performing no conversion.
0
0
1
Continuous
Part is repeatedly performing conversions, provided the
Conversion
EnConv bit is set.
0
1
0
Single Conversion
Part performs a single conversion, provided the EnConv bit
is set. After finishing the conversion(s), the part goes to the
idle mode.
0
1
1
Power-Down
Powers down the on-chip circuits, except the digital
interface.
1
X
X
Reserved
Do not use these modes.
Rev. 0 | Page 19 of 28
AD7151
POWER-DOWN TIMER REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x10
8 Bits, Read/Write, Factory Preset 0x00
Table 14. Power-Down Timer Register Bit Map
Bit
Mnemonic
Default
Bit 7
–
0
Bit 6
–
0
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Power-Down Timeout (6-Bit Value)
0x00
Bit 0
Table 15. Power-Down Timer Register Bit Descriptions
Bit
[7:6]
[5:0]
Mnemonic
Power-Down
Timeout
Description
These bits must be 0 for proper operation
Defines the period duration of the power-down timeout.
If the output comparator output has not been activated during the programmed period, the part enters powerdown mode automatically. The part can be then returned to a normal operational mode either via the serial
interface or by the power supply off/on sequence.
The period is programmable in steps of four hours. For example, setting the value to 0x06 sets the duration to
24 hours. The maximum value of 0x3F corresponds to approximately 10.5 days.
The value of 0x00 disables the power-down timeout, and the part does not enter power-down mode
automatically.
CAPDAC REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x11
8 Bits, Read/Write, Factory Preset 0x00
Table 16. CAPDAC Register Bit Map
Bit
Mnemonic
Default
Bit 7
DacEn
1
Bit 6
DacAuto
1
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
DacValue (6-Bit Value)
0x00
Bit 1
Bit 0
Table 17. CAPDAC Register Bit Descriptions
Bit
7
6
Mnemonic
DacEn
DacAuto
Description
DacEn = 1 enables capacitive DAC.
DacAuto = 1 enables the AutoDAC function in the adaptive threshold mode.
When the AutoDAC function is enabled, the part dynamically adjusts the CAPDAC to keep the CDC in an
optimal operating capacitive range. The CAPDAC value is automatically incremented when the data average
exceeds ¾ of the CDC full range, and the CAPDAC value is decremented when the data average goes below ¼
of the CDC full range. The AutoDAC increment or decrement step depends on the selected CDC capacitive
input range.
Bit has no effect in fixed threshold mode; the AutoDAC function is always disabled in the fixed threshold mode.
[5:0]
DacValue
CAPDAC value, Code 0x00 ≈ 0 pF, Code 0x3F ≈ CAPDAC full range.
SERIAL NUMBER REGISTER
CHIP ID REGISTER
Address Pointer 0x13, 0x14, 0x15, 0x16
32 Bits, Read Only, 0xXXXX
Address Pointer 0x17
8 Bits, Read Only, 0xXX
This register holds a serial number, unique for each individual part.
This register holds the chip identification code, used in factory
manufacturing and testing.
Rev. 0 | Page 20 of 28
AD7151
SERIAL INTERFACE
The AD7151 supports an I2C-compatible 2-wire serial interface.
The two wires on the serial bus (interface) are called SCL (clock)
and SDA (data). These two wires carry all addressing, control,
and data information one bit at a time over the bus to all
connected peripheral devices. The SDA wire carries the data,
while the SCL wire synchronizes the sender and receiver during
the data transfer. The devices on the bus are classified as either
master or slave devices. A device that initiates a data transfer
message is called a master, while a device that responds to this
message is called a slave.
To control the AD7151 device on the bus, the following
protocol must be followed. First, the master initiates a data
transfer by establishing a start condition, defined by a high-tolow transition on SDA while SCL remains high. This indicates
that the start byte follows. This 8-bit start byte is made up of a
7-bit address plus an R/W bit indicator.
All peripherals connected to the bus respond to the start
condition and shift in the next eight bits (7-bit address + R/W
bit). The bits arrive MSB first. The peripheral that recognizes
the transmitted address responds by pulling the data line low
during the ninth clock pulse. This is known as the acknowledge
bit. All other devices withdraw from the bus at this point and
maintain an idle condition. An exception to this is the general
call address, which is described in the General Call section. In
the idle condition, the device monitors the SDA and SCL lines
waiting for the start condition and the correct address byte.
The R/W bit determines the direction of the data transfer. A
Logic 0 LSB in the start byte means that the master writes
information to the addressed peripheral. In this case, the
AD7151 becomes a slave receiver. A Logic 1 LSB in the start
byte means that the master reads information from the
addressed peripheral. In this case, the AD7151 becomes a slave
transmitter. In all instances, the AD7151 acts as a standard slave
device on the serial bus.
The start byte address for the AD7151 is 0x90 for a write and
0x91 for a read.
READ OPERATION
When a read is selected in the start byte, the register that is
currently addressed by the address pointer is transmitted to the
SDA line by the AD7151. This is then clocked out by the master
device, and the AD7151 awaits an acknowledge from the
master.
In continuous conversion mode, the address pointers’ autoincrementer should be used for reading a conversion result.
This means that the two data bytes should be read using one
multibyte read transaction rather than two separate single-byte
transactions. The single-byte data read transaction may result in
the data bytes from two different results being mixed.
The user can also access any unique register (address) on a oneto-one basis without having to update all the registers. The
address pointer register contents cannot be read.
If an incorrect address pointer location is accessed or if the user
allows the auto-incrementer to exceed the required register
address, the following applies:
•
In read mode, the AD7151 continues to output various
internal register contents until the master device issues a
no acknowledge, start, or stop condition. The address
pointers’ auto-incrementer contents are reset to point to
the status register at the 0x00 address when a stop
condition is received at the end of a read operation. This
allows the status register to be read (polled) continually
without having to constantly write to the address pointer.
•
In write mode, the data for the invalid address is not
loaded into the AD7151 registers, but an acknowledge is
issued by the AD7151.
WRITE OPERATION
When a write is selected, the byte following the start byte is
always the register address pointer (subaddress) byte, which
points to one of the internal registers on the AD7151. The
address pointer byte is automatically loaded into the address
pointer register and acknowledged by the AD7151. After the
address pointer byte acknowledge, a stop condition, a repeated
start condition, or another data byte can follow from the master.
A stop condition is defined by a low-to-high transition on SDA
while SCL remains high. If a stop condition is encountered by
the AD7151, it returns to its idle condition and the address
pointer is reset to 0x00.
If a data byte is transmitted after the register address pointer
byte, the AD7151 loads this byte into the register that is
currently addressed by the address pointer register and sends an
acknowledge, and the address pointer auto-incrementer automatically increments the address pointer register to the next
internal register address. Thus, subsequent transmitted data
bytes are loaded into sequentially incremented addresses.
If an acknowledge is received from the master, the address autoincrementer automatically increments the address pointer
register and outputs the next addressed register content to the
SDA line for transmission to the master. If no acknowledge is
received, the AD7151 returns to the idle state and the address
pointer is not incremented. The address pointers’ auto-incrementer
allows block data to be written to or read from the starting address
and subsequent incremental addresses.
Rev. 0 | Page 21 of 28
AD7151
If a repeated start condition is encountered after the address
pointer byte, all peripherals connected to the bus respond
exactly as outlined previously for a start condition; that is, a
repeated start condition is treated the same as a start condition.
When a master device issues a stop condition, it relinquishes
control of the bus, allowing another master device to take
control of the bus. Therefore, a master wanting to retain control
of the bus issues successive start conditions known as repeated
start conditions.
GENERAL CALL
When a master issues a slave address consisting of seven 0s with
the eighth bit (R/W bit) set to 0, this is known as the general call
address. The general call address is for addressing every device
connected to the serial bus. The AD7151 acknowledges this
address and reads in the following data byte.
If the second byte is 0x06, the AD7151 is reset, completely
uploading all default values. The AD7151 does not respond to
the serial bus commands (do not acknowledge) during the
default values upload for approximately 2 ms.
AD7151 RESET
To reset the AD7151 without having to reset the entire serial bus,
an explicit reset command is provided. This uses a particular
address pointer word as a command word to reset the part and
upload all default settings. The AD7151 does not respond to the
serial bus commands (do not acknowledge) during the default
values upload for approximately 2 ms.
The AD7151 does not acknowledge any other general call
commands.
The reset command address word is 0xBF.
SCLOCK
S
1–7
8
9
1–7
8
9
START ADDR R/W ACK SUBADDRESS ACK
1–7
DATA
8
9
P
ACK
STOP
07086-029
SDATA
Figure 40. Bus Data Transfer
S
SLAVE ADDR A(S)
SUB ADDR
A(S)
DATA
LSB = 0
READ
SEQUENCE
S
SLAVE ADDR A(S)
S = START BIT
P = STOP BIT
A(S)
DATA
A(S) P
LSB = 1
SUB ADDR
A(S) S
SLAVE ADDR
A(S) = ACKNOWLEDGE BY SLAVE
A(M) = ACKNOWLEDGE BY MASTER
A(S)
DATA
A(M)
A(S) = NO ACKNOWLEDGE BY SLAVE
A(M) = NO ACKNOWLEDGE BY MASTER
Figure 41. Write and Read Sequences
Rev. 0 | Page 22 of 28
DATA
A(M) P
07086-030
WRITE
SEQUENCE
AD7151
HARDWARE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
OVERVIEW
PARASITIC RESISTANCE TO GROUND
The AD7151 is an interface to capacitive sensors.
On the input side, the sensor (CX) can be connected directly
between the AD7151 EXC and CIN pins. The way it is
connected and the electrical parameters of the sensor
connection, such as parasitic resistance or capacitance, can
affect the system performance. Therefore, any circuit with
additional components in the capacitive front end, such as
overvoltage protection, has to be carefully designed considering
the AD7151 specified limits and information provided in this
section.
On the output side, the AD7151 can work as a standalone
device, using the power-up default register settings and flagging
the result on digital outputs. Alternatively, the AD7151 can be
interfaced to a microcontroller via the 2-wire serial interface,
offering flexibility by overwriting the AD7151 register values
from the host with a user-specific setup.
CDC
DATA
CX
RGND2
07086-032
EXC
Figure 43. Parasitic Resistance to Ground
The AD7151 CDC result is affected by a leakage current from
CX to ground; therefore, CX should be isolated from the ground.
The equivalent resistance between CX and ground should be
maximized (see Figure 43).
PARASITIC PARALLEL RESISTANCE
DATA
CIN
CX
CX
EXC
CDC
DATA
RP
07086-031
CGND2
CDC
EXC
Figure 42. Parasitic Capacitance to Ground
07086-033
CIN
CIN
See Figure 8, Figure 9, Figure 10, and Figure 11.
PARASITIC CAPACITANCE TO GROUND
CGND1
RGND1
Figure 44. Parasitic Parallel Resistance
The CDC architecture used in the AD7151 measures the
capacitance CX connected between the EXC pin and the CIN
pin. In theory, any capacitance CGND to ground should not affect
the CDC result (see Figure 42).
The practical implementation of the circuitry in the chip
implies certain limits, and the result is gradually affected by
capacitance to ground (see Table 1 for information about the
allowed capacitance to GND for CIN and information about
excitation).
The AD7151 CDC measures the charge transfer between the
EXC and CIN pins. Any resistance connected in parallel to the
measured capacitance CX (see Figure 44), such as the parasitic
resistance of the sensor, also transfers charge. Therefore, the
parallel resistor is seen as an additional capacitance in the
output data. The equivalent parallel capacitance (or error
caused by the parallel resistance) can be approximately
calculated as
CP =
See Figure 4, Figure 5, Figure 6, and Figure 7.
1
RP × f EXC × 4
where RP is the parallel resistance and fEXC is the excitation
frequency.
See Figure 13.
Rev. 0 | Page 23 of 28
AD7151
INPUT EMC PROTECTION
39kΩ
CX
RS1
CIN
82kΩ
68pF
CIN
22pF
DATA
CDC
10kΩ
CDC
EXC
47pF
CX
07086-036
PARASITIC SERIAL RESISTANCE
GND
07086-034
Figure 47. AD7151 CIN EMC Protection
EXC
Figure 45. Parasitic Serial Resistance
The AD7151 CDC result is affected by a resistance in series
with the measured capacitance. The total serial resistance (RS1 +
RS2 in Figure 45) should be on the order of hundreds of Ω.
See Figure 12.
INPUT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
CDC
RS1
Some applications may require an additional input filter for
improving electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Any input
filter must be carefully designed, considering the balance between
the system capacitance performance and system electromagnetic
immunity.
Figure 47 shows one of the possible input circuit configurations
significantly improving the system immunity against high
frequency noise and slightly affecting the AD7151 performance
in terms of additional gain and offset error.
POWER SUPPLY DECOUPLING AND FILTERING
1kΩ
CIN
0.1µF
CX
VDD
RS2
VDD
10µF
1kΩ
1kΩ
SDA
EXC
GND
07086-035
CDC
GND
Figure 46. AD7151 CIN Overvoltage Protection
The AD7151 capacitive input has an internal ESD protection.
However, some applications may require an additional
overvoltage protection, depending on the application-specific
requirements. Any additional circuit in the capacitive front end
must be carefully designed, especially with respect to the limits
recommended for maximum capacitance to ground, maximum
serial resistance, maximum leakage, and so on.
SCL
07086-058
RS2
Figure 48. AD7151 VDD Decoupling and Filtering
The AD7151 has good dc and low frequency power supply
rejection but may be sensitive to higher frequency ripple and
noise, specifically around the excitation frequency and its
harmonics. Figure 48 shows a possible circuit configuration for
improving the system immunity against ripple and noise
coupled to the AD7151 via the power supply.
If the serial interface is connected to the other circuits in the
system, it is better to connect the pull-up resistors on the other
side of the VDD filter than connect to the AD7151. If the
AD7151 is used in standalone mode and the serial interface is
not used, it is better to connect the pull-up resistors directly to
the AD7151 VDD.
Rev. 0 | Page 24 of 28
AD7151
APPLICATION EXAMPLES
0.1µF
VDD
CIN
10kΩ
10kΩ
AD7151
SDA
SCL
CSENS
EXC
3V
BATTERY
OUT
1kΩ
LED
07086-037
GND
Figure 49. AD7151 Standalone Operation Application Diagram
3.3V
0.1µF
VDD
1kΩ
1kΩ
AD7151
CIN
CSENS
SDA
SCL
SCL
OUT
IRQ
HOST
MICROCONTROLLER
07086-038
EXC
SDA
GND
Figure 50. AD7151 Interfaced to a Host Microcontroller
0.1µF
1kΩ
3.3V
10µF
1µF
VSUPPLY
ADP1720-3.3
1µF
VDD
82kΩ
68pF
CSENS
CIN
22pF
1kΩ
AD7151
R1
1kΩ
SDA
10kΩ
EXC
OUT
SCL
47pF
OUT
Q1
07086-061
39kΩ
GND
Figure 51. AD7151 Standalone Operation with EMC Protection and Optional Serial Interface
Rev. 0 | Page 25 of 28
AD7151
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
3.10
3.00
2.90
10
3.10
3.00
2.90
1
6
5
5.15
4.90
4.65
PIN 1
0.50 BSC
0.95
0.85
0.75
0.15
0.05
1.10 MAX
0.33
0.17
SEATING
PLANE
0.23
0.08
8°
0°
0.80
0.60
0.40
COPLANARITY
0.10
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-187-BA
Figure 52. 10-Lead Mini Small Outline Package [MSOP]
(RM-10)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
AD7151BRMZ 1
AD7151BRMZ-REEL1
1
Temperature Range
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
Package Description
10-Lead Mini Small Outline Package [MSOP]
10-Lead Mini Small Outline Package [MSOP]
Z = RoHS Compliant Part.
Rev. 0 | Page 26 of 28
Package Option
RM-10
RM-10
Branding
C5M
C5M
AD7151
NOTES
Rev. 0 | Page 27 of 28
AD7151
NOTES
Purchase of licensed I2C components of Analog Devices or one of its sublicensed Associated Companies conveys a license for the purchaser under the Philips I2C Patent
Rights to use these components in an I2C system, provided that the system conforms to the I2C Standard Specification as defined by Philips.
©2007 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
D07086-0-11/07(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 28 of 28
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