Sudspave 40: Design and installation guide for gravel surfacing

Sudspave 40: Design and installation guide for gravel surfacing
Design, installation and maintenance guidance for gravel surfaces
Sudspave® 40 cellular paving is suitable for a wide range of trafficked applications and landscaped areas where
a confined, free-draining gravel surface is required. Typical applications include: car parks, emergency access,
maintenance routes, cycle paths, pedestrian and disabled access.
bedding layer
Compacted sub-base: a freedraining Class 805 DoT Type
3 (open graded) granular
aggregate or pipe-drained
Class 803 DoT Type 1
Sub-base thickness (D) from
Table 1
NW8 filter/separator
geotextile
D
=D
Min
®
Optional Trigrid EX30/30
geogrid and/or Abtex
NW8 geotextile
Sudspave 40
Firmly-fixed retaining
edges to specification
Sudspave 40 paver infilled
with porous clean angular
aggregate
Subgrade strength (CBR) &
pavement application determine
sub-base thickness (D) from Table 1
Existing subgrade
or capping layer
Technical specification
System
Sudspave®
Colour
Black
Paving unit size
500mm x 500mm x 40mm (nominal)
Coverage rate
4 units per m2 panel (nominal) - supplied pre-connected
Cell dimension
49 sequentially irregular cells : 45-68mm x 45-68mm (nominal) per unit
Cell structure
Robust flexural contoured walls
Paving unit footprint
Open structured with load bearing crossbars
Weight
1.4kg/paving unit & 5.6kg/m² panel (nominal)
Compressive strength (filled) 3000kN/m² ≅ 300 tonnes/m² (nominal)
Permissible axle load
210kN/axle
Connection & interlock
Positive self-locking T-shaped lug and clip-slot mechanism
Flexure & expansion
In-built flexural cell design
Parking bay & line markers
White mouldings (204mm x 68mm) slot into 3 cells – 4 No./lm (other colours on request)
Chemical resistance
Excellent
UV stability
High resistance to colour & strength degradation
Infiltration capacity
Limited by the permeability of the specified infill material
Bedding layer material
Porous, clean angular aggregate : 3mm - 14mm particle size, with greater proportion in 7mm 10mm range
Bedding layer thickness
A uniform layer 10mm - 30mm thick maximum
Cell infill material
Porous, clean angular aggregate : 3mm - 14mm particle size, with greater proportion in 7mm 10mm range
Upper Filter/Separator
Geotextile (optional)
ABG Terrex NW8 Geotextile. 1mm thick – 100g/m2 - 8kN/m²
Sub-base type
DoT Type 3, Type 1x, Type 4/40 or Type 1 (with appropriate drainage)
Sub base thickness
100mm – 350mm : Refer to Table 1 for thickness ‘D’ in millimetres (mm)
Sub-base reinforcement
(optional)
Abgrid Geogrid (Refer to Table 1)
Lower filter/separator
geotextile (optional)
ABG Terrex NW8 Geotextile. 1mm thick – 100g/m2 - 8kN/m²
Sub-base attenuation
(optional)
Geomembrane containment system and geotextile protection (optional)
All information is supplied in good faith and without charge to enable reasonable assessment of the practical performance of ABG products. Final determination of the suitability of information or material for the use
contemplated and the manner of the use is the sole responsibility of the user. As design and installation is beyond the control of ABG (unless specifically requested) no warranty is given or implied and the information
does not form part of any contract. ABG reserve the right to update the information within at any time without prior notice. ©2014 ABG Ltd
Design, installation
and maintenance
guidance for gravel
surfaces
www.abgltd.com
Sudspave 40 installation process
The following generic guidance must be read in conjunction with the specific project specification within the contract documents
1. Install the specified optional Geogrid/Geotextile/Geomembrane onto
the prepared sub-grade formation.
2. Install the specified sub-base layer and optional drainage (Refer to
Table 1 & 2 for sub-base and subgrade advice).
3. Install any edge restraints which may be specified.
4. Install the optional ‘upper filter/separator’ geotextile on top of the
sub-base layer.
5. Install the specified angular aggregate bedding layer to a uniform
thickness.
6. Ensure an accurate right-angled Sudspave laying pattern by settingout the site using pins and string-lines. Check the lines regularly for
accuracy.
Start installing the pre-assembled Sudspave panels (4 units/m²) by
placing the webbed face downwards onto the bedding layer.
Place the panels with the T-shaped lugs facing in the direction of
laying on the two leading edges, with the clip-slots on the reverseedges.
7. Progress across the site in rows by slotting panels together in a
downward motion, ensuring that the 6 self-lock clips-slots engage
fully with the T-shaped lugs on adjacent panels.
Avoid starting more than 2 new rows of panels prior to completing
the row which is in progress. Avoid installing in a diagonal pattern
too far ahead of completed rows.
Regularly check and adjust the completed leading edge to ensure
that it is straight. It is recommended that protective gloves are worn
to avoid abrasions during installation.
8. If individual unit separation becomes necessary , the self-lock clips
are designed to be disengaged by pulling paving units gently away
from each other whilst applying upward or downward pressure.
9. Panels can be cut to fit around obstructions and curves using a handsaw or disc-saw. The use of cut-pieces which do not have integral
lugs and self-lock clips, should be avoided wherever possible.
However, where it is necessity to employ small or irregularly shaped
cut-pieces to fit around obstacles, these should be securely attached
to adjacent panels using industrial strength cable ties.
10. Installation of car parking bay/line marker inserts is best carried out
prior to filling the cells with rootzone. The oblong markers will fit in
all cells except where they cross adjacent paving unit joints where
they will need to be cut into individual cell sized units. Where inserts
have been cut-down or in applications where they are prone to vandalism, it may be necessary to secure them in place with glue.
11. Fill the cells with the specified angular aggregate, so that the final
level will be to the top of the cells. If placing the panels and filling
the cells simultaneously, it is important to keep fill material and
vehicles a safe distance away from the leading edge to avoid distortion of the leading edge. Do not drive vehicles on the installed panels
until the cells have been filled with aggregate. Unless it is a specific
design requirement, do not over-fill or surcharge the cells.
12. Following initial settlement and trafficking, it may be necessary to
top-up the aggregate within the cells.
13. A routine management and maintenance programme to keep the
surface in good condition and free of debris and weed growth, will
help to sustain the porosity, quality and longevity of the system.
Notes
Note 1. If the Abgrid (Geogrid) is omitted, the total sub-base layer thickness (‘D’ on
Table 1) is typically increased by a minimum of 50%
Note 2. Sub-base attenuation utilising a Geomembrane and optional geotextile
protection, is typically necessary to create a water storage facility and/or
a groundwater protection function. Encapsulation of the structural layers
beneath the surfacing also provides a rainwater re-use facility.
Note 3. Typical paving edge restraint solutions include: concrete, timber, steel and
plastic kerbs/edgings.
Note 4. A permeable open-graded (reduced-fines) Sustainable Drainage System
(SuDS) sub-base layer such as Dot Type 1x, Type 3 or Type 4/40, is preferred.
However, where a conventional DoT Type 1 sub-base is to be installed, it is
recommended that a drainage system is incorporated to assist in the mitigation of issues associated with saturation.
This drainage system would typically comprise of a network of perforated
pipes or Geocomposites, with design advice available from ABG Ltd.
Note 5. Advice on CBR% strengths, ground conditions, construction over weak
ground and drainage is available from ABG Ltd. CBR% = California Bearing
Ratio: an indicative measurement of subgrade soil strength.
Note 6. The SuDS permeable sub-base can be overlain by an upper geotextile e.g.
ABG Terrex NW8, to provide separation and an enhanced water treatment
function.
Note 7. Aggregate for the bedding layer and cell infill should be clean, freedraining, hard (Moh >6) and structurally sound material, having a 3mm14mm particle size range of which the greater proportion of material is
in the 7mm-10mm range. The use of rounded (pea-shingle), oversized,
undersized and low permeability aggregates or site-won materials is not
recommended
Note 8. The maximum advised gradient for vehicular trafficked applications is
generally 12% (1:8) 7°. For Disabled access applications, a maximum of 8%
(1:12) 5° is suggested.
Note 9. When designed in accordance with the recommendations, Sudspave complies with BS8300:2009 : “Design of buildings and their approaches to meet
the needs of disabled peopled” – Code of Practice (ISBN 9780 580 57419) &
Building Regulations Document ‘M’ Section 6.
Table 1: Geogrid selection
Application/Load
CBR (%) strength of subgrade soil (Table 2)
(D) DoT sub-base thickness (mm)
(see notes)
Abgrid Geogrid
Fire truck and
occasional HGV
access
≥6
=4 < 6
=2 < 4
=1 < 2
125
175
275
475
20/20
20/20
20/20
20/20
Light vehicle access
and overspill car
parking
≥6
=4 < 6
=2 < 4
=1 < 2
100
150
225
350
20/20
20/20
30/30
40/40
Table 2: Field guidance for estimating sub-grade shear strengths
Consistency
Very soft
Soft
Medium
Firm
Mechanical
(SPT)
CBR
(%)
CU
(kN/m2)
Tactile
Visual
Hand sample squeezes through fingers
Man standing will sink >75mm
<2
<1
<25
Easily moulded by finger pressure
Man walking sinks 50 - 70mm
2-4
Around 1
Around 25
Moulded by moderate finger pressure
Man walking sinks 25mm
4-8
1-2
25 - 40
Moulded by strong finger pressure
Utility truck ruts 10 - 25mm
8 - 15
2-4
40 - 75
t 01484 852096
e suds@abgltd.com
E7 Meltham Mills
Rd, Meltham, West
Yorkshire, HD9 4DS
www.abgltd.com
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